WorldWideScience

Sample records for case studies decommissioning

  1. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  2. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  3. Direction for the Estimation of Required Resources for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning based on BIM via Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Insu [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woojung [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. As demands on efficient management and use of complicated construction information increased these days, demands on the introduction of Building Information Modeling (herein after referred to as BIM) technology has increased. In the area of quotation, considerable effects are expected as to the accuracy and reliability predicting construction costs through the characteristics that can automatically estimate quantities by using attribute information of BIM model. BIM-based estimation and quotation of required resources is more accurate than the existing 2D-based quotations and have many advantages such as reviews over constructability and interference. It can be desirable to estimate decommissioning required resources in nuclear power plants using BIM as well as using tools that are compatible with usual international/industrial standards. As we looked into the cases where required resources were estimated, using BIM in Korea and abroad, they dealt with estimation of required resources, estimation of construction cost and process management at large. In each area, methodologies, classification systems, BIM, and realization tests have been used variably. Nonetheless, several problems have been reported, and among them, it is noticeable that although BIM standard classification system exists, no case was found that has used standard classification system. This means that no interlink among OBS (Object Breakdown Structure), WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) and CBS (Cost Breakdown Structure) was possible. Thus, for nuclear power plant decommissioning, decommissioning method and process, etc. shall be defined clearly in the stage of decommissioning strategy establishment, so that classification systems must be set up

  4. Evaluation of Dam Decommissioning in an Ice-Affected River: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Abdul-Mohsen 2005 and Kuby et al. 2005). Conyngham et al. (2006) provide an overview of the ecological and engi- neering aspects of dam decommissioning...2007) CRREL Ice Jam Database (http://www.crrel.usace.army.mil/ierd/ijdb/), accessed March 2007. Kuby , M.J., W.F. Fagan, C.S. ReVelle, W.L. Graf (2005

  5. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y

    2000-01-01

    Fundamentals on the plan, the national policy, the safety securities for the life extension of the nuclear power plant was established from the domestic/abroad documents and case studies in relation with the life extension and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the domestic/abroad standard of the decommissioning (decontamination. dismantling) technology and regulation. Moreover, the study on the cost estimation method has been carried out for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  6. Challenges in Cost Estimation under Uncertainty—A Case Study of the Decommissioning of Barsebäck Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Torp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation is an important part of project planning. Over the years different approaches have developed, taking uncertainty into account in the cost estimation processes in order to tackle the dynamic nature of projects. However, when implementing these approaches, some challenges have been revealed. The aim in a cost estimation process is to establish a realistic overview of the total project costs and its uncertainties. Even though tools and methods for taking uncertainty into account are implemented, projects with cost overruns are often seen. In this paper we look into some challenges with the practice in cost estimation processes and identify possible improvements to overcome them. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate better solutions to some of the major weaknesses identified in current cost estimation practice. We use a case study of decommissioning of Barsebäck Nuclear Power Plant to illustrate how to overcome these challenges. First of all, this is an interesting case with challenges related to the project and the cost estimation process, given the complexity in the situation and that very few have experiences related to decommission of nuclear power plants. Second, we applied an approach that is not yet commonly used to develop cost estimates for this kind of projects. The paper concludes that it is possible to improve the results of uncertainty analysis of cost estimates. A well prepared process, with a suitable group of experts that go through a well-structured process, focusing both on risks and opportunities and using a top-down approach can compensate for some of the challenges related to cost estimation under uncertainty.

  7. Study for reducing radioactive solid waste at ITER decommissioning period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shinichi; Araki, Masanori; Ohmori, Junji; Ohno, Isamu; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    It is one of the foremost goals for ITER to demonstrate the attractiveness with regard to safety and environmental potential. This implies that the radioactive materials and waste at decommissioning phase should carefully be treated with prescribed regulations. As possible activities during the Coordinated Technical Activity (CTA), the authors have performed a feasibility study for searching the possibility of effective reduction in the activated level as reasonably achievable as possible by taking account of minimum material changes while keeping original design concept and structure. Major induced activation in ITER comes from activated nickel and cobalt so that it is effective for the major structural components to minimize their material contents. Employing less Ni and Co steel in place of high-Ni austenitic stainless steel for blanket shield block, vacuum vessel shield material and TF coil casing has been considered as one of the effective plans to reduce the activated materials at the decommissioning phase. In this study, two less-Ni austenitic stainless steels are evaluated; one is high-Mn austenitic stainless steel JK2 which is developing for jacket material of ITER CS coil and the other is SS204L/ASTM-XM-11 which is also high-Mn steel specified in the popular standards such as American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM). Based on the material changes, activation analyses have been performed to investigate the possibility of reducing radioactive wastes. As a most impressive result, at 40 years after the termination some of main components such as a TF coil casing will reach to the clearance level which is specified by IAEA, and most components will be categorized into extremely low level waste except for limited components. These results will give the appropriate short decommissioning period that is assumed to start at 100 years after the termination in the original design. (author)

  8. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on the life extension of the nuclear power plant and decommissioning optimization were established from the domestic abroad information and case analyses. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the standard of the decommissioning(decontamination dismantling) regulation. Moreover, basics were set for the decommissioning of domestic nuclear power plants and research reactors from the analyses on the decommissioning technology and precedence.

  9. Nuclear decommissioning planning, execution and international experience

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    A title that critically reviews the decommissioning and decontamination processes and technologies available for rehabilitating sites used for nuclear power generation and civilian nuclear facilities, from fundamental issues and best practices, to procedures and technology, and onto decommissioning and decontamination case studies.$bOnce a nuclear installation has reached the end of its safe and economical operational lifetime, the need for its decommissioning arises. Different strategies can be employed for nuclear decommissioning, based on the evaluation of particular hazards and their attendant risks, as well as on the analysis of costs of clean-up and waste management. This allows for decommissioning either soon after permanent shutdown, or perhaps a long time later, the latter course allowing for radioactivity levels to drop in any activated or contaminated components. It is crucial for clear processes and best practices to be applied in decommissioning such installations and sites, particular where any ...

  10. TWRS privatization: Phase I monitoring well engineering study and decommissioning plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B.A.

    1996-09-11

    This engineering study evaluates all well owners and users, the status or intended use of each well, regulatory programs, and any future well needs or special purpose use for wells within the TWRS Privatization Phase I demonstration area. Based on the evaluation, the study recommends retaining 11 of the 21 total wells within the demonstration area and decommissioning four wells prior to construction activities per the Well Decommissioning Plan (WHC-SD-EN-AP-161, Rev. 0, Appendix I). Six wells were previously decommissioned.

  11. Comparative analysis of the Oskarshamn 3 and Barsebaeck site decommissioning studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Bertil (Bewon, Loeddekoepinge (Sweden)); Joensson, Lars-Olof (Barsebaeck Kraft AB, Loeddekoepinge (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    Several projects concerning the decommissioning of different types of nuclear facilities have shown that technical methods and equipment are available today for safe dismantling of nuclear facilities of any type or size. However, comparison of individual cost estimates for specific facilities exhibit relatively large variations, and several studies have tried to identify the reasons for these variations. Analysis has shown that decommissioning cost estimates vary depending on a number of factors, including: the boundary conditions and strategy chosen; the cost items taken into account; the origin of the cost estimate; the methodology applied; the political-administrative framework; and the way contingencies are included. In this study, a comparison has been made between two decommissioning studies in the same country, with more or less same decommissioning schedule and with similar overall ideas on cost estimates. However, the two studies had from the start a different focus and different objectives. One study is intended as a reference study for all BWRs in Sweden, while the other focuses on a full site decommissioning. Furthermore, one of the studies is based on direct dismantling and the other on deferred dismantling. A great deal of work therefore had to be devoted in the present study to giving the studies comparable structures and boundary conditions using the OECD/NEA cost estimate structure. The boundary conditions in each of the studies have been thoroughly evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively, and the differences have been explained. In the end, values have been set in the quantitative analysis to verify that the studies could be compared, within the accuracy of what is defined in the industry as a 'budgetary estimate'. Differences still exist relating to what has been included in the studies and to the decommissioning plans and the resulting inventory from site characterization. Such differences must be accepted as long as it is clear

  12. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW.

  13. Workshop on decommissioning; Seminarium om avveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. (ed.)

    2005-12-15

    A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

  14. Photometric Studies of Rapidly Spinning Decommissioned GEO Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, W.; Ryan, E.

    A satellites general characteristics can be substantially influenced by changes in the space environment. Rapidly spinning decommissioned satellites provide an excellent opportunity to study the rotation-dependent physical processes that affect a resident space objects (RSO) spin kinematics over time. Specifically, inactive satellites at or near geosynchronous Earth-orbit (GEO) provide easy targets for which high quality data can be collected and analyzed such that small differences can be detected under single-year or less time frames. Previous workers have shown that the rotational periods of defunct GEOs have been changing over time [1]. Further, the Yarkovsky-OKeefe-Radzievskii-Paddak (YORP) effect, a phenomenon which has been well-studied in the context of the changing the spin states of asteroids, has recently been suggested to be the cause of secular alterations in the rotational period of inactive satellites [2]. Researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory 2.4-meter telescope (operated by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology) have been investigating the spins states of retired GEOs and other high altitude space debris since 2007 [3]. In this current work, the 2.4-meter telescope was used to track and observe the objects typically over a one- to two-hour period, repeated several times over the course of weeks. When feasible, this is then repeated on a yearly basis. Data is taken with a 1 second cadence, nominally in groups of three 600 second image sets. With the current equipment, the cadence of the image sequences is very precise while the start time is accurate only to the nearest second. Therefore, periods are determined individually using each image sequence. Repeatability of the period determination for each of these sequences is typically on the order of 0.01 second or better for objects where a single period is identified. Spin rate periods determined from the GEO light curves collected thus far have been found to range from ~3 sec to

  15. Decommissioning Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Decommissioning Handbook is a technical guide for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the removal of the radioactive and, for practical reasons, hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. This handbook identifies and technologies and techniques that will accomplish these objectives. The emphasis in this handbook is on characterization; waste treatment; decontamination; dismantling, segmenting, demolition; and remote technologies. Other aspects that are discussed in some detail include the regulations governing decommissioning, worker and environmental protection, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials. The handbook describes in general terms the overall decommissioning project, including planning, cost estimating, and operating practices that would ease preparation of the Decommissioning Plan and the decommissioning itself. The reader is referred to other documents for more detailed information. This Decommissioning Handbook has been prepared by Enserch Environmental Corporation for the US Department of Energy and is a complete restructuring of the original handbook developed in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services. The significant changes between the two documents are the addition of current and the deletion of obsolete technologies and the addition of chapters on project planning and the Decommissioning Plan, regulatory requirements, characterization, remote technology, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials.

  16. The development of the strategy and plan for the decommissioning and abandonment of 36'' offshore oil export pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Richard J. [PIMS of London Ltd, London, (United Kingdom); Galvez Reyes, Marco Antonio [PEMEX Refinacion, Veracruz, (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The decommissioning and abandonment of platforms and pipelines are big challenges for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment processes based on a study case, the Rabon Grande pipeline system. First, the applicable international codes, standards and regulations associated with the decommissioning of pipelines are discussed. Next, this paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment options and considerations available for the study case. The Rabon Grande pipeline system, which was shut down and isolated in 1990 pending decommissioning, is used as an example of applying decommissioning and abandonment best practice and establishing a realistic scope of work. A decommissioning plan is developed in light of these previous studies, followed by an environmental impact assessment. It is found that contrary to what was done in the case of the Rabon Grande pipeline, when a pipeline is to be shutdown, the best practice methodology is to temporally or fully decommission the system as soon as possible.

  17. Establishment the code for prediction of waste volume on NPP decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, W. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, Y. D.; Kim, I. S.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    -2 and developed DEMOS(DEcommissioning MOdeling System) and DEPES(DEcommissioning Process Establish System) using these data. These systems may be able to help to establish decommissioning strategy of nuclear power plant. We tried to apply research reactor data to OPR-1000 which is commercial nuclear power plant. But code for research reactor was not consistent when applying to nuclear power plant. The decommissioning activity of nuclear power plant is basically performed by the unit facility or room. In order to apply research reactor data, each WBS code is needed to apply to the object of each facility. This means that one FAC code may have several WBS codes. However, current codes in DECOMMIS are hard to map WBS code to FAC code one by one, and are specialized to research reactor. So it is difficult to apply to nuclear power plant directly. In order to solve this problem, the common code that can be adapted to commercial nuclear power plant as well as to research reactor is required. It may be inferred from the mapping data in the case of mismatching, or it can be applied with some modifications in the case of similar facility. In this paper, the establishment method of the code which uses the research reactor data in decommissioning project of nuclear power plant was studied. Method for prediction of the decommissioning waste volume was discussed on the basis of the domestic nuclear power plant, OPR-1000. Decommissioning experience is very important to apply to the estimation of decommissioning waste volume. So method for the estimation of decommissioning waste volume using common code that link OPR-1000 and KRR-2 was suggested. This research result will be helpful to reliable estimation of decommissioning waste volume and further estimation of the decommissioning cost and establishment of decommissioning strategies.

  18. Study on the financing mechanism and management for decommissioning of nuclear installations in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Lydia Ilaiza, E-mail: lydiailaiza@gmail.com; Ryong, Kim Tae [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School (KINGS) 658-91 Haemaji-ro, Seosaeng-myeon, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-882 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-29

    The whole cycle of the decommissioning process development of repository requires the relevant bodies to have a financial system to ensure that it has sufficient funds for its whole life cycle (over periods of many decades). Therefore, the financing mechanism and management system shall respect the following status: the national position, institutional and legislative environment, technical capabilities, the waste origin, ownership, characteristics and inventories. The main objective of the studies is to focus on the cost considerations, alternative funding managements and mechanisms, technical and non-technical factors that may affect the repository life-cycle costs. As a conclusion, the outcomes of this paper is to make a good recommendation and could be applied to the national planners, regulatory body, engineers, or the managers, to form a financial management plan for the decommissioning of the Nuclear Installation.

  19. Study on the financing mechanism and management for decommissioning of nuclear installations in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Lydia Ilaiza; Ryong, Kim Tae

    2015-04-01

    The whole cycle of the decommissioning process development of repository requires the relevant bodies to have a financial system to ensure that it has sufficient funds for its whole life cycle (over periods of many decades). Therefore, the financing mechanism and management system shall respect the following status: the national position, institutional and legislative environment, technical capabilities, the waste origin, ownership, characteristics and inventories. The main objective of the studies is to focus on the cost considerations, alternative funding managements and mechanisms, technical and non-technical factors that may affect the repository life-cycle costs. As a conclusion, the outcomes of this paper is to make a good recommendation and could be applied to the national planners, regulatory body, engineers, or the managers, to form a financial management plan for the decommissioning of the Nuclear Installation.

  20. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Ha, Jea-Hyun; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost.

  1. Joint U.S./Russian Study on the Development of a Preliminary Cost Estimate of the SAFSTOR Decommissioning Alternative for the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant Unit #1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Garrett

    1998-09-28

    The objectives of the two joint Russian/U.S. Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit #1 studies were the development of a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable decom missioning strategy, and the preliminary cost evaluation of the developed strategy. The first study, resulting in the decommissioning strategy, was performed in 1996 and 1997. The preliminary cost estimation study, described in this report, was performed in 1997 and 1998. The decommissioning strategy study included the analyses of three basic RBM.K decommission- ing alternatives, refined for the Leningrad NPP Unit #1. The analyses included analysis of the requirements for the planning and preparation as well as the decommissioning phases.

  2. Joint US/Russian study on the development of a decommissioning strategy plan for RBMK-1000 unit No. 1 at the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this joint U.S./Russian study was to develop a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable strategy for decommissioning Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP) Unit No. 1 as a representative first-generation RBMK-1000 reactor. The ultimate goal in developing the decommissioning strategy was to select the most suitable decommissioning alternative and end state, taking into account the socioeconomic conditions, the regulatory environment, and decommissioning experience in Russia. This study was performed by a group of Russian and American experts led by Kurchatov Institute for the Russian efforts and by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. efforts and for the overall project.

  3. Decommissioning handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manion, W.J.; LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-11-01

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained.

  4. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  5. Decommissioning: a problem or a challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mele Irena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ageing of nuclear facilities or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. To avoid such problems, future liailities should be thoroughly estimated in drawing up the decommissioning and waste management programme for each nuclear facility in time, and financial provisions for implementing such programme should be provided. In this paper a presentation of current decommissioning experience in Slovenia is given. The main problems and difficulties in decommissioning of the Žirovski Vrh Uranium Mine are exposed and the lesson learned from this case is presented. The preparation of the decommissioning programme for the Nuclear Power Plant Krško is also described, and the situation at the TRIGA research reactor is briefly discussed.

  6. Study on Evaluation of Project Management Data for Decommissioning of Uranium Refining and Conversion Plant - 12234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usui, Hideo; Izumo, Sari; Tachibana, Mitsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Shibahara, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); University of Fukui, Fukui-shi, Fukui, 910-8507 (Japan); Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Tokuyasu, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tanaka, Yoshio; Sugitsue, Noritake [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kagamino-cho, Tomata-gun, Okayama, 708-0698 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Some of nuclear facilities that would no longer be required have been decommissioned in JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). A lot of nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned in JAEA in near future. To implement decommissioning of nuclear facilities, it was important to make a rational decommissioning plan. Therefore, project management data evaluation system for dismantling activities (PRODIA code) has been developed, and will be useful for making a detailed decommissioning plan for an object facility. Dismantling of dry conversion facility in the uranium refining and conversion plant (URCP) at Ningyo-toge began in 2008. During dismantling activities, project management data such as manpower and amount of waste generation have been collected. Such collected project management data has been evaluated and used to establish a calculation formula to calculate manpower for dismantling equipment of chemical process and calculate manpower for using a green house (GH) which was a temporary structure for preventing the spread of contaminants during dismantling. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to dismantling of equipment, the relation of dismantling manpower to each piece of equipment was evaluated. Furthermore, the relation of dismantling manpower to each chemical process was evaluated. The results showed promise for evaluating dismantling manpower with respect to each chemical process. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to use of the GH, relations of GH installation manpower and removal manpower to GH footprint were evaluated. Furthermore, the calculation formula for secondary waste generation was established. In this study, project management data related to dismantling of equipment and use of the GH were evaluated and analyzed. The project management data, manpower for dismantling of equipment, manpower for installation and removal of GH, and secondary waste generation from GH were considered

  7. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  8. Decommissioning strategy and schedule for a multiple reactor nuclear power plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Deiglys Borges; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Maiorino, Jose Rubens, E-mail: deiglys.monteiro@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas

    2015-07-01

    The decommissioning is an important part of every Nuclear Power Plant life cycle gaining importance when there are more than one plant at the same site due to interactions that can arise from the operational ones and a decommissioning plant. In order to prevent undesirable problems, a suitable strategy and a very rigorous schedule should implemented and carried. In this way, decommissioning tasks such as fully decontamination and dismantling of activated and contaminated systems, rooms and structures could be delayed, posing as an interesting option to multiple reactor sites. The present work aims to purpose a strategy and a schedule for the decommissioning of a multiple reactor site highlighting the benefits of delay operational tasks and constructs some auxiliary services in the site during the stand by period of the shutdown plants. As a case study, will be presented a three-reactor site which the decommissioning process actually is in planning stage and that should start in the next decade. (author)

  9. Ringhals Site Study 2013 - An assessment of the decommissioning cost for the Ringhals site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Tommy [Ringhals AB, Ringhals (Sweden); Norberg, Thomas [Solvina AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Knutsson, Andreas; Fors, Patrik; Sandebert, Camilla [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    This report presents the decommissioning cost for the Ringhals site as of 2013. The objective has been to make a best estimate of the costs within the uncertainties of a budgetary estimate. To achieve this, the decommissioning costs have been assessed with support from TLG Services Inc., utilizing their knowledge and experience from U.S. decommissioning projects incorporated in their cost estimation platform DECCER. The 2013 estimate has included the development of a Ringhals-specific cost estimation method that allows for successive improvement in the future. In-house experiences have been included and the method is based on the present decommissioning strategy according to Ringhals decommissioning plan. Two basic approaches have been used in the cost assessment; a bottom up approach to develop unit cost factors (UCF) for recurrent work; and a specific analogy approach for cost estimating special items. The basic, activity-dependent, costs have been complemented by period-dependent costs, derived, among other things, from SKB's newly developed reference planning and organizational model for a Swedish decommissioning project. Furthermore, collateral costs based on the experiences of Barsebaeck have been included. As a final point, all costs have been adjusted for industrial standard contingencies, as suggested by TLG, to achieve a best estimate. In order to make the cost intelligible a comprehensive description of the assumptions, boundary conditions and general basis of the estimate is included in this report. All costs have been reported both according to the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations published by OECD/NEA and according to the SKB developed EEF structure. Furthermore, common costs have been isolated to a theoretical unit 0 to make the cost for respective unit even more comparable on a national and international scale. The calculations show that the total cost for the decommissioning of the Ringhals

  10. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented

  11. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors At Multiple-Reactor Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1982-01-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of large (1175-MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and large (1155-MWe) boiling water reactors {BWRs) at multiple-reactor stations. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). Safety and costs of decommissioning are estimated by determining the impact of probable features of multiple-reactor-station operation that are considered to be unavailable at a single-reactor station, and applying these estimated impacts to the decommissioning costs and radiation doses estimated in previous PWR and BWR decommissioning studies. The multiple-reactor-station features analyzed are: the use of interim onsite nuclear waste storage with later removal to an offsite nuclear waste disposal facility, the use of permanent onsite nuclear waste disposal, the dedication of the site to nuclear power generation, and the provision of centralized services. Five scenarios for decommissioning reactors at a multiple-reactor station are investigated. The number of reactors on a site is assumed to be either four or ten; nuclear waste disposal is varied between immediate offsite disposal, interim onsite storage, and immediate onsite disposal. It is assumed that the decommissioned reactors are not replaced in one scenario but are replaced in the other scenarios. Centralized service facilities are provided in two scenarios but are not provided in the other three. Decommissioning of a PWR or a BWR at a multiple-reactor station probably will be less costly and result in lower radiation doses than decommissioning an identical reactor at a single-reactor station. Regardless of whether the light water reactor being decommissioned is at a single- or multiple-reactor station: • the estimated occupational radiation dose for decommissioning an LWR is lowest for SAFSTOR and highest for DECON • the estimated

  12. Engineering studies for the Surplus Production Reactor Decommissioning Project at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.; Powers, E.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Usher, J.M. [Ebasco Services, Inc., Augusta, GA (United States); Yannitell, D.M. [Ebasco Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    In 1942, the Hanford Site (near Richland, WA) was commissioned as a facility for the production of plutonium. On location there are nine water cooled, graphite-moderated plutonium production reactors, which are now retired from service. Because the reactors contain irradiated reactor components, and because the buildings that house the reactors are contaminated with low levels of reactivity, the DOE has determined that there is a need for action and that some form of decommissioning or continued surveillance and maintenance is necessary. This report discusses assessments of the alternatives which have determined that while continued surveillance and maintenance adequately isolates remaining radioactive materials from the environment and properly protects human health and safety; decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) will ultimately be necessary. The project is technically complex and will likely be designated as a Department of Energy (DOE) Major System Acquisition or Major Project.

