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Sample records for case studies northern

  1. Case studies: Northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northern Saskatchewan comprises an area of about 350 000 km2. In 1951 the population was 11 000 people but by 2003 it was approaching 40 000, of whom about 87% are aboriginal, consisting of either First Nations or Metis people. The first uranium mining area developed in northern Saskatchewan was Uranium City, north of Lake Athabasca. These first mines started production in the early 1950s. Of the 10 producing mines, only Eldorado Nuclear remained in operation after 1965. The development of Uranium City, including better services such as a hospital, drew some aboriginals into the area. There was some aboriginal employment in the early mines but, with few exceptions, these employees only stayed a short time. The mining companies developed training programmes to prepare aboriginals for regular, wage earning jobs. This included lifestyle training such as how to manage personal finances. Further extensive training programmes were required on the job to help these employees become fully contributing members of the workforce, who could advance in their jobs, expand their job opportunities and earnings, and in order to reduce turnover. The question of accommodating mine staff is a complex one, including several options. The first option, a company town, can be developed adjacent to the mine site. It is owned by the company and accommodates everyone who works at the mine and in its service industries. This can result in lower cost accommodation for mine staff with the benefit of no personal capital investment that cannot be recouped after mine closure. The capital cost to the mining company is higher; there is an administrative cost to managing and maintaining many houses, apartments and bunkhouses, and the decommissioning problem at the end of mine life is bigger. Initial developments in northern Saskatchewan were based on the company town concept. At the time there were 25 or more advanced exploration projects in the Uranium City area, 10 of which developed into producing

  2. Applied isotope hydrogeology - a case study in northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980, Nagra, the Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, began a comprehensive field investigation programme to assess the feasibility and safety of a repository for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in northern Switzerland. An understanding of the deep groundwater flow regime is needed to predict flow paths, travel times and dilution effects of groundwater moving from a repository location to the biosphere. To asses the flow field, regional and local hydrodynamic models have been prepared. Validation of the hydrodynamic models with the results of the hydrogeochemical investigations will be attempted. The isotopic investigations presented in this report will probably be the most important contribution to this validation. The hydrogeochemical programme started in 1981 with the collection of waters from about 140 springs and wells of different aquifers in northern Switzerland and adjacent areas. Detailed hydrochemical and isotopic analyses have been carried out on these samples. About 60 waters from the Nagra deep boreholes were also sampled and analysed, of which some 40 gave useful results. Additional geochemical and isotopic data on rock material are also available from these boreholes. A literature study yielded complementary hydrochemical data, both from points sampled during the regional programme and from additional points. The purpose of this report is to present all the isotope data collected within the Nagra programme in northern Switzerland. The report also includes the first comprehensive synthesis and interpretation of these data. It is anticipated that special aspects of the data interpretation will be discussed elsewhere in the reviewed scientific literature. (author) figs., tabs., 231 refs

  3. Northern fibre operations, Sheller-Globe Corporation. Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-01

    At a time when waste disposal costs skyrocketed for most manufacturers, a western Michigan automotive supplier decreased annual plant disposal costs by almost 50 percent. Aggressive waste reduction projects at the Holland Plant of Northern Fiber Operations, a division of Sheller-Globe Corporation, reduced the costs of disposing of production and office wastes from $25,900 in 1986 to $13,600 in 1987. A prime reason for the success was employee involvement in planning and implementing the waste reduction projects.

  4. Urticarial vasculitis in northern Spain: clinical study of 21 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loricera, Javier; Calvo-Río, Vanesa; Mata, Cristina; Ortiz-Sanjuán, Francisco; González-López, Marcos A; Alvarez, Lino; González-Vela, M Carmen; Armesto, Susana; Fernández-Llaca, Héctor; Rueda-Gotor, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A; Blanco, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Urticarial vasculitis (UV) is a subset of cutaneous vasculitis (CV), characterized clinically by urticarial skin lesions of more than 24 hours' duration and histologically by leukocytoclastic vasculitis. We assessed the frequency, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of a series of patients with UV. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with UV included in a large series of unselected patients with CV from a university hospital. Of 766 patients with CV, UV was diagnosed in 21 (2.7%; 9 male and 12 female patients; median age, 35 yr; range, 1-78 yr; interquartile range, 5-54 yr). Eight of the 21 cases were aged younger than 20 years old. Potential precipitating factors were upper respiratory tract infections and drugs (penicillin) (n = 4; in all cases in patients aged urticarial lesions, other features such as palpable purpura (n = 7), arthralgia and/or arthritis (n = 13), abdominal pain (n = 2), nephropathy (n = 2), and peripheral neuropathy (n = 1) were observed. Hypocomplementemia (low C4) with low C1q was disclosed in 2 patients. Other abnormal laboratory findings were leukocytosis (n = 7), increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (n = 6), anemia (n = 4), and antinuclear antibody positivity (n = 2). Treatment included corticosteroids (n = 12), antihistaminic drugs (n = 6), chloroquine (n = 4), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (n = 3), colchicine (n = 2), and azathioprine (n = 1). After a median follow-up of 10 months (interquartile range, 2-38 mo) recurrences were observed in 4 patients. Apart from 1 patient who died because of an underlying malignancy, the outcome was good with full recovery in the remaining patients. In conclusion, our results indicate that UV is rare but not exceptional. In children UV is often preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. Urticarial lesions and joint manifestations are the most frequent clinical manifestation. Low complement serum levels are observed in a minority of cases. The prognosis is generally good

  5. Results of ozone measurements in Northern Germany: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    At most of the German ozone recording stations which have records over a sufficiently long period, the results of the summer months of 1989 showed the highest values since the beginning of the measurements. One of the reasons for this phenomenon was the high duration of sunshine in that summer; for example, in Potsdam near Berlin in May 1989 the sunshine duration was the highest in May since the beginning of the records in 1893. For that reason we selected this summer for a case study. The basis for the study was mainly the ozone measuring stations of the network of Lower Saxony and the Federal Office of Environment (Umweltbundesamt). The results of these summer measurements point to intense sources of ozone, probably in form of gaseous precursors, in the Middle German industrial areas near Leipzig and Halle and in Northwestern Czechoslovakia, with coal-mining, chemical and petrochemical industries, coking plants and others. The maps of average ozone concentrations, number or days with high ozone maxima, ozone-windroses of the stations, etc., suggest that these areas could be a main source of precursors and of photochemical ozone production in summer smog episodes in Central Europe. Stations on the North Sea coast, at which early ozone measurements were made by our institute in 1973/74 are compared with similarly located stations of the Lower Saxon network in 1989 and the results show a reversal of the ozone-windroses. In 1973/74, the highest ozone concentrations were correlated with wind directions from the sea while in 1989 these concentrations were correlated with directions from the continent. In the recent years, photochemical ozone production on the continent is probably predominant, while in former years the higher ozone content of the maritime subpolar air masses has been explained by stratospheric-tropospheric exchange.

  6. In-service teacher training : a case study of primary school's untrained teachers in Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This thesis analyzes a case study on untrained teacher in-service education located in northern Ghana, Africa. The purpose of the thesis is to explore the in-service teacher training phenomenon as it occurs in a national socio-economic context. The research ambition is accomplished in an exploratory field study design. I collected empirical data at different societal levels in Ghana’s education system, although the main contribution is drawn from a single case study, labeled School A. This ...

  7. Geothermal reservoir assessment case study: Northern Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J.M.; Bell, E.J.; Jodry, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    Two 1500 foot temperature gradient holes and two deep exploratory wells were drilled and tested. Hydrologic-hydrochemical, shallow temperature survey, structural-tectonic, petrologic alteration, and solid-sample geochemistry studies were completed. Eighteen miles of high resolution reflection seismic data were gathered over the area. The study indicates that a geothermal regime with temperatures greater than 400/sup 0/F may exist at a depth of approximately 7500' to 10,000' over an area more than ten miles in length.

  8. Conflict between Water Buffalo and Market-Oriented Agriculture: A Case Study from Northern Laos

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAI, Yasuhiro; SIBOUNHEUANG, Thanongsone

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a case study of the decline of water buffalo husbandry under the pressure ofland use change in contemporary northern Laos. Since 2000, with the spread of marketorientedagriculture and the implementation of land use zoning, fallow areas suitable forgrazing have been squeezed leading to a conflict between grazers and cultivators. Localgovernment has prohibited the former from allowing their livestock to graze freely in theareas designated for commercial agriculture, encouraging th...

  9. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: case studies of Canada's Northern mining resource sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the integration of human health considerations into environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the Canadian North. Emphasis is placed on the northern mining sector, where more land has been staked in the past decade than in the previous 50 years combined. Using information from interviews with northern EIA and health practitioners and reviews of selected project documents, we examined three principal mining case studies, northern Saskatchewan uranium mining operations, the Ekati diamond project, and the Voisey's Bay mine/mill project, to determine whether and how health considerations in EIA have evolved and the current nature and scope of health integration. Results suggest that despite the recognized link between environment and health and the number of high-profile megaprojects in Canada's North, human health, particularly social health, has not been given adequate treatment in northern EIA. Health considerations in EIA have typically been limited to physical health impacts triggered directly by project-induced environmental change, while social and other health determinants have been either not considered at all, or limited to those aspects of health and well-being that the project proponent directly controlled, namely employment opportunities and worker health and safety. In recent years, we have been seeing improvements in the scope of health in EIA to reflect a broader range of health determinants, including traditional land use and culture. However, there is still a need to adopt impact mitigation and enhancement measures that are sensitive to northern society, to monitor and follow up actual health impacts after project approval, and to ensure that mitigation and enhancement measures are effective. (author)

  10. Tea drinking habits and oesophageal cancer in a high risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Kamangar, Farin; Fahimi, Saman; Shakeri, Ramin; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Merat, Shahin; Vahedi, Homayoon; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C.; Brennan, Paul; Møller, Henrik; Saidi, Farrokh; Dawsey, Sanford M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between tea drinking habits in Golestan province, northern Iran, and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Design Population based case-control study. In addition, patterns of tea drinking and temperature at which tea was drunk were measured among healthy participants in a cohort study. Setting Golestan province, northern Iran, an area with a high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Participants 300 histologically proved cases of o...

  11. Serum Copper Concentration in Newborns with Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran; A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad-Reza Mansourian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the eventual association between copper deficiency in newborns with neural tube defects (NTD in Northern Iran. A high prevalence of neural tube defects has been reported from this region.Methods: This hospital based case control study was carried out on 13 newborns having neural tube defects and 35 healthy controls in Northern Iran during 2005-2006. Serum copper was measured by spectrophotometery.Findings: Serum copper level in newborns with NTD and healthy normal newborns was 16.5 (±7.2 μmol/l and 16.7 (±6.6 μmol/l, respectively. In case group 38.5% of newborns and in control group 28.6% had copper deficiency. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between the presence of NTD and copper deficiency (OR:1.6, 95% CI=0.3-7.1, P=0.5.Conclusion :This study showed no association between NTD and copper deficiency in newborns.

  12. Serum Copper Concentration in Newborns with Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran; A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Jafar Golalipour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the eventual association between copper deficiency in newborns with neural tube defects (NTD in Northern Iran. A high prevalence of neural tube defects has been reported from this region.Methods: This hospital based case control study was carried out on 13 newborns having neural tube defects and 35 healthy controls in Northern Iran during 2005-2006. Serum copper was measured by spectrophotometery.Findings: Serum copper level in newborns with NTD and healthy normal newborns was 16.5 (�7.2 ?mol/l and 16.7 (�6.6 ?mol/l, respectively. In case group 38.5% of newborns and in control group 28.6% had copper deficiency. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between the presence of NTD and copper deficiency (OR:1.6, 95% CI=0.3-7.1, P=0.5.Conclusion:This study showed no association between NTD and copper deficiency in newborns.

  13. Resorts, second home owners and distance: a case study in northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kauppila

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors for the site selection of a second home is the space-time dimension. For example, the popularity of second home tourism in the hinterland of population centres is based on the short distance between second homes and the permanent residence of second home owners. In the case of peripheral resorts, however, the main reason for a large number of second homes is the attractiveness of the area associated with a high level of touristic elements. The study examines the municipalities of residence of the second home owners in four large resorts – Levi, Ruka, Saariselkä and Ylläs – in northern Finland. After analysing the geographical distribution of the owners with maps and diagrams the aim of the paper is to present a distance model for the resorts located in a northern periphery from the viewpoint of the regions of destination. Generally speaking, the model resembles a U-letter. In this respect, the resorts have three zones – day trip, weekend and vacation – and each of them has their own characteristics based on accessibility and regional structure, the number and structure of population (potential owners and land ownership. In the planning context, the proposed model can be utilised as a tool for the marketing of resorts as a second home environment as well as for analysing and comparing the overall attractiveness of resorts.

  14. Characterisation of Agri-Landscape Systems at a Regional Level: A Case Study in Northern Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariassunta Galli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Preserving our landscape in sustainable development processes is now widely considered as fundamental. It is a complex and evolving issue that can be tackled from several perspectives. Agronomy can contribute to analyzing the relationships between agricultural production systems (cropping, farming and agricultural systems at different levels (field, farm, and region and the agricultural landscape (in terms of patches, matrixes, dynamics, etc. This is of particular interest where the relationships between “what and how” are produced by agricultural activities and the landscape are changing. In this case their own reciprocity may represent an opportunity to analyze complex systems, such as the characterization of agri-landscapes at a regional level. We propose a case study developed as an up-scaling analytical process from a farm to a regional level. The result was the identification of six main agri-landscape systems highlighting the landscape drivers that are changing the traditional landscape of a rural region in Northern Tuscany (Lunigiana.

  15. Interhousehold variability and its effects on seed circulation networks: a case study from northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Wencélius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed ethnographic case study of sorghum seed acquisitions in a smallholder farming society in northern Cameroon. The effects of variability in household demographics and socioeconomic status on observed patterns of seed provisioning are explored alongside other variables such as age and gender. Our data set comprised 223 seed acquisition events. Independence tests (Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were carried out to test for significant dependencies between individual- or household-level characteristics and properties of seed acquisition events (categories of seed source, social relationship of exchange, and type of landrace. Results indicate that wealth is a structuring factor of the local seed circulation network in as much as it is highly correlated with household composition and size. Members from wealthy households benefit from a more diverse set of seed sources. Their greater number of coresidents and the importance of intrahousehold dynamics of seed transactions also play a role in making wealthy farmers more seed secure than others. The methodological implications of our findings indicate that when documenting seed exchange networks, the collection of data through a single informant or the undertaking of social network analyses at the household level may induce important biases.

  16. Recent changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation in detailed case studies of northern aapa mires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Kumpula, Timo; Tolonen, Kimmo

    2016-04-01

    Aapa mires are northern mire complexes with typical patterned central fen areas and relatively thin peat layers. In principle, aapa mires could develop into raised bogs either 1) through autogenic succession, given enough time for peat accumulation or 2) through allogenic mechanism triggered by hydrological change. Climate change models predict that the climatic envelop of aapa mires will move north and, indeed, that hydrology may change sufficiently to cause allogenic change pressure. Potential resilience or pace of ecosystem-scale responses are poorly understood, however, in the case of aapa mires. We studied recent (ca. 60 years) changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation of two aapa mires at their southern limit of distribution in eastern Finland. We used repeated sampling after 60 years combined with peat stratigraphy and time-series of aerial images in a multi-proxy approach. The study site at the Valkeasuo mire was affected by extensive drainage activities in its catchment, while the aapa mire area itself was not drained. This resulted in the loss of minerotrophic hydrology that lead to rapid changes over the whole patterned fen area. Wet minerotrophic sedge fen vegetation was almost totally covered by ombrotrophic Sphagnum mosses within few decades. Even up to 50 cm high hummocks emerged on the patterned fen strings in an abrupt response that could be precisely dated by simultaneous encroachment of pine seedlings and from the aerial images. The recent apparent rate of carbon accumulation of the new Sphagnum peat was ca. 100 g m-2 -a. The other study site in the Ilajansuo aapa mire persists in a more pristine setting without significant disturbance in its catchment area. Here the mineral-water limit was studied across a transition between a bog zone and an aapa mire zone of the mire complex. We were able to exactly locate a 100 x 300-m special study area and repeat e.g. mapping of all trees, of all topographic patterns (hummocks, hollows

  17. Labour Supply and Earning Functions of Educated Married Women: A Case Study of Northern Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Eatzaz Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses labour supply of educated married women in Mandi Bahauddin, a typical district of northern Punjab in Pakistan. The study finds that the education level and economic compulsion are important factors affecting women s labour force participation decision. But, otherwise, they are independent in their decision-making, e.g., the women living in joint families or those with less educated husbands and/or parents are not socially constrained in terms of participation. Human capita...

  18. A Case Report of Cornelia De Lange Syndrome in Northern Iran; A Clinical and Diagnostic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseininejad, Seyyed-Mohsen; Bazrafshan, Behnaz; Alaee, Ehsan

    2016-02-01

    As a rare multisystem congenital anomaly disorder, Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is featured by delayed growth and development, distinct facial dimorphism, limb malformations and multiple organ defects. CdLS is a genetic syndrome affecting 1/10000-1/60000 neonates with unknown genetic basis. Delayed growth and development, hirsute, structural anomalies of the limbs and distinct facial dimorphism are considered as its main clinical characteristics. Introducing CdLS cases of different ethnic backgrounds could add distinctions to the phenotypic picture of the syndrome and be useful in diagnosis. Early diagnosis and decreased death rates are achievable through enhanced awareness on this syndrome. We present here a 45-day-old girl, as the first case of Cornelia in Golestan (Northern Iran), referred to our hospital with the symptoms as mentioned above. PMID:27042551

  19. Synoptic study of the seasonal variability of dust cases observed by the TOMS satellite over northern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Mashat, Abdul-Wahab S.; Alamoudi, Ahmad O.; Assiri, Mazen E.

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and meteorological parameters from National Center for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis datasets were used to examine seasonal dust cases in northern Saudi Arabia. Considering all seasons, winter has the fewest dust cases, whereas summer has the most dust cases. Synoptically, surface high-pressure systems in the eastern and western regions are important for the occurrence of dust cases over the northern Arabian Peninsula. When the eastern high pressure prevails, the effects of the Indian low-pressure system on the Arabian Peninsula are weakened or become nonexistent. The extension of the western high-pressure system toward the southeast provides an opportunity for a low-pressure system over Southeast Africa to connect with the Indian low-pressure system, which increases the width of the low-pressure trough and affects the Arabian Peninsula by increasing the amount of dust over the region. At 850 hPa, the weather systems typically rotate clockwise between winter and autumn. In winter, cyclonic systems prevail in the northern region, while anticyclonic systems prevail in the south. The systems are oriented toward the northeast in spring, the west in summer, and the southeast in autumn. Moreover, northern cyclones at 500 hPa shrink as they move northward and the maximum wind speed at 250 hPa decreases from winter to summer. Furthermore, the case study confirms that a change in the relative strength of the pressure systems and a change in the orientation of the isobars (contours) affect the amount of dust over the area. When the orientation of the isobar (contour) lines become strictly north to south or east to west, the amount of dust decreases and vice versa.

  20. Spatiotemporal Bayesian Networks for Malaria Prediction: Case Study of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddawy, Peter; Kasantikul, Rangwan; Hasan, A H M Imrul; Rattanabumrung, Chunyanuch; Rungrun, Pichamon; Suksopee, Natwipa; Tantiwaranpant, Saran; Niruntasuk, Natcha

    2016-01-01

    While a diversity of modeling technique have been used to create predictive models of malaria, no work has made use of Bayesian networks. Bayes nets are attractive due to their ability to represent uncertainty, model time lagged and nonlinear relations, and provide explanations of inferences. This paper explores the use of Bayesian networks to model malaria, demonstrating the approach by creating a village level model with weekly temporal resolution for Tha Song Yang district in northern Thailand. The network is learned using data on cases and environmental covariates. The network models incidence over time as well as evolution of the environmental variables, and captures time lagged and nonlinear effects. Out of sample evaluation shows the model to have high accuracy for one and two week predictions. PMID:27577491

  1. Chrysotile asbestos quantification in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, central Alps, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Outcrops of serpentinites are usually strongly fractured and cataclastic, and the rock can only be used as ballast. However, in rare cases, like in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy), fractures are regular and well spaced, and the rock mass has good geotechnical quality, ideal conditions for the extraction of dimension stone blocks. The Valmalenco Serpentinite is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone, with remarkable mechanical properties and pleasing colours and textures. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, in the form of discrete veins along the main discontinuities of the rock mass. For this reason, airborne asbestos contamination can occur during the extraction and processing cycle of the rocks, therefore it is essential to locate and quantify asbestos in the rock mass, to reduce as much as possible the exposure risk. The first step was a detailed geostructural survey of each quarry, in order to characterize the main discontinuities (orientation, spacing, linear persistence, opening, filling), with special attention to the identification of fibrous minerals. The surveys was followed by extensive sampling of massive rocks, mineralized veins and fillings of fractures, and the cutting sludge derived from diamond wire cutting. Preliminary qualitative XRPD was performed on all samples, while quantitative analysis was carried out on the most representative samples of the main rock mass discontinuities. On the other hand, XRPD is not effective in the identification of asbestos percentages of less than 2% by weight, and the accurate distinction among the various serpentine polymorphs (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile) is very difficult (if not impossible) when they are simultaneously present, due to their very similar basic structure and the strong structural disorder. The same samples were then analyzed by SEM-EDS (fiber counting after filtration on a polycarbonate filter), for a better distinction between

  2. Numerical Study on Microphysical Processes of Two Different Snowfall Cases in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jing; WANG Pengyun; LI Xiang; LU Ying

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two snowfall cases under different weather conditions in northern China are simulated by using the meso scale model MM5. Two-way nesting structure of domains is designed for each case. Among the explicit schemes of MM5, the Reisner graupel scheme is selected to describe the microphysical process.The simulated snow-bands of two cases are basically consistent with observations. The simulated results of microphysical processes are mainly discussed. The hydrometeors and their sources and sinks under different weather backgrounds are described. The feedback effects of microphysical processes on the thermal and dynamic processes are also discussed. Method that outputs the accumulative sources and sinks per hour is used to analyze the distribution characteristics of hydrometeors during the strongest snowfall period. Two sensitivity tests (called heat test and drag test) are conducted to examine the effects of microphysical processes on cloud produced by the latent heat and drag force.Results have shown that the distribution of particles has a close relation with temperature. The temperature of Beijing snowfall is under 0℃ and there exist vapor and solid phase particles, while Liaoning snowfall has vapor, liquid, and solid phase particles due to the warm temperature. The distribution of these particles is not the same at different development stages. From the analyses of the characteristics of sources and sinks, it is found that snow is mainly produced by the deposition and accretion with ice. Cloud water is crucial to graupel. The melting of ice-phase particles enhances the rain production. The results of heat tests and drag tests reveal that the microphysical processes have interacted with the dynamic and thermal processes. Latent heat release of hydrometeors feeds back positively on snowfall while the drag force not.At last, comparisons of simulated results have been done between the two different kinds of snowfall cases.The microphysical processes of

  3. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: case studies of Canada's Northern mining resource sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, B.F. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Geography, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)]. E-mail: b.noble@usask.ca; Bronson, J.E. [Stantec Consulting, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)]. E-mail: Jbronson@stantec.com

    2005-12-15

    This paper examines the integration of human health considerations into environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the Canadian North. Emphasis is placed on the northern mining sector, where more land has been staked in the past decade than in the previous 50 years combined. Using information from interviews with northern EIA and health practitioners and reviews of selected project documents, we examined three principal mining case studies, northern Saskatchewan uranium mining operations, the Ekati diamond project, and the Voisey's Bay mine/mill project, to determine whether and how health considerations in EIA have evolved and the current nature and scope of health integration. Results suggest that despite the recognized link between environment and health and the number of high-profile megaprojects in Canada's North, human health, particularly social health, has not been given adequate treatment in northern EIA. Health considerations in EIA have typically been limited to physical health impacts triggered directly by project-induced environmental change, while social and other health determinants have been either not considered at all, or limited to those aspects of health and well-being that the project proponent directly controlled, namely employment opportunities and worker health and safety. In recent years, we have been seeing improvements in the scope of health in EIA to reflect a broader range of health determinants, including traditional land use and culture. However, there is still a need to adopt impact mitigation and enhancement measures that are sensitive to northern society, to monitor and follow up actual health impacts after project approval, and to ensure that mitigation and enhancement measures are effective. (author)

  4. How to model the stability of terraced slopes? The case study of Tresenda (northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Corrado; Apuani, Tiziana; Masetti, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Terraces are very common morphological features all around the Mediterranean Basin. They have been built to adapt the natural morphology of the territory to the development of anthropogenic activities, particularly agriculture. However, the increasing land abandonment during the last century is leading to soil degradation and stability issues, mainly due to lack of maintenance of these peculiar environments. The objective of this study was to develop a coupled hydrologic-stability model to identify possible triggering areas of superficial landslides during intense rainfall events. The model was tested on a slope uphill of the village of Tresenda, in Northern Italy, which experienced several superficial landslides in the last 35 years. Distributed stability analyses are usually carried out using an infinite slope approach, but in the case of terraces some basic assumptions of this method fail: the parallelism between topographical surface and potential sliding surface and the high ratio between slope length and failure surface depth are the most important examples. In addition, the interest is more on the stability of the terrace system (dry stone retaining wall and backfill soil) and not on soil alone. For these reasons, a stability analysis based on the global method of equilibrium is applied and soft coupled to a well know hydrological model (STARWARS). Sections of terrace, one cell wide, are recognized from the base of a wall to the top of the closest downstream one, and each cell (1 x 1 m2) is considered as a slice. The method of Sarma for circular and non-circular failure is applied. The very fine horizontal resolution (1 m) is crucial to take into consideration the hydrogeological and mechanical properties of dry stone walls (0.6-1.0 m wide). A sensitivity analysis was conducted for saturated water content, initial volumetric water content, the cohesion and friction angle of soil and walls and soil depth. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that

  5. Sustainable forest management through floristic study (Case study: Darkesh Forest, Northern Khorasan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Mashayekhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Floristic study of plants in each site is one the most important role in keeping natural resources of each country. Plant species were collected from field sites that representing major habitats of study area. Surveys were managed during active growth periods in 2013 and 2014. A total of 140 medicinal plant species were documented. These species were scattered in 39 families and 116 genera. Families of Lamiaceae with 26 species, Asteraceae with 21 species and Rosaceae with 13 species were the most dominant families of medicinal plants in the study area. Hemicryphtophytes with 40%, therophytes with 18.4%, geophytes with 14.25%, phanerophytes with 13.57% and chamaephytes with 6.42%. The phyto-geographically of the medicinal plant showed that these species belonging to the regions of Irano-Turanian, Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean. The results of the present study showed that medicinal plants and wild fruit as Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs documented in this study, play an important role in the rural community welfare and sustainable forest management.

  6. Oroclinal bending and orogenic asymmetry? A case study from the apex of the Northern Andean orocline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, A.; Parra-Amezquita, M.; Rodriguez, G.

    2013-05-01

    Here we present new thermocronometric analysis from the eastern flank of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera at 7° N lat. which aid in deconvolving the roles of plate tectonics, tectonic inheritance and surface processes in building the Cocuy syntaxis, at the apex of the Northern Andean orocline. The Cocuy syntaxis is the region with higher structural and topographic relief in the Eastern Cordillera. The primary factor controlling that is faster tectonism, apparently related with the most important Panama collision at ca. 4 Ma. This push from behind is focused between two resistant plates and escapes toward a weak foreland plate, which is able to flex. However, we suggest it is an enhanced late Miocene to Recent exhumation episode which is responsible for the limited advance of the deformation front as basement involved blocks. Faster denudation causes faster sedimentation rates in the weak foreland plate east of Cocuy. In this case, the thick pile of synkinematic sediments would make an otherwise possible thin skin deformation migration very difficult.

  7. Soil consumption by urbanisation: a case study in northern Sardinia (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, Massimo; Enne, Giuseppe; MADRAU, Salvatore; Zucca, Claudio

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this short communication is to present a case study of competition between urbanisation, environment and agriculture for the Alghero municipality, a coastal Mediterranean area where a high urban growth has taken place during the last 50 years.

  8. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bazdid Vahdati F, Saeidi Mehrvarz Sh, Naqinezhad A, Gholizadeh H. 2014. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 29-36. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

  9. How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH BAZDID VAHDATI¹,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available How plant diversity features change across ecological species groups? A case study of a temperate deciduous forest in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 31-38. Species diversity is one of the most important indices for evaluating the stability and productivity of forest ecosystems. The aim of this research was to recognize ecological species groups and to determine the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution of ecological species groups. For this purpose, 25 400-m2 relevés were sampled using the Braun-Blanquet method. Vegetation was classified using modified Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and resulted in three ecological species groups. Different species diversity indices were applied to quantify diversity of these species groups. ANOVA and Duncan’s tests indicated that all species and environmental variables except altitude changed significantly across the species groups. The results also showed that the group located in the northern aspect and on low slopes had the highest diversity indices compared with groups located in dry aspects and on high slopes. In reality, abundant precipitation (northern aspect ( and soil enrichment (low slopes are principal factors that provide suitable conditions for plant growth and species diversity. Thus, the study of diversity changes in ecological species groups can result in an ecologically precise perspective for managing forest ecosystems.

  10. Detection of cyclonic eddy generated by looping tropical cyclone in the northern South China Sea:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jianyu; KAWAMURA Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    A case study on the cyclonic eddy generated by the tropical cyclone looping over the northern South China Sea (NSCS) is presented, using TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data and AVHRR sea surface temperature (SST) data.Three cases relating to the tropical cyclone events (Typhoon Kai-Tak in July 2000, Tropical Storm Russ in June 1994 and Tropical Storm Maria in August-September 2000) over the NSCS have been analyzed. For each looping tropical cyclone case, the cyclonic eddy with an obvious sea level depression appears in the sea area where the tropical cyclone takes a loop form, and lasts for about 2 weeks with a slight variation in location. The cold core with the SST difference greater than 2 ℃ against its surrounding areas is also observed by the satellite-derived SST data.

  11. Detection of cyclonic eddy generated by looping tropical cyclone in the northern South China Sea:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jianyu; KAWAMURA Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    A case study on the cyclonic eddy generated by the tropical cyclone looping over the northern South China Sea (NSCS) is presented, using TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data and AVHRR sea surface temperature (SST) data.Three cases relating to the tropical cyclone events (Typhoon Kai-Tak in July 2000, Tropical Storm Russ in June 1994and Tropical Storm Maria in August-September 2000) over the NSCS have been analyzed. For each looping tropical cyclone case, the cyclonic eddy with an obvious sea level depression appears in the sea area where the tropical cyclone takes a loop form, and lasts for about 2 weeks with a slight variation in location. The cold core with the SST difference greater than 2 ℃ against its surrounding areas is also observed by the satellite-derived SST data.

  12. Hydraulic model calibration for extreme floods in bedrock-confined channels: case study from northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidson, R. L.; Richards, K. S.; Carling, P. A.

    2006-02-01

    Palaeoflood reconstructions based on stage evidence are typically conducted in data-poor field settings. Few opportunities exist to calibrate the hydraulic models used to estimate discharge from this evidence. Consequently, an important hydraulic model parameter, the roughness coefficient (e.g. Manning's n), is typically estimated by a range of approximate techniques, such as visual estimation and semi-empirical equations. These techniques contribute uncertainty to resulting discharge estimates, especially where the study reach exhibits sensitivity in the discharge-Manning's n relation. We study this uncertainty within a hydraulic model for a large flood of known discharge on the Mae Chaem River, northern Thailand. Comparison of the calibrated Manning's n with that obtained from semi-empirical equations indicates that these underestimate roughness. Substantial roughness elements in the extra-channel zone, inundated during large events, contribute significant additional sources of flow resistance that are captured neither by the semi-empirical equations, nor by existing models predicting stage-roughness variations. This bedrock channel exhibits a complex discharge-Manning's n relation, and reliable estimates of the former are dependent upon realistic assignment of the latter. Our study demonstrates that a large recent flood can provide a valuable opportunity to constrain this parameter, and this is illustrated when we model a palaeoflood event in the same reach, and subsequently examine the magnitude-return period consequences of discharge uncertainty within a flood frequency analysis, which contributes its own source of uncertainty.

  13. Simulation supported scenario analysis for water resources planning: a case study in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, A; Gandolfi, C; Ortuani, B; Maggi, D

    2005-01-01

    The work presents the results of a comprehensive modelling study of surface and groundwater resources in the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district, in Northern Italy. It assesses the impact of changes in land use and irrigation water availability on the distribution of crop water consumption in space and time, as well as on the groundwater resources. A distributed, integrated surface water-groundwater simulation system was implemented and applied to the study area. The system is based on the coupling of a conceptual vadose zone model with the groundwater model MODFLOW. To assess the impact of land use and irrigation water availability on water deficit for crops as well as on groundwater system in the area, a number of management scenarios were identified and compared with a base scenario, reflecting the present conditions. Changes in land use may alter significantly both total crop water requirement and aquifer recharge. Water supply is sufficient to meet demand under present conditions and, from the crop water use viewpoint, a reduction of water availability has a positive effect on the overall irrigation system efficiency; however, evapotranspiration deficit increases, concentrated in July and August, when it may be critical for maize crops. PMID:15850169

  14. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in D...

  15. Glacier ice in rock glaciers: a case study in the Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monnier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the Sachette rock glacier, Vanoise Massif, Northern French Alps, using former equilibrium line altitude reconstruction from glacial deposits, aerial photograph analysis, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR. The rock glacier is a young (probably <6000 yr and active landform. The GPR survey consisted of two CMP measurements and four constant-offset profiles. From CMP measurements, the radar wave velocity in exposed shallow massive ice is 0.165–0.17 m ns−1. The constant-offset GPR data was processed and analysed in order to reconstruct the stratigraphy and model the radar wave velocity in two dimensions. The integration of the morphology, the velocity models, and the stratigraphy emphasized, in the upper half of the rock glacier, the good correspondence between high radar wave velocities (>0.15–0.16 m ns−1 and reflectors having a dipping-syncline structure, typical of true glaciers. Consequently, the rock glacier structure is described as being constituted of a glacial massive ice core embedded into diamictons. Our study of the Sachette rock glacier highlights possible significance of rock glaciers and interactions between glacier and permafrost in alpine environments.

  16. Assessing Future Ecosystem Services: a Case Study of the Northern Highlands Lake District, Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lisa Dent

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin is in transition from a sparsely settled region to a more densely populated one. Expected changes offer benefits to northern Wisconsin residents but also threaten to degrade the ecological services they rely on. Because the future of this region is uncertain, it is difficult to make decisions that will avoid potential risks and take advantage of potential opportunities. We adopt a scenario planning approach to cope with this problem of prediction. We use an ecological assessment framework developed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment to determine key social and ecological driving forces in the Northern Highlands Lake District. From these, we describe three alternative scenarios to the year 2025 in which the projected use of ecological services is substantially different. The work reported in this paper demonstrates how scenarios can be developed for a region and provides a starting point for a participatory discussion of alternative futures for northern Wisconsin. Although the future is unknowable, we hope that the assessment process begun in this paper will help the people of the Northern Highlands Lake District choose the future path of their region.

  17. Process and Dynamics of Social Innovation: Case Studies of Local Initiatives in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Alongkorn Khutrakun

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights how social innovation emerged, integrated, and expanded in local community settings. The paper presents findings summarized from a qualitative study of three local initiatives as case studies of social innovation. A "Social Innovation Framework" is subsequently proposed to represent the relationship between the social innovation process and social innovation dynamics. The framework shows that each step in the process leads to changes in the characteristics of the socia...

  18. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis in northern Italy: results of a multicentre case-control study, February 2013 to July 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfrate, Dora; Baldissera, Mara; Abrescia, Fabrizio; Bassetti, Matteo; Caramaschi, Giacomo; Giobbia, Mario; Mascarello, Marta; Rodari, Paola; Scattolo, Novella; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2016-08-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth widely diffused in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Autochthonous cases have been also diagnosed sporadically in areas of temperate climate. We aimed at defining the epidemiology of strongyloidiasis in immigrants and Italians living in three northern Italian Regions. Screening for S. stercoralis infection was done with serology, confirmation tests were a second serological method or stool agar culture. A case-control approach was adopted and patients with a peripheral eosinophil count ≥ 500/mcL were classified as cases. Of 2,701 individuals enrolled here 1,351 were cases and 1,350 controls; 86% were Italians, 48% women. Italians testing positive were in 8% (97/1,137) cases and 1% (13/1,178) controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-14.8), while positive immigrants were in 17% (36/214) cases and in 2% (3/172) controls (aOR 9.6; 95% CI: 2.9-32.4). Factors associated with a higher risk of infection for all study participants were eosinophilia (p < 0.001) and immigration (p = 0.001). Overall, strongyloidiasis was nine-times more frequent in individuals with eosinophilia than in those with normal eosinophil count. PMID:27525375

  19. Characterization of aerosols above the Northern Adriatic Sea: Case studies of offshore and onshore wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzola, J.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Canepa, E.; Tedeschi, G.; Prati, P.; Zarmpas, P.; Bastianini, M.; Missamou, T.; Cavaleri, L.

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol particles in coastal areas result from a complex mixing between sea spray aerosols locally generated at the sea surface by the wind-waves interaction processes and a continental component resulting from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. This paper presents a physical and chemical analysis of the aerosol data acquired from May to September 2014 in the Adriatic Sea. Aerosol distributions were measured on the Acqua Alta platform located 15 km off the coast of Venice using two Particle Measuring System probes and a chemical characterization was made using an Ion Chromatography analysis (IC). Our aim is to study both the sea-spray contribution and the anthropogenic influence in the coastal aerosol of this Mediterranean region. To this end, we focus on a comparison between the present data and the aerosol size distributions measured south of the French Mediterranean coast. For air masses of marine origin transported by southern winds on the French coast and by the Sirocco in the Adriatic, we note a good agreement between the concentrations of super-micrometer aerosols measured in the two locations. This indicates a similar sea surface production of sea-spray aerosols formed by bubble bursting processes in the two locations. In contrast, the results show larger concentrations of submicron particles in the North-Western Mediterranean compared to the Adriatic, which result probably from a larger anthropogenic background for marine conditions. In contrast, for a coastal influence, the chemical analysis presented in the present paper seems to indicate a larger importance of the anthropogenic impact in the Northern Adriatic compared to the North-Western Mediterranean.

  20. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  1. Bridging and Linking in a Divided Society: A Social Capital Case Study from Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of research into social capital levels in the Central Housing Community Network, part of the community consultation structure of the Northern Ireland Housing Executive. Membership of the forum increased the bonding, bridging and linking social capital of its members and appeared to improve community relations, although that was not its stated purpose. However, the empirical link between social capital and the quality of community relations remains unproven. The ...

  2. The carbon budget in the northern Adriatic Sea, a winter case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, G.; Azzaro, M.; Bastianini, M.; Bellucci, L. G.; Bernardi Aubry, F.; Bianchi, F.; Burca, M.; Cantoni, C.; Caruso, G.; Casotti, R.; Cozzi, S.; Del Negro, P.; Fonda Umani, S.; Giani, M.; Giuliani, S.; Kovacevic, V.; La Ferla, R.; Langone, L.; Luchetta, A.; Monticelli, L. S.; Piacentino, S.; Pugnetti, A.; Ravaioli, M.; Socal, G.; Spagnoli, F.; Ursella, L.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a winter carbon budget for the northern Adriatic Sea, obtained through direct measurements during two multidisciplinary cruises and literature data. A box model approach was adopted to integrate estimates of stocks and fluxes of carbon species over the total area. The oligotrophy at the basin scale and the start of primary productivity well before the onset of spring stratification were observed. In winter, the system underwent a complete reset, as the mixing of water masses erased any signal of previous hypoxia or anoxia episodes. The northern Adriatic Sea was phosphorus depleted with respect to C and N availability. This fact confirms the importance of mixing with deep-sea water for P supply to biological processes on the whole. Despite the abundant prokaryotic biomass, the microbial food web was less efficient in organic C production than phytoplankton. In the upper layer, the carbon produced by primary production exceeded the fraction respired by planktonic community smaller than 200 µm. On the contrary, respiration processes prevailed in the water column below the pycnocline. The carbon budget also proved that the northern Adriatic Sea can be an effective sink for atmospheric CO2 throughout the entire winter season.

  3. Restoring the Nitrogen Cycle in the Boreal Forest - a Case Study from Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Jacynthe; Grayston, Sue; Prescott, Cindy; Quideau, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    The Athabasca oil sands deposit, located in the boreal forests of Northern Alberta, is one of the largest single oil deposits in the world. This deposit rests underneath 40,200 square kilometres of land. To date, an area of about 715 square kilometres has been disturbed by oil sands mining activity (Government of Alberta, 2013). Following surface mining, companies have the legal obligation to restore soil-like profiles that can support the previous land capabilities (Powter et al., 2012). Because of its importance for site productivity, re-establishment of the nitrogen cycle between these reconstructed soils and plants is one of the most critical factors required to insure long term sustainability of reclaimed boreal landscape. High nitrogen deposition recorded in the oil sands area combined with the high level of nitrate found in reclaimed soils raised concerns about the possibility of these reclaimed soils being in early stages of N saturation (Laxton et al 2010; Hemsley, 2012), although little evidence of net nitrification in these reclaimed soils suggests the contrary (Laxton et al. 2012). To date, results on the behaviour of the nitrogen cycle in the reclaimed sites are contradictory. A systematic study of the nitrogen cycle, and especially rates of gross mineralization, nitrification and denitrification, is needed. Our research aimed at 1) measuring the gross rates of nitrogen transformations under different vegetation treatments in both reclaimed and naturally-disturbed (fire) sites and 2) characterizing the microbial communities participating in the nitrogen cycle within the same soils. A series of 20 soils, covering different vegetation treatments (plots planted with aspen (Populus tremuloides), spruce (Picea glauca) and grassland) were investigated. Gross nitrogen transformation rates were measured using 15N pool-dilution (Müller et al. 2007). Microbial communities participating in the N-cycle were characterized using qPCR and pyrosequencing. Differences

  4. Biogeochemical indicators of peatland degradation - a case study of a temperate bog in northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, J. P.; Leifeld, J.; Glatzel, S.; Szidat, S.; Alewell, C.

    2015-05-01

    Organic soils in peatlands store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and can lose carbon via the atmosphere due to degradation. In Germany, most of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from organic soils are attributed to sites managed as grassland. Here, we investigated a land use gradient from near-natural wetland (NW) to an extensively managed (GE) to an intensively managed grassland site (GI), all formed in the same bog complex in northern Germany. Vertical depth profiles of δ13C, δ15N, ash content, C / N ratio and bulk density as well as radiocarbon ages were studied to identify peat degradation and to calculate carbon loss. At all sites, including the near-natural site, δ13C depth profiles indicate aerobic decomposition in the upper horizons. Depth profiles of δ15N differed significantly between sites with increasing δ15N values in the top soil layers paralleling an increase in land use intensity owing to differences in peat decomposition and fertilizer application. At both grassland sites, the ash content peaked within the first centimetres. In the near-natural site, ash contents were highest in 10-60 cm depth. The ash profiles, not only at the managed grassland sites, but also at the near-natural site indicate that all sites were influenced by anthropogenic activities either currently or in the past, most likely due to drainage. Based on the enrichment of ash content and changes in bulk density, we calculated the total carbon loss from the sites since the peatland was influenced by anthropogenic activities. Carbon loss at the sites increased in the following order: NW < GE < GI. Radiocarbon ages of peat in the topsoil of GE and GI were hundreds of years, indicating the loss of younger peat material. In contrast, peat in the first centimetres of the NW was only a few decades old, indicating recent peat growth. It is likely that the NW site accumulates carbon today but was perturbed by anthropogenic activities in the past. Together, all

  5. Biogeochemical indicators of peatland degradation – a case study of a temperate bog in northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Krüger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and can loose carbon via the atmosphere due to degradation. In Germany, most of the greenhouse gas emissions from organic soils are attributed to sites managed as grassland. Here we investigated a land-use gradient from near-natural wetland (NW to an extensively managed (GE to an intensively managed grassland site (GI, all formed in the same bog complex in northern Germany. Vertical depth profiles of δ13C, δ15N, ash content, C/N ratio, bulk density, as well as radiocarbon ages were studied to identify peat degradation and to calculate carbon loss. At all sites, including the near-natural site, δ13C depth profiles indicate aerobic decomposition in the upper horizons. Depth profiles of δ15Ndiffered significantly between sites with increasing δ15N values in the top layers with increasing intensity of use, indicating that the peat is more decomposed. At both grassland sites, the ash content peaked within the first centimeter. In the near-natural site, ash contents were highest in 10–60 cm depth. This indicates that not only the managed grasslands, but also the near-natural site, is influenced by anthropogenic activities, most likely due to the drainage of the surrounding area. However, we found very young peat material in the first centimeter of the NW, indicating recent peat growth. The NW site accumulates carbon today even though it is and probably was influenced by anthropogenic activities in the past indicated by δ13C and ash content depth profiles. Based on the enrichment of ash content and changes in bulk density, we calculated carbon loss from these sites in retrograde. As expected land use intensification leads to a higher carbon loss which is supported by the higher peat ages at the intensive managed grassland site. All investigated biogeochemical parameters together indicate degradation of peat due to (i conversion to grassland, (ii historical drainage as well as

  6. Ebola in the context of conflict affected states and health systems: case studies of Northern Uganda and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPake, Barbara; Witter, Sophie; Ssali, Sarah; Wurie, Haja; Namakula, Justine; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2015-01-01

    Ebola seems to be a particular risk in conflict affected contexts. All three of the countries most affected by the 2014-15 outbreak have a complex conflict-affected recent history. Other major outbreaks in the recent past, in Northern Uganda and in the Democratic Republic of Congo are similarly afflicted although outbreaks have also occurred in stable settings. Although the 2014-15 outbreak in West Africa has received more attention than almost any other public health issue in recent months, very little of that attention has focused on the complex interaction between conflict and its aftermath and its implications for health systems, the emergence of the disease and the success or failure in controlling it. The health systems of conflict-affected states are characterized by a series of weaknesses, some common to other low and even middle income countries, others specifically conflict-related. Added to this is the burden placed on health systems by the aggravated health problems associated with conflict. Other features of post conflict health systems are a consequence of the global institutional response. Comparing the experience of Northern Uganda and Sierra Leone in the emergence and management of Ebola outbreaks in 2000-1 and in 2014-15 respectively highlights how the various elements of these conflict affected societies came together with international agencies responses to permit the outbreak of the disease and then to successfully contain it (in Northern Uganda) or to fail to do so before a catastrophic cost had been incurred (in Sierra Leone). These case studies have implications for the types of investments in health systems that are needed to enable effective response to Ebola and other zoonotic diseases where they arise in conflict- affected settings. PMID:26257823

  7. Enhanced moment tensor retrieval: a case study in the Alborz Mountains, Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Stefanie; Rößler, Dirk; Ghods, Abdolreza; Krüger, Frank; Strecker, Manfred; Landgraf, Angela; Ballato, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Seismotectonic and seismic hazard analysis are crucial tasks in, often increasingly, densely populated, seismically active regions. The understanding of earthquake source mechanisms is an important key element for such analyses. Seismic moment tensors provide a general description of the physical processes and the magnitude of earthquakes. The feasibility of moment tensor retrieval is controlled by several factors, such as wavefield modelling, source location, and station distribution. Inappropriate velocity models and inhomogeneous station distribution limits the inversion and the availability of seismic moment tensors in many regions worldwide. The Alborz Mountains of northern Iran are a tectonically active, bivergent orogen in the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. It is located between the aseismic blocks of the South Caspian Basin and Central Iran. A complex and not well understood system of strike-slip and thrust faults accommodates NNE-SSW oriented shortening. There are indicators that deformation in the high sectors of the Alborz Mountains is partitioned into reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faulting. Studies of earthquake source mechanisms will provide further insights in the complex fault geometry, their kinematic behaviour, and the tectonics of this intracontinental orogen. In addition, the internal domain of the central Alborz seems to be affected by very young, active transtension. To date, a heterogeneous seismic network with non-uniform distribution and a lack of appropriate methods have prevented detailed and comprehensive moment tensor studies in this region. So far, only 26 seismic moment tensors are available in the Harvard CMT catalogue since 1976. This restriction is due to the magnitude threshold of M4.5 for data processing and due to low data availability. Uncertainties in earthquake location are significant. Depth determination is sometimes impossible. Therefore, earthquakes cannot be associated with faults and the recent kinematic behaviour

  8. A Case Study of River Rehabilitation for Fish in Northern Italy: The Panaro River Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Comoglio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of longitudinal connectivity of a watercourse altered by man-made obstacles is a key issue for the protection and safeguard of freshwater ecosystems and the construction of fish passes constitutes a relevant ad hoc measure. However, in many countries, like Italy, there is still not an adequate technical-scientific background and experience in this field and therefore several migratory species have become extinct or are suffering from severe impacts. The main elements of the river rehabilitation for fish project promoted by the Modena Province concerning the middle course of the Panaro River (North Italy, a watercourse characterised by high naturalistic and environmental values but fragmented by several weirs built to prevent riverbed erosion, are presented in this paper. The case study is analysed through the main steps that were carried out to define a preliminary plan for the restoration of the river continuity for the migration of four target species (South European nase (Chondrostoma genei, Italian barbel (Barbus plebejus, chub (Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and soufie (Leuciscus souffia muticellus through the design of an innovative type of steep-slope fish ramp with large-scale roughness elements. The case study is part of an overall project and is the applicative section of an “educational” document drawn up in the form of guidelines on the correct methodological approach for fish passes design, that will be addressed to professionals, technicians and local Authorities working in the field of water resource management.

  9. SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS TO NORTHERN WESTERN GHATS: A CASE STUDY OF RATNAGIRI AND SINDHUDURG DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machhindra Sakate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are total 1904 villages and 12 districts of Maharashtra come under the northern Western Ghats. It has spread over 400 km. coastal area and Deccan plateau in Maharashtra. It has received abundant natural beauty and natural wealth. The mining, fishing and agriculture are the main occupation of the peoples in this region. The life style and culture of these people are highly influenced by natural heritage. The area is environmentally sensitive and significantly contributing in the rural development of the region. However, the excess and irrational use of natural resources has resulted in loss of biodiversity in general and socio-environmental life in particular.

  10. LDL (Landscape Digital Library) a Digital Photographic Database of a Case Study Area in the River Po Valley, Northern Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, D

    2001-01-01

    Landscapes are both a synthesis and an expression of national, regional and local cultural heritages. It is therefore very important to develop techniques aimed at cataloguing and archiving their forms. This paper discusses the LDL (Landscape Digital Library) project, a Web accessible database that can present the landscapes of a territory with documentary evidence in a new format and from a new perspective. The method was tested in a case study area of the river Po valley (Northern Italy). The LDL is based on a collection of photographs taken following a systematic grid of survey points identified through topographic cartography; the camera level is that of the human eye. This methodology leads to an innovative landscape archive that differs from surveys carried out through aerial photographs or campaigns aimed at selecting "relevant" points of interest. Further developments and possible uses of the LDL are also discussed.

  11. Prediction of Brittle Failure for TBM Tunnels in Anisotropic Rock: A Case Study from Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammyr, Øyvind

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of spalling and rock burst is especially important for hard rock TBM tunneling, because failure can have larger impact than in a drill and blast tunnel and ultimately threaten excavation feasibility. The majority of research on brittle failure has focused on rock types with isotropic behavior. This paper gives a review of existing theory and its application before a 3.5-m-diameter TBM tunnel in foliated granitic gneiss is used as a case to study brittle failure characteristics of anisotropic rock. Important aspects that should be considered in order to predict brittle failure in anisotropic rock are highlighted. Foliation is responsible for considerable strength anisotropy and is believed to influence the preferred side of v-shaped notch development in the investigated tunnel. Prediction methods such as the semi- empirical criterion, the Hoek- Brown brittle parameters, and the non-linear damage initiation and spalling limit method give reliable results; but only as long as the angle between compression axis and foliation in uniaxial compressive tests is relevant, dependent on the relation between tunnel trend/plunge, strike/dip of foliation, and tunnel boundary stresses. It is further demonstrated that local in situ stress variations, for example, due to the presence of discontinuities, can have profound impact on failure predictions. Other carefully documented case studies into the brittle failure nature of rock, in particular anisotropic rock, are encouraged in order to expand the existing and relatively small database. This will be valuable for future TBM planning and construction stages in highly stressed brittle anisotropic rock.

  12. A Case Study of Physicians at Work at the University Hospital of Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Ellingsen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge management literature suggests that reuse of externalized knowledge is fundamental for improved efficiency, reduced costs and reduced dependency on individual know-how. Rather than considering knowledge as a specific thing the paper relates knowledge to the work people do. It suggest that knowledge management literature avoids to take into account how knowledge needs to be made credible, relevant and trustworthy in order to be used across time and across different contexts in large organizational contexts. The paper analyses how work is needed to render knowledge trusted through patient trajectories and how different contexts, people and situations shape the comprehension of trust associated with existing knowledge. Empirically, the paper draws on different medical contexts at the University Hospital of Northern Norway.

  13. Mixing heights over hilly terrain - a case study in northern austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, K. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-10-01

    Simultaneous Sodar measurements (Remtech PA2) were conducted from 10 October 1996 to 24 January 1997 at two sites in northern Austria, near the village Allensteig on top of a hill (590 m.s.l.) and in the village Lenzing (460 m.s.l.) near the lake Attersee. The two sites are 145 km apart from each other and differ much according to the complexity of the surrounding terrain, land use and altitude. Mixing height and inversions height estimations from the Sodar measurements are compared with mixing heights derived from radiosonde potential temperature profiles at the next stations Linz and Vienna using the parcel method of Stull (1991) explained by M. Piringer (this volume). The information about the static stability at different Sodar heights, which is provided by the new Sodar software in terms of vertical temperature gradients, is discussed. (au)

  14. Resort-oriented tourism development and local tourism networks – a case study from northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Kulusjärvi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In tourism studies, it has been widely recognized that resort-oriented tourism development creates challenges for regional development, mainly due to its enclave nature and lack of regional economic linkages. However, there have been relatively few studies on the destination-scale cooperative networks, although, they are vital in increasing the positive regional economic impacts of tourism development. This paper is an empirical qualitative study exploring the connections between resort-oriented tourism development and tourism business cooperation in the case study area of the Ruka-Kuusamo tourism destination in Northeast Finland. The interest is on how the local cooperative networks of the Ruka tourist resort are spatially constructed within the Ruka-Kuusamo tourism destination. The research data consists of semi-structured interviews conducted for ten tourism actors located in the Ruka resort. The results show that the businesses located in the Ruka resort cooperate at the regional scale mainly in marketing, while their partners in production cooperation are located mostly within the resort, particularly in its very core area. The resort appears to function as a basis for spatial identification for tourism actors, which, in turn, affects entrepreneurs’ motivation to cooperate at the local and regional scale. Tourism entrepreneurs operating in the very core of the resort perceive the area as the principal area for their operations, and therefore, they do not particularly engage with the surrounding areas and businesses or with other actors located there. Thus, for smaller enterprises outside the core, it can be difficult to benefit from the resort’s core’s growth via network relations. This contributes mainly to the development of the core areas alone, creates challenges for sustainable regional economic development in the destination region, and hinders the resort’s tourism growth in the long run.

  15. Legacies in Urban Stormwater Management: A Case Study of a Gully Network in Northern Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, C. E.; Claessens, L.; Santangelo, T.; Soroka, A.