  13. Estimating Radon Flux and Environmental Radiation Dose from Decommissioning Uranium Mill Tailings and Mining Debris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Based on a case study on uranium mine No.765 of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), the paper briefly describes disposal program and effect of decommissioning uranium mine/mill facilities and quantitatively evaluates radon fluxes and doses to man of gaseous airborne pathway from mill tailings and mining debris before and after decommissioning, including annual individual effective dose to critical groups and annual collective effective dose to the population within 80 km region of the facilities.

  14. Development Of Decommissioning Information Management System for 101 HWRR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Song

    2016-01-01

    Decommissioning of 101 Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR) is radioactive and high-risk project which has to consider the effects of radiation and nuclear waste disposal, so the information system covering 101 HWRR decommissioning project must be established to ensure safety of the project. In this study, by col ecting the decommissioning activity data to establish the decommissioning database, and based on the database to develop information management system.

  15. Power Plant decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mažeika Jonas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available On a first attempt, the determination of 14C and 36Cl activity concentrations in basic operational waste (spent ion-exchange resins and perlite mixture, in decommissioning waste (construction concrete, sand, stainless steel and serpentinite and irradiated graphite from the Ignalina NPP has been performed. The samples for measurement of the specific activity of 14C and 36Cl were obtained from the selected places, where the highest values of the dose rate and the activity concentrations of gamma emitters were found. The performed study of the total 14C and 36Cl activity concentrations was based on estimated chemical forms of 14C (inorganic and organic compounds and 36Cl as Cl- ion. The tested methods used in this study were found to be suitable for estimation of activity concentrations of measured radionuclides.

  16. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.; Weil, L.

    1997-08-01

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Ku; Kim, Tae Ryong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down.

  18. The SSI project on decommissioning of nuclear plants - a preliminary study; SSI:s projekt avseende avveckling av kaerntekniska anlaeggningar - en foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efraimsson, Henrik; Ehdwall, H.; Godaas, T.; Hofvander, P.; Lindhe, J.C.; Lumpus, J.; Lund, I.; Malmqvist, L.; Welleman, E

    1999-01-01

    SSI will amend and complete regulations and stipulations for nuclear plants in order to take into account issues which arise in connection with decommissioning. The objective of a pilot study, performed during 1998, was to identify the questions at issue, what the authority should control and how SSI should proceed with the work. The recommendations and the result of the pilot study are presented in this report 29 refs.

  19. Decommissioning analysis of the scrapers in the NSRL Linac using depth profiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽娟; 李裕熊; 李为民; 陈裕凯; 任广益

    2015-01-01

    For a high-energy electron facility, estimates of induced radioactivity in materials are of considerable impor-tance to ensure that the exposure of personnel and the environment remains as low as reasonably achievable. In addition, accurate predictions of induced radioactivity are essential to the design, operation, and decommission-ing of a high-energy electron linear accelerator. In the case of the 200-MeV electron linac of the National Syn-chrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), the electrons are accelerated by five acceleration tubes and collimated by copper scrapers. The scrapers, which play a vital role in protecting the acceleration cavity, are bombarded by many electrons over a long-term operation, which causes a significant amount of induced radioactivity. Re-cently, the NSRL Linac is the first high-energy electron linear accelerator in China to be out of commission. Its decommissioning is highly significant for obtaining decommissioning experience. This paper focuses on the measurement of induced radioactivity on the fourth scraper, where the electron energy was 158 MeV. The radionuclides were classified according to their half-lives. Such a classification provides a reliable basis for the formulation of radiation protection and facility decommissioning. To determine the high-radioactivity area and to facilitate the decommissioning process, the slicing method was applied in this study. The specific activity of 60Co in each slice was measured at a cooling time of ten months, and the results were compared with the predictions generated by Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The trend of the measured results is in good agreement with the normalized simulation results. The slicing simulation using Monte Carlo method is useful for the de-termination of high-radiation areas and proper material handling protocols and, therefore, lays a foundation for the accumulation of decommissioning experience.

  20. Restoration of contaminated sites in the project PIMIC decommissioning. The case of the lentil; Restauracion de terrenos contaminados en el proyecto PIMIC desmantelamiento. El caso de la lenteja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Tellez, G.

    2010-07-01

    During execution PIMIC Decommissioning Project at CIEMAT has detected the existence of contaminated sites in some parts of the area affected by the project. The inclusion within the scope of this project, decontamination, involves dealing with special challenges, as to what are the decommissioning of contaminated systems and equipment in buildings.

  1. About decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosche, Dieter [Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Klein, K. [Badenwerk AG, Kalrsruhe (Germany); Vollradt, Juergen [Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG, Dortmund (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The IAEA organised an International Symposium in 1978, which dealt with the main aspects of decommissioning nuclear plants. Sufficient practical experiences and elaborated decommissioning concepts and techniques are already available. Unsolvable problems or only solvable with tremendous efforts of time and expenses are according to the opinion of experts not to be expected. Important statements concern above all the dose load of the decommissioning staff and the costs for decommissioning.

  2. Site decommissioning management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

  3. 75 FR 80697 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... collection of information unless the collection of information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or... books on the asset. Section 1.468A- 8T(b)(3)(ii) of the temporary regulations provides that, in the case... connection with the preparation for decommissioning, such as engineering and other planning expenses, and...

  4. Lessons Learned for Decommissioning Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Wook; Kim, Young-gook; Kim, Hee-keun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. LTD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the U.S. nuclear industrial's some key lessons learned especially for decommissioning planning based on which well informed decommissioning planning can be carried out. For a successful decommissioning, it is crucial to carry out a well-organized decommissioning planning before the decommissioning starts. This paper discussed four key factors which should be decided or considered carefully during the decommissioning planning period with introduction of related decommissioning lessons learned of U.S. nuclear industry. Those factors which have been discussed in this paper include the end state of a site, the overall decommissioning strategy, the management of the spent fuels, and the spent fuel pool island. Among them, the end state of a site should be decided first as it directs the whole decommissioning processes. Then, decisions on the overall decommissioning strategy (DECON vs. SAFSTOR) and the management of the spent fuels (wet vs. dry) should follow. Finally, the spent fuel pool island should be given due consideration because its implementation will result in much cost saving. Hopefully, the results of this paper would provide useful inputs to performing the decommissioning planing for the Kori unit 1.

  5. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opelka, J.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Marmer, G.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Siskind, B.; Kikta, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given.

  6. Decommissioning in western Europe; Kaernkraftsavveckling i Vaesteuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Castor arbetslivskonsulter AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe

  7. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference large irradiator and reference sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffner, D.R.; Villelgas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to examine the decommissioning of large radioactive irradiators and their respective facilities, and a broad spectrum of sealed radioactive sources and their respective devices. Conceptual decommissioning activities are identified, and the technology, safety, and costs (in early 1993 dollars) associated with decommissioning the reference large irradiator and sealed source facilities are evaluated. The study provides bases and background data for possible future NRC rulemaking regarding decommissioning, for evaluation of the reasonableness of planned decommissioning actions, and for determining if adequate funds are reserved by the licensees for decommissioning of their large irradiator or sealed source facilities. Another purpose of this study is to provide background and information to assist licensees in planning and carrying out the decommissioning of their sealed radioactive sources and respective facilities.

  8. 76 FR 35511 - Decommissioning Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Planning; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 117 / Friday, June 17, 2011 / Rules and... Decommissioning Planning AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is amending its regulations to improve decommissioning...

  9. Consideration of ISDC for Decommissioning Cost Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, W. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, Y. D.; Kim, I. S.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In 2009, they decided to update the Yellow Book, and began to update it by analyzing user experiences. They found that several countries have adopted the proposed standardized cost structure for the production of cost estimates directly or for mapping national estimates onto a common structure. They also made conclusions that more detailed advice should be given on the use of the standardized structure and on the definition of cost items to avoid ambiguity. The revised cost structure, to be known as the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC), was published in 2012. The standardized cost structure developed in the report may be used for estimating the costs of decommissioning of any type of nuclear facility. We analyzed this standardized cost structure (ISDC) and applied it to DECOMMIS which was developed by KAERI. The appropriate estimation system for domestic application was examined by comparing the estimation results. KAERI made WBS code in DECOMMIS and data obtained during decommissioning work of KRR2 and UCP. Recently the IAEA updated the decommissioning cost items and its structure by ISDC. The cost estimation items of the DECOMMIS were applied to ISDC structure. For applying, the ISDC code compared with WBS code of DECOMMIS as on text of the activity name from daily report basis. The mapping result of the ISDC items to WBS code of the DECOMMIS is much different. AS results of this study that it need the corresponding cost category which classified in accordance with the national standard price estimates.

  10. DECOMMISSIONING OF A CAESIUM-137 SEALED SOURCE PRODUCTION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, A.; Abbott, H.

    2003-02-27

    Amersham owns a former Caesium-137 sealed source production facility. They commissioned RWE NUKEM to carry out an Option Study to determine a strategy for the management of this facility and then the subsequent decommissioning of it. The decommissioning was carried out in two sequential phases. Firstly robotic decommissioning followed by a phase of manual decommissioning. This paper describes the remote equipment designed built and operated, the robotic and manual decommissioning operations performed, the Safety Management arrangements and summarizes the lessons learned. Using the equipment described the facility was dismantled and decontaminated robotically. Some 2300kg of Intermediate Level Waste containing in the order of 4000Ci were removed robotically from the facility. Ambient dose rates were reduced from 100's of R per hour {gamma} to 100's of mR per hour {gamma}. The Telerobotic System was then removed to allow man access to complete the decommissioning. Manual decommissioning reduced ambient dose rates further to less than 1mR per hour {gamma} and loose contamination levels to less than 0.25Bq/cm2. This allowed access to the facility without respiratory protection.

  11. An Applied Study of Implementation of the Advanced Decommissioning Costing Methodology for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik, Sweden with special emphasis to the application of the Omega code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofova, Kristina; Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    The presented study is focused on an analysis of decommissioning costs for the Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel (FA) facility in Studsvik prepared by SVAFO and a proposal of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology application. Therefore, this applied study concentrates particularly in the following areas: 1. Analysis of FA facility cost estimates prepared by SVAFO including description of FA facility in Studsvik, summarised input data, applied cost estimates methodology and summarised results from SVAFO study. 2. Discussion of results of the SVAFO analysis, proposals for enhanced cost estimating methodology and upgraded structure of inputs/outputs for decommissioning study for FA facility. 3. Review of costing methodologies with the special emphasis on the advanced costing methodology and cost calculation code OMEGA. 4. Discussion on implementation of the advanced costing methodology for FA facility in Studsvik together with: - identification of areas of implementation; - analyses of local decommissioning infrastructure; - adaptation of the data for the calculation database; - inventory database; and - implementation of the style of work with the computer code OMEGA.

  12. Environmental assessment after decommissioning at the North Sea- Froey oil production site: a field study with biomarkers in fish and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinturier, Laurence; Beyer, Jonny; Moltu, Ulf; Plisson, Saune Stephan; Berland, Harald; Sundt, Rolf; Bjoernstad, Anne; Sanni, Steinar

    2006-03-15

    sediment environmental survey carried in 2003 indicating that sediment fauna disturbance were limited to the immediate vicinity of the field centre (less than 250 m). It was the first time that biological effects parameters were used to assess the environmental condition of an oil field after decommissioning. This survey demonstrates the feasibility of such study and its potential for assessing the condition of benthic community living in the water and at the surface sediment. (Author)

  13. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.

  14. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  15. The Decommissioning of the Trino Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusa, L.; DeSantis, R.; Nurden, P. L.; Walkden, P.; Watson, B.

    2002-02-27

    Following a referendum in Italy in 1987, the four Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) owned and operated by the state utility ENEL were closed. After closing the NPPs, ENEL selected a ''safestore'' decommissioning strategy; anticipating a safestore period of some 40-50 years. This approach was consistent with the funds collected during plant operation, and was reinforced by the lack of both a waste repository and a set of national free release limits for contaminated materials in Italy. During 1999, twin decisions were made to privatize ENEL and to transform the nuclear division into a separate subsidiary of the ENEL group. This group was renamed Sogin and during the following year, ownership of the company was transferred to the Italian Treasury. On formation, Sogin was asked by the Italian government to review the national decommissioning strategy. The objective of the review was to move from a safestore strategy to a prompt decommissioning strategy, with the target of releasing all of the nuclear sites by 2020. It was recognized that this target was conditional upon the availability of a national LLW repository together with interim stores for both spent fuel and HLW by 2009. The government also agreed that additional costs caused by the acceleration of the decommissioning program would be considered as stranded costs. These costs will be recovered by a levy on the kWh price of electricity, a process established and controlled by the Regulator of the Italian energy sector. Building on the successful collaboration to develop a prompt decommissioning strategy for the Latina Magnox reactor (1), BNFL and Sogin agreed to collaborate on an in depth study for the prompt decommissioning of the Sogin PWR at Trino. BNFL is currently decommissioning six NPPs and is at an advanced stage of planning for two further units, having completed a full and rigorous exercise to develop Baseline Decommissioning Plans (BDP's) for these stations. The BDP exercise

  16. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MC Bierschbach; DR Haffner; KJ Schneider; SM Short

    2002-12-01

    Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 3}H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 14}C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 123}I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 137}Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 241}Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a

  17. Systematization of nuclear fuel facility decommissioning technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugitsue, Noritake [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Ningyo Toge Environmental Engineering Center, Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    In the Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, the nature of all decommissioning works is clarified and, as an information base for planning the promotion of efficiency of a work, the Decommissioning Engineering System is being developed. The Decommissioning Engineering System consists of a function for performing work support for a decommissioning, a function for gathering information results of the decommissioning technology and a general evaluation function for the decommissioning plan on the basis of facilities information collected by three-dimensional CAD. (author)

  18. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Appendices are presented concerning the evaluations of decommissioning financing alternatives; reference site description; reference BWR facility description; radiation dose rate and concrete surface contamination data; radionuclide inventories; public radiation dose models and calculated maximum annual doses; decommissioning methods; generic decommissioning information; immediate dismantlement details; passive safe storage, continuing care, and deferred dismantlement details; entombment details; demolition and site restoration details; cost estimating bases; public radiological safety assessment details; and details of alternate study bases.

  19. Alternatives evaluation and decommissioning study on shielded transfer tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, J.R.; Hinton, R.R.

    1994-08-01

    The shielded transfer tanks (STTs) are five obsolete cylindrical shipping casks which were used to transport high specific activity radioactive solutions by rail during the 1960s and early 1970s. The STTs are currently stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under a shed roof. This report is an evaluation to determine the preferred alternative for the final disposition of the five STTs. The decommissioning alternatives assessed include: (1) the no action alternative to leave the STTs in their present location with continued surveillance and maintenance; (2) solidification of contents within the tanks and holding the STTs in long term retrievable storage; (3) sale of one or more of the used STTs to private industry for use at their treatment facility with the remaining STTs processed as in Alternative 4; and (4) removal of tank contents for de-watering/retrievable storage, limited decontamination to meet acceptance criteria, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal through the DOE contaminated scrap metal program, and returning the shielding lead to the ORNL lead recovery program because the smelting contractor cannot reprocess the lead. To completely evaluate the alternatives for the disposition of the STTs, the contents of the tanks must be characterized. Shielding and handling requirements, risk considerations, and waste acceptance criteria all require that the radioactive inventory and free liquids residual in the STTs be known. Because characterization of the STT contents in the field was not input into a computer model to predict the probable inventory and amount of free liquid. The four alternatives considered were subjected to a numerical scoring procedure. Alternative 4, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal after removal/de-watering of the tank contents, had the highest score and is, therefore, recommended as the preferred alternative. However, if a buyer for one or more STT could be found, it is recommended that Alternative 3 be reconsidered.

  20. Decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramenkovs Andris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor and to dispense with nuclear energy in the future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study on the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor was drawn up by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH in 1998-1999. On October 26th, 1999, the Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to “green-field” in 2001. The upgrading of the decommissioning and dismantling plan was carried out from 2003-2004, resulting in a change of the primary goal of decommissioning. Collecting and conditioning of “historical” radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall became the primary goal. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons were conditioned for disposal in concrete containers at the radioactive wastes depository “Radons” at the Baldone site. Protective and radiation measurement equipment of the personnel was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and materials outside the reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Contaminated materials from the reactor hall were collected and removed for clearance measurements on a weekly basis.

  1. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  2. Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sørensen, Tore

    of several DHSs. Furthermore ?Udspil? was chosen for being a non-formal learning activity based on individual participation, even though linked to institutionalized learning practices, which were carried out in cooperation between several local institutions.Last but not least, the project represents...... that time Roskilde University Centre and Learning Lab Denmark, DK)3. The case here presented is based on results from research activity carried out over a 1 year period (spring 2006 - spring 2007). Detailed information concerning participation in the project was collected in two DHSs only: the Sports Day......Learning for democratic citizenship is embedded in the general popular education ideal(folkeoplysning), which is the primary source of inspiration for the Day High Schools (DHSs). DHSs are private institutions supported by local authorities, that host primarily low educated and unemployed young...

  3. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO{sub 2} - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and

  4. Decommissioning a phosphoric acid production plant: a radiological protection case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, V; Seferlis, S; Kamenopoulou, V; Potiriadis, C; Koukouliou, V; Kehagia, K; Dagli, C; Georgiadis, S; Camarinopoulos, L

    2010-12-01

    During a preliminary survey at the area of an abandoned fertilizer plant, increased levels of radioactivity were measured at places, buildings, constructions and materials. The extent of the contamination was determined and the affected areas were characterized as controlled areas. After the quantitative and qualitative determination of the contaminated materials, the decontamination was planned and performed step by step: the contaminated materials were categorized according to their physical characteristics (scrap metals, plastic pipes, scales and residues, building materials, etc) and according to their level of radioactivity. Depending on the material type, different decontamination and disposal options were proposed; the most appropriate technique was chosen taking into account apart from technical issues, the legal framework, radiation protection issues, the opinion of the local authorities involved as well as the owner's wish. After taking away the biggest amount of the contaminated materials, an iterative process consisting of surveys and decontamination actions was performed in order to remove the residual traces of contamination from the area. During the final survey, no residual surface contamination was detected; some sparsely distributed low level contaminated materials deeply immersed into the soil were found and removed.

  5. A Decommissioning Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Hong, S. B.; Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In 1996, it was determined that research reactors, the KRR-1 and the KRR-2, would be shut down and dismantled. A project for the decommissioning of these reactors was launched in January 1997 with the goal of a completion by 2008. The total budget of the project was 19.4 million US dollars, including the cost for the waste disposal and for the technology development. The work scopes during the decommissioning project were the dismantling of all the facilities and the removal of all the radioactive materials from the reactor site. After the removal of the entire radioactivity, the site and buildings will be released for an unconditional use. A separate project for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant was initiated in 2001. The plant was constructed for the development of the fuel manufacturing technologies and the localization of nuclear fuels in Korea. It was shut downed in 1993 and finally it was concluded in 2000 that the plant would be decommissioned. The project will be completed by 2008 and the total budget was 9.2 million US dollars. During this project, all vessels and equipment will be dismantled and the building surface will be decontaminated to be utilized as general laboratories.

  6. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  8. Basic Research on Selecting ISDC Activity for Decommissioning Costing in KRR-2 Decommissioning Project Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    KAERI is performing research for calculation of expected time of a decommissioning work and evaluation of decommissioning cost and this research calculate a decommissioning work unit productivity based on the experience data of decommissioning activity for KRR-2. The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the experience data from the decommissioning activity through the Decommissioning Information Management System (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), and Decommissioning Work-unit Productivity Calculation System (DEWOCS). In this paper, the methodology was presented how select the ISDC activities in dismantling work procedures of a 'removal of radioactive concrete'. The reason to select the 'removal of radioactive concrete' is main key activity and generates the amount of radioactive waste. This data will take advantage of the cost estimation after the code for the selected items derived ISDC. There are various efforts for decommissioning costing in each country. In particular, OECD/NEA recommends decommissioning cost estimation using the ISDC and IAEA provides for Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel (CERREX) program that anyone is easy to use the cost evaluation from a limited decommissioning experience in domestic. In the future, for the decommissioning cost evaluation, the ISDC will be used more widely in a strong position. This paper has described a method for selecting the ISDC item from the actual dismantling work procedures.

  9. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  10. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors: sensitivity of decommissioning radiation exposure and costs to selected parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.

    1983-07-01

    Additional analyses of decommissioning at the reference research and test (R and T) reactors and analyses of five recent reactor decommissionings are made that examine some parameters not covered in the initial study report (NUREG/CR-1756). The parameters examined for decommissioning are: (1) the effect on costs and radiation exposure of plant size and/or type; (2) the effects on costs of increasing disposal charges and of unavailability of waste disposal capacity at licensed waste disposal facilities; and (3) the costs of and the available alternatives for the disposal of nuclear R and T reactor fuel assemblies.

  11. Decommissioning: a United Kingdom perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haworth, A.; Reed, D.L.; Bleeze, A. [Health and Safety Executive, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The paper considers the United Kingdom legislative framework relevant to decommissioning of facilities on nuclear licensed sites. It describes the various legislative bodies involved in regulating this activity and the inspectorate concerned. The licensing regime is described in some detail highlighting the UK arrangements whereby a license is granted for the site upon which nuclear facilities are planned or exist. The license remains in place throughout the life of the plant on the site: from initial planning through to the end of decommissioning. A site (of part of) is not de-licensed until it can be stated that there has ceased to be any danger from ionising radiations from anything on the site (or appropriate part of the site). The final part of the paper considers the changes arising from the commercialization of the nuclear power industry in UK and the restatement of the Nuclear Installation Inspectorate`s policy on decommissioning which has arisen as a result of a review made in response to these changes. (author).

  12. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a Reference Boiling Water Reactor Power Station. Main report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWe.

  13. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO{sub 2} - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and

  14. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  15. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Kwon, H. S.; Kim, G. N. and others

    1999-03-01

    Through the project of 'Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology', the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  16. Research in decommissioning techniques for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in JNC. 7. JWTF decommissioning techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-02-01

    Decommissioning techniques such as radiation measuring and monitoring, decontamination, dismantling and remote handling in the world were surveyed to upgrading technical know-how database for decommissioning of Joyo Waste Treatment Facility (JWTF). As the result, five literatures for measuring and monitoring techniques, 14 for decontamination and 22 for dismantling feasible for JWTF decommissioning were obtained and were summarized in tables. On the basis of the research, practical applicability of those techniques to decommissioning of JWTF was evaluated. This report contains brief surveyed summaries related to JWTF decommissioning. (H. Itami)

  17. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. A Review of the Decommissioning Costs of the Ranstad Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff (NAC International, Norcross, GA (United States))

    2009-08-15

    The main objective of this study has been to review the future cost to decommission and dismantling the industrial area at the site of the old uranium mine at Ranstad in Sweden. Analyses of some detailed comparative empirical information have been used in the context of preliminary 'bench-marking' studies. The estimated costs for decommissioning of the old uranium mine in Ranstad have been compared with actual costs from other relevant decommissioning projects. In this way it has been possible to give a preliminary qualitative statement about the accuracy of the Ranstad cost estimate. The study gives the following lessons learned: 1. The available information suggests that the overall estimated cost may be reasonable, but there are still some points of weakness that need to be elaborated more in detail before a full statement about the adequacy of the forecast cost will be possible. 2. Especially the costs associated with declassification activities warrant further analysis in order to determine there level of accuracy. 3. There exists the possibility that the estimate might be low concerning decontamination, dismantling and planning and institutional work. 4. Further work and analysis is needed in order to develop a more transparent cost estimate in which the stakeholders can have the highest confidence. 5. A new bidding procedure for the conventional demolition may result in lower estimated costs. Hence, it would be beneficial to obtain an updated estimate based on at least more than one quotation. 6. The method of addressing uncertainty and risk should be more connected to the logistics of specific decommissioning activities, in order to be more transparent and clearer in details. There is a need for further study to develop a better estimate. In the short run follow-up work needs to be undertaken to provide a better understanding of what are the major contributors to risk and cost drivers in the planned decommissioning process at the Ranstad

  19. Decommissioning Project for the Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T. (and others)

    2009-02-15

    In 2008, tried to complete the whole decommissioning project of KRR-1 and KRR-2 and preparing work for memorial museum of KRR-1 reactor. Now the project is delayed for 3 months because of finding unexpected soil contamination around facility and treatment of. To do final residual radioactivity assessment applied by MARSSIM procedure. Accumulated decommissioning experiences and technologies will be very usefully to do decommissioning other nuclear related facility. At the decommissioning site of the uranium conversion plant, the decontamination of the dismantled carbon steel waste are being performed and the lagoon 1 sludge waste is being treated this year. The technologies and experiences obtained from the UCP dismantling works are expected to apply to other fuel cycle facilities decommissioning. The lagoon sludge treatment technology is the first applied technology in the actual field and it is expected that this technology could be applied to other country.

  20. A Prediction on the Unit Cost Estimation for Decommissioning Activities Using the Experienced Data from DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kook; Park, Hee Seong; Choi, Yoon Dong; Song, Chan Ho; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the DECOMMIS (Decommissioning Information Management System) and have been applied for the decommissioning project of the KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), as the meaning of the first decommissioning project in Korea. All information and data which are from the decommissioning activities are input, saved, output and managed in the DECOMMIS. This system was consists of the web server and the database server. The users could be access through a web page, depending on the input, processing and output, and be modified the permissions to do such activities can after the decommissioning activities have created the initial system-wide data is stored. When it could be used the experienced data from DECOMMIS, the cost estimation on the new facilities for the decommissioning planning will be established with the basic frame of the WBS structures and its codes. In this paper, the prediction on the cost estimation through using the experienced data which were store in DECOMMIS was studied. For the new decommissioning project on the nuclear facilities in the future, through this paper, the cost estimation for the decommissioning using the experienced data which were WBS codes, unit-work productivity factors and annual governmental unit labor cost is proposed. These data were from the KRR and UCP decommissioning project. The differences on the WBS code sectors and facility characterization between new objected components and experienced dismantled components was reduces as scaling factors. The study on the establishment the scaling factors and cost prediction for the cost estimation is developing with the algorithms from the productivity data, now.

  1. Feasibibility study - cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation.......The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation....

  2. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  3. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  4. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  5. Case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  6. Decommissioning of DR 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauridsen, Kurt

    2006-01-15

    The report describes the decommissioning activities carried out at the 2kW homogeneous reactor DR 1 at Risoe National Laboratory. The decommissioning work took place from summer 2004 until late autumn 2005. The components with the highest activity, the core vessel the recombiner and the piping and valves connected to these, were dismantled first by Danish Decommissioning's own technicians. Demolition of the control rod house and the biological shield as well as the removal of the floor in the reactor hall was carried out by an external demolition contractor. The building was emptied and left for other use. Clearance measurements of the building showed that radionuclide concentrations were everywhere below the clearance limit set by the Danish nuclear regulatory authorities. Furthermore, measurements on the surrounding area showed that there was no contamination that could be attributed to the operation and decommissioning of DR 1. (au)

  7. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-02-24

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted.

  8. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.; Klein, M

    1998-07-01

    The objectives, programme and main achievements of SCK-CEN's decommissioning programme in 1997 are summarised. Particular emphasis is on the BR3 decommissioning project. In 1997, auxiliary equipment and loops were dismantled; concrete antimissile slabs were decontaminated; the radiology of the primary loop was modelled; the quality assurance procedure for dismantling loops and equipment were implemented; a method for the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel was selected; and contaminated thermal insulation of the primary loop containing asbestos was removed.

  9. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H. K.

    1981-10-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0

  10. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Volume 1. Main report. Technical report, September 1977-October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWE.

  11. Decommissioning of an irradiation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, A.G. [Radiation Protection and Safety Services, Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    Distributed throughout hospital, research establishments in the United Kingdom and many other countries are Irradiation Units and Teletherapy machines used for either research purposes or treatment of patients for radiotherapy. These Irradiation Units and Teletherapy machines are loaded with radioactive sources of either Cobalt 60 or Caesium 137. The activity of these sources can range from 1 Terabecquerel up to 100 Terabecquerels or more. Where it is possible to load the radioactive sources without removal from the shielded container into a transport package which is suitable for transport decommissioning of a Teletherapy machine is not a major exercise. When the radioactive sources need to be unloaded from the Irradiation Unit or Teletherapy machine the potential exists for very high levels of radiation. The operation outlined in the paper involved the transfer from an Irradiation Unit to a transport package of two 3.25 Terabecquerel sources of Cobalt 60. The operation of the removal and transfer comes within the scope of the United Kingdom Ionising Radiation Regulations 1985 which were made following the Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This paper illustrates a safe method for this operation and how doses received can be kept within ALARA. (author)

  12. Experience on Primary System Decommissioning in Jose Cabrera NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloma Molleda; Leandro Sanchez; David Rodriguez [ENSA, Cantabria (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Primary System Decommissioning belongs to DCP(Decommissioning and Closure Plan) works and its scope includes: Steam Generator, Pressurizer, Refrigerant Circuit Pump and Primary Circuit Piping. All these dismantling activities were carried out on site, including preliminary steps before their removal (SAS installations, pre decontaminations, cutting and segmentations, segregations, etc.) and delivery to media/low activity nuclear waste disposal site. There are many cutting techniques available in market (most of them proved with positive results) as well as there are many different approaches about how to manage radioactive wastes in decommissioning projects (containers or great components disposal, containers burial, re fusion, etc.). Both issues are linked and, before starting a new project, it might be positive and quite useful to compare and study previous dismantling experiences, especially the lesson learned chapter. Primary System cut with diamond saw has been a challenge target, not only due to the methodology innovation (since until nowadays, the common use of this technology was performed in cutting concrete walls) because it has a huge range of positive aspects that, in our opinion, are attractive (apart from its mentioned versatility, in terms of cutting on site and every type of material)

  13. Decommissioning of DR 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strufe, N.

    2009-02-15

    This report describes the work of dismantling and demolishing reactor DR 2, the waste volumes generated, the health physical conditions and the clearance procedures used for removed elements and waste. Since the ultimate goal for the decommissioning project was not clearance of the building, but downgrading the radiological classification of the building with a view to converting it to further nuclear use, this report documents how the lower classification was achieved and the known occurrence of remaining activity. The report emphasises some of the deliberations made and describes the lessons learned through this decommissioning project. The report also intends to contribute towards the technical basis and experience basis for further decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in Denmark. (au)

  14. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2006-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major articles/reports in this issue include: NPP Krsko revised decommissioning program, by Vladimir Lokner and Ivica Levanat, APO d.o.o., Croatia, and Nadja Zeleznik and Irena Mele, ARAO, Slovenia; Supporting the renaissance, by Marilyn C. Kray, Exelon Nuclear; Outage world an engineer's delight, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, NP Inc.; Optimizing refueling outages with R and D, by Ross Marcoot, GE Energy; and, A successful project, by Jim Lash, FirstEnergy.

  15. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  16. Validation of Decommissioning Engineering System Application against KRR-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Park, Seungkook; Park, Heeseong; Song, Chanho; Ha, Jaehyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    KAERI is the only expert group which has decommissioning experiences and KAERI is trying to develop computer code to converge all the data which has been accumulated during KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant) decommission. This paper contains validation results of the KAERI DES by using KRR-2 decommissioning data. As a responsible leading group of Korean decommissioning research field, KAERI has been developing DES application program. One of decommissioning experience data, KRR-2 was used for KAERI DES validation and it successfully is reflected in KAERI DES.

  17. Nuclear power plant decommissioning. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning phase-out and decommissioning of nuclear power plants worldwide. Included are case histories of the dismantling process, hazardous waste management, site monitoring, and economic aspects of the phase-out. Examples include European, Chinese, Eastern European, and United States facilities. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Nuclear power plant decommissioning. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning phase-out and decommissioning of nuclear power plants worldwide. Included are case histories of the dismantling process, hazardous waste management, site monitoring, and economic aspects of the phase-out. Examples include European, Chinese, Eastern European, and United States facilities. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. 75 FR 13568 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0142, Decommissioning Activities, Extension of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ..., Decommissioning Activities. OMB Control Number: 1010-0142. Abstract: The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lands Act... prevent or minimize the likelihood of blowouts, loss of well control, fires, spillages, physical... cleared of obstructions; remove casing stub or mud line suspension equipment and subsea...

  20. Fugitive emissions of methane from abandoned, decommissioned oil and gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; boothroyd, Ian; Almond, Sam; Davies, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the potential legacy of increased onshore, unconventional gas production by examining the integrity of decommissioned, onshore, oil and gas wells in the UK. In the absence of a history of unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the UK, conventional onshore sites were considered and an examination of pollution incidents records had suggested that only a small fraction of onshore wells could show integrity failures. In this study the fugitive emissions of methane from former oil and gas production wells onshore in the UK were considered as a measure of well integrity. The survey considered 49 decommissioned (abandoned) wells from 4 different basins that were between 8 and 78 years old; all but one of these wells would be considered as having been decommissioned properly, i.e. wells cut, sealed and buried by soil cover to the extent that the well sites were being used for agriculture. For each well site the soil gas methane was analysed multiple times and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land-use and soil type. The results will be expressed in terms of the proportion and extent of well integrity failure, or success, over time since decommissioning and relative to local control sites. The probability of failure and the emissions factor for decommissioned wells will be presented.

  1. Analysis of the Possibility of Required Resources Estimation for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Applying BIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Insu [Korea Institute of construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woojung [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Estimation of decommissioning cost, decommissioning strategy, and decommissioning quantity at the time when entering into any decommissioning plans are some elements whose inputs are mandatory for nuclear power plant decommissioning. Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. This study aims at analyzing whether required resources for decommissioning nuclear power plants can be estimated, applying BIM. To achieve this goal, this study analyzed the status quo of BIM such as definition, characteristics, and areas applied, and made use of them when drawing out study results by examining types and features of the tools realizing BIM. In order to review how BIM could be used for decommissioning nuclear power plants, the definition, characteristics and applied areas of BIM were discussed. BIM designs objects of the structures (walls, slabs, pillars, stairs, windows and doors, etc.) by 3D technology and endows attribute (function, structure and usage) information for each object, thereby providing visualized information of structures for participants in construction projects. Major characteristics of BIM attribute information are as follows: - Geometry: The information of objects is represented by measurable geometric information - Extensible object attributes: Objects include pre-defined attributes, and allow extension of other attributes. Any model that includes these attributes forms relationships with other various attributes in order to perform analysis and simulation. - All information including the attributes are integrated to ensure continuity, accuracy and accessibility, and all information used during the life cycle of structures are supported. This means that when information of required resources is added as another attributes other than geometric

  2. Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

    1983-08-15

    The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning of Shippingport commercial reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, J. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1989-11-01

    To a certain degree, the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Shippingport reactor was a joint venture with Duquesne Light Company. The structures that were to be decommissioned were to be removed to at least three feet below grade. Since the land had been leased from Duquesne Light, there was an agreement with them to return the land to them in a radiologically safe condition. The total enclosure volume for the steam and nuclear containment systems was about 1.3 million cubic feet, more than 80% of which was below ground. Engineering plans for the project were started in July of 1980 and the final environmental impact statement (EIS) was published in May of 1982. The plant itself was shut down in October of 1982 for end-of-life testing and defueling. The engineering services portion of the decommissioning plans was completed in September of 1983. DOE moved onto the site and took over from the Navy in September of 1984. Actual physical decommissioning began after about a year of preparation and was completed about 44 months later in July of 1989. This paper describes the main parts of D and D.

  4. Financing strategies for nuclear power decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-07-01

    The report analyzes several alternatives for financing the decommissioning of nuclear power plants from the point of view of assurance, cost, equity, and other criteria. Sensitivity analyses are performed on several important variables and possible impacts on representative companies' rates are discussed and illustrated.

  5. Development of the Decommissioning Project Management System, DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-03-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The management of the projects can be defined as 'the decision of the changes of the decommissioning methodologies for the more efficient achievement of the project at an adequate time and to an improved method'. The correct decision comes from the experiences on the decommissioning project and the systematic experiences can be obtained from the good management of the decommissioning information. For this, a project management tool, DECOMMIS, was developed in the D and D Technology Division, which has the charge of the decommissioning projects at the KAERI, and its purpose was extended to following fields; generation of reports on the dismantling waste for WACID, record keeping for the next decommissioning projects of nuclear facilities, provision of fundamental data for the R and D of the decommissioning technologies.

  6. Case Studies in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  7. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and EMTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed data that support the results given in Volume 1, including unit-component data.

  8. NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, D.A.; Hogg, R.C.; Ramsey, K.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ``Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.`` The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC`s SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook.

  9. Radiological Characteristics of decommissioning waste from a CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dong Keun; Choi, Heui Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahmed, Rizwan; Heo, Gyun Young [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The radiological characteristics for waste classification were assessed for neutron-activated decommissioning wastes from a CANDU reactor. The MCNP/ORIGEN2 code system was used for the source term analysis. The neutron flux and activation cross-section library for each structural component generated by MCNP simulation were used in the radionuclide buildup calculation in ORIGEN2. The specific activities of the relevant radionuclides in the activated metal waste were compared with the specified limits of the specific activities listed in the Korean standard and 10 CFR 61. The time-average full-core model of Wolsong Unit 1 was used as the neutron source for activation of in-core and ex-core structural components. The approximated levels of the neutron flux and cross-section, irradiated fuel composition, and a geometry simplification revealing good reliability in a previous study were used in the source term calculation as well. The results revealed the radioactivity, decay heat, hazard index, mass, and solid volume for the activated decommissioning waste to be 1.04 x 10{sup 16} Bq, 2.09 x 10{sup 3} W, 5.31 x 10{sup 14} m{sup 3}-water, 4.69 x 10{sup 5} kg, and 7.38 x 10{sup 1} m{sup 3}, respectively. According to both Korean and US standards, the activated waste of the pressure tubes, calandria tubes, reactivity devices, and reactivity device supporters was greater than Class C, which should be disposed of in a deep geological disposal repository, whereas the side structural components were classified as low- and intermediate-level waste, which can be disposed of in a land disposal repository. Finally, this study confirmed that, regardless of the cooling time of the waste, 15% of the decommissioning waste cannot be disposed of in a land disposal repository. It is expected that the source terms and waste classification evaluated through this study can be widely used to establish a decommissioning/disposal strategy and fuel cycle analysis for CANDU reactors.