    2013-12-01

    Increased stormwater runoff from urban surfaces could lead to erosion and gully formation in areas of steep topographic relief. To reduce these impacts, stormwater management practices are currently required through federal and state stormwater regulations. Before 1990, stormwater was not regulated and would often be directly routed into adjacent lands. Particularly in areas of steep terrain, this would potentially induce erosion and gully formation. This study reports on a wide-scale examination of gully formation from urban stormwater, using a model that examines the increase of runoff from impervious cover and the potential for gully formation. Here we report on a case study for an area on the University of Delaware campus. The area is located in the Piedmont region and drains into the White Clay Creek, a National Wild and Scenic River. Pre-regulation development in this area has led to the formation of a series of gullies with distinct morphological characteristics. This study examines in detail the reach-scale and contributing area controls on gully formation. We conducted a GIS analysis of the local hydrologic network, determined peak flow of each gully, developed a gully susceptibility model that we compared with the site characteristics, and sampled the sediment concentrations of the gully flow during storm events. We also characterized historical land use data and performed field observations for our analysis. We found that the development changed the hydrology of the site, altering the contributing areas of each gully. In addition, field observations revealed distinct rates of incision across gullies as well as along different sections of each gully. We also found that the gullies are still actively eroding, contributing large sediment loads to the downstream White Clay Creek. Our research provides a better understanding of the local and regional factors governing erosion and gully formation. The model that we created will help to identify sites that

  16. Synergies of solar energy use in the desalination of seawater: A case study in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge F.; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Edward L.

    2016-05-01

    The mining industry is a great consumer of water for hydrometallurgical processes. Despite the efforts in minimizing the use of fresh water through reuse, recycling and process intensification, water demand for mining is expected to rise a 40% from 2013 to 2020. For seawater to be an alternative to groundwater, it must be pumped up to the mine (thousands of meters uphill) and desalinated. These processes require intensive energy and investment in desalination and piping/pumping facilities. A conventional solution for this process would be desalination by reverse osmosis at sea level, powered by electricity from the grid, and further pumping of the desalinated water uphill. This paper compares the feasibility of two solar technologies versus the "conventional" option. LCOW (Levelized Cost of Water) was used as a comparative indicator among the studied solutions, with values for a lifetime of 10, 15, 20 and 25 years, calculated using a real discount rate equal to 12%. The LCOW is lower in all cases for the RO + grid solution. The cost of desalination, ignoring the contribution of pumping, is similar for the three technologies from twenty years of operation. The use of solar energy to desalinate sea water for consumption in the mines of the Atacama region is technically feasible. However, due to the extra costs from pumping whole seawater, and not just the desalinated water, solar solutions are less competitive than the conventional process.

  17. Looking for avian influenza in remote areas. A case study in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevennec, K; Chevalier, V; Grosbois, V; Garcia, J M; Thu, H Ho; Berthouly-Salazar, C; Peiris, J S M; Roger, F

    2011-12-01

    Epidemiological surveys of avian influenza infections rarely focus on backyard poultry systems in remote locations because areas with low levels of poultry production are considered to have little influence on the emergence, re-emergence, persistence or spread of avian influenza viruses. In addition, routine disease investigations in remote areas often are neglected due to the lower availability and relatively high cost of veterinary services there. A bank of avian sera collected in 2005 from ethnic minority households in Ha Giang province (Northern Vietnam), located on the Chinese border, was analysed to estimate the seroprevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) during a H5N1 epidemic and to identify potential risk factors for infection. The results suggest that the chicken population had been exposed to AIV with a seroprevalence rate of 7.2% [1.45; 10.5]. The H5 and H9 subtypes were identified with a seroprevalence of 3.25% [2.39; 4.11] and 1.12% [0.61; 1.63], respectively. The number of inhabitants in a village and the distance to the main national road were the most influential risk factors of AIV infection, and high-risk clusters were located along the road leading to China. These two results suggest a virus spread through commercial poultry exchanges and a possible introduction of AIV from southern China. Remote areas and small-scale farms may play an under-estimated role in the spread and persistence of AIV. PMID:21840292

  18. Biostratigraphy, sedimentology and paleoenvironments of the northern Danube Basin: Ratkovce 1 well case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybár Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ratkovce 1 well, drilled in the Blatné depocenter of the northern Danube Basin penetrated the Miocene sedimentary record with a total thickness of 2000 m. Biostratigraphically, the NN4, NN5 and NN6 Zones of calcareous nannoplankton were documented; CPN7 and CPN8 foraminifer Zones (N9, 10, 11 of the global foraminiferal zonation; and MMi4a; MMi5 and MMi6 of the Mediterranean foraminiferal zonation were recognized. Sedimentology was based on description of well core material, and together with SP and RT logs, used to characterize paleoenvironmental conditions of the deposition. Five sedimentary facies were reconstructed: (1 fan-delta to onshore environment which developed during the Lower Badenian; (2 followed by the Lower Badenian proximal slope gravity currents sediments; (3 distal slope turbidites were deposited in the Lower and Upper Badenian; (4 at the very end of the Upper Badenian and during the Sarmatian a coastal plain of normal marine to brackish environment developed; (5 sedimentation finished with the Pannonian-Pliocene shallow lacustrine to alluvial plain deposits. The provenance analysis records that the sediment of the well-cores was derived from crystalline basement granitoides and gneisses and from the Permian to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary cover and nappe units of the Western Carpathians and the Eastern Alps. Moreover, the Lower Badenian volcanism was an important source of sediments in the lower part of the sequence.

  19. Online participation in climate change adaptation: A case study of agricultural adaptation measures in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojovic, Dragana; Bonzanigo, Laura; Giupponi, Carlo; Maziotis, Alexandros

    2015-07-01

    The new EU strategy on adaptation to climate change suggests flexible and participatory approaches. Face-to-face contact, although it involves time-consuming procedures with a limited audience, has often been considered the most effective participatory approach. In recent years, however, there has been an increase in the visibility of different citizens' initiatives in the online world, which strengthens the possibility of greater citizen agency. This paper investigates whether the Internet can ensure efficient public participation with meaningful engagement in climate change adaptation. In elucidating issues regarding climate change adaptation, we developed an eParticipation framework to explore adaptation capacity of agriculture to climate change in Northern Italy. Farmers were mobilised using a pre-existing online network. First they took part in an online questionnaire for revealing their perceptions of and reactions to the impacts of ongoing changes in agriculture. We used these results to suggest a portfolio of policy measures and to set evaluation criteria. Farmers then evaluated these policy options, using a multi criteria analysis tool with a simple user-friendly interface. Our results showed that eParticipation is efficient: it supports a rapid data collection, while involving high number of participants. Moreover, we demonstrated that the digital divide is decreasingly an obstacle for using online spaces for public engagement. This research does not present eParticipation as a panacea. Rather, eParticipation was implemented with well-established participatory approaches to both validate the results and, consequently, communicate meaningful messages on local agricultural adaptation practices to regional decision-makers. Feedbacks from the regional decision-makers showed their interest in using eParticipation to improve communication with farmers in the future. We expect that, with further Internet proliferation, eParticipation may allow the inclusion of

  20. How rural land use management facilitates drought risk adaptation in a changing climate - A case study in arid northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yongdeng; Zhang, Hailin; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-04-15

    Under a warming climate, frequent drought and water scarcity in northern China have severely disrupted agricultural production and posed a substantial threat to farmers' livelihoods. Based on first-hand data collected through in-depth interviews with local managers and farmer households, this study evaluated the effectiveness of rural land use management in mitigating drought risk, ensuring food security and improving farmers' livelihoods. Our findings indicate that a) reforestation on low-yield cropland not only can improve the eco-environment but can also prominently mitigate the production risk to local farmers; b) replacing the traditional border irrigation with sprinkler irrigation has substantially curbed agricultural water usage and increased the per unit of output; and c) in recent years, instead of planting water-intensive grain crops, local farmers cultivated more forage crops to raise animals, which greatly diversified their income sources and reduced the drought risk of agricultural production. By performing an empirical case study in drought-prone Inner Mongolia, this study provides decision-makers with insights into how to strategically adapt to drought risk and reduce rural poverty within the broader context of climate change. PMID:26815296

  1. Estimates of meteorological variability in association with dengue cases in a coastal city in northern Vietnam: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Xuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue fever (DF is a vector-borne disease that is sensitive to weather and climate variability. To date, however, this relationship in coastal northern Vietnam has not been well documented. Objectives: This paper aims to examine the associations between meteorological variables and dengue incidence in Haiphong, Vietnam, over the period 2008–2012. Methods: Monthly data on dengue incidence from all commune health stations and hospitals of Haiphong (with a total population of ~1.8 million were obtained in accordance with the WHO's recommendations over a 5-year period (2008–2012. Temperature, rainfall, and humidity were recorded as monthly averages by local meteorological stations. The association between ecologic weather variables and dengue cases was assessed using a Poisson regression model. The estimation of regression parameters was based on the method of maximum likelihood using the R program package. Results: From 2008 through 2012, 507 cases of dengue were reported. The risk of dengue was increased by sevenfold during the September–December period compared with other months over the period 2008–2012. DF cases in Haiphong were correlated with rainfall and humidity. In the multivariable Poisson regression model, an increased risk of dengue was independently associated with months with a higher amount of rainfall (RR=1.06; 95% CI 1.00–1.13 per 50 mm increase and higher humidity (RR=1.05; 95% CI 1.02–1.08 per 1% increase. Conclusion: These data suggest that rainfall and relative humidity could be used as ecological indicators of dengue risk in Haiphong. Intensified surveillance and disease control during periods with high rainfall and humidity are recommended. This study may provide baseline information for identifying potential long-term effects and adaptation needs of global climate change on dengue in the coming decades.

  2. Evolution of Hydrological Drought in Human Disturbed Areas: A Case Study in the Laohahe Catchment, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study on the evolution of hydrological drought in nonstationary environments is conducted over the Laohahe catchment in northern China. Using hydrometeorological observations during 1964–2009, meteorological and hydrological droughts are firstly analyzed with the threshold level method. Then, a comprehensive analysis on the changes within the catchment is conducted on the basis of hydrological variables and socioeconomic indices, and the whole period is divided into two parts: the undisturbed period (1964–1979 and the disturbed period (1980–2009. A separating framework is further introduced to distinguish droughts induced by different causes, that is, the naturalized drought and human-induced drought. Results showed that human activities are more inclined to play a negative role in aggravating droughts. Drought duration and deficit volume in naturalized conditions are amplified two to four times and three to eight times, respectively, when human activities are involved. For the two dry decades 1980s and 2000s, human activities have caused several consecutive drought events with rather long durations (up to 29 months. These results reflect the considerable impacts of human activities on hydrological drought, which could provide some theoretical support for local drought mitigation and water resources management.

  3. A case study of waste management at the Northern Finnish pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Veitsiluoto Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Keiski, Riitta Liisa

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the current waste management system at the pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Oyj Veitsiluoto Mills at Kemi, Northern Finland. This paper covers examples of case studies carried out at the mill and describes how the wastes and by-products are utilized as a neutralizing agent for acidic wastewaters (i.e., green liquor dregs from the causticizing process), as a hardener in filling mine cavities (i.e., ash from the fluidized bed boiler), as a landscaping agent (i.e., ash as well as the fibre clay from chemical wastewater treatment plant), as a hydraulic barrier material for landfills (i.e., fibre clay), and as a soil enrichment agent (i.e., calcium carbonate from the precipitated calcium carbonate plant). In addition, the wood waste from the wood-handling plant, sawmill, packaging pallet plant and from the groundwood mill, as well as the biosludge from the biological wastewater treatment plant, are all incinerated in the fluidized bed boiler for energy production. Due to effective utilization of the solid wastes generated at the mills, the annual amount of waste to be disposed of in the landfill has decreased between 1994 and 2004 from 42,990 to 6083 tonn (expressed as wet weight). The paper also gives an overview of the relevant European Union legislation on the forest industry and on waste management, as well as of the pulping process and of the generation of major solid wastes in the pulp and paper mills. PMID:16987647

  4. The northern European geoid: a case study on long-wavelength geoid errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omang, O.C.D.; Forsberg, René

    2002-01-01

    The long-wavelength geoid errors on large-scale geoid solutions, and the use of modified kernels to mitigate these effects, are studied. The geoid around the Nordic area, from Greenland to the Ural mountains, is considered. The effect of including additional gravity data around the Nordic/Baltic ...

  5. Hydrogeochemistry of high iodine groundwater: a case study at the Datong Basin, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxia; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun; Zhang, Liping; Guo, Wei

    2013-04-01

    High iodine concentrations in groundwater have seldom been reported and there have been few systematic studies on high iodine groundwater worldwide. To better understand the sources and processes responsible for iodine enrichment in the groundwater of the Datong Basin, the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater and geochemical features of aquifer sediments were studied. High iodine groundwater mainly occurs in the center of the Datong Basin with iodine concentrations ranging between 3.31 and 1890 μg L(-1). Most samples with iodine concentrations higher than 500 μg L(-1) are from wells with depths between 75 and 120 m. High pH and a reducing environment are favorable for iodine enrichment in the groundwater, with iodide as the dominant species that accounts for 63.2-99.3% of the total iodine. Sediment samples from a borehole specifically drilled for this study contain 0.18-1.46 mg kg(-1) iodine that is moderately correlated with total organic carbon (TOC). The results of sequential extraction experiments show that iodine is mostly bound to iron oxyhydroxides and organic matter in the sediments. The mobilization processes of iodine are proposed to include reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides and transformations among iodide, iodate and organic iodine driven by microbial activities under alkaline and reducing conditions. PMID:23478640

  6. Cores and peripheries in a northern periphery: a case study in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kauppila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, peripheral rural areas have been faced with social and economic challenges, such as economic restructuring, unemployment, out-migration and ageing population. Due to declining traditional industries, tourism has often been highlighted as a vehicle to revitalize the economy in rural areas. The aim of the review is to conceptualize the regional development process of resorts in relation to their location municipalities at the local level in Finland. GIS (Geographical Information Systems technology and georeferenced data, so called grid data, are utilized in the statistical socio-economic analysis of the four largest resorts – Levi, Ruka, Saariselkä and Ylläs – in the Finnish periphery. The study results show that the development process of the resorts has been very positive in terms of the indicators of regional development. Along with the absolute progressing, the relative importance of the resorts within their location municipalities has strengthened. The outcome of the study is presented in the classic core–periphery framework: the resorts are considered as cores and the surrounding area of those cores as a periphery. In consequence, there emerges a polarization process within the municipalities under study because of tourism development. It is obvious that the role of the resorts within the location municipalities in regional development will strengthen in the future. Generally speaking, from the viewpoint of the regional development of peripheral rural areas, the main challenge is to extend the positive socio-economic impacts of resorts, cores, to a wider geographical area, a periphery.

  7. Impact of shale gas development on water resources: a case study in northern poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Ine; Marí Rivero, Inés; Sala, Serenella; Baranzelli, Claudia; Barranco, Ricardo; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Shale gas is currently being explored in Europe as an alternative energy source to conventional oil and gas. There is, however, increasing concern about the potential environmental impacts of shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In this study, we focussed on the potential impacts on regional water resources within the Baltic Basin in Poland, both in terms of quantity and quality. The future development of the shale play was modeled for the time period 2015-2030 using the LUISA modeling framework. We formulated two scenarios which took into account the large range in technology and resource requirements, as well as two additional scenarios based on the current legislation and the potential restrictions which could be put in place. According to these scenarios, between 0.03 and 0.86% of the total water withdrawals for all sectors could be attributed to shale gas exploitation within the study area. A screening-level assessment of the potential impact of the chemicals commonly used in fracking was carried out and showed that due to their wide range of physicochemical properties, these chemicals may pose additional pressure on freshwater ecosystems. The legislation put in place also influenced the resulting environmental impacts of shale gas extraction. Especially important are the protection of vulnerable ground and surface water resources and the promotion of more water-efficient technologies. PMID:25877457

  8. Impact of Shale Gas Development on Water Resources: A Case Study in Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Ine; Marí Rivero, Inés; Sala, Serenella; Baranzelli, Claudia; Barranco, Ricardo; Batelaan, Okke; Lavalle, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Shale gas is currently being explored in Europe as an alternative energy source to conventional oil and gas. There is, however, increasing concern about the potential environmental impacts of shale gas extraction by hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In this study, we focussed on the potential impacts on regional water resources within the Baltic Basin in Poland, both in terms of quantity and quality. The future development of the shale play was modeled for the time period 2015-2030 using the LUISA modeling framework. We formulated two scenarios which took into account the large range in technology and resource requirements, as well as two additional scenarios based on the current legislation and the potential restrictions which could be put in place. According to these scenarios, between 0.03 and 0.86 % of the total water withdrawals for all sectors could be attributed to shale gas exploitation within the study area. A screening-level assessment of the potential impact of the chemicals commonly used in fracking was carried out and showed that due to their wide range of physicochemical properties, these chemicals may pose additional pressure on freshwater ecosystems. The legislation put in place also influenced the resulting environmental impacts of shale gas extraction. Especially important are the protection of vulnerable ground and surface water resources and the promotion of more water-efficient technologies.

  9. Use of Radiometric Survey Data for Environmental Study: The Case of Northern Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The convertion of old radiometric data obtained from former uranium exploration activities in northem sumatra into radiation exposure has been evaluated. The objective of the study is to find an alternative way for cheaper and faster compilation of radiation exposure database for environmental study purposes. The old radiometric data measure from the outcrops has been plotted 1;250.000, 1;100.000, and 1;50.000 map scales. The data are translated into 1;1000.000 map scale before they are converted into 1;1000.000 radiation exposure rate map using a graphic method. The radiation exposure rate in northem sumatera falls between 25 R/hour to 40 R/hour. The benefit offered using this method is that it provides a cheaper and faster production of radiation exposure rate map from old radiometric map. However, the problems arising from such a production is that the radiometric data provide unhomogeneous data distributions and densities among the area. As a conclusion it is recommended to recollect some of the data at designated area using well calibrated SPP2NF and gamma ray spectrometer instruments

  10. The meaning of midlithospheric discontinuities: A case study in the northern U.S. craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Emily; Fischer, Karen M.

    2015-12-01

    Converted wave imaging has revealed significant negative velocity gradients, often termed midlithospheric discontinuities, within the thick, high-velocity mantle beneath cratons. In this study, we investigate the origins and implications of these structures with high-resolution imaging of mantle discontinuities beneath the Archean Wyoming, Superior and Medicine Hat, and Proterozoic Yavapai and Trans-Hudson terranes. Sp phases from 872 temporary and permanent broadband stations, including the EarthScope Transportable Array, were migrated into three-dimensional common conversion point stacks. Four classes of discontinuities were observed. (1) A widespread, near-flat negative velocity gradient occurs largely at 70-90 km depth beneath both Archean and Proterozoic cratons. This structure is consistent with the top of a frozen-in layer of volatile-rich melt. (2) Dipping negative velocity gradients are observed between 85 and 200 km depth. The clearest examples occur at the suture zones between accreted Paleoproterozoic Yavapai arc terranes and the Wyoming and Superior cratons. These interfaces could represent remnant subducting slabs, and together with eclogite in xenoliths, indicate that subduction-related processes likely contributed to cratonic mantle growth. (3) Sporadic positive velocity gradients exist near the base of the lithospheric mantle, perhaps due to laterally variable compositional layering. (4) In contrast to off-craton regions, clear Sp phases are typically not seen at lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depths beneath Archean and Proterozoic terranes, consistent with a purely thermal contrast between cratonic mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere.

  11. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragonés Nuria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Results Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39, which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92, residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38. In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76, whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

  12. Comparisons and Uncertainty in Fat and Adipose Tissue Estimation Techniques: The Northern Elephant Seal as a Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K Schwarz

    Full Text Available Fat mass and body condition are important metrics in bioenergetics and physiological studies. They can also link foraging success with demographic rates, making them key components of models that predict population-level outcomes of environmental change. Therefore, it is important to incorporate uncertainty in physiological indicators if results will lead to species management decisions. Maternal fat mass in elephant seals (Mirounga spp can predict reproductive rate and pup survival, but no one has quantified or identified the sources of uncertainty for the two fat mass estimation techniques (labeled-water and truncated cones. The current cones method can provide estimates of proportion adipose tissue in adult females and proportion fat of juveniles in northern elephant seals (M. angustirostris comparable to labeled-water methods, but it does not work for all cases or species. We reviewed components and assumptions of the technique via measurements of seven early-molt and seven late-molt adult females. We show that seals are elliptical on land, rather than the assumed circular shape, and skin may account for a high proportion of what is often defined as blubber. Also, blubber extends past the neck-to-pelvis region, and comparisons of new and old ultrasound instrumentation indicate previous measurements of sculp thickness may be biased low. Accounting for such differences, and incorporating new measurements of blubber density and proportion of fat in blubber, we propose a modified cones method that can isolate blubber from non-blubber adipose tissue and separate fat into skin, blubber, and core compartments. Lastly, we found that adipose tissue and fat estimates using tritiated water may be biased high during the early molt. Both the tritiated water and modified cones methods had high, but reducible, uncertainty. The improved cones method for estimating body condition allows for more accurate quantification of the various tissue masses and may

  13. The initial dispersal and radiative forcing of a Northern Hemisphere mid latitude super volcano: a Yellowstone case study

    OpenAIRE

    Timmreck, C.; Graf, H.-F.

    2005-01-01

    International audience The chemistry climate model MAECHAM4/CHEM with interactive and prognostic volcanic aerosol and ozone, was used to study the initial dispersal and radiative forcing of a possible Yellowstone super eruption. Tropospheric climate anomalies are not analysed since sea surface temperatures are kept fix. Our experiments show that the global dispersal of a Yellowstone super eruption is strongly dependent on the season of the eruption. In Northern Hemisphere summer the volcan...

  14. Risk factors for maternal death in the highlands of rural northern Tanzania: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Lie Rolv; Hinderaker Sven; Evjen-Olsen Bjørg; Bergsjø Per; Gasheka Peter; Kvåle Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the paucity of epidemiological information on maternal deaths, and the high maternal mortality estimates found earlier in the study area, our objective was to assess determinants of maternal deaths in a rural setting in the highlands of northern Tanzania by comparing the women dying of maternal causes with women from the same population who had attended antenatal clinics in the same tim...

  15. Challenges and Dilemmas Faced by Civil Society Leadership in Conflict and Post Conflict Situations: A Case Study of Civil Society Organization for Peace in Northern Uganda (CSOPNU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jendia Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1986 violent conflict raged between the government of Uganda and the rebel Lord’s Resistance Army in northern Uganda. The conflict which lasted for over 20 years caused untold suffering characterized by displacement, killings, and exile. After 2009, violence ceased and the conflict became more latent in nature, making it possible for post conflict reconstruction programs to commence in northern Uganda. The prolonged war called for interventions aimed at bringing sustainable peace to northern Uganda. Many civil society organizations such as Acholi Religious Leaders Peace Initiative, Gulu Support the Children Organization, World Vision International, Center for Conflict Resolution, Peoples Voice for Peace, Human Rights Focus, Gulu, Justice and Peace Commission Joint Forum for Peace etc, all sought to forge a way forward for achieving peace in order to alleviate the suffering of civilians in the north. By 2002 participating individual civil society organizations recognized that they could not make a significant impact in bringing lasting peace due to worsening insecurity. Consequently the leaders of the various Civil Society Organizations formed a Coalition of Civil Society Organizations for Peace in Northern Uganda (CSOPNU with major aim of finding a ‘just and lasting peace.’ Though now with stronger voice and impact in the peace building process, CSOPNU still face many challenges and dilemmas. Whereas there have been some achievements made by CSOPNU, the return of total peace is yet to be realized. Hence this study seeks to explore the challenges and dilemmas faced by CSOPNU leadership in the context of northern Uganda. The main Objective of the study is to identify the specific challenges and dilemmas faced by leaders of CSOPNU in the struggle to seek alternative methods of bringing about lasting peace in the conflict stricken northern Uganda. This research methodology employed in this study is a case study in combination with

  16. Study on Meteorological Disaster Risk Assessment System of Northern Henan:A Case Study of Huixian City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinjian; ZHU; Xinzhou; ZANG; Shiping; Duan; Huailiang; CHEN

    2013-01-01

    Based on the meteorological data and geological disaster information of Huixian in northern Henan during 1961-2009, four disaster-inducing factors like rainstorm, hail, gale and geological disasters were analyzed, and then a meteorological disaster risk evaluation index system was established to zone meteorological disaster risk, finally the meteorological disaster risk zoning map was obtained. The results show that rainstorm, hail and geographical disasters appeared more frequently in mountains than plains; on the contrary, gale occurred more frequently in plains. These conclusions could provide scientific and technological support and theoretical foundation for preventing meteorological disasters in Huixian.

  17. Multiple glacial refugia for cool-temperate deciduous trees in northern East Asia: the Mongolian oak as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Fei; Wang, Wen-Ting; Liao, Wan-Jin; Wang, Hong-Fang; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2015-11-01

    In East Asia, temperate forests are predicted to have retracted southward to c. 30° N during the last glacial maximum (LGM) based on fossil pollen data, whereas phylogeographic studies have often suggested glacial in situ survival of cool-temperate deciduous trees in their modern northern ranges. Here we report a study of the genetic diversity and structure of 29 natural Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) populations using 19 nuclear simple sequence repeat (nSSR) loci and four chloroplast DNA fragments. Bayesian clustering analysis with nSSRs revealed five groups, which were inferred by approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to have diverged in multiple refugia through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Analysis of chloroplast DNA variation revealed four lineages that were largely but incompletely geographically disjunct. Ecological niche modelling (ENMs) indicated a southward range shift of the oak's distribution at the LGM, although high suitability scores were also evident in the Changbai Mts. (Northeast China), the Korean Peninsula, areas surrounding the Bohai Sea, and along the coast of the Russian Far East. In addition, endemic chloroplast DNA haplotypes and nuclear lineages occurred in high-latitude northern areas where the ENM predicted no suitable habitat. The combined evidence from nuclear and chloroplast DNA, and the results of the ENM clearly demonstrate that multiple northern refugia, including cryptic ones, were maintained across the current distributional range of the Mongolian oak during the LGM or earlier glacial periods. Though spatially limited, postglacial expansions from these refugia have led to a pattern of decreased genetic diversity with increasing latitude. PMID:26439083

  18. Case study of the effects of hypothetical nuclear power plant accident to the northern food chain of lichen-reindeer-man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, A.P.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    There are plans to open a new nuclear power plant in Northern Finland at Pyhaejoki. The currently planned reactor type is AES 2006 built by Rosenergoatom. The power output of the AES 2006 is 1200 MWe. In a hypothetical reactor accident at Pyhaejoki large amounts of radioactivity would be released to the environment in Northern Europe. With suitable wind conditions the contaminants would contaminate large areas in the Euro-Arctic region in Northern Scandinavia and in Kola Peninsula. Northern parts of Scandinavia belongs to the sub-arctic region where reindeer herding is an important livelihood for the local and for the indigenous Sami people. As a results of the CEEPRA-project ('Collaboration Network on Environmental Radiation Protection and Research') funded by the EU's Kolarctic ENPI CBC program estimated a possible fallout to Finnish Lapland from a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident occurring at the planned site. Lichen-reindeer-man food chain is an important food chain to the people living in Lapland from traditional and from economical point of views. The food chain is known to enrich radioactive contaminants efficiently. In case of nuclear fallout this food chain would be one of the primary sources of {sup 137}Cs into the inhabitants in Northern regions. The food chain has been well-studied where studies began in the 1960's and was intensified after the Chernobyl accident. This study concentrates on the effects caused by the hypothetical accident, occurring at the planned Pyhaejoki power plant, to the lichen-reindeer-man food chain. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs to the reindeer meat and possible doses to the man will be estimated. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. Case study of the effects of hypothetical nuclear power plant accident to the northern food chain of lichen-reindeer-man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are plans to open a new nuclear power plant in Northern Finland at Pyhaejoki. The currently planned reactor type is AES 2006 built by Rosenergoatom. The power output of the AES 2006 is 1200 MWe. In a hypothetical reactor accident at Pyhaejoki large amounts of radioactivity would be released to the environment in Northern Europe. With suitable wind conditions the contaminants would contaminate large areas in the Euro-Arctic region in Northern Scandinavia and in Kola Peninsula. Northern parts of Scandinavia belongs to the sub-arctic region where reindeer herding is an important livelihood for the local and for the indigenous Sami people. As a results of the CEEPRA-project ('Collaboration Network on Environmental Radiation Protection and Research') funded by the EU's Kolarctic ENPI CBC program estimated a possible fallout to Finnish Lapland from a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident occurring at the planned site. Lichen-reindeer-man food chain is an important food chain to the people living in Lapland from traditional and from economical point of views. The food chain is known to enrich radioactive contaminants efficiently. In case of nuclear fallout this food chain would be one of the primary sources of 137Cs into the inhabitants in Northern regions. The food chain has been well-studied where studies began in the 1960's and was intensified after the Chernobyl accident. This study concentrates on the effects caused by the hypothetical accident, occurring at the planned Pyhaejoki power plant, to the lichen-reindeer-man food chain. The transfer of 137Cs and 134Cs to the reindeer meat and possible doses to the man will be estimated. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  20. Impacts of natural events and processes on groundwater flow conditions: a case study in the Horonobe Area, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the long-term stability of the geological environments for over several hundred thousand years, it is important to consider the influence of natural events and processes, such as uplift, subsidence, denudation and climate change, on the geological environments, especially in an active region such as Japan. This study presents a conceptual model related to the future natural events and processes which have potential impacts on the groundwater flow conditions in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, northern Japan on the basis of the neo-tectonics, palaeogeography, palaeo-climate, historical development of landform, and present state of groundwater flow conditions. We conclude that it is important to consider interactions among natural events and processes on the describing of the best-possible approximation of the time-variation of geological environment. (authors)

  1. An integrated approach for analysing earthquake-induced surface effects: A case study from the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldini, D.; Genevois, R.; Panizza, M.; Puccinelli, A.; Berti, M.; Simoni, A.

    This paper illustrates research addressing the subject of the earthquake-induced surface effects by means of a multidisciplinary approach: tectonics, neotectonics, seismology, geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology, soil/rock mechanics have been considered. The research is aimed to verify in areas affected by earthquake-triggered landslides a methodology for the identification of potentially unstable areas. The research was organized according to regional and local scale studies. In order to better emphasise the complexity of the relationships between all the parameters affecting the stability conditions of rock slopes in static and dynamic conditions a new integrated approach, Rock Engineering Systems (RES), was applied in the Northern Apennines. In the paper, the different phases of the research are described in detail and an example of the application of RES method in a sample area is reported. A significant aspect of the study can be seen in its attempt to overcome the exclusively qualitative aspects of research into the relationship between earthquakes and induced surface effects, and to advance the idea of beginning a process by which this interaction can be quantified.

  2. The Effects of Long Time Conservation of Heavily Grazed Shrubland: A Case Study in the Northern Negev, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Stefan; Mussery, Amir Mor; Budovsky, Arie

    2014-08-01

    One of the major reasons for desertification is unrestricted grazing leading to vegetation depletion, soil erosion and degradation, phenomena often considered irreversible in the short term. Here, we compare soil and biological parameters of degraded and conserved, recently rehabilitated arid shrubland in the Northern Negev, Israel. The study area was restored by conservation efforts including a strictly controlled grazing regime initiated in 1992. The visually recognizable improvement in the ecology of the restored shrubland is reflected in significant improvement in all examined biotic (herbaceous biomass, shrub patch density, and insect activity), and soil parameters (nutrients, organic matter content, moisture, and water infiltration). The difference is created predominantly by restoration of large biological patches composed of shrubs and other perennial plants often associated with ant or termite nests, where the most significant increases in productivity and soil quality were observed. In the conserved shrubland such patches covered 35 or 25 % of the area (in a normal and a drought year, respectively). In the degraded shrubland 5 % or less of the area was occupied by such patches that were much smaller and of lower biological complexity. With respect to plant biodiversity, six plant species were found only—and 18 others became significantly more common—in the rehabilitated area. The results of this article indicate that functional arid drylands can be restored within <16 years relying on strict conservation management with reduced grazing intensity.

  3. Designing and implementing more effective Integrated Early Warning Systems in mountain areas: a case study from Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina García

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to consider and to understand the social context in which an Early Warning System (EWS is planned and to integrate all of its components, otherwise it is likely to fail. EWS are complex tools for disaster risk reduction which are only effective if they generate an appropriate response in the exposed population. Any effective EWS relies on the reaction capacity of all stakeholders. This reaction capacity is strongly dependent on how well EWS are integrated within their social context, especially with regards to potential marginalized and vulnerable communities. This dependence was confirmed in the study area in Valtellina di Tirano, northern Italy, which is recurrently affected by multiple mountain hazards. The local population is geographically marginalized due to restricted access to the region and exposure to hazardous events, and socially marginalized due to the lack of participation in decision making. Results of a survey show that the local population has low levels of perceived risk, a general lack of self-responsibility with regard to disaster risk reduction, and a tendency to transfer the responsibility to the authorities. However, respondents acknowledge and show interest in addressing their lack of preparedness and in participating actively in disaster risk reduction efforts. A follow-up survey demonstrates that significant variations in vulnerability within a given community over time, occur together with changes in traditional livelihood activities, economic systems and population demographics.

  4. Assemblages' structure and activity of bacterioplankton in northern Adriatic Sea surface waters: a 3-year case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celussi, Mauro; Bussani, Andrea; Cataletto, Bruno; Del Negro, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial community, both in terms of community structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting) and activity (exoenzymatic hydrolysis of proteins, polysaccharides and phosphorylated molecules and leucine uptake), was investigated seasonally for 3 years (2004-2006) in a large-scale grid in the northern Adriatic Sea. A high variability characterized the spatial structure of bacterial assemblages and a scarce seasonality was found in all the nine studied stations. Bacterial communities were substantially diverse in the same season of the 3 years, in contrast to what was reported previously for oceanic sites. Assemblages were in general strongly affected by river inputs, especially in spring, when freshwater loads were higher. Finally, a close relationship was found between given assemblages and their patterns of degradation/production activities by applying a multivariate analysis (linear discriminant analysis) to the dataset. The high variability of bacterial community structures and patterns of activity may indicate an ecological response to the high dynamism that characterizes the basin both on a physical and on a biological basis. PMID:21091521

  5. Effects of acacia senegal (L.,Willd.) on sandy soils: A case study of El damokeya forest, Northern Kordofan State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil properties were studied in El Damokeya forest, located at 30 km east of Elobeid town, Northern Kordofan State, during the rainy season of 1998. The aim was to characterize the soils of the area and to examine the effects of Acacia senegal plantations on the soils physical and chemical properties. The results showed that the soils were sandy, weakly structured, yellowish-red, neutral and poor in nutrient content, and that Acacia senegal plantations had induced considerable changes in the soil morphological, physical and chemical properties. The soil became more differentiated, with a third layer clearly discernible. No change had occurred in the soil texture. But, it became well structured with stable aggregates. Its organic matter content had been augmented to about one and half times, deeply incorporated and stained the whole profile with darker hues. The soil reaction became slightly acidic (ph 6.3). The exchange capacity was improved qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus, cation exchange capacity values increased from 2.8 in the bare land to 4.0 meq/100g soil under the forest, and the soil was saturated to 98% with base cations. The major nutrient elements (N,P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) had generally increased with various proportions ranging from 10% to more than 130%, but only Ca showed significant difference at P=0.05. Among the trace elements, Cu and Co had significantly decreased in the forest soil, but Zn and Mn had increased to about 100%.(Author)

  6. Absolute paleointensity of the Earth's magnetic field during Jurassic: case study of La Negra Formation (northern Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juan; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Alva-Valdivia, Luis M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2003-08-01

    We carried out a detailed rock-magnetic and paleointensity study of the ˜187-Ma volcanic succession from northern Chile. A total of 32 consecutive lava flows (about 280 oriented standard paleomagnetic cores) were collected at the Tocopilla locality. Only 26 samples with apparently preserved primary magnetic mineralogy and without secondary magnetization components were pre-selected for Thellier paleointensity determination. Eleven samples coming from four lava flows yielded reliable paleointensity estimates. The flow-mean virtual dipole moments range from 3.7±0.9 to 7.1±0.5 (10 22 A m 2). This corresponds to a mean value of (5.0±1.8)×10 22 A m 2, which is in reasonably good agreement with other comparable quality paleointensity determinations from the Middle Jurassic. Given the large dispersion and the very poor distribution of reliable absolute intensity data, it is hard to draw any firm conclusions regarding the time evolution of the geomagnetic field. To cite this article: J. Morales et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  7. Quantification and multivariate analysis of water erosion in the Mediterranean region. A case study of the Isser basin. northern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeggane, Houari; Boutoutaou, Djamel

    2016-07-01

    In the Mediterranean region, the specifisity of erosion stems from a particularly contrasted climate, drought, and from summer and autumn severe thunderstorms. The process of erosion generates substantial loss of soil and affects any kind of crop. The adopted approach aims to establish regression models in order to highlight the relationship between solid and liquid flows at four measurement stations in the Isser catchement area, northern Ageria. The Power Model seems to explain this relationship. The quantification and temporal analysis of solid matter transport showed that the rates of erosion are high along the study area. The annual mean solid matter transport for the whole basin is about 2 200 t/km2.year, of which the main part is recorded in autumn during peak flows. The different factors involved in the process of water erosion are determined in advance in order to establish a model between the predictand variable, which is the specific erosion, and other predictors. Besides, a functional relationship has been highlighted between water erosion and the mean slope, the drainage density and the lithology index.

  8. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  9. Evaluation of fluorine release from air deposited coal spoil piles: A case study at Yangquan city, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xubo; Hu, Yandi; Li, Chengcheng; Dai, Chong; Li, Liang; Ou, Xiong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-03-01

    The fluorine content of coal has been well documented, while such data of coal spoil are limited. In the present paper, fluorine in coal spoils and its releasing behavior were studied via leaching and combustion tests, as well as field investigation. Fluoride pollution in groundwater and soil occurred in the air depositing areas of coal spoils. The average content of fluorine in coal spoils was 525 mg/kg with the highest value of 1885 mg/kg. The only XRD detectable inorganic fluorine phase was fluorphlogopite. The absence of major fluorine bearing minerals in coal spoils suggested that bulk fluorine, rather than trace phases, resided in the mineral matrix. The major extracted species were water soluble fluorine and exchangeable fluorine in the coal spoils. Batch leaching tests illustrated that the leachable fluoride in coal spoils was widely distributed, ranging from 2.0 to 108.4 mg/kg. Column leaching tests showed a clear pH-dependent leaching behavior of fluorine: lower pH situation led to fluorine release from the mineral matrix; the loosely bound or easily exchangeable fluorine was also flushed out of the column. The higher ion strength or alkaline bicarbonate/carbonate rich leaching solution tended to free more fluorine into the acidic aqueous solution. The leachable fluorine in coal spoils was estimated as ca. 6%, based on the results of leaching tests. Also, our research found that over 90% of fluorine in coal spoils could be released into the atmosphere as a result of spontaneous combustion, accounting for over 40% of the total atmospheric fluorine emissions in northern China. Our investigation suggests that it is urgent to conduct comprehensive studies to assist the management and control of fluorine pollution at coal spoil banks. PMID:26734816

  10. HIV policy and implementation: a national policy review and an implementation case study of a rural area of northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aisha N Z; Wringe, Alison; Crampin, Amelia C; Chisambo, Christina; Koole, Olivier; Makombe, Simon; Sungani, Charles; Todd, Jim; Church, Kathryn

    2016-09-01

    Malawi is a global leader in the design and implementation of progressive HIV policies. However, there continues to be substantial attrition of people living with HIV across the "cascade" of HIV services from diagnosis to treatment, and program outcomes could improve further. Ability to successfully implement national HIV policy, especially in rural areas, may have an impact on consistency of service uptake. We reviewed Malawian policies and guidelines published between 2003 and 2013 relating to accessibility of adult HIV testing, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and HIV care and treatment services using a policy extraction tool, with gaps completed through key informant interviews. A health facility survey was conducted in six facilities serving the population of a demographic surveillance site in rural northern Malawi to investigate service-level policy implementation. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Policy implementation was assessed by comparing policy content and facility practice using pre-defined indicators covering service access: quality of care, service coordination and patient tracking, patient support, and medical management. ART was rolled out in Malawi in 2004 and became available in the study area in 2005. In most areas, practices in the surveyed health facilities complied with or exceeded national policy, including those designed to promote rapid initiation onto treatment, such as free services and task-shifting for treatment initiation. However, policy and/or practice were/was lacking in certain areas, in particular those strategies to promote retention in HIV care (e.g., adherence monitoring and home-based care). In some instances, though, facilities implemented alternative progressive practices aimed at improving quality of care and encouraging adherence. While Malawi has formulated a range of progressive policies aiming to promote rapid initiation onto ART, increased investment in policy implementation

  11. Seasonal occurrence of Calanus sinicus in the northern South China Sea: A case study in Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaizhi; Yan, Yan; Yin, Jianqiang; Tan, Yehui; Huang, Liangmin

    2016-07-01

    Calanus sinicus is a calanoid copepod species that is distributed broadly in the continental shelf waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study aims to understand the seasonal variations of the distribution and abundance of C. sinicus in Daya Bay from the northern South China Sea (nSCS) and to explore its possible seasonal occurrence based on current and historical data. Monthly surveys of the species were conducted in Daya Bay, a subtropical bay in the nSCS, during the period between May 2013 and April 2014. C. sinicus was present from January to May, and disappeared after June. The spatial pattern of C. sinicus in the bay was characterized by its distribution into the southwestern part of the bay in January, bay-wide spread in February, patchiness in March and virtual retreat from the bay mouth in April. Reproduction occurred from January to April at a low rate. Adults were mostly abundant in January and declined to a minimum in April. The percentage of early developmental stages increased from 54.1% in January to 90.1% in April, as collected by a fine mesh size. Based on historical data from Daya Bay and from the coastal waters of the nSCS, C. sinicus was carried into the nSCS from the East China Sea by the China Coastal Current during the northeastern monsoon period and survived from December to October of the next year. The summer coastal upwelling may provide suitable refuges for the species in the nSCS by limiting the adverse effects caused by high temperatures. Our results confirm the viewpoint that C. sinicus could exist in the nSCS in summer and fall.

  12. Integration of Remote Sensing Techniques for Intensity Zonation within a Landslide Area: A Case Study in the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Tofani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of remote sensing techniques, based on SAR interferometry for the intensity zonation of the landslide affecting the Castagnola village (Northern Apennines of Liguria region, Italy. The study of the instability conditions of the landslide started in 2001 with the installation of conventional monitoring systems, such as inclinometers and crackmeters, ranging in time from April 2001 to April 2002, which allowed to define the deformation rates of the landslide and to locate the actual landslide sliding surface, as well as to record the intensity of the damages and cracks affecting the buildings located within the landslide perimeter. In order to investigate the past long-term evolution of the ground movements a PSI (Persistent Scatterers Interferometry analysis has been performed making use of a set of ERS1/ERS2 images acquired in 1992–2001 period. The outcome of the PSI analysis has allowed to confirm the landslide extension as mapped within the official landslide inventory map as well as to reconstruct the past line-of-sight average velocities of the landslide and the time-series deformations. Following the high velocities detected by the PSI, and the extensive damages surveyed in the buildings of the village, the Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBInSAR system has been installed. The GBInSAR monitoring system has been equipped during October 2008 and three distinct campaigns have been carried out from October 2008 until March 2009. The interpretation of the data has allowed deriving a multi-temporal deformation map of the landslide, showing the up-to-date displacement field and the average landslide velocity. A new landslide boundary has been defined and two landslide sectors characterized by different displacement rates have been identified.

  13. Phonetic and Phonological Acquisition in Endangered Languages Learned by Adults: A Case Study of Numu (Oregon Northern Paiute)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Erin Flynn

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation compares the phonetic and phonological features of adult non-speakers' productions of words in an endangered Native American language, Oregon Northern Paiute (also known, and hereafter referred to, as Numu), to productions by fluent speakers. The purpose of this comparison is two-fold. The first purpose is to examine the…

  14. Case-study forty-year historical analysis of production and resource use on northern Victoria dairy farming

    OpenAIRE

    Melsen, Monique G.; Armstrong, Dan P.; Ho, Christie K.M.; Malcolm, Bill; Doyle, Peter T.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analysis from surveys of dairy farms has shown that despite large increases in production, the productivity gains on these farms have been modest. Productivity gains are important for farm viability, farmers have made production gains through adoption of technologies and increases in scale. This long-term farm case study of an irrigated dairy farm over a 40-year period provides an in-depth analysis of system changes and management complexity. Detailed records of milk production, herd, ...

  15. Accurate Mental Maps as an Aspect of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK): A Case Study from Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Daniel J.; Rory J. Quinn; John McKenna; Cooper, J. Andrew G.

    2008-01-01

    A mental map of the substrate of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland, compiled from interviews with local fishermen, is compared with maps produced by science-based techniques. The comparison reveals that the mental map is highly accurate. This finding contrasts with the spatial distortion characteristic of the classic mental map. The accuracy of the Lough Neagh map is attributed to the fact that it is a compendium of the knowledge of several generations, rather than an individual perception....

  16. Water erosion prediction by stochastic and empirical models in the Mediterranean: A case study in Northern Sicily (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Angileri, Silvia Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis aimed to explore the methodological advantages as well as limitations in applying different modelling approaches to predict water soil erosion in Mediterranean environments. The research was accomplished in the central northern part of Sicily (Italy), considering this region to be representative of Mediterranean environmental conditions. In this region soil degradation problems, due to water erosion are becoming more and more serious. Consequently, defining models being abl...

  17. The importance of post-conflict socio-cultural community education programmes: a case study from northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Colette

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a programme in northern Uganda, this article argues psycho-social education supports post-conflict reconstruction better than humanitarian aid or materialistically-focused projects. The programme used post-Freirian, discovery-based pedagogies focusing on topics chosen by participants: family and community relations, gender power relations, education, forced sex, and reintegration of rebel fighters. It worked for a year with groups of men, women, male and female youths, its maj...

  18. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; García-Pérez Javier; López-Cima María; López-Abente Gonzalo; Tardón Adonina; Pollán Marina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based...

  19. Ebola in the context of conflict affected states and health systems: case studies of Northern Uganda and Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    McPake, Barbara; Witter, Sophie; Ssali, Sarah; Wurie, Haja; Namakula, Justine; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2015-01-01

    Ebola seems to be a particular risk in conflict affected contexts. All three of the countries most affected by the 2014-15 outbreak have a complex conflict-affected recent history. Other major outbreaks in the recent past, in Northern Uganda and in the Democratic Republic of Congo are similarly afflicted although outbreaks have also occurred in stable settings. Although the 2014-15 outbreak in West Africa has received more attention than almost any other public health issue in recent months, ...

  20. Phonetic and Phonological Acquisition in Endangered Languages Learned by Adults: A Case Study of Numu (Oregon Northern Paiute)

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, Erin Flynn

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation compares the phonetic and phonological features of adult non-speakers' productions of words in an endangered Native American language, Oregon Northern Paiute (also known, and hereafter referred to, as Numu), to productions by fluent speakers. The purpose of this comparison is two-fold. The first purpose is to examine the differences in pronunciation that non-speakers bring to the language, which point to possible directions of future language change in a language that is no ...

  1. Estimates of meteorological variability in association with dengue cases in a coastal city in northern Vietnam: an ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Van Hau, Pham; Thu, Do Thi; Toan, Do Thi Thanh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease that is sensitive to weather and climate variability. To date, however, this relationship in coastal northern Vietnam has not been well documented.Objectives: This paper aims to examine the associations between meteorological variables and dengue incidence in Haiphong, Vietnam, over the period 2008–2012.Methods: Monthly data on dengue incidence from all commune health stations and hospitals of Haiphong (with a total population of ~1.8 mi...

  2. Selecting the Location of a Nautical Tourism Port by Applying PROMETHEE And GAIA Methods Case Study – Croatian Northern Adriatic

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents the multi-criteria analysis methods, PROMETHEE I and II and GAIA, used for selecting the location of a nautical tourism port. In an example of the selected location of a nautical tourism port in the Northern Adriatic, the author has used an analytic and graphical evaluation for solving such a problem. Particular attention has been paid to the use of GAIA method, which is suitable for visualisation of the problem characteristics through geometrical interpreta...

  3. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: Case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoai, Pham Manh [Research Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai Str., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sebesvari, Zita [United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10, D-5311, Bonn (Germany); Minh, Tu Binh; Viet, Pham Hung [Research Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai Str., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Renaud, Fabrice G., E-mail: renaud@ehs.unu.edu [United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10, D-5311, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. - Highlights: > Pesticide use and residue concentrations in the environment and biota was investigated. > Cypermethrin, trichlorfon, fenobucarb, cyfluthrin were frequently detected in biota. > Acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels were repeatedly exceeded in fish and vegetables. > Banned organochlorine pesticides still persist in the environment. > Better information-sharing is required to improve farmers' pesticide management. - Pollution with recently used and banned pesticides was observed in the environment and food products in Northern Vietnam and is discussed in context of human exposure.

  4. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: Case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. - Highlights: → Pesticide use and residue concentrations in the environment and biota was investigated. → Cypermethrin, trichlorfon, fenobucarb, cyfluthrin were frequently detected in biota. → Acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels were repeatedly exceeded in fish and vegetables. → Banned organochlorine pesticides still persist in the environment. → Better information-sharing is required to improve farmers' pesticide management. - Pollution with recently used and banned pesticides was observed in the environment and food products in Northern Vietnam and is discussed in context of human exposure.

  5. Determining the source and genetic fingerprint of natural gases using noble gas geochemistry: a northern Appalachian Basin case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Poreda, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Silurian and Devonian natural gas reservoirs present within New York state represent an example of unconventional gas accumulations within the northern Appalachian Basin. These unconventional energy resources, previously thought to be noneconomically viable, have come into play following advances in drilling (i.e., horizontal drilling) and extraction (i.e., hydraulic fracturing) capabilities. Therefore, efforts to understand these and other domestic and global natural gas reserves have recently increased. The suspicion of fugitive mass migration issues within current Appalachian production fields has catalyzed the need to develop a greater understanding of the genetic grouping (source) and migrational history of natural gases in this area. We introduce new noble gas data in the context of published hydrocarbon carbon (C1,C2+) (13C) data to explore the genesis of thermogenic gases in the Appalachian Basin. This study includes natural gases from two distinct genetic groups: group 1, Upper Devonian (Marcellus shale and Canadaway Group) gases generated in situ, characterized by early mature (13C[C1  C2][13C113C2]: –9), isotopically light methane, with low (4He) (average, 1  103 cc/cc) elevated 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar (where the asterisk denotes excess radiogenic or nucleogenic production beyond the atmospheric ratio), and a variable, atmospherically (air-saturated–water) derived noble gas component; and group 2, a migratory natural gas that emanated from Lower Ordovician source rocks (i.e., most likely, Middle Ordovician Trenton or Black River group) that is currently hosted primarily in Lower Silurian sands (i.e., Medina or Clinton group) characterized by isotopically heavy, mature methane (13C[C1 – C2] [13C113C2]: 3), with high (4He) (average, 1.85  103 cc/cc) 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar near crustal production levels and elevated crustal noble gas content (enriched 4He,21Ne, 40Ar). Because the release of each crustal noble gas (i.e., He, Ne, Ar

  6. Predictors of Late HIV Diagnosis among Adult People Living with HIV/AIDS Who Undertake an Initial CD4 T Cell Evaluation, Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Beyene, Melkamu Bedimo; Beyene, Habtamu Bedimo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Early HIV testing and timely initiation of ART is critical for the improved quality of life of PLWHIV. Having identified a higher rates of Late HIV diagnosis, this study was aimed to determine Determinants of late diagnosis of HIV among adult HIV patients in Bahir Dar, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A case control study was conducted between January 2010 to December 2011 at Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital. The study subjects consisted of 267 cases and 267 controls. Cases wer...

  7. Sudden increases in the NO2 column caused by thunderstorms: a case study in the northern subtropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Carreño

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A long-term program for NO2 column measurements started in 1993 at the subtropical Izaña Observatory (28° N, 16° W. Seasonal evolution shows a small day-to-day variability as compared with higher latitudes. Sharp increases in the column appear occasionally superimposed on the annual cycle. The origin of these spikes is explored by considering the possibility of tropospheric transport from polluted areas, stratospheric intrusions, meridional transport in the stratosphere and production by lightning, in a case study. From radiative transfer calculations and meteorological information available, it is shown that the NO2 increase takes place in the upper troposphere with values of 300–400 pptv. Back-trajectories reveal that, for the case studied, the air masses came from an area of thunderstorms located upwind. After the analysis of the various possibilities, the NO2 increase by lightning production appears to be the most feasible cause. Annual distribution of spikes displays a maximum in late winter and spring during the shift from midlatitude winter tropopause to summer tropopause.

  8. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  9. Cyanobacteria and prawn farming in northern New South Wales, Australia--a case study on cyanobacteria diversity and hepatotoxin bioaccumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmful cyanobacteria pose a hazard to aquatic ecosystems due to toxins (hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin) they produce. The microcystins and nodularins are potent toxins, which are also tumor promoters. The microcystins and nodularins may accumulate into aquatic organisms and be transferred to higher trophic levels, and eventually affect vector animals and consumers. Prawn farming is a rapidly growing industry in Australia. Because information regarding effects of cyanobacteria at prawn farms was lacking, we examined diversity of cyanobacteria and toxin production plus bioaccumulation into black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) under both field (northern New South Wales, Australia, December 2001-April 2002) and laboratory conditions. Samples were analyzed for hepatotoxins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum density of cyanobacteria (1 x 106 to 4 x 106 cells/l) was reached in April. Cyanobacteria encountered were Oscillatoria sp. (up to 4 x 106 cells/l), Pseudanabaena sp. (up to 1.8 x 106 cells/l), Microcystis sp. (up to 3.5 x 104 cells/l), and Aphanocapsa sp. (up to 2 x 104 cells/l). An uncommon cyanobacterium, Romeria sp. (up to 2.2 x 106 cells/l), was also observed. Contrasting earlier indications, toxic Nodularia spumigena was absent. Despite that both Oscillatoria sp. and Microcystis sp. are potentially hepatotoxic, hepatotoxin levels in phytoplankton samples remained low (up to 0.5-1.2 mg/kg dw; ELISA) in 2001-2002. ELISA was found suitable not only for phytoplankton but prawn tissues as well. Enzymatic pretreatment improved extractability of hepatotoxin from cyanobacteria (nodularin from N. spumigena as an example), but did not generally increase toxin recovery from prawn hepatopancreas. There were slightly increasing hepatotoxin concentrations in prawn hepatopancreas (from 6-20 to 20-80 μg/kg dw; ELISA) during the study. Hepatotoxin concentrations in

  10. Maternal outcome in multiple versus singleton pregnancies inNorthern Tanzania:A registry-based case control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enid Simon Chiwanga; Gileard Massenga; Pendo Mlay; Joseph Obure; Michael Johnson Mahande

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare maternal outcome of multiple versus singleton pregnancies at a tertiary hospital inTanzania.Methods:A case control study was designed using maternally linked data fromKilimanjaroChristianMedicalCentre(KCMC) medical birth registry for the period of2000-2010.A total of822 multiple gestations(cases) were matched with822 singletons(controls) with respect to maternal age at delivery and parity.The odds ratio(ORs) with95% confidence intervals (CIs) for adverse maternal outcome between singleton and multiple gestations were computed in a multivariable logistic regression model.Results:Of the33997 births, there were822(2.1%) multiples.Compared with singletons, women with multiple gestations had increased risk for preeclampsia(OR2.6;95%CI:1.7-3.9), preterm labour(OR5.6;95%CI:4.2-7.4), antepartum haemorrhage(OR1.6;95%CI:1.1-2.3), anaemia(OR2.0;95%CI:1.6-2.6) and caesarean section (OR1.5;95%CI:1.4-1.7).In addition, there were six maternal deaths among women with multiple gestations, of which all were attributed to postpartum haemorrhage.This accounted for a case fatality rate of15.8%.Conclusions:Multiple gestations are associated with adverse maternal outcomes.Close follow-up and timely interventions may help to prevent poor outcomes related to multiple gestations.These findings suggest the needs for clinicians to counsel women with multiple gestations during prenatal care regarding the potential risks.