  10. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, Michael G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has numerous radiologically contaminated excess nuclear facilities waiting decommissioning throughout the Complex. The traditional decommissioning end state is complete removal. This commonly involves demolishing the facility, often segregating various components and building materials and disposing of the highly contaminated, massive structures containing tons of highly contaminated equipment and piping in a (controlled and approved) landfill, at times hundreds of miles from the facility location. Traditional demolition is costly, and results in significant risks to workers, as well as risks and costs associated with transporting the materials to a disposal site. In situ decommissioning (ISD or entombment) is a viable alternative to demolition, offering comparable and potentially more protective protection of human health and the environment, but at a significantly reduced cost and worker risk. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has completed the initial ISD deployment for radiologically contaminated facilities. Two reactor (P and R Reactors) facilities were decommissioned in 2011 using the ISD approach through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The SRS ISD approach resolved programmatic, regulatory and technical/engineering issues associated with avoiding the potential hazards and cost associated with generating and disposing of an estimated 124,300 metric tons (153,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated debris per reactor. The DOE Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, through the Savannah River National Laboratory, is currently investigating potential monitoring techniques and strategies to assess ISD effectiveness. As part of SRS's strategic planning, the site is seeking to leverage in situ decommissioning concepts, approaches and facilities to conduct research, design end states, and assist in regulatory interactions in broad national and

  11. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H. K.

    1981-10-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0

  12. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  13. Unrestricted re-use of decommissioned nuclear laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, R.; Noynaert, L.; Harnie, S.; Marien, J.

    1996-09-18

    A decommissioning strategy was developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN. In this strategy decommissioning works are limited to the radioactive parts of the nuclear installation. After obtaining an attestation for unrestricted reuse of the building after removal of all radioactivity, the building can be used for new industrial purposes outside the nuclear field. The decommissioning activities according to this strategy have been applied in four buildings. The results are described.

  14. Initial decommissioning planning for the Budapest research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Gabor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Budapest Research Reactor is the first nuclear research facility in Hungary. The reactor is to remain in operation for at least another 13 years. At the same time, the development of a decommissioning plan is a mandatory requirement under national legislation. The present paper describes the current status of decommissioning planning which is aimed at a timely preparation for the forthcoming decommissioning of the reactor.

  15. Regulation evolution in Sweden with emphasis on financial aspects of decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindskog, St. [the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Sjoblomb, R. [Tekedo AB, Nykoping (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    It is generally agreed that it should be the polluters that pay. A corollary to this principle is that it is those who benefit from e g nuclear electricity generation that should pay all the future costs for decommissioning and waste management. In order for such a corollary to be implemented in practice it is necessary that costs can be estimated, that appropriate funds can be accumulated, and that money can be made available at the time when it is needed. This is the principle underlying the recent (2006) recommendation of the European Union Commission on financial resources for decommissioning. The Commission states that a segregated fund with appropriate controls on use is the preferred option for all nuclear installations, and a clear recommendation to this effect is made for new installations. Furthermore, as regards the estimation of decommissioning costs, the Commission recommends a prudent calculation of costs based on appropriate risk management criteria and external supervision. The commission finds that experience shows that exchange of information between national experts concerning the various approaches to and financial arrangements for decommissioning and waste management is an excellent way of facilitating a common response to safety challenges. However, stringent requirements on assessing and securing assets for liabilities have been in force since many years through the various national implementations of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and the International Accounting Standards (IAS). Thus, precise calculations are to be presented each year (except for ongoing court cases), and in case estimation is difficult, various scenarios should be considered and a weighed average presented. In Sweden, the Law of Finance (SFS 2006:647) regulates how the costs for decommissioning and waste management are to be calculated and paid. A fee is levied on the use of nuclear electricity and accumulated in the waste fund. In addition, the

  16. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints.

  17. Development of a decommissioning strategy for the MR research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylkin, Boris; Gorlinsky, Yury; Kolyadin, Vyacheslav; Pavlenko, Vitaly [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Craig, David; Fecitt, Lorna [NUKEM Limited, Dounreay (United Kingdom); Harman, Neil; Jackson, Roger [Serco Technical and Assurance Services, Warrington (United Kingdom); Lobach, Yury [Inst. for Nuclear Research of NASU, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2010-03-15

    A description of the selected decommissioning strategy for the research reactor MR at the site of the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow is presented. The MR reactor hall is planned to be used as a temporary fuel store for the other research reactors on the site. On the basis of the site-specific conditions and over-all decommissioning goals, it was identified that phased immediate decommissioning is the preferable option. The current status of the reactor, expected final conditions and the sequence of decommissioning works are shown. (orig.)

  18. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  19. The planning of decommissioning activities within nuclear facilities - Generating a Baseline Decommissioning Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meek, N.C.; Ingram, S.; Page, J. [BNFL Environmental Services (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    BNFL Environmental Services has developed planning tools to meet the emerging need for nuclear liabilities management and decommissioning engineering both in the UK and globally. It can provide a comprehensive baseline planning service primarily aimed at nuclear power stations and nuclear plant. The paper develops the following issues: Decommissioning planning; The baseline decommissioning plan;The process; Work package; Compiling the information; Deliverables summary; Customer Benefits; - Planning tool for nuclear liability life-cycle management; - Robust and reliable plans based upon 'real' experience; - Advanced financial planning; - Ascertaining risk; - Strategy and business planning. The following Deliverables are mentioned:1. Site Work Breakdown Structure; 2. Development of site implementation strategy from the high level decommissioning strategy; 3. An end point definition for the site; 4. Buildings, operational systems and plant surveys; 5. A schedule of condition for the site; 6. Development of technical approach for decommissioning for each work package; 7. Cost estimate to WBS level 5 for each work package; 8. Estimate of decommissioning waste arisings for each work package; 9. Preparation of complete decommissioning programme in planning software to suit client; 10. Risk modelling of work package and overall project levels; 11. Roll up of costs into an overall cost model; 12. Cash flow, waste profiling and resource profiling against the decommissioning programme; 13. Preparation and issue of Final Report. Finally The BDP process is represented by a flowchart listing the following stages: [Power Station project assigned] {yields} [Review project and conduct Characterisation review of power station] {yields} [Identify work packages] {yields} [Set up WBS to level 3] {yields} [Assign work packages] {yields} [Update WBS to level 4] {yields}[Develop cost model] {yields} [Develop logic network] {yields} [Develop risk management procedure] ] {yields

  20. Characterisation of radioactive waste products associated with plant decommissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejvar, J; Fero, A H; Gil, C; Hagler, R J; Santiago, J L; Holgado, A; Swenson, R

    2005-01-01

    The inventory of radioactivity that must be considered in the decommissioning of a typical 1000 MWe Spanish pressurised water reactor (PWR) was investigated as part of a generic plant decommissioning study. Analyses based on DORT models (in both R-Z and R-theta geometries) were used with representative plant operating history and core power distribution data in defining the expected neutron environment in regions near the reactor core. The activation analyses were performed by multiplying the DORT scalar fluxes by energy-dependent reaction cross sections (based on ENDF/B-VI data) to generate reaction rates on a per atom basis. The results from the ORIGEN2 computer code were also used for determining the activities associated with certain nuclides where multi-group cross section data were not available. In addition to the bulk material activation of equipment and structures near the reactor, the activated corrosion-product (or 'crud') deposits on system and equipment surfaces were considered. The projected activities associated with these sources were primarily based on plant data and experience from operating PWR plants.

  1. On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyszkiewicz, Bogumila; Labor, Bea

    2009-08-15

    based on a proper understanding of the values and value functions of younger citizens. Such information must thus be an integral part of the knowledge base to be used when plans and processes are being developed for dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other older nuclear facilities. In the present project, empirical data have been collected and compiled in a survey of the values of younger citizens with regard to decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. The survey constitutes a stratified sample from three towns in Poland. They are Lublin, Olsztyn and Gdansk. A total of 780 students in the age group 14-19 years participated in the Survey. The results are compared to those from a similar study in the County of Kalmar in Sweden in the year 2006. The results include some major lesson learned. These may be summarised as follows: - Younger citizens tend to base their values regarding decommissioning on safety, and environmental aspects. Aspects like future economic growth and technological processes are less influential on the values. - Younger citizens tend to express a lack of information and debate as a basis of their value functions. Likewise, they tend to express interest in the topic and are open to become more included in the processes. - Younger citizens have suggestions on how more information can be made accessible to the general public. - Younger citizens need to be better included in the stakeholder process. This can be achieved by allowances from the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund to support groups of younger citizens to follow the Swedish process of research, development and demonstration of a concept for the management of spent nuclear fuel. Less than fully accessible information campaigns about nuclear power and associated nuclear waste may result in differences in confidence levels between different groups of stakeholders. By finding out more about the values of different stakeholders it will be possible for the

  2. Reactor Design and Decommissioning - An Overview of International Activities in Post Fukushima Era1 - 12396

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgun, Jas S. [Nuclear Power Technologies, Sargent and Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Laraia, Michele [private consultant, formerly from IAEA, Kolonitzgasse 10/2, 1030, Vienna (Austria); Pescatore, Claudio [OECD, Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux, Paris (France); Dinner, Paul [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    sufficiently for that experience to be reliably interpreted, the development of structured on-line sharing of information and especially the creation of an on-line compendium of methods, tools, and techniques by which damaged fuel and other unique situations have been addressed can be addressed sooner and maintained as new problems and solutions arise and are resolved. The IAEA's new 'WEB 2.0 tool' CONNECT is expected to play a significant role in this and related information-sharing activities. The trend in some countries such as the United States has been to re-license the existing reactors for additional twenty years, beyond the original design life. Given the advances in technology over the past four decades, and considering that the newer designs incorporate significant improvements in safety systems, it may not be economical or technically feasible to retrofit enhancements into some of the older reactors. In such cases, the reactors may be retired from service and decommissioned. Overall, the energy demand in the world continues to rise, with sharp increases in the Asian countries, and nuclear power's role in the world's energy supply is expected to continue. Events at Fukushima have led to a re-examination on many fronts, including reactor design and regulatory requirements. Further changes may occur in these areas in the post-Fukushima era. These changes in turn will also impact the world-wide decommissioning scene and the decommissioning phase of the future reactors. (authors)

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T.; Park, S. W. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no. 2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The goal of this project in 2006 is to complete the decontamination of the inside reactor hall of the KRR-2 which will be operating as a temporary storage for the radioactive waste until the construction and operation of the national repository site. Also the decommissioning work of the KRR-1 and auxiliary facilities is being progress. As the compaction of decommissioning project is near at hand, a computer information system was developed for a systematically control and preserve a technical experience and decommissioning data for the future reuse. The nuclear facility decommissioning, which is the first challenge in Korea, is being closed to the final stages. We completed the decommissioning of all the bio-shielding concrete for KRR-2 in 2005 and carried out the decontamination and waste material grouping of the roof, wall and bottom of the reactor hall of the KRR-2. The decommissioning for nuclear facility were demanded the high technology, remote control equipment and radioactivity analysis. So developed equipment and experience will be applied at the decommissioning for new nuclear facility in the future.

  4. Treatment of Decommissioning Combustible Wastes with Incineration Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y. Min; Yang, D. S.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The aim of the paper is current status of management for the decommissioning radioactive combustible and metal waste in KAERI. In Korea, two decommissioning projects were carried out for nuclear research facilities (KRR-1 and KRR-2) and a uranium conversion plant (UCP). Through the two decommissioning projects, lots of decommissioning wastes were generated. Decommissioning waste can be divided into radioactive waste and releasable waste. The negative pressure of the incineration chamber remained constant within the specified range. Off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measures gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved average volume reduction ratio during facility operation is about 1/65.

  5. Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides instruction to the individual charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing the radiation protection program for decommissioning operations. 1.2 This guide provides a basis for the user to develop radiation protection program documentation that will support both the radiological engineering and radiation safety aspects of the decommissioning project. 1.3 This guide presents a description of those elements that should be addressed in a specific radiation protection plan for each decommissioning project. The plan would, in turn, form the basis for development of the implementation procedures that execute the intent of the plan. 1.4 This guide applies to the development of radiation protection programs established to control exposures to radiation and radioactive materials associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The intent of this guide is to supplement existing radiation protection programs as they may pertain to decommissioning workers, members of...

  6. Program evaluation and case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, S

    2009-01-01

    This entry looks at the convergence of case study methodology and program evaluation. An early insight of some educational evaluation theorists was of the convergence of case study and program evaluation – the fusion of method with purpose. Program evaluation and case study came to be mutually-bracketed. In the educational evaluation field 'Responsive', 'Democratic', 'Illuminative' methodologies were developed in parallel with case study methods - the same authors contributing freely to both ...

  7. Creating artificial reefs from decommissioned platforms in the North Sea: review of knowledge and proposed programme of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aabel, J.P.; Cripps, S.J.; Jensen, A.C.; Picken, G.

    1997-12-31

    This report relates to the case for research and development work on North Sea artificial reefs. There are potentially many benefits that can be derived from platform reefs, for example as an aid to increased fishing yield for commercial fishermen, a means of enhancing fish stocks and protecting habitat for physical damage. In addition there may be a reduction in decommissioning costs for the oil industry and in negative environmental impacts inherent with land-based decommissioning techniques. Negative impacts could be loss of fishing area and changes in the ecosystem. The report will be focused towards practically applicable results that will aid the decision making process. 129 refs., 13 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Examples and Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbach, C.; Aguerre, O.; Bressot, C.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gommel, U.; Gorbunov, B.; Bihan, O. le; Jensen, K.A.; Kaminski, H.; Keller, M.; Koponen, I.K.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Lecloux, A.; Morgeneyer, M.; Muir, R.; Shandilya, N.; Stahlmecke, B.; Todea, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Release of nanomaterials may occur during any stage of the life-cycle and can eventually lead to exposure to humans, the environment or products. Due to the large number of combinations of release processes and nanomaterials, release scenarios can currently only be tested on a case-by-case basis. Th

  9. U.S. experience with organizational issues during decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, N.E. [MPD Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Harty, R. [Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The report provides information from a variety of sources, including interviews with US NRC management and staff, interviews and discussions with former employees of a decommissioned plant, discussions with subject matter experts, and relevant published documents. The NRC has modified its rule regarding decommissioning requirements. Two key reasons for these modifications are that plants have been decommissioning early and for economic reasons instead of at the end of their license period and, a desire for a more efficient rule that would more effectively use NRC staff. NRC management and staff expressed the opinion that resource requirements for the regulatory have been higher than anticipated. Key observations about decommissioning included that: The regulator faces new challenges to regulatory authority and performance during decommissioning. The public concern over decommissioning activities can be very high. There are changes in the types of safety concerns during decommissioning. It is important to balance planning and the review of plans with verification of activities. There are important changes in the organizational context at the plant during decommissioning. Retention of key staff is important. In particular, the organizational memory about the plant that is in the staff should not be lost. Six key areas of risk during decommissioning are fuel storage, potential accidents that could cause an offsite release, inappropriate release of contaminated material, radiation protection of workers, industrial accidents, and shipment of hazardous materials. Deconstruction of one unit while a co-located unit is still operating could create risks with regard to shared systems, specific risks of dismantling activities and coordination and management. Experience with co-located units at one site in the US was that there was a lack of attention to the decommissioning plant.

  10. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  11. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  12. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Volume 2. Appendices. Technical report, September 1977-October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWE. This volume contains the appendices.

  13. Dioxin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G G

    1993-01-01

    The need to notify individuals of a possible health risk from their past exposure to potentially hazardous agents frequently extends beyond workers to include community groups. The issues to consider in community notification are frequently similar to those that are important for worker notification but may include some that are unique. This case study traces the evolution of one company's strategy for communicating with the public about possible dioxin contamination associated with its operations. Early communications tended to emphasize the technical aspects of the issues in the fashion of scientists talking to other scientists. This was interpreted by some to be symptomatic of an arrogant and uncaring attitude. Beginning in the early 1980s, the company's management recognized the need to reach out to a variety of audiences on multiple levels, and shifted to a more comprehensive communications strategy. A similar shift is now occurring throughout the chemical manufacturing industry as top managers realize that, if they expect to continue to operate, they must become more accountable and responsive to the public.

  14. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  15. On Younger Stakeholders and Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyszkiewicz, Bogumila; Labor, Bea

    2009-08-15

    based on a proper understanding of the values and value functions of younger citizens. Such information must thus be an integral part of the knowledge base to be used when plans and processes are being developed for dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other older nuclear facilities. In the present project, empirical data have been collected and compiled in a survey of the values of younger citizens with regard to decommissioning and dismantling of older nuclear facilities. The survey constitutes a stratified sample from three towns in Poland. They are Lublin, Olsztyn and Gdansk. A total of 780 students in the age group 14-19 years participated in the Survey. The results are compared to those from a similar study in the County of Kalmar in Sweden in the year 2006. The results include some major lesson learned. These may be summarised as follows: - Younger citizens tend to base their values regarding decommissioning on safety, and environmental aspects. Aspects like future economic growth and technological processes are less influential on the values. - Younger citizens tend to express a lack of information and debate as a basis of their value functions. Likewise, they tend to express interest in the topic and are open to become more included in the processes. - Younger citizens have suggestions on how more information can be made accessible to the general public. - Younger citizens need to be better included in the stakeholder process. This can be achieved by allowances from the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund to support groups of younger citizens to follow the Swedish process of research, development and demonstration of a concept for the management of spent nuclear fuel. Less than fully accessible information campaigns about nuclear power and associated nuclear waste may result in differences in confidence levels between different groups of stakeholders. By finding out more about the values of different stakeholders it will be possible for the

  16. Intercultural Communicative Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The essay is mainly about the author's comprehension of cultural differences and intercultural communication after reading the book Communication Between Cultures.In addition,the author also analyses three cases with the theories and approaches mentioned in Communication Between Cultures.

  17. Decontamination and Decommissioned Small Nuclear AIP Hybrid Systems Submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangya Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Being equipped with small reactor AIP is the trend of conventional submarine power in 21st century as well as a real power revolution in conventional submarine. Thus, the quantity of small reactor AIP Submarines is on the increase, and its decommissioning and decontamination will also become a significant international issue. However, decommissioning the small reactor AIP submarines is not only a problem that appears beyond the lifetime of the small reactor nuclear devices, but the problem involving the entire process of design, construction, running and closure. In the paper, the problem is explored based on the conception and the feasible decommissioning and decontamination means are supplied to choose from.

  18. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  19. Long term commitments concerning decommissioning and waste management. French perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliat, Charles [EDF/CIDEN, 35/37, rue Louis-Guerin, BP 1212, 69611 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Decobert, Guy [COGEMA/AREVA, 1 rue des Herons BP 302, Montigny-le-Bretonneux 78054 Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France); Pochon, Etienne [CEA/DEN/DPA, Centre de Saclay 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    The majority of France decommissioning activities is occurring in two sectors: the civilian nuclear facilities and the nuclear facilities dedicated to deterrent. In France there are four major civilian operators: EDF (Electricite de France), AREVA, CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) and ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour les Dechets Radioactifs). Nuclear energy provides France nearly 80% of its electricity. Presently there are 58 EDF's operating nuclear power plants (PWR), all the gas cooled graphite nuclear power plant (6 units) have been definitively shutdown as well as Superphenix, a fast breeder reactor. The fuel cycle industry belongs to AREVA which is operating all the industrial installations from uranium ore prospecting and mining till used fuel reprocessing. In France, most of the nuclear R and D installations belong to the CEA. Many installations have already been dismantled, are presently being dismantled or are on a waiting list (research reactors, laboratories, pilot plant, etc). ANDRA is in charge since 1991 of the studies and the operation of waste disposal centres (LLW, MLW, HLW and VLLW). The first repository for waste containing short lived radio nuclides (CM, Centre de la Manche) has been closed in 1994 after 25 years of operation, more of 530 000 m{sup 3} have been disposed, the Aube centre (CA) comes into operation in 1991 and has a capacity of 1 000 000 m{sup 3}, ANDRA has opened a disposal for very low level waste (VLLW), close to the Aube centre, in september 2003. The contents of the paper is as follows: I. Current status; II. National policy; III. Decommissioning technique and Inspection; IV. Radioactive waste management; V. Organisations and responsibilities; VI. Funding; VII. Competent bodies.

  20. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

    2002-10-01

    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  1. Sensor Network Demonstration for In Situ Decommissioning - 13332

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.; Varona, J.; Awwad, A. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Rivera, J.; McGill, J. [Department of Energy - DOE, Environmental Management Office (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Florida International University's (FIU's) Applied Research Center is currently supporting the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management Office of D and D and Facility Engineering program. FIU is supporting DOE's initiative to improve safety, reduce technical risks, and limit uncertainty within D and D operations by identifying technologies suitable to meet specific facility D and D requirements, assessing the readiness of those technologies for field deployment, and conducting feasibility studies and large scale demonstrations of promising technologies. During FY11, FIU collaborated with Savannah River National Laboratory in the development of an experimental test site for the demonstration of multiple sensor systems for potential use in the in situ decommissioning process. In situ decommissioning is a process in which the above ground portion of a facility is dismantled and removed, and the underground portion is filled with a cementious material such as grout. In such a scenario, the question remains on how to effectively monitor the structural health of the grout (cracking, flexing, and sinking), as well as track possible migration of contaminants within and out of the grouted monolith. The right types of sensors can aid personnel in better understanding the conditions within the entombed structure. Without sensors embedded in and around the monolith, it will be very difficult to estimate structural integrity and contaminant transport. Yet, to fully utilize the appropriate sensors and the provided data, their performance and reliability must be evaluated outside a laboratory setting. To this end, a large scale experimental setup and demonstration was conducted at FIU. In order to evaluate a large suite of sensor systems, FIU personnel designed and purchased a pre-cast concrete open-top cube, which served as a mock-up of an in situ DOE decommissioned facility. The inside of the cube measures 10 ft x 10 ft x 8 ft. In order to

  2. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2008-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

  3. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  4. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  5. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  6. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference pressurized Water Reactor Power Station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure, Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; McDuffie, P.N. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With the issuance of the final Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to provide some of the needed bases documentation. This report contains the results of a review and reevaluation of the {prime}978 PNL decommissioning study of the Trojan nuclear power plant (NUREG/CR-0130), including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the nuclear power plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5--7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool, prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a ``green field`` condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities.

  7. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference pressurized Water Reactor Power Station. Volume 2, Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure: Appendices, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1995-11-01

    With the issuance of the final Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1998), owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to provide some of the needed bases documentation. This report contains the results of a review and reevaluation of the 1978 PNL decommissioning study of the Trojan nuclear power plant (NUREG/CR-0130), including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the nuclear power plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5--7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool, prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a ``green field`` condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities.

  8. Decommissioning the UHTREX Reactor Facility at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.; Elder, J.

    1992-08-01

    The Ultra-High Temperature Reactor Experiment (UHTREX) facility was constructed in the late 1960s to advance high-temperature and gas-cooled reactor technology. The 3-MW reactor was graphite moderated and helium cooled and used 93% enriched uranium as its fuel. The reactor was run for approximately one year and was shut down in February 1970. The decommissioning of the facility involved removing the reactor and its associated components. This document details planning for the decommissioning operations which included characterizing the facility, estimating the costs of decommissioning, preparing environmental documentation, establishing a system to track costs and work progress, and preplanning to correct health and safety concerns in the facility. Work to decommission the facility began in 1988 and was completed in September 1990 at a cost of $2.9 million. The facility was released to Department of Energy for other uses in its Los Alamos program.

  9. Optimization of Decommission Strategy for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen;

    2016-01-01

    The life time of offshore wind farm is around 20 years. After that, the whole farm should be decommissioned which is also one of the main factors that contribute to the high investment. In order to make a costeffective wind farm, a novel optimization method for decommission is addressed in this p......The life time of offshore wind farm is around 20 years. After that, the whole farm should be decommissioned which is also one of the main factors that contribute to the high investment. In order to make a costeffective wind farm, a novel optimization method for decommission is addressed...... in this paper. Instead of abandoning the foundations after the wind farm is running out of its life cycle, the proposed method can make good use of the existing facilities so that the cost of energy (COE) can be reduced. The results show that 12.93% reduction of COE can be realized by using the proposed method....

  10. Standard Guide for Preparing Characterization Plans for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This standard guide applies to developing nuclear facility characterization plans to define the type, magnitude, location, and extent of radiological and chemical contamination within the facility to allow decommissioning planning. This guide amplifies guidance regarding facility characterization indicated in ASTM Standard E 1281 on Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Plans. This guide does not address the methodology necessary to release a facility or site for unconditional use. This guide specifically addresses: 1.1.1 the data quality objective for characterization as an initial step in decommissioning planning. 1.1.2 sampling methods, 1.1.3 the logic involved (statistical design) to ensure adequate characterization for decommissioning purposes; and 1.1.4 essential documentation of the characterization information. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate saf...

  11. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Arcy, Daniel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants

  12. Lessons Learned from the NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility Decommissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    NASA has been conducting decommissioning activities at its PBRF for the last decade. As a result of all this work there have been several lessons learned both good and bad. This paper presents some of the more exportable lessons.

  13. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  14. Instructional Computing: Ten Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargan, Carol; Hunter, Beverly

    These case studies are written for educational institutions that wish to plan, extend, or improve their use of computers for learning and teaching. Each case study includes a brief description of each of the following: profile of the institution, history of the development of instructional computing, organization and management, student access to…

  15. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  16. BCD: a wiki-based decommissioning knowledge management tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, V.; Coudouneau, L.; Goursaud, V. [CEA Marcoule (DEN/MAR/DPAD/SECAD), 30 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge management allows decommissioning stakeholders to take advantage of past experience (in terms of efficiency, quality, safety, cost, etc.), avoid repeating previous errors, and identify good ideas and practices. It is usually broken down into three processes: collecting information, supplementing and enriching it, and making it available to all decommissioning stakeholders. The CEA has been collecting and centralizing data for many years: the first qualitative assessment of operational experience began in 1991. However, the documents collected were not always relevant for this assessment and, for lack of enrichment and distribution, were generally not used to a significant extent. In order to take advantage of the existing and future body of knowledge and to share this knowledge among decommissioning stakeholders, the CEA decommissioning review unit decided to develop an intranet site known as BCD (from the French acronym for Central Decommissioning Database) using the same wiki technology as the collaborative web encyclopedia, Wikipedia. The objective of BCD is to develop a decommissioning encyclopedia comprising definitions and terminology, the regulatory framework, the lessons of experience with technical or contractual projects, guidelines, statements of results, etc. This article describes BCD and its potential, together with the results observed to date and its prospects for future development. (authors)

  17. PUREX transition project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasen, W.G.

    1996-04-15

    In December 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE) directed that the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant be shut down and deactivated because it was no longer needed to support the nation`s production of weapons-grade plutonium. The PUREX/UO{sub 2} Deactivation Project will establish a safe and environmentally secure configuration for the facility and preserve that configuration for 10 years. The 10-year span is used to predict future maintenance requirements and represents the estimated time needed to define, authorize, and initiate the follow-on decontamination and decommissioning activities. Accomplishing the deactivation project involves many activities. Removing major hazards, such as excess chemicals, spent fuel, and residual plutonium are major goals of the project. The scope of the PUREX Transition Project is described within.

  18. Decommissioning, radioactive waste management and nuclear public information issues in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrico Mainardi [AIN - ENEA (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: AIN (Associazione Italiana Nucleare or Italian Nuclear Association) is a non-profit organization that includes a wide range of competence and expertise in the field of nuclear science and technology in Italy. A leading role among AIN members is now covered by SOGIN a company mainly involved in waste treatment and conditioning together with dismantling of the Italian nuclear power plants and installations. The same company detains most of the national competences on Nuclear Power Plants operation and safety that have allowed to provide services to a number of domestic and international clients. Radioactive waste management is a major issue for the acceptability of nuclear power energy and nuclear technologies in general. A solution to the disposal of nuclear waste from the past operation of four NPP and of the Fuel Cycle Facilities together with all the other nuclear waste from hospitals, medical facilities, industries and research centres is today essential. A nuclear-waste storage facilities located in one secured place is a national priority, given the increased risks of possible terrorist attacks, accidents or natural disasters. The Italian decision needs to follow the guidelines and paths decided at the international and European level without delegating to future generations the problems and waste connected to previous use of nuclear technologies. This issue needs to be addressed and solved before starting any discussion on nuclear power in Italy as the recent case of the strong opposition against the site proposed by the Italian Government demonstrates. The site that was selected by the Italian Government is Scanzano Jonico (Matera province in the Basilicata region). The decision is based on a study by SOGIN in cooperation with other institutions such as ENEA and Italian universities, and considering a previous work of the National Geological Service. The study follows the guidelines of ONU-IAEA and the solutions adopted at

  19. Plutonium, americium and radiocaesium in the marine environment close to the Vandellos I nuclear power plant before decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. E-mail: joanalbert.sanchez@uab.es; Molero, J

    2000-11-01

    The Vandellos nuclear power plant (NPP), releasing low-level radioactive liquid waste to the Mediterranean Sea, is the first to be decommissioned in Spain, after an incident which occurred in 1989. The presence, distribution and uptake of various artificial radionuclides (radiocaesium, plutonium and americium) in the environment close to the plant were studied in seawater, bottom sediments and biota, including Posidonia oceanica, fish, crustaceans and molluscs. Seawater, sediments and Posidonia oceanica showed enhanced levels in the close vicinity of the NPP, although the effect was restricted to its near environment. Maximum concentrations in seawater were 11.6{+-}0.5 Bq m{sup -3} and 16.9{+-}1.2 mBq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu, respectively. When sediment concentrations were normalized to excess {sup 210}Pb, they showed both the short-distance transport of artificial radionuclides from the Vandellos plant and the long-distance transport of {sup 137}Cs from the Asco NPP. Posidonia oceanica showed the presence of various gamma-emitters attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl accident, on which the effect of the NPP was superimposed. Seawater, sediment and Posidonia oceanica collected near the plant also showed an enhancement of the plutonium isotopic ratio above the fallout value. The uptake of these radionuclides by marine organisms was detectable but limited. Pelagic fish showed relatively higher {sup 137}Cs concentrations and only in the case of demersal fish was the plutonium isotopic ratio increased. The reported levels constitute a set of baseline values against which the impact of the decommissioning operations of the Vandellos I NPP can be studied.

  20. Characterization of Decommissioned PWR Vessel Internals Material Samples: Tensile and SSRT Testing (Nonproprietary Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Krug, R.Shogan

    2004-09-01

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores operate under extreme environmental conditions due to coolant chemistry, operating temperature, and neutron exposure. Extending the life of PWRs requires detailed knowledge of the changes in mechanical and corrosion properties of the structural austenitic stainless steel components adjacent to the fuel (internals) subjected to such conditions. This project studied the effects of reactor service on the mechanical and corrosion properties of samples of baffle plate, former plate, and core barrel from a decommissioned PWR.

  1. Roundabouts Canada case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada); Lenters, M. [Roundabouts Canada, Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A modern roundabout was constructed in the community of Ancaster, Ontario in response to growing complaints regarding speeding along the major roadway, and queuing on the minor roadway. The roundabout opened on October 25, 2002. The before and after speeds at the roundabout are being studied, and the fastest path characteristics are assessed in an effort to determine whether the predicted fastest path data correlates with the in-service operating speeds. The speed at R1, R2 and R3 locations on the east west, and north south approaches are measured. tabs., figs.

  2. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  3. An overview of U.S. decommissioning experience -- A basic introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.

    1998-03-09

    This paper presents an overview of the US experiences in the decommissioning technical area. Sections included are: (1) an overview of the magnitude of the problem, (2) a review of the US decommissioning process, (3) regulation of decommissioning, (4) regulatory and funding requirements for decommissioning, and (5) a general overview of all on-going and completed decommissioning projects to date in the US. The final section presents a review of some issues in the decommissioning area currently being debated in the technical specialists community.

  4. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  5. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  6. Case Studies in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-06

    Contains developed case studies in strategic planning on The Navy General Board, Joint Service War Planning 1919 to 1941, Navy Strategic Planning , NASA...in Strategic Planning NPS-56-88-031-PR of September 1988. Strategic planning , Strategic Management.

  7. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  8. Decontamination and Decommissioning Project for the Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T.; Park, S. W. and others

    2006-02-15

    The final goal of this project is to complete safely and successfully the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 (KRR-1) and the Korean Research Reactor no.2 (KRR-2), and uranium conversion plant (UCP). The dismantling of the reactor hall of the KRR-2 was planned to complete till the end of 2004, but it was delayed because of a few unexpected factors such as the development of a remotely operated equipment for dismantling of the highly radioactive parts of the beam port tubes. In 2005, the dismantling of the bio-shielding concrete structure of the KRR-2 was finished and the hall can be used as a temporary storage space for the radioactive waste generated during the decommissioning of the KRR-1 and KRR-2. The cutting experience of the shielding concrete by diamond wire saw and the drilling experience by a core boring machine will be applied to another nuclear facility dismantling. An effective management tool of the decommissioning projects, named DECOMIS, was developed and the data from the decommissioning projects were gathered. This system provided many information on the daily D and D works, waste generation, radiation dose, etc., so an effective management of the decommissioning projects is expected from next year. The operation experience of the uranium conversion plant as a nuclear fuel cycle facility was much contributed to the localization of nuclear fuels for both HWR and PWR. It was shut down in 1993 and a program for its decontamination and dismantling was launched in 2001 to remove all the contaminated equipment and to achieve the environment restoration. The decommissioning project is expected to contribute to the development of the D and D technologies for the other domestic fuel cycle facilities and the settlement of the new criteria for decommissioning of the fuel cycle related facilities.

  9. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Konzek, G.J.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    Safety and cost information was developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1175 MW(e)) pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station. Two approaches to decommissioning, Immediate Dismantlement and Safe Storage with Deferred Dismantlement, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. Immediate Dismantlement was estimated to require about six years to complete, including two years of planning and preparation prior to final reactor shutdown, at a cost of $42 million, and accumulated occupational radiation dose, excluding transport operations, of about 1200 man-rem. Preparations for Safe Storage were estimated to require about three years to complete, including 1/sup 1///sub 2/ years for planning and preparation prior to final reactor shutdown, at a cost of $13 million and an accumulated occupational radiation dose of about 420 man-rem. The cost of continuing care during the Safe Storage period was estimated to be about $80 thousand annually. Accumulated occupational radiation dose during the Safe Storage period was estimated to range from about 10 man-rem for the first 10 years to about 14 man-rem after 30 years or more. The cost of decommissioning by Safe Storage with Deferred Dismantlement was estimated to be slightly higher than Immediate Dismantlement. Cost reductions resulting from reduced volumes of radioactive material for disposal, due to the decay of the radioactive containments during the deferment period, are offset by the accumulated costs of surveillance and maintenance during the Safe Storage period.

  10. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I. (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Backe, S. (Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)); Cato, A.; Lindskog, S. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden)); Efraimsson, H. (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden)); Iversen, Klaus (Danish Decommissioning (Denmark)); Salmenhaara, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Sjoeblom, R. (Tekedo AB, (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost

  11. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Radioactive Burnable and Metal Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. K.; Cho, J. H. [SunKwang Atomic Energy Safety Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A large quantity of radioactive waste was generated during the decommissioning projects. For the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning wastes from decommissioning projects, the incineration and high melting technology has been selected for the decommissioning wastes treatment. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Incinerator burns waste at high temperature. Incineration of a mixture of chemically hazardous and radioactive materials, known as 'mixed waste,' has two principal goals: to reduce the volume and total chemical toxicity of the waste. Incineration itself does not destroy the metals or reduce the radioactivity of the waste. A proven melting technology is currently used for low-level waste (LLW) at several facilities worldwide. These facilities use melting as a means of processing LLW for unrestricted release of the metal or for recycling within the nuclear sector. About 16.4 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas.

  12. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. [Appendices only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Jenkins, C.E.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    Volume 2 comprises six appendices on: facility description; residual radioactivity inventory estimates; description and contamination levels of reference site; derivation of residual contamination levels; decommissioning mode detail; and decommissioning safety assessment details.

  13. Decommissioning of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment: A technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    This report completes a technical evaluation of decommissioning planning for the former Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, which was shut down in December, 1969. The key issues revolve around the treatment and disposal of some five tons of solid fuel salt which contains over 30 kg of fissionable uranium-233 plus fission products and higher actinides. The chemistry of this material is complicated by the formation of elemental fluorine via a radiolysis reaction under certain conditions. Supporting studies carried out as part of this evaluation include (a) a broad scope analysis of possible options for storage/disposal of the salts, (b) calculation of nuclide decay in future years, (c) technical evaluation of the containment facility and hot cell penetrations, (d) review and update of surveillance and maintenance procedures, (e) measurements of facility groundwater radioactivity and sump pump operation, (f) laboratory studies of the radiolysis reaction, and (g) laboratory studies which resulted in finding a suitable getter for elemental fluorine. In addition, geologic and hydrologic factors of the surrounding area were considered, and also the implications of entombment of the fuel in-place with concrete. The results of this evaluation show that the fuel salt cannot be left in its present form and location permanently. On the other hand, extended storage in its present form is quite acceptable for 20 to 30 years, or even longer. For continued storage in-place, some facility modifications are recommended. 30 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff [NAC International, Henley on Thames (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-01

    25 is equipment. The BR3 work packages described in this report add up to something like 83,000 labour hours plus about MSEK 13 of investments and consumables costs. At Swedish average team labour rates 83,000 hours would equate to about MSEK 52. Adding the investment cost of MSEK 13 gives a total of about MSEK 65. This of course is quite close to the Aagesta figure but it would be wrong to draw immediate, firm conclusions based on these data. Such a comparison should take into account, inter alia: The number and relative sizes of the equipment decontaminated and dismantled at Aagesta and BR3. The assumed productivity in the Aagesta estimate compared to the actual BR3 figures. The physical scale of the Aagesta reactor is somewhat larger than the BR3 reactor, so all other things being equal, one might expect the Aagesta decommissioning cost estimate to be higher than for BR3. Aagesta has better access overall, which should help to constrain costs. The productivity ratio for workers at BR3 on average was high - generally 80 per cent or more, so this is unlikely to be exceeded at Aagesta and might not be equalled, which would tend to push the Aagesta cost up relative to the BR3 situation. There is an additional question of the possible extra work performed at BR3 due to the R and D nature of the project. The BR3 data analysed has tried to strip away any such 'extra' work but nevertheless there may be some residual effect on the final numbers. Analysis and comparison of individual work packages has raised several conclusions, as follows: The constructed cost for Aagesta using BR3 benchmark data is encouragingly close to the Aagesta estimate value but it is not clear that the way of deriving the Aagesta estimate for decontamination was entirely rigorous. The reliability of the Aagesta estimate on these grounds therefore might reasonably be questioned. A significant discrepancy between the BR3 and Aagesta cases appears to exist in respect of the volumes of waste

  15. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING PLANNING AND ANALYSIS WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, J; William Austin, W; Larry Koffman, L

    2007-09-17

    From the mid-1950's through the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site produced nuclear materials for the weapons stockpile, for medical and industrial applications, and for space exploration. Although SRS has a continuing defense-related mission, the overall site mission is now oriented toward environmental restoration and management of legacy chemical and nuclear waste. With the change in mission, SRS no longer has a need for much of the infrastructure developed to support the weapons program. This excess infrastructure, which includes over 1000 facilities, will be decommissioned and demolished over the forthcoming years. Dispositioning facilities for decommissioning and deactivation requires significant resources to determine hazards, structure type, and a rough-order-of-magnitude estimate for the decommissioning and demolition cost. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help manage the process of dispositioning infrastructure and for reporting the future status of impacted facilities.

  16. eCompetence Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Bækkelund

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches.......In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches....

  17. Design of a requirements system for decommissioning of a nuclear power plant based on systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Seong; Park, Seung Kook; Jin, Hyung Gon; Song, Chan Ho; Choi, Jong won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The nuclear industry has required an advanced system that can manage decommissioning information ever since the Korean government decide to decommission the Gori No.1 nuclear power plant. The D and D division at KAERI has been developing a system that can secure the reliability and sustainability of the decommissioning project based on the engineering system of the KRR-2 (Korean Research Reactor-2). To establish a decommissioning information system, a WBS that needs to be managed for the decommissioning of an NPP has been extracted, and requirements management research composed of system engineering technology has progressed. This paper propose a new type of system based on systems engineering technology. Even though a decommissioning engineering system was developed through the KRR-2, we are now developing an advanced decommissioning information system because it is not easy to apply this system to a commercial nuclear power plant. An NPP decommissioning is a project requiring a high degree of safety and economic feasibility. Therefore, we have to use a systematic project management at the initial phase of the decommissioning. An advanced system can manage the decommissioning information from preparation to remediation by applying a previous system to the systems engineering technology that has been widely used in large-scale government projects. The first phase of the system has progressed the requirements needed for a decommissioning project for a full life cycle. The defined requirements will be used in various types of documents during the decommissioning preparation phase.

  18. 77 FR 75198 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear... Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report.'' This guide describes a method...) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report,''...

  19. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Sorooshian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, identifies the problems and provides recommendations for improvements. This study can be a guide for business advisers and those interested in analysing company performance, especially from a logistics viewpoint. We also suggest the methodology of this case study for those who want to have a better understanding of a business environment before starting their own business, or for benchmarking practice during strategic planning.

  20. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  1. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure - appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1996-07-01

    The NRC staff is in need of decommissioning bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s Washington Nuclear Plant Two (WNP-2) located at Richland, Washington, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clear structures on the site and to restore the site to a {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities. Sensitivity of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances is also examined.