  11. An active footwall shortcut thrust revealed by seismic reflection profiling: a case study of the Futaba fault, northern Honshu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Higashinaka, Motonori; Kurashimo, Eiji; Iwasaki, Takaya; Abe, Susumu

    2013-04-01

    The Futaba fault is located along the Pacific cast of southern part of Northern Honshu and continues at least 100 km. Based on tectonic morphological research, its central part show the active tectonic features. Due to the effect of M9 Tohoku Oki earthquake 2011, the evaluation of Coulomb stress changes on the fault surface is concerned for the assess of seismic hazards. To investigate the deep geometry of seismogenic source fault and basic crustal structure, we performed deep seismic reflection profiling along the 58-km-long seismic line across the Futaba fault. The seismic data were obtained using four vibroseis trucks and 1164 channel recorders. The seismic section portrays the half graben filled by 1000-m-thick lower Miocene fluvial sediments, suggesting that the Futaba fault reactivated as a west dipping normal fault during the early Miocene associated with opening of the Sea of Japan. On the hanging wall of the Miocene normal fault, Mesozoic metamorphic rocks are cropping out forming a narrow range parallel to the fault. On the footwall of this range, footwall shortcut thrust is clearly identified by the deformation of Plio-Pleistocene sediments on the seismic section. The deeper extension of the Futaba fault can be traced down to 4.5 seconds (TWT) and sub-horizontal reflectors are developed around 6-7 seconds (TWT). The dip angle of the Futaba fault in the seismogenic zone is about 45 degrees. The footwall shortcut thrust was formed at the shallow high-angle part of the Futaba fault as a low-angle (30 degrees) reverse fault. The formation of half graben is limited along the northern part of this fault system. The footwall shortcut thrust was developed along a 40-km-long segment only accompanied with the Miocene half graben. The southern segment of the surface trace of the Futaba fault suggests a straight geometry may represent a change in dip angle.

  12. Effect of Wind Turbine Noise on Workers' Sleep Disorder: A Case Study of Manjil Wind Farm in Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Milad; Monnazzam, Mohammad Reza; Zakerian, Sayedabbolfazl; Yousefzadeh, Arsalan

    2015-04-01

    Noise from wind turbines is one of the most important factors affecting the health, welfare, and human sleep. This research was carried out to study the effect of wind turbine noise on workers' sleep disorder. For this, Manjil Wind Farm, because of the greater number of staff and turbines than other wind farms in Iran, was chosen as case study. A total number of 53 participants took part in this survey. They were classified into three groups of mechanics, security, and official. In this study, daytime sleepiness data of workers were gathered using Epworth Sleepiness Scales (ESS) was used to determine the level of daytime sleepiness among the workers. The 8-h equivalent sound level (LAeq,8h) was measured to determine the individuals' exposure at each occupational group. Finally, the effect of sound, age, and workers' experience on individuals' sleep disorder was analyzed through multiple regression analysis in the R software. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between age, workers' experience, equivalent sound level, and the level of sleep disorder. When age is constant, sleep disorder will increase by 26% as per each 1 dB increase in equivalent sound level. In situations where equivalent sound level is constant, an increase of 17% in sleep disorder is occurred as per each year of work experience. Because of the difference in sound exposure in different occupational groups. The effect of noise in repairing group was about 6.5 times of official group and also 3.4 times of the security group. Sleep disorder effect caused by wind turbine noise in the security group is almost two times more than the official group. Unlike most studies on wind turbine noise that address the sleep disorder among inhabitants nearby wind farms, this study, for the first time in the world, examines the impact of wind turbine noise on sleep disorder of workers who are more closer to wind turbines and exposed to higher levels of noise. So despite all the

  13. A case study for natural cascading hazard: the Great Blizzard of 1888 in the Asturian Massif (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Cristina; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Gallinar, David

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we study the events triggered by the Great Blizzard of 1888 in the Asturian Massif as a case study that shows how one hazard can be the main cause of another hazard occurring. The reconstruction of the chain of hazards triggered by the episode has been done on the basis of nivo-meteorogical conditions, event geographical location, and socio-economic impact. The episode has been studied through the analysis of the issues published in six different newspapers between the 20th of January and 30th of May 1888. We have collected the data of the ancient meteorological station of the University of Oviedo, and those contained in parish documents. Field work consisted in visual inspection and interviews to the contemporary residents. The information has been stored and crossed for statistical analysis using a logical database structure that has been designed with this purpose. The snowfall episode consisted in four consecutive snowstorms that occurred between the 14th of February 1888 and the 8th of April 1888, creating snow covers with an average depth ranging between 5 and 7 m. The snow accumulations were the main cause of material damage, affecting 27 high- and mid-elevation mountain municipalities. However, we have to consider that the newspapers only reflected those events affecting densely populated areas along with those which affected vital economic spaces (railway lines, roads in mountain passes, etc.). There were more than 200 interruptions with the traffic flow and communication outages, hampering economic activities. Snow built up on the roofs added extra weight to the structure of the buildings so more than 900 constructions collapsed, killing three persons and causing the loss of more than 19.000 head of cattle. Moreover, these snow accumulations were the basis of an episode of sixty-four snow avalanches that, undoubtedly, meant the main personal damage with a number of dead and wounded that reached 29 and 23 respectively. During the snowfall

  14. Diversity, flexibility, and the resilience effect: lessons from a social-ecological case study of diversified farming in the northern Great Plains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Carlisle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social-ecological systems are considered resilient when they are capable of recovering from externally forced shocks. Thus, whether a given system is identified as resilient depends on a number of contested definitions: what constitutes a shock, what constitutes a discrete system, and what constitutes acceptable performance. Here, I present a case study in which outcomes apparent to both the researcher and the study subjects demonstrated resilience in effect: a group of farmers in the northern Great Plains in the north-central United States realized economically sufficient production during a low rainfall year when many others in the region did not. However, the researcher's attempt to model this case as a resilient system was continually challenged by qualitative findings, suggesting that these farmers did not experience the officially decreed "drought" year as a shock. Moreover, the social and ecological processes that produced a "resilience effect" functioned as open systems, and were not readily bounded, even in analytical terms. This is not to suggest that resilience is not an operationalizable concept. Rather, the series of processes which produce a resilience effect may be best understood within a broad framework attentive to diversity, flexibility, and relationships at multiple scales - instead of quantitative models focused on discrete moments of disturbance and adaptation.

  15. Distance decay in delivery care utilisation associated with neonatal mortality. A case referent study in northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Leif

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to reduce neonatal mortality are essential if the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 is to be met. The impact of spatial dimensions of neonatal survival has not been thoroughly investigated even though access to good quality delivery care is considered to be one of the main priorities when trying to reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined the association between distance from the mother's home to the closest health facility and neonatal mortality, and investigated the influence of distance on patterns of perinatal health care utilisation. Methods A surveillance system of live births and neonatal deaths was set up in eight districts of Quang Ninh province, Vietnam, from July 2008 to December 2009. Case referent design including all neonatal deaths and randomly selected newborn referents from the same population. Interviews were performed with mothers of all subjects and GIS coordinates for mothers' homes and all health facilities in the study area were obtained. Straight-line distances were calculated using ArcGIS software. Results A total of 197 neonatal deaths and 11 708 births were registered and 686 referents selected. Health care utilisation prior to and at delivery varied with distance to the health facility. Mothers living farthest away (4th and 5th quintile, ≥1257 meters from a health facility had an increased risk of neonatal mortality (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.40 - 2.75, adjusted for maternal age at delivery and marital status. When stratified for socio-economic factors there was an increased risk for neonatal mortality for mothers with low education and from poor households who lived farther away from a health facility. Mothers who delivered at home had more than twice as long to a health facility compared to mothers who delivered at a health care facility. There was no difference in age at death when comparing neonates born at home or health facility deliveries (p = 0.56. Conclusion Distance to the

  16. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  17. The timing of river terrace formation - possibilities and challenges of luminescence dating methods: a case study from Northern Bavaria, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Thomas; Fuchs, Markus; Zöller, Ludwig

    2014-05-01

    Fluvial terraces are widespread geomorphic features of Quaternary landscapes. Besides tectonics, their formation is predominantly controlled by climatic conditions. Changes in either conditions cause changes in fluvial discharge and sediment load. Therefore, fluvial terraces can be used as important non-continuous sedimentary archives for paleotectonic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The information gained from fluvial archives and their significance for paleoenvironmental research, however, strongly depend on a precise dating of the terrace formation. In the past, numerical dating of fluvial sediments has often been proved to be difficult. Radiocarbon dating has been applied on fluvial sediments frequently, but it depends on the presence of organic remains and its dating range is limited to the last ca. 40-50 ka. In contrast, luminescence dating enables the dating of fluvial sediments far beyond the last glacial-interglacial cycle and due to the general abundances of quartz and feldspar, there is almost no limitation of dateable material. Thus, luminescence dating has become a commonly applied method for yielding sedimentation ages of fluvial deposits. Applying luminescence dating techniques to fluvial archives is, however, still far from being a standard method. Several problems, such as incomplete bleaching of the dated material, dosimetric inaccuracies due to the heterogeneity of terrace gravels and difficulties in estimating accurate water contents, have to be considered. Thus, the calculation of OSL ages for fluvial deposits often proves to be challenging and their implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions always demand a careful interpretation. This contribution illustrates the informative value of fluvial archives for paleoenvironmental research and reveals some of the difficulties that may occur when luminescence dating techniques are applied to river terraces. The presented results are based on a case study, located in an oversized valley

  18. Investigation of the impact of stone bunds on soil water content - A case study in the northern Ethiopian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenleithner, Martin; Strohmeier, Stefan; Demelash, Nigus; Ziadat, Feras; Klik, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    During rainy season (June to September) soil erosion by surface runoff is a major issue and a big challenge for soil conservation scenarios in the northern Ethiopian highland. For reduction of water erosion and thereby decrease of soil loss so called stone bunds were constructed along the contour line by local farmers as a simple soil conservation measure. In this research the impact of stone bunds on infiltration and water storage was investigated during the rainy season 2013. The research was carried out in the Gumara-Maksegnit watershed in the north Ethiopian Amhara. Therefore, an experimental field was selected, where an untreated hillslope was located nearby a treated one with soil conservation structures. Both selected hillslopes had a length of 50 m and the same inclination of about 9%, with a slight decrease of slope steepness in the close range above the stone bunds, caused by sedimentation processes. Soil texture and surface bulk density were measured. Data were similar for both sites. For the monitoring of the soil moisture a Delta-T Profile Probe type PR2 for water content measurements was used. The sensor device gives values of volumetric water content in 6 different depth steps up to 1m. Therefore access tubes (AT), for mounting the profile probe, have been installed in two selected transect lines of 50 m length each. The untreated hillslope was equipped with six AT in 10 m equidistance. The treated field included three stone bunds and was equipped with 18 AT. Near to the stone bunds the AT-density was higher than in between. Measurements were taken on a weekly basis from beginning of July untill end of September 2013. Changes in vegetation cover throughout the investigation period were documented to consider impacts of higher transpiration with higher vegetation cover in the calculations. First results show fast, temporal reactions to precipitation events and generally an increase of the shallow soil water content within a range of a few meters above

  19. War, peace and suicide: The case of Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Durkheim’s idea that war reduces suicide through greater social and political integration has been used to explain suicide trends during the Northern Ireland conflict and in the period of peace. The applicability of Durkheim is critically evaluated through a case study of suicide trends by age, gender and cause of death over a forty year period. The key finding is that the cohort of children and young people who grew up in the worst years of violence during the 1970s, have the highest and mos...

  20. Variation of karst spring discharge in the recent five decades as an indicator of global climate change: A case study at Shanxi, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Qinghai; WANG; Yanxin; MA; Teng; LI; Luxiu

    2005-01-01

    Karst in Shanxi Province is representative of that in northern China, and karst water systems discharge in the form of springs that are among the most important sources for local water supply. Since the 1950s, attenuation has been the major trend of discharge variation of most karst springs at Shanxi. Based on the case study of 7 karst springs including Niangziguan, Xin'an, Guozhuang, Shentou, Jinci, Lancun, and Hongshan springs, the discharge variation process of karst springs was divided into natural fluctuation phase and anthropogenic impact phase. Discharge attenuation of the 7 karst springs was controlled mainly by climate and human activities, with their contributions being respectively about 60% and 40%. According to the difference of the effect of climate and human activities for each spring, attenuation modes of spring discharge fall into three types: natural process dominated attenuation type, exploitation induced process dominated attenuation type, and mixed attenuation type. The total restored discharge variation of 7 karst springs matched well with the global air temperature change in 1956―2000, clearly indicating the trend of global warming and aridity in the last several decades, and the analysis of discharge variation processes of karst springs can be used as a new tool for global change studies.

  1. Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for lakes: a case study of Baiyangdian Lake in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, F.; Wu, S. R.; Yin, X. A.

    2014-06-01

    Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical, and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research has focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e. considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which is appropriate for small-scale lakes but is not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. In response to this problem, this paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological coupled model for a lake. Hierarchical cluster analysis was adopted to determine the number of zones in a given lake based on hydrological, water quality, and ecological data analysis. The MIKE 21 model was used to construct 2-D hydrodynamics and water quality simulations. STELLA software was used to create a lake ecological model that can simulate the spatial variations of ecological condition based on flow field distribution results generated by MIKE 21. Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in northern China, was adopted as the study case. The results showed that the new model is promising for predicting spatial variations of ecological conditions in response to changes in lake water quantity and quality, and could be useful for lake management.

  2. Case study : evaluation of oilfield and water well disposal well designs for oil sands facility in northern Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champollion, Y.; Gleixner, M.R.; Wozniewicz, J. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); MacFarlane, W.D.; Skulski, L. [Nexen Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Large volumes of wastewater disposal capacity will be required for the production of bitumen at the Long Lake Project, located in northeastern Alberta. An unconsolidated sand aquifer is the target formation for disposal. An evaluation of two disposal well designs, perforated casing (standard oil and gas approach), and wire-wound telescopic screen (standard water well approach) was performed. Skin, transmissivity and storability were the hydraulic parameters quantified. Full superposition type curves were used to conduct the transient analysis, along with the use of pressure derivative data. The results from the injection tests revealed that the sand aquifer at the Long Lake Project had suitable aquifer disposal capacity. The test results also revealed that clogging takes place in the vicinity of the wellbore, probably because of suspended solids in the injection water and the degassing effects. The water well design, as opposed to the standard oilfields well, makes provision for less costly re-development during operations, something that might be required if clogging problems occur. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Memorialization, Graffiti and Artifact Movement: A Case Study of Cultural Impacts on WWII Underwater Cultural Heritage in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Jennifer F.

    2015-04-01

    Cultural tourism in the Pacific has always offered an underwater option for those who snorkel or are certified to dive. In addition to the coral reefs and marine life, World War II (WWII) shipwrecks, aircraft wrecks and other submerged vehicles draw hundreds of tourists to the Pacific each year. While it is encouraging that so many are interested in the cultural heritage of battlefields, these same visitors can cause considerable amounts of damage. This paper presents a case study of cultural impacts on submerged WWII sites in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) where diving heritage tourism is a growing industry. Cultural impacts in the CNMI include a diverse range of direct and indirect impacts including vandalism, the act of memorialization, looting and collecting souvenirs, anchor and mooring damage, and moving artifacts. What is often viewed as detrimental cultural impacts by archaeologists and managers can also be examined as behavior that reflects various stakeholders' values and attitudes towards heritage sites. As such, these behaviors can and should be examined and considered concurrently during research and management discussions.

  4. Food-Chain Model of Grassland Degradation and Its Restoration Process in Northern Tibet Plateau: A Case Study in Nierong County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wei; ZENG Yunying; LIU Shuzhen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the model of grassland climate ecological productivity, the process of grassland degradation and its restoration mechanism in northern Tibetan Plateau were discussed by the model of food-chain in which the environmental and human factors were corrected. The results of case study in Nierong County showed that:① the climate trend of becoming warmer, more droughts and gales were conflicted with the restoration of grassland degradation, even under level of perfect management the climate ecological productivity was declined from 89.3 kg/m2 of 1983 to 71.8 kg/m2 of 2003; ② from 1983 to 2003, the population increased fast, while the variation of livestock on hand was little, and the cost of its maintaining is rapid grassland degradation; ③ on the present condition of overgrazing, the livestock on hand can be maintained on the level of theoretical carrying capacity in 2033 by applying the mechanism of food-chain in grassland ecological system controlled with expected coefficients, so that to realize the policy of determining the quantity of livestock according to grass growth.

  5. The Role of Total Quality Management in Performance Improvement of New Enterprises (Case Study: Insurance Industries of Northern Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taleghani; Seyyed Javad Mousavian

    2011-01-01

    Today the organization to maintain its survival and progress in the competitive world need to institutional innovation. Accordingly recent emphasis has been on the role of total quality management in organizational innovation. Total quality management is a function that will be affected by many factors that considering to these factors will ensure the success of the organization in achieving excellent results. This study attempted to examine the relationship between the components of total qu...

  6. Deregulation of domestic passenger air transport services in the United Kingdom, 1980 - 89: a case study of Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    B J Graham

    1990-01-01

    In the first instance, an analysis of the deregulatory aviation policies applied in the United Kingdom during the 1980s is provided. Discussion is placed within the particular context of studies of US deregulation, and their wider relevance to proposed European Community liberalisation. From these, a consensus is emerging that deregulation can succeed only if accompanied by vigorous government measures to act against merger, acquisition, and other anticompetitive devices used by existing carr...

  7. Distribution pattern of metals in fluvial sediments in mountainous rural catchments: a case study in Northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Anabela; Parker, Andrew; Alencoão, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The management of sediments-associated contaminants, concerning quality and quantity, in mountainous rivers is a pertinent issue; it is well known that mountainous rivers contribute with significant sedimentary loads, transported in short periods of time, in response to short precipitation episodes. Our contribution presents results of a research study developed in one of the tributaries of the River Douro, the River Corgo catchment (studied area of 295 km2). The River Corgo traverses Vila Real city and encounters the River Douro in Régua, in the West limit of the Douro Region - classified as UNESCO World Heritage. The altitudes vary between 200-1400m. The bedrock is composed of crystalline rocks and the land use is mainly forest and agriculture, with scattered urban settlements. The aim was to investigate the dynamics and availability of sediment contaminants in mountainous rural rivers, in a temperate climate. Active fluvial sediments (important contribution of anthropogenic activities to the total contents in the sediments. The spatial distribution pattern of metal contents indicates higher contents of metals in the most mobile fractions occurring along the main courses of the major tributaries (in particular in the flatter reaches, where finer sediment preferentially accumulates). In sampling sites located in the vicinity of point pollution sources, there is an increase of sediment bound-metal contents, which indicates that even in more energetic streams the sediments are able to control, to a significant extent, the levels of metals in the fluvial water. Complementary studies to estimate the delivered quantities of eroded material and associated contaminants, with the aim to relate to the amount of sediments transported within the catchment, are being performed. A GIS based potential soil loss spatial index model was developed with assessment of sediment yield from different lithologies within the catchment. The results show that about 2% of the study area is

  8. Barriers in the Delivery of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Post-Conflict Africa: Qualitative Case Studies of Burundi and Northern Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primus Che Chi

    Full Text Available Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates are particularly grim in conflict, post-conflict and other crisis settings, a situation partly blamed on non-availability and/or poor quality of emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC services. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to effective delivery of EmONC services in post-conflict Burundi and Northern Uganda, in order to provide policy makers and other relevant stakeholders context-relevant data on improving the delivery of these lifesaving services.This was a qualitative comparative case study that used 42 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions for data collection. Participants were 32 local health providers and 37 staff of NGOs working in the area of maternal health. Data was analysed using the framework approach.The availability, quality and distribution of EmONC services were major challenges across the sites. The barriers in the delivery of quality EmONC services were categorised into two major themes; human resources-related challenges, and systemic and institutional failures. While some of the barriers were similar, others were unique to specific sites. The common barriers included shortage of qualified staff; lack of essential installations, supplies and medications; increasing workload, burn-out and turnover; and poor data collection and monitoring systems. Barriers unique to Northern Uganda were demoralised personnel and lack of recognition; poor referral system; inefficient drug supply system; staff absenteeism in rural areas; and poor coordination among key personnel. In Burundi, weak curriculum; poor harmonisation and coordination of training; and inefficient allocation of resources were the unique challenges. To improve the situation across the sites, efforts are ongoing to improve the training and recruitment of more staff; harmonise and strengthen the curriculum and training; increase the number of EmONC facilities

  9. Geochemistry of urban sediments from small urban areas and potential impact on surface waters: a case study in Northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Anabela; Oliveira, Ana Isabel; Pinto, João; Parker, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Urban sediments are an important source of contaminants in urban catchments with impact on river ecosystems. Surface runoff from impermeable surfaces transfers sediments and associated contaminants to water bodies affecting the quality of both water and sediment compartments. This study aims to evaluate the metal contents in urban sediments (road deposited sediments) in a small sized urban area, located in a rural mountainous region with no significant industrial units, or mining activities in the vicinity, and subsequently have an insight on the potential contribution to the metal loads transported by fluvial sediments in the streams from the surrounding drainage network. The area under investigation locates in the northeast Portugal, in the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal). Vila Real is a rural city, with 52781 inhabitants, and in the urban area there are dispersed parks with forest and gardens; locally and in the surroundings of the city there are agricultural terrains. The industry is concentrated, in general, in the industry park. Major pollutant activities can be considered the agriculture (pollution by sediments, metals and use of fertilizers) and urban activities such as atmospheric deposition, vehicular traffic, residential activities, soil erosion and industrial activities. According to the aim of the study, road deposited sediment samples were collected in urban and periurban areas as well as in public playgrounds and in the industrial area. The samples were decomposed with aqua regia, and the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V were obtained by ICP-AES. The total concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V, in road-deposited sediments, indicate relative enrichments in samples collected in the main streets and roads, showing spatial variability. The association of Cu, Pb and Zn is observed in samples collected in the streets with high traffic density and industrial activity; in general, higher relative contents

  10. Assessment of Long-Term Evolution of Groundwater Hydrochemical Characteristics Using Multiple Approaches: A Case Study in Cangzhou, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is severe in the North China Plain (NCP. In addition to a deficiency of water resources, deterioration of groundwater quality should be of great concern. In this study, hydrogeological analysis was conducted in combination with principal component analysis, correlation analysis and the co-kriging method to identify factors controlling the content of major ions and total dissolved solids (TDS in areal shallow and deep groundwater and to assess groundwater evolution in Cangzhou, China. The results suggested that groundwater quality degradation occurred and developed in the study area, as indicated by increasing concentrations of major ions, TDS and hardness in both shallow and deep groundwater. In shallow groundwater, whose hydrochemical water types changed from HCO3–Ca.Na.Mg and HCO3.Cl–Na in the west (Zone II to Cl.SO4–Na and Cl–Na in the east (Zone III. Areas with TDS concentrations between 1500 and 2000 mg/L occupied 79.76% of the total in the 1980s, while areas with a TDS concentration ranging from 2500 to 3000 mg/L comprised 59.11% of the total in the 2010s. In deep groundwater, the area with TDS over 1000 mg/L expanded from 5366.39 km2 in the 1960s to 7183.52 km2 in the 2010s. Natural processes (water-rock interactions and anthropogenic activities (groundwater exploitation were the dominant factors controlling the major ions’ content in local groundwater. Dissolution of dolomite, calcite, feldspar and gypsum were the primary sources of major ions in groundwater, and the ion exchange reaction had a strong effect on the cation content, especially for deep groundwater.

  11. The Influence of Low-Frequency Noise Pollution on the Quality of Life and Place in Sustainable Cities: A Case Study from Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Araújo Alves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Discussing urban planning requires rethinking sustainability in cities and building healthy environments. Historically, some aspects of advancing the urban way of life have not been considered important in city planning. This is particularly the case where technological advances have led to conflicting land use, as with the installation of power poles and building electrical substations near residential areas. This research aims to discuss and rethink sustainability in cities, focusing on the environmental impact of low-frequency noise and electromagnetic radiation on human health. It presents data from a case study in an urban space in northern Portugal, and focuses on four guiding questions: Can power poles and power lines cause noise? Do power poles and power lines cause discomfort? Do power poles and power lines cause discomfort due to noise? Can power poles and power lines affect human health? To answer these questions, we undertook research between 2014 and 2015 that was comprised of two approaches. The first approach consisted of evaluating the noise of nine points divided into two groups “near the source” (e.g., up to 50 m from power poles and “away from the source” (e.g., more than 250 m away from the source. In the second approach, noise levels were measured for 72 h in houses located up to 20 m from the source. The groups consist of residents living within the distance range specified for each group. The measurement values were compared with the proposed criteria for assessing low-frequency noise using the DEFRA Guidance (University of Salford. In the first approach, the noise caused discomfort, regardless of the group. In the second approach, the noise had fluctuating characteristics, which led us to conclude that the noise caused discomfort.

  12. Analysis and constraints of goats' production in northern Namibia - A case study in Onesi and Ruacana constituency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes small-scale goat production in Omusati region, Namibia by considering the objectives, husbandry practices, indicators of productivity and barriers to small-scale goat development. The study is based on a questionnaire survey of sixty small-scale farmers keeping goats in Onesi and Ruacana constituencies. The results show that small-scale farmers (83%) mainly keep goats for prestige and as a store of wealth. The goats are kept under the communal grazing system, with limited supplementation (27%). On average 20 to 40 goats comprising mainly of local breeds and a few mixed breeds (local and Boer goats) are reared. The average kidding percentage is 42% with a kid mortality rate of 60% and average adult mortality rate of 27%. Limited marketing of goats occurs mainly in times of financial need and goat off-take rate is about 17.6%. The goats are consumed during important social events. Milk output is low and milking is done by boys not adults and goat milk collected is used by the household to feed children. Few farmers deworm their goats or control diseases in their stock. The major barriers to small-scale goat production in the study area include: (i) feeding, (ii) disease control; (iii) marketing, (iv) breeding and v) access to water and grazing land. The general strategy should focus on increasing productivity through improved extension services focusing on husbandry practices such as feeding, disease control (to reduce mortalities), and marketing services (to increase off-take). Deeper analysis of the of production parameters regarding kidding rate, prolificacy, mortality rate and off-take rates shows that productivity levels on small-scale goat production farms are low compared to other semi-arid regions in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, in order to improve the performance of small-scale goat production in the study area, there is a need to increase kidding, prolificacy and off-take rates and to reduce mortality rates especially by utilizing

  13. Study of Self-Purification Capacity in the Semi- Arid Zones: Case of Wadi Cheliff, (Northern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokadem Maamar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study and predict the self-purification capacity of wadi Cheliff (in the section Oum Drou –Chlef. This was done primarily by measuring the Dissolved Oxygen (DO downstream of a pre-selected pollution discharge point on wadi Cheliff and then predicting the same using the modified Streeter-Phelps equations. Twelve sampling stations are chosen, on a section of approximately 8.5 km of the wadi Cheliff (Oum Drou - Chlef, to collect data with knowing the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, pH, stream velocity, stream depth and distance. Predicted DO deficit trend lines were first fitted by retaining the original re-aeration coefficient component, k2, of the modified Streeter-Phelps equation (United States Geological Survey equation and subsequently by substituting it with our reaeration coefficient model. It was found that the latter displayed better predictive capacity. Results also demonstrated that the self-purification capacity of the river which is already limited by the relatively low DO saturation level is further threatened by the wastes being discharged into it at varying intervals. Some of these wastes are non-biodegradable which slows down the self-purification processes of the wadi. To preserve the underground layers of the area and to ensure a water of good quality for the irrigation, the Wadi Cheliff must be, necessarily, to protect from any pollution.

  14. Natural Recovery and Planned Intervention in Coastal Wetlands: Venice Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Facca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of conservation and sustainable use of environmental ecosystems have increased the need for detailed knowledge of ecological evolution and responses to both anthropogenic pressures and recovery measures. The present study shows the effects of natural processes and planned intervention in terms of reducing nutrient inputs in a highly exploited coastal lagoon, describing its evolution over a 16-year period from the late 1980s (when eutrophication was at its peak until 2003. Changes in nutrient and carbon concentrations in the top layer of sediments were investigated in parallel with macroalgal and seagrass biomass in the most anthropized basin of Venice Lagoon in four surveys conducted in accordance with the same protocols in 1987, 1993, 1998, and 2003. A pronounced reduction in trophic state (mainly total nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations and macroalgal biomass was recorded, together with the progressive expansion of seagrass meadows. General considerations are also made on the effects of Manila clam farming and the shift from illegal to managed clam farming.

  15. Authigenic albite formation due to water-rock interactions - Case study: Magnus oilfield (UK, Northern North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Nana; Fu, Yunjiao; Schulz, Hans-Martin; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    It is the aim of this contribution to test whether organic-inorganic interactions could induce the formation of authigenic albite. This concept and related results are being compared with modelling scenarios which are purely based on inorganic geochemical reactions. In order to unravel the pathway of authigenic albite formation, this paper presents results of a multidisciplinary study from imaging, geochemistry, mineralogy, and hydrogeochemical modelling. The Jurassic reservoir sandstones of the Magnus oilfield (UK, North Sea) were chosen as a test site. Albite occurs with 4-18 wt.% in the Magnus sandstones and its contents vary with depth. However, albite contents increase with increasing K-feldspar contents and decreasing grain size. It occurs in three forms: (1) as lamellae in perthite, (2) as overgrowth on/in corroded feldspar, and, (3) as cloudy replacing albite patches in K-feldspar. The albite overgrowth has the highest chemical purity (100% albite) whilst albite lamellae and replacing albite patches are slightly less pure (containing 1-4% anorthite). Albite appears non-altered, and has a euhedral morphology and dull cathodoluminescence. It commonly co-occurs with corroded K-feldspar grains. The precipitation of diagenetic albite in the Magnus sandstones is attributed to deep burial 80 Ma ago and may have continued until today at temperatures between 90-120 °C. The results of hydrogeochemical modelling offer two possible pathways for the authigenic albite formation: (1) Dissolution of unstable minerals (such as kaolinite and chalcedony) coupled to reduction of ferric iron minerals by products generated during oil generation, migration and degradation; (2) Dissolution of non-end member feldspar, such as K-feldspar with 10% albite, coupled to illite formation can account for trace amounts of albite due to an elevated Na+/K+ activity ratio in the pore water.

  16. The evolution of the paleomagnetic fold test as applied to complex geologic situations, illustrated by a case study from northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Arlo B.; Van der Voo, Rob

    Paleomagnetic results are most useful if the age of the magnetization can be established with respect to the rock age or the age of specific structural or alteration events. The fold test is a particularly powerful tool; not only can it be used to determine whether magnetizations are pre-, syn- or post-folding, but it can also reassure us that structural corrections need (or need not) be applied to a given magnetization. This study traces the evolution of various fold and tilt tests developed in the 50-some years since the classical test of Graham was published. Syn-deformational magnetizations are a very special case, usually characterized as such by an incremental tilt test. In regions where rotations about (near-) vertical axes are to be expected, a strike test is the best tool for determining them. A case study of syn-deformational magnetizations in the Cantabria-Asturias Arc (CAA) of northern Spain is presented, which illustrates the application of the various tilt and strike tests. One ancient post-deformational and two syn-deformational magnetizations have been recorded in CAA Devonian carbonates, each characterized by different optimal (peak) percentages of unfolding in incremental fold tests. The structural corrections required to bring the individual site-mean magnetization directions into alignment can be used to restore the beds to their attitudes at the times when the magnetizations were acquired. Furthermore, these structural corrections provide robust constraints on the kinematics of the deformation phase that is being removed. In the CAA, removal of late-stage folding about steeply inclined fold axes, due to Permian oroclinal bending, restores the belt to its first folding and thrusting configuration, and produces north-south trending cylindrical folds that formed during the Late Carboniferous. The separate deformations, consisting of earlier folding and thrusting and later oroclinal bending, have implications for the final collisional movements

  17. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis and adoption of related biosecurity measures in Northern Ireland: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, M J H; Matthews, D I; Laird, C; McDowell, S W J

    2016-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease which is endemic in Northern Ireland. As it has proven difficult to eradicate this disease, partly due to a wildlife reservoir being present in the European badger (Meles meles), a case-control study was conducted in a high incidence area in 2010-2011. The aim was to identify risk factors for bTB breakdown relating to cattle and badgers, and to assess the adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures on farms. Face-to-face questionnaires with farmers and surveys of badger setts and farm boundaries were conducted on 117 farms with a recent bTB breakdown (cases) and 75 farms without a recent breakdown (controls). On logistic regression at univariable and multivariable levels, significant risk factors associated with being a case herd included having an accessible badger sett within the farm boundaries in a field grazed in the last year (odds ratio, OR, 4.14; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.79, 9.55), observation of live badgers (OR 4.14; 95% CI 1.79, 9.55), purchase of beef cattle (OR 4.60; 95% CI 1.61, 13.13), use of contractors to spread slurry (OR 2.83; 95% CI 1.24, 6.49), feeding meal on top of silage (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.53, 8.23) and feeding magnesium supplement (OR = 3.77; 95% CI 1.39, 10.17). The majority of setts within the farm boundary were stated to be accessible by cattle (77.1%; 95% CI 71.2, 83.0%) and 66.8% (95% CI 63.8, 69.7%) of farm boundaries provided opportunities for nose-to-nose contact between cattle. Adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures, especially with regards to purchasing cattle and badger-related measures, was lower than measures related to disinfection and washing. PMID:27240911

  18. Quantification of effects of climate variations and human activities on runoff by a monthly water balance model: A case study of the Chaobai River basin in northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, G; Xia, J.; J. Che

    2009-01-01

    The Chaobai River basin in northern China consists of two major tributaries, the Chao River and Bai River. Monthly observations of precipitation, streamfiow, and panevaporation data are available for 35 years (1961-1966 and 1973-2001). Using the annual time series of the observed streamfiow, one break point at 1979 is detected and is adopted to divide the data set into two study periods, the "before" and "after" periods marking the onset of significant anthropogenic alteration of the flow (re...

  19. Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proven options available to Sri Lanka for large scale electricity generation in the future are coal-fired thermal, oil-fired thermal and Nuclear. Four case studies for groups participated are indicated. Case study for group 1 is comparison of the three options by taking into consideration the capital and recurrent expenditure involved. Environmental effects of the three options are also given. Case study for group 2 is economic comparison of three renewable energy based power generation system. Case study for group 3 is based on energy conservation, efficiency, improvement and demand management. Assuming that a continuous saving of 20 MW of demand from 1996 onwards is effective two projects are suggested to achieve this result. Case study for group 4 is a feasibility study for hydro power development of the Kukule Ganga (river) in Sri Lanka. Participants are required to evaluate one of the three optional development concepts which are technically feasible

  20. The Importance of Baseline Surveys of Near-Surface Gas Geochemistry for CCS Monitoring, as Shown from Onshore Case Studies in Northern and Southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaubien Stan E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the integrity of onshore geological carbon capture and storage projects will require an approach that integrates various methods with different spatial and temporal resolutions. One method proven to be quite effective for site assessment, leakage monitoring, and leakage verification is near-surface gas geochemistry, which includes soil gas concentration and gas flux measurements. Anomalous concentrations or fluxes, relative to the natural background values, can indicate the potential occurrence of a leak. However the natural background can be quite variable, especially for CO2, due to biological production and accumulation in the soil that changes as a function of soil type, land use, geology, temperature, water content, and various other parameters. To better understand how these parameters influence natural, near-surface background values, and to examine the potential of different sampling strategies as a function of the survey goals, this paper reports results from two highly different case studies, one from northern Europe (Voulund, Denmark and one from southern Europe (Sulcis, Sardinia, Italy. The small Voulund site, with its homogeneous soil, climate, and topography, was surveyed twice (in fall and in spring within the EU-funded SiteChar project to examine the effects of different land use practices and seasons on baseline values. Forested land was found to have lower CO2 concentrations during both campaigns compared to cultivated and heath land, and higher CH4 values during the spring sampling campaign. Continuous monitoring probes showed much more detail, highlighting seasonal changes in soil gas CO2 concentrations linked primarily to temperature variations. The much larger Sulcis site, studied within an ENEA-funded project on potential CO2-ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed Methane deployment, was surveyed at the regional scale and on detailed grids and transects for site assessment purposes. Despite the completely different soil

  1. The importance of baseline surveys of near-surface gas geochemistry for CCS monitoring, as shown from onshore case studies in northern and southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitoring of the integrity of onshore geological carbon capture and storage projects will require an approach that integrates various methods with different spatial and temporal resolutions. One method proven to be quite effective for site assessment, leakage monitoring, and leakage verification is near-surface gas geochemistry, which includes soil gas concentration and gas flux measurements. Anomalous concentrations or fluxes, relative to the natural background values, can indicate the potential occurrence of a leak. However the natural background can be quite variable, especially for CO2, due to biological production and accumulation in the soil that changes as a function of soil type, land use, geology, temperature, water content, and various other parameters. To better understand how these parameters influence natural, near-surface background values, and to examine the potential of different sampling strategies as a function of the survey goals, this paper reports results from two highly different case studies, one from northern Europe (Voulund, Denmark) and one from southern Europe (Sulcis, Sardinia, Italy). The small Voulund site, with its homogeneous soil, climate, and topography, was surveyed twice (in fall and in spring) within the EU-funded SiteChar project to examine the effects of different land use practices and seasons on baseline values. Forested land was found to have lower CO2 concentrations during both campaigns compared to cultivated and heath land, and higher CH4 values during the spring sampling campaign. Continuous monitoring probes showed much more detail, highlighting seasonal changes in soil gas CO2 concentrations linked primarily to temperature variations. The much larger Sulcis site, studied within an ENEA funded project on potential CO2-ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed Methane) deployment, was surveyed at the regional scale and on detailed grids and transects for site assessment purposes. Despite the completely different soil and climate

  2. Investigation of the geothermal state of sedimentary basins using oil industry thermal data: case study from Northern Alberta exhibiting the need to systematically remove biased data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsurface temperature data from industrial sources may contain significant biases that greatly reduce their overall quality. However, if these biases can be identified and removed, the data can provide a good preliminary source of information for further studies. In this paper, industrial thermal data from three sources: bottom hole temperatures, annual pool pressure tests and drill stem tests are evaluated to provide an updated view of the subsurface temperatures below the oil sand regions of Northern Alberta. The study highlights some of the potentially large systematic biases inherent in industrial temperature data which affect estimates of geothermal gradient and regional mapping of the geothermal field. (paper)

  3. Applied Indigenous Studies at Northern Arizona University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosper, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    The Applied Indigenous Studies program at Northern Arizona University aims to prepare American Indian students to assume tribal leadership roles. Its location in the College of Ecosystem Science and Management emphasizes its land-oriented and applied focus. The program's development, core courses, and academic requirements for bachelors degrees…

  4. Barriers to Start-Up the Business among Students at Tertiary Level: A Case Study in Northern States of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azyyati Anuarq

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available At university level, students are encouraged and expectant to create an entrepreneurial culture where they need to experience on how to operate the business inside the campus. This was also to aid the university in producing graduates who can help meet the government’s aspiration of turning Malaysia into a high-income country. Therefore, students are played a significant role as a novice entrepreneur in order to accomplish Vision of 2020. Generally, we have seen some of the research highlights the importance of entrepreneurship education, the effectiveness of entrepreneurship training and also seen the entrepreneurship has been taught in the class but unlikely, they do not fully utilized the given knowledge to practice it. The objectives of this paper is to identify the barriers faced by students for various departments to start-up the business at the IPTA’s in northern region that concise of three variables; personality traits, entrepreneurial skills and micro level. The target population of this study is all students in higher institutions in northern region including UiTM Kedah, UiTM Pulau Pinang, UiTM Perlis, UiTM Perak, USM, UNIMAP and UUM. The expected outcome is to expose a student on how to start-up the business and experiencing the challenges of entrepreneurial environment.

  5. Improved regional groundwater flow modeling using drainage features: a case study of the central northern karst aquifer system of Puerto Rico (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Yu, Xue; Butscher, Christoph; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2016-04-01

    In northern Puerto Rico (USA), subsurface conduit networks with unknown characteristics, and surface features such as springs, rivers, lagoons and wetlands, drain the coastal karst aquifers. In this study, drain lines connecting sinkholes and springs are used to improve the developed regional model by simulating the drainage effects of conduit networks. Implemented in an equivalent porous media (EPM) approach, the model with drains is able to roughly reproduce the spring discharge hydrographs in response to rainfall. Hydraulic conductivities are found to be scale dependent and significantly increase with higher test radius, indicating scale dependency of the EPM approach. Similar to other karst regions in the world, hydraulic gradients are steeper where the transmissivity is lower approaching the coastline. This study enhances current understanding of the complex flow patterns in karst aquifers and suggests that using a drainage feature improves modeling results where available data on conduit characteristics are minimal.

  6. Imported malaria in the Northern Territory, Australia--428 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Timothy J; Trauer, James M; Fairley, Merv; Krause, Vicki L; Markey, Peter G

    2012-03-01

    Malaria is a notifiable disease in Australia with an average of 600 notifications per year in returned travellers or newly arrived refugees, migrants and visitors. Although endemic disease has been eliminated from the tropical north of Australia, the region remains malaria receptive due to the presence of efficient mosquito vectors. This study analyses enhanced surveillance data collected by the Centre for Disease Control on all cases of malaria notified in the Northern Territory from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. There were 428 malaria episodes notified that occurred in 391 individuals with a median age of 26 years. Of these, 71.4% were male, 40.5% were Australian nationals and 38.0% were prescribed chemoprophylaxis. Primary infection consisted of 196 (51.3%) cases of Plasmodium falciparum, 165 (43.2%) P. vivax, 2 (0.5%) P. ovale, 1 (0.3%) P. malariae and 18 were mixed infections. There were 46 episodes of relapsed infection. Residents of non-malarious countries were most likely to have acquired primary infection in East Timor (40.6%), Papua New Guinea (27.8%), Indonesia (18.7%) and Africa (6.4%). Primary infection was diagnosed after a median 19 days (interquartile range (IQR) 7-69) after arrival in Australia for cases of P. vivax compared with 4 days for P. falciparum (IQR 2-11). Screening protocols led to the diagnosis of 27.2% of cases. Eighty-seven per cent of patients were admitted to hospital at the time of their malaria diagnosis with median duration of 3 days (IQR 2-4) and one patient died. Resettlement of people from endemic countries, as well as military and civilian activities, influences the prevailing notification rates and Plasmodium species type. PMID:23153087

  7. Geochemistry, Geochronology and Genesis of Gold Mineralization in Nurt of Northern Altay, Xinjiang:A Case Study on the Aketishikan Gold Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Feng; ZHOU Taofa; TAN Lugui; LUO Xianrong; YUE Shucang

    2004-01-01

    Gold deposits such as the Aketishikan, Togetobie, Tasbig-Kokeydlas, Kums and Hongshanzui gold deposits in the Nurt area in Altay of Xinjiang were found in Member 3 rhyolite tufflava, fragmental lava and ignimbrite of the Carboniferous Hongshanzui Group. Trace and rare earth elements, sulfur, lead, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, and geochronological studies indicate that the ore-forming material was mostly supplied by the Carboniferous volcanic rocks through water-rock interaction under a low-to-moderate temperature, and the hydrothermal ore-forming fluid came from meteoric water with some magmatic water input evolved from the granitic magmas. Gold deposits in the Nurt area as well as in the northern Altay might form in multiple stages, and the Yanshanian mineralization period should be paid more attention besides the Variscan mineralization period.

  8. Aerial gamma spectrometric survey as a tool for evaluating the uranium remobilization degree: Case study from Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships between equivalent uranium (eU), eTh, K% and their ratios in the 11 lithological units determined by previous research in the Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria have been analyzed in order to define their trend variations and evaluate the degree of uranium remobilization. Uranium favorability index UI and alteration-F indicators have been used in this research to characterize the different lithological units by following their radioactive element re-distribution and to determine their favorability as regards uranium potentiality. It was shown that uranium remobilization took place in all the lithological units, but to different degrees. This remobilization is qualified as weak, indicating that limited uranium redistribution is expected in the studied region. A plausible geological model is proposed for the uranium distribution, where the Abou Qila location is found to be favorable for uranium accumulation and merits further uranium exploration. (Authors)

  9. Aerial gamma spectrometric survey as a tool for evaluating the uranium remobilization degree: Case study from Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships between equivalent uranium (eU), eTh, K% and their ratios in the 11 lithological units determined by previous research in the Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria have been analyzed in order to define their trend variations and evaluate the degree of uranium remobilization. Uranium favorability index UI and alteration-F indicators have been used in this research to characterize the different lithological units by following their radioactive element re-distribution and to determine their favorability as regards uranium potentiality. It was shown that uranium remobilization took place in all the lithological units, but to different degrees. This remobilization is qualified as weak, indicating that limited uranium redistribution is expected in the studied region. A plausible geological model is proposed for the uranium distribution, where the Abou Qila location is found to be favorable for uranium accumulation and merits further uranium exploration

  10. Antimicrobial activity and agricultural properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) grown in northern parts of Turkey: a case study for adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldız, Gülsüm; Sekeroglu, Nazım; Kulak, Muhittin; Demirkol, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the adaptation capability of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.), which is widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates, in northern parts of Turkey. In this study, plant height, number of fruits, fruit length, fruit width, number of seeds and fruit weight of bitter melon grown in field conditions were determined. The antimicrobial effect of the ethanol extract of fruit and seeds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans microorganisms was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion method. In conclusion, plant height (260 cm), number of fruits (16 per  plant), number of seeds (30.2  per fruit), fruit width (3.8 cm), fruit length (10.6 cm) and fruit weight (117.28 g fruit(- 1)) were determined; fruits were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger; oil and seeds were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger and E. coli. PMID:25141891

  11. Detailed rock failure susceptibility mapping in steep rocky coasts by means of non-contact geostructural surveys: the case study of the Tigullio Gulf (Eastern Liguria, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an engineering geological analysis for the assessment of the rock failure susceptibility of a high, steep, rocky coast was developed by means of non-contact geostructural surveys. The methodology was applied to a 6-km coastal cliff located in the Gulf of Tigullio (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea between Rapallo and Chiavari.

    The method is based on the geostructural characterisation of outcropping rock masses through meso- and macroscale stereoscopic analyses of digital photos that were taken continuously from a known distance from the coastline. The results of the method were verified through direct surveys of accessible sample areas. The rock failure susceptibility of the coastal sector was assessed by analysing the fundamental rock slope mechanisms of instability and the results were implemented into a Geographic Information System (GIS.

    The proposed method is useful for rock failure susceptibility assessments in high, steep, rocky coastal areas, where accessibility is limited due to cliffs or steep slopes. Moreover, the method can be applied to private properties or any other area where a complete and systematic analysis of rock mass structural features cannot be achieved.

    Compared to direct surveys and to other non-contact methods based on digital terrestrial photogrammetry, the proposed procedure provided good quality data of the structural features of the rock mass at a low cost. Therefore, the method could be applied to similar coastal areas with a high risk of rock failure occurrence.

  12. Assessing spatial and temporal variability in phytoplankton concentration through chlorophyll-a satellite data: a case study of northern arabian sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on applying remote sensing technology to identify and assess seasonal and intra-annual variation of phytoplankton availability. A standard MODIS algorithm for Chlorophyll-a, is used to obtain a variation of phytoplankton with the help of MODIS time series images from April 2011 to March 2012 that describe the situation for a whole year, we also used periodical data for each three months, i.e., from April 2011 to June 2011, July 2011 to September 2011, October 2011 to December 2011 and finally January 2012 to March 2012. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), products were retrieved from the sensor data that demonstrates the spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton concentration in the northern Arabian sea near the coastline and open sea water of Pakistan, India, Iran and Oman. High concentration of Chl-a, were observed during two periods August to September and February to March respectively. It was also revealed that Chl-a, concentration was almost identical between the latitude 20 and 21 degrees N throughout the year. (author)

  13. Sensitivity Analysis and Investigation of the Behaviour of the UTOPIA Land-Surface Process Model: A Case Study for Vineyards in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francone, C.; Cassardo, C.; Richiardone, R.; Confalonieri, R.

    2012-09-01

    We used sensitivity-analysis techniques to investigate the behaviour of the land-surface model UTOPIA while simulating the micrometeorology of a typical northern Italy vineyard ( Vitis vinifera L.) under average climatic conditions. Sensitivity-analysis experiments were performed by sampling the vegetation parameter hyperspace using the Morris method and quantifying the parameter relevance across a wide range of soil conditions. This method was used since it proved its suitability for models with high computational time or with a large number of parameters, in a variety of studies performed on different types of biophysical models. The impact of input variability was estimated on reference model variables selected among energy (e.g. net radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes) and hydrological (e.g. soil moisture, surface runoff, drainage) budget components. Maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index were ranked as the most relevant parameters, with sensitivity indices exceeding the remaining parameters by about one order of magnitude. Soil variability had a high impact on the relevance of most of the vegetation parameters: coefficients of variation calculated on the sensitivity indices estimated for the different soils often exceeded 100 %. The only exceptions were represented by maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index, which showed a low variability in sensitivity indices while changing soil type, and confirmed their key role in affecting model results.

  14. Herbaceous Plants for Climate Adaptation and Intensely Developed Urban Sites In Northern Europe: A Case Study From the Eastern Romanian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöman Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the increasingly compact city, services currently provided for in parks will in future be compressed into smaller green unit-structures, often associated with paved surfaces. Left-over spaces in urban environments, such as traffic roundabouts and strips along paths, roads and other corridors, will be important in the future city in order to deliver different eco-system services, especially stormwater management. It is therefore essential to start now to develop the knowledge and experience needed to create sustainable plantings for these sites. This paper presents the findings of a field survey in eastern Romania that sought to identify potential species for urban paved plantings in the Scandinavian region (northern Europe. The research approach is rooted in the hypothesis that studies of natural vegetation systems and habitats where plants are exposed to environmental conditions similar to those in inner-city environments can: 1 identify new or non-traditional species and genotypes adapted to urban environments; and 2 supply information and knowledge about their use potential concerning growth, flowering, life form, etc. In total, 117 different herbaceous species, all of which experience water stress regimes comparable to those in urban paved sites in Scandinavia. The initial information obtained from this field survey present a base of knowledge of which species that have a future potential for use in urban environment, which is of great importance in the following work within this project instead of testing species randomly without this knowledge of the species tolerance and performance in similar habitats.

  15. Establishment of water source discrimination model in coal mine by using hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis: a case study from Renlou Coal Mine in northern Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lin-hua; GUI He-rong

    2012-01-01

    The demand for energy consumption promotes to find more coal in deep underground up to 1000 m and brings more serious situation of water disaster.As one of the major methods for water disaster control,hydrogeochemistry attracts a series of studies related to water source discrimination.In this paper,a simple method for constructing the water source discrimination model based on major ions and multivariate statistical analysis was reported using the following procedures:① collection of data and interpretation,② analysis of controlling factors based on the chemical composition of groundwater,③ "pure" sample chosen,and ④ discrimination model establishment.After the processes,two functions and a diagram were established for three aquifers (the Quaternary,Coal bearing,and Taiyuan Fm.) from the Renlou Coal Mine in northern Anhui Province,China.The method can be applied in almost all coal mines and can be used for evaluating the contribution ratios if the water is collected from a mixing source.

  16. Adaptation to a warming-drying trend through cropping system adjustment over three decades: A case study in the northern agro-pastural ecotone of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingting; An, Pingli; Pan, Zhihua; Hao, Baozhen; Wang, Liwei; Dong, Zhiqiang; Pan, Xuebiao; Xue, Qingwu

    2015-06-01

    Long-term field monitoring data and historical crop data are useful to assess the impacts of climate change and to manage cropping systems. The objectives of this study are to understand the cropping system response to a warming-drying trend in the northern agro-pastural ecotone (NAE) of China and to document how farmers can adapt to the warming-drying trend by changing cropping system structure and adjusting planting date. The results indicate that a significant warming-drying trend existed in the NAE from 1980 to 2009, and this trend significantly decreased crop (spring wheat, naked oat, and potato) yields. Furthermore, the yield decreased by 16.2%-28.4% with a 1°C increase in maximum temperature and decreased by 6.6%-11.8% with a 10% decrease in precipitation. Considering food security, water use efficiency, and water ecological adaptability in the semi-arid NAE, cropping system structure adjustment (e.g., a shift from wheat to potato as the predominant crop) and planting date adaptation (e.g., a delay in crop planting date) can offset the impact of the warming-drying trend in the NAE. Based on the successful offsetting of the impact of the warming-drying trend in the NAE, we conclude that farmers can reduce the negative effects of climate change and minimize the risk of crop failure by adapting their cropping system structure at the farming level.

  17. Effect of nutritional factors on adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected adults: a case control study in Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Berhe, Negassie; Tegabu, Desalegn; Alemayehu, Mekuriaw

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to antiretroviral treatment is critical for suppression of viral replication, reduced destruction of CD4 cells, prevention of viral resistance, promotion of immune reconstitution and slowed disease progression. This study sought to determine the effect of nutritional factors on adherence to ART among HIV-infected adults on ART. Methods Matched case control study design (matched by age and sex) was employed. Data was collected from ART registration chart, pre-tested struct...

  18. Detection of detached forced-regressive nearshore wedges: a case study from the central-southern Siena Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ivan; Arragoni, Simone; Aldinucci, Mauro; Foresi, Luca Maria; Bambini, Anna Maria; Sandrelli, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    The detection of detached nearshore wedges formed in response to relative sea-level drops is considered one of the hottest topics in sequence stratigraphic analysis due to their importance as reservoir analogues. In fact, they usually constitute sandy and porous bodies generally encased in impermeable clay, thus presenting a good potential as traps for fluids. This paper focuses on the sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Pliocene deposits cropping out in the central-southern sector of the Siena Basin (Tuscany, Italy), a post-collisional basin of the Northern Apennines. The exposed sedimentary succession was investigated through a detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic approach, integrated by biostratigraphic analyses, aimed at a better characterization of the infilling history of this sector of the basin. Specifically, this study revealed the occurrence of repeated facies shifts that allowed the identification of two depositional sequences. In detail, a thick sand-rich body far from the basin margins, and previously considered as a turbiditic lobe, has been reinterpreted as formed in a nearshore setting during a fall in relative sea level. This body is totally encased in offshore clay, and due to the lack of physical connection with the related HST deposits, it has to be considered as a detached forced-regressive wedge. The present work led to the recognition of some sedimentological and stratigraphic features typical of falling stage systems tract deposits (e.g. presence of intrabasinal recycled materials, sedimentological evidence of a pre-existing fluvial network subsequently eroded) that can provide useful clues for the identification of detached forced-regressive nearshore wedges in core studies and poorly exposed settings.