  2. Radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-07-15

    The NKS-B RadWaste project was launched from June 2009. The on-going decommissioning activities in Nordic countries and current requirements and problems on the radiochemical analysis of decommissioning waste were discussed and overviewed. The radiochemical analytical methods used for determination of various radionuclides in nuclear waste are reviewed, a book was written by the project partners Jukka Lehto and Xiaolin Hou on the chemistry and analysis of radionuclide to be published in 2010. A summary of the methods developed in Nordic laboratories is described in this report. The progresses on the development and optimization of analytical method in the Nordic labs under this project are presented. (author)

  3. VGH Mannheim: legitimacy of the decommissioning license for a nuclear power plant; VGH Mannheim: Rechtmaessigkeit der Stilllegungsgenehmigung fuer ein Kernkraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2015-03-16

    The contribution describes the details of the court (VGH) decision on the legitimacy of the decommissioning license for the NPP Obrigheim. Inhabitants of the neighborhood (3 to 4.5 km distance from the NPP) are suspect hazards for life, health and property due to the dismantling of the nuclear power plant in case of an accident during the licensed measures or a terroristic attack with radioactive matter release.

  4. The Case Study of Frank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynde, Peter Op't; Hannula, Markku S.

    2006-01-01

    As a unifying feature of this Special Issue, we have asked proponents of each framework to analyse an empirical classroom account of one student's process of solving a mathematical problem. Here, for the case study of "Frank", we give the main data that were available to all authors.

  5. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  6. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  7. Overview of the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    A series of case studies are used to illustrate many of the underlying modelling principles within the book. To facilitate this, the ICAS-MoT modelling tool has been used. A wide range of application areas have been chosen to ensure that the principal concepts of effective and efficient modelling...

  8. Equatorial jet - a case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    Detailed EOF analysis of wind data reportEd. by Wunsch over Gan (00 degrees 41'S; 73 degrees 10'E) is made for the period 1963-70. The year 1964, which exhibited least variability from mean wind structure, has been chosen for the case study. EOF...

  9. Integration of improved decontamination and characterization technologies in the decommissioning of the CP-5 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Boing, L. E.

    2000-02-17

    The aging of research reactors worldwide has resulted in a heightened awareness in the international technical decommissioning community of the timeliness to review and address the needs of these research institutes in planning for and eventually performing the decommissioning of these facilities. By using the reactors already undergoing decommissioning as test beds for evaluating enhanced or new/innovative technologies for decommissioning, it is possible that new techniques could be made available for those future research reactor decommissioning projects. Potentially, the new technologies will result in: reduced radiation doses to the work force, larger safety margins in performing decommissioning and cost and schedule savings to the research institutes in performing the decommissioning of these facilities. Testing of these enhanced technologies for decontamination, dismantling, characterization, remote operations and worker protection are critical to furthering advancements in the technical specialty of decommissioning. Furthermore, regulatory acceptance and routine utilization for future research reactor decommissioning will be assured by testing and developing these technologies in realistically contaminated environments prior to use in the research reactors. The decommissioning of the CP-5 Research Reactor is currently in the final phase of dismantlement. In this paper the authors present results of work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the development, testing and deployment of innovative and/or enhanced technologies for the decommissioning of research reactors.

  10. Recent Trends in the Adequacy of Nuclear Plant Decommissioning Funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D. G.

    2002-02-26

    Concerned about the potential cost and sufficiency of funds to decommission the nation's nuclear power plants, the Congress asked the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) to assess the adequacy, as of December 31, 1997, of electric utilities'; funds to eventually decommission their plants. GAO's report (GAO/RCED-99-75) on this issue addressed three alternative assumption scenarios--baseline (most likely), optimistic, and pessimistic; and was issued in May 1999. This paper updates GAO's baseline assessment of fund adequacy in 1997, and extends the analysis through 2000. In 2000, we estimate that the present value cost to decommission the nation's nuclear plants is about $35 billion; utility fund balances are about $29 billion. Both our two measures of funding adequacy for utilities are on average not only much above ideal levels, but also overall have greatly improved since 1997. However, certain utilities still show less than ideal fund balances and annual contributions. We suggest that the range of these results among the individual utilities is a more important policy measure to assess the adequacy of decommissioning funding than is the funding adequacy for the industry as a whole.

  11. 18 CFR 2.24 - Project decommissioning at relicensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project decommissioning at relicensing. 2.24 Section 2.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  12. Accidental safety analysis methodology development in decommission of the nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G. H.; Hwang, J. H.; Jae, M. S.; Seong, J. H.; Shin, S. H.; Cheong, S. J.; Pae, J. H.; Ang, G. R.; Lee, J. U. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of a nuclear reactor cost about 20% of construction expense and production of nuclear wastes during decommissioning makes environmental issues. Decommissioning of a nuclear reactor in Korea is in a just beginning stage, lacking clear standards and regulations for decommissioning. This work accident safety analysis in decommissioning of the nuclear facility can be a solid ground for the standards and regulations. For source term analysis for Kori-1 reactor vessel, MCNP/ORIGEN calculation methodology was applied. The activity of each important nuclide in the vessel was estimated at a time after 2008, the year Kori-1 plant is supposed to be decommissioned. And a methodology for risk analysis assessment in decommissioning was developed.

  13. A State of the Art Report on the Case Study of Hot Cell Decontamination and Refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Moon, J. K.; Park, G. I.; Song, K. C

    2008-08-15

    As the increase of the operation age of the domestic high radiation facilities such as IMEF, PIEF and DFDF, the necessity of decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells in these facilities is also increased. In the near future, the possibilities of refurbishment of hot cells in compliance with the new regulations, the reuse of hot cells for the other purposes and the decommissioning of the facilities also exist. To prepare against the decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells, the reports on the refurbishment, decommissioning and decontamination experiences of hot cells in USA, Japan, France, Belgium and Great Britain were investigated. ANL of USA performed the project on the decontamination of hot cells. The purpose of the project was to practically eliminate the radioactive emissions of Rn-220 to the environment and to restore the hot cells to an empty restricted use condition. The five hot cells were emptied and decontaminated for restricted use. Chemical processing facility in JAEA of Japan was used for the reprocessing study of spent fuels, hot cells in CPF were refurbished from 1995 for the tests of the newly developed reprocessing process. In a first stage, decommissioning and decontamination were fully performed by the remote operation Then, decommissioning and decontamination were performed manually. By the newly developed process, they reported that the radiation exposure of workers were satisfactorily reduced. In the other countries, they also make an effort for the refurbishment and decontamination of hot cells and it is inferred that they accumulate experiences in these fields.

  14. Selection of optimal treatment procedures for non-standard radioactive waste arising from decommissioning of NPP after accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strážovec, Roman, E-mail: strazovec.roman@javys.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); JAVYS, a.s., Tomášikova 22, 821 02 Bratislava (Slovakia); Hrnčíř, Tomáš [DECOM, a.s., Sibírska 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lištjak, Martin [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); VUJE, a.s., Okružná 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Nečas, Vladimír [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2016-05-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is becoming a standard industrial activity where the optimization processes of partial activities are inevitable mainly for technical and economic reasons. In Slovakia, the decommissioning of A1 NPP is very specific case because A1 NPP is rare type of NPP (prototype) and furthermore its operation was affected by the accident. A large number of specific non-standard radioactive waste, such as long-time storage cases (hereinafter LSC), that is not usually present within the decommissioning projects of NPP with a regular termination of operation, represent one of the significant consequences of the accident and issues arisen from follow-up activities. The presented article describes the proposal of processing and conditioning of non-standard radioactive waste (such as LSC), together with description of methodology applied in the proposal for update of waste acceptance criteria for the processing and conditioning of radioactive waste (hereinafter RAW) within Bohunice Radioactive waste Treatment and Conditioning Centre (hereinafter RWTC). The results of performed detailed analysis are summarized into new waste acceptance criteria for technological lines keeping in mind safety principles and requirements for protection of operating personnel, the public and the environment.

  15. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  16. A case study of Impetigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri P

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin

  17. Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Flood Risks in Aging-Dam Management in China: A Framework and Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Sheng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30,000 dams in China are aging and are considered to be high-level risks. Developing a framework for analyzing spatial multicriteria flood risk is crucial to ranking management scenarios for these dams, especially in densely populated areas. Based on the theories of spatial multicriteria decision analysis, this report generalizes a framework consisting of scenario definition, problem structuring, criteria construction, spatial quantification of criteria, criteria weighting, decision rules, sensitivity analyses, and scenario appraisal. The framework is presented in detail by using a case study to rank dam rehabilitation, decommissioning and existing-condition scenarios. The results show that there was a serious inundation, and that a dam rehabilitation scenario could reduce the multicriteria flood risk by 0.25 in the most affected areas; this indicates a mean risk decrease of less than 23%. Although increased risk (

  18. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR. PART 6 - PRESENTATION OF THE DECOMMISSIONING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a possible solution for the designing of a device for the decommissioning of the horizontal fuel channels in the CANDU 6 nuclear reactor. The decommissioning activities are dismantling, demolition, controlled removal of equipment, components, conventional or hazardous waste (radioactive, toxic in compliance with the international basic safety standards on radiation protection. One as the most important operation in the final phase of the nuclear reactor dismantling is the decommissioning of fuel channels. For the fuel channels decommissioning should be taken into account the detailed description of the fuel channel and its components, the installation documents history, adequate radiological criteria for decommissioning guidance, safety and environmental impact assessment, including radiological and non-radiological analysis of the risks that can occur for workers, public and environment, the description of the proposed program for decommissioning the fuel channel and its components, the description of the quality assurance program and of the monitoring program, the equipments and methods used to verify the compliance with the decommissioning criteria, the planning of performing the final radiological assessment at the end of the fuel channel decommissioning. These will include also, a description of the proposed radiation protection procedures to be used during decommissioning. The dismantling of the fuel channel is performed by one device which shall provide radiation protection during the stages of decommissioning, ensuring radiation protection of the workers. The device shall be designed according to the radiation protection procedures. The decommissioning device assembly of the fuel channel components is composed of the device itself and moving platform support for coupling of the selected channel to be dismantled. The fuel channel decommissioning device is an autonomous device designed for

  19. TEACHER BELIEFS: A CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuYijie

    2004-01-01

    In recent years ELT has stressed the role which teachers' beliefs play in shaping what they do in the classroom. But so far as teaching English in China is concerned, we lack empirical insight into the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their classroom practice. With specific reference to the use of English in intensive reading classes, by presenting and discussing data from a case study of a non-native college English teacher,this exploratory qualitative classroom research sheds light on the nature of teachers' beliefs held consciously or unconsciously.Their subsequent change and impact on the classroom will also be reported and discussed.

  20. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  1. Allowable residual-contamination levels for decommissioning facilities in the 100 areas of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for five generic categories of facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide ARCL data useful to UNC engineers in conducting safety and cost comparisons for decommissioning alternatives. The ARCL results are based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. These modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use provided by this report is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. ARCL results are presented both for surface contamination remaining in facilities (in dpm/100 cm/sup 2/), and for unconfined surface and confined subsurface soil conditions (in pCi/g). Two confined soil conditions are considered: contamination at depths between 1 and 4 m, and contamination at depths greater than or equal to 5 m. A set of worksheets are presented in an appendix for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations, to consider the impacts of radioactive decay, and to predict instrument responses. Finally, a comparison is made between the unrestricted release ARCL values for the 100 Area facilities and existing decommissioning and land disposal regulations. For surface contamination, the comparison shows good agreement. For soil contamination, the comparison shows good agreement if reasonable modification factors are applied to account for the differences in modeling soil contamination and licensed low-level waste.

  2. Application of in situ measurement for site remediation and final status survey of decommissioning KRR site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Suk; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In situ gamma spectrometry has been used to measure environmental radiation, assumptions are usually made about the depth distribution of the radionuclides of interest in the soil. The main limitation of in situ gamma spectrometry lies in determining the depth distribution of radionuclides. The objective of this study is to develop a method for subsurface characterization by in situ measurement. The peak to valley method based on the ratio of counting rate between the photoelectric peak and Compton region was applied to identify the depth distribution. The peak to valley method could be applied to establish the relation between the spectrally derived coefficients (Q) with relaxation mass per unit area (β) for various depth distribution in soil. The in situ measurement results were verified by MCNP simulation and calculated correlation equation. In order to compare the depth distributions and contamination levels in decommissioning KRR site, in situ measurement and sampling results were compared. The in situ measurement results and MCNP simulation results show a good correlation for laboratory measurement. The simulation relationship between Q and source burial for the source layers have exponential relationship for a variety depth distributions. We applied the peak to valley method to contaminated decommissioning KRR site to determine a depth distribution and initial activity without sampling. The observed results has a good correlation, relative error between in situ measurement with sampling result is around 7% for depth distribution and 4% for initial activity. In this study, the vertical activity distribution and initial activity of {sup 137}Cs could be identifying directly through in situ measurement. Therefore, the peak to valley method demonstrated good potential for assessment of the residual radioactivity for site remediation in decommissioning and contaminated site.

  3. Development of decommissioning management system for nuclear fuel cycle facilities (DECMAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichirou; Ishijima, Noboru; Tanimoto, Ken-ichi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-04-01

    In making a plan of decommissioning of nuclear fuel facilities, it is important to optimize the plan on the standpoint of a few viewpoints, that is, the amount of working days, workers, radioactive waste, exposure dose of worker, and cost (they are called evaluation indexes). In the midst of decommissioning, the decommissioning plan would be modified suitably to optimize the evaluation indexes adjusting to progress of the decommissioning. The decommissioning management code (DECMAN), that is support system on computer, has been developed to assist the decommissioning planning. The system calculates the evaluation indexes quantitatively. The system consists of three fundamental codes, facility information database code, technical know-how database code and index evaluation code, they are composed using Oracle' database and 'G2' expert system. The functions of the system are as follows. (1) Facility information database code. Information of decommissioning facility and its rooms, machines and pipes in the code. (2) Technical know-how database code. Technical Information of tools to use in decommissioning work, cutting, dose measure, and decontamination are there. (3) Index evaluation code. User build decommissioning program using above two database codes. The code evaluates five indexes, the amount of working days, workers, radioactive waste, exposure dose of worker, and cost, on planning decommissioning program. Results of calculation are shown in table, chart, and etc. (author)

  4. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-06-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized.

  5. Evaluation of the UCP Decommissioning Activities in 2008 using DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Park, J. H; Hwang, D. S.; Lee, K. W.; Chung, U. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    In early 1992, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) decided that the operation of the Uranium Conversion Plant (UCP) would be stopped due to a relatively higher production cost than that of the international market. The conversion plant has been shut down and minimally maintained for the prevention of a contamination by a deterioration of the equipment and the lagoon. In 2000, the decommissioning was finally decided upon and a decommissioning program was launched to complete the following tasks by 2010 with the total budget, 10 million US dollars: planning and assessment of the environmental impact; dismantling of the pipes, tanks, vessels and equipment for a canning or reuse; decontamination of the dismantled metal wastes for release, decontamination of the building for an reuse as an another experimental facility, and the treatment of the sludge waste and the demolition of the lagoon. The decommissioning works started in 2004. The Uranium Conversion Plant building is composed 3 stories and the floor area is 2,950 m{sup 2}. The equipment and facilities consist of chemical reactors such as a dissolver and FBR, tanks, pumps, pipes, and electric and electronic equipment. The radiological conditions before a dismantling were as follows; radiation dose 3x10{sup -4}{approx}3x10{sup -2} mSv/hr, surface contamination of equipment and structure 0.001{approx}3.6 Bq/cm{sup 2}, and surface contamination of concrete 0.01{approx}1.4 Bq/cm{sup 2}. The lagoon is used for store the waste water which generated during an operation. The lagoon consists of two artificial ponds constructed by a concrete structure with a lubber coating and the surface area is 760 m{sup 2}. Total weight of the sludge is about 330 tons. The major compounds are ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, calcium carbonate, and natural uranium of 1 wt%. Radiological conditions were as follows; radiation dose 1x10{sup -4}{approx}3x10{sup -3} mSv/hr. The DECOMMIS, which is the data base

  6. Physiologic amputation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeri; Hall, Virginia

    2014-03-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a complication of severe peripheral arterial disease that can be a threatening limb as well as life. Multiple procedures exist today to help revascularize extremities; however, even with the latest technologies, surgical amputation of the limb may still be necessary. Cryoamputation, or physiologic amputation, is a method used to treat patients who are hemodynamically unstable for the operating room and who are in need of urgent amputation owing to arterial ischemia. This procedure is used in the rare instance where not only a persons' limb is threatened, but also their life. This is a case study regarding one patient who presented to the hospital with limb-threatening ischemia who became hemodynamically unstable owing to the rhabdomyolysis associated with the ischemia of his lower extremity. Cryoamputation was used to stabilize the patient and prevent further deterioration, so that he could safely undergo surgical amputation of the limb without an increase in mortality risk. Cryoamputation must be followed by formal surgical amputation when the patient is hemodynamically stabilized. It is not a limb salvaging, procedure but it is a life-saving procedure. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the procedure and discusses the technique used for cryoamputation.

  7. Five misunderstandings about Case-study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...

  8. Five misunderstandings about case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...

  9. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  10. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  11. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography: Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1987-09-01

    The 553 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eighth in a series of reports. Foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Management, Technical Measurements Center, and General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms and abbreviations.

  12. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 6. A selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1985-09-01

    This bibliography of 683 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the sixth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Facilities Contaminated with Natural Radioactivity; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) Technical Measurements Center; and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by publication description.

  13. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  14. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling Installation and Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising and fastest growing alternative energy sources in the world. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a methodological framework to assess installation and decommissioning costs, and using examples from the European experience, provides a broad review of existing processes and systems used in the offshore wind industry. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a step-by-step guide to modeling costs over four sections. These sections cover: ·Background and introductory material, ·Installation processes and vessel requirements, ·Installation cost estimation, and ·Decommissioning methods and cost estimation.  This self-contained and detailed treatment of the key principles in offshore wind development is supported throughout by visual aids and data tables. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling is a key resource for anyone interested in the offshore wind industry, particularly those interested in the technical and economic aspects of installation and decom...

  15. KAIZEN – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Shettar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of manufacturing industries is to increase productivity with high quality. At present, many manufacturing companies are facing problems such as high quality rejection, high inventories, high lead time, high costs of production, and inability to cope with customer orders. By implementing and practicing the lean production system many problems can be solved without employing high-tech and high-touch approaches but by involving people on the shop floor in Kaizen activities. Kaizen is one of the powerful tools of lean manufacturing. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost and quality. Kaizen ensures that manufacturing processes become leaner and fitter, but eliminate waste (problem where value is added. The main objective of this paper is to provide a background on kaizen, present an overview of kaizen concepts that are used to transform a company into a high performing lean enterprise. A case study of implementation of Kaizen‟s has been discussed.

  16. STS Case Study Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.

  17. Using teaching case studies for management research

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, Veronique; Bowman, Cliff; Collier, Nardine

    2010-01-01

    Teaching case studies are widely deployed in business schools. They are contextually rich in detail, and students learn by applying and adapting theoretical concepts to specific business situations described in the case. This article proposes a new way to use teaching case studies, as research materials for academics. The article addresses three questions: (1) Can teaching cases be used as an alternative to field research? (2) When can teaching case studies be used as second...

  18. Value of case studies in disaster assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.

  19. TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS FOR IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING WORKSHOP REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.; Lee, P.; Gladden, J.; Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Urland, C.; Reynolds, E.

    2009-06-30

    In recognition of the increasing attention being focused on In Situ Decommissioning (ISD or entombment) as an acceptable and beneficial decommissioning end state, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is developing guidance for the implementation of ISD of excess facilities within the DOE complex. Consistent with the overarching DOE goals for increased personnel and environmental safety, reduced technical uncertainties and risks, and overall gains in efficiencies and effectiveness, EM's Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-23) initiated efforts to identify the technical barriers and technology development needs for the optimal implementation of ISD. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), as the EM Corporate Laboratory, conducted an ISD Technology Needs Workshop to identify the technology needs at DOE sites. The overall goal of the workshop was to gain a full understanding of the specific ISD technical challenges, the technologies available, and those needing development. The ISD Workshop was held December 9-10, 2008 in Aiken, SC. Experienced decommissioning operations personnel from Richland Operations Office (RL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Savannah River Site (SRS) along with scientists and engineers specific expertise were assembled to identify incremental and 'game changing' solutions to ISD technology challenges. The workshop and follow-up activities yielded 14 technology needs statements and the recommendation that EM-23 prioritize and pursue the following specific technology development and deployment actions. For each action, the recommended technology acquisition mechanisms (competitive solicitation (CS) or direct funding (TCR)) are provided. Activities that are time critical for ISD projects, or require unique capabilities that reside in the DOE Laboratory system will be funded directly to those institutions. Activities that have longer lead times and

  20. Uranium Enrichment: Analysis of Decontamination and Decommissioning Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    from a September 1991 report entitled Preliminary Cost Estimate Decontamination & Decommissioning of the Gaseous Diffusion Plants , prepared for DOE by...DOE) three aging uranium enrichment plants . These plants are located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah , Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. On October 16... Diffusion Plants Assessment of Costs for Remedial Actions. This report was prepared for DOE by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, DOE’s management and

  1. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the US - a travel report; Avveckling av kaernkraftverk i USA - en reserapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efraimsson, H.; Lindhe, J.C.; Malmqvist, L.; Lund, I.; Welleman, E

    1999-03-01

    This report summarises information and impressions from a journey in north-east USA. The purpose of the journey was to study the on-going decommissioning of nuclear power plants - mainly how it is regulated by the competent authorities, but also how it is performed in practice. The journey included visits at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the company Duke Engineering and Services, and the two nuclear power plants Haddam Neck and Maine Yankee

  2. Decontamination and decommissioning surveillance and maintenance report for FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, David B.; Burwinkle, T. W.; Cannon, T. R.; Ford, M. K.; Holder, Jr., L.; Clotfelter, O. K.; Faulkner, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Wooten, H. O.