  19. Sensitivity of mesoscale modeling of smoke direct radiative effect to the emission inventory: a case study in northern sub-Saharan African region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ensemble approach is used to examine the sensitivity of smoke loading and smoke direct radiative effect in the atmosphere to uncertainties in smoke emission estimates. Seven different fire emission inventories are applied independently to WRF-Chem model (v3.5) with the same model configuration (excluding dust and other emission sources) over the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) biomass-burning region. Results for November and February 2010 are analyzed, respectively representing the start and end of the biomass burning season in the study region. For February 2010, estimates of total smoke emission vary by a factor of 12, but only differences by factors of 7 or less are found in the simulated regional (15°W–42°E, 13°S–17°N) and monthly averages of column PM2.5 loading, surface PM2.5 concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), smoke radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere and at the surface, and air temperature at 2 m and at 700 hPa. The smaller differences in these simulated variables may reflect the atmospheric diffusion and deposition effects to dampen the large difference in smoke emissions that are highly concentrated in areas much smaller than the regional domain of the study. Indeed, at the local scale, large differences (up to a factor of 33) persist in simulated smoke-related variables and radiative effects including semi-direct effect. Similar results are also found for November 2010, despite differences in meteorology and fire activity. Hence, biomass burning emission uncertainties have a large influence on the reliability of model simulations of atmospheric aerosol loading, transport, and radiative impacts, and this influence is largest at local and hourly-to-daily scales. Accurate quantification of smoke effects on regional climate and air quality requires further reduction of emission uncertainties, particularly for regions of high fire concentrations such as NSSA. (paper)

  20. Sensitivity of Mesoscale Modeling of Smoke Direct Radiative Effect to the Emission Inventory: a Case Study in Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Ichoku, Charles; Hyer, Edward J.; Yang, Zhifeng; Ge, Cui; Su, Shenjian; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; da Silva, Arlindo

    2014-01-01

    An ensemble approach is used to examine the sensitivity of smoke loading and smoke direct radiative effect in the atmosphere to uncertainties in smoke emission estimates. Seven different fire emission inventories are applied independently to WRF-Chem model (v3.5) with the same model configuration (excluding dust and other emission sources) over the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) biomass-burning region. Results for November and February 2010 are analyzed, respectively representing the start and end of the biomass burning season in the study region. For February 2010, estimates of total smoke emission vary by a factor of 12, but only differences by factors of 7 or less are found in the simulated regional (15degW-42degE, 13degS-17degN) and monthly averages of column PM(sub 2.5) loading, surface PM(sub 2.5) concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), smoke radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere and at the surface, and air temperature at 2 m and at 700 hPa. The smaller differences in these simulated variables may reflect the atmospheric diffusion and deposition effects to dampen the large difference in smoke emissions that are highly concentrated in areas much smaller than the regional domain of the study. Indeed, at the local scale, large differences (up to a factor of 33) persist in simulated smoke-related variables and radiative effects including semi-direct effect. Similar results are also found for November 2010, despite differences in meteorology and fire activity. Hence, biomass burning emission uncertainties have a large influence on the reliability of model simulations of atmospheric aerosol loading, transport, and radiative impacts, and this influence is largest at local and hourly-to-daily scales. Accurate quantification of smoke effects on regional climate and air quality requires further reduction of emission uncertainties, particularly for regions of high fire concentrations such as NSSA.

  1. Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria among Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Tertiary Care Centers in Northern India

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Maurya; Nag, V. L.; S Kant; R A S Kushwaha; Kumar, M.; SINGH, A.K.; T N Dhole

    2015-01-01

    The reports of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) associated with extrapulmonary diseases are increasing in tertiary care hospitals. Despite a significant increase in knowledge about NTM infections, they still represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study is to know the prevalence of NTN among extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases in tertiary care centers in Northern India. A total of 227 culture positive isolates from 756 cases were tested for niacin production and catal...

  2. Case-study and risk management of dioxins and PCBs bovine milk contaminations in a high industrialized area in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocchi, Luigi; Ghidini, Sergio; Fedrizzi, Giorgio; Lorenzi, Valentina

    2015-07-01

    Milk supplied to a dairy plant in Brescia City (Northern Italy) was found to be contaminated by dioxin like PCBs at levels above the European (EU) action limit (2 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). As a consequence, 14 dairy farms were sampled individually, in order to identify and possibly eliminate the source of contamination. All the farms were located in Brescia or just nearby, an area that is characterized by a strong industrialization. Four out of the 14 farms showed contamination levels above the legal maximum limit set by European Commission at 5.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat for the sum of dioxins and DL-PCBs. Concentrations of 8.16, 6.83, 5.71 and 5.65 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat were detected. In the three most polluted farms, cow ration was substituted with feed coming from uncontaminated areas and the time needed to reduce milk pollution was evaluated. In all the three farms, contamination levels dropped below the EU legal limit after only 1 month from the removal of the pollution source. In each sampled farm, DL-PCBs were the major contributors to the total WHO-TEQ level, with percentages up to 87% in the most contaminated one. PCB 126 WHO-TEQ value explained by itself large part of this contamination, and its decrease was fundamental for the reduction of milk contamination levels. This study provides an example of an on-field successful emergency intervention that succeeded in decontamination of dairy cows, allowing a fast restart of their production activity. PMID:25637240

  3. Development and evaluation of local communities incentive programs for improving the traditional forest management:A case study of North-ern Zagros forests, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jalal Henareh Khalyani; Manouchehr Namiranian; S. M. Heshmatol Vaezin; Jahangir Feghhi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the local community incentive programs to improve traditional forest management in three forested villages in Baneh city, Kurdistan province in the northern Zagros forests of western Iran. Zagros forests cover 6.07 million ha and support rich plant and animal diversity. Changes in local community social and economic sys-tems and the inefficiency of traditional forest management led to a criti-cal situation in the stability of forest regeneration in recent decades. Due to a shortage of productive and arable lands and resulting unemployment and poverty, people overexploited the Zagros forests. Outside interven-tion in traditional forest management creates conflicts between local peoples and forest management organizations. To achieve sustainable forest management, including forest resources conservation and im-provement of natural resource based livelihoods of communities, it is desirable to implement Forestry Incentive Programs (FIP) based on the important functions of forests. Detailed information on the so-cio-economics of communities, the effect of forests on local livelihoods, and lists of products extracted from the forest were obtained from a sur-vey of local communities though questionnaire, interview and observa-tion. We studied 276 households in three villages and completed 76 ques-tionnaires by householders in the quantitative analysis. Sampling was performed by simple random sampling (SRS). The needs of rural com-munities, such as livestock husbandry, mainly arise from the characteris-tics and environmental features of villages. We identified the driving forces, pressures, status, impacts and responses (DPSIR) to design incen-tive programs, by DPSIR analysis and interaction analysis. Evaluation of local community benefits from forests showed that in order to improve forest management, 319 dollars per year would be needed by each family as an incentive in 2010 to prevent lopping and firewood collecting, the main causes of forest degradation.

  4. Exploring the Anti-Bullying Role of a Befriending Peer Support Programme: A Case Study within the Primary School Setting in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElearney, Aisling; Roosmale-Cocq, Selina; Scott, Joanne; Stephenson, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    Bullying remains a significant issue in the lives of many primary school children in Northern Ireland and elsewhere. Children are now experiencing direct and indirect bullying as well as cyberbullying, all of which can have significant negative consequences for health and well-being that may persist in the long term into adulthood. Many children…

  5. Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades: Reflections on a Case Study of Community-Based Teacher Education Set in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities, we offer…

  6. Quaternary migration of active extension revealed by a syn-tectonic alluvial fan shift. A case study in the Northern Apennines of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, Francesco; Bucci, Francesco; Cardinali, Mauro; Santangelo, Michele; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-04-01

    In areas characterized by the progressive migration of active extension through time, shifts in the position of the active depocenter occur. Such shifts through time produces peculiar geomorphological settings that are often characterized by wind gaps, abandoned valleys, streams captures and drainage inversions. These features provide the opportunity to investigate active areas by studying the recent-most geological history of the related nearby basins. We investigate this topic in a tectonically active area in the Northern Apennines of Italy, as indicated by both instrumental and historical seismicity (maximum epicentral intensity I0=VIII) and extension rates in the order of 2.5-2.7 mm/yr. In particular, we study the Montefalco ridge drainage inversion. Here, fluvial sands and imbricated conglomerates deposited in a lower Pleistocene depocenter constituted by an extensional subsiding basin, are presently uplifted more than 200 m above the present day alluvial plain. The Montefalco ridge drainage inversion, at about 400 m a.s.l., separates two valleys, the Gualdo Cattaneo - Bastardo valley to the West (300 m a.s.l.) and the Foligno present-day alluvial plain to the East (200 m a.s.l.). Seismic reflection data show that the maximum thickness of the continental sequence in the Foligno valley is in the order of 500 m. This valley is presently occupied by a 37 km2 alluvial fan produced by the Topino river flowing from NE to SW. To unravel the Quaternary tectonic evolution of the area, we integrate different data sets collected by field mapping, detailed photo-geological data, sediments provenance information, and subsurface data. We interpret the Montefalco ridge as a paleo-Foligno-like alluvial fan representing the evidence of the recent migration of the active extension to the East of around 7 km. Considering an age of deformation of 2.5 My, an extension rate of about 2.8 mm/yr is derived, which corresponds to the present-day geodetic rates. We stress the importance

  7. Sub-surface and near-bottom thermohaline circulation of a shallow sea during a dense water production event: a case study from the northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Carniel, Sandro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bonaldo, Davide; Falcieri, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    Cold, dry, and intense winds blowing over shallow sea shelves produce favorable conditions for water column cooling and evaporation: the newly formed water is denser than the out-shelf environmental water and thus is forced to move away from the production basin. The semi-enclosed Adriatic Sea is a representative domain to investigate the dynamics of this gravity flow. Indeed, such a flow (the so-called Northern Adriatic Dense water, NADW) originates in the northern shallow Adriatic and moves southeastward leant to the Italian coast, in quasi-geostrophic conditions, strongly modulated by ocean circulation (tide and wind driven) and pressure gradients. Along its way southward, NADW partially slide into sea bottom depressions and promote renewal of deeper and older water masses. Production and spreading of dense water in the northern Adriatic Sea were simulated by means of an eddy-resolving high-resolution (1.0 x 1.0 km2) numerical model, which relied on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment-Transport (COAWST) system, based on the 3-D ocean model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) and the wave model SWAN (Simulating Wave Nearshore). To drive COAWST, the atmosphere forcings provided by the meteorological model COSMO-I7 (an atmospheric mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) were used. Initial and boundary conditions were derived from numerical models operational in the Adriatic and Mediterranean Sea. An observational dataset has been also used with the dual-purpose of describing the NADW formation process and assess numerical model outputs. The selected period for the analysis brackets early February 2012, an exceptionally cold period during which the northern Adriatic Sea experienced a Cold Air Outbreak (CAO) that forced water temperature to drop to about 6° C, with water density exceeding 1030 kg/m3. Results presented reveal some new insights on how NADW generates in the northern Adriatic Sea, triggered by tidal and wave forcing

  8. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tian-Pei; Owens, Jacob R; Gong, Ming-Hao; Liu, Gang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39) and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29) over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4%) and Caopo (7.4%), but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2%) and increased (84.6%) at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km) than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001), showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair reserve

  9. Managing the agricultural calendar as coping mechanism to climate variability: A case study of maize farming in northern Benin, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rosaine N. Yegbemey; Humayun Kabir; Oyémonbadé H.R. Awoye; Yabi, Jacob A.; Armand A. Paraïso

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays climate variability and change are amongst the most important threats to sustainable development, with potentially severe consequences on agriculture in developing countries. Among many available coping mechanisms, farmers adjust some of their farming practices. This article aims at exploring observed changes in the agricultural calendar as a response to climate variability in northern Benin. Interviews with local experts (agricultural extension officers and local leaders such as hea...

  10. The Impact of Microbial Ecology and Chemical Profile on the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) Process: A Case Study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg

    OpenAIRE

    Ilunga Kamika; Martie Coetzee; Bhekie Brilliance Mamba; Titus Msagati; Momba, Maggy N.B.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) populations as well as of the chemical profile on the performance of Unit-3 (open elutriation tanks) and Unit-5 (covered elutriation tank) of the City of Johannesburg Northern Wastewater Treatment Works was determined. Physicochemical parameters of wastewater samples were measured using standard methods. Bacterial diversity was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of the variabl...

  11. Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Mineral Exploration and Exploitation in South-Northern Nigeria: A Case Study of Igarra in Edo State

    OpenAIRE

    G. C. C. Ndinwa; C. O. Ohwona

    2014-01-01

    The act of quarrying/mining and the subsequent processing and transporting of these raw materials are greatly hampered by high environmental and health costs. This is observable at the quarry sites, processing factories and the surrounding environments. It is important to state that the environment of the northern part of Edo State has suffered in many areas where exploitation of earth resources by quarrying method and the subsequent processing are carried out. This was revealed from the fiel...

  12. Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

  13. An integrated approach to asses origin and mobilization of As, Fe and Mn in groundwater: the case study of Cremona (northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotiroti, Marco; Bonomi, Tullia; Fumagalli, Letizia

    2013-04-01

    The present work concerns the analysis of the hydrogeology and the hydrogeochemistry of the As, Fe, Mn rich groundwater of the alluvial multi-layer aquifer in the lower Po Plain of Cremona (northern Italy). In this analysis, an integrated approach is applied in order to understand the origins (natural or anthropic) and chemical mechanisms of high groundwater As, Fe and Mn concentrations found in the study area. The study area covers a 50 km2 wide area around the urban territory of Cremona. It is located near the confluence between Adda and Po rivers. The multi-aquifer system which interests the first 200-250 m of depth is investigated. The integrated approach involves the (a) collection of historical data related to water quality, water levels and well logs; (b) storage of collected data in specific databases and geographical information systems; (c) design and execution of two field surveys of water levels and water quality, realized in July 2010 and July 2012, concerning also groundwater sampling for isotope and microbiological analysis; (d) construction of a 3D model of aquifer hydrogeological properties (deposits texture, hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity), built by means of ordinary kriging interpolation of numerical values derived from the coding of well logs; (e) analysis of the hydrodynamic properties of the system on the basis of the field measurements; (f) analysis of water quality data (both field and historical data) considering the hydrogeological and hydrodynamic properties of the aquifer system; (g) analysis of isotope and microbiological measurements; (h) implementation of a 1D reactive transport model in order to better understand the hydrogeochemical mechanisms in the system; (i) elaboration of a general hydrogeochemical conceptual model concerning possible origins and chemical mechanisms for the high groundwater As, Fe, Mn and NH4 concentrations, considering also possible anthropogenic influences; (j) development of management tools

  14. Tea drinking habits and oesophagial cancer in a high-risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2009-05-01

    In a recently published paper in the "British Medical Journal", a joint collaboration of well-known international scientists represented by Islami et al. has tackled this issue.1 In a well-designed, laborious case-control study in Golestan, Iran, they looked at 300 cases of esophageal SCC and 571 age and sex matched neighborhood controls, assessed the temperature of the commonly used drink "tea" among them and compared it between the two groups. After adjusting for several confounders including ethnicity, daily vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, tobacco or opium use, duration of residence in rural areas, education level and car ownership (the latter two as indices of socio-economic status), they found that consuming hot tea is associated with significantly increased chance of developing esophageal SCC. The adjusted odds ratio(OR) for developing esophageal SCC in those who reported drinking "very hot tea" was 8.16 (95% CI: 3.93 to 16.91) as compared to those taking warm or lukewarm tea (Pstudy) from a large on-going cohort study in the same region. The authors conclude that it is probably the "hotness" rather than the "tea" which is responsible for this increased chance of SCC of esophagus. In an accompanying editorial, Whiteman suggests that people drink their tea at least 5 minutes after pouring it in their cups. PMID:19400617

  15. An environmental, economical and socio-political analysis of a variety of urban air-pollution reduction policies for primary PM10 and NOx: The case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PM10 and NOx emission reduction by different policies have been estimated. • Various actions have been considered, in the transport and residential sectors. • Environmental, economic and socio-political data were jointly evaluated. • Results are reported for the case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy). • Bike use fostering best matches cost–benefit results and socio-political acceptance. - Abstract: In the frame of urban air-pollution reduction policies, economic costs and environmental benefits of a variety of actions have been quantitatively assessed for the Province of Milan (Northern Italy), focusing on PM10 and NOx emission sources. Short-to-mid-term interventions that have been taken into consideration include reduction of inner temperature in residential buildings, banning of residential biomass heating systems, banning of diesel fuelled domestic boilers, night-time streets washing, speed limit reduction on highways, circulation restrictions of oldest EURO vehicles, conversion of diesel buses to natural gas, car sharing/biking promotion, DPF adoption in diesel vehicles, extension of road lanes for urban buses, energy efficiency refurbishment in residential buildings. Re*sults emerged from the cost–benefit analysis integrated with socio-political indicators obtained through direct surveys, will contribute, with an holistic and multidisciplinary approach, to drive the local administrators to implement the most suitable actions in one of the most polluted areas in west-Europe

  16. Managing the agricultural calendar as coping mechanism to climate variability: A case study of maize farming in northern Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaine N. Yegbemey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays climate variability and change are amongst the most important threats to sustainable development, with potentially severe consequences on agriculture in developing countries. Among many available coping mechanisms, farmers adjust some of their farming practices. This article aims at exploring observed changes in the agricultural calendar as a response to climate variability in northern Benin. Interviews with local experts (agricultural extension officers and local leaders such as heads of farmer and village organisations and group discussions with farmers were organised. A household survey was also conducted on 336 maize producers to highlight the factors affecting decisions to adjust the agricultural calendar as a coping mechanism against climate variability. As a general trend, the duration of the cropping season in northern Benin is getting longer with slight differences among and within agro-ecological zones, implying a higher risk of operating under time-inefficient conditions. Farmers receive very limited support from agricultural extension services and therefore design their agricultural calendar on the basis of personal experience. Socio-economic characteristics, maize farming characteristics as well as farm location determine the decision to adjust the agricultural calendar. Consequently, providing farmers with climate related information could ensure a rational and time-efficient management of the agricultural calendar. Moreover, research and extension institutions should help in establishing and popularising clear agricultural calendars while taking into account the driving forces of behaviours towards the adjustment of farming practices as a climate variability response.

  17. Periconceptional folic acid associated with an increased risk of oral clefts relative to non-folate related malformations in the Northern Netherlands: a population based case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periconceptional folic acid has been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects, but findings on its effect in oral clefts are largely inconclusive. This case-control study assesses the effects of periconceptional folic acid on cleft risk, using complementary data from the Dutch Oral Cleft Registry and a population-based birth defects registry (Eurocat) of children and foetuses born in the Northern Netherlands between 1997 and 2009. Cases were live-born infants with non-syndromic clefts (n = 367) and controls were infants or foetuses with chromosomal/syndromal (n = 924) or non-folate related anomalies (n = 2,021). We analyzed type/timing/duration of supplement use related to traditional cleft categories as well as to their timing (early/late embryonic periods) and underlying embryological processes (fusion/differentiation defects). Consistent supplement use during the aetiologically relevant period (weeks 0–12 postconception) was associated with an increased risk of clefts (adjusted odds ratio 1.72, 95 % confidence interval 1.19–2.49), especially of cleft lip/alveolus (3.16, 1.69–5.91). Further analysis systematically showed twofold to threefold increased risks for late differentiation defects—mainly clefts of the lip/alveolus—with no significant associations for early/late fusion defects. Effects were attributable to folic acid and not to other multivitamin components, and inclusion of partial use (not covering the complete aetiologically relevant period) generally weakened associations. In conclusion, this study presents several lines of evidence indicating that periconceptional folic acid in the Northern Netherlands is associated with an increased risk of clefts, in particular of cleft lip/alveolus. This association is strengthened by the specificity, consistency, systematic pattern, and duration of exposure-response relationship of our findings, underlining the need to evaluate public health strategies regarding folic acid and to

  18. Detection of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin genes (A-F) in dairy farms from Northern Germany using PCR: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohler, Svenja; Discher, Sabrina; Jordan, Eva; Seyboldt, Christian; Klein, Guenter; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hoedemaker, Martina; Scheu, Theresa; Campe, Amely; Charlotte Jensen, Katharina; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2016-06-01

    Classical botulism in cattle mainly occurs after ingestion of feed contaminated with preformed toxin. In 2001 a form of botulism ("visceral botulism") was postulated to occur after ingestion of Clostridium (C.) botulinum cells or spores, followed by colonization of the intestine, and local production of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) causing chronic generalized disease. To verify the potential role of C. botulinum in the described syndrome, a case-control study was conducted, including 139 farms. Fecal samples, rumen content, water and silage samples were collected on each farm. Real time BoNT gene PCR assays were conducted after enrichment in RCM (Reinforced Clostridial Medium) at 37 °C and conventional PCRs after enrichment in MCM (Modified Cooked Meat Medium) at 30 °C. Furthermore, a direct detection of BoNT genes without prior enrichment was attempted. BoNT A, B, C, D, E and F genes were detected in animal samples from 25 (17.99%), 3 (2.16%), 0 (0.0%), 2 (1.44%), 1 (0.72%), and 3 (2.16%) farms, respectively. Eleven feed samples were positive for BoNT A gene. By enrichment a significant increase in sensitivity was achieved. Therefore, this should be an essential part of any protocol. No significant differences regarding BoNT gene occurrence could be observed between Case and Control farms or chronically diseased and clinically healthy animals within the particular category. Thus, the postulated form of chronic botulism in cows could not be confirmed. This study supports the general opinion that C. botulinum can occasionally be found in the rumen and intestine of cows without causing disease. PMID:27016061

  19. THE POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE MAKRAN SUBDUCTION ZONE IN THE NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA. CASE STUDY: THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI OF NOVEMBER 28, 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although large earthquakes along the Makran Subduction Zone are infrequent, the potential for the generation of destructive tsunamis in the Northern Arabian Sea cannot be overlooked. It is quite possible that historical tsunamis in this region have not been properly reported or documented. Such past tsunamis must have affected Southern Pakistan, India, Iran, Oman, the Maldives and other countries bordering the Indian Ocean.The best known of the historical tsunamis in the region is the one generated by the great earthquake of November 28, 1945 off Pakistan's Makran Coast (Balochistan in the Northern Arabian Sea. The destructive tsunami killed more than 4,000 people in Southern Pakistan but also caused great loss of life and devastation along the coasts of Western India, Iran, Oman and possibly elsewhere.The seismotectonics of the Makran subduction zone, historical earthquakes in the region, the recent earthquake of October 8, 2005 in Northern Pakistan, and the great tsunamigenic earthquakes of December 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005, are indicative of the active tectonic collision process that is taking place along the entire southern and southeastern boundary of the Eurasian plate as it collides with the Indian plate and adjacent microplates. Tectonic stress transference to other, stress loaded tectonic regions could trigger tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Northern Arabian Sea in the future.The northward movement and subduction of the Oman oceanic lithosphere beneath the Iranian micro-plate at a very shallow angle and at the high rate is responsible for active orogenesis and uplift that has created a belt of highly folded and densely faulted coastal mountain ridges along the coastal region of Makran, in both the Balochistan and Sindh provinces. The same tectonic collision process has created offshore thrust faults. As in the past, large destructive tsunamigenic earthquakes can occur along major faults in the east Makran region, near Karachi, as

  20. Responses of streamflow to climate change in the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang: A case study of the Toutun River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI WeiHong; CHEN YaNing; HAO XingMing; HUANG Xiang; CHEN YaPeng

    2007-01-01

    A case study on the responses of streamflow to climate change in the Toutun River basin was carried out based on data analysis of streamflow, precipitation, and temperatures during the past 50 years.Temporal series of the streamflow change in the Toutun River basin was analyzed and tested using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric test. Results revealed that the annual runoff of the Toutun River had been in a monotonic decreasing trend for the past 50 years. Compared with the 1950s and 1960s, the annual runoff in the 1990s decreased by 4.0×105 m3 and 7.2×105 m3. The precipitation did not show monotonic trend during the past 50 years, but the annual temperature increased by 1.12℃ since the 1950s. Further data analysis indicated that the monthly runoff of the Toutun River decreased significantly from August to October, with precipitation displaying the similar pattern of seasonal change. Analysis suggests that the reduction of streamflow in the Toutun River basin is possibly caused by the seasonal change of precipitation, especially the precipitation reduction in summer, and temperature increases.

  1. Multilinear approach to the precipitation–lightning relationship: a case study of summer local electrical storms in the northern part of Spain during 2002–2009 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Herrero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Storms developed under local instability conditions are studied in the Spanish Basque region with the aim of establishing precipitation–lightning relationships. Those situations may produce, in some cases, flash flood. Data used correspond to daily rain depth (mm and the number of CG flashes in the area. Rain and lightning are found to be weakly correlated on a daily basis, a fact that seems related to the existence of opposite gradients in their geographical distribution. Rain anomalies, defined as the difference between observed and estimated rain depth based on CG flashes, are analysed by PCA method. Results show a first EOF explaining 50% of the variability that linearly relates the rain anomalies observed each day and that confirms their spatial structure. Based on those results, a multilinear expression has been developed to estimate the rain accumulated daily in the network based on the CG flashes registered in the area. Moreover, accumulates and maximum values of rain are found to be strongly correlated, therefore making the multilinear expression a useful tool to estimate maximum precipitation during those kind of storms.

  2. Is these a link between eustatic variations, platform drowning, oceanic anoxic events, and ammonite faunal turnovers ? Case study of the Aptian sediments along the northern Tethyan margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pictet, Antoine; Föllmi, Karl; Spangenberg, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    The early Aptian witnessed an important episode of paleoenvironmental change, which has been linked to major marine volcanic activity related to the formation of the Ontong-Java large igneous province (e.g., Larson and Erba, 1999). This phase culminated in the formation of hemipelagic and pelagic organic-rich sediments, whereas profound changes are also observed in shallow-water settings, with the step-by-step disappearance of the northern Tethyan platform. Results show that the northern Tethyan platform has passed through three major crises in its evolution during the early Aptian. A first one started with an emersion phase, marked by a subaerial karstified discontinuity reported from the middle early Aptian (Deshayesites forbesi or early D. deshayesi zone). This is directly followed by the drowning of the Urgonian platform along the northern Tethyan margin, preceding the Selli Episode. The period following this drowning phase coincides with the negative and the following positive excursions in the δ13C records and went along with the deposition of the so-called Lower Grünten Member, which is the result of heterozoan carbonate production and characterized by increased detrital input. Ammonite fauna witnessed an important diversification of hemipelagic forms, especially inside the heteromorph Ancyloceratacea. This radiation is probably linked to the expansion of hemipelagic facies, one of the main habitats of ammonites. A second phase, reported from the late early Aptian (late D. deshayesi zone), started with a small drowning event, marked by a firmground and by a phosphatic enrichment. This stratigraphical layer also corresponds to the establishment of the anoxic Apparein level. Above, the Upper Grünten Member continues with heterozoan carbonate production or with glauconitic condensed sediments. The corresponding δ13C record is a the onset of a long-term decrease. The ammonite fauna is marked by a first turnover with the disappearance of Deshayesites, and the

  3. Polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, interaction with environmental exposures, and bladder cancer risk in a case-control study in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Hung, Rayjean J; Brennan, Paul; Malaveille, Christian; Donato, Francesco; Placidi, Donatella; Carta, Angela; Hautefeuille, Agnes; Boffetta, Paolo; Porru, Stefano

    2003-11-01

    Tobacco smoking and occupational exposures are the main known risk factors for bladder cancer, causing direct and indirect damage to DNA. Repair of DNA damage is under genetic control, and DNA repair genes may play a key role in maintaining genome integrity and preventing cancer development. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes resulting in variation of DNA repair efficiency may therefore be associated with bladder cancer risk. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Brescia, Italy, to assess the relationship between polymorphisms in DNA repair genes XRCC1 (Arg(399)Gln), XRCC3 (Thr(241)Met), and XPD (Lys(751)Gln) and bladder cancer risk. A total of 201 male incident bladder cancer cases and 214 male controls with urological nonneoplastic diseases were recruited and frequency-matched on age, period, and hospital of recruitment. Detailed information was collected using a semistructured questionnaire on demographic, dietary, environmental, and occupational factors. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP analysis. The XRCC3 codon 241 variant genotype exhibited a protective effect against bladder cancer [odds ratio (OR), 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42-0.93], which was prominent among heavy smokers (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.88) but not among never and light smokers. No overall impact of the XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism was found (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.59-1.28), but a protective influence of the homozygous variant was suggested among heavy smokers (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.14-1.02). XPD polymorphisms did not show an association with bladder cancer (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.62-1.37). There was no statistical evidence of an interaction between these three genetic polymorphisms and either tobacco smoking or occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines. The XRCC3 codon 241 polymorphism had an overall protective effect against bladder cancer that was most apparent among heavy smokers. Similarly, the XRCC1 codon 399 polymorphism also had

  4. Advanced interpretation of land subsidence by validating multi-interferometric SAR data: the case study of the Anthemountas basin (Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raspini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of repeat-pass space borne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry has been exploited to investigate spatial patterns of land subsidence in the Anthemountas basin, in the northern part of Greece. The PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry approach, based on the processing of long series of SAR acquisitions, has been applied to forty-two images acquired in 1995–2001 by ERS1/2 satellites. Interferometric results have been analysed at a basin scale as support for land motion mapping and at a local scale for the characterisation of ground motion events affecting the village of Perea in the Thermaikos municipality and the "Macedonia" international airport. PSI results revealed a moderate subsidence phenomenon along the wider coastal zone of Anthemountas basin corresponding to intense groundwater extraction. Highest values, exceeding −20 mm yr−1, were measured in the airport area where the thickest sequence of compressible Quaternary sediments occurs. Intense subsidence has been detected also in the Perea village (maximum deformation of −10 to −15 mm yr−1, where a series of fractures, causing damages to both buildings and infrastructure, occurred in 2005–2006.

  5. Late Quaternary climatic and tectonic mechanisms driving river terrace development in an area of mountain uplift: A case study in the Langshan area, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liyun; Zhang, Xujiao; He, Zexin; He, Xiangli; Wu, Fadong; Zhou, Yiqun; Fu, Lianzhen; Zhao, Junxiang

    2015-04-01

    The Langshan Range is located in the western Yin Mountain orogenic belts and the western Hetao fault-depression zone in Inner Mongolia, northern China. This area is on the northwestern margin of the East Asian monsoon region. The fluvial terraces in the transverse drainage of the Langshan Range represent a primary geomorphic response to local tectonic uplift and climatic changes. The terrace evolution was reconstructed using a combination of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and terrace tread measurements. The terraces, designated T4 through T1, were abandoned at about 58.00, 46.25, 32.19, and 15.79 ka BP, respectively. Their aggradation occurred primarily during cold periods of the last glacial stage, and incision occurred primarily during shifts from cold to warm climate stages. Geomorphic analysis showed the terrace heights were controlled by the tectonic uplift in the area. Differences in river incision rates and terrace geomorphic features indicate that the uplift of the Langshan Range included a component of tilting north to south during the period of 58.00-41.28 ka BP, whereas the uplift of the Langshan area tended to be equal on a regional scale after 32.19 ka BP.

  6. A GIS-based automated procedure for landslide susceptibility mapping by the Conditional Analysis method: the Baganza valley case study (Italian Northern Apennines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Aldo; Perego, Susanna; Tellini, Claudio; Vescovi, Paolo

    2006-08-01

    Among the many GIS based multivariate statistical methods for landslide susceptibility zonation, the so called “Conditional Analysis method” holds a special place for its conceptual simplicity. In fact, in this method landslide susceptibility is simply expressed as landslide density in correspondence with different combinations of instability-factor classes. To overcome the operational complexity connected to the long, tedious and error prone sequence of commands required by the procedure, a shell script mainly based on the GRASS GIS was created. The script, starting from a landslide inventory map and a number of factor maps, automatically carries out the whole procedure resulting in the construction of a map with five landslide susceptibility classes. A validation procedure allows to assess the reliability of the resulting model, while the simple mean deviation of the density values in the factor class combinations, helps to evaluate the goodness of landslide density distribution. The procedure was applied to a relatively small basin (167 km2) in the Italian Northern Apennines considering three landslide types, namely rotational slides, flows and complex landslides, for a total of 1,137 landslides, and five factors, namely lithology, slope angle and aspect, elevation and slope/bedding relations. The analysis of the resulting 31 different models obtained combining the five factors, confirms the role of lithology, slope angle and slope/bedding relations in influencing slope stability.

  7. GIS-based assessment of land suitability for alfalfa cultivation: a case study in the dry continental steppes of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Deng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is the most valuable perennial forage grass in northern China. We selected 12 ecological criteria and 4 socioeconomic criteria to calculate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation in the Xilingol League of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. We combined ecological suitability assessment with fuzzy analysis to standardize the criteria. We used the analytical hierarchy process to determine the weight of these criteria, and used multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA to aggregate the criteria. We then calculated the suitability score for each evaluation unit. The suitability was divided into highly, moderately, and marginally suitable, or unsuitable, using the geoprocessing module of ArcGIS 9.3 according to the FAO land suitability classification. We found that highly suitable areas covered 10,799.84 km2, accounting for 5.3% of the total area, and unsuitable areas covered 99,235.87 km2, accounting for 48.9% of the total area. Combining the fuzzy analysis method with the theory of ecological suitability and the MCDA method to evaluate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation provided insights that can guide decisionmakers and farmers to make more practical and scientific decisions.

  8. Prioritizing erosion-prone areas in hills using remote sensing and GIS — a case study of the Sukhna Lake catchment, Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimali, S. S.; Aggarwal, S. P.; Samra, J. S.

    Traditionally, assessment of productivity of land took priority over all other aspects of evaluating land use performance. Presently, the effects of land use on the quality of the environment and environmental sustainability of production systems have become the major issues. In hills, the terrain conditions aggravate erosion-induced land degradation. Judicious allocation of available resources for sustainable production requires mapping, monitoring and prioritizing the areas based on their susceptibility to degradation. Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems are effective tools for inventory, monitoring and management of spatially distributed resources. This paper presents a case study of the 42 km 2 Sukhna Lake catchment in the Shiwalik hills conducted for the delineation and prioritization of erosion-prone areas using RS and Geographic Information Systems. Multi-spectral IRS ID-LISS III data acquired in March 1998 was used for the supervised digital classification of the land use/land cover type. The catchment was classified in six land use classes: forest, agriculture, scrub, barren hills, streambed and settlements. These classes were divided into sub-classes based on the cover characteristics. Using the U.S. Soil Conservation Service curve number method, runoff potential of each delineated hydrologic unit was computed in a grid-based analysis using an ARC/INFO GIS. Erosion-prone areas were classified further by integration of a digital elevation model or DEM-derived slope, aspect and flow length. To get an ordered priority of the erosion-prone areas, a cumulative erosion index was computed from the rating given to the three main causative factors, ie, slope, soil erodibility, and land cover, on a scale of 1-7 for each grid. The cumulative index was further classified in four classes for spatial representation of the erosion-prone areas on the catchment map. The study revealed that 32.9 percent of the catchment area is susceptible to high or very

  9. Does the Genotype Have a Significant Effect on the Formation of Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations? A Case Study Using Larix decidua from Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klisz, Marcin; Koprowski, Marcin; Ukalska, Joanna; Nabais, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) can imprint environmental conditions within the growing season and most of the research on IADFs has been focused on their climatic signal. However, to our knowledge, the genetic influence on the frequency and type of IADFs has not been evaluated. To understand if the genotype can affect the formation of IADFs we have used a common garden experiment using eight families of Larix decidua established in two neighboring forest stands in northern Poland. Four types of IADFs were identified using X-ray density profiles: latewood-like cells within earlywood (IADF-type E), latewood-like cells in the transition from early- to latewood (IADF type E+), earlywood-like cells within latewood (IADF-type L), and earlywood-like cells in the border zone between the previous and present annual ring (IADF-type L+). The influence of explanatory variables i.e., families, sites, and years on identified density fluctuations was analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). We hypothesized that trees from different families will differ in terms of frequency and type of IADFs because each family will react to precipitation and temperature in a different way, depending on the origin of those trees. The most frequent fluctuation was E+ and L types on both sites. The most important factors in the formation of IADFs were the site and year, the last one reflecting the variable climatic conditions, with no significant effect of the family. However, the relation between the formation of IADFs and selected climate parameters was different between families. Although, our results did not give a significant effect of the genotype on the formation of IADFs, the different sensitivity to climatic parameters among different families indicate that there is a genetic influence. PMID:27242883

  10. Does the Genotype Have a Significant Effect on the Formation of Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations? A Case Study Using Larix decidua from Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klisz, Marcin; Koprowski, Marcin; Ukalska, Joanna; Nabais, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) can imprint environmental conditions within the growing season and most of the research on IADFs has been focused on their climatic signal. However, to our knowledge, the genetic influence on the frequency and type of IADFs has not been evaluated. To understand if the genotype can affect the formation of IADFs we have used a common garden experiment using eight families of Larix decidua established in two neighboring forest stands in northern Poland. Four types of IADFs were identified using X-ray density profiles: latewood-like cells within earlywood (IADF-type E), latewood-like cells in the transition from early- to latewood (IADF type E+), earlywood-like cells within latewood (IADF-type L), and earlywood-like cells in the border zone between the previous and present annual ring (IADF-type L+). The influence of explanatory variables i.e., families, sites, and years on identified density fluctuations was analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). We hypothesized that trees from different families will differ in terms of frequency and type of IADFs because each family will react to precipitation and temperature in a different way, depending on the origin of those trees. The most frequent fluctuation was E+ and L types on both sites. The most important factors in the formation of IADFs were the site and year, the last one reflecting the variable climatic conditions, with no significant effect of the family. However, the relation between the formation of IADFs and selected climate parameters was different between families. Although, our results did not give a significant effect of the genotype on the formation of IADFs, the different sensitivity to climatic parameters among different families indicate that there is a genetic influence. PMID:27242883

  11. A modeling framework for integrated harvest and habitat management of North American waterfowl: Case-study of northern pintail metapopulation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, B.J.; Runge, M.C.; Devries, J.H.; Boomer, G.S.; Eadie, J.M.; Haukos, D.A.; Fleskes, J.P.; Koons, D.N.; Thogmartin, W.E.; Clark, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    We developed and evaluated the performance of a metapopulation model enabling managers to examine, for the first time, the consequences of alternative management strategies involving habitat conditions and hunting on both harvest opportunity and carrying capacity (i.e., equilibrium population size in the absence of harvest) for migratory waterfowl at a continental scale. Our focus is on the northern pintail (Anas acuta; hereafter, pintail), which serves as a useful model species to examine the potential for integrating waterfowl harvest and habitat management in North America. We developed submodel structure capturing important processes for pintail populations during breeding, fall migration, winter, and spring migration while encompassing spatial structure representing three core breeding areas and two core nonbreeding areas. A number of continental-scale predictions from our baseline parameterization (e.g., carrying capacity of 5.5 million, equilibrium population size of 2.9 million and harvest rate of 12% at maximum sustained yield [MSY]) were within 10% of those from the pintail harvest strategy under current use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. To begin investigating the interaction of harvest and habitat management, we examined equilibrium population conditions for pintail at the continental scale across a range of harvest rates while perturbing model parameters to represent: (1) a 10% increase in breeding habitat quality in the Prairie Pothole population (PR); and (2) a 10% increase in nonbreeding habitat quantity along in the Gulf Coast (GC). Based on our model and analysis, a greater increase in carrying capacity and sustainable harvest was seen when increasing a proxy for habitat quality in the Prairie Pothole population. This finding and underlying assumptions must be critically evaluated, however, before specific management recommendations can be made. To make such recommendations, we require (1) extended, refined submodels with additional

  12. The impacts of low-cost treatment options upon scale formation potential in remote communities reliant on hard groundwaters. A case study: Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of small, remote communities within the Northern Territory (NT) in Central Australia are reliant on groundwater as their primary supply of domestic, potable water. Saturation indices for a variety of relevant minerals were calculated using available thermodynamic speciation codes on collected groundwater data across the NT. These saturation indices were used to assess the theoretical formation of problematic mineral-scale, which manifests itself by forming stubborn coatings on domestic appliances and fixtures. The results of this research show that 63% of the measured sites within the NT have the potential to form calcium carbonate (CaCO3) scale, increasing to 91% in arid, central regions. The data also suggests that all groundwaters are over-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium-bridged ferric-silica polymers, based on the crystalline mineral index (Ca3Fe2Si3O12), although the quantitative impact of this scale is limited by low iron concentrations. An assessment of possible low-cost/low-technology management options was made, including; lowering the temperature of hot-water systems, diluting groundwater with rainwater and modifying the pH of the source water. Source water pH modification (generally a reduction to pH 7.0) was shown to clearly alleviate potential carbonate-based scale formation, over and above the other two options, albeit at a greater technical and capital expense. Although low-cost/low-technology treatment options are unlikely to remove severe scale-related issues, their place in small, remote communities with minor scale problems should be investigated further, owing to the social, technical and capital barriers involved with installing advanced treatment plants (e.g. reverse osmosis) in such locations. - Highlights: ► Scaling potential of small communities reliant on hard groundwaters were analysed. ► Oversaturation of carbonate- and silica-based minerals was widespread. ► Low-cost/-tech treatment options were assessed

  13. The Influence of Low-Frequency Noise Pollution on the Quality of Life and Place in Sustainable Cities: A Case Study from Northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Araújo Alves; Lígia Torres Silva; Paula Cristina C. Remoaldo

    2015-01-01

    Discussing urban planning requires rethinking sustainability in cities and building healthy environments. Historically, some aspects of advancing the urban way of life have not been considered important in city planning. This is particularly the case where technological advances have led to conflicting land use, as with the installation of power poles and building electrical substations near residential areas. This research aims to discuss and rethink sustainability in cities, focusing on the...

  14. The influence of low-frequency noise pollution on the quality of life and place in sustainable cities: a case study from northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, J. A.; Silva, Lígia Torres; Remoaldo, Paula Cristina Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Discussing urban planning requires rethinking sustainability in cities and building healthy environments. Historically, some aspects of advancing the urban way of life have not been considered important in city planning. This is particularly the case where technological advances have led to conflicting land use, as with the installation of power poles and building electrical substations near residential areas. This research aims to discuss and rethink sustainability in cities, focusing on the...

  15. Sustainable Development in Northern Africa: The Argan Forest Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dom Guillaume

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The argan tree is a slow growing tree exclusively endemic in the dry lowlands of Southwest Morocco. The argan forest constitutes a long time ignored specific biotope that has been declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1998. The argan forest is particularly fragile to climate change. Forecasts show annual precipitation levels and prolonged drought periods that could severely threaten the future of the argan forest. In some places, the argan forest is already damaged, resulting in the retreat of the argan tree and the subsequent desert encroachment. An acceleration of this trend would have devastating consequences. In response, some twenty years ago, an ambitious, unique in Northern-Africa, and government-supported program was initiated in Morocco to rescue the argan tree via the sustainable development of the argan forest. Because in the late 1980s, sustainable development in developing countries was often considered as a utopia, the argan forest case represents a sign of progress, as it is also an interesting and unique experience in Africa. This review analyses the process followed, the measures taken, the pitfalls encountered, and the results obtained during the last two decades. It also points out the measures that still need to be taken before declaring the argan forest rescue mission is accomplished.

  16. The impact of microbial ecology and chemical profile on the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process: a case study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamika, Ilunga; Coetzee, Martie; Mamba, Bhekie Brilliance; Msagati, Titus; Momba, Maggy N B

    2014-03-01

    The impact of polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO) and glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) populations as well as of the chemical profile on the performance of Unit-3 (open elutriation tanks) and Unit-5 (covered elutriation tank) of the City of Johannesburg Northern Wastewater Treatment Works was determined. Physicochemical parameters of wastewater samples were measured using standard methods. Bacterial diversity was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of the variable region V1-3. Results showed soluble COD concentrations from settled sewage for Unit-3 at 192.8 mg COD/L and for Unit-5 at 214.6 mg COD/L, which increased to 301.8 mg COD/L and 411.6 mg COD/L in the overflow from elutriation tanks and decreased to 170.9 mg COD/L and 256.3 mg COD/L at the division boxes, respectively. Both long-chain volatile fatty acids (heptanoic acid, isobutyric acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, pentanoic acid, 4-methylpentanoic acid, methylheptanoic acid) and short-chain volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid) were present within concentration ranges of 17.19 mg/L to 54.98 mg/L and 13.64 mg/L to 87.6 mg/L for Unit 3 and 38.61 mg/L to58.85 mg/L and 21.63 mg/L to 92.39 mg/L for Unit 5, respectively. In the secondary settling tanks, the phosphate-removal efficiency in Unit-5 appeared to be slightly higher (0.08 mg P/L) compared to that of Unit-3 (0.11 mg P/L). The average DO concentrations (2.1 mg/L and 2.2 mg/L) as well as the pH values (pH 7 to pH 7.5) were found to be slightly higher in Unit-5 in the aerobic zones. The high presence of PAOs in the bioreactors (Unit-5: Dechloromonas (14.96%), Acinetobacter (6.3%), Zoogloea (4.72%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (22.37 %) in the aerobic zone; Unit-3: Dechloromonas (37.25%) in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (23.97%) in the aerobic zone) confirmed the phosphate-removal efficiencies of both units. Negligible GAOs were found in the aerobic zones (Defluviicoccus spp.: 0.33% for

  17. The Impact of Microbial Ecology and Chemical Profile on the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR Process: A Case Study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilunga Kamika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO and glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO populations as well as of the chemical profile on the performance of Unit-3 (open elutriation tanks and Unit-5 (covered elutriation tank of the City of Johannesburg Northern Wastewater Treatment Works was determined. Physicochemical parameters of wastewater samples were measured using standard methods. Bacterial diversity was determined using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing of the variable region V1-3. Results showed soluble COD concentrations from settled sewage for Unit-3 at 192.8 mg COD/L and for Unit-5 at 214.6 mg COD/L, which increased to 301.8 mg COD/L and 411.6 mg COD/L in the overflow from elutriation tanks and decreased to 170.9 mg COD/L and 256.3 mg COD/L at the division boxes, respectively. Both long-chain volatile fatty acids (heptanoic acid, isobutyric acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, pentanoic acid, 4-methylpentanoic acid, methylheptanoic acid and short-chain volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid were present within concentration ranges of 17.19 mg/L to 54.98 mg/L and 13.64 mg/L to 87.6 mg/L for Unit 3 and 38.61 mg/L to58.85 mg/L and 21.63 mg/L to 92.39 mg/L for Unit 5, respectively. In the secondary settling tanks, the phosphate-removal efficiency in Unit-5 appeared to be slightly higher (0.08 mg P/L compared to that of Unit-3 (0.11 mg P/L. The average DO concentrations (2.1 mg/L and 2.2 mg/L as well as the pH values (pH 7 to pH 7.5 were found to be slightly higher in Unit-5 in the aerobic zones. The high presence of PAOs in the bioreactors (Unit-5: Dechloromonas (14.96%, Acinetobacter (6.3%, Zoogloea (4.72% in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (22.37 % in the aerobic zone; Unit-3: Dechloromonas (37.25% in the anaerobic zone and Dechloromonas (23.97% in the aerobic zone confirmed the phosphate-removal efficiencies of both units. Negligible GAOs were found in the aerobic zones (Defluviicoccus spp.: 0

  18. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  19. A geochemical and geophysical approach to derive a conceptual circulation model of CO2-rich mineral waters: A case study of Vilarelho da Raia, northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, J. M.; Santos, Monteiro; Graça, R. C.; Castro, R.; Aires-Barros, L.; Mendes Victor, L. A.

    2001-11-01

    The Vilarelho da Raia-Chaves region, located in northern Portugal adjacent to the Spanish border, is characterized by both hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters issuing from springs and drilled wells. The present paper updates the conceptual circulation model of the Vilarelho da Raia cold CO2-rich mineral waters. Vilarelho da Raia mineral waters, dominated by Na and HCO3 ions, have formed mainly by interaction with CO2 of deep-seated mantle origin. The δ18O, δ2H and 3H values indicate that these waters are the result of meteoric waters infiltrating into Larouco Mountain, NW of Vilarelho da Raia, circulating at shallow depths in granitic rocks and moving into Vilarelho da Raia area. The conceptual geochemical and geophysical circulation model indicates that the hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters of Chaves (76 °C) and Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) should be considered manifestations of similar but not the same geohydrological systems. Résumé. La région de Vilarelho da Raia - Chaves, située au Portugal près de la frontière Espagnole, est caractérisée par des eaux carbogazeuses, chaudes et froides, émergeant à des sources et dans des puits. Ce travail constitue une mise au point du modèle conceptuel de circulation des eaux minérales carbogazeuses froides de Vilarelho da Raia. Les eaux minérales de Vilarelho da Raia, dans lesquelles les ions Na and HCO3 sont dominants, résultent principalement d'interactions avec du CO2 d'origine mantellique. Les δ18O, les δ2H, et les teneurs en 3H indiquent que ces eaux proviennent de l'infiltration d'eaux météoriques dans le Mont Larouco au NW de Vilarelho da Raia, circulant à faible profondeur dans les granites en direction de la région de Vilarelho da Raia. Le modèle de circulation géochimique et géophysique conduit à penser que les eaux minérales carbogazeuses chaudes et froides de Chaves (76 °C) et de Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) doivent être considérées comme des manifestations de systèmes hydrog

  20. Vulnerability to climate change and conflict, its impact on livelihoods and the enjoyment of human rights : case study: pastoral communities in Northern Kenya (Turkana, Pokot and Samburu Districts)

    OpenAIRE

    Koske, Janet Chepngeno

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between climate change and conflict is a complex one. Violent conflicts involving pastoralists have become widespread and increasingly severe in the North Rift and North Eastern regions of Kenya. This study examines the factors contributing to such conflicts, and discusses issues and priorities for conflict prevention and peace building. The pastoralists in the three districts under study are largely nomadic. They live primarily in arid or semi-arid areas and d...

  1. Modeling of the pressure propagation due to CO2 injection and the effect of fault permeability in a case study of the Vedsted structure, Northern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Frykman, Peter; Nielsen, Carsten M.;

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the pressure buildup in CO2 storage sites and especially the vertical propagation is vital for evaluation of site behavior and security. Vedsted structure in the Northern part of Jylland in Denmark consists of 290m thick Gassum Formation at 2100m depth forming the primary reservoir and is...... potential risks associated with vertical pressure transmission via the faults through the caprock, a number of simulation cases have been run with various fault permeabilities spanning orders of magnitude to represent both the worst and best case scenarios. Fault rock permeability data were obtained from a...

  2. Ethno-botanical studies from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research paper efforts have been made to document the ethno-botanical knowledge of important plant species found in Northern Pakistan. It includes Thandiani, Galiat, Kaghan, Swat, Buner, Dir, Chitral and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The area has many climatic and vegetation zones or biomes. Locals residing in mountainous areas belonging to various ethnic groups are traditionally utilizing plants over many generations; these ethnic groups have their distinct life style, belief, traditions and cultural heritage. Plant collection and data regarding traditional uses in various areas of Northern Pakistan has been done periodically in different flowering /fruiting seasons. Locals of old age belonging to various ethnic groups were personally interviewed for establishing uses of plants. Photography is done for easy identification and habitat recognition. Collected plant specimens and seeds were preserved. Plant species were dried, mounted, identified and authenticated. Seventy six species were known to have traditional and ethno botanical uses. Plants have been utilized for many generations. Ethnic groups have distinct life style and have different economic uses for these plants. Due to unsustainable exploitation of natural habitats scarcity of drug plants has occurred. As consequence some species are depleting and may become extinct in near future, e. g. Morchella esculenta, Colchicum lueteum and Viola serpens are just a few of these. Although some sporadic information is available about the flora of this region but very little documented record of the ethno-botanically important plants has been established. It is expected that this research paper will be beneficial for students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public. On the basis of data obtained it is concluded that ethno-botanical Flora of Northern Pakistan is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. (author)

  3. Neotectonics of the Inner Western Carpathians: Liptovský Ján area, case study (northern slopes of the Nízke Tatry Mts., Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Littva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The neotectonic study results of the Liptovský Ján area and its implications for neotectonic development of the Inner Western Carpathians are presented. A broad spectrum of methods was used e.g., geological mapping, structural analysis, boreholes log data, morphotectonic analyses, transverse valley profiles, and orientation of cave corridors. Three groups of normal faults active during the Quaternary were identified. The youngest faults are oriented generally in the N–S direction. The older fault groups are represented by the WNWESE and NE–SW directions as well. The successive arrangement of faults suggests change of the stress field from the N–S to the E–W oriented extensional axes under the tension condition in the study area during the Pleistocene. Comparison of obtained results with other studies revealed that stress field within the Inner Western Carpathians realm was changed during the Quaternary, from tension oriented generally in N–S direction to orogen-parallel extension i.e. parallel to the Inner Western Carpathian arc.

  4. Isotopic and hydrogeochemical characterization of high-altitude karst aquifers in complex geological settings. The Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park (Northern Spain) case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park, located in the Southern Pyrenees, constitutes the highest karst system in Western Europe. No previous studies regarding its geochemical and isotopic groundwater characterization are available in this area. This work presents the results of field and sampling campaigns carried out between July 2007 and September 2013. The groundwater presents high calcium bicarbonate contents due to the occurrence of upper Cretaceous and lower Paleocene–Eocene carbonate materials in the studied area. Other relevant processes include dissolution of anhydrite and/or gypsum and incongruent dissolution of Mg-limestone and dolomite. The water stable isotopes (δ18O, δ2H) show that the oceanic fronts from the Atlantic Ocean are responsible for the high levels of precipitation. In autumn, winter, and spring, a deuterium excess is found in the recharge water, which could be related to local atmospheric transport of low-altitude snow sublimation vapour and its later condensation on the snow surface at higher altitude, where recharge is mostly produced. The recharge zones are mainly between 2500 m and 3200 m a.s.l. The tritium content of the water suggests short groundwater transit times. The isotopic composition of dissolved sulphate points to the existence of regional fluxes mixed with local discharge in some of the springs. This work highlights the major role played by the altitude difference between the recharge and discharge zones in controlling the chemistry and the vertical variability of the isotopic composition in high-altitude karst aquifers. - Highlights: • Environmental tracers are essential to study complex alpine karst aquifers. • The long presence of snow controls the deuterium excess in groundwater. • Seasonal δD content in springs depends on gap between recharge and discharge points. • The first hydrogeological characterization of the Ordesa National Park is presented. • Sulphate content in springs comes from material

  5. Isotopic and hydrogeochemical characterization of high-altitude karst aquifers in complex geological settings. The Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park (Northern Spain) case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambán, L.J., E-mail: javier.lamban@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain (IGME) (Spain); Jódar, J., E-mail: jorge.jodar@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Custodio, E., E-mail: emilio.custodio@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Soler, A., E-mail: albertsoler@ub.edu [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament Cristal lografia Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona (UB) (Spain); Sapriza, G., E-mail: g.sapriza@usask.ca [Global Institute for Water Security, National Hydrology Research Centre (Canada); Soto, R., E-mail: r.soto@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain (IGME) (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    The Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park, located in the Southern Pyrenees, constitutes the highest karst system in Western Europe. No previous studies regarding its geochemical and isotopic groundwater characterization are available in this area. This work presents the results of field and sampling campaigns carried out between July 2007 and September 2013. The groundwater presents high calcium bicarbonate contents due to the occurrence of upper Cretaceous and lower Paleocene–Eocene carbonate materials in the studied area. Other relevant processes include dissolution of anhydrite and/or gypsum and incongruent dissolution of Mg-limestone and dolomite. The water stable isotopes (δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 2}H) show that the oceanic fronts from the Atlantic Ocean are responsible for the high levels of precipitation. In autumn, winter, and spring, a deuterium excess is found in the recharge water, which could be related to local atmospheric transport of low-altitude snow sublimation vapour and its later condensation on the snow surface at higher altitude, where recharge is mostly produced. The recharge zones are mainly between 2500 m and 3200 m a.s.l. The tritium content of the water suggests short groundwater transit times. The isotopic composition of dissolved sulphate points to the existence of regional fluxes mixed with local discharge in some of the springs. This work highlights the major role played by the altitude difference between the recharge and discharge zones in controlling the chemistry and the vertical variability of the isotopic composition in high-altitude karst aquifers. - Highlights: • Environmental tracers are essential to study complex alpine karst aquifers. • The long presence of snow controls the deuterium excess in groundwater. • Seasonal δD content in springs depends on gap between recharge and discharge points. • The first hydrogeological characterization of the Ordesa National Park is presented. • Sulphate content in springs comes

  6. Characteristics of attempted suicide by patients with schizophrenia compared with those with mood disorders: a case-controlled study in northern Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Ishii

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest a lifetime suicide risk for schizophrenia patients of approximately 5%. This figure is significantly higher than the general population suicide risk consequently, detection of those at risk is clinically important. This study was undertaken to define the characteristics of suicide attempts by schizophrenia patients compared with attempts by patients with mood disorders. All patients were diagnosed using the ICD-10 criteria. The study population comprised 65 patients with F2 disorders (schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, i.e., "the F2 group", and 94 patients with F3 disorders (mood disorders, i.e., "the F3 group", who presented in the clinical setting of consultation-liaison psychiatry. The F2 group had a significantly younger mean age and significantly higher ratios of 'past/present psychiatric treatment' and 'more than 3 months interruption of psychiatric treatment'. In contrast, the ratios of 'physical disorder comorbidity', 'alcohol intake at suicide attempt' and 'suicide note left behind' were significantly higher in the F3 group. The F2 group attempted suicide by significantly more serious methods. Furthermore, 'hallucination-delusion' was the most prevalent motive in the F2 group and was the only factor that showed a significant association with the seriousness of the method of suicide attempt (OR = 3.36, 95% CI: 1.05-11.33.

  7. Is blue intensity ready to replace maximum latewood density as a strong temperature proxy? A tree-ring case study on Scots pine from northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Björklund

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available At high latitudes, where low temperatures mainly limit tree-growth, measurements of wood density (e.g. Maximum Latewood Density, MXD using the X-Ray methodology provide a temperature proxy that is superior to that of TRW. Density measurements are however costly and time consuming and have lead to experimentation with optical flatbed scanners to produce Maximum Blue Intensity (BImax. BImax is an excellent proxy for density on annual scale but very limited in skill on centennial scale. Discolouration between samples is limiting BImax where specific brightnesses can have different densities. To overcome this, the new un-exploited parameter Δ blue intensity (ΔBI was constructed by using the brightness in the earlywood (BIEW as background, (BImax − BIEW = ΔBI. This parameter was tested on X-Ray material (MXD − earlywood density = ΔMXD and showed great potential both as a quality control and as a booster of climate signals. Unfortunately since the relationship between grey scale and density is not linear, and between-sample brightness can differ tremendously for similar densities, ΔBI cannot fully match ΔMXD in skill as climate proxy on centennial scale. For ΔBI to stand alone, the range of brightness/density offset must be reduced. Further studies are needed to evaluate this possibility, and solutions might include heavier sample treatment (reflux with chemicals or image-data treatment (digitally manipulating base-line levels of brightness.

  8. New data concerning the early middle miocene on the southern slopes of Fruška Gora (Northern Serbia: A case study from the Mutalj quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundić Ljupko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, geological research at the southern slopes of Fruška Gora Mt. enabled the discovery of different Miocene units (undivided the Lower Miocene and Middle Miocene Badenian, predominantly. This is primarily thinking of the so-called Leitha limestone (Middle Miocene, Badenian, which is an important component in cement production (La Farge Co., Beočin. The high carbonate content (more than 98 % allows it to be a very important raw material that is mixed with Pannonian marl in the process of cement manufacture. Continuous exploitation of this rock at the Mutalj Quarry enabled an insight into its structural, stratigraphic, sedimentological and hydrogeological features, as well as its relation to the other underlying/overlying units. Numerous fossils (i.e., red algae, mollusks, corals, bryozoans, and foraminifers and their biostratigraphic range indicate to Middle Miocene Badenian age. Based on data from different boreholes, structural and sedimentological characteristics, spatial distribution, etc., a relatively large rock body was discovered (approx. 0.3 km2. Within these Leitha limestones, there are frequent cracks and caverns infilled with fine lateritic clays and alevrites. These clays were sampled for a paleomagnetic study. The carrier of the primary remanent magnetization (RM is magnetite that has a primary origin. Lateritic clays are characterized by significant value of magnetic susceptibility. The degree of anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS is low with the dominant magnetic foliation.

  9. A methodology for analysing temporal changes of forest surface using aerial photos for the application of Kyoto protocol: a study case in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvadori I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol, Italy, like other Parties included in Annex I, shall report the net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from afforestation, reforestation and deforestation activities (ARD. To evaluate these activities, Italy has to elaborate methods to estimate the conversion of non-forested to forested land, occurred after 31 December 1989. The aim of this study was to test a methodology to estimate the ARD activities. The approach was experimented in the Comunità Montana del Grappa (about 10500 ha considered as a pilot area in the Prealpine region (NE Italy. The land-use change relative to the forest area was assessed by multitemporal classification of 1131 sampling points on orthocorrected aerial photos relative to 1991, 1996 and 1999. The forest area based on different definitions (minimum land cover equal to 10%, 20% or 30% and minimum surface equal to 2000 m2 or 5000 m2 was also assessed. Between 1991 and 1999, the total increment of the forest area was equal to 224 ha. However, the estimated increment was strongly related to the minimum surface (2000 m2 vs 5000 m2 of the forest definition. The proposed procedure was relatively easy to implement and highlighted the role of ARD and revegetation to attain the goals appointed from the Kyoto Protocol.

  10. The role of the contribution of the whole sea energy on pollution distribution and biocenosis quality: a case study in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, Simone; Piermattei, Viviana; Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco; Mancini, Emanuele; Cognetti de Martiis, Selvaggia; Madonia, Alice; Martellucci, Riccardo; Stefanì, Chiara; Pierattini, Alberto; Scanu, Sergio; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Marine sediments and benthic biocenosis record, at different spatial and temporal scales, natural and anthropogenic processes that occur in the water column. The coastal area of Civitavecchia, in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy, presents valuable marine and coastal ecosystems, which are subject to pollution due to the presence of potentially impactful uses of the coastline (the most important port for traffic passenger in the Mediterranean sea and one of the biggest energy production site in Europe) that overlap with the presence of natural geogenic anomalies related to the concentrations of some trace elements. The C-CEMS monitoring system, currently available in the study area, is able to perform the analysis of pollutants dispersion in coastal waters using in situ and remote observations coupled with numerical models simulations . In particular, water column parameters trends and the distribution of both benthic biocenosis and pollutants from natural sources and human activities in the water column can be assessed. This work focuses on the distribution patterns of pollutants and its relationship with the distribution of the benthic community in relation to biocenosis. Moreover, this work presents a first attempt to relate the whole sea energy contribution, which has effects on both the deposition of fine material and pollutants associated with it, and the distribution of communities, in terms of "exosomatic energy" (sensu Margalef).

  11. Remote Sensing Estimates of Grassland Aboveground Biomass Based on MODIS Net Primary Productivity (NPP: A Case Study in the Xilingol Grassland of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The precise and rapid estimation of grassland biomass is an important scientific issue in grassland ecosystem research. In this study, based on a field survey of 1205 sites together with biomass data of the Xilingol grassland for the years 2005–2012 and the “accumulated” MODIS productivity starting from the beginning of growing season, we built regression models to estimate the aboveground biomass of the Xilingol grassland during the growing season, then further analyzed the overall condition of the grassland and the spatial and temporal distribution of the aboveground biomass. The results are summarized as follows: (1 The unitary linear model based on the field survey data and “accumulated” MODIS productivity data is the optimum model for estimating the aboveground biomass of the Xilingol grassland during the growing period, with the model accuracy reaching 69%; (2 The average aboveground biomass in the Xilingol grassland for the years 2005–2012 was estimated to be 14.35 Tg, and the average aboveground biomass density was estimated to be 71.32 g∙m−2; (3 The overall variation in the aboveground biomass showed a decreasing trend from the eastern meadow grassland to the western desert grassland; (4 There were obvious fluctuations in the aboveground biomass of the Xilingol grassland for the years 2005–2012, ranging from 10.56–17.54 Tg. Additionally, several differences in the interannual changes in aboveground biomass were observed among the various types of grassland. Large variations occurred in the temperate meadow-steppe and the typical grassland; whereas there was little change in the temperate desert-steppe and temperate steppe-desert.

  12. Turbulence associated with mountain waves over Northern Scandinavia – a case study using the ESRAD VHF radar and the WRF mesoscale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kirkwood

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We use measurements by the 52 MHz wind-profiling radar ESRAD, situated near Kiruna in Arctic Sweden, and simulations using the Advanced Research and Weather Forecasting model, WRF, to study vertical winds and turbulence in the troposphere in mountain-wave conditions on 23 , 24 and 25 January 2003. We find that WRF can accurately match the vertical wind signatures at the radar site when the spatial resolution for the simulations is 1 km. The horizontal and vertical wavelengths of the dominating mountain-waves are ∼10–20 km and the amplitudes in vertical wind 1–2 m/s. Turbulence below 5500 m height, is seen by ESRAD about 40% of the time. This is a much higher rate than WRF predictions for conditions of Richardson number (Ri >1 but similar to WRF predictions of Ri>2. WRF predicts that air crossing the 100 km wide model domain centred on ESRAD has a ∼10% chance of encountering convective instabilities (Ri>0. somewhere along the path. The cause of low Ri is a combination of wind-shear at synoptic upper-level fronts and perturbations in static stability due to the mountain-waves. Comparison with radiosondes suggests that WRF underestimates wind-shear and the occurrence of thin layers with very low static stability, so that vertical mixing by turbulence associated with mountain waves may be significantly more than suggested by the model.

  13. Nature conservation on agricultural land: a case study of the endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris breeding at Koobabbie in the northern wheatbelt of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Saunders

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature conservation and agricultural production may be considered as conflicting objectives, but for a wheat and sheep property in Western Australia they have been pivotal management objectives for the last 48 years. Koobabbie, a 7,173 ha property, has retained 41.5% of the original native vegetation, and is a designated Important Bird Area by BirdLife Australia, while still being an economically profitable agricultural enterprise. Since 1987 the owners of Koobabbie have kept detailed records of the avifauna of the property, and encouraged staff from government, non-government and academic organisations to conduct research and monitoring of the endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris breeding on their property. In addition, they have instituted control programs for two over-abundant cockatoo species which compete with Carnaby’s Cockatoo for nest sites, and for Feral Cats that are predators of nesting female Carnaby’s Cockatoo and their offspring. This paper presents the results of research and monitoring from 2003-2013, during which seven artificial nesting hollows were erected, and former active nest hollows that had become derelict were repaired. By 2008, the number of breeding pairs on the property was at least 27, but two mass deaths of breeding females in 2009 and 2012 reduced the number of breeding pairs by 80%. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring conservation on private property, and raises a number of issues in relation to management of endangered species dependent on large hollow-bearing trees on private property.

  14. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. The use of ambient air quality modeling to estimate individual and population exposure for human health research: a case study of ozone in the Northern Georgia Region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L

    2006-07-01

    Ambient monitors are commonly used to estimate exposure for epidemiological studies, and air quality modeling is infrequently applied. However air quality modeling systems have the potential to alleviate some, although not all, of the limitations of monitoring networks. To investigate this application, exposure estimates were generated for a case study high ozone episode in the Northern Georgia Region of the United States based on measurements and concentration estimates from an air quality modeling system. Hourly estimates for 2268 4-km by 4-km gridcells were generated in a domain that includes only eight ozone monitors. Individual and population-based ozone exposures were estimated using multiple approaches, including area-weighted average of modeled estimates, nearest monitor, and spatial interpolation by inverse distance weighting and kriging. Results based on concentration fields from the air quality modeling system revealed spatial heterogeneity that was obscured by approaches based on the monitoring network. With some techniques, such as spatial interpolation, monitoring data alone was insufficient to estimate exposure for certain areas, especially for rural populations. For locations far from ozone monitors, the estimates from the nearest monitor approach tended to overestimate exposure, compared to modeled estimates. Counties in which one or more monitors were present had statistically higher population density and modeled ozone estimates than did counties without monitors (p-value <0.05). This work demonstrates the use of air quality modeling to generate higher spatial and temporal resolution exposure estimates, and compares the advantages of this approach to traditional methods that use monitoring data alone. The air quality modeling method faces its own limitations, such as the need to thoroughly evaluate concentration estimates and the use of ambient levels rather than personal exposure. PMID:16516968

  16. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  17. SELECTING THE OPTIMUM LOCATION TO ESTABLISH MUNICIPAL FACILITIES USING GIS AND FUZZY AHP : A CASE STUDY IN ESTABLISHING A SYSTEM OF SEGREGATION AND DISPOSAL OF WASTE IN SELECTED CITIES IN KHORASAN RAZAVI AND NORTHERN KHORASAN PROVINCES

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein GHAMARI; JAHANBAKHSH, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Today, the issue of waste disposal in urban communities has become an inevitable problem for city officials and managers. Selecting an appropriate place to bury waste with segregated mechanized system with regard to economic, social and environmental considerations is of great importance. The study area was Khorasan Razavi and northern Khorasan provinces with a population of 876.417 people in 2013 daily generate 1825 tons of waste that the current location of landfills in the cities...

  18. Echovirus 30 associated with cases of aseptic meningitis in state of Pará, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyla Maria Oeiras de Castro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the aetiology of viral meningitis in Brazil is most often restricted to cases that occur in the Southern and Southeastern Regions; therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe the viral meningitis cases that occurred in state of Pará, Northern Brazil, from January 2005-December 2006. The detection of enterovirus (EV in cerebrospinal fluid was performed using cell culture techniques, RT-PCR, nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The ages of the 91 patients ranged from 60 years old (median age 15.90 years. Fever (87.1%, headache (77.0%, vomiting (61.5% and stiffness (61.5% were the most frequent symptoms. Of 91 samples analyzed, 18 (19.8% were positive for EV. Twelve were detected only by RT- PCR followed by nested PCR, whereas six were found by both cell culture and RT-PCR. From the last group, five were sequenced and classified as echovirus 30 (Echo 30. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Echo 30 detected in Northern Brazil clustered within a unique group with a bootstrap value of 100% and could constitute a new subgroup (4c according to the phylogenetic tree described by Oberste et al. (1999. This study described the first molecular characterization of Echo 30 in Brazil and this will certainly contribute to future molecular analyses involving strains detected in other regions of Brazil.

  19. Northern Lights Chase Tours : Experiences from Northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bertella, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the development of northern lights chase tourism, a particular type of northern lights tourism consisting in guided tours that have the goal to find good views of the northern lights. The theoretical approach is based on the understanding of the northern lights experience as a visual experience, and on the recognition of the tourism practitioners as the driving force to new product development. The empirical case concerns the recent development of northern lights chas...

  20. Forecasting method of ice blocks fall by logistic model and melting degree-days calculation: a case study in northern Gaspésie, Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Francis; Hétu, Bernard; Allard, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Ice blocks fall is a serious natural hazard that frequently happens in mountainous cold region. The ice blocks result from the melting and collapse of rockwall icings (ice walls or frozen waterfalls). Environment Canada weather data were analysed for 440 cases of ice blocks fall events reported in northern Gaspésie by the "Ministère des Transports du Québec" (M.T.Q.). The analysis shows that the ice blocks fall are mainly controlled by an increase of the air temperature above 0oC. The melting degree-days (DDmelt) can be used to follow the temperature variations and the heat transfer into the ice bodies. Furthermore, large daily temperature changes, especially drastic drops of temperatures and freeze-thaw cycles, can induce enough mechanical stress to favour the opening of cracks and possibly cause the collapse of unstable ice structures such as freestanding ice formations. By following the evolution of the DDmelt and the best logistic model, it is possible to forecast the collapse of some of the most problematic rockwall icings and target the most hazardous periods along the northern Gaspésie roads.

  1. A new case of zoonotic onchocercosis in northern Kyushu, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Masako; Uni, Shigehiko; Otsuka, Yasushi; Eshita, Yuki; Nakatani, Jun; Ihara, Kazuhiko; Yoshikawa, Yasuji; Goto, Mizuki; Fujiwara, Sakuhei; Ramli, Rosli; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    A case of zoonotic onchocercosis has been found in a resident who lived in Iizuka City, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan for some time. A 24-year-old male developed a painful nodule on the middle finger of his right hand. The nodule was surgically removed from the vagina fibrosa tendinis of the finger at Beppu Medical Center, Beppu City, Oita Prefecture in 2012. The causative agent was identified as a female Onchocerca dewittei japonica based on its histopathological characteristics. The identity of the filarioid has been confirmed by sequencing the cox1 gene. The present study indicates that the zoonotic onchocercosis caused by O. dewittei japonica has been concentrated in northeast Kyushu. PMID:26209456

  2. Northern perspectives on medical elective tourism: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Sarah; Kuper, Ayelet; Richardson, Lisa; Cameron, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. Methods: We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers with roots in northern and southern Canada brought perspectives to the inductive analysis. Results: We conducted 17 semistructured interviews between February and March 2014. Participants felt that southern trainees were inadequately educated in northern politics, society and history. They identified 2 more themes: determinants of health affecting the local Aboriginal population, and provider and patient factors affecting delivery of culturally competent care. Participants also shared ideas on how best to implement this content into curricula. Interpretation: Providing culturally competent care to northern communities is a complex process requiring education. Using a collaborative method, we were able to delineate the experiences of members of a northern community and identify knowledge gaps of southern trainees travelling there. Our results provide a foundation for the content and structure of formal predeparture curricula to enable such trainees to provide culturally safe care. PMID:27398374

  3. Environmental assessment and viable interdependence: the Great Whale River case in northern Quebec (First Nations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulvihill, P. R.

    1997-12-31

    This study is based on the belief that environmental assessment (EA) can be supportive of viable interdependence between regions and cultures. The central focus is on the scoping stage of the EA conducted for the proposed Great Whale hydroelectric project in northern Quebec. The evaluative framework consists of 16 criteria divided into three interrelated categories, i.e. substantive, general process-oriented and specific process-oriented. The specific process-oriented criteria constitute the primary analytical focus and are the subject of five separate sub-analysis, which reveal various strengths and weaknesses in the performance of the case study. It was concluded that environmental assessment in an intercultural setting is largely within the control of EA panels and the key shortcoming of the process, namely the lack of dialogue between the proponents and the intervenors, could be addressed by making public hearings more dynamic and interactive.

  4. Island cities: the case of Belfast, Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royle Stephen A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers Belfast as an ‘island city’ with reference to issues of identity and economy and especially in connection with a series of statements from the ‘Futures of Islands’ briefing document prepared for the IGU’s Commission on Islands meeting in Kraków in August 2014. Belfast as a contested space, a hybrid British/Irish city on the island of Ireland, exemplifies well how ‘understandings of the past condition the future’, whilst the Belfast Agreement which brought the Northern Ireland peace process to its culmination after decades of violence known as the ‘Troubles’ speaks to ‘island ways of knowing, of comprehending problems - and their solutions’. Finally, Belfast certainly demonstrates that ‘island peoples shape their contested futures’

  5. Study of apolipoproteinc3 Sstl polymorphism in healthy volunteers from Northern India

    OpenAIRE

    Chhabra, S; Agarwal, D P; Vasisht, S.; Luthra, K; Narang, R.; Manchanda, S C; Srivastava, L. M.; Das, N.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies including a small case-control (hypertriglyceridemic/normotriglyceridemic individuals) study by us revealed close association between rare S2 allele ofAPOC3 Sstl polymorphism and hypertriglyceridemia. With the understanding that Asian Indians are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of hypertriglyceridemia, we extended the investigation and studied the frequency distribution of this polymorphism in 216 healthy volunteers from Northern plains of India. We found that more th...

  6. NORTHERN OHIO AEROSOL STUDY: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A consortium of Universities, located in northwest Ohio have received funds to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of land applied biosolids in that state. This USDA funded study includes observing land application practices and evaluating biosolids, soils, runoff water and bioaer...

  7. [Three recent cases of ascariasis in northern Kyushu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiya, K; Tsukamoto, M; Unoki, H; Sujita, K; Mori, N; Miki, T; Yokoyama, M

    1988-03-01

    Ascariasis is considered to be one of the rare infectious diseases in Japan, but recently it has been slightly increasing. This paper reports three ascariasis cases who seemed to be infected recently in the Kitakyushu area, Japan. Case 1: A 59-year-old woman in Kitakyushu City passed a round worm after continuous abdominal pain. The patient was discharged from the hospital because of no further abnormal intestinal symptoms and findings. Case 2: An 85-year-old woman in Nakama City, who suffered from cerebral infarction, vomited a round worm before hospitalization. Many ascarid eggs were detected after admission, and after treatment with pyrantel pamoate (Combantrin) two round worms were passed and egg detection became negative. Case 3: A 77-year-old man in Saikawa Town vomited 3 round worms after gastrectomy due to early gastric cancer. Many unfertilized eggs were also detected from the stool together with hook worm eggs, but no eggs were found after administration of pyrantel pamoate. Morphological examination was made by a scanning electron microscope on the denticles on the dentigerous lip ridges of the worms to differentiate from possible infection with a pig parasite, Ascaris suum. The three cases were diagnosed as ascariasis due to human Ascaris lumbricoides based on the following evidences that the expelled worms had 1) less pointed tips of the denticles and shallower or wider interdenticle notches, and 2) far more denticles of smaller size along the dentigerous ridges, compared with Ascaris suum. The necessity of differentiating pig- from human-ascarids, when considering human infection with Ascaris suum, is discussed. PMID:3368668

  8. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  9. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Northern Jordan: Endoscopy based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori infection is considered the most common infection worldwide and is associated with many other disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this infection among patients undergoing endoscopy in Northern Jordan. Between November 1998 and September 2000, all patients referred from the Gastro-esophageal Clinic to the Endoscopy Unit at Princess Basma Teaching Hospital, Irbid, Northern Jordan were enrolled in this prospective study. For each patient clinical and epidemiological data was collected and endoscopy was performed. At least 3 antral biopsies were obtained from each patient, and these were examined histologically for the presence of gastritis and stained for Helicobacter pylori using modified Giemsa stain. A total of 197 consecutive patients (113 females) with a mean age of 40.2 years (range 15-91 years) were studied. Abdominal pain was the highest presenting symptom. Gastritis 91% and esophagitis 42% were the most frequent endoscopic findings. Gastritis was documented histologically in 183 (93%) of patients. Helicobacter pylori was found in 161 patients (82%), with all of these having histological gastritis. The 11 patients with gastric ulcer, compared to the 51 out of the 59 (86%) patients with duodenal ulcer, showed Helicobacter pylori in their biopsies. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients subjected to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Jordan is high. This study confirms that Helicobacter pylori is significantly associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer. Further studies are needed to determine the types of Helicobacter pylori strains present in Jordan. (author)

  10. Element geochemistry of weathering profile of dolomitite and its implications for the average chemical composition of the upper-continental crust——Case studies from the Xinpu profile, northern Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季宏兵; 欧阳自远; 王世杰; 周德全

    2000-01-01

    Geochemical behavior of chemical elements is studied in a dolomitite weathering profile in upland of karst terrain in northern Guizhou. Two stages can be recognized during the process of in situ weathering of dolomitite: the stage of sedentary accumulation of leaching residue of dolomitite and the stage of chemical weathering evolution of sedentary soil. Ni, Cr, Mo, W and Ti are the least mobile elements with reference to Al. The geochemical behavior of REE is similar to that observed in weathering of other types of rocks. Fractionation of REE is noticed during weathering, and the two layers of REE enrichments are thought to result from downward movement of the weathering front in response to changes in the environment. It is considered that the chemistry of the upper part of the profile, which was more intensively weathered, is representative of the mobile components of the upper curst at the time the dolomitite was formed, while the less weathered lower profile is chemically representative of the immo

  11. Element geochemistry of weathering profile of dolomitite and its implications for the average chemical composition of the upper-continental crust--Case studies from the Xinpu profile,northern Guizhou Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Geochemical behavior of chemical elements is studied in a dolomitite weathering profile in upland of karst terrain in northern Guizhou.Two stages can be recognized during the process of in situ weathering of dolomitite:the stage of sedentary accumulation of leaching residue of dolomitite and the stage of chemical weathering evolution of sedentary soil.Ni,Cr,Mo,W and Ti are the least mobile elements with reference to Al.The geochemical behavior of REE is similar to that observed in weathering of other types of rocks.Fractionation of REE is noticed during weathering,and the two layers of REE enrichments are thought to result from downward movement of the weathering front in response to changes in the environment.It is considered that the chemistry of the upper part of the profile,which was more intensively weathered,is representative of the mobile components of the upper curst at the time the dolomitite was formed,while the less weathered lower profile is chemically representative of the immobile constitution.Like glacial till and loess,the "insoluble" materials in carbonate rocks originating from chemical sedimentation may also provide valuable information about the average chemical composition of the upper continental crust.

  12. Distribution, origin and evolution of hypothesized mud volcanoes, thumbprint terrain, small mounds and giant polygons: Implications for sedimentary processes in the northern lowlands of Mars: Case study from the Acidalia Planitia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, Csilla; Hauber, Ernst; van Gasselt, Stephan; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Skinner, James, Jr.

    2016-04-01

    This study is part of the activities of an ISSI International Team, which intends to produce new geomorphological maps of the northern lowlands of Mars along three long traverses across Acidalia, Utopia, and Arcadia Planitiae [1]. This specific study focuses on mounds of different sizes: Large Pitted Mounds (LPM), Thumbprint Terrain (TPT), Small Mounds (SM) as well as km-sized, giant polygons (GP) [2,3]. These landforms were formed on the Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) Marginal and Interior Units, which are interpreted as outflow channel deposits or sediments of a hypothesized ocean. The aim of our study is to map the above mentioned features in the northern lowlands and establish a formational history and stratigraphy of landforms using morphological observations and geostatistics in Acidalia Planitia. Our study is based on CTX mosaics (6 m/pixel) and we also used data from HiRISE (0.25 m/px), HRSC (images >10 m/px, HRSC- derived Digital Elevation Models [DEM], grid size 50-200 m), MOLA DEM (~460 m/px), and THEMIS Nighttime IR (~100 m/px). The TPT appears north of about 30°N in the termination zones of the Chryse outflow channels and shows a transition zone with the LPMs at around 36°N in Acidalia Planitia. North of 39°N, only LPM can be observed. LPM are typically surrounded by topographic moats. Sometimes more than 75% of a mound can be covered or embayed by „plain filling material" of varying thickness. The LPM are observed in the same area as large-scale polygon troughs (buried and fresh) associated with circular-shaped small mounds (SM). The SM are located from 34°N to 48°N, completely overlapping the area of LPM and partly the TPT. These features are randomly distributed, but commonly arranged in clusters. Their domical shape with the central pit shows morphological resemblance with the LPM. These features characterize the area from 35 N° to 61 N° and completely disappear in the Acidalia Colles region. The mapping results show a morphological

  13. Increasing lazy gas well production : a field wide case history in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.J. [Clariant Oil Services, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Gas well fluid loading is a common problem in mature natural gas fields. While many methods exist to overcome the accumulation of liquid in a gas well, there is no common method to all wells. Most techniques strive to increase the velocity of gas production to lift water and reduce loading, or to reduce the critical velocity. Mechanical methods include plunger lift, rods, electrical submersible pumps (ESP) and swabbing operations. This study focused on chemical addition to unload liquids from gas wells. It is amongst the first to report chemical deliquification in the Canadian oil patch. This paper described some of the unique challenges associated with this, and provided details on the chemistry of finished foamer products and manufacturing processes. A case history from a single property in northern Alberta was presented to demonstrate the field wide application of this technology. The paper also summarized the design criteria for a selection of remediation chemistries and methodologies used to counter the production decline occurring as a result of water production. Chemical deliquification involves cleaning the wells with a combination batch asphaltene solvent, followed by a very pervasive foam forming chemical to unload the high solids content and scale deposition. Chemical deliquification was shown to add significant value by increasing production by 33 per cent with an insignificant associated chemical cost. The results are application to enhanced recovery in the shale gas and coalbed methane (CBM) fields being produced across North America. 30 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may be...... achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  15. The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Northern China: a prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    Full Text Available AIMS & BACKGROUNDS: Although inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are emerging and increasing in China, epidemiologic data are rarely available. This study was to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of IBD in Northern China. METHODS: This is a prospective, population-based study of incidence of IBD in Daqing, Heilongjiang province of Northern China from March 1, 2012 to February 28, 2013. All incident patients with IBD were clinically identified by IBD specialist group from five main General Hospitals covering the healthcare service for 1,343,364 residents in the urban areas of Daqing. IBD cases included in this study were followed-up for three months for diagnosis confirmation. RESULTS: A total of 27 new IBD cases including 25 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC and 2 cases of Crohn's disease (CD were identified. The population at risk was 1,343,364 person years. Age-adjusted incidence for total IBD, CD and UC were 1.77, 0.13, and 1.64 per 100,000 population, respectively. A male predominance was found in CD patients (male to female ratio was 2 ∶ 0. In contrast, no obvious gender predominance was found in UC patients (male to female ratio was 1 ∶ 1.1. CD patients were diagnosed at an average age of 39.5 years. The main disease phenotypes of UC were distal colitis with a 24% of proctitis and 56% of left-sided colitis. The mean diagnostic age of UC patients was 48.9 years. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on the incidence of IBD in the Northern Chinese population. A lower incidence of IBD, similar male predominance for CD, similar disease phenotype of UC, and lower disease activity was observed in Daqing compared to that in Southern China.

  16. Nesidioblastosis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, A L

    1997-09-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common problem among neonates. Transient in nature, it usually resolves with an increase in glucose intake. However, as clinicians, we must recognize that prolonged hypoglycemia may be caused by increased insulin production. Nesidioblastosis is one cause of persistent hyperinsulinism of the newborn. This case study reviews fetal physiology, neonatal presentation, and treatment. PMID:9325879

  17. : Case studies: France

    OpenAIRE

    Bonerandi, Emmanuelle; Santamaria, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Case studies on territorial governance : urban region of Lyon (France) and the "Pays" policy (France) in the framework of the ESPON 2.3.2 project Études de cas sur la gouvernance territoriale : région urbaine de Lyon et politique des pays

  18. Structural architecture and palaeofluid evolution of low-angle extensional fault systems cutting through carbonate rocks within the brittle crust. The case study of the Tellaro Detachment, Northern Apennines (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemenzi, Luca; Storti, Fabrizio; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Molli, Giancarlo; Ellam, Rob; Muchez, Philippe; Swennen, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    The Tellaro Detachment is an exhumed low-angle extensional fault zone exposed in the internal portion of the Northern Apennines thrust wedge. It developed at shallow structural levels within the brittle crust, and mainly affected the carbonate-dominated Late Triassic to early Early Miocene non-metamorphic Tuscan succession. The three-dimensional geometry of the Tellaro Detachment has been investigated through detailed structural mapping and restoration of the superimposed deformations, while appropriate exposure allowed for accurate damage zone characterization. Pressure-depth conditions and palaeofluid evolution of the fault system have been studied through microstructural, mineralogical, petrographic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analysis of fault rocks and fault-related dolomite and calcite veins. Abundant fluid circulation characterized the fault zone, with development of metric- to decametric-scale dolomitic bodies, abundant pressure solution, and veining. Dolomitic bodies are discordant to bedding and typically overly the main low-angle fault segments; they are brecciated and crosscut by the subsidiary high-angle faults. Dolomite veins are only observed in dolomitic host rocks. They are generally oriented perpendicular to the tectonic transport direction and formed at about 175°C and 5.2 km depth. Stable isotope signature and elevated salinity suggest precipitation from a rock-buffered fluid. Syntectonic calcite veins with variable orientations are well developed in the fault damage zones, and characterized by multiple generations of infillings. Crosscutting relationships between differently oriented veins are not systematic in damage zones and the different calcite generations do not have any preferred orientations. Furthermore, short and irregularly shaped veins characterize the footwall damage zone in the proximity of the major low-angle fault segments. Fluid inclusion microthermometry indicates that different veins formed at different temperature

  19. Rotordynamic Stability Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury Pranabesh

    2004-01-01

    In this article case studies are presented involving rotordynamic instability of modern high-speed turbomachinery relating the field data to analytical methods. The studies include oil seal related field problems, instability caused by aerodynamic cross-coupling in high-pressure, high-speed compressors, and hydrodynamic bearing instability resulting in subsynchronous vibration of a high-speed turbocharger. It has been shown that the analytical tools not only help in problem diagnostics, bu...

  20. Prague Case Study Report

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostelecký, Tomáš; Patočková, Věra; Illner, Michal; Vobecká, Jana; Čermák, Daniel

    Aarau: Centre for Democracy Studies Aarau (ZDA), 2014 - (Widmer, C.; Kübler, D.), s. 131-177 ISBN 978-3-9524228-2-3 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280802 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : urban neighbourhods * regeneration * Prague Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://www.zdaarau.ch/dokumente/en/ZDA_Working-Papers/No3_RUN_case-studies_2014.pdf

  1. MIDAS case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusger, E.C.; Farber, M.A.; Sharpe Hayes, M.M.

    1989-07-01

    This series of three case studies illustrates the validity and usefulness of MIDAS, a microcomputer-based tool for integrated resource planning under uncertainty. The first, at Union Electric, serves to test and validate the model and to illustrate its use for demand/supply option evaluation. Focusing on nuclear plant life extension, the Virginia Power case demonstrates the model's extensive detail, particularly in the production cost and financial areas, as well as its flexibility in addressing approximately 70 uncertainty scenarios. Puget Sound Power Light, the third case, used MIDAS for the preparation of its integrated resource plan. A 108-endpoint decision tree illustrates the full power of the decision analysis capability.

  2. Study on the Economic Differences between Northern and Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juncheng; DONG

    2014-01-01

    There are great regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang and the expansion of regional economic differences jeopardize social development and social stability,resulting in more serious polarization between the rich and the poor in northern and southern Xinjiang,thereby hampering further improvement of the economic efficiency in Xinjiang. Using factor analysis,this article carries out comprehensive analysis of regional economic differences in Xinjiang,derives the reasons for regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang,and proposes recommendations for narrowing the regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang.

  3. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV, once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  4. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Piergiorgio; Centro, Sandro; Golfetto, Stelvio; Saccà, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV), once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  5. Corporate Governance. Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This paper pretends to do a theoretical approach of Corporate Governance, having as support some case studies about companies like Coca-Cola, Nokia, Microsoft, and Amazon.com. The methodology adopted for this work is based in information from these companies available in their websites and annual reports. I concluded that both companies show the corporate governance components according to their core business and their environmental business.

  6. Case study - Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture Case Study - Czechoslovakia with the sub-title 'Unified System of Personnel Preparation for Nuclear Programme in Czechoslovakia' the actual status and the current experience of NPP personnel training and preparation in Czechoslovakia are introduced. The above mentioned training system is presented and demonstrated by the story of a proxy person who is going to become shift engineer in a nuclear power plant in Czechoslovakia. (orig./HP)

  7. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  8. Capturing Cultural Glossaries: Case-study II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matete Madiba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This case-study attempts to present a brief glossary of Northern Sotho medical terms. It is a follow-up of a similar case-study (Madiba, Mphahlele and Kganyago 2003, which was an attempt to capture and present Northern Sotho cooking terms. Case-study I consists of the names for utensils, ingredients and the processes involved in the preparation of cultural dishes. With both these case-studies, the intention has been to use the opportunities availing themselves for the pres-ervation and valorisation of Northern Sotho, including the extension of its corpora to support national dictionary-making processes. The case-study methodology has been very useful for the purposes of this project and the context within which it was undertaken. It aims to provide a model for the collection and presentation of authentic Northern Sotho terminology which otherwise would hardly have been accessible.

    Keywords: CULTURAL GLOSSARY, INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, CORPUS, OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION, ASSESSMENT CRITERIA, TRADITIONAL MEDICAL TERMS, COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH, STRUCTURAL APPROACH, METONYMY, HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES, TASK-BASED LEARNING

    *****

    OPSOMMING: Die totstandbrenging van kulturele woordversamelings: Ge-vallestudie II. Hierdie gevallestudie probeer om 'n beperkte woordelys van Noord-Sotho- mediese terme aan te bied. Dit is 'n voortsetting van 'n soortgelyke gevallestudie (Madiba, Mpha-hlele en Kganyago 2003 wat 'n poging was om Noord-Sothokookterme te versamel en aan te bied. Gevallestudie I bestaan uit die name van gereedskap, bestanddele, en die prosesse betrokke by die voorbereiding van kulturele geregte. Met altwee hierdie gevallestudies was die bedoeling om die geleenthede te gebruik wat hulleself aanbied vir die bewaring en bestendiging van Noord-Sotho, insluitende die uitbreiding van sy korpora om die nasionale woordeboeksamestellingsprosesse te ondersteun. Die gevallestudiemetodologie was baie nuttig vir die doeleindes van

  9. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter and Dissolved Organic Carbon from Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and MERIS Sensors: Case Study for the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Blake A. Schaeffer; Bianchi, Thomas S; Eurico J. D'Sa; Christopher L Osburn; Nazanin Chaichi Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Empirical band ratio algorithms for the estimation of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and MERIS ocean color sensors were assessed and developed for the northern Gulf of Mexico. Match-ups between in situ measurements of CDOM absorption coefficients at 412 nm (aCDOM(412)) with that derived from SeaWiFS were examined using two previously reported r...

  10. NOx trade. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the questions with respect to the trade of nitrogen oxides that businesses in the Netherlands have to deal with are dealt with: should a business buy or sell rights for NOx emission; which measures must be taken to reduce NOx emission; how much must be invested; and how to deal with uncertainties with regard to prices. Simulations were carried out with the MOSES model to find the answers to those questions. Results of some case studies are presented, focusing on the chemical sector in the Netherlands. Finally, the financial (dis)advantages of NOx trade and the related uncertainties for a single enterprise are discussed

  11. An integrated geophysical study of the northern Kenya rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariita, Nicolas O.; Keller, G. Randy

    2007-06-01

    The Kenyan part of the East African rift is among the most studied rift zones in the world. It is characterized by: (1) a classic rift valley, (2) sheer escarpments along the faulted borders of the rift valley, (3) voluminous volcanics that flowed from faults and fissures along the rift, and (4) axial and flank volcanoes where magma flow was most intense. In northern Kenya, the rift faults formed in an area where the lithosphere was weakened and stretched by Cretaceous-Paleogene extension, and in central and southern Kenya, it formed along old zones of weakness at the contact between the Archean Tanzania craton and the Proterozoic Mozambique orogenic belt. Recent geophysical investigations focused on the tectonic evolution of the East African rift and on exploration for geothermal energy in the southern portion of the Kenyan rift provide considerable information and insight on the structure and evolution of the lithosphere. In the north, a variety of other data exist. However, the lack of an integrated regional analysis of these data was the motivation for this study. Our study began with the collection and compilation of gravity data, and then we used the seismic refraction results from the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP), published seismic reflection data, aeromagnetic data, and geologic and drilling data as constraints in the construction of integrated gravity models. These models and gravity anomaly maps provide insight on spatial variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle structure. In addition, they show the distribution of basins and help characterize the distribution of magmatism along the axis of the northern sector of the rift. Our main observations are the following: (1) the region of thinning and anomalous mantle widens northward in agreement with previous studies showing that the crust thins from about 35 km in the south to 20 km in the north; (2) as observed in the south, gravity highs observed along the axis are due to mafic

  12. Preface to: Marine micropaleontological studies from the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Saraswat, R.

    Indian Ocean is unique, being land-locked towards the northern margin, and experiences, highest reported oceanic productivity. It is also the locale for the most severe oxygen depleted waters in the coastal and intermediate depth regions...

  13. A regional soil and sediment geochemical study in northern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional-scale variations in soil geochemistry were investigated in a 20,000-km2 study area in northern California that includes the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sacramento Valley and the northern Coast Ranges. Over 1300 archival soil samples collected from the late 1970s to 1980 in El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Sacramento, Yolo and Solano counties were analyzed for 42 elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a near-total dissolution. These data were supplemented by analysis of more than 500 stream-sediment samples from higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada from the same study site. The relatively high-density data (1 sample per 15 km2 for much of the study area) allows the delineation of regional geochemical patterns and the identification of processes that produced these patterns. The geochemical results segregate broadly into distinct element groupings whose distribution reflects the interplay of geologic, hydrologic, geomorphic and anthropogenic factors. One such group includes elements associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks including Cr, Ni, V, Co, Cu and Mg. Using Cr as an example, elevated concentrations occur in soils overlying ultramafic rocks in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (median Cr = 160 mg/kg) as well as in the northern Coast Ranges. Low concentrations of these elements occur in soils located further upslope in the Sierra Nevada overlying Tertiary volcanic, metasedimentary and plutonic rocks (granodiorite and diorite). Eastern Sacramento Valley soil samples, defined as those located east of the Sacramento River, are lower in Cr (median Cr = 84 mg/kg), and are systematically lower in this suite compared to soils from the west side of the Sacramento Valley (median Cr = 130 mg/kg). A second group of elements showing a coherent pattern, including Ca, K, Sr and REE, is derived from relatively silicic rocks types. This group occurs at elevated

  14. A regional soil and sediment geochemical study in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Morrison, J.M.; Holloway, J.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Helsel, D.R.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale variations in soil geochemistry were investigated in a 20,000-km2 study area in northern California that includes the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sacramento Valley and the northern Coast Ranges. Over 1300 archival soil samples collected from the late 1970s to 1980 in El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Sacramento, Yolo and Solano counties were analyzed for 42 elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a near-total dissolution. These data were supplemented by analysis of more than 500 stream-sediment samples from higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada from the same study site. The relatively high-density data (1 sample per 15 km2 for much of the study area) allows the delineation of regional geochemical patterns and the identification of processes that produced these patterns. The geochemical results segregate broadly into distinct element groupings whose distribution reflects the interplay of geologic, hydrologic, geomorphic and anthropogenic factors. One such group includes elements associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks including Cr, Ni, V, Co, Cu and Mg. Using Cr as an example, elevated concentrations occur in soils overlying ultramafic rocks in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (median Cr = 160 mg/kg) as well as in the northern Coast Ranges. Low concentrations of these elements occur in soils located further upslope in the Sierra Nevada overlying Tertiary volcanic, metasedimentary and plutonic rocks (granodiorite and diorite). Eastern Sacramento Valley soil samples, defined as those located east of the Sacramento River, are lower in Cr (median Cr = 84 mg/kg), and are systematically lower in this suite compared to soils from the west side of the Sacramento Valley (median Cr = 130 mg/kg). A second group of elements showing a coherent pattern, including Ca, K, Sr and REE, is derived from relatively silicic rocks types. This group occurs at elevated

  15. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern Sierra Leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Luis M; Boisen, Matt L; Andersen, Kristian G; Grove, Jessica N; Moses, Lina M; Muncy, Ivana J; Henderson, Lee A; Schieffellin, John S; Robinson, James E; Bangura, James J; Grant, Donald S; Raabe, Vanessa N; Fonnie, Mbalu; Zaitsev, Eleina M; Sabeti, Pardis C; Garry, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW) in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI) that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV) ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV) RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic distribution

  16. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern sierra leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW) in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI) that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV) ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV) RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic distribution

  17. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern sierra leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangura James J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lassa fever (LF is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic

  18. Vertebral Angiosarcoma. Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Bone angiosarcomas, especially vertebral angiosarcomas, are very rare. There are no studies based on large clinical samples in the literature, and only a few single case reports can be found. The symptoms of the disease are not specific. It is usually detected incidentally or at a late stage when pathological vertebral fractures or neurological complications occur. Diagnostic imaging and history help to recognize the tumour behind the symptoms, but do not allow accurate clinical diagnosis. The basis for a diagnosis is the histopathological examination supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. The case of a 26-year-old woman with an angiosarcoma involving the eighth thoracic vertebra we report reflects diagnostic problems adversely affecting the efficacy and accuracy of treatment offered to patients. The patient underwent three surgeries of the spine, including two biopsies. A needle biopsy did not provide sufficient information for the diagnosis. An open excisional biopsy, which at the same time temporarily reduced neurological deficits in the patient, was the only chance to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The third surgery was posterior decompression of the spinal cord due to the rapidly escalating paraparesis. It was not until 8 weeks later that the final diagnosis was established. At that time, the patient could not be qualified for any supplementary treatment. The patient died in hospital 6 months after the onset of disease. PMID:26468177

  19. The use of GPS horizontals for loading studies, with applications to northern California and southeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahr, John; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; van Dam, Tonie;

    2013-01-01

    We describe how GPS measurements of horizontal crustal motion can be used to augment vertical crustal motion measurements, to improve and extend GPS studies of surface loading. We show that the ratio of the vertical displacement to the horizontal displacement, combined with the direction of the...... horizontal motion, can help determine whether nearby loading is concentrated in a small region (for example, in a single lake or glacier), and where that region is. We illustrate this method by applying it to two specific cases: an analysis of GPS data from northern California to monitor the level of Lake...... independent observations (Lake Shasta tide gauge data, in this case). Our Greenland results show that both Helheim and Midgaard have experienced notable interannual variations in mass loss rate over the last decade. Helheim's mass loss accelerated rapidly in mid-2003, decelerated in late 2005, and increased...

  20. Nabarlek uranium mine, Northern Australia: history, rehabilitation and groundwater studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggitt, P.W.; Woods, P.H.

    1998-12-31

    Nabarlek uranium mine operated in northern Australia from 1979 until 1989. The facility demonstrated a number of innovative applications including ore processing with the use of Caro`s acid and tailings returned directly to the mined out pit. The site is owned by local traditional aboriginal people and is in the process of being rehabilitated in preparation for its return to them. Decommissioning was completed in 1995 and the final revegetation of the site is currently being assessed. The paper describes the processes of rehabilitation of the first of the ``new`` Australian uranium mines with particular reference to the issues of tailings disposal and containment, earthworks and revegetation. The paper aso deals with the various changes in groundwater conditions at the site during operations and since decommissioning. Studies described include: the impacts arising from irrigation of mine waste waters on an area of natural forest; management and disposal of excess mine waters during decommissioning; the subsequent changes in water quality since irrigation ceased and decommissioning took place; and water quality changes in both ground and surface waters during and after mining. Finally, the latest reports on rehabilitation are described covering radiological, hydrogeological and revegetation aspects of the site. (orig.)

  1. Nabarlek uranium mine, Northern Australia: history, rehabilitation and groundwater studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabarlek uranium mine operated in northern Australia from 1979 until 1989. The facility demonstrated a number of innovative applications including ore processing with the use of Caro's acid and tailings returned directly to the mined out pit. The site is owned by local traditional aboriginal people and is in the process of being rehabilitated in preparation for its return to them. Decommissioning was completed in 1995 and the final revegetation of the site is currently being assessed. The paper describes the processes of rehabilitation of the first of the ''new'' Australian uranium mines with particular reference to the issues of tailings disposal and containment, earthworks and revegetation. The paper also deals with the various changes in groundwater conditions at the site during operations and since decommissioning. Studies described include: the impacts arising from irrigation of mine waste waters on an area of natural forest; management and disposal of excess mine waters during decommissioning; the subsequent changes in water quality since irrigation ceased and decommissioning took place; and water quality changes in both ground and surface waters during and after mining. Finally, the latest reports on rehabilitation are described covering radiological, hydrogeological and revegetation aspects of the site. (orig.)

  2. Measuring the Impacts of Organizational Responses: Case of Northern Cyprus Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdogan Haktan Ekiz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, businesses are operating in a global economy, markets are characterized by hypercompetition and businesses must adapt themselves to the empowered consumer. Companies need to focus on customer needs and wants, quality and customer retention through correcting mistakes. This study aims to measure the effects of apology, redress, explanation, attentiveness and promptness on complainant satisfaction, repurchase intentions and word of mouth communication through the use of a sample of Turkish customers, accommodated in three, four, and five star hotels in Northern Cyprus. Implications for managers, limitations, and implications for future research are presented in the following sections of the study.

  3. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  4. New Histories for a New State: A Study of History Textbook Content in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the changing content of history textbooks in Northern Ireland, drawing on a sample of 15 textbooks published from 1968 to 2010. Findings from the content and narrative analysis indicated that following the introduction of the Northern Ireland Curriculum in 1991, history textbooks shifted from a narrative to source-driven…

  5. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  6. FMCT verification: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: How to manage the trade-off between the need for transparency and the concern about the disclosure of sensitive information would be a key issue during the negotiations of FMCT verification provision. This paper will explore the general concerns on FMCT verification; and demonstrate what verification measures might be applied to those reprocessing and enrichment plants. A primary goal of an FMCT will be to have the five declared nuclear weapon states and the three that operate unsafeguarded nuclear facilities become parties. One focus in negotiating the FMCT will be verification. Appropriate verification measures should be applied in each case. Most importantly, FMCT verification would focus, in the first instance, on these states' fissile material production facilities. After the FMCT enters into force, all these facilities should be declared. Some would continue operating to produce civil nuclear power or to produce fissile material for non- explosive military uses. The verification measures necessary for these operating facilities would be essentially IAEA safeguards, as currently being applied to non-nuclear weapon states under the NPT. However, some production facilities would be declared and shut down. Thus, one important task of the FMCT verifications will be to confirm the status of these closed facilities. As case studies, this paper will focus on the verification of those shutdown facilities. The FMCT verification system for former military facilities would have to differ in some ways from traditional IAEA safeguards. For example, there could be concerns about the potential loss of sensitive information at these facilities or at collocated facilities. Eventually, some safeguards measures such as environmental sampling might be seen as too intrusive. Thus, effective but less intrusive verification measures may be needed. Some sensitive nuclear facilities would be subject for the first time to international inspections, which could raise concerns

  7. Termination: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  8. Acidification of till in Northern Finland: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aario, R.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The acid neutralizing capacity of till and some effects promoted by increasing acidity, were studied in a number of tills in northern Finland. pH profiles were measured in the field and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC mmol/100 g sample in the laboratory as a function of the varying acidity in solution. The concentrations of Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, K, Mn, Zn, Cu and Sr in solutions were also analyzed. The results are presented in the form of graphs of ANC versus final pH of the solution and element concentration versus final pH. The total concentrations of the major elements were analyzed by XRF and those of trace elements by AAS. The pH measured in the test pits was lowest just below the ground surface, and rose rapidly to a value of 6 at a depth of about 1 m and then it remained more or less constant with depth. The laboratory analyses clearly suggest that the acid neutralizing capacity of till correlates well with sample depth. The ANC values, which represent the fast-working part of the capacity, are higher in the surficial parts owing to the easily soluble aluminium and iron hydroxides which have their origin in the weathering processes. The experiments resemble acid rain conditions, where the higher pH-level buffers are unable to neutralize the increase in acidity immediately, so that lower pH-level buffering processes such as Al and Fe hydroxide buffers come into play. The situation can be hazardous for both forests and surface water.

  9. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America gen

  10. An ecological and phytogeographic study of northern Surinam savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, van J.

    1965-01-01

    Geology and soils in general Surinam is situated at the northern edge of the very old and stable Guiana shield. Six-sevenths of the country’s surface are occupied by formations belonging to the shield and designated together as the basal complex. However, the Roraima formation does not belong to the

  11. Retrospective study on sero-epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants before its official confirmation in northern Tanzania in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    E.D. Karimuribo,; P. M. Loomu,; L.S.B. Mellau; E S Swai

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective sero-epidemiological investigation of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was carried out in Ngorongoro district, situated in northern part of Tanzania and bordering Kenya. The study involved collection of field information from 101 respondents who own goats and sheep in four villages which had experienced a ‘rinderpest-like’ syndrome in domestic small ruminants between first suspected cases of PPR in 1995 and official c...

  12. Hemoglobin Q-Iran detected in family members from Northern Iran: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshidi Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hemoglobin Q-Iran (α75Asp→His is an important member of the hemoglobin Q family, molecularly characterized by the replacement of aspartic acid by histidine. The first report of hemoglobin Q-Iran and the nomenclature of this hemoglobinopathy dates back to 1970. Iran is known as a country with a high prevalence of α- and β-thalassemia and different types of hemoglobinopathy. Many of these variants are yet to be identified as the practice of molecular laboratory techniques is limited in this part of the world. Applying such molecular methods, we report the first hemoglobin Q-Iran cases in Northern Iran. Case presentation An unusual band was detected in an isoelectric focusing test and cellulose acetate electrophoresis of a sample from a 22-year-old Iranian man from Mazandaran Province. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis identified this band as hemoglobin Q. A similar band was also detected in his mother's electrophoresis (38 years, Iranian ethnicity. The cases underwent molecular investigation and the presence of a hemoglobin Q-Iran mutation was confirmed by the amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction method. Direct conventional sequencing revealed a single guanine to cytosine missense mutation (c.226G > C; GAC >CAC at codon 75 in the α-globin gene in both cases. Conclusion The wide spectrum and high frequency of nondeletional α-globin mutations in Mazandaran Province is remarkable and seem to differ considerably from what has been found in Mediterranean populations. This short communication reports the first cases of patients with hemoglobin Q found in that region.

  13. A Case Study of the Branding of Eureka Resort

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Le

    2015-01-01

    The key objective of this research paper is to provide the case company with branding strategies based on a theoretical framework of branding and the collection and analysis of information on customers. The case company is Eureka Linh Trường Resort, which is located in Northern Viet Nam. The research paper presents a theoretical framework of branding by reviewing the studies of strategic brand management. The paper then analyses the information collected on customer behavior and perceptio...

  14. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  15. Intercultural Communicative Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The essay is mainly about the author's comprehension of cultural differences and intercultural communication after reading the book Communication Between Cultures.In addition,the author also analyses three cases with the theories and approaches mentioned in Communication Between Cultures.

  16. A geographical study on the basis for existence of mountainous villages in northern Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the basis for existence of mountainous village in northern Laos. As a study area, the author selected 16 settlements of Ngoi district, located in Luang Phabang province in northern Laos, where there are no roads at all, and analyzed the relationship between economic activities, settlement location, and ethnicity from the spatial point of view. The study area contains settlements of three ethnic groups: ethnic Lao, Khmu, and Hmong. In terms of economic a...