    1991-12-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Program has three distinct phases: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S M); (2) decontamination and removal of hazardous materials and equipment (which DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., calls Phase I of remediation); and (3) decommissioning and ultimate disposal, regulatory compliance monitoring, and property transfer (which DOE Headquarters calls Phase II of remediation). A large part of D D is devoted to S M at each of the sites. Our S M activities, which are performed on facilities awaiting decommissioning, are designed to minimize potential hazards to human health and the environment by: ensuring adequate containment of residual radioactive and hazardous materials; and, providing physical safety and security controls to minimize potential hazards to on-site personnel and the general public. Typically, we classify maintenance activities as either routine or special (major repairs). Routine maintenance includes such activities as painting, cleaning, vegetation control, minor structural repairs, filter changes, and building system(s) checks. Special maintenance includes Occupational Safety and Health Act facility upgrades, roof repairs, and equipment overhaul. Surveillance activities include inspections, radiological measurements, reporting, records maintenance, and security (as required) for controlling and monitoring access to facilities. This report summarizes out FY 1991 S M activities for the Tennessee plant sites, which include the K-25 Site, the Gas Centrifuge facilities, ORNL, and the Y-12 Plant.

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Mayaguez (Puerto Rico) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.K.; Freemerman, R.L. [Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1989-11-01

    On February 6, 1987 the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the final phase of the decontamination and decommissioning of the nuclear and reactor facilities at the Center for Energy and Environmental Research (CEER), in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Bechtel National, Inc., was made the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) contractor. The goal of the project was to enable DOE to proceed with release of the CEER facility for use by the University of Puerto Rico, who was the operator. This presentation describes that project and lesson learned during its progress. The CEER facility was established in 1957 as the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, a part of the Atoms for Peace Program. It was a nuclear training and research institution with emphasis on the needs of Latin America. It originally consisted of a 1-megawatt Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), support facilities and research laboratories. After eleven years of operation the MTR was shutdown and defueled. A 2-megawatt TRIGA reactor was installed in 1972 and operated until 1976, when it woo was shutdown. Other radioactive facilities at the center included a 10-watt homogeneous L-77 training reactor, a natural uranium graphite-moderated subcritical assembly, a 200KV particle accelerator, and a 15,000 Ci Co-60 irradiation facility. Support facilities included radiochemistry laboratories, counting rooms and two hot cells. As the emphasis shifted to non-nuclear energy technology a name change resulted in the CEER designation, and plans were started for the decontamination and decommissioning effort.

  4. Comparison of different strategies for decommissioning a tritium laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dylst, Kris, E-mail: Kris.Dylst@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Dismantling, Decontamination and Waste, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Slachmuylders, Frederik; Gilissen, Bart [SCK-CEN, Dismantling, Decontamination and Waste, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Decontamination to below the free release limits is very labour intensive. ► Disposing of contaminated steel to a nuclear melting facility is cost effective. ► It can be advantageous to invest in decontamination of non-steel materials. -- Abstract: Between 2003 and 2009 two rooms that served as tritium laboratory at SCK• CEN and its ventilation system were decommissioned. Initially, the decommissioning strategy was to free release as much materials as possible. However, due to the imposed free release limit this was very labour intensive. Timing restrictions forced us to use a different strategy for the ventilation system. Most of the steel was disposed of to a nuclear melting facility. As a result there was a significant decrease in the required man labour. For the second laboratory room a similar strategy as for the ventilation was used: contaminated steel was disposed of to a nuclear melting facility and other materials that could not be easily decontaminated were disposed of as nuclear waste. At the expense of extra waste generation compared to the first laboratory the decommissioning was done using merely one third of the man hours. Comparison of the used strategies indicated opportunities for cost optimization. Even in absence of time constraints it is best to foresee a safe disposal of metals to a nuclear melting facility, whilst it is worth to invest in the labour intensive decontamination of the other materials to free release them.

  5. Decommissioning of the pool reactor Thetis in Ghent, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortenbosch, Geert; Mommaert, Chantal [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium); Tierens, Hubert; Monsieurs, Myriam; Meierlaen, Isabelle; Strijckmans, Karel [Ghent Univ. (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    The Thetis research pool reactor (with a nominal power of 150 kW) of the Ghent University was operational from 1967 till December 2003. The first phase of the decommissioning of the reactor, the removal of the spent fuel from the site, took place in 2010. The cumulative dose received was only 404 man . μSv. During the second phase, the transition period between the removal of the spent fuel in 2010 and the start of the decommissioning phase in March 2013, 3-monthly internal inspections and inspections by Bel V, were performed. The third and final decommissioning phase started on March 18, 2013. The total dose received between March 2013 and August 2013 was 1561 man . μSv. The declassification from a Class I installation to a Class II installation was possible by the end of 2015. The activated concrete in the reactor pool will remain under regulatory control until the activation levels are lower than the limits for free release.

  6. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SPENT FUEL POOL DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Demmer

    2011-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been at the forefront of developing methods to reduce the cost and schedule of deactivating spent fuel pools (SFP). Several pools have been deactivated at the INL using an underwater approach with divers. These projects provided a basis for the INL cooperation with the Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 SFP (Exelon Generation Company) deactivation. It represents the first time that a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) SFP was decommissioned using this underwater coating process. This approach has advantages in many aspects, particularly in reducing airborne contamination and allowing safer, more cost effective deactivation. The INL pioneered underwater coating process was used to decommission three SFPs with a total combined pool volume of over 900,000 gallons. INL provided engineering support and shared project plans to successfully initiate the Dresden project. This report outlines the steps taken by INL and Exelon to decommission SFPs using the underwater coating process. The rationale used to select the underwater coating process and the advantages and disadvantages are described. Special circumstances are also discussed, such as the use of a remotely-operated underwater vehicle to visually and radiologically map the pool areas that were not readily accessible. A larger project, the INTEC-603 SFP in-situ (grouting) deactivation, is reviewed. Several specific areas where special equipment was employed are discussed and a Lessons Learned evaluation is included.

  7. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure - main report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1996-07-01

    The NRC staff is in need of updated bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s Washington Nuclear Plant Two (WNP-2), which is a boiling water reactor (BWR), located at Richland, Washington, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low- level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities. Sensitivity of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances is also examined.

  8. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  9. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Chilton, B.D.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography of 756 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fifth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; and (7) Technical Measurements Center. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 4, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The Appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms.

  10. REVIEW OF INDUSTRIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FOR TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilkoff, T. E.; Hetland, M. D.; O' Leary, E. M.

    2002-02-25

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area's (DDFA's) mission is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy improved deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) technologies. This mission requires that emphasis be continually placed on identifying technologies currently employed or under development in other nuclear as well as nonnuclear industries and government agencies. In support of DDFA efforts to clean up the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiologically contaminated surplus facilities using technologies that improve worker safety, reduce costs, and accelerate cleanup schedules, a study was conducted to identify innovative technologies developed for use in nonnuclear arenas that are appropriate for D&D applications.

  11. Radioactive waste from decommissioning of fast reactors (through the example of BN-800)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, A. A.; Momot, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of volume of radioactive waste from operating and decommissioning of fast reactors is introduced. Preliminary estimation has shown that the volume of RW from decommissioning of BN-800 is amounted to 63,000 cu. m. Comparison of the amount of liquid radioactive waste derived from operation of different reactor types is performed. Approximate costs of all wastes disposal for complete decommissioning of BN-800 reactor are estimated amounting up to approx. 145 million.

  12. Operation and dismantling report 2004 for Danish Decommissioning; Drifts- og afviklingsrapport 2004 - Dansk Dekommissionering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    The report describes the operations at Danish Decommissioning (DD) that are essential for the nuclear inspection authorities' assessment of safety related issues. The report presents an account of safety and of the work at DD, including the decommissioning projects in 2004 for the nuclear facilities. The radioactive waste treatment facility in operation is described, and inspection and maintenance reports of the nuclear facilities prepared for decommissioning are presented. (ln)

  13. External laundry service. A tool for fleet management and flexible decommissioning; Externer Waescheservice. Ein Werkzeug der zentralen Steuerung und der flexiblen Rueckbauplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckner, Guenter [Unitech, Hartford, CT (United States); Schmitt, Burkhard [Unitech, Coevorden (Netherlands); Micklinghoff, Michael

    2014-07-15

    While it is common in other countries such as the USA or Sweden to send out contaminated garments to an external laundering facility, this is not the case in Germany, where the preferred tendency in the nuclear industry is to remain independent from an external service provider. After the US based company 'UniTech' built a laundering facility for controlled area garment in Coevorden, Netherlands, in 1996, German operators began testing this service for decommissioning work. At the time, their justification for this choice was based on the following: - In case of a disrupted delivery the consequences would not be as severe for a nuclear power plant in the process of decommissioning. - Additional investments (evaporators) would have been necessary to install in the laundries of the individual nuclear power plants. - The existing on-site laundries and waste treatment equipment were often not suited to deal with nuclides, specific to decommissioning. It quickly became evident that a specialized service provider could conduct the necessary tasks more effectively, more flexibly, and with higher quality than an ancillary on-site facility. In addition, it became evident that central fleet management tasks are facilitated by contracting an external service provider. Business and technical processes, and requirements agreed upon in a framework agreement, supported the introduction of unified standards. The road map for future decommissioning projects in Germany is impacted by many uncertainties. Therefore, planning requires a great deal of flexibility. Here, as with other related operations, it is critical that enough protective garments are in the right place at the right time. If this does not happen, delays, additional costs and changes to process planning result. For these reasons, an external laundering and garment management service is the most reliable solution. Industry experience shows that even very short-term requests for large quantities of protective

  14. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff; Anuar, Abul Adli; Idris, Hairul Nizam; Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-01

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  15. Status of the Decommissioning Project Management Information System Development of KAERI in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyung Gon; Park, Seungkook; Park, Heeseong; Song, Chanho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Various information systems have been developed and used at decommissioning sites for planning a project, record keeping for a post management and cost estimation. KAERI is the only one expert group which has decommissioning experiences and KAERI is trying to develop computer code to converge all the data which has been accumulated during KRR-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant) decommission. KRR-1 and KRR-2 are TRIGA MARK type of research reactor which were constructed worldwide. Hence, there are many chance to use decommissioning experiences and data when other TRIGA MARK type of research reactors start to decommission. KAERI DPMIS stands for Decommissioning Project Management Information System, which is aiming to re-use of data effectively. As a responsible leading group of Korean decommissioning research field, KAERI has been developing DPMIS application program, which is going to be an important mile stone of decommission industry in Korea. User friendly graphical interface and lots of actual data let people well understood on decommission planning. It is expected that continuous effort and funds will be delivered to this research.

  16. Catalog of NASA-Related Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OCKO has developed over 50 case studies to enhance learning at workshops, training, retreats and conferences. Case studies make mission knowledge attractive and...

  17. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  18. Writing case studies in information systems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Blonk, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Case study research can be reported in different ways. This paper explores the various ways in which researchers may choose to write down their case studies and then introduces a subsequent typology of writing case studies. The typology is based on a 2 x 2 matrix, resulting in four forms of writing

  19. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR PART 5 - FUEL CHANEL DECOMMISSIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As many nuclear power plants are reaching their end of lifecycle, the decommissioning of these installations has become one of the 21st century’s great challenges. Each project may be managed differently, depending on the country, development policies, financial considerations, and the availability of qualified engineers or specialized companies to handle such projects. The principle objective of decommissioning is to place a facility into such a condition that there is no unacceptable risk from the decommissioned facility to public health and safety of the environment. In order to ensure that at the end of its life the risk from a facility is within acceptable bounds, action is normally required. The overall decommissioning strategy is to deliver a timely, cost-effective program while maintaining high standards of safety, security and environmental protection. If facilities were not decommissioned, they could degrade and potentially present an environmental radiological hazard in the future. Simply abandoning or leaving a facility after ceasing operations is not considered to be an acceptable alternative to decommissioning. The final aim of decommissioning is to recover the geographic site to its original condition.

  20. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV, once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  1. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Piergiorgio; Centro, Sandro; Golfetto, Stelvio; Saccà, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV), once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  2. Demystifying Instructional Innovation: The Case of Teaching with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Lina D.

    2013-01-01

    Issues emerging from instructional innovation are inevitable, yet basing any curriculum shift on a theoretical framework is paramount. This paper grounds the case-based pedagogy in three learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. The three theories are described and situated in relation to the case study method. An…

  3. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure: Appendices, draft report for comment. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    On June 27, 1988, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published in the Federal Register (53 FR 24018) the final rule for the General Requirements for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities. With the issuance of the final rule, owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the NRC for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of updated bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s WNP-2, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives, which now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste. Costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities are given in 1993 dollars. Sensitivities of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances are also examined.

  4. Background: GIS Applications and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    01, CCTP; Albert, Don

    1998-01-01

    This unit presents (1) a case study and (2) a bibliographic resource for GIS in the medical field. The case study illustrates the use of a GIS to monitor and analyze spatial patterns of physicians' multiple locations. This case highlights data location, acquisition and assessment, join and relational operators, geocoding and distance calculations, and standard query language.

  5. A Radiological Survey Approach to Use Prior to Decommissioning: Results from a Technology Scanning and Assessment Project Focused on the Chornobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milchikov, A.; Hund, G.; Davidko, M.

    1999-10-20

    The primary objectives of this project are to learn how to plan and execute the Technology Scanning and Assessment (TSA) approach by conducting a project and to be able to provide the approach as a capability to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) and potentially elsewhere. A secondary objective is to learn specifics about decommissioning and in particular about radiological surveying to be performed prior to decommissioning to help ChNPP decision makers. TSA is a multi-faceted capability that monitors and analyzes scientific, technical, regulatory, and business factors and trends for decision makers and company leaders. It is a management tool where information is systematically gathered, analyzed, and used in business planning and decision making. It helps managers by organizing the flow of critical information and provides managers with information they can act upon. The focus of this TSA project is on radiological surveying with the target being ChNPP's Unit 1. This reactor was stopped on November 30, 1996. At this time, Ukraine failed to have a regulatory basis to provide guidelines for nuclear site decommissioning. This situation has not changed as of today. A number of documents have been prepared to become a basis for a combined study of the ChNPP Unit 1 from the engineering and radiological perspectives. The results of such a study are expected to be used when a detailed decommissioning plan is created.

  6. In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed - Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M. G.

    2013-09-27

    The DOE Office of Environmental management (DOE EM) faces the challenge of decommissioning thousands of excess nuclear facilities, many of which are highly contaminated. A number of these excess facilities are massive and robust concrete structures that are suitable for isolating the contained contamination for hundreds of years, and a permanent decommissioning end state option for these facilities is in situ decommissioning (ISD). The ISD option is feasible for a limited, but meaningfull number of DOE contaminated facilities for which there is substantial incremental environmental, safety, and cost benefits versus alternate actions to demolish and excavate the entire facility and transport the rubble to a radioactive waste landfill. A general description of an ISD project encompasses an entombed facility; in some cases limited to the blow-grade portion of a facility. However, monitoring of the ISD structures is needed to demonstrate that the building retains its structural integrity and the contaminants remain entombed within the grout stabilization matrix. The DOE EM Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-13) Program Goal is to develop a monitoring system to demonstrate long-term performance of closed nuclear facilities using the ISD approach. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has designed and implemented the In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed (ISDSN-MSTB) to address the feasibility of deploying a long-term monitoring system into an ISD closed nuclear facility. The ISDSN-MSTB goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of installing and operating a remote sensor network to assess cementitious material durability, moisture-fluid flow through the cementitious material, and resulting transport potential for contaminate mobility in a decommissioned closed nuclear facility. The original ISDSN-MSTB installation and remote sensor network operation was demonstrated in FY 2011-12 at the ISDSN-MSTB test cube

  7. Can Decommissioned Oil Pads in Boreal Alberta BE Reclaimed to Carbon Accumulating Peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, R.; Vitt, D. H.; Mowbray, S.

    2010-12-01

    In northern Alberta where peatland ecosystems are a dominant landscape feature, construction of oil drilling pads and access roads is a major disturbance. Reclamation of decommissioned oil pads has been hampered by the lack of research. At two decommissioned oil pads at Shell Oil’s Peace River Complex (northeastern Alberta), initially constructed in a bog/fen complex, we established a field experiment to assess reclamation approaches that could lead to a system reflecting undisturbed peatland structure (vegetation composition) and function (net carbon accumulation). In the fall of 2007, mineral soil was removed from two decommissioned pads in areas approximately 100-m x 30-m creating a mineral surface at or near the surrounding bog water table level. We established the following treatments: pad (fertilized vs. unfertilized); water table position (at and 5-cm above the surrounding bog water level); texture (tilling soil amendments into the mineral soil or not); amendment (controls; commercial peat, peat that had been stockpiled in a farmer’s field; landscape fabric; slough hay (native species hay from harvested from local farms), aspen wood chips); planting (in 1-m x 1-m subplots within 2-m x 2-m amendment plots: no planting, 9 Carex aquatilis plants, 5 C. aquatilis and 4 Salix lutea plants; 3 C. aquatilis, 3 S. lutea and 3 Larix laricina seedlings). Treatments were nested (planting within amendment, within texture, within water table level, within pad), with 6 replicate 2-m x 2-m plots of each amendment within each pad x texture x water level combination. Net CO2 exchange was quantified under a range of PAR conditions from full sunlight to complete darkness in each 1-m x 1-m planting subplot repeatedly during the summers of 2008, 2009 and 2010 using closed chambers and infrared gas analyzers. Both dark respiration and maximum net ecosystem production (NEPSAT; net CO2 sequestration when PAR>1000 μmol m-2 s-1) exhibited year x planting interactions (p<0.0001 and

  8. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Europe. Status December 2014; Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen in Europa. Stand: Dezember 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendebach, Boris; Imielski, Przemyslaw [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany); Kuehn, Kerstin; Rehs, Bernd

    2015-05-15

    The report on decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities in Europe (status December 2014) summarizes the reasons and plans for decommissioning, the regulations and responsibilities, the decommissioning strategies and the finalized decommissioning projects. The specific activities are described for Armenia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, UK, Italy, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia, Netherlands, Norway, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Hungary and Belarus.

  9. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  10. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Konzek, G.J.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    Detailed appendices are presented under the following headings: reference PWR facility description, reference PWR site description, estimates of residual radioactivity, alternative methods for financing decommissioning, radiation dose methodology, generic decommissioning activities, intermediate dismantlement activities, safe storage and deferred dismantlement activities, compilation of unit cost factors, and safety assessment details.

  11. Decommissioning of the Astra research reactor: Review and status on July 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Franz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes work on the decommissioning of the ASTRA research reactor at the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf. Organizational, planning, and dismantling work done until July 2003 including radiation protection and waste management procedures as well as the current status of the project are presented. Completion of the decommissioning activities is planned for 2006.