  17. Cyberbullying, schools and the law: A comparative study in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    MCGUCKIN, CONOR

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background This study addresses the fast developing behavioural issue of cyberbullying in schools and its complex legal context. Purpose This study set out to investigate teachers’ perceptions of the extent of cyberbullying and the extent to which school leaders in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland feel knowledgeable and confident about dealing with cyberbullying problems in school. The study also examined the legal responsibility that schools in Northern Ire...

  18. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  19. Customs Modernization Initiatives : Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    De Wulf, Luc; José B. Sokol

    2004-01-01

    This volume presents case studies of customs modernization initiatives in eight developing countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Morocco, Mozambique, Peru, the Philippines, Turkey, and Uganda. The purpose of these case studies was to obtain a firsthand view of how these countries undertook customs reforms and to assess their success. The overall lessons learned from these studies are presented in cha...

  20. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different...

  1. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus on...... the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications...... for research design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes...

  2. River response to climate and sea level changes during the Late Saalian/Early Eemian in northern Poland – a case study of meandering river deposits in the Chłapowo cliff section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalewicz Damian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial sediments in the Chłapowo cliff section were studied in order to reconstruct their palaeoflow conditions and stratigraphical position. Lithofacies, textural and palaeohydraulic analyses as well as luminescence dating were performed so as to achieve the aim of study. Sedimentary successions were identified as a record of point bar cycles. The fluvial environment probably functioned during the latest Saalian, shortly after the retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Discharge outflow was directed to the northwest. The river used the older fluvioglacial valley and probably was directly connected to the Eem Sea. Good preservation and strong aggradation of point-bar cycles were related to a rapid relative base level rise. The meandering river sediments recognised showed responses to climate and sea level changes as illustrated by stratigraphical, morphological and sedimentological features of the strata described. The present study also revealed several insights into proper interpretation of meandering fluvial successions, in which the most important were: specific lithofacies assemblage of GSt (St, Sp → Sl → SFrc → Fm (SFr and related architectural elements: channel/sandy bedforms CH/SB → lateral accretion deposits LA → floodplain fines with crevasse splays FF (CS; upward-fining grain size and decreasing content of denser heavy minerals; estimated low-energy flow regime with a mean depth of 1.6–3.3 m, a Froude number of 0.2–0.4 and a sinuosity of 1.5.

  3. River response to climate and sea level changes during the Late Saalian/Early Eemian in northern Poland - a case study of meandering river deposits in the Chłapowo cliff section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalewicz, Damian; Sokołowski, Robert J.; Fedorowicz, Stanisław

    2016-03-01

    Fluvial sediments in the Chłapowo cliff section were studied in order to reconstruct their palaeoflow conditions and stratigraphical position. Lithofacies, textural and palaeohydraulic analyses as well as luminescence dating were performed so as to achieve the aim of study. Sedimentary successions were identified as a record of point bar cycles. The fluvial environment probably functioned during the latest Saalian, shortly after the retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Discharge outflow was directed to the northwest. The river used the older fluvioglacial valley and probably was directly connected to the Eem Sea. Good preservation and strong aggradation of point-bar cycles were related to a rapid relative base level rise. The meandering river sediments recognised showed responses to climate and sea level changes as illustrated by stratigraphical, morphological and sedimentological features of the strata described. The present study also revealed several insights into proper interpretation of meandering fluvial successions, in which the most important were: specific lithofacies assemblage of GSt (St, Sp) → Sl → SFrc → Fm (SFr) and related architectural elements: channel/sandy bedforms CH/SB → lateral accretion deposits LA → floodplain fines with crevasse splays FF (CS); upward-fining grain size and decreasing content of denser heavy minerals; estimated low-energy flow regime with a mean depth of 1.6-3.3 m, a Froude number of 0.2-0.4 and a sinuosity of 1.5.

  4. Case Studies on Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Sam CM

    2005-01-01

    This web site is developed with the aim to promote sustainable design and planning of buildings. A knowledge base of case studies and resources has been established to illustrate the sustainable design strategies and features in realistic building projects all over the world. The database of case studies can be searched by project names, locations, design strategies and design features.

  5. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  6. The Big Read: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  7. Internet Banking and the question of Bank Run: lesson from the Northern Rock Bank case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Janson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The subprime crisis triggered a series of bankruptcies and bank runs at a level never experienced since the Great Depression. The banking environment radically changed since the 1930’s, in particular the development of infor mation technology decreases considerably the cost of information. Furthermore internet banking increases severely the speed at which the demand for withdrawals are addressed to troubled banks. In the past demand for withdrawals could be slow down by fact t hat depositors had to physically « queue » and by the existence of opening hours of banks branches. Given these new circumstances a liquidity shortage may have an even more severe consequence on a bank since the delay between the « bad news » and the bank run can shorten dramatically. Indeed the Northern Rock Bank case in Great Britain illustrates that situation where a bank unable to borrow from its peers in the interbank market is within few hours ran by its depositors. The aim of the paper is to analyze the consequences of the major instability introduced by internet banking on the bank’s ability to manage a liquidity crisis and an opportunity to discuss further the so - called “endemic instability” of the fractional reserve banking system

  8. Tramadol deaths in Northern Ireland: a review of cases from 1996 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, C; Crane, J

    2014-03-01

    In the UK tramadol is a frequently prescribed opioid analgesic which is becoming increasingly popular as a drug of misuse. Its use varies worldwide and in the last decade it has been upgraded to a controlled substance in several countries, due to an increased number of deaths associated with its use. A review of all deaths associated with tramadol in Northern Ireland was performed and this highlighted 127 cases from 1996 to the end of 2012. A 10% increase in deaths due to tramadol was noted. In 2001 tramadol deaths represented 9% of all drug misuse deaths rising to 40% in 2011. The majority of the deaths occurred in males (62%), with a median age of 41 years, living in the Belfast city area (36%). Tramadol fatalities were found in combination with other drugs/medicines (49%), alcohol (36%) or alone (23%). Most of those who died did not reach hospital, with only 2% presenting with multi-organ or acute liver failure. In just over half of the deaths tramadol had not been prescribed by a medical practitioner (53%). Depression, addiction and seizures were recognised risk factors. An increase in awareness of tramadol toxicity is needed amongst the public and doctors. PMID:24661703

  9. A Study of LFE Magnitudes in Northern Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    We have compiled a comprehensive suite of ~250 low-frequency-earthquake (LFE) templates representing spatially distinct tremor sources on or near the plate boundary in northern Cascadia from northern Vancouver Island to southern Washington. Each template is assembled from 100's to 1000's of individual LFEs, representing a total of over 200,000 independent detections spanning a selection of episodic-tremor-and-slip (ETS) events between 2003 and 2013. On the basis of empirical evidence and analytical arguments, these templates can be considered as band-limited, empirical Green's functions excited from shallow-thrust point sources to station locations corresponding to a collection of temporary and permanent network sites. The high fidelity of template match-filtered detections enables precise alignment of individual LFE time series and analysis of LFE amplitudes. Upon correction for geometrical spreading, attenuation, free-surface magnification and radiation pattern, we solve for station-channel amplification factors and LFE magnitudes for all detections corresponding to a given ETS episode. We will present a spatio-temporal analysis of LFE magnitudes including their variability across different ETS events, their dependence in along-dip location, and their expression in different rupture modes, i.e. main front versus rapid tremor reversals of Houston [2011] versus small scale reversals of Rubin and Armbruster [2013].

  10. Kickstarter - A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Willumsen, Ea Christina; Byg-Fabritius, Edith Ursula Tvede

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of the online crowdfunding platform Kickstarter, and discusses what makes a Kickstarter campaign successful. Two previous Kickstarter campaigns have been debated in focus groups interviews, as the basis of the study is a reception analysis of two focus group interviews. Ee apply theories from Schrøder (2000) and Batey (2008) to our analysis to study how the campaigns appeal to their backers. By drawing on ideas from Rogers (2003) and Pine & Gilmore (1998), we fu...

  11. Storage of N{sub 2}, He and CH{sub 4} in coal: Study and application in a practical case in the central Asturian coal basin (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro Garcia, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, C/ Julian Claveria s/n, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Alvarez Fernandez, M.I.; Gonzalez Nicieza, C. [Department of Mining Engineering, Mining Engineering School, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Asturias (Spain); Alvarez Vigil, A.E. [Department of Mathematics, Mining Engineering School, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Asturias (Spain); Lopez Gayarre, F. [Department of Construction and Manufacture Engineering, Engineering School of Gijon, Campus de Viesques, 33201 Asturias (Spain)

    2010-01-07

    The behaviour of different gases (He, N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) in coal was analyzed using a device for treating raw coal, designed for taking samples in the mine. This device was subsequently used to transport the samples and inject them with the gases under study. Experiments were conducted under different pressures, and a clear relationship was found between the drop in pressure and the occupation of different storage levels. On analysing the pressure evolution it was found that helium rapidly stabilised due to the characteristics of this gas. As for the other gases, N{sub 2} showed a percentage fall much lower than that of CH{sub 4}. In order to compare the storage capacity of different materials with respect to these gases, experiments were performed with different materials which form the mine's ceiling and walls. It was shown that the fall in pressure is very inferior. A fitting equation relating the evolution of pressure with time is proposed which may be used to define the time needed for the gas to stabilize in the coal. A normalized equation, very similar to that proposed by Langmuir, is likewise obtained to characterize the adsorption and desorption processes. (author)

  12. Geochemistry and Genesis of the Pampean and Post-Pampean Formations (Late Pleistocene-Holocene), Central and Northern Argentina Pampas and Its Adjacent Region-An Approaching Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Torra

    2004-01-01

    Littoral siliciclastic shallow marine horizontal conformable beds (a heterolithic succession), Middle to Late Miocene, outcropping in northeastern Argentina (Ituzaingó Formation) and overlying transitional conformable horizontal regolithic mantle-rock bed derived from them (the Pampean and Post-Pampean Formations), were geochemically analyzed. The focus of this study is placed on the application of geochemical parameter and signature analyses related with the aforementioned geological units, which are of subcontinental extension into South America. The encountered results show an outstandingly similar geochemical behaviour between them. The main conclusion is that regolithic mantle-rock beds were derived from the littoral shallow marine mudstone (silty-argillaceous) beds. This is in oposition to previous aeolian processes proposed early in the 50's and later. These mudstone beds constitute important sections of the littoral shallow marine sequence beds (outcropping HST parasequence). Such regolitization proposed for the Pampean and Post-Pampean Formations predominantly developed in-situ during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The main erosional and mobilized agents were the surface free water (pluvial, fluvial and laminar water sheets) and vadose water. So, the wind flows and/or the immense air flow hurricanes are of insignificant sedimentological influence. Otherwise, there is not a proved appropiate sandy-silty reservoir for a reasonable support of the "aeolian hypothesis", as well as clear aeolian structures settled in the regolithic mantle-rock bed. In spite of these lines of equality textural-structural evidence, the geochemical values for both major elements and trace elements, demonstrate that the Miocene heterolithic marine succession was the mother rock of the overlying regolithic mantle-rock bed, which was formed as an in-situ mantle-rock bed.

  13. Clinical characteristics of the autumn-winter type scrub typhus cases in south of Shandong province, northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jing-Si

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before 1986, scrub typhus was only found endemic in southern China. Because human infections typically occur in the summer, it is called "summer type". During the autumn-winter period of 1986, a new type of scrub typhus was identified in Shandong and northern Jiangsu province of northern China. This newly recognized scrub typhus was subsequently reported in many areas of northern China and was then called "autumn-winter type". However, clinical characteristics of associated cases have not been reported. Methods From 1995 to 2006, all suspected scrub typhus cases in five township hospitals of Feixian county, Shandong province were enrolled. Indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA was used as confirmatory serodiagnosis test. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR connected with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and sequence analyses were used for genotyping of O. tsutsugamushi DNAs. Clinical symptoms and demography of confirmed cases were analyzed. Results A total of 480 scrub typhus cases were confirmed. The cases occurred every year exclusively between September and December with a peak occurrence in October. The case numbers were relatively higher in 1995, 1996, 1997, and 2000 than in other years. 57.9% of cases were in the group aged 21–50. More cases occurred in male (56% than in female (44%. The predominant occupational group of the cases was farmers (85.0%. Farm work was reported the primary exposure to infection in 67.7% of cases. Fever, rash, and eschar were observed in 100.0%, 90.4%, and 88.5% of cases, respectively. Eschars formed frequently on or around umbilicus, abdomen areas, and front and back of waist (34.1% in both genders. Normal results were observed in 88.7% (WBC counts, 84.5% (PLT counts, and 89.7% (RBC counts of cases, respectively. Observations from the five hospitals were compared and no significant differences were found. Conclusion The autumn-winter type scrub typhus in northern China occurred

  14. Case study - Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antecedents and experience of nuclear activities in Argentina; the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). First development and research activities. Research reactors and radioisotopes plants. Health physics and safety regulations. - Feasibility studies for the first nuclear power plant. Awarding the first plant CNA I (Atucha I). Relevant data related to the different project stages. Plant performance. - Feasibility study for the second nuclear power plant. Awarding the second plant CNE (Central Nuclear Embalse). Relevant data related to established targets. Differences compared with the first station targets. Local participation. Plant performance. (orig./GL)

  15. Environmental isotope study of the deep groundwaters in northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a combined interpretation of the results of isotope and hydrochemical analyses of deep groundwaters, especially as encountered in the six Nagra deep boreholes in northern Switzerland. In the investigated area, several regional aquifers exist in the normal stratified sedimentary cover, as also in the deposits of the permo-carboniferous trench and in the rocks of the crystalline basement. The different groundwaters can be characterized by their chemical composition and stable isotope (2H and 18O) contents. The results of 14C and 13C analyses, as far as they can be corrected for chemical reactions and isotope exchange processes within the aquifer, can be used to give information on the ranges of residence times, whereas young groundwater components can be detected by 3H analyses. The process of interpretation is going on and the final synthesis work has not yet been completed; however, the state of the current picture concerning the deep groundwaters in northern Switzerland can be characterized as follows: The groundwaters within the sedimentary aquifers of the Lower Freshwater Molasse (USM) and Malm, the Keuper and the Upper Muschelkalk have evolved almost separately. For the USM/Malm groundwater different indications suggest a gradual mixing process going on between a low-mineralized younger groundwater component and a highly mineralized former formation water. The groundwater in the Keuper aquifer as sampled at the Riniken borehole seems to have evolved almost with no contact with near-surface components. The groundwaters of the aquifer of the Upper Muschelkalk show a wide variety of mixing processes with near-surface groundwaters, depending on the local geological situation (e.g. outcrops, tectonic events) and the induced pattern of the hydrodynamic flow-systems. In contrast, interformational mixing influences are found in the groundwaters within the deeper sedimentary aquifers of the Buntsandstein and the Upper Permian and the underlying

  16. Geostatistical case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this volume of contributed chapters is to present a series of applications of geostatistics. These range from a careful variographic analysis on uranium data, through detailed studies on geologically complex deposits, right up to the latest nonlinear methods applied to deposits with highly skewed data contributions. Applications of new techniques such as the external drift method for combining well data with seismic information have also been included. The volume emphasizes geostatistics in practice. Notation has been kept to a minimum and mathematical details have been relegated to annexes

  17. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  18. Northern ToSIA - Marketing materials from case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Juho

    2012-01-01

    Marketing materials are important for the companies, when the products on the market are competing of market share. The products will help the company or product to create visibility in the eyes of potential customers. The aim of the thesis was to develop marketing communication of the project. This was realized by producing marketing ma-terials for the European Forest Institute. The European Forest Institute is an international organisation and a network of European forest research. The ...

  19. Schooling for Conflict Transformation: A Case Study from Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Civil wars are impeding progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Educational access contributes to peace-building after civil war but little is known about the role of the school curriculum. A framework derived from a synthesis of peace education, human rights education and citizenship education is proposed and then examined through a…

  20. Soil Degradation Risk Prediction Integrating RUSLE with Geo-information Techniques, the Case of Northern Shaanxi Province in China

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtak T. Jabbar; Xiaoling Chen

    2005-01-01

    This research integrated the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with RS, GIS and GPS techniques to quantify soil erosion risk and the northern part of Shaanxi province in China was taken as a case. A system was established for rating soil erodibility, slope length/gradient, rainfall erosivity and conservation practices. The rating values served as inputs into a modified Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to calculate the risk for soil degradation proces...

  1. Soil Degradation Risk Prediction Integrating RUSLE with Geo-information Techniques, the Case of Northern Shaanxi Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtak T. Jabbar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research integrated the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE with RS, GIS and GPS techniques to quantify soil erosion risk and the northern part of Shaanxi province in China was taken as a case. A system was established for rating soil erodibility, slope length/gradient, rainfall erosivity and conservation practices. The rating values served as inputs into a modified Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE to calculate the risk for soil degradation processes, namely, soil water erosion. Two Landsat TM senses in 1987 and 1999, respectively, were used to produce land use/ cover maps of the study area based on the maximum likelihood classification method. These maps were then used to generate the conservation practice factor in the RUSLE. ERmapper and Arc/Info software were used to manage and manipulate thematic data, to process satellite images and tabular data source. In term of statistic analysis 3985.9 km2 (33.12% of land area had slight to moderate soil erosion risk, 1583.5 km2 (13.16% had moderately high soil erosion risk, 2941.4 km2 (24.44% had high soil erosion risk and 3522.1 km2 (29.27% of the total land area was in a very high soil erosion risk. The study area, in general, is exposed to high risk of soil water erosion.

  2. Teaching astronomy with case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-11-01

    Breaking the students into small, collaborative learning groups to solve a meaningful task together is one of the most successful and fully evaluated teaching techniques implemented over the last century. Although there are many ways to accomplish small group learning, a long-standing and consistently successful collaborative class activity is to use the case study teaching strategy. The use of case studies is common in medical schools and law schools, but not so common in the teaching of astronomy. Case studies create meaningful conversations among students and with the professor by focusing on life-like dilemmas to be solved. Case study tasks ask audience members to synthesize several ideas or evaluate scenarios that have not been explicitly presented to them in the lecture or in available readings.

  3. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  4. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  5. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  6. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  7. A case study of gravity waves in noctilucent clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Dalin, P.; Kirkwood, S.; A. Moström; K. Stebel; Hoffmann, P.; Singer, W.

    2004-01-01

    We present a case study of a noctilucent cloud (NLC) display appearing on 10-11 August 2000 over Northern Sweden. Clear wave structures were visible in the clouds and time-lapse photography was used to derive the parameters characterising the gravity waves which could account for the observed NLC modulation. Using two nearby atmospheric radars, the Esrange MST Radar data and Andoya MF radar, we have identified gravity waves propagating upward from the upper stratosphere to NLC altitudes. The ...

  8. Epidemiological Study of High Cancer among Rural Agricultural Community of Punjab in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Thakur

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a citizen’s report, a house-to-house survey was conducted in Talwandi Sabo and Chamkaur Sahib Community Development Blocks in Bathinda and Roop Nagar District respectively in Punjab state located in a northern part of India to identify the number of existing cancer cases, and the number of cancer deaths that occurred in the last 10 years. Age adjusted prevalence of confirmed cancer cases per 100,000 population was 125 (107/85315 in Talwandi Sabo and 72 (71/97928 in Chamkaur Sahib. Cancer of female reproductive system, i.e., breast, uterus/cervix and ovary were more common in Talwandi sabo whereas cancer of blood and lymphatic system, esophagus, and bones were more common in Chamkaur Sahib. Cancer deaths per 100,000 populations per year were 52 in Talwandi Sabo compared to 30 at Chamkaur Sahib. A comparison of the characteristics of randomly selected individuals, from the villages where a cancer case existed or death due to cancer had occurred in last 2 years, revealed that involvement in cultivation, pesticide use, alcohol consumption and smoking were more common in Talwandi Sabo as compared to Chamkaur Sahib. Limited studies show that in drinking water the levels of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Cr, Se, Hg were generally higher, and pesticides such as heptachlor, ethion, and chloropyrifos were also higher in samples of drinking water, vegetables, and blood in Talwandi Sabo as compared to Chamkaur Sahib. As multiple factors were responsible for significantly higher prevalence of cancer cases in Talwandi Sabo, therefore, a multi-pronged strategy to discourage the indiscriminate use of pesticides, tobacco and alcohol needs to be adopted for cancer prevention, and a cancer registry should be set up for elucidation of the role of pesticides and heavy metals in the etiology of cancer in this area.

  9. Sternocleidomastoid syndrome: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Missaghi, Babak

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a patient diagnosed with dysfunction of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle, a condition which can result in head and face pain, nausea, dizziness, coryza, and lacrimation. In this particular case, the SCM muscle had developed tightness and weakness with presence of multiple trigger points within both heads. A combination of passive and active treatments were utilized to successfully treat this condition.

  10. Kenya Groundwater Governance Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mumma, Albert; Lane, Michael; Kairu, Edward; Tuinhof, Albert; Hirji, Rafik

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a case study on groundwater governance in Kenya. The objectives of the study were to: (a) describe groundwater resource and socioeconomic settings for four selected aquifers; (b) describe governance arrangements for groundwater management in Kenya; and (c) identify the relevance of these arrangements for planning and implementing climate change mitigation measures. The ...

  11. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sorooshian, Shahryar; Jambulingam, Manimekalai; Dodangeh, Javad

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, i...

  12. Cyberbullying, Schools and the Law: A Comparative Study in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the fast developing behavioural issue of cyberbullying in schools and its complex legal context. Purpose: This study set out to investigate teachers' perceptions of the extent of cyberbullying and the extent to which school leaders in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland feel knowledgeable and confident…

  13. 区域生态安全动态变化及空间差异定量分析:以陕北黄土高原为例%Quantitative analysis of the dynamic change and spatial differences of the ecological security:a case study of Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 任志远; 周自翔

    2006-01-01

    Using the theory and method of the ecological footprint, and combining the changes of regional land use, resource environment, population, society and economy, this paper calculated the ecological footprint, ecological carrying capacity and ecological surplus/loss in 1986-2002 on the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province. What is more, this paper has put forward the concept of ecological pressure index, set up ecological pressure index models, and ecological security grading systems, and the prediction models of different ecological footprints, ecological carrying capacity, ecological surplus and ecological safety change, and also has assessed the ecological footprint demands of 10,000 yuan GDP.The results of this study are as follows: (1) the ecological carrying capacity in northern Shaanxi shows a decreasing trend, the difference of reducing range is the fastest; (2) the ecological footprint appears an increasing trend; (3) ecological pressure index rose to 0.91 from 0.44 during 1986-2002 on the Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi with an increase of 47%; and (4) the ecological security in the study area is in a critical state, and the ecological pressure index has been increasing rapidly.

  14. Enhanced case management to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Northern Plains communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Miller, Joseph H; Goodhart, Karen A; Maestas, Olivia R; Buckley, David; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Gossage, J Phillip

    2008-11-01

    Women proven to be extremely high risk for drinking during pregnancy were provided case management (CM) enhanced with strategies derived from motivational interviewing (MI) as a part of a comprehensive Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) epidemiology and prevention program in four American Indian communities in Northern Plains states. Data on the first women enrolled (n=131) revealed that they have extreme issues with alcohol abuse to overcome. Sixty-five percent of these women have experienced extensive alcohol use within their immediate family. At intake, 24% of CM clients reported binge drinking one or more days in the preceding week. Heavy drinking resulted in estimated blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) as high as .576 using the BACCUS methodology. Project staff has attempted to actively engage each of these women in CM. Clients have been in CM an average of 17.2 months (SD=16.6). The mean number of significant contacts (face-to-face or telephone MI sessions) was 19. Thirty-one percent of the women entered some type of formal alcohol or drug treatment while in CM. Data were collected at 6 month intervals from 6 to 72 months after enrollment. Consumption of alcohol, as measured by both quantity and frequency measures, was reduced at 6 months. Thirty-eight percent of enrolled women reported complete abstinence from alcohol use at 6 months, and the number of binges while drinking in CM declined significantly from 15 at baseline to 4.3 at 6 months. However, mean peak BACs for the heavy drinking sessions were still problematic for those who continued to drink. They ranged from .234 to .275 from baseline to 12 month follow-up, but the total number of binges was reduced substantially at 12 months as well. Furthermore, the most important outcomes are the status of the children born while in CM. One hundred and forty nine pregnancies have occurred among these women, and 76% of those pregnancies have resulted in normal deliveries, and only two children born in CM are suspected

  15. eCompetence Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Bækkelund

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches.......In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches....

  16. Investigation into High Barmah Forest Virus Disease Case Numbers Reported in the Northern Territory, Australia in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurucz, Nina; Markey, Peter; Draper, Anthony; Melville, Lorna; Weir, Richard; Davis, Steven; Warchot, Allan; Boyd, Rowena; Stokeld, Danielle

    2016-02-01

    Between October 2012 and October 2013, unprecedented high numbers of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease cases were reported in the Northern Territory (NT). An investigation was launched by the NT Department of Health in cooperation with the Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries and the Department of Land Resource Management to investigate possible causes for this phenomenon. The investigation included virus isolations from mosquitoes collected in Darwin urban areas, BFV antibody testing in peri-urban small mammals and a human BFV disease case series investigation of recent cases. No BFV was isolated from the 4641 mosquitoes tested, none of the mammals tested positive for BFV antibodies, and the high BFV disease case numbers did not correlate with the relatively low mosquito vector numbers trapped in 2012-2013. It was estimated that up to 89% of the 79 human cases investigated did not have an acute arboviral illness and therefore had tested falsely positive. An Alere PanBio BFV immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit is generally used to test for BFV, with the BFV disease case definition based on immunoglobulin M positives only. Other jurisdictions in Australia also reported high numbers of BFV disease cases, with the majority of the cases suspected to be false positives. Therefore, current testing methods need to be revised to reflect the true numbers of BFV disease cases occurring in Australia and to provide correct diagnoses for patients. PMID:26789525

  17. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Sorooshian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, identifies the problems and provides recommendations for improvements. This study can be a guide for business advisers and those interested in analysing company performance, especially from a logistics viewpoint. We also suggest the methodology of this case study for those who want to have a better understanding of a business environment before starting their own business, or for benchmarking practice during strategic planning.

  18. A Monitoring System for Mitigation Planning: The Case of "Bagnaschino" Landslide in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Bagnaschino landslide occurred in November 1994 that caused extensive floods and many landslides all over northern Italy. In southern Piedmont, the Casotto River (Cuneo Province damaged many kilometers of provincial road and the river was dammed by this landslide. The landslide involves an area of about 100 thousands m3, but a good knowledge of the landslide is however still missing because of the complexity of the phenomenon. Approach: The aim of this study has been to collect and reorganize available data with the georeferencing in a GIS project of the information taken from investigations of the last years. An electric tomography and seismic reflection were carried out above the landslide body to enrich the available data. The final goal has been to well-know the sliding surfaces and the different processes involved in the slope deformation. Results: The research has redefined the geological base model, that was been the local stratigraphy is represented by an heterogeneous deposit of loose materials (20-30 m, with abundant silty-clayey matrix. The bedrock is composed by fractured micashists, metabolites and green stones. The landslide has shown many surfaces of movement at different depths and continuous reactivations, but the triggering mechanism is still not clarified due to the complex geological setting. Conclusion: Rock masses observed in correspondence of the road and the river bed has suggested that the main sliding surface did not involve the lower part of the slope and that the road is built on stable bedrock. The intention will be to continue the monitoring of the landslide in order to give to the Local Authorities the correct instruments for planning mitigation projects.

  19. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  20. Cluster Concept in Policy Planning Documents: the Cases of Latvia and Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanete Garanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cluster­based entrepreneurship plays an important role in the economy of the 21st century. A regional cluster can be defined as a combination of 5 dimensions – single sector enterprises that cooperate and compete; supportive enterprises from a wide range of sectors; public and government institutions interested in economic development of the sector and region; other institutions, like research, education, finance and others and the fifth is regional dimension, which combines all four previously mentioned dimensions into one region. From the literature review standpoint, the findings of the authors show that cluster ­based entrepreneurship has an important role in stimulating the firm’s performance, competitiveness and innovation. Authors’ findings show that cluster concept is implemented in the EU policy planning documents at all levels, while in the country level cluster policy is not a single policy issue, but is implemented in industry, regional and other policy aspects. Example from Latvia shows that in recent years cluster­based entrepreneurship plays an important, if not central, role in policy planning documents, while evidence from Northern Cyprus shows that the importance attached to the concept of cluster­based economic development has not yet surfaced in the policy documents. Learning from experience of the EU and Latvia, the authors in cooperation with experts from University of Mediterranean Karpasia suggest policy makers in Northern Cyprus to implement cluster­based entrepreneur­ ship ideas in the policy documents using the bottom­up approach. In this way cluster based entrepreneurship is implemented in policy planning documents in Northern Cyprus at region, industry and national level. This paper is the first attempt towards cluster concept recognition in Northern Cyprus and therefore the topic is opened for further discussions and recommendations. The target audience of this paper is policy makers in Northern Cyprus

  1. The initial dispersal and radiative forcing of a Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude super volcano: a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Timmreck

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry climate model MAECHAM4/ CHEM with interactive and prognostic volcanic aerosol and ozone was used to study the initial dispersal and radiative forcing of a possible Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude super eruption. Tropospheric climate anomalies are not analysed since sea surface temperatures are kept fixed. Our experiments show that the global dispersal of a super eruption located at Yellowstone, Wy. is strongly dependent on the season of the eruption. In Northern Hemisphere summer the volcanic cloud is transported westward and preferentially southward, while in Northern Hemisphere winter the cloud is transported eastward and more northward compared to the summer case. Aerosol induced heating leads to a more global spreading with a pronounced cross equatorial transport. For a summer eruption aerosol is transported much further to the Southern Hemisphere than for a winter eruption. In contrast to Pinatubo case studies, strong cooling tendencies appear with maximum peak values of less than −1.6 K/day three months after the eruption in the upper tropical stratosphere. This strong cooling effect weakens with decreasing aerosol density over time and initially prevents the aerosol laden air from further active rising. All-sky net radiative flux changes of less than −32 W/m2 at the surface are about a factor of 6 larger than for the Pinatubo eruption. Large positive flux anomalies of more than 16 W/m2 are found in the first months in the tropics and sub tropics. These strong forcings call for a fully coupled ocean/atmosphere/chemistry model to study climate sensitivity to such a super-eruption.

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Cold Climate Foundation Wall Hygrothermal Research Facility, Cloquet, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    This case study describes the University of Minnesota’s Cloquet Residential Research Facility (CRRF) in northern Minnesota, which features more than 2,500 ft2 of below-grade space for building systems foundation hygrothermal research. Here, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team researches ways to improve the energy efficiency of the building envelope, including wall assemblies, basements, roofs, insulation, and air leakage.

  3. 伊朗北部食管癌高发地区饮茶习惯与食管癌的关系:基于人群的病例对照研究%Tea drinking habits and oesophageal cancer in a high risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farhad Islami; Shahryar Semnani; Christian C Abnet; Paul Brennan; Henrik Mφller; Farrokh Saidi; Sanford M Dawsey; Reza Malekzadeh; Paolo Boffetta; 朱晔; 班宗文; Akram Pourshams; Dariush Nasrollahzadeh; Farin Kamangar; Saman Fahimi; Ramin Shakeri; Behnoush Abedi-Ardekani; Shahin Merat; Homayoon Vahedi

    2009-01-01

    研究目的 调查伊朗北部古丽斯坦(Golestan)省居民饮茶习惯与食管鳞状细胞癌发病危险之间的关系.研究设计基于人群的病例对照研究.此外,在一项队列研究中评估健康受试者的饮茶模式及其饮用时的茶温.研究地点 伊朗北部古丽斯坦省,该地区为食管鳞状细胞癌高发地区.研究对象300例经组织学确诊的食管鳞状细胞癌患者和571名相匹配的邻居对照者入组病例对照研究,48 582名健康受试者入组队列研究.主要转归指标与饮用热茶相关的食管鳞状细胞癌发病危险的比值比(OR).研究结果队列研究中几乎所有受试者(98%)均规律饮用红茶,平均摄入量为1升/天.39.0%的受试者饮用时的茶温低于60℃,38.9%为60~64℃,22.0%为65℃或更高.受试者报告的茶温与实际测量值为中等一致(加权κ值为0.49).病例对照研究的结果显示,与饮用微温茶或温茶相比,饮用热茶(OR=2.07,95%可信区间为1.28~3.35)或者极热茶(8.16,3.93~16.9)与食管癌发病危险增高相关.同样地,与冲泡后4分钟或更长时间再饮用相比,冲泡后2~3分钟饮用(2.49,1.62~3.83)或者冲泡后2分钟内饮用(5.41,2.63~11.1)与食管癌发病危险增高相关.饮茶温度与泡茶到饮茶的时间间隔高度一致(加权κ值为0.68). 研究结论古丽斯坦省居民饮用热茶的习惯与当地食管癌的较高发病危险之间具有强相关性.%Objective To investigate the association between tea drinking habits in Golestan province, northern Iran, and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Design Population based case-control study. In addition, patterns of tea drinking and temperature at which tea was drunk were measured among healthy participants in a cohort study. Setting Golestan province, northern Iron, an area with a high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Participants 300 histologically proved cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 571

  4. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  5. MALFORMATION VERSUS MORTALITY, A STUDY OF NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG DEVELOPMENT IN SITU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were designed to compare the relative incidence of mortality and malformation of developing northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) at two Minnesota (MN)Lake sites. Site selection was based on survey data that indicated one site had a high incidence of malformations (CWB) versus low inci...

  6. A model study of Abrahamsenbreen, a surging glacier in northern Spitsbergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; van Pelt, W. J. J.

    2015-01-01

    The climate sensitivity of Abrahamsenbreen, a 20 km long surge-type glacier in northern Spitsbergen, is studied with a simple glacier model. A scheme to describe the surges is included, which makes it possible to account for the effect of surges on the total mass budget of the glacier. A climate rec

  7. The effects of nepotism on human resource management: The case of three, four and five star hotels in Northern Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Araslı, Hüseyin; Bavık, Ali; Ekiz, Erdoğan Haktan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential effects of nepotism on human resource management (HRM) practices through the use of Turkish Cypriot hotel employees in three, four, and five star accommodation establishments in Northern Cyprus. The principal finding is that nepotism has a significant negative effect on HRM, job satisfaction, quitting intention, and negative word of mouth. The study also shows that HRM exerts a significant positive effect on job satisfaction. This stud...

  8. Men in despair: a qualitative psychological autopsy study of suicide in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizza, Dorothy; Knizek, Birthe Loa; Kinyanda, Eugene; Hjelmeland, Heidi

    2012-11-01

    The psychosocial circumstances surrounding men's suicide in postconflict Central Northern Uganda were investigated using qualitative psychological autopsy interviews. Records of 17 men who died by suicide were identified through police and local leaders in Internally Displaced Peoples' camps of Amuru and Gulu Districts. Two to five significant others were interviewed around each case. Data were analyzed by interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Lost dignity and social value, lack of hope for the family's future, overwhelming family responsibility, and mental illness were circumstances found to have preceded the suicides. The protracted war in the Northern region of Uganda left men in rural communities feeling disempowered and disenfranchised. This may have contributed to suicidal behavior in some of them. Suicide prevention in this area needs to be multidisciplinary with an emphasis on helping both men and women understand and deal with the many social changes that have evolved over time and affected their traditional roles and responsibilities. PMID:23075801

  9. Internet Banking in Terms of Profitability: The Case of Northern Cyprus Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Nwobodo, Jude Chimezie

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In Northern Cyprus, many if not all different bank services are being provided for their customers. Banking activities on the small Island in rather perfect and it is very flexible in satisfying and meeting the persistent wants of the general public. Currently, North Cyprus banks have gone ahead of traditional ways of banking. Newer products and services are being developed through electronic ways or electronic platforms (online banking), by using different delivery channels to rea...

  10. A CHILDHOOD LOST?: A case of Gulu Support the Children Organization (GUSCO) in northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Serwajja, Eria

    2008-01-01

    The number of children affected by conflict situations is on the rise in Africa. All their childhood experiences are marred by war. The conflict in Northern Uganda which has taken more than 20 years continues to attract local, national and international attention. Once a vibrant area, Gulu has been shuttered by the Lord Resistance Army (LRA) atrocities. One of the eye catching scenes to Gulu is Murchison Falls National Game Park, a place where several vehicles were burnt and people butchered ...

  11. Sami lifestyle and health : epidemiological studies from northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Lena Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this PhD thesis was to expand the current knowledge of “traditional Sami” diet and lifestyle, and to test aspects of the Sami diet and lifestyle, specifically dietary pattern, macronutrient distribution and coffee consumption, in population-based epidemiological studies of mortality and incident cardiovascular disease and cancer in a general population. In Paper I, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 elderly Sami concerning their parent’s lifestyle and diet 50-70 year...

  12. Case Studies on Crossborder Ecotrade

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    This compilation of four country case studies provides a comprehensive understanding of challenges, good practices, and lessons learnt under different situations. In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, a cross-border vegetable trade agreement with its neighboring, Thailand, aided in stabilizing market prices and provided financial benefits to local contract farmers. Similarly, organic certification and geographic indication of sugar palm in Cambodia linked local farmers to the global market...

  13. Using the Web To Deliver and Enhance Classes: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helford, Paul Q.; Lei, Richard M.

    This paper discusses two case studies conducted at Northern Arizona University. The studies are from classes that are using the World Wide Web to enhance teaching and learning. One class is the Art of Cinema, a film studies class that has been taught via Instructional Television (ITV) for five years. Various techniques have been used over the…

  14. Study of Cloud Water Samples Collected over Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowska, Ż; Błaś, M; Lech, D; Namieśnik, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives the results of the first studies on the chemistry of cloud water collected during 3 mo (Aug.-Oct. 2010) in the free atmosphere over the area to the south of the Tri-City (Gdansk-Sopot-Gdynia) conurbation on the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland. Taken from cumulus, stratus, and stratocumulus clouds by means of an aircraft-mounted collector, the water samples were analyzed for the following contaminants: anions (chlorides, fluorides, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates), cations (lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium), and trace metals. In addition, pH values were measured, and the type and composition of suspended particulate matter was determined. We discuss the relationship between the concentration of inorganic ions and the type of cloud from which water was sampled. The chemistry is also likely related to the circulation pattern and inflow of clean air masses from the Baltic Sea. Moreover, a relationship was found between the composition of the samples examined and the location of pollutant emission sources. PMID:25602567

  15. Satellite-Based Study of Glaciers Retreat in Northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Siraj

    Glaciers serve as a natural regulator of regional water supplies. About 16933 Km 2 area of glaciers is covered by Pakistan. These glaciers are enormous reservoirs of fresh water and their meltwater is an important resource which feed rivers in Pakistan. Glacier depletion, especially recent melting can affect agriculture, drinking water supplies, hydro-electric power, and ecological habitats. This can also have a more immediate impact on Pakistan's economy that depends mainly on water from glacier melt. Melting of seasonal snowfall and permanent glaciers has resulted not only in reduction of water resources but also caused flash floods in many areas of Pakistan. With the advent of satellite technology, using optical and SAR data the study of glaciers, has become possible. Using temporal data, based on calculation of snow index, band ratios and texture reflectance it has been revealed that the rate of glacier melting has increased as a consequent of global warming. Comparison of Landsat images of Batura glacier for October 1992 and October 2000 has revealed that there is a decrease of about 17 sq km in Batura glaciers. Although accurate changes in glacier extent cannot be assessed without baseline information, these efforts have been made to analyze future changes in glaciated area.

  16. Recurrence of Preeclampsia in Northern Tanzania: A Registry-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahande, Michael Johnson; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Mmbaga, Blandina T; Masenga, Gileard; Obure, Joseph; Manongi, Rachel; Lie, Rolv Terje

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preeclampsia occurs in about 4 per cent of pregnancies worldwide, and may have particularly serious consequences for women in Africa. Studies in western countries have shown that women with preeclampsia in one pregnancy have a substantially increased risk of preeclampsia in subsequent pregnancies. We estimate the recurrence risks of preeclampsia in data from Northern Tanzania.Methods: A prospective cohort study was designed using 19,811 women who delivered singleton infant...

  17. A longitudinal study of a reading project in the Northern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Snyman, Maritha E

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this longitudinal study was reading promotion and its perceived benefits. The aim was to determine if reading promotion can lead to reader development and if reader development can lead to self-development, as is often claimed in the literature. A reading promotion project in the Northern Cape, South Africa, was monitored over a period of five years by using a selection of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The outcome of the study indicates that the reading pr...

  18. High maternal and neonatal mortality rates in northern Nigeria: an 8-month observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrier G

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gilles Guerrier,1 Bukola Oluyide,2 Maria Keramarou,1 Rebecca Grais1 1Epicentre, Paris, France; 2Médecins Sans Frontières, Paris, France Background: Despite considerable efforts to reduce the maternal mortality ratio, numerous pregnant women continue to die in many developing countries, including Nigeria. We conducted a study to determine the incidence and causes of maternal mortality over an 8-month period in a rural-based secondary health facility located in Jahun, northern Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed in a 41-bed obstetric ward. From October 2010 to May 2011, demographic data, obstetric characteristics, and outcome were collected from all pregnant women admitted. The total number of live births during the study period was recorded in order to calculate the maternal mortality ratio. Results: There were 2,177 deliveries and 39 maternal deaths during the study period, with a maternal mortality ratio of 1,791/100,000 live births. The most common causes of maternal mortality were hemorrhage (26%, puerperal sepsis (19%, and obstructed labor (5%. No significant difference (P = 0.07 in mean time to reach the hospital was noted between fatal cases (1.9 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.6 and nonfatal cases (1.4 hours, 95% CI 1.4–1.5. Two hundred and sixty-six women were admitted presenting with stillbirth. Maternal mortality was higher for unbooked patients than for booked patients (odds ratio 5.1, 95% CI 3.5–6.2, P < 0.0001. The neonatal mortality rate was calculated at 46/1,000 live births. The main primary causes of neonatal deaths were prematurity (44% and birth asphyxia (22%. Conclusion: Maternal and neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high in this setting. Reducing unbooked emergencies should be a priority with continuous programs including orthodox practices in order to meet the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Keywords: fetal mortality, maternal mortality, Nigeria, antenatal care

  19. A case study of Impetigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri P

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin

  20. Association study of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms with essential hypertension in northern Han Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qi; SU Shao-yong; CHEN Shu-feng; LI Biao; GU Dong-feng

    2006-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in both the regulation of endothelial function and the control of blood pressure. Up to now, there has been conflicting data regarding the association between three clinically relevant polymorphisms (T-786C, intron4b/a and G894T) of the eNOS gene and essential hypertension.Methods To examine the contribution of the three eNOS gene polymorphisms to the development of hypertension in the northern Han Chinese, a case-control study including 503 hypertensive cases and 490 age-,gender-, and area-matched controls recruited from the International Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease in Asia (InterASIA) was conducted. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).Results The T-786C and intron4b/a polymorphisms were observed in significant linkage disequilibrium (D'=0.87, P<0.001). The minor allele frequencies of these three polymorphisms in healthy controls were much lower than those of Caucasians (9.3% vs 39.6%-42.0%, 8.9% vs 15.0%- 16.0% and 10.9% vs 34.5%-34.9%for -786C, intron4a and 894T, respectively). Genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the three polymorphisms did not differ between cases and controls (all P > 0.05). In addition, none of the eight estimated haplotypes significantly increased or decreased the risk of hypertension before or after adjustment for several known risk factors.Conclusion The study results suggest that the three eNOS gene polymorphisms are unlikely to be major genetic susceptibility factors for essential hypertension in the northern Han Chinese population.

  1. Study on mange mite of camel in Raya-Azebo district, northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awol, Nesibu; Kiros, Semere; Tsegaye, Yisehak; Ali, Mohammed; Hadush, Birhanu

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and species of camel mange mite infestation in Raya-Azebo district, Northern part of Ethiopia. Accordingly, Three hundred and eighty-four camels were examined and mange mite infestation was detected on 64 of camels. Only Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli was identified as the only mite species in all skin scraping samples collected from the suspected mange mite lesions. There was significant difference in the prevalence of mange mite infestation between male and female camels (p 0.05). The result indicated that camel mange mite infestation was a problem in northern part of Ethiopia, hence, further studies and strategic control measures are recommended to reduce the effect of mange mite infestation on camel husbandry. PMID:25568694

  2. Case studies in canonical stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafardi, N P; Hite, J

    1985-11-01

    In facing the challenges that confront Catholic health care today, it is important to know which civil law forms will assist in preserving the Church's ministry. The proper meshing of civil law and canon law thus provides a vehicle to strengthen the apostolate's work. The case studies presented here suggest several means of applying the principles in the new Code of Canon Law to three potentially problematic situations: the merger of a Catholic and non-Catholic hospital, the leasing of a Catholic hospital to an operating company, and the use of the multicorporate format. PMID:10274590

  3. Risk factors for schizophrenia. Follow-up data from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Isohanni, Matti; Miettunen, Jouko; Mäki, Pirjo; Murray, Graham K; Ridler, Khanum; LAURONEN, ERIKA; Moilanen, Kristiina; Alaräisänen, Antti; Haapea, Marianne; Isohanni, Irene; Ivleva, Elena; TAMMINGA, CAROL; McGrath, John; Koponen, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    This paper updates single risk factors identified by the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study up to the end of year 2001 or age 34. Impaired performance (e.g., delayed motor or intellectual development) or adverse exposures (e.g., pregnancy and birth complications, central nervous system diseases) are associated with an increased risk for schizophrenia. However, upper social class girls and clever schoolboys also have an increased risk to develop schizophrenia, contraste...

  4. Reference values for spirometry – report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies

    OpenAIRE

    Backman, Helena; Lindberg, Anne; Oden, Anders; Ekerljung, Linda; Hedman, Linnéa; Kainu, Annette; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal lung function is commonly identified by comparing observed spirometric values to corresponding reference values. It is recommended that such reference values for spirometry are evaluated and updated frequently. The aim of this study was to estimate new reference values for Swedish adults by fitting a multivariable regression model to a healthy non-smoking general population sample from northern Sweden. Further aims were to evaluate the external validity of the obtained re...

  5. Modeling Metabolic Syndrome and Its Association with Cognition: The Northern Manhattan Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie E Levin; Llabre, Maria M.; Dong, Chuanhui; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Stern, Yaakov; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Wright, Clinton B.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of vascular risk factors and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Less is known about the relationship between MetS and cognition. We examined component vascular risk factors of MetS as correlates of different cognitive domains. The Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) includes 1290 stroke-free participants from a largely Hispanic multi-ethnic urban community. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to model latent variables of ...

  6. The Comparative Study of Obesity among Mothers with Different Ethnic Groups in Northern IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    GR Veghari; AR Mansourian

    2007-01-01

    "nBackground: To evaluate the prevalence of obesity and some related factors in the villages around Gorgan which is a multi-racial and capital city of Golestan Province, northern Iran. "nMethods: This was a cross-sectional study with 2854 women participated. Interviewers recorded the data using the question­naire. Subjects were weighed on scales and had their height, waist, and hip circumferences. Economic status was categorized based on 10 consumer items considered necessar...

  7. Nepotism perceived by managersin northern Sweden : An explorative study on attitudes towards nepotismand its usage

    OpenAIRE

    Norgren, Hanna; Gustafsson, Carina

    2014-01-01

    This explorative study examines human resource-, executive- and site manager’s perception of nepotism in northern Sweden. Nepotism is a concept that describes the situation where a company values an applicant’s family ties in front of qualifications in the recruitment process. However, nepotism can as well be described from a broader perspective as the situation where a company values other social connections of significance that the applicant’s has at the company. What both of these situatio...

  8. Alcohol Consumption among Pregnant Women in Northern Tanzania 2000-2010: A Registry-Based Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksen, Alexander Blaauw; Østbye, Truls; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alcohol can be harmful to the development of the foetus. In most developed countries, pregnant women are recommended to abstain from alcohol, however in developing countries, women are less likely to receive these recommendations. With respect to pregnant women in Northern Tanzania, this study aims to 1) describe time trends in level of alcohol consumption, 2) assess socio-demographic predictors of alcohol consumption, and 3) describe associations between alcohol consumption and h...

  9. Studies on mosquitoes breeding in rock pools on inselbergs around Zaria, northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Adebote; Sonnie J. Oniye; Yunus A. Muhammed

    2008-01-01

    Background & objectives: Rainwater often collects in depressions on rocks to form pools that are ideal breeding sites of mosquito vectors of diseases. Knowledge on the existence of disease vectors in these remote and relatively inaccessible locations could improve epidemiologic understanding and control capabilities. This study identifies mosquito species, their relative abundance and physicochemical characteristics of breeding microhabitats in rock pools on four inselbergs in northern Nigeri...

  10. Teaching Natural Resource Management-Teaching Techniques and Difficulties in Greek Vocational Lyceum: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoukos, Marios; Mouratidis, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the teaching techniques applied, as well as the difficulties, with which educators in teaching Natural Resource Management are confronted. For research purposes, a case study was conducted on teaching Natural Resource Management in the Third Grade of Vocational Lyceum (EPAL) in Northern Greece. It was…

  11. A case study of gravity waves in noctilucent clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dalin

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of a noctilucent cloud (NLC display appearing on 10-11 August 2000 over Northern Sweden. Clear wave structures were visible in the clouds and time-lapse photography was used to derive the parameters characterising the gravity waves which could account for the observed NLC modulation. Using two nearby atmospheric radars, the Esrange MST Radar data and Andoya MF radar, we have identified gravity waves propagating upward from the upper stratosphere to NLC altitudes. The wave parameters derived from the radar measurements support the suggestion that gravity waves are responsible for the observed complex wave dynamics in the NLC.

  12. Recent progress of deep seismic experiments and studies of crustal structure in northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest marginal seas in the western Pacific. Its northern part has the features of a passive continental margin. The studies of deep crustal structure in this area are very important for understanding the tectonic nature, evolution history, basin formation of the northern margin, and the origin of the SCS. In the past decades, the deep seismic experiments of crustal studies in the northern SCS have gone through three stages, namely the sonobuoy, two-ship Expanding Spread Profile (ESP), and Ocean Bottom Hydrophone/Seismometer (OBH/OBS). Along the continental slope, the sonobuoy experiments provided useful information about the velocity structure of the upper crust, while the ESP data recorded for the first time the seismic signals from deep crustal structure and Moho interface. And the OBH/OBS profiles revealed the crustal structure in much greater detail. This paper first gives a brief historical review of these deep seismic experiments and studies, then a summary of the latest progress and important research results. The remaining problems and suggestions for further research work are presented as conclusive remarks.

  13. Unusually well preserved casts of halite crystals: A case from the Upper Frasnian of northern Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychliński, Tomasz; Jaglarz, Piotr; Uchman, Alfred; Vainorius, Julius

    2014-07-01

    Upper Frasnian carbonate-siliciclastics of the Stipinai Formation (northern Lithuania) comprise a bed of calcareous silty arenite with casts of halite crystals, including hopper crystals. Unusually well-preserved casts occur on the lower surface of the bed, while poorly-preserved casts are present on the upper bedding surface. The casts originated as the result of the dissolution of halite crystals which grew in the sediment. The dissolution took place during early stages of diagenesis, when host sediment was soft. Unstable cavities after crystal dissolution were filled by overlying sediment forming their casts. The collapsing sediment form sink-hole deformation structures which disturb wave-ripple cross lamination from the upper part of the bed. Dewatering pipe structures are also present. The casts and accompanying sink-hole and dewatering pipes are classified as the postdepositional deformation structures caused by haloturbation.

  14. A parathyroid scintigraphy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, Desiree [UCD School of Diagnostic Imaging, St Anthony' s Campus, Herbert Avenue, Dublin 4 (Ireland)]. E-mail: desiree.oleary@ucd.ie

    2005-05-01

    Background: There has been much debate concerning the most suitable protocol for parathyroid scintigraphy; the merits of various radiopharmaceuticals versus the correct imaging protocol to visualise both ectopic and anatomically placed adenomas against the various equipment choices have been debated. Aim: To demonstrate, through the use of a case study, the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion. Method: Use is made of Tc99mMIBI, full field chest scintigraphy, a clearly defined imaging protocol and SPECT imaging to locate ectopic parathyroid tissue in a female patient with significant symptoms of parathyroid hyperfunction. Results: A single hyperfunctioning adenoma is located in the pre-carinal area of the mediastinum. Using a radioguided surgical technique the hyperfunctioning tissue is excised and confirmed by histopathology. Conclusion: Whilst a dramatic reduction in patient symptoms was not seen immediately in this patient, the symptoms of the illness have been subsiding since January 2003. This case study demonstrates the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion.

  15. A Retrospective Case-Series of Children With Bone and Joint Infection From Northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischetto, Anna; Leung, Grace; Marshall, Catherine S; Bowen, Asha C

    2016-02-01

    Our clinical workload as infectious diseases pediatricians in northern Australia is dominated by complicated bone and joint infections in indigenous children. We reviewed the clinical presentation, microbiology, management, and outcomes of children presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital with bone and joint infections between 2010 and 2013, and aimed to compare severity and incidence with other populations worldwide.A retrospective audit was performed on children aged 0 to 18 years who were admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 with a bone and joint infection.Seventy-nine patients were identified, of whom 57 (72%) had osteomyelitis ± associated septic arthritis and 22 (28%) had septic arthritis alone. Sixty (76%) were indigenous Australians. The incidence rate of osteomyelitis for indigenous children was 82 per 100,000 children. Staphylococcus aureus was the confirmed pathogen in 43/79 (54%), of which 17/43 (40%) were methicillin resistant. Median length of stay was 17 days (interquartile range: 10-31 days) and median length of IV antibiotics was 15 days (interquartile range: 6-24 days). Fifty-six (71%) required at least 1 surgical procedure. Relapse within 12 months was documented in 12 (15%) patients.We report 3 key findings: osteomyelitis incidence in indigenous children of northern Australia is amongst the highest reported in the world; methicillin-resistant S aureus accounts for 36% of osteomyelitis with a positive microbiological diagnosis; and the severity of disease requires extended antibiotic therapy. Despite this, 15% of the cohort relapsed within 12 months and required readmission. PMID:26937926

  16. A Retrospective Case-Series of Children With Bone and Joint Infection From Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischetto, Anna; Leung, Grace; Marshall, Catherine S.; Bowen, Asha C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our clinical workload as infectious diseases pediatricians in northern Australia is dominated by complicated bone and joint infections in indigenous children. We reviewed the clinical presentation, microbiology, management, and outcomes of children presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital with bone and joint infections between 2010 and 2013, and aimed to compare severity and incidence with other populations worldwide. A retrospective audit was performed on children aged 0 to 18 years who were admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 with a bone and joint infection. Seventy-nine patients were identified, of whom 57 (72%) had osteomyelitis ± associated septic arthritis and 22 (28%) had septic arthritis alone. Sixty (76%) were indigenous Australians. The incidence rate of osteomyelitis for indigenous children was 82 per 100,000 children. Staphylococcus aureus was the confirmed pathogen in 43/79 (54%), of which 17/43 (40%) were methicillin resistant. Median length of stay was 17 days (interquartile range: 10–31 days) and median length of IV antibiotics was 15 days (interquartile range: 6–24 days). Fifty-six (71%) required at least 1 surgical procedure. Relapse within 12 months was documented in 12 (15%) patients. We report 3 key findings: osteomyelitis incidence in indigenous children of northern Australia is amongst the highest reported in the world; methicillin-resistant S aureus accounts for 36% of osteomyelitis with a positive microbiological diagnosis; and the severity of disease requires extended antibiotic therapy. Despite this, 15% of the cohort relapsed within 12 months and required readmission. PMID:26937926

  17. A regional climate simulation study with land cover dynamics in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanjie; Ju, Yongmao; Li, Jianyun; Qiu, Guoyu

    2007-09-01

    A social-economic database based on the Governmental Statistical Annals, county-to-county investigation, literature verification, as well as the satellite identification was completed recently by the Remote Sensing and GIS Research Center, Beijing Normal University of China. The GIS Operational System handing this database not only provides details of the social, ecological, and economic information of the Northern China's 13 provinces since earlier 1950s, but also gives out predictions of these information by 2050 with different sceneries concerning the population increase, land use variation, governmental policy adjusting, administrating capability, science and technology development, National GDP increment, as well as world climate change. Aims at further regional climate simulation study, there is a special module nested in the GIS Operational System that interprets the county-level administrative data-units to a 60 × 60 km numerical mesh-grid suitable for climate model. By incorporating the land use dynamics provided by the above database, the new generation of the Regional Integrate Environment Modeling System (RIEMS2.0) was used for climate simulation study. The preliminary simulation studies show that: (1) the regional climate will be affected by the LULC variation because the equilibrium of water and heat transfer in the air-vegetation interface is changed; (2) the integrate impact of the LULC variation on climate (such as temperature, humidity and net long-wave radiation, precipitation) is not only limited to the Northern China where LULC varies, but also to the whole numerical domain where the LULC does not vary at all; (3) the ecological construction engineering implemented in Northern China including the Green-Great Wall construction engineering, the replace farming with forestry and grass movement, and the natural forest conservation etc has shown and will work positively on the eco-environment improvement, particularly shown as the increased

  18. Methods and background characteristics of the TOHNN study: a population-based study of oral health conditions in northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Holde, Gro Eirin; Oscarson, Nils; Tillberg, Anders; Marstrander, Peter; Jönsson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the Tromstannen – Oral Health in Northern Norway (TOHNN) study was to investigate oral health and dental-related diseases in an adult population. This article provides an overview of the background of the study and a description of the sample characteristics and methods employed in data collection.Study design. Cross-sectional population-based study including a questionnaire and clinical dental examination.Methods. A randomly selected sample of 2,909 individuals (20–79 ...

  19. Corporate Brand Image of Non-Local Banks from Consumers’ Vantage Point: An Emprical Study in Northern Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    İnamlık, Ozan Süleyman

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This emprical study sought to develop and test two models on corporate brand image of non-local banks located in Northern Cyprus. The study approaches corporate brand image from customers’ perspective. The study examines the relations between firm, non-firm communication of banks, brand familiarity, corporate brand image and brand loyalty. The context chosen for this emprical study is the banking industry in Northern Cyprus. A total of 200 correctly filled and returned questionnaire...

  20. Increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported from the Caribbean and Central America to northern Italy, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, G; Gaibani, P; Vocale, C; Finarelli, A C; Landini, M P

    2016-07-01

    This report describes an increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region) during the period May-September 2014, indicating that the recent spread of CHIKV and its establishment in the Caribbean and in central America, resulted in a high number of imported cases in Europe, thus representing a threat to public health. From May to September 2014, 14 imported cases of CHIKV infection were diagnosed; the patients were returning to Italy from Dominican Republic (n = 6), Haiti (n = 3), Guadeloupe (n = 2), Martinique (n = 1), Puerto Rico (n = 1) and Venezuela (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis performed on the envelope protein (E1) gene sequences, obtained from plasma samples from two patients, indicated that the virus strain belongs to the Caribbean clade of the Asian genotype currently circulating in the Caribbean and Americas. The rise in the number of imported cases of CHIKV infection should increase healthcare professionals' awareness of the epidemiological situation and clinical presentation of CHIKV infection in order to enhance surveillance and early diagnosis in the forthcoming season of vector activity in Europe and North America. PMID:26751121

  1. Scorpionism in Ecuador: First report of severe and fatal envenoming cases from northern Manabí by Tityus asthenes Pocock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Adolfo; Morales, Melva; Loor, Wilmer; Delgado, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    The presence in rural areas of western Ecuador of scorpions in the genus Tityus capable of producing pediatric mortality is hereby evidenced. The medical significance of scorpions in Ecuador has been underestimated partly because of the clinically unimportant stings delivered by Centruroides margaritatus and Teuthraustes atramentarius, which have venom with low toxicity to vertebrates. Five intra-domiciliary cases of scorpion envenoming in victims aged between 1.9 and 16 years old, including one fatality, are reported from rural settings in forest areas of Chone (n = 2) and Flavio Alfaro (n = 3) counties, northern Manabí province, western Ecuador. Three cases were graded as Class II (moderate) and two in Class III (severe) envenoming. Manifestations showed characteristic autonomic nervous system hyper-stimulation and the fatality (a 1.9-year-old boy from Flavio Alfaro) was due to cardio-respiratory failure. Marked leukocytosis in four of the cases (21,800-31,800 cells/mm(3)), with notable neutrophilia (58-82%), suggests induction of a venom-mediated systemic inflammatory response-like syndrome. Specimens responsible for cases in Flavio Alfaro County, including the fatality, were classified as Tityus asthenes Pocock, accountable for severe scorpionism in Colombia. These findings demand implementation of control and therapeutic measures in affected areas in Ecuador, including evaluation of available scorpion antivenoms. PMID:26344916

  2. A study of growth traits in goat breeds of northern areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan has 49.14 million goats. Goats are kept for milk and meat production and contribute significantly to the income of the rural farmers. Dairy goats are kept by the farmers belonging to poor socio-economic class of the society, mostly landless. Goat production is almost evenly distributed among all regions of Pakistan. The vast majority of small ruminant flock owners are small-scale farmers, sometimes landless. Mixed flocks are common, although separate flocks of sheep or goats can also be seen. The Northern Areas of Pakistan provide many chances for goat raising on pastures and goats are the main stay of the poorest segments of rural society. The data on goat breeds of Northern Areas is still lacking. The present study was planned to provide baseline information of growth traits of goat breeds of Northern Areas. Six goat breeds, found in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, Pameri, Gojali, Balti (pashmina bearing), Dareli, Jerakheil and Koh-e- Ghizer w ere studied for growth traits like birth weight, weaning weight, adult weight, body length, heart girth and height. The mean birth (males: 2.81 ± 0.111 females: 2.36 ± 0.777 kilograms), weaning (males: 13.14 ± females: 11.11 ± 0.779 kilograms) and adult (males: 70.79 C females: 46.11 ± 0.786 kilograms) weight was highest in Dareli followed by Jerakheil, Koh-e-Ghizer, Pameri, Balti and Gojali. Among the various breeds studied Jerakheil displayed higher body length (males: 85.93 ± 0.875 females: 75.48 ± 0.975 cm) followed by Daeli, Koh-e-Ghizer, Gojali, Pameri and Balti. Dareli was found the tallest breed (males: 85.41± 0.424 females: 74.13 ± 0.750 centimetres) and Pameri the shortest (males: 70.36 ± 0.710 females: 57.91 ± 0.342 centimetres). The mean heart girth was also highest in Dareli (males: 95.67 ± 2.00 females: 86.89 ± 0.475 centimetres) and lowest in Pameri (males: 70.42 ± 0.498 females: 65.32 ± 0.603 centimetres). The differences between sexes and breeds were significant for all the

  3. Negotiated Peace, Denied Justice? The Case of West Nile (Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Bogner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available “Reconciliation” and “justice” are key concepts used by practitioners as well as authors of conflict-management and peacebuilding textbooks. While it is often recognized that there may be contradictions between the implementation of justice and truth-telling, on the one hand, and an end to organized violence, on the other, the ideal of a seamless fusion of these diverse goals is widely upheld by, among other things, reference to the rather utopian concept of “positive peace” (Galtung. One difficulty arises from the fact that discourses usually focus on (post-conflict settings that resemble a victory of one conflict party, whereas peace settlements are often negotiated in a context more similar to a military or political stalemate – a more ambiguous and complicated scenario. This essay discusses these problems against the background of an empirical case study of the peace accord between the government and the rebels in the West Nile region in north-western Uganda.

  4. KAIZEN – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Shettar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of manufacturing industries is to increase productivity with high quality. At present, many manufacturing companies are facing problems such as high quality rejection, high inventories, high lead time, high costs of production, and inability to cope with customer orders. By implementing and practicing the lean production system many problems can be solved without employing high-tech and high-touch approaches but by involving people on the shop floor in Kaizen activities. Kaizen is one of the powerful tools of lean manufacturing. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost and quality. Kaizen ensures that manufacturing processes become leaner and fitter, but eliminate waste (problem where value is added. The main objective of this paper is to provide a background on kaizen, present an overview of kaizen concepts that are used to transform a company into a high performing lean enterprise. A case study of implementation of Kaizen‟s has been discussed.

  5. STS Case Study Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.

  6. Forest fires and PM10 pollution: the March 2012 case in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasilla Álvarez, Domingo; García Codron, Juan Carlos; Carracedo Martín, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Forest fires are one of the largest sources of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and other pollutants at regional scale. They significantly impact on local air quality and human health, even far from their original sources. March 2012 was one of the largest fire activity late winter and early spring seasons across northern Spain and Portugal. Official statistics from the Spanish and Portuguese authorities show that, during that month, approximately 35.000 ha were burned, representing the top March season in Cantabria (N. Spain) and the northern distritos of Portugal since 1981, most of them occurring in the mountainous areas, as depicted from the FIRMS database (https://firms.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/). At the same time, an analysis of the pollution data (Airbase dataset; http://www.eea.europa.eu/) show an increase in PM10 average values and exceedences of the limit values across the same area simultaneously or immediately after the main fire activity episodes. A comprehensive analysis of this fire and pollution event was undertaken to analyze the possible contribution of forest fires and other sources of PM10 to the high levels of this pollutant at ground level. Besides statistics of fire activity, satellite "hot spots" and ground level pollution data, we have included in our analysis meteorological records (synoptic stations, upper air soundings), backtrajectories (http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php) and dust forecast models (https://www.bsc.es/earth-sciences/mineral-dust/catalogo-datos-dust). The results show a good agreement between the spatial and temporal variability of the levels of PM10 and the direction of the pollution plumes downwind the forest fires. The activity was mostly concentrated during 3 events, the first one between February 25th to March 3rd; the second spanning from 10th to 17th, and the last one, the most severe of the three, at the end of March. The climatological background was favourable, because most of the

  7. Soil charcoal analysis as a climato-stratigraphical tool: The key case of Cordillera Real, northern Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pasquale, G. [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Impagliazzo, S., E-mail: stefania.impagliazzo@unina.i [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Lubritto, C. [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, and INNOVA, via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Marziano, M. [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Passariello, I. [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, and INNOVA, via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Ermolli, E. Russo [Dipartimento di Arboricoltura Botanica e Patologia Vegetale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The present study represents the first attempt of reconstructing fire history through soil charcoal dating. The investigated area is located in the Guandera Biological Reserve (western Cordillera Real, northern Ecuador). Six AMS radiocarbon dating, performed at the base of five soil profiles allowed a fire phase to be identified during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. A strong correspondence was highlighted between the age of the Guandera fires and the El Abra stadial, which is considered the Younger Dryas equivalent in South America. This local evidence of fires contributes to define the geographic area in which the El Abra stadial was recorded and suggests a wider use of the soil charcoal analysis.

  8. Soil charcoal analysis as a climato-stratigraphical tool: The key case of Cordillera Real, northern Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study represents the first attempt of reconstructing fire history through soil charcoal dating. The investigated area is located in the Guandera Biological Reserve (western Cordillera Real, northern Ecuador). Six AMS radiocarbon dating, performed at the base of five soil profiles allowed a fire phase to be identified during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. A strong correspondence was highlighted between the age of the Guandera fires and the El Abra stadial, which is considered the Younger Dryas equivalent in South America. This local evidence of fires contributes to define the geographic area in which the El Abra stadial was recorded and suggests a wider use of the soil charcoal analysis.

  9. A NUMERICAL STUDY ON MECHANISM OF S-STARTS OF NORTHERN PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wen-rong; TONG Bing-gang; LIU Hao

    2007-01-01

    Northern pike is regarded as a specialist in swimming acceleration. The force production mechanism of northern pike, Esox lucius, during its predation S-starts was numerically studied in this article. The problem was reasonably simplified to a loose-coupling problem of fish swimming dynamics and hydrodynamics just in the swimming direction. The approach involved the simulation of the flow by solving the two-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and decribing the fish motion dynamics based on Newton's Second Law. Visualizations of flow fields and vortex structures were performed. The results show that the large acceleration is obtained mainly in the first undulatory cycle in which the amplitude increases. In the second cycle, a couple of vortices are generated and induce a jet. In the third cycle, the jet is strengthened by the mergence of the vortices in the same direction. Through discussing the effects of various controllable factors on the swimming performance, it is found that the actual locomotion mode of the northern pike in nature is just the best choice.

  10. The determinants of traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: a mixed-methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Stanifer

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region.Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants. The data from these sessions were analyzed using an inductive framework method with cultural insider-outsider coding. From these results, we developed a structured survey designed to test different aspects of traditional medicine use and administered it to a random sample of 655 adults from the community. The results were triangulated to explore converging and diverging themes.Most structured survey participants (68% reported knowing someone who frequently used traditional medicines, and the majority (56% reported using them themselves in the previous year. The most common uses were for symptomatic ailments (42%, chronic diseases (15%, reproductive problems (11%, and malaria/febrile illnesses (11%. We identified five major determinants for traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: biomedical healthcare delivery, credibility of traditional practices, strong cultural identities, individual health status, and disease understanding.In order to better formulate effective local disease management programs that are sensitive to TM practices, we described the determinants of TM use. Additionally, we found TM use to be high in Northern Tanzania and that its use is not limited to lower-income areas or rural settings. After symptomatic ailments, chronic diseases were reported as

  11. Malignant lymphoma in northern Iraq: A retrospective analysis of 270 cases according to the World Health Organization classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T Yaqo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on the World Health Organization (WHO classification, the distribution of various subtypes of malignant lymphoma (ML appears to differ by geographical region. Aims and Design: studying the patterns of ML retrospectively in a previously uncharted country (Iraq and to compare it with patterns observed regionally and worldwide. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy lymphoma patients referred to two major histopathology referral centers in Northern Iraq, were categorized according to the WHO classification, using morphology and appropriate immunohistochemistry. Results: There were 205 (76% non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL and 65 (24% Hodgkin lymphomas (HL. Of the NHL, 91% were B-cell and 9% T-cell. The most common NHL was Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL which comprised 52.2% of NHL, followed by Burkitt′s lymphoma (BL at 14.6%. The latter were mostly intestinal primaries. While follicular lymphomas (FL were infrequent constituting 2.9 % of NHL. Extranodal primaries were found in 48.3% of NHL. Hodgkin′s lymphoma (HL included 48% nodular sclerosis (NS and 37% mixed cellularity (MC. All HL were nodal primaries. Conclusions: Among NHL, the high frequencies of DLBCL, extra nodal primaries and intestinal BL, and the infrequency of FL in northern Iraq, is similar to reports from nearby countries but differs considerably from the West and Far East, indicating a shared regional Middle East influence on non-Hodgkin lymphoma patterns. In contrast to earlier Iraqi and regional studies on HL, NS has surpassed MC as the most frequent histological subtype in Northern Iraq. This trend probably reflects the increasing urbanization that has taken place in this region.

  12. From Food Waste to Donations: The Case of Marketplaces in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar L. González-Torre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing increase in the number of disadvantaged people whose basic needs, such as food, should be covered. In crisis periods, food banks and other entities have a special role to play in that social function. This research focuses on the marketplaces that are great generators of organic food waste due to the fact that almost all of their stalls are dedicated to the sales of fresh food. The work combines both qualitative (interviews with the person responsible for most of the marketplaces in a northern Spain region and with two health inspectors, as well as a participatory workshop with different stakeholders related to food recovery: a regional waste management company, a food bank and several beneficiary entities and quantitative techniques (a massive survey of the market stalls where the interviews were previously conducted. The results allow us to estimate the volume of organic waste generated by these marketplaces and to propose guidelines that would facilitate a better management of the food surpluses with potential for use, in the first place, as donations to food banks and, secondly, as recoverable bio-waste.

  13. Using Case Studies To Teach Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Connie

    Using case studies in science instruction develops problem solving and enhances listening and cooperative learning skills. Unlike other disciplines such as law and medicine, the case study method is rarely used in science education to enrich the curriculum. This study investigates the use of content-based case studies as a means of developing…

  14. STUDY ON THE INTESTINAL PARASITES IN MAZANDARAN PROVINCE (NORTHERN OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Khousheh-Mehri

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are widely distributed and cause many diseases in humans and domestic animals. In this study in order to find prevalent species of intestinal parasites in Mazandaran province (northern Iran, four cities including Pol-sephid, Aliabad-Katoul, Amol and Babolsar were studied during 1991-1996. Stool samples were preserved in 10% formalin prior to examination by formol-ether concentration method. For diagnosis of Enterobius vermicularis scotch tape method was used. Among helminthtic infections, E.vermicularis and Hymenolepis nana and among protozoa Giardaia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were the most prevalent species.

  15. The Impact of Management Decision-Making on Student Success in Community Colleges: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Albert G.

    2012-01-01

    This case study examined a multi-college community college district in northern California in a primarily rural area, to understand how their practices compared to management best practices designed to improve student success, barriers that may exist in implementing best practices, and how the institution may improve its own practices. The problem…

  16. Catalog of NASA-Related Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OCKO has developed over 50 case studies to enhance learning at workshops, training, retreats and conferences. Case studies make mission knowledge attractive and...

  17. Summary of case studies for cooperation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longa, Francesco Dalla; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Tantareanu, Cristian; Caldes-Gomez, Natalia; Santamaria-Belda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This document is a summary report highlighting the main aspect analyzed in the RES4LESS case studies. The document starts with an introductory chapter where the background that led to the selection of the case studies is outlined. In the following three chapters the case studies are presented, hi...

  18. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  19. A Study on Port Alliance between Incheon Port and Major Ports in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Won Chung

    2009-01-01

    <正>Recently,amount of cargoes from main ports in Northeast Asia have rapidly increased,and as well surplus port development in same region corresponded with the boom in external trade that resulted from successful export-oriented economics strategy by China,Japan and South Korea.To cope with this business circumstances, a certain form of port alliance is desperately needed to provide a suitable service to customer and establish their countervailing power against the shipping alliance.Nevertheless,Incheon seaport has not made a definite port alliance system with main ports in Northern China yet.Thus,the purpose of this study is to identify the key success factors to form a port alliance through examining previous studies.We have benchmarked previous studies which are related to main ports in global region and the questionnaire on customers of ports.By studying this,we are able to suggest a few strategies for forming successful port alliance to enhance Incheon port’s capabilities in the long term plan.As a policy proposal,this study suggests Incheon port and main ports in Northern China should construct a logistics infrastructure through mutual investment and provide an incentive system when the ocean carrier makes port call to both ports.

  20. A model study of Abrahamsenbreen, a surging glacier in northern Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, J.; van Pelt, W. J. J.

    2015-04-01

    The climate sensitivity of Abrahamsenbreen, a 20 km long surge-type glacier in northern Spitsbergen, is studied with a simple glacier model. A scheme to describe the surges is included, which makes it possible to account for the effect of surges on the total mass budget of the glacier. A climate reconstruction back to AD 1300, based on ice-core data from Lomonosovfonna and climate records from Longyearbyen, is used to drive the model. The model is calibrated by requesting that it produce the correct Little Ice Age maximum glacier length and simulate the observed magnitude of the 1978 surge. Abrahamsenbreen is strongly out of balance with the current climate. If climatic conditions remain as they were for the period 1989-2010, the glacier will ultimately shrink to a length of about 4 km (but this will take hundreds of years). For a climate change scenario involving a 2 m year-1 rise of the equilibrium line from now onwards, we predict that in the year 2100 Abrahamsenbreen will be about 12 km long. The main effect of a surge is to lower the mean surface elevation and thereby to increase the ablation area, causing a negative perturbation of the mass budget. We found that the occurrence of surges leads to a faster retreat of the glacier in a warming climate. Because of the very small bed slope, Abrahamsenbreen is sensitive to small perturbations in the equilibrium-line altitude. If the equilibrium line were lowered by only 160 m, the glacier would steadily grow into Woodfjorddalen until, after 2000 years, it would reach Woodfjord and calving would slow down the advance. The bed topography of Abrahamsenbreen is not known and was therefore inferred from the slope and length of the glacier. The value of the plasticity parameter needed to do this was varied by +20 and -20%. After recalibration the same climate change experiments were performed, showing that a thinner glacier (higher bedrock in this case) in a warming climate retreats somewhat faster.

  1. Camera-trap study of ocelot and other secretive mammals in the northern Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, M.; Kery, M.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable information on abundance of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is scarce. We conducted the first camera-trap study in the northern part of the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil, one of the wildlife hotspots of South America. Using capture-recapture analysis, we estimated a density of 0.112 independent individuals per km2 (SE 0.069). We list other mammals recorded with camera traps and show that camera-trap placement on roads or on trails has striking effects on camera-trapping rates.

  2. The prevalence of thanatophoric dysplasia and lethal osteogenesis imperfecta type II in Northern Ireland - a complete population study

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Deirdre E; McConnell, Vivienne; Paterson, Anne; Morrison, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    The minimum prevalence of lethal Osteogenesis imperfecta type II, thanatophoric dysplasia and achondroplasia were derived following detailed case note review of all perinatal lethal skeletal dysplasias (SD) in Northern Ireland over a 12 year period. Multiple sources of ascertainment, including genetic notes, radiological reports and post mortem findings, were used. 39 cases were identified. Thanatophoric dysplasia was the commonest diagnosis made (22), followed by osteogenesis imperfecta type...

  3. “Something is at Stake”: Northern European Cultural Studies Where, How, and Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Scott Sørensen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I address the current state of cultural studies in Northern Europe and more specifically in the Nordic countries, especially in Denmark. I take my point of departure in offering an answer to the question, what is cultural studies anyhow? and raise some questions about its future directions. From that, I then discuss how we can reason about regional cultural studies since in so doing we are caught in a dilemma: on the one hand, it provides a way to nuance hegemonic his-tories and ways of mapping the international field but, on the other hand, it also inevitably leads to new generalizations and new inclusions and exclusions. I go on to examine first the (impossibility of scaling (regional, national, etc. and, next, the challenge it raises at different levels of setting, i.e., Northern Europe, the Nor-dic countries, and Denmark. Finally, I focus on national, i.e., Danish cultural stud-ies and return to the question of the future of the discipline.

  4. Proximity to mining industry and respiratory diseases in children in a community in Northern Chile: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Ronald; Radon, Katja; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Cifuentes, Stella; Muñoz, Daniel Moraga; Berger, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Background In a community in northern Chile, explosive procedures are used by two local industrial mines (gold, copper). We hypothesized that the prevalence of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis in the community may be associated with air pollution emissions generated by the mines. Methods A cross-sectional study of 288 children (aged 6–15 years) was conducted in a community in northern Chile using a validated questionnaire in 2009. The proximity between each child’s place of residence and the mi...

  5. A HARD CHOICE (CASE STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    KRAVCHENKO NATALIYA A.; KUZNETSOVA SVETLANA A.

    2014-01-01

    The case describes the problems of strategic choice: a small company successfully working in the engineering market (automation of technological processes) in the electric power industry has to make a decision on its further development in a changing external environment and increased competition. The case was carried out to be used in training programs of different levels within the courses “Strategic Management”, “Innovation Management”, “Strategic Analysis Methods”, “Change Management” whe...

  6. Analysis and design methods of ecological farmer household based on energy flow: A case study of dog-breeding farmer household in northern Sichuan%基于能流的生态农户分析与设计方法研究——以川北丘陵区一肉狗养殖户为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    税伟; 李碧军; 白剑平

    2012-01-01

    A dog-breeding farmer household in northern Sichuan was used as a case to analyze and design an ecological farm household based on energy flow theory. The energy input-output of original ecological farmer household systems in 2008 was initially analyzed and diagnosed for ecosystem structures and benefits. According to the analysis results, two new design modes of fanner household ecosystems modeled with dog-breeding were proposed. Comprehensive input-output energy and benefits were comparatively analyzed, simulated and compared with the original system. The results showed that although the original ecological fanner household system was an organic ecosystem, its energy conversion rates and output capacity were very low. The ratios of solar energy and average energy input-output of both planting and breeding subsystems along with the energy cycle index of the original ecological farmer household system were 0.62%, 3.93, 0.32 and 0.70, respectively. This indicated lower organic energy input and suggested necessary improvements in energy flows. Compared with the original ecosystem, the two new designed ecosystems showed higher self-sustainability capacity and energy conversion efficiency. The ratios of solar energy and average energy input-output of both planting and breeding subsystems and the energy cycle indices of the new designed ecosystem modes 1 and 2 were 1.02% and 1.13%, 4.80 and 4.93, 0.48 and 0.46, 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. The comprehensive benefits of the designed mode 1 were higher than those of mode 2. The above analyses and results suggested that the study presented a very rigorous design of ecological farmer household. The results also contributed to developing new optimized design methods for farmer household ecosystems based on energy flow simulations and comprehensive benefit comparisons. More specifically, the analysis and design method of ecological farmer household in this study provided a realistic reference base for improving ecosystem

  7. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jill Pable

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual ...

  8. Are expatriate staff necessary in international development NGOs? A case study of an international NGO in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mukasa, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores problems and challenges in the management of expatriate staff in Northern NGOs. It finds that very little research has so far been carried out on this issue despite its importance in international NGO development work. Drawing on a recent case study of a NNGO working in Uganda, the author makes a preliminary identification of a number of key issues, which are discussed against the background of debates around changing power relations between Northern and Southern NGOs. Six...

  9. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    one and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution......This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (a) theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (b) one cannot generalize from a single case, therefore, the single-case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (c) the case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (d) the case study contains a bias toward verification; and (e) it is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. This article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by...

  10. Five misunderstandings about case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2004-01-01

    and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution......This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...

  11. Five misunderstandings about Case-study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without  exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution......This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... useful for generating hypotheses, while other methods aremore suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (4) The case study contains a bias toward verification; and (5) It is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. The article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one...

  12. Using multi-scale structural and petrological analysis coupled with zircon and monazite SIMS and in-situ EPMA geochronology to document the evolution of a mid-crustal transpression system: a case study from the Northern Appalachians, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, M. A.; Moecher, D. P.; McCulla, J. K.; Draper, K. P. J.; Young, J.; Rohrer, L.; Walker, T. B.; O'Brien, T.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional transpressional strain is commonly associated with zones of oblique convergence, rather than ideal 2D simple shear or pure shear. Consequently, a considerable body of modeling has been aimed at understanding the progressive evolution of transpression, which has been used to explain an assortment of structures observed in natural settings. The basic tenants of most models involve simultaneous strike-slip and shortening, which provide the underlying mechanism for a constantly evolving finite strain geometry and magnitude. Despite the obvious temporal-dependence, very few studies have evaluated timescales of transpression. In the Northern Appalachians, the Bronson Hill arc and Central Maine basin of southern New England largely reflect highly oblique dextral transpression. Fabrics were initially characterized by strong foliations, subhorizontal lineations, and dextral kinematics, all of which are present in 360-354 Ma tonalite, diorite, and granite intrusions, the youngest placing a maximum age on transpression. As strains accumulated, fabrics began to reflect the increasing manipulation of the shortening component, marked by tightening of foliations, closed to isoclinal folding, and reverse high strain zones; stretching lineations changed in orientation to steeply plunging parallel to dip, while older pre-existing subhorizontal lineations were rotated. Syntectonic monazite and metamorphic zircon nucleated episodically throughout this time. Y-enriched monazite nucleated at 330 Ma along with fabric-forming biotite and sillimanite, and place a minimum age on the development of dip-parallel lineations. Mineral assemblages and associated ages document retrograde cooling attending deformation from partial melting at 355-350 Ma, to sillimanite grade at 330 Ma, below the Ar closure temperature for amphibole of 500°C at 326-314 Ma, and into biotite grade deformation as young as 295 Ma. Collectively, structures, fabrics, mineral assemblages, and

  13. Case studies: Niger - Cogema experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1950, a Hungarian geologist prospecting for copper discovered yellow minerals southeast of Arlit, in Niger. Many French prospectors proceeded there, and teams from the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) identified the presence of uranium in the 1960s. In 1965, the existence of a deposit on the Arlit site was conclusively established, and SOMAIR, an operating company, decided to build a township, designed for 5 000 inhabitants. Today, Areva is the principal shareholder of the two companies, SOMAIR and COMINAK, which mine a series of uranium deposits located on the western margin of the Air range, in northern Niger. The Arlit region deposits have been mined on a concession of 360 km2 granted to Areva. The towns of Arlit and Akokan, 8 km apart, have a population of more than 60 000 each. By late 2000, SOMAIR had mined about 40 000 t U from an open pit mine, and COMINAK nearly 45 000 t U from underground deposits. Areva has a policy of sustainable development which it implements for all its activities, including mining activities in Niger. The mine sites in Niger are located in a desert zone. The two operating companies presently employ 1650 personnel, representing, with their families, a population of 21 000, distributed in two towns. COMINAK and SOMAIR are committed to the continuous improvement of their environmental performance and the reduction of negative impacts of their operations. The improvement programmes are specifically concerned with: (a) tailings and their containment; (b) monitoring of radiological exposure of the employees and neighbouring populations; (c) atmospheric releases of fines from uranium ore and radon associated with the uranium mines; (d) management of water resources and treatment of aqueous effluents; (e) recycling or elimination of industrial wastes

  14. Assessment of aerosol optical property and radiative effect for the layer decoupling cases over the northern South China Sea during the 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Shantanu Kumar; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lolli, Simone; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chantara, Somporn; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol radiative effect can be modulated by the vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols, particularly when aerosol layers are decoupled. Direct aerosol radiative effects over the northern South China Sea (SCS) were assessed by incorporating an observed data set of aerosol optical properties obtained from the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS)/Dongsha Experiment into a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical properties for a two-layer structure of aerosol transport were estimated. In the radiative transfer calculations, aerosol variability (i.e., diversity of source region, aerosol type, and vertical distribution) for the complex aerosol environment was also carefully quantified. The column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm was 0.1-0.3 for near-surface aerosols and increased 1-5 times in presence of upper layer biomass-burning aerosols. A case study showed the strong aerosol absorption (single-scattering albedo (ω) ≈ 0.92 at 440 nm wavelength) exhibited by the upper layer when associated with predominantly biomass-burning aerosols, and the ω (≈0.95) of near-surface aerosols was greater than that of the upper layer aerosols because of the presence of mixed type aerosols. The presence of upper level aerosol transport could enhance the radiative efficiency at the surface (i.e., cooling) and lower atmosphere (i.e., heating) by up to -13.7 and +9.6 W m-2 per AOD, respectively. Such enhancement could potentially modify atmospheric stability, can influence atmospheric circulation, as well as the hydrological cycle over the tropical and low-latitude marginal northern SCS.

  15. Quantifying long-term changes in gully networks and volumes in dryland environments: The case of Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Amaury; Poesen, Jean; Haile, Mitiku; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-11-01

    Understanding historical and present gully development is essential when addressing the causes and consequences of land degradation, especially in vulnerable dryland environments. For Northern Ethiopia, several studies exist on the severity of gully erosion, yet few have quantified gully development. In this study, gully network and volume development were quantified over the period 1963-2010 for an area of 123 km2, representing the regional variability in environmental characteristics. Gully networks were mapped from small-scale aerial photographs and high-resolution satellite images. For the latter, visualizing Google Earth images in 3D proved to be very suitable to investigate gully erosion. From the changes in networks and volumes over the period 1963-2010, the occurrence of one cut-and-fill cycle is apparent. From a largely low-dynamic gully system in the 1960s, network expansion and increased erosion rates in the 1980s and 1990s caused the drainage density and volume to peak in 1994. The average gully density (Dtotal) was then 2.52 km km- 2 and the area-specific gully volume (Va) 60 × 103 m3 km- 2. This coincides with soil losses by gully erosion (SLg) of 17.6 t ha- 1 y- 1 over the period 1963-1994. By 2010, improved land management and the region-wide implementation of soil and water conservation measures caused 25% of the gully network to stabilize, resulting in a net infilling of the gully channels over the period 1994-2010. The study validates previous findings that land degradation by gullying was indeed severe in Northern Ethiopia in the second half of the 20th century, but also shows that when proper land management is applied, a gully can be transformed into a linear oasis, which increases the resistance of gullies to further erosion.

  16. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Timm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945–1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8% than subjects growing up in inner cities (11% (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57–0.91, and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02. An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population.

  17. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Signe; Frydenberg, Morten; Janson, Christer; Campbell, Brittany; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Sigsgaard, Torben; Svanes, Cecilie; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2016-01-01

    The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945-1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57-0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population. PMID:26729146

  18. DDACE cogeneration systems : 10 case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    DDACE Power Systems are experts in green energy power generation and provide solutions that deal with waste and industrial by-products. The company develops practical energy solutions that address environmental and financial concerns facing both industrial and municipal customers. The following 10 case studies are examples of the installations that DDACE Power Systems have completed in recent years: (1) a combined heat and emergency power installation on the roof of a 19 storey apartment building on Bloor Street in Toronto, Ontario. The cogeneration package provides electricity and heat to the entire building, replacing an old diesel generator, (2) a combined heat and emergency power installation at the Villa Colombo extended care facility in Vaughan, Ontario. The cogeneration system provides heat and power to the building, as well as emergency power, (3) emergency standby power with demand response capabilities at Sobeys Distribution Warehouse in Vaughan, Ontario. The primary purpose of the 2.4 MW low emission, natural gas fuelled emergency standby generator is to provide emergency power to the building in the event of a grid failure, (4) a dual fuel combined heat and power installation at the Queensway Carleton Hospital in Ottawa, Ontario that provides electricity, hot water and steam to all areas of the hospital, (5) a tri-generation installation at the Ontario Police College in Aylmer, Ontario which provides power and heat to the building as well as emergency power in the event of a grid failure. An absorption chiller provides cooling in the summer and an exhaust emission control system reduces NOx emissions, (6) a biomass gasification installation at Nexterra Energy in Kamloops, British Columbia. The 239 kW generator is fueled by synthesis gas, (7) biogas utilization at Fepro Farms in Cobden, Ontario for treatment of the facility's waste products. The biogas plant uses cow manure, as well as fats, oil and grease from restaurants to produce electricity and

  19. Capturing Cultural Glossaries: Case-study I *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matete Madiba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article is a presentation of a brief cultural glossary of Northern Sotho cooking terms. The glossary is mainly composed of names for utensils and ingredients, and action words for the processes involved in the preparation of cultural dishes. It also contains names of dishes tied to some idiomatic expressions in a way eliciting cultural experiences that can lead to an under-standing of indigenous knowledge systems. The article seeks to explore ways of capturing cultural glossaries to feed into the national dictionary corpora by using a case-study approach to investigate the processes that led to the generation of this specific school-based project. A number of issues that surfaced in this project, can possibly serve as models for the collection of authentic glossaries that can support dictionary making in African languages.

    Keywords: CULTURAL GLOSSARY, INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS, CULTURAL TERMINOLOGY, CORPUS, AUTHENTIC GLOSSARY, CONTEXTUALISATION, MARGIN-ALIZED LANGUAGES, OUTCOMES-BASED EDUCATION, PERFORMANCE INDICATOR, ASSESSMENT CRITERIA, RANGE STATEMENT, TRADITIONAL DISHES, LANGUAGE VAL-ORISATION, SIMULTANEOUS FEEDBACK, COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH, STRUCTURAL APPROACH, METONYMY

    Opsomming: Die totstandbrenging van kulturele woordversamelings: Ge-vallestudie I. Hierdie artikel is 'n aanbieding van 'n kort kulturele woordversameling van Noord-Sothokookterme. Die woordversameling bestaan hoofsaaklik uit die name van gereedskap en bestanddele, en handelingswoorde vir die prosesse betrokke by die voorbereiding van kulturele geregte. Dit bevat ook name van geregte wat verbind is met sekere idiomatiese uitdrukkings wat op 'n manier kulturele ervarings oproep wat kan lei tot die verstaan van inheemse kennisstelsels. Die artikel probeer om maniere te ondersoek waarop kulturele woordversamelings in die nasionale woordeboekkorpusse ingevoer kan word deur 'n gevallestudiebenadering te volg om die prosesse te ondersoek wat tot die

  20. Case studies: Alligator Rivers Area - ERA experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kakadu Region Social Impact Study (KRSIS) was commissioned in 1996 as an outcome of the environmental impact assessment process associated with the proposed Jabiluka uranium mine. The objective of KRSIS was to provide 'a clear statement of aboriginal experiences, values and aspirations regarding development of the region; and a proposed community development programme to enhance and/or mitigate impacts associated with development of the region'. Key stakeholders represented in overseeing the study included the Northern Land Council, the aboriginal community, Energy Resources of Australia (ERA) and the Northern Territory (NT) and Commonwealth governments. The study was jointly funded by the Australian government and Energy Resources of Australia, the mining company owning the Ranger and Jabiluka uranium interests. KRSIS reported on 18 issues of major significance in November 2000 and, while progress has been made in responding to these recommendations, a number have been incorporated into continuing programmes by both the Commonwealth (Federal) and Northern Territory governments. It has been accepted that the township of Jabiru could not remain a closed mining town (the original concept), and the town's future as a regional centre was discussed at a series of community forums. A major issue has been to increase the level of involvement in town development by aboriginal people, especially the traditional landowners. This is also being addressed through specific actions of the Jabiru Sustainability Working Group (JSWG). It was agreed in KRSIS that social impact monitoring should be considered essential in the future. To date, it has proven very difficult to obtain adequate funding for this work, and to determine who or what sort of organization should be in charge of progress in this area. To date, negotiations continue between representatives of the native people and Parks Australia as to what suitable performance indicators there are for social impact monitoring

  1. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  2. Examining Computer Self Efficacy Beliefs of Teacher Candidates: Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Case

    OpenAIRE

    Özder, Hasan; KONEDRALI, Güner; SABANCIGİL, Pembe

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among the computer self efficacy beliefs introduction to computer course scores and academic achievements of teacher candidates enrolled in Atatürk Teacher?s Academy during 2007 08 academic years 143 teacher candidates participated in the study Computer self efficacy beliefs of the teacher candidates in this study were measured by a scale developed by Aşkar and Umay 2001 The academic achievement and introduction to computer course...

  3. New constraints on extensional tectonics and seismic hazard in northern Attica, Greece: the case of the Milesi Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützner, Christoph; Schneiderwind, Sascha; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Pallikarakis, Aggelos; Reicherter, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Northern Attica in Greece is characterized by a set of north dipping, subparallel normal faults. These faults were considered to have low tectonic activity, based on historical earthquake reports, instrumental seismicity and slip rate estimates. This study presents new data for one of these faults, the Milesi Fault. We run GIS based geomorphological analyses on fault offset distribution, field mapping of postglacial fault scarps and ground penetrating radar profiling to image hangingwall deformation. The first palaeoseismological trenching in this part of Greece allowed obtaining direct data on slip rates and palaeoearthquakes. The trenching revealed downthrown and buried palaeosols, which were dated by radiocarbon. The results of our investigations show that the slip rates are higher than previously thought and that at least four palaeoearthquakes with magnitudes of around M6.2 occurred during the last 4000-6000 yr. We calculate an average recurrence interval of 1000-1500 yr and a maximum throw rate of ˜0.4-0.45 mm a-1. Based on the new geological earthquake data we developed a seismic hazard scenario, which also incorporates geological site effects. Intensities up to IX must be expected for Northern Attica and the southeastern part of Evia. Earthquake environmental effects like liquefaction and mass movements are also likely to occur. This scenario is in contrast to the official Greek seismic hazard zonation that is based on historical records and assigns different hazard zones for municipalities that will experience the same intensity by earthquakes on the Milesi Fault. We show that the seismic hazard is likely underestimated in our study area and emphasize the need to incorporate geological information in such assessments.

  4. Moving the boundaries of forest and land use history - the case of Upper East Region in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wardell, David Andrew

    Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure......Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure...

  5. Case history of the discovery of the Jabiluka uranium deposits, East Alligator River region, Northern Territory of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancontinental Mining Limited acquired exploration rights over an area in the East Alligator River Region, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1970. Subsequently, Getty Oil Development Company Limited acquired a substantial minority interest in the property. The Jabiluka deposits were discovered during the course of exploration and are currently the largest of the four major uranium deposits in the East Alligator River Region. This region at present contains 24% of the western world's reasonably assured resources of uranium. The exploration techniques employed during primary and secondary exploration on the property between 1971 and 1975 and during the delineation of the Jabiluka deposits are discussed in detail. The case history illustrates the exploration philosophy which was successfully employed on the Jabiluka property. The philosophy encompasses the following points: The need for an assessment on the limits of airborne radiometric surveys; the necessity for detection and evaluation of point source anomalies; the necessity for exploration along extensions of favourable lithologies; and the desirability of modification of exploration techniques on different types of anomalies. Some aspects of this philosophy may be useful in exploration for similar stratabound uranium deposits in other areas. (author)

  6. Discussion on uranium metallogenetic characteristics in northern Guangxi region based on gravity and magnetic fields study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravity and magnetic fields are intimately related to uranium mineralization in northern Guangxi region and characteristics of geophysical field reflect the geological environments relevant to uranium metallogenesis. The study shows that uranium mineralization in northern Guangxi region mainly exhibit the following several obvious features: (1) uranium mineralization is located at the margin of geophysical fields or anomalies on different scale, especially large-scaled uranium mineralization is present at the margin of regional gravity low anomalies (corresponding to the crustal thickening area, i.e. mantle depression area); (2) The deep geological processes such as the tilting and subsiding of Moho discontinuity, large-scaled deep magmatism and deep faulting are main controlling factors for uranium metallogenesis; (3) Granitic bodies are not only the uranium source body for granite type uranium mineralization, but also for carbonate-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium mineralization. Moreover, the stronger the magmatic dynamic field, the higher the uranium content in granitic bodies and the more favourable for uranium metallogenesis; (4) Hydrothermal fluids relevant to uranium metallogenesis are of nonmagnetic origin, having strong demagnetization capability and granite offered dynamics for hydrothermal circulation; (5) Pyrite closely associated with uranium mineralization is mainly derived from 'magnetic crust' of the granitic bodies; (6) Uranium deposits were formed in mesoepithermal, shallow surface geological environments

  7. Health services for survivors of gender-based violence in northern Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henttonen, Mirkka; Watts, Charlotte; Roberts, Bayard; Kaducu, Felix; Borchert, Matthias

    2008-05-01

    The 20-year war in northern Uganda has resulted in up to 1.7 million people being internally displaced, and impoverishment and vulnerability to violence amongst the civilian population. This qualitative study examined the status of health services available for the survivors of gender-based violence in the Gulu district, northern Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in 2006 with 26 experts on gender-based violence and general health providers, and availability of medical supplies was reviewed. The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) guidelines on gender-based violence interventions in humanitarian settings were used to prepare the interview guides and analyse the findings. Some legislation and programmes do exist on gender-based violence. However, health facilities lacked sufficiently qualified staff and medical supplies to adequately detect and manage survivors, and confidential treatment and counselling could not be ensured. There was inter-sectoral collaboration, but greater resources are required to increase coverage and effectiveness of services. Intimate partner violence, sexual abuse of girls aged under 18, sexual harassment and early and forced marriage may be more common than rape by strangers. As the IASC guidelines focus on sexual violence by strangers and do not address other forms of gender-based violence, we suggest the need to explore this issue further to determine whether a broader concept of gender-based violence should be incorporated into the guidelines. PMID:18513614

  8. Roadmaster Roading Contractors Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Taylor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems analysis students seldom experience the practical difficulties of the initial investigation into a client’s requirements. They get little chance to practice the skills they need to investigate complex and confused problem situations, or to appreciate the wider organizational issues that can impact on a situation. This teaching case is designed to give students the opportunity to practice and apply investigation skills and to challenge them to consider the wider work environment when considering possible solutions to a problem situation. The case is conducted as a role-play, with students acting as systems analysts and teaching staff role-playing the clients. The students develop a report analyzing the client’s situation based on the issues that arise during the interviews. Feed-back sessions focus on discussing how well the students applied various interviewing strategies previously covered in lectures, and on the wider organizational problems that could impact proposed information system solutions.

  9. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Charnallet; S. Carbonnel; David, D; O. Moreaud

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory [4].

  10. Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2011-01-01

    Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…

  11. Surrogate Pricing For Water: The Case For Micro Hydro-electricity Cooperatives in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sitanon Jesdapipat; Siriporn Kiratikarnkul

    1999-01-01

    Thailand, like many other countries, is finding the development of renewable sources of energy a complex challenge. However, this study has shown that good economic management combined with targeted incentives could allow micro-hydro schemes to make a viable contribution to the nation's sustainable development. The study looked at pricing and policy in two small dam projects in the Doi Saket District of Chiangmai. As in many of Thailand's 70-plus micro-hydro schemes, electricity delivery prob...

  12. A longitudinal study of a reading project in the Northern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritha E. Snyman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this longitudinal study was reading promotion and its perceived benefits. The aim was to determine if reading promotion can lead to reader development and if reader development can lead to self-development, as is often claimed in the literature. A reading promotion project in the Northern Cape, South Africa, was monitored over a period of five years by using a selection of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The outcome of the study indicates that the reading promotion project was responsible for positive changes in the lives of the beneficiaries of the intervention. It especially points to the positive role access to appropriate reading material and prolonged and enthusiastic reading motivation can play in the lives of a developing community with little means.Keywords: reading; reading promotion; reader development; longitudinal

  13. Academic Planning: Four Institutional Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Raymond N.

    As part of a project studying intrainstitutional planning, management, and evaluation, four case studies were undertaken in 1976 of academic planning at Villa Maria College, Kansas City Metropolitan Community College District, West Virginia University, and Western Washington University. The case studies were part of an ongoing project, the…

  14. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    Three case studies from Danish science shops within the environmental field are analysed with respect to societal background, interaction between the involved actors and the societal impact of the co-operation. The report is one of the seven national case study reports from the EU-financed INTERA......Three case studies from Danish science shops within the environmental field are analysed with respect to societal background, interaction between the involved actors and the societal impact of the co-operation. The report is one of the seven national case study reports from the EU......-financed INTERACTS project....

  15. Prognostic Factors of Pregnancy in 500 Cases of Intrauterine Insemination in Babol, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Basirat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intrauterine insemination (IUI is a primary, simple and effective method of infertilitytreatment. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate of IUI and some related male andfemale factors.Materials and Methods: This quasi - experimental study was done on 500 infertile couples from 2006to 2008. Either clomiphene or human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG alone or clomiphene with HMGwas used for ovulation induction. Patients were subsequently followed by vaginal sonography. When atleast one follicle of 16 mm or more in diameter was noted, patients were administered 5000 IU humanchorionic gonadotropin (HCG and 36 hours later, IUI was done. Age, duration of infertility, folliclenumber, treatment regimen, etiology of infertility and the outcome was recorded for every patient.Results: In this study, the pregnancy rate was 19.6%. In pregnant women, the mean age was lowerthan non - pregnant women (p=0.004. The mean duration of infertility in pregnant women wassignificantly lower than others (p =0.002, but the number of dominant follicle, type of treatmentregimen and etiology of infertility did not show significant differences between pregnant and nonpregnantwomen (p >0.05.Conclusion: The result of this study showed that etiology of infertility, type of treatment regimen forinduction ovulation and the number of dominant follicles did not correlate with pregnancy occurrence in anIUI cycle, but the womens’ ages and duration of infertility correlated with the occurrence of pregnancy.

  16. A descriptive qualitative study of adolescent girls’ well-being in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varpu Wiens

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that girls present welfare-related symptoms differently than boys and that the severity of their symptoms increases with age. Girls living in Northern Finland experience reduced well-being in some aspects of their lives. However, the opinions of girls on these matters have not previously been studied. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe girls’ well-being in Northern Finland. Method: This is a descriptive qualitative study. The participants were 117 girls aged between 13 and 16 who were living in the province of Lapland in Finland and attending primary school. Data were collected electronically; the girls were asked to respond to a set of open-ended questions using a computer during a school day. The responses were evaluated by using inductive content analysis. Results: Four main categories of girls’ well-being were identified: health as a resource, a beneficial lifestyle, positive experience of life course, and favourable social relationships. Health as a resource was about feeling healthy and the ability to enjoy life. A beneficial lifestyle was about healthy habits and meaningful hobbies. Positive experience of life course is related to high self-esteem and feeling good, safe, and optimistic. Favourable social relationships meant having good relationships with family and friends. Conclusions: To the participating girls, well-being was a positive experience and feeling which was revealed when they interact between their relationships, living conditions, lifestyle, and environment. Knowledge about girls’ description of their well-being can be used to understand how the girls themselves and their environment influence their well-being and what can be done to promote it.

  17. Customers’ Behaviour Analysis in Furniture Field: IKEA Case in the Northern part of Bari province

    OpenAIRE

    Dario A. Schirone

    2012-01-01

    Between the 70es and the 80es, the firm strategy - meant as the whole of choices to make in order to achieve long-term targets, or, as defined by SWOT Analysis, which one referred to during the economic boom years - gives way to the strategic planning and the strategic management. In such a reference picture, the present situation of IKEA store in Bari (Puglia, Italy) is included. This study target is, therefore, to determine what can be the reasons linked to a different purchase choice by a ...

  18. Customers’ Behaviour Analysis in Furniture Field: IKEA Case in the Northern part of Bari province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Schirone

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the 70es and the 80es, the firm strategy - meant as the whole of choices to make in order to achieve long-term targets, or, as defined by SWOT Analysis, which one referred to during the economic boom years - gives way to the strategic planning and the strategic management. In such a reference picture, the present situation of IKEA store in Bari (Puglia, Italy is included. This study target is, therefore, to determine what can be the reasons linked to a different purchase choice by a particular group of individuals on a Primary Market Area.

  19. Early pregnancy exposure to antihistamines and risk of congenital heart defects : results of two case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, Huberdina P. M.; de Jonge, Linda; Bandola, Sarah J. G.; Baardman, Marlies E.; Bakker, Marian K.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P. M.

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: We aimed to study the association between use of antihistamines in early pregnancy and congenital heart defects (CHD) in the offspring. DESIGN: Two case-control studies. SETTING: HAVEN study, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, and Eurocat Northern Netherlands (NNL), Univer

  20. OILSEED ACTIVITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE LINKAGES: FAMILY FARMING CASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The  biofuel  production  has  been  strongly  discussed  in  Brazil,  leading  the  country  to develop  policies  and  implement,  in  2004,  a  biodiesel  program  (PNPB  in  order  to  promote  rural  and regional  development.  Based  on  this,  the  present  study  aims  to  assess  the  linkages  between  the  oil seed activity and climate change, especially regarding the deforestation of native forests. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted with small-scale farmers in Tocantins state, located in the Brazilian Legal Amazon  Region.  The  survey  was  conducted  in  2008  and  comprises  a  range  of  socio-economic  and environmental  indicators,  which  were  collected  among  smallholders  who  cultivate  Ricinus  Communisand  Jatropha  curcas  oil  seeds.  Aiming  at  having  more  accuracy  in  the  assessment  of  the  linkages, REDD  plus  project  analyses  were  also  performed  in  the  study.  Results  point  toward  a  positive relationship  between  oil  seed  production  and  deforestation  of  native  forests,  which  might  then,aggravates climate change.

  1. Giant adrenal cyst: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiana, Catalina; Carsote, Mara; Chirita, Corina; Terzea, Dana; Paun, S; Beuran, M

    2010-01-01

    One of the rarest situations regarding an adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal cyst. We present the case of a 61-year-old male patient diagnosed with peritonitis. During surgery, a right adrenal tumor of 2 cm is discovered. The patient was referred to endocrinology. 6 months later the diameter of the tumor is 7 times bigger than the initial stage. It has no secretory phenotype, except for the small increase of serum aldosterone and the 24-h 17-ketosteroids. Open right adrenalectomy is performed and a cyst of 15 cm is removed. The evolution after surgery is good. The pathological exam reveals an adrenal cyst with calcifications and osteoid metaplasia. The immunohistochemistry showed a positive reaction for CD34 and ACT in the vessels and VIM in the stroma. The adrenal cysts are not frequent and represent a challenge regarding the preoperative diagnostic and surgical procedure of resection. The pathological exam highlights the major aspects. PMID:20945822

  2. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part I: Moessbauer Study of Clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an investigation of several ancient clays which were used for pottery making in northern coastal Peru at a kiln site from the Formative period (ca. 2000-800 BC) in the Poma Canal and at a Middle Sican pottery workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe in the lower La Leche valley. Neutron activation analysis, 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterisation of the clays. The changes that occur in iron-bearing compounds in the clays depending on the kiln atmosphere and on the maximum firing temperature were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Laboratory firing series under varying controlled conditions were performed to obtain a basic understanding of the different reactions taking place in the clays during firing. The results can be used as models in the interpretation of the Moessbauer spectra observed in ancient ceramics from the same context.

  3. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part I: Moessbauer Study of Clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, I. [Southern Illinois University (United States); Haeusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Wagner, U. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E15 (Germany)

    2003-09-15

    We report on an investigation of several ancient clays which were used for pottery making in northern coastal Peru at a kiln site from the Formative period (ca. 2000-800 BC) in the Poma Canal and at a Middle Sican pottery workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe in the lower La Leche valley. Neutron activation analysis, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterisation of the clays. The changes that occur in iron-bearing compounds in the clays depending on the kiln atmosphere and on the maximum firing temperature were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Laboratory firing series under varying controlled conditions were performed to obtain a basic understanding of the different reactions taking place in the clays during firing. The results can be used as models in the interpretation of the Moessbauer spectra observed in ancient ceramics from the same context.

  4. Historical desertification of the Mu Us Desert, Northern China: A multidisciplinary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yinzhou; Wang, Nai-ang; He, Tonghui; Chen, Hongyi; Zhao, Liqiang

    2009-09-01

    The problem of historical desertification of the Mu Us desert, northern China has been paid considerable attention during the past several decades. Through the analysis of stratigraphic evidence, historical records and archaeological discoveries, this paper studied the problem using a multidisciplinary approach. The results show that two phases of serious desertification occurred during the last two millennia, one is during the mid-to-late Tang dynasty (about A.D. 800) and the other during the late Ming dynasty (about A.D. 1500-1600). Further investigation of the cause of each phase of desertification demonstrates that the former phase of desertification is closely related to abrupt climate change occurring in the mid-eighth century, but the latter, which started during the Ming dynasty and stopped at late 1980s, is not consistent with climatic causation. Therefore, we suggest that human activities contributed to the development of the latter phase of desertification.

  5. Studies of osteoporosis in the Northern China using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The target population of this investigation is healthy people in northern China, aged 15-50, i.e. those who were born and grew up in the north. Community sampling did the collection of subjects from the China-Japan Friendship Hospital in Beijing and some social organizations near the hospital. Recruited subjects filled out the questionnaire provided by WHO. Many physical and lifestyle factors were included in the questionnaire such as height, weight, smoking, drinking, exercise level, etc. The nutrient intake of this part of the population was investigated. The method of 'review of diet in the last 3 days' was used in this study and 348 subjects were investigated. The nutrient composition of diet was calculated according to the food composition table

  6. Isotopic and chemical studies of geothermal waters of Northern Areas in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northern Areas is one of the major thermal fields of Pakistan with more than two dozen known hot springs having discharge temperature ranging from 35 deg. C to 94 deg. C. Isotopic and chemical techniques applied to study the geothermal fields show that thermal waters are of meteoric origin and can be classified as Na-HCO3, Na-SO4 and mixed type on the basis of their chemical contents. At some places cooling of thermal waters seems to be due to steam separation whereas mixing with fresh cold water is prominent at the remaining sites. The temperatures estimated by isotopic and chemical geothermometers for the two major fields i.e. Tatta Pani and Murtazabad are 83-257 deg. C and 65-296 deg. C respectively. (author). 24 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Studies of artificial radioactivity in the coastal environment of northern Scotland: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review brings measurements that have been made over the last 10-15 years of the concentrations of a number of artificial radionuclides in various media in the northern-Scottish coastal environment. The radionuclides include 60Co, 90Sr, 136Cs, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, and 241Am. The media include nearshore and offshore seawater, beach sand and sediments, seaweeds, winkles, spume, deposits on rocks and soils, sheep faeces, and atmospheric deposition. The various radionuclide sources that contribute to the study area are described. Some transfer mechanisms that operate between different media for different radionuclides are discussed, and the radiological significance of the observed radionuclide concentrations is briefly described. (Author)

  8. Social Well-Being in Northern Ireland: A Longitudinal Study 1958-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G. Dale; Jesse, Neal G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the question of how social well-being, or quality of life, in Northern Ireland has changed through time from 1958 to 1998. After reviewing major economic trends and governmental policy affecting the region, we develop an overall measure of quality of life based on previous research into social well-being in Northern Ireland. We…

  9. A case study of embarrassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, O T

    1977-01-01

    The psychoanalytic references to embarrassment are reviewed. Embarrassment, in the literature, is seen largely as an affect involving exhibitionistic and scopophilic conflicts and defenses against these. A case in which embarrassment was prominent is discussed. Embarrassment in the patient was an ego response which implied an external object for its manifestation. It involved exhibitionistic and scopophilic conflicts and projective defenses, but also operated in ego-gratifying and adaptive ways. Her embarrassment was understood through the analysis of an initial embarrassing dream of nakedness and other dreams and associated material as the defensive out-grouth of repeated exposures to the primal scene. Embarrassment was a resistance to remembering in the analysis, and the primal-scene experiences were partially reconstructed. The analytic situation was, in many ways, a symbolic re-creation of the primal scene, including the patient's response of embarrassment. The development of embarrassment in the patient's childhood was furthered and confirmed by its being an identification with the attitudes of both parents. Finally, some reflections on embarrassment and shame in its various forms are set forth. PMID:560404

  10. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  11. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M.; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M. B. D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or “Classical psychoanalysis” dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals. PMID:26483725

  12. Rebranding: a Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Size, Maria, (Thesis)

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to explore how and why companies implement rebranding campaigns. The study stemmed from a realisation by the author that the area of rebranding is very much under-researched academically although anecdotal evidence indicates and increase in the occurrence of the phenomenon in recent years. Therefore the purpose of this research is to add to the insufficient body of literature on rebranding through exploring it from a corporate perspective. The two chapte...

  13. Cadenas operativas en la manufactura de arte rupestre: un estudio de caso en El Mauro, valle cordillerano del Norte Semiárido de Chile Rock Art Chaînes Opératoires: A Case Study From El Mauro, A Mountainous Valley In Semiarid Northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Méndez Melgar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los contextos de producción son temas marginales en las discusiones relativas al arte rupestre. Independiente de los factores que hayan producido este sesgo en la comprensión del tema, se plantea que un examen a los procesos de manufactura es central para dar cuenta cabal del fenómeno rupestre. Se sugiere que el acto mismo de elaborar motivos es un acto comunicativo, tan cargado de contenidos sociales como podría pensarse que es la imagen misma, la cual ha recibido mayor atención en los estudios especializados. Se presenta un trabajo que expone una serie de procedimientos metodológicos destinados a entender la manufactura de petroglifos a través de sus instrumentos de trabajo y sus contextos de hallazgo. El área seleccionada fue El Mauro, valle cordillerano del Norte Semiárido, en donde se observa una profusión de estas manifestaciones para fechas del Holoceno tardío. Se discute una estrategia metodológica implementada a la luz de la noción que todo acto tecnológico es un acto social, se definen los instrumentos usados y se exponen una visión sintética del proceso a modo de una cadena operativa.Rock art production is a marginal issue in specialized discussions. Independently of the reasons for this bias in the current understanding of the subject, it is argued that an examination of production processes is crucial in order to fully account for the phenomenon. It is suggested that the elaboration of motifs is itself a communicative act, as loaded with social content as the images themselves, which have received more attention in specialized studies. This paper proposes a series of methodological procedures aimed at understanding rock art production through its production tools and recovery contexts. The study area comprises El Mauro mountain basin in semiarid northern Chile, where there is a high density of these manifestations from the late Holocene. A methodological strategy is discussed in light of the idea that every

  14. Investigation of discharge-area groundwaters for recharge source characterization on different scales: the case of Jinan in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiale; Jin, Menggui; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Dele; Kang, Fengxin; Jia, Baojie

    2016-05-01

    Discharge-area groundwater in Jinan, a typical karst region in northern China, was investigated by studying both the hydrological and chemical processes evolving from the recharge in mountainous terrains to the karst-spring outflows in the metropolitan area. Large-scale exploitation of karst groundwater has led to a disturbing trend in the ever-decreasing spring outflow rates and groundwater level. There is insufficient information about the Jinan karst aquifers, which provide the main water sources to meet human demand and to sustain spring outflow. The coupling of hydrological and chemical processes quantifies the flow system through aqueous chemistry characterization of the water sources. This approach is used to study the groundwater flow discharges in different locations and geological settings. The potentiometric data indicated limited vertical connectivity between distinct hydrogeological units and alteration of the recharge regime by the faults and by artificial exploitation. Shallow groundwater primarily belongs to the local flow system, with high nitrate concentration and enriched stable isotopic contents. Thermal groundwater has high concentrations of chloride and total dissolved solids, derived from a regional flow system with the highest recharge altitudes and long residence time. Non-thermal karst water may be attributed to the intermediate flow system, with uniform HCO3-Ca(Mg) facies and low nitrate concentration. This work highlighted discharge as a fingerprint of groundwater flow conditions and provides a better insight into the hydrogeological system.

  15. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasundaram Daya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development

  16. Carbon Cycling Studies in Forest and Rangeland Ecosystems of Northern and Central Coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Gross, P.; Hiatt, S.; Genovese, V.

    2008-12-01

    The varied topography and micro-climates of northern and central coastal California result in high biodiversity and many different levels of primary production driving regional carbon cycles. Coastal mountains trap moisture from low clouds and fog in summer to supplement rainfall in winter. This creates a favorable micro-environment for coniferous forests, including the southernmost habitat of the coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), which grows mainly on lower north-facing slopes in Big Sur. In rain shadows, forests transition to open oak woodland, and then into the more fire-tolerant chaparral and coast scrub. Field sites for our on-going climate change studies on the California northern and central coasts currently include the University of California Santa Cruz Campus Natural Reserve, the US Forest Service Brazil Ranch, and the University of California Big Creek Reserve. We are conducting research at each of these sites to better understand possible impacts of climate change, including: (1) biological and physical capacity of soils to capture carbon and retain plant-essential nutrients; (2) rates of plant-soil water and carbon cycling and energy flow; and (3) recovery mechanisms for disturbances such as invasive weed species, grazing, and wildfire. The NASA-CASA simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate carbon cycling for much of the central coast as far north as Mendocino County. Net primary production (NPP) of all vegetation cover was mapped at 30-meter resolution for selected years by combining MODIS and Landsat images across the region. Results show annual NPP predictions of between 200-400 grams C per square meter for coastal scrub and 800-1200 grams C per square meter for coastal evergreen forests, Net ecosystem fluxes of carbon will be presented for the region based on NASA-CASA modeling and field measurements of soil respiration fluxes.

  17. Outage management: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study

  18. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Roberts, K.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business)

    1992-01-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  19. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, K.H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business

    1992-09-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  20. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  1. 天山北坡经济带宜耕未利用地开发潜力分区及评价——以新疆阜康市为例%Evaluation of potential of unused land exploitation in Northern Tianshan Mountain Economic Belt— A case study of Fukang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆敏; 刘新平

    2016-01-01

    Xinjiang region has relatively abundant unused land resources that can be rationally developed and used. This is beneficial to ease the increasingly worsening conflict between people and land and ensure regional food security to a certain extent. This paper chose Fukang City in Northern Tianshan Mountain Economic Belt as the research area and used twelve factors to build up an evaluation index system for Fukang City. The twelve factors included soil salinity, soil depth, soil texture, organic matter content, landform, forest cover rate, irrigation rate, soil erosion module, cumulative temperature≥10℃, distance from stream, runoff volume of watershed and annual precipitation. The ecological niche model was used to evaluate the suitability of unused lands converted into arable lands in the study area. The results showed that unused lands (including highly suitable and basically suitable) most suitable for conversion into arable lands accounted for 22.21% of total unused lands in the region. Such lands located in the lower part of piedmont alluvial fans and in relatively flat terrains. Reluctantly suitable unused lands only accounted for 16.36% of total unused lands and were mainly located at the edge of the northern desert and in the upper parts of southern piedmont alluvial fans. Unused lands unsuitable for development accounted for 61.43% and mainly distributed in the southern slopes, the edge of piedmont alluvial fans and the fringe zone close to the northern desert. On the basis of the evaluation results, the paper chose potential index, potential increase in arable land, unused land area in town and sub-town, unused arable land development area, unused arable land proportion, average patch area and patch fragmentation index to build a development potential matrix of unused lands in the study area. Cluster analysis was also used to regionalize unused lands. Based on the research, the study area was divided into five potential zones. Grade Ⅰ potential zone

  2. A Case Study of Engineering Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazuo

    In Engineering Ethics Class at Shizuoka University, the Code of Ethics and Cases for Electrical Engineers by IEEJ Ethics committee is used to promote for high education effect to correspond large number of students (140students). In this paper, a case study in the class, and survey results for ethics value of students are presented. In addition, some comments for role playing act on the case of virtual experiences by students are described.

  3. Environmental contracting: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kubiak, Joseph C.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The end of cold war levels of defense expenditures has promoted the reduction in the number of defense-related companies, creating potential monopolistic economic scenarios for defense procurement. This thesis studies one methodology to deal with these scenarios, based on the Baron-Myerson monopolist regulation mechanisms. The Baron-Myerson mechanism provides a tool to regulate monopolists when their costs are unknown or cannot be measure...

  4. Marketing-Indonesia case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Iwan; Roshetko, James M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of research are (1) to identify the potential VAF species or products for Nanggung Farmers; (2) identify market channels & marketing problems; (3) enhances farmers' understanding of market mechanism; and (4) identify opportunities to improve the quantity & quality of VAF. The study was conducted on Sept-Oct 2006. Data and information are collected through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) in each village that attended both men and women. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetabl...

  5. Linguistic Overgeneralization: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasan Nazar Al-Baldawi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study described a single child’s language acquisition. The importance of this study resided in the circumstances and the environment in which the child lived. He came from a family in which the parents were from different countries and cultures; spoke different Arabic dialects and who lived in a country in which English is spoken. The child was in his critical period of language acquisition. He seemed to have established a unique way of communicating with people surrounding him to cope with all the linguistic varieties around him. The study showed that the child had semantic, syntactic and morphological overgeneralized structures. The data and results showed that overgeneralization and language acquisition were primarily an innate faculty of the human mind and that imitation did played a primary role in language acquisition.It showed, nevertheless, that imitation and behaviorist approaches could not fully account for language acquisition nor did the generative approach. The results went in favor of an Emergentist approach of language acquisition where both innateness and imitations were crucial constituents of children’s acquisition of linguistic forms.

  6. Case Study: A Strategic Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul B.M. Noor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the literature on case study as a strategic qualitative research methodology. Although case studies have been criticised by some authors as lacking scientific rigour and do not address generalizability, this research, however, reiterated its appropriateness when dealing with a process or a complex real-life activities in great-depth. Case study has been commonly used in social science fields like sociology, industrial relations and anthropology eventhough generally was considered an underutilized strategy. Hence, this research explained the general concept of a case study, strengths and weaknesses of using this method knowing that theoretically case is exciting and data rich. Based on a study of four organizations and the researcher’s own experience, this article described matters on how case study was undertaken, gaining excess to those organizations and the systematic process of data collection and triangulation (multiple techniques. It was noted that combining multiple techniques for elicitng data in case study research actually strengthens and confirmed results.

  7. Brick handling: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R D; Handyside, J

    1982-09-01

    A small change in brick dimensions resulted in an increase in the perceived work-load of men loading and unloading pallets of bricks by hand. A laboratory study indicated that the change in brick dimensions required changes in grip pattern in order to unload bricks at the same rate, moving the same number at a time. These changed grip patterns resulted in increased upper body movement, increased chest-muscle activity and higher heart rates. These differences were reflected in higher subjective ratings of fatigue. PMID:15676442

  8. Sediment flux dynamics as fingerprints of catchment rehabilitation: The case of western Rift Valley escarpment of northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaha, Tesfaalem G.; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Zenebe, Amanuel; Nyssen, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Variability in supply and entrainment of stream bedload particles during storm events is an important hydrogeomorphologic response of steep mountain streams to land management in their catchments. Because of difficulties in its measurement and absence of accurate measuring equipment, bedload transport in mountain streams is, however, poorly understood. This study focuses on analyzing bedload supply and entrainment in 11 streams of sloping (27-65%) catchments (0.4-25 km2) in northern Ethiopia, which have experienced severe deforestation and degradation processes until the first half of the 1980s and considerable rehabilitation thereafter. Field measurements of the median diameter of the 10 coarsest bedload particles (Max10) moved in each event (n = 332) and stream bed particle sampling were carried out in three rainy seasons (2012-2014). Event peak discharges were calculated from daily measurements by 11 crest stage gauges using Manning's equation. Percentages of land cover classes in the catchments were detected from high resolution (0.6 m) Google Earth imagery (1 February, 2014). Morphometric characteristics of the catchments were computed from an ASTER digital elevation model and topographic maps. Hydraulic competence analysis for entrainment of the average Max10 was carried out using peak discharge, stream power, and critical shear stress approaches. The supply of Max10 was positively related to scar density on the surrounding slopes (R2 = 0.50, p rehabilitation.

  9. Ownership and Control Structures: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolov, Mico

    2015-01-01

    This is a study on separation of ownership and control in Southeast Europe, and in particular it is a case study of Macedonia. For structured analysis of this case study we use the World Bank Microdata Library, specifically the Enterprise Surveys which contains firm-level data of a representative sample of economies private sectors. What we are interested in are the ties of ownership and control and whether such linkages contribute to the development of domestic firms and the overall ec...

  10. A histopathologic study of salivary gland tumors in Kano, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochicha Ochicha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Significant differences in the global distribution of salivary gland tumors have been reported, but no formal study has been carried out here in Kano, the largest city in northern Nigeria. We therefore undertook this eight-year retrospective study of all histologically diagnosed salivary neoplasms at the histopathology laboratory of our referral teaching hospital in Kano. Seventy-eight salivary gland tumors were diagnosed during the eight-year study period accounting for 0.4% of all neoplasms. Benign tumors were more prevalent, comprising 56.4%, while malignancies were 43.6%. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the commonest histological types constituting 48.7% and 23.1% respectively, while the most frequent sites were parotid, submandibular and minor salivary glands accounting for 49%, 26% and 24% respectively. As in most studies of black populations there were no adenolymphomas. Age distribution was bimodal with a benign peak in the third decade and a malignant peak in the sixth. Our findings were broadly similar to most other African reports but somewhat at variance with Western literature. Improved hospital attendance with more comprehensive reporting would yield more representative data.

  11. Case studies of steel structure failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bernasovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with some case studies of steel structure failures, which happened in Slovakia a few years ago. Features of cracking are illustrated on real cases of breakdowns in the transmission gas pipelines, at the cement works and in the petrochemical indus-try. All failures were caused by an incorrect technical approach. Possible remedial measures are proposed.

  12. Case Studies of Environmental Risks to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…

  13. Abbreviated Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanguri, Deloris McGee

    2005-01-01

    The cases contained within organizational communication texts are generally two to three pages, often followed by questions. These case studies are certainly useful. They generally describe events in the present, provide some type of organizational context, include first-hand data, include a record of what people say and think, develop a…

  14. Case study on printed matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    global warming, acidification and nutrification. The studies focus on energy consumption including the emissions and impact categories related to energy. The chemical-related impact categories comprising ecotoxicity and human toxicity are not included at all or only to a limited degree. In this paper we...... European/global ones are used for sensitivity analysis. The weighting factors for the impact categories are based on political reduction targets. Conlusion  The distribution of potential environmental impacts along the life cycle of a generic printed matter produced on a model sheet feed offset printing...... distribution of potential environmental impacts and consumption of resources along the life cycle of a generic printed matter produced on a model sheet feed offset printing industry in Europe. Main activities at all stages in the life cycle are covered. However special focus is on the production stage but...

  15. A network security case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a study to validate the Graphical Network Representation (GRPHREP) model which is being conducted on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Integrated Computer Network (ICN). The GRPHREP model is a software system application based on graph theory and object-oriented programming methodologies. It codified the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5637.1, which is concerned with classified computer secret policy, restrictions, and requirements. The Los Alamos ICN is required to control access to and support large-scale scientific and administrative computing. Thus, large-scale scientific and administrative computing. Thus we felt that this large, complex, and dynamic network would provide a good test for the graphical and functional capabilities of the model. Furthermore, the ICN is composed of multiple partitions that reflect the sensitivity and classification of the computation (data) and designate the required clearance level for the user

  16. Mining Product Data Models: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina-Claudia DOLEAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies used to prove the validity of some data-flow mining algorithms. We proposed the data-flow mining algorithms because most part of mining algorithms focuses on the control-flow perspective. First case study uses event logs generated by an ERP system (Navision) after we set several trackers on the data elements needed in the process analyzed; while the second case study uses the event logs generated by YAWL system. We offered a general solution of data-flow m...

  17. Case study in professionally-oriented training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valitov Shamil M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern educational technologies are based on competence approach and focus on the future professional activity. Case study is one of the most significant technologies in modern higher education. The basic concepts used in the case study method are a “situation” and an “analysis”, as well as their derivative - “analysis of the situation”. The case study method of is one of the best tools for gaining experience, as it investigates practical situations that occur in managerial job. It combines theoretical knowledge with the analysis of the actual practical experience in accordance with a major. Doing case studies students read the description of the situation and offer divergent projects of managerial decisions that could be used by real managers dealing with the problem posed by the case study author. Answers to the questions posed in the case description are not given, as a rule, since the main purpose in the case analysis is to organize a discussion in the classroom or provoke speculations of those who do the self-study.

  18. Prevalence and sensitization of atopic allergy and coeliac disease in the Northern Sweden Population Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Enroth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atopic allergy is effected by a number of environmental exposures, such as dry air and time spent outdoors, but there are few estimates of the prevalence in populations from sub-arctic areas. Objective. To determine the prevalence and severity of symptoms of food, inhalation and skin-related allergens and coeliac disease (CD in the sub-arctic region of Sweden. To study the correlation between self-reported allergy and allergy test results. To estimate the heritability of these estimates. Study design. The study was conducted in Karesuando and Soppero in Northern Sweden as part of the Northern Sweden Population Health Study (n=1,068. We used a questionnaire for self-reported allergy and CD status and measured inhalation-related allergens using Phadiatop, food-related allergens using the F×5 assay and IgA and IgG antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG to indicate prevalence of CD. Results. The prevalence of self-reported allergy was very high, with 42.3% reporting mild to severe allergy. Inhalation-related allergy was reported in 26.7%, food-related allergy in 24.9% and skin-related allergy in 2.4% of the participants. Of inhalation-related allergy, 11.0% reported reactions against fur and 14.6% against pollen/grass. Among food-related reactions, 14.9% reported milk (protein and lactose as the cause. The IgE measurements showed that 18.4% had elevated values for inhalation allergens and 11.7% for food allergens. Self-reported allergies and symptoms were positively correlated (p<0.01 with age- and sex-corrected inhalation allergens. Allergy prevalence was inversely correlated with age and number of hours spent outdoors. High levels of IgA and IgG anti-tTG antibodies, CD-related allergens, were found in 1.4 and 0.6% of participants, respectively. All allergens were found to be significantly (p<3e–10 heritable, with estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.34 (F×5 to 0.65 (IgA. Conclusions. Self-reported allergy

  19. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A forty-two-year-old male presented to the Royal Adelaide Hospital with symptoms of increasing shortness of breath, swelling in both ankles, petechial rash and blood in his sputum. Initial investigations showed cardiomegaly, right ventricular hypertrophy, patchy lung infiltrates, a platelet count of 1500 and a clotting time of 60 seconds. A V/Q scan indicated a high probability of pulmonary embolism. Further investigations showed that the patient was positive for lupus anticoagulant and cardiolipin antibodies. A diagnosis of primary antiphospholipid syndrome was made. The patient''s high risk of strokes and hemorrhaging prompted investigation by a 99mTc-HMPAO brain scan. Further V/Q scans were performed to follow up the initial finding of multiple pulmonary embolism and a R-L shunt study was performed to investigate a left subclavian murmur. The patient was admitted for four weeks and began treatment which included cyclaphosphamide, corticosteroids and plasmaphoresis and was discharged when stable. Over the next six months he was re admitted three times for relapse of antiphospholipid syndrome. On his fourth admission he collapsed and died five hours after admission. Cause of death was due to cardiac arrhythmia secondary to severe right ventricular hypertrophy and dilation. The effects of antiphospholipid syndrome was believed to be responsible for this outcome

  20. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, T. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: A forty-two-year-old male presented to the Royal Adelaide Hospital with symptoms of increasing shortness of breath, swelling in both ankles, petechial rash and blood in his sputum. Initial investigations showed cardiomegaly, right ventricular hypertrophy, patchy lung infiltrates, a platelet count of 1500 and a clotting time of 60 seconds. A V/Q scan indicated a high probability of pulmonary embolism. Further investigations showed that the patient was positive for lupus anticoagulant and cardiolipin antibodies. A diagnosis of primary antiphospholipid syndrome was made. The patient``s high risk of strokes and hemorrhaging prompted investigation by a {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO brain scan. Further V/Q scans were performed to follow up the initial finding of multiple pulmonary embolism and a R-L shunt study was performed to investigate a left subclavian murmur. The patient was admitted for four weeks and began treatment which included cyclaphosphamide, corticosteroids and plasmaphoresis and was discharged when stable. Over the next six months he was re admitted three times for relapse of antiphospholipid syndrome. On his fourth admission he collapsed and died five hours after admission. Cause of death was due to cardiac arrhythmia secondary to severe right ventricular hypertrophy and dilation. The effects of antiphospholipid syndrome was believed to be responsible for this outcome.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of customary medicinal plants of the Yaegl Aboriginal community of northern New South Wales, Australia: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Packer, Joanne; Naz, Tarannum; ,; Harrington, David; Jamie, Joanne F.; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is a collaboration between Macquarie University researchers and the Yaegl Aboriginal Community of northern NSW, Australia to investigate the antimicrobial potential of plants used in the topical treatment of wounds, sores and skin infections. Based on previously documented medicinal applications, aqueous and aqueous ethanolic extracts of Alocasia brisbanensis, Canavalia rosea, Corymbia intermedia, Hibbertia scandens, Ipomoea brasiliensis, Lophostemon suaveolens and Synca...

  2. Radionuclide levels in fish from Lake Athabasca February 1993. Northern River Basins Study project report no.26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Northern River Basins Study was initiated through the 'Canada-Alberta-Northwest Territories Agreement Respecting the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River Basin Study, Phase II - Technical Studies' which was signed September 27, 1991. The purpose of the study is to understand and characterize the cumulative effects of development on the water and aquatic environment of the Study Area by coordinating with existing programs and undertaking appropriate new technical studies. This publication reports the method and findings of particular work conducted as part of the Northern River Basins Study. As such, the work was governed by a specific terms of reference and is expected to contribute information about the Study Area within the context of the overall study as described by the Study Final Report. This report has been reviewed by the Study Science Advisory Committee in regards to scientific content and has been approved by the Study Board of Directors for public release. It is explicit in the objectives of the Study to report the results of technical work regularly to the public. This objective is served by distributing project reports to an extensive network of libraries, agencies, organizations and interested individuals and by granting universal permission to reproduce the material. This report contains referenced data obtained from external to the Northern River Basins Study. Individuals interested in using external data must obtain permission to do so from the donor agency. (author). 47 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Observational study of atmospheric surface layer and coastal weather in northern Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Dhrubajyoti; Sadr, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric surface layer is the interaction medium between atmosphere and Earth's surface. Better understanding of its turbulence nature is essential in characterizing the local weather, climate variability and modeling of turbulent exchange processes. The importance of Middle East region, with its unique geographical, economical and weather condition is well recognized. However, high quality micrometeorological observational studies are rare in this region. Here we show experimental results from micrometeorological observations from an experimental site in the coastal region of Qatar during August-December 2015. Measurements of winds are obtained from three sonic anemometers installed on a 9 m tower placed at Al Ghariyah beach in northern Qatar (26.08 °N, 51.36 °E). Different surface layer characteristics is analyzed and compared with earlier studies in equivalent weather conditions. Monthly statistics of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity and heat index are made from concurrent observations from sonic anemometer and weather station to explore variations with surface layer characteristics. The results also highlights potential impact of sea breeze circulation on local weather and atmospheric turbulence. The observed daily maximum temperature and heat index during morning period may be related to sea breeze circulations. Along with the operational micrometeorological observation system, a camera system and ultrasonic wave measurement system are installed recently in the site to study coastline development and nearshore wave dynamics. Overall, the complete observational set up is going to provide new insights about nearshore wind dynamics and wind-wave interaction in Qatar.

  4. Serum soluble RAGE levels and carotid atherosclerosis: the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Barry I; Gardener, Hannah; Liu-Mares, Wen; Dong, Chuanhui; Cheung, Ken; Elkind, Mitchell SV; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Rundek, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent cohort studies suggested that serum levels of soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (sRAGE) are associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that sRAGE levels are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in a racially and ethnically diverse population. Methods and results 828 stroke-free participants from the Northern Manhattan Study (mean age 71.1±8.7yrs; 64% Hispanic, 19% black, and 17% white) underwent high-resolution carotid B-mode ultrasound to measure carotid plaque (present in 62% of subjects) and intima-media thickness (IMT) (mean Total= 0.96±0.10 mm). Serum sRAGE was measured by ELISA and associations tested between sRAGE with IMT and plaque presence. Soluble RAGE levels were not associated with plaque presence or IMT after adjusting for sociodemographic, vascular risk factors and medication use. Stratification by race-ethnicity did not reveal any associations with carotid IMT or plaque. Conclusion In the present study, sRAGE levels were not associated with carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:25744702

  5. Usage of virtual research laboratory "Climate" prototype for Northern Eurasia climatic and ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Reported are some results of Northern Eurasia regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling obtained using recently developed prototype of thematic virtual research laboratory (VRL) Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/). The prototype integrates distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. Its specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenario. Currently VRL integrates on the base of geoportal the WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, basic reanalysis, meteorological stations data and support profound statistical analysis of storage and modeled on demand data. In particular, one can run the integrated models, preprocess modeling results data, using dedicated modules for numerical processing perform analysys and visualize obtained results. The prototype can provide specialists involved into multidisciplinary research projects with reliable and practical instruments for integrated research of climate and ecosystems changes on global and regional scales. With its help even a user without programming skills would be able to process and visualize multidimensional observational and model data through unified web-interface using a web-browser. Location, frequency and magnitude of observed in Siberia extremes has been studied using recently added prototype functionality allowing detailed statistical analysis studies of regional climatic extremes. Firstly it was shown that ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis data are closest to near surface temperature time series measured at regional meteorological stations. Statistical analysis of ERA Interim daily temperature time series (1979-2012) indicates the asymmetric changes in distribution tails of such extreme indices as warm/cold days/nights. Namely, the

  6. Towards More Case Study Research in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Duxbury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

  7. BTS Case Study: The Galloway Family Home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case study of an energy-efficient Habitat for Humanity house that uses 30% less energy than conventional residential construction. The project was part of the Jimmy Carter Work Project in rural Appalachia in 1997

  8. Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry Focus: Greece Case Study: Porto Carras Grand Resort

    OpenAIRE

    Salpisti, Elisavet

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the notion of Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry. The organisational single-case study has been chosen as a research method, with research taking place in Porto Carras Grand Resort in Northern Greece. The purpose of this research has been to demonstrate the importance of employee job satisfaction in the hospitality industry in particular, since the quality of its services is greatly subject to the 'human chemistry' between employees and customers. Job...

  9. Educational Potential of Case-Study Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorinova, Zoya Vladimirovna; Vorobyeva, Viktoriya Vladimirovna; Malyanova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of phenomenological and typological analysis of case-study technology educational potential. The definition “educational potential of case-study technology” is given, the main characteristics of which are changed in communication and collaborative activity quality, appearance of educational initiatives, change of participants’ position in learning process, formation of “collective subject” in collaborative activity, increase of learning (subject) results. Dep...

  10. SYNONYMS IN ACTION: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Clift

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses what the methods of conversation analysis (CA) might have to offer the study of linguistic synonymy. It takes as a case study two items commonly held to be synonyms -'actually' and 'in fact'- and shows considerable differences between the two in their interactional implementation: they are implicated in the prosecution of differing courses of action. Such cases argue that it is analytically more profitable to consider what a lexical item does in the context of talk than w...

  11. Interdisciplinary study of post-glacial faulting in the Lansjaerv area, Northern Sweden 1986-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-glacial faults have been recognized in the northern Baltic shield for several decades. It is important to evaluate whether such neotectonic movements can lead to new fracturing or decisively alter the geohydrological or geohydrochemical situation around a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The post-glacial Lansjaerv fault was chosen for interdisciplinary study because of its relative accessibility. The goals of the study were to assess the mechanisms that caused present day scarps, to clarify the extent of any recent fracturing and to clarify the extent of any ongoing movements. All these objectives were reasonable met through a series of studies. This report describes achievements that have been gained since the study was initiated by SKB 1986. Analysis of geology and geophysics over a 150x200 km region supplemented with seismic networks and field studies at outcrops and trenches set a framework for a cored borehole down to depth of 500 m at the fault. The core has been studied in detail with respect to fracture-infillings in order to analyse mineralogical and geochemical alteration. The borehole has been logged for geophysics, stress, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater pressure and the chemical constituents of the groundwater. Numerical modelling has been undertaken in order to understand the effects of glaciation on the behaviour of a blocky rock mass. Several general conclusions have been made by the interdisciplinary research group. One of the major conclusions is that pre-existing old structures were reactivated by tectonic movements, possibly triggered by deglaciation. In spite of a major earthquake that may have occurred during the deglaciation, and in spite of the anomalous tectonic setting compared to study-sites within SKB:s site investigation programme, the hydraulic conductivity and groundwater chemistry are comparable with results from those sites. (83 figs., 15 tabs., 150 refs.)

  12. TOP-10 DATA MINING CASE STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    GABOR MELLI; XINDONG WU; PAUL BEINAT; FRANCESCO BONCHI; LONGBING CAO; RONG DUAN; CHRISTOS FALOUTSOS; RAYID GHANI; BRENDAN KITTS; BART GOETHALS; GEOFF MCLACHLAN; JIAN PEI; ASHOK SRIVASTAVA; OSMAR ZAÏANE

    2012-01-01

    We report on the panel discussion held at the ICDM'10 conference on the top 10 data mining case studies in order to provide a snapshot of where and how data mining techniques have made significant real-world impact. The tasks covered by 10 case studies range from the detection of anomalies such as cancer, fraud, and system failures to the optimization of organizational operations, and include the automated extraction of information from unstructured sources. From the 10 cases we find that sup...

  13. Constructions of ‘the Polish’ in Northern England: Findings From a Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gibson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the European Union in 2004 gave rise to moral panics concerning the likelihood of mass migration from the new eastern European member states to established member states in the west. A great deal of social and political science research has examined the ongoing impact of the enlargement, but there remains a gap in the literature regarding the ways in which members of ‘receiving’ populations reacted to these changes. The present paper reports findings from a qualitative interview study of 14-16 year-olds conducted in northern England. It focuses on how migrants from one particular country – Poland – were constructed by participants. Drawing on previous analyses of immigration and racist discourse, the study points to some ways in which Polish migrants and migration were constructed, and how complaints against ‘the Polish’ were formulated. The analysis focusses on four key issues: employment and the economy; language and culture; threat and intimidation; and physical stereotyping. It is suggested that constructions of ‘the Polish’ draw on the tropes of both ‘old’ and ‘new’ racism, and that attention to the use of deixical ingroup referents (‘us’, ‘we’, ‘our’ in contrast to the explicit labelling of the outgroup (‘the Polish’ can be understood in terms of the requirement to present complaints concerning migrant groups via appeals to assumed universal standards of behaviour and civility.

  14. Legacy data for a northern prairie grassland: Woodworth Study Area, North Dakota, 1963-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shelby H.; Austin, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological data commonly become more valuable through time. Such legacy data provide baseline records of past biological, physical, and social information that provide historical perspective and are necessary for assessment of stasis or change. Legacy data collected at the Woodworth Study Area (WSA), a contiguous block of grasslands, croplands, and wetlands covering more than 1,000 hectares of the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, are cataloged and summarized in this study. The WSA is one of the longest researched grassland sites in the Upper Midwest. It has an extensive history of settlement, land use, and management that provides a deeper context for future research. The WSA data include long-term vegetation transect records, land use history, habitat management records, geologic information, wetland hydrology and chemistry information, and spatial images. Substantial parts of these data have not been previously reported. The WSA is representative of many other lands purchased by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the Prairie Pothole Region from the 1930s to the 1970s; therefore, synthesized data from the WSA are broadly applicable to topics of concern in northern grasslands, such as increases in non-native plants, managing for biodiversity, and long-term effects of habitat management. New techniques are also described that were used to preserve these data for future analyses. The data preservation techniques are applicable to any project with data that should be preserved for 100 years or more.

  15. Analytical study of ancient pottery from the archaeological site of Aiani, northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is a multi-analytical approach on the characterization of several potsherd samples, dated from prehistoric to hellenistic times, from Aiani, ancient Upper Macedonia, northern Greece. In particular, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray system (ESEM-EDX) were used for the determination of the morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the potsherds. The preliminary results indicated a rather local provenance of the analyzed ancient pottery samples and a finer texture and thus better ceramic manufacture as getting to hellenistic era. The use of a silicious or calcerous raw material is probably related to the specific utilization of each ceramic vessel in ancient times. The presence of gehlenite or pyroxene minerals in the ceramic matrix indicated higher firing temperatures, while lower temperatures were deduced when finding phylosilicate minerals. The preliminary results of this study do not necessarily imply that all the pottery of this area, belonging to the same chronological type, have similar physicochemical characteristics

  16. Studies on radionuclide concentration along the Northern Coast of Krusadai Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusadai Island - The Biologist's Paradise, is situated in Gulf of Mannar (GaM) near Rameswaram of Tamilnadu, India. It has been recognized as Ecological sensitive area under Coastal regulation zone notification 1991 because these area act as the breeding zone for a variety of marine species, most of which are consumed by human population. Above all Govt. of India and Govt. of Tamil Nadu jointly declared Gulf of Mannar as Marine National Park under Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. So it is essential to have a periodic radiological survey in this area in order to check the concentrations of various radionuclide. Apart from this 2004 Tsunami had many devastating effects along the coastal Tamil Nadu. GOM (Especially Rameswaram coast) didn't suffer a lot due to the barricade-like protection given by the island nation Sri Lanka. But reports suggest that northeastern part of the Krusadai Island had noticeable effects due to Tsunami, which interests to study this area. Current study is a preliminary radioactive report on the northern part of the Krusadai Island

  17. Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

  18. Conduct disorder among girls: violent behaviour, suicidality and comorbidity: a study of adolescent inpatients in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ilomäki, E. (Essi)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Conduct disorder (CD) among girls is a common but seldom studied psychiatric disorder. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for CD, the factor structure of CD symptoms, suicidal behaviour, comorbid disorders and nicotine dependence of adolescent girls with CD in an inpatient sample in Northern Finland. The study subjects were 508 12- to 17-year-old inpatients treated in an acute psychiatric ward, Unit 70, at Oulu University Hospital between April 2001 and March 2...

  19. Evaluation of groundwater quality in rural-areas of northern Malawi: Case of Zombwe Extension Planning Area in Mzimba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Matamula, Swithern; Nakoma, Oliver; Chawinga, Charles B. J.

    2016-06-01

    Many people in in the Sub-Saharan region rely on groundwater for drinking and other household uses. Despite this significance, information on the chemical composition of the water in the boreholes and emperical data on groundwater quality is limited in some rural areas of Malawi. This study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical quality of water from boreholes (n = 20) in Zombwe Extension Planning Area (EPA), Mzimba in Northern Malawi to ascertain their safety. Desktop studies and participatory approaches were employed to assess the socio-economic activities and water supply regime in the study areas. The water samples were analysed for pH, conductivity (EC), turbidity, water temperature, nitrate (NO3-), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), fluoride (F-), and sulphate (SO42-). In-situ and laboratory analyses were carried out using portable meters and standard procedures. The results were compared with national (Malawi Bureau of Standards - MBS) and international standards (World Health Organization - WHO) for drinking water. The following ranges were obtained: pH (6.00-7.80), EC (437-3128 μS/cm), turbidity (0.10-5.80 NTU), water temperature (27.0-30.60 °C), NO3- (0.30-30.00 mg/L), F- (0.10-8.10 mg/L), Mg (31.00-91.00 mg/L), Ca (20.00-197.10 mg/L), SO42- (10.20-190 mg/L), Fe (0.10-3.60 mg/L) and Zn (0.00-5.10 mg/L). Generally, some parameters tested at several sites (>80%, n = 20) complied with both MBS and WHO limits. No significant differences (p > 0.05) was observed for most parameters (>65%, n = 11). Groundwater contamination was not significant in the area despite some parameters like F-, Ca and SO42- showing higher levels at other sites. Some sites registered very hard water (244.60-757.80 mg/L CaCO3) probably due to mineralization influenced by underground rock material. Further studies are needed to ascertain the groundwater quality of other parameters (like F-, and SO42-) which registered higher levels at some sites. Routine monitoring of the

  20. Ethnical Variations in the Incidence of Congenital Heart Defects in Gorgan, Northern Iran: A Single-Center Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Nikyar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD is the most common congenital anomaly in newborns. This study was performed to determine the live birth incidence of CHD by ethnicity and sex in Gorgan, Northern Iran.Methods: In this longitudinal, hospital-based study, 18162 live births in Dezyani Hospital in Gorgan, North of Iran, were screened for CHD, from 2007 through 2009. Clinical examination, echocardiography, color Doppler, and cardio catheterization were used as diagnostic tools. Sex, ethnicity, and type of CHD for each case were recorded in a pre-designed questionnaire.Results: The incidence rates of CHD in the native Fars, Sistani, and Turkmen subjects were 5.73 (95%CI: 4.53-7.15,12.27 (95%CI: 8.74-16.73, and 15.93 (95%CI: 10.00-24.02 per 1000 live births, respectively. The Turkmen to native Fars and Sistani to native Fars relative risk for congenital CHD malformations was 2.77 (95%CI: 1.73-4.44; p value < 0.001 and 1.29 (95%CI: 0.77-2.18; p value < 0.323, respectively. While atrial septal defect was the most common lesion in the native Fars subjects (2.14 per 1000 [95%CI: 1.42-3.06] and in the Sistani subjects (2.84 per 1000 [95%CI: 1.29-5.36], in the Turkmen subjects, ventricular septal defect (4.36 per 1000 [95%CI: 1.59-9.43], followed by atrial septal defect, was the most frequent lesion.Conclusion: This study showed that the incidence and pattern of CHD among live births in Gorgan, North of Iran, varied according to ethnicity. The risk of CHD was higher in the Turkmen and Sistani groups than in the Fars population

  1. A regression modeling approach for studying carbonate system variability in the northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Winsor, Peter; Statscewich, Hank; Whitledge, Terry E.

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThe northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) shelf experiences carbonate system variability on seasonal and annual time scales, but little information exists to resolve higher frequency variability in this region. To resolve this variability using platforms-of-opportunity, we present multiple linear regression (MLR) models constructed from hydrographic data collected along the Northeast Pacific Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) Seward Line. The empirical algorithms predict dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) using observations of nitrate (NO3-), temperature, salinity and pressure from the surface to 500 m, with R2s > 0.97 and RMSE values of 11 µmol kg-1 for DIC and 9 µmol kg-1 for TA. We applied these relationships to high-resolution NO3- data sets collected during a novel 20 h glider flight and a GLOBEC mesoscale SeaSoar survey. Results from the glider flight demonstrated time/space along-isopycnal variability of aragonite saturations (Ωarag) associated with a dicothermal layer (a cold near-surface layer found in high latitude oceans) that rivaled changes seen vertically through the thermocline. The SeaSoar survey captured the uplift to GOA. This work is similar to recent studies aimed at predicting the carbonate system in continental margin settings, albeit demonstrates that a NO3--based approach can be applied to high-latitude data collected from platforms capable of high-frequency measurements.

  2. [Study of the microwave emissivity characteristics of vegetation over the Northern Hemisphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Juan; Qiu, Yu-Bao; Shi, Jian-Cheng

    2013-05-01

    The microwave emissivity is a function of structure, water content, and surface roughness, and all these factors have obvious seasonal variations. In the present study, the half-month averaged emissivities in summer and winter of 2003 over the vegetation of Northern Hemisphere were estimated using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) combined with IGBP (International Geosphere-Biosphere Project labels) land classification data. Then the emissivities of vegetation land covers at different frequencies, the polarization and their seasonal variations were analyzed respectively. The results show that the emissivities of vegetation increase with the increase in frequencies, and decline with the frequency increasing over snow region. In summer, the vegetation emissivity at V-polarization of 89 GHz is larger than 0.944, and all emissivities are relatively stable and the RMSE of time series emissivity variation is less than 0.007 2. In winter, emissivities decrease over snow covered area, especially for higher frequencies. Furthermore, with the increase in vegetation density, the emissivities increase and emissivity polarization difference decreases. PMID:23905309

  3. Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System: Ongoing project work and synthesis activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Ashjian, C. J.; Jorgensen, T.; Oechel, W. C.; Ping, C.; Rhew, R. C.; Stieglitz, M.

    2006-12-01

    Six ongoing projects focus on a better understanding of processes occurring along the Arctic Alaskan Coast. These projects, grouped as "Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System", or SNACS, combine field, laboratory, modeling and human dimensions research. They include: 1) an investigation of climate variability, ocean processes, sea ice, bowhead whales, and Inupiat subsistence whaling, 2) research on the impact of variability within the ocean and atmosphere on terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide, dissolved organic matter and energy, 3) an inventory and description of soil organic carbon fluxes and ground ice in the coastal environment, 4) a determination of whether arctic coastal terrestrial ecosystems are significant sources or sinks of atmospheric methyl halides, chloroform and methane, 5) development of generalized discharge- constituent relationships for arctic basins, and 6) an investigation of the processes controlling mercury deposition to the coastal system. Three broad themes unite the projects: 1) nutrient fluxes from rivers and shoreline erosion in the Arctic coastal zone, 2) impacts of cryospheric changes on the Alaskan Arctic Coast, and 3) potential rapid regime shifts controlled by atmospheric and meteorological processes that could affect the Alaskan Arctic Coast. Warming of the Arctic, particularly its impact on sea ice and nutrient transport in arctic rivers is already affecting fundamental coastal system processes. The six SNACS projects are helping to understand how these impacts will evolve and what their ramifications will be both within and outside of the Arctic.

  4. Experimental study on the cyclic resistance of a natural loess from Northern France

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, Jean-Paul; Tang, Anh-Minh; Terpereau, Jean-Marc; Marchadier, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    In order to analyze the instability phenomenon observed along the Northern High Speed Line of R\\'eseau Ferr\\'e de France (RFF), soil blocks were taken at a site near the railway, at four different depths (1.2, 2.2, 3.5 and 4.9 m). Cyclic triaxial tests were carried out on saturated and unsaturated soil specimens. The results from tests on initially saturated specimens showed that the soil taken at 2.2 m depth has the lowest resistance to cyclic loading, in relation to its highest porosity and lowest clay fraction. This soil was then studied at unsaturated state with various initial water contents. Unsaturated soil specimens were first subjected to cyclic loadings to decrease their volume. These cyclic loadings was stopped when the volume decrease was approximately equal to the initial pore air volume, or when the pores filled by air were eliminated and the soil was considered to become saturated. Afterwards, the back-pressure tubing was saturated with de-aired water and cycles were applied under undrained con...

  5. Observational and numerical study of the Vardaris wind regime in northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletsis, I.; Giannaros, T. M.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.

    2016-05-01

    The Axios Valley, located in central-northern Greece, is surrounded by complex topography that plays a significant role in the modification of wind flow, both in terms of speed and direction. The characteristic wind regime of this valley is Vardaris, a northwesterly wind that prevails in this region, especially during the cold period of the year. Vardaris is well known for its consistent direction and high intensity, as well as for the effective advection of cold and dry air, often resulting to significant damages in local infrastructures and agriculture. A field campaign under the name AXIOS took place during the period from November 2007 through May 2008 in order to examine this particular wind flow. The analysis of the in situ observational data, which was funded by the research program THESPIA-KRIPIS, showed that topography plays a key role in intensifying Vardaris, generating gusts that approximated 30 m s- 1 during the experimental period. The air temperature and humidity fields were also found to be significantly influenced. In addition to the observational study, an intense Vardaris episode was simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at high horizontal resolution. Results revealed that the model was able to reproduce the favorable environmental conditions that lead to Vardaris occurrence, providing a useful insight on the physical mechanisms explaining its structure.

  6. A study on environmental aridity over northern and southern to Qinling Mountains under climate warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the data up to 1999 from hydroclimatological departments, this paper analyzes the climatic divide implications of the Qinling Mountains in regional response to the process of climate warming, due to which the grades of dryness/wetness (GDW) in 100 years show that the northern region has entered a drought period, while the southern is a humid period. In a course of ten years, the D-value of annual average air temperature over southern Shaanxi (the Hanjiang Valley) and the Central Shaanxi Plain (the Guanzhong Plain) has narrowed, i.e., the former with a slight change and the latter with rapid increase in temperature. Both regions were arid with the decrease in precipitation D-value, namely the plain became warmer while the south was drier. The Qinling Mountains play a pronounced role in the climatic divide. The runoff coefficient (RC) of the Weihe River decreases synchronously with that of the Hanjiang due to climate warming. The RC of Weihe dropped from 0.2 in the 1950s to less than 0.1 in the 1990s. The Weihe Valley (the Guanzhong Plain) is practically an arid area due to shortage of water. The successive 0.5, 1.0℃ temperature anomaly over China marks, perhaps, the important transition period in which the environment becomes more vulnerable than before.The study shows the obvious trend of environmental aridity, which is of help to the understanding of regional response to global climate change.

  7. Problem-based case study to enhance critical thinking in student nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NM Mogale

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of traditional teaching methods, for example the lecture method, does not stimulate critical thinking in student nurses. This problem can be solved by the utilisation of problem-based case study in the classroom/clinical setting. The purpose of this study is to describe guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study in a clinical setting among first year, comprehensive course students at the Northern Province College of Nursing: Sovenga campus. The research design of this study was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual and was conducted in the following phases: Phase 1: The development and implementation of a program for problem-based case study in the clinical setting; Phase II: The experiences of student nurses who were exposed to problem-based case study in the clinical setting; Phase III: The perceptions of tutors regarding the implementation of problem-based case study in the clinical setting (focus group, and; ase IV: Guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study. The data from Phases I, II and III were used to formulate guidelines for the implementation of problem-based case study. The sample group consisted of all 69 first year student nurses at the Northern Province College of Nursing: Sovenga campus and ten tutors teaching clinical courses at the same campus. The Tesch (1990 approach is used for data analysis. Nine guidelines for the implementation of a problem-based case study approach were formulated and recommendations for development of an instrument to measure critical thinking in nursing were recommended.

  8. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with carotid plaque: a cross-sectional study from the population based Northern Manhattan Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boden-Albala Bernadette

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired vascular function occurs early in atherogenesis. Brachial flow mediated dilatation (FMD is a non-invasive measure of vascular function and may be an important marker of preclinical atherosclerosis. Data on the association between FMD and carotid plaque in multi-ethnic populations are limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether endothelial dysfunction is independently associated with carotid plaque in a community of northern Manhattan. Methods In the population-based Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS, high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of the brachial and carotid arteries were obtained in 643 stroke-free subjects (mean age 66 years; 55% women; 65% Caribbean-Hispanic, 17% African-American, 16% Caucasian. Brachial FMD was measured during reactive hyperemia. Maximum carotid plaque thickness (MCPT was measured at the peak plaque prominence. Results The mean brachial FMD was 5.78 ± 3.83 %. Carotid plaque was present in 339 (53% subjects. The mean MCPT was 1.68 ± 0.82 mm, and the 75th percentile was 2.0 mm. Reduced FMD was significantly associated with increased MCPT. After adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, and education, each percent of FMD decrease was associated with a significant 0.02 mm increase in MCPT (p = 0.028. In a dichotomous adjusted model, blunted FMD was associated with an increased risk of MCPT ≥ 2.0 mm (OR, 1.11 for every 1% decrease in FMD; 95% CI, 1.03–1.19. Conclusion Decreased brachial FMD is independently associated with carotid plaque. Non-invasive evaluation of endothelial dysfunction may be a useful marker of preclinical atherosclerosis and help to individualize cardiovascular risk assessment beyond traditional risk factors.

  9. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Franiel, Tobias; Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Horstmann, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg). Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases. PMID:27574599

  10. Management by Values: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to conclude the management approach by the case study of Chinese enterprise. There are a lot of management approaches in practice, one of the most influential and famous one is management by objective which is invented by the father of modern management discipline Peter F Drucker, he observed the case of American most successful enterprise such as GM and then concluded and created the relevant meaningful management tools, in effect, such valuable manage...

  11. Studies of osteoporosis in the Northern China, using isotope-related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Osteoporosis is an enormous public health problem, because it causes multiple fractures in the elderly people, and huge health care cost. The progressive aging of the world's population predicts a substantial increase in the global burden of osteoporosis, so further studying and preventing osteoporosis are often important problems. Since 1986 our department started large investigation of BMDat forearm using single photon absorptiometry (SPA) and in 1991-1993 was undertook Investigation of bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and proximal femur in normal Chinese population using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry(DEXA). The results showed the BMD of all above sites is age-related, the age of peak BMD is different at the forearm, lumbar spine and hip, and the difference is related with sex. After the age of peak bone mass, BMD steadily declined with advancing age. In the Co-ordinated Research Programme on Comparative International Studies of Osteoporosis using Isotope Techniques. The first, we will further study age-, sex-related changes in bone mass among Chinese northern healthy residents in urban. Not only consider that chronic disease and medicine influence on osteoporosis, also consider the influence of life-style factors. The second, the trace elements of tooth and hair samples will be analysed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). It try to find the correlation of trace elements composition between tooth and hair samples. The possible difference in theses elements between osteoporotic patients and controls. (author)

  12. Non-response and information bias in population-based psychiatric research:the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Haapea, M. (Marianne)

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Study samples in medical research are selected according to the objectives of the studies. Researchers seek to collect data as extensively and reliably as possible. In practice, however, data are often missing or may be incorrect. This thesis covers some of the problems concerning missing data and data collection in psychiatric research. Methods for adjusting for missing data and for evaluating the reliability of data are presented. The data originate from the Northern Finla...

  13. A Study of Application of Western Strategic Planning Model for Small Medium Entrepreneurs in Northern States of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Wei Hin; Abdul Manaf Bohari

    2012-01-01

    The study examined whether small medium enterprise (SME) in the northern states of Malaysia do strategic planning and if they do, does the Wheelen and Hunger model ( 2008) applies so them . A total of 108 respondents which were from SMEs in Perlis, Kedah and Penang are participated in this research. Results of the study showed that SMEs do have strategic planning and more than half said that their strategic planning process resembled the strategic planning model of Wheelen and Hunger (2008). ...

  14. Factors associated with pelvic organ prolapse: a prospective study in a tertiary care hospital in Northern India

    OpenAIRE

    Deepti Verma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common health problem affecting the multiparous women. Various demographic and social factors are the underlying cause for POP. Methods: This is a prospective study on 100 patients of pelvic organ prolapse attending the gynecological OPD of a tertiary care institute in Northern India. A thorough history was taken and a complete examination was done. The data was collected and analyzed. Results: The findings of the study revealed that the mean...

  15. Clean Cities Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called''Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies,'' designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders

  16. Social Studies Project Evaluation: Case Study and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, John

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a model for social studies program evaluations. A case study showing how the model's three-step process was used to evaluate the Improving Citizenship Education Project in Fulton County, Georgia is included. (AM)

  17. An Analisys of Business VPN Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Crescenzio Gallo; Michele Perilli; Michelangelo De Bonis

    2009-01-01

    A VPN (Virtual Private Network) simulates a secure private network through a shared public insecure infrastructure like the Internet. The VPN protocol provides a secure and reliable access from home/office on any networking technology transporting IP packets. In this article we study the standards for VPN implementation and analyze two case studies regarding a VPN between two routers and two firewalls.

  18. Collaborative Assessment: Middle School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkison, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…

  19. Measuring marketing performance - A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to develop a marketing dashboard for a Finnish company that operates in the financial industry. The identification of suitable metrics for assessing marketing performance is considered central. This study proposes a new construct (a dashboard) that aims to providing management relevant information on marketing performance from decision-making perspective. METHODOLOGY AND DATA The methodology is a constructive case study. In the...

  20. The interface between clinicians and laboratory staff: A field study in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coosje J. Tuijn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strengthening the communication and professional relationships between clinicians and laboratory workers is essential in order to positively change clinicians’ attitudes about the reliability of diagnostic tests, enhancing the use of laboratory diagnostics and, ultimately, improving patient care. We developed an analytical framework to gain insight into the factors that influence communication amongst health professionals.Objective: To explore whether the interaction between clinicians and laboratory workers influences the use of laboratory test results in clinical decision making.Methods: Four health facilities in northern Tanzania were selected using convenience sampling, whereas study participants were selected using purposive sampling. The quantitative and qualitative data collection methods included self-administered questionnaires; semistructured, individual interviews; in-depth, individual interviews; and/or focus group discussions with clinicians and laboratory workers. Thematic content analyses were performedon qualitative data based on the framework. Descriptive statistical analyses of quantitative data were conducted using Microsoft Excel.Results: Contact between clinicians and laboratory professionals is seldom institutionalised and collaboration is rare. The clinicians believe collaboration with laboratory staff is a challenge because of the gap in education levels. Laboratory workers’ education levels areoften lower than their positions require, leading to clinicians’ lack of respect for and confidencein laboratory professionals, which compromises the laboratory staff’s motivation.Conclusions: Hospital managers, clinicians and laboratory workers need to recognise the critical and complementary roles each professional plays and the importance of addressing the gap between them. Field application of the framework proved successful, justifying the expansion of this study to a larger geographical area to include