  12. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  13. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  14. Radiochemical analysis of concrete samples for decommission of nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, Daniel; Wershofen, Herbert [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100 38116, Braunschweig (Germany); Larijani, Cyrus; Sobrino-Petrirena, Maitane; Garcia-Miranda, Maria; Jerome, Simon M. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Decommissioning of the oldest nuclear power reactors are some of the most challenging technological legacy issues many countries will face in forthcoming years, as many power reactors reach the end of their design lives. Decommissioning of nuclear reactors generates large amounts of waste that need to be classified according to their radioactive content. Approximately 10 % of the contaminated material ends up in different repositories (depending on their level of contamination) while the rest is decontaminated, measured and released into the environment or sent for recycling. Such classification needs to be done accurately in order to ensure that both the personnel involved in decommissioning and the population at large are not needlessly exposed to radiation or radioactive material and to minimise the environmental impact of such work. However, too conservative classification strategies should not be applied, in order to make proper use of radioactive waste repositories since space is limited and the full process must be cost-effective. Implicit in decommissioning and classification of waste is the need to analyse large amounts of material which usually combine a complex matrix with a non-homogeneous distribution of the radionuclides. Because the costs involved are large, it is possible to make great savings by the adoption of best available practices, such as the use of validated methods for on-site measurements and simultaneous determination of more than one radionuclide whenever possible. The work we present deals with the development and the validation of a procedure for the simultaneous determination of {sup 241}Am, plutonium isotopes, uranium isotopes and {sup 90}Sr in concrete samples. Samples are firstly ground and fused with LiBO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}. After dissolution of the fused sample, silicate and alkaline elements are removed followed by radiochemical separation of the target radionuclides using extraction chromatography. Measurement

  15. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs

  16. KONTEC 2013. 11{sup th} international symposium on 'Conditioning of radioactive operational and decommissioning waste' and 11{sup th} BMBF status report on 'Decommissioning and demolition of nuclear facilities'; KONTEC 2013. 11. internationales Symposium 'Konditionierung radioaktiver Betriebs- und Stilllegungsabfaelle' einschliesslich 11. Statusbericht des BMBF 'Stilllegung und Rueckbau kerntechnischer Anlagen'. Veranstaltungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-06-15

    KONTEC 2013 was held in Dresden on 13 to 15 March 2013. The 11{sup th} event organized under this heading dealt with the subjects of 'Conditioning of Radioactive Operational and Decommissioning Waste' and 'Decommissioning and Demolition of Nuclear Facilities' including the R and D Status Report by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) on the same subject. The conference was attended by an international audience from 19 countries. The program included plenary sessions on these 4 key topics: - Disposal of Radioactive Residues from Nuclear Facilities' Operation and Decommissioning. - Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities. - Facilities and Systems for the Conditioning of Operational and Decommissioning Wastes. - Transport, Interim and Final Storage of Non-heat Generating Wastes (i.e. Konrad). These sessions were accompanied by poster sessions and short presentations under the heading of 'Kontec Direct.' The best presentations of the categories Plenary Session Presentation, Poster Presentation and Kontec-Direct have been awarded. In detail, 'Dismantling of Russian nuclear powered submarines' by Detlef Mietann, 'Requalification of 'Old Packages' for the Konrad Repository Described for the Model Case of Packages from Storage Annex A and Repackaging of Containers Holding Compacts in Hall 2 of the GNS Plant' by Martina Koessler, Sebastian Schwall and Pascal Budriks, and 'Electrochemical process development for cleaning organic, C-14-labelled waste solutions' by Hans-Juergen Friedrich. (orig.)

  17. Roadmaster Roading Contractors Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Taylor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems analysis students seldom experience the practical difficulties of the initial investigation into a client’s requirements. They get little chance to practice the skills they need to investigate complex and confused problem situations, or to appreciate the wider organizational issues that can impact on a situation. This teaching case is designed to give students the opportunity to practice and apply investigation skills and to challenge them to consider the wider work environment when considering possible solutions to a problem situation. The case is conducted as a role-play, with students acting as systems analysts and teaching staff role-playing the clients. The students develop a report analyzing the client’s situation based on the issues that arise during the interviews. Feed-back sessions focus on discussing how well the students applied various interviewing strategies previously covered in lectures, and on the wider organizational problems that could impact proposed information system solutions.

  18. Progress in the decommissioning planning for the Kiev’s research reactor WWR-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobach Yuri N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kiev’s research reactor WWR-M has been in operation for more than 50 years and its further operation is planned for no less than 8-10 years. The acting nuclear legislation of Ukraine demands from the operator to perform the decommissioning planning during the reactor operation stage as early as possible. Recently, the Decommissioning Program has been approved by the regulatory body. The Program is based on the plans for the further use of the reactor site and foresees the strategy of immediate dismantling. The Program covers the whole de- commissioning process and represents the main guiding document during the whole decommissioning period, which determines and substantiates the principal technical and organizational activities on the preparation and implementation of the reactor decommissioning, the consequence of the decommissioning stages, the sequence of planned works and measures as well as the necessary conditions and infrastructure for the provision and safe implementation.

  19. Pre-decommissioning complex engineering and radiation inspection of the WWR-M reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobach, Yuri N.; Shevel, Valery N. [NASU, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. for Nuclear Research

    2014-04-15

    The Kiev's research reactor WWR-M has been in operation for more than 50 years. Decommissioning plan should to be prepared and approved before the beginning of the decommissioning activities. A key activity during reactor operation is implementing the pre-decommissioning complex engineering and radiation inspection. It should be done with objective to collect, arrange and analyze the data related to the engineering and radiation conditions of the reactor systems and equipment. Recently, such an inspection has been completed. The analysis of available documentation has consisted in the assessment of design, construction, technological, assembling, operation, maintenance and repair documentation for each system. The radiation survey was performed in two different ways, namely, by doing the experimental measurements and by performing calculations. The collected data are provided a comprehensive technical basis for the development of decommissioning documentation which is required for the planning and implementation of the reactor decommissioning. (orig.)

  20. Selection of relevant items for decommissioning costing estimation of a PWR using fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Deiglys Borges; Busse, Alexander Lucas; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Maiorino, Jose Rubens, E-mail: deiglys.monteiro@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: alexlucasb@gmail.com, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia e Engenharia da Energia

    2015-07-01

    The decommissioning is an important part of a nuclear power plant life cycle which may occur by technical, economical or safety reasons. Decommissioning requires carrying out a large number of tasks that should be planned in advance, involves cost evaluations, preparation of plans of activity and actual operational actions. Despite the large number of tasks, only part of them is relevant for cost estimation purpose. The technical literature and international regulatory agencies suggest a variety of methods for decommissioning cost estimation. Most of them require a very detailed knowledge of the plant and data available suitable for plants that are starting their decommissioning but not for those in the planning stage. The present work aims to apply fuzzy logic to sort out relevant items to cost estimation in order to reduce the work effort involved. The scheme uses parametric equations for specific cost items, and is applied to specific parts of the process of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (author)

  1. Associative visual agnosia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnallet, A; Carbonnel, S; David, D; Moreaud, O

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study, an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory.

  2. Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2011-01-01

    Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…

  3. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Charnallet; S. Carbonnel; David, D.; Moreaud, O.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory [4].

  4. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR. PART 7 - FUNCTIONING OF THE DECOMMISSIONING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to achieve the device functioning steps for the commissioning of the horizontal fuel channels of calandria vessel. The dismantling of the fuel channel is performed by one device which shall provide radiation protection during the stages of decommissioning, ensuring radiation protection of the workers. For the decommissioning operation design shall be taken to ensure all aspects of security, environmental protection during decommissioning operation steps and creating and implementing work procedures resulting from developed decommissioning plan. The fuel channel decommissioning device is designed for dismantling and extraction of the fuel channel and its components. The decommissioning operation consists of following major steps: platform with device positioning to the fuel channel to be dismantled; coupling and locking the device at the fuel channel; unblock, extract and store the channel closure plug; unblock, extract and store the channel shield plug; block and cut the middle and the end of the pressure tube; block, extract and store the end fitting; block, extract and store the half of pressure tube; mounting of the extended closing plug. The operations steps are performed by the Cutting and Extraction Device and by the extraction actuator from the device handling elements assembly. After each step of dismantling is necessary the confirmation its finalization in order to perform the next operation step. The dismantling operation steps of the fuel channel components are repeated for all the 380 channels of the reactor, from the front of calandria side (plane R as well as the rear side (plane R'.

  5. Liverpool Telecare Pilot: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Barnes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Telecare services use information and communications technology (ICT to support the provision of care to people in their own homes. This paper describes a pilot telecare service employed by Liverpool (UK City Council to support a sample of their frail and elderly social services users. The pilot has been running for over two years and has been deployed for 21 individuals in Liverpool. In this paper we present the pilot system and provide real example cases which help to illustrate the benefits of such a system.

  6. Progress on radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Center for Nuclear Technologies (NuTech), Roskilde (Denmark))

    2012-01-15

    This report summarized the progress in the development and improvement of radioanalytical methods for decommissioning and waste management completed in the NKS-B RadWaste 2011 project. Based on the overview information of the analytical methods in Nordic laboratories and requirement from the nuclear industry provided in the first phase of the RadWaste project (2010), some methods were improved and developed. A method for efficiently separation of Nb from nuclear waste especially metals for measurement of long-lived 94Nb by gamma spectrometry was developed. By systematic investigation of behaviours of technetium in sample treatment and chromatographic separation process, an effective method was developed for the determination of low level 99Tc in waste samples. An AMS approachment was investigated to measure ultra low level 237Np using 242Pu for AMS normalization, the preliminary results show a high potential of this method. Some progress on characterization of waste for decommissioning of Danish DR3 is also presented. (Author)

  7. Decommissioning of the high flux beam reactor at Brookhaven Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.P. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Reciniello, R.N. [Radiological Control Div., Brookhaven Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Holden, N.E. [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The high-flux beam reactor (HFBR) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory was a heavy water cooled and moderated reactor that achieved criticality on Oct. 31, 1965. It operated at a power level of 40 megawatts. An equipment upgrade in 1982 allowed operations at 60 megawatts. After a 1989 reactor shutdown to reanalyze safety impact of a hypothetical loss of coolant accident, the reactor was restarted in 1991 at 30 megawatts. The HFBR was shut down in December 1996 for routine maintenance and refueling. At that time, a leak of tritiated water was identified by routine sampling of groundwater from wells located adjacent to the reactor's spent fuel pool. The reactor remained shut down for almost three years for safety and environmental reviews. In November 1999 the United States Dept. of Energy decided to permanently shut down the HFBR. The decontamination and decommissioning of the HFBR complex, consisting of multiple structures and systems to operate and maintain the reactor, were complete in 2009 after removing and shipping off all the control rod blades. The emptied and cleaned HFBR dome, which still contains the irradiated reactor vessel, is presently under 24/7 surveillance for safety. Detailed dosimetry performed for the HFBR decommissioning during 1996-2009 is described in the paper. (authors)

  8. Resource book: Decommissioning of contaminated facilities at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In 1942 Hanford was commissioned as a site for the production of weapons-grade plutonium. The years since have seen the construction and operation of several generations of plutonium-producing reactors, plants for the chemical processing of irradiated fuel elements, plutonium and uranium processing and fabrication plants, and other facilities. There has also been a diversification of the Hanford site with the building of new laboratories, a fission product encapsulation plant, improved high-level waste management facilities, the Fast Flux test facility, commercial power reactors and commercial solid waste disposal facilities. Obsolescence and changing requirements will result in the deactivation or retirement of buildings, waste storage tanks, waste burial grounds and liquid waste disposal sites which have become contaminated with varying levels of radionuclides. This manual was established as a written repository of information pertinent to decommissioning planning and operations at Hanford. The Resource Book contains, in several volumes, descriptive information of the Hanford Site and general discussions of several classes of contaminated facilities found at Hanford. Supplementing these discussions are appendices containing data sheets on individual contaminated facilities and sites at Hanford. Twelve appendices are provided, corresponding to the twelve classes into which the contaminated facilities at Hanford have been organized. Within each appendix are individual data sheets containing administrative, geographical, physical, radiological, functional and decommissioning information on each facility within the class. 68 refs., 54 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Investigation of induced radioactivity in the CERN Large Electron Positron collider for its decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, Marco

    2004-01-01

    The future installation of the Large Hadron Collider in the tunnel formerly housing the Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) required the dismantling of the latter after 11-year operation. As required by the French legislation, an extensive theoretical study was conducted before decommissioning to establish the possible activation paths both in the accelerator and in the four experiments (L3, ALEPH, OPAL and DELPHI) installed around the ring. The aim was to define which areas may contain activated material and which ones would be completely free of activation. The four major sources of activation in LEP, i.e., distributed and localized beam losses, synchrotron radiation and the super-conducting RF cavities, were investigated. Conversion coefficients from unit lost beam power to induced specific activity were established for a number of materials. A similar study was conducted for the four experiments, evaluating the four potential sources of induced radioactivity, namely e**+e **- annihilation events, two-p...

  10. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, volume 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Michelson, D.C.; Turmer, G.S.

    1988-09-01

    The 604 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the ninth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Subsections for sections 1, 2, 5, and 6 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at (615) 576-0568 or FTS 626-0568.

  11. Economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant; Informe final. Impacto economico del desmantelamiento de la central nuclear Vandellos I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Silva, M.

    2005-07-01

    This economic study examines the economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of the Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant, measured in terms of the global income that generated the ending of the Nuclear Power Plant activity, on the territory. To this end, we will take into account the total investment that has been necessary to complete the process of decommissioning. The economic impact is calculated using the Input- Output methodology. Briefly, the Input-Output model defines a group of accounting relationships that reflect the links taking place within the production system. The Input-Output model is based on the assumption that given an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector, this sector should produce more (less) to satisfy this new demand. At the same time, this will lead to demand more (less) intermediate consumption goods from the remainder sectors of the economy. Then, these sectors should produce more (less) and use more (less) intermediate inputs, and so on. Therefore, an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector multiplies the effect throughout the economy, following the interdependency relationships that exist among the productive activities. We will start by collecting an exhaustive economic information. This information covers the whole decommissioning process and the whole economic and productive activity of the province of Tarragona. Next, this information is used with the objective of building an Input-Output table of the province that will serve as a base to establish the global economic impact of Vandellos I. The incomes and employment generation has been evaluated in the province of Tarragona that, following the main assumptions, correspond to the global effects of the decommissioning. In addition, we have evaluated the income and employment generation within the region where the nuclear power plant is located. The total income impacts show a high multiplier effect due to the investment carried out during the

  12. Case studies in conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisulca, Christina

    The research presented in this dissertation covers three separate topics of conservation as defined by the National Science Foundation: 1) Materials Stabilization, Strengthening, Monitoring, and Repair; 2. Understanding Material Degradation and Aging; and 3) Materials and Structural Characterization of Cultural Heritage Objects (the 'technical study'). The first topic is addressed through a study to assess the consolidant tetraethoxysilane for the stabilization of alum treated wood. Falling under materials degradation studies is a study published in American Museum Novitates to understand how environmental conditions affect the aging of fossil resins from five different deposits. Two separate studies are included in technical study of cultural heritage objects which comprises the third research area of materials characterization. The first is a survey of red dyes used in Chinese paintings from the Ming Dynasty to the Early Republic (1364-1911). The second is a study of the pigments, dyes and binders used in Hawaiian barkcloth (kapa) from the 19th century.

  13. The role of the IAEA in international guidance and assistance on decommissioning of small nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laraia, M., E-mail: m.laraia@iaea.or [IAEA, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    The IAEA has included decommissioning in its regular programmes since the early 1970 decade. Since 1985, decommissioning has been considered as a separate programme within the IAEA. Decommissioning has become a topic of great interest to many countries because of the large number of facilities that have reached or are nearing the end of their operating lifetime. Until recently, attention was focused on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, and to less extent, other large nuclear facilities like nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Quite a few countries, however, are now being faced with the decommissioning of research reactors and other small non-reactor facilities, which are prevailing in most of our Member States. This factor demands equal attention in IAEA programmes. Not unlike IAEA publications, most of existing technical literature on decommissioning addresses technological and other aspects in decontamination and dismantling of large nuclear facilities. It should however be noted that most nuclear facilities are smaller -in size and complexity- and may present a lower radiological risk in decommissioning than the larger facilities. Such facilities e.g. small research reactors, critical assemblies, biological and medical laboratories, factories manufacturing radioactive products etc. are often located in countries where decommissioning experience and related resources are often limited. The risk here is that even minimum requirements and strategies be disregarded in decommissioning of these facilities resulting in unnecessary costs, delays, and possible safety concerns in the course of decontamination and dismantling activities. Besides, guidance on decommissioning of larger facilities can be misleading for smaller facilities. This paper provides an update on current and foreseen IAEA activities in the field of decommissioning of small nuclear facilities. Most IAEA activities can be included into the following two categories: drafting technical and safety

  14. Case Studies in L2 Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the use of student-generated case studies in an English-as-a-Second-Language teacher education course, including the context, participants classroom procedures and case studies written, as well as students' responses to their use. (Author/VWL)

  15. A Case Study of "Empathetic Teaching Artistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This case study is one of twenty cases derived from Anderson and Risner's international study of teaching artists in dance, and theatre, which investigated participants' (n=172) artistic and academic preparation in dance, and theatre, initial entry into the teaching artist field, rewards, challenges, and obstacles in participants' work, artists'…

  16. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    Three case studies from Danish science shops within the environmental field are analysed with respect to societal background, interaction between the involved actors and the societal impact of the co-operation. The report is one of the seven national case study reports from the EU...

  17. Case Studies in Middle Management Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lori S.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a series of supervision-related case studies of situations that midlevel managers might face. Individuals enrolled in a midlevel management professional development course recommended the topics selected for this chapter. Drawing upon her experience teaching the course, the author selected four case studies that individuals…

  18. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    useful for generating hypotheses, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (d) the case study contains a bias toward verification; and (e) it is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. This article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one...

  19. Case studies--ergonomics in projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ruud N

    2012-01-01

    The aim of a series of sessions on Company Case Studies, is to learn from practical experiences, to give feed back to researchers on applicability of theories, methods and techniques, and last but not least, to market ergonomics. In order to learn from case material, reports need to be easy accessible and well structured. System ergonomics provides such a structure. Usually a project is not done twice, i.e. with and without ergonomics. Therefore, it is not possible to make comparisons and determine the impact of ergonomics directly. A different approach is needed. It has been suggested at the IEA2006 World Congress, to compile a database of published case studies, each case to be reported in a fixed report format and critically reviewed to enable generalizing the outcomes. This paper proposes such a format. At the IEA2012 World Congress 40 case studies have been accepted, representing applied ergonomics cases in manufacturing, process industries, aviation and logistic systems.

  20. Leishmaniasis in dogs: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of leishmaniasis in a 2.5-month-old dog imported from France. The clinical examination established a generally poor state of health, expressed cachexia, atrophy of the temporal musculature, weakness of movement, as well as abnormally long and brittle nails. There was also hyperkeratosis of the nose tip and paws. A histological examination of biopsy sections of the altered skin parts showed inflammatory changes in the area of the dermis, together with infiltration of macrophages and a smaller number of lymphocytes, plasmocytes and neutrophil granulocytes in the area around the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. The determined changes correspond to superficial dermatitis. Edema followed by partial degeneration of connective-tissue fibers is observed in connective tissue. A smaller number of intracellular parasitic forms was established in mononuclear cells. A smaller number of oval amastigotes with round dark red nucleis were observed in sections stained using the Gimza method in the cytoplasm of macrophages located in the dermis, but also extracellularly. It was concluded that the dog was diseased with leishmaniasis on the grounds of the clinical picture and the microscopic findings.

  1. Regional case studies--Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  2. From single-case studies to practice-based knowledge: aggregating and synthesizing case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakabe, Shigeru; Gazzola, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    Recent developments in case study methodology reflect a rising interest that clinicians and researchers share in building a clinically useful and empirically sound knowledge base from single-case studies. The present article describes three types of single-case studies (clinical, experimental, systematic) and examines their potential contributions to psychotherapy research. It then lays out three ways in which single-case studies can be aggregated and synthesized to enhance clinical understanding: (a) a case database that allows clinicians to efficiently search for relevant cases, (b) a metasynthesis of single-case studies that integrates common themes across similar cases, and (c) an individual case comparison method in which closely matched cases are compared to identify both therapeutic and hindering processes.

  3. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of methane gas migration from decommissioned hydrocarbon production wells into shallow aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, N.; Molson, J.; Lemieux, J.-M.; Van Stempvoort, D.; Nowamooz, A.

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations are used to provide insight into the behavior of methane as it migrates from a leaky decommissioned hydrocarbon well into a shallow aquifer. The conceptual model includes gas-phase migration from a leaky well, dissolution into groundwater, advective-dispersive transport and biodegradation of the dissolved methane plume. Gas-phase migration is simulated using the DuMux multiphase simulator, while transport and fate of the dissolved phase is simulated using the BIONAPL/3D reactive transport model. Methane behavior is simulated for two conceptual models: first in a shallow confined aquifer containing a decommissioned leaky well based on a monitored field site near Lindbergh, Alberta, Canada, and secondly on a representative unconfined aquifer based loosely on the Borden, Ontario, field site. The simulations show that the Lindbergh site confined aquifer data are generally consistent with a 2 year methane leak of 2-20 m3/d, assuming anaerobic (sulfate-reducing) methane oxidation and with maximum oxidation rates of 1 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-3 kg/m3/d. Under the highest oxidation rate, dissolved methane decreased from solubility (110 mg/L) to the threshold concentration of 10 mg/L within 5 years. In the unconfined case with the same leakage rate, including both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation, the methane plume was less extensive compared to the confined aquifer scenarios. Unconfined aquifers may therefore be less vulnerable to impacts from methane leaks along decommissioned wells. At other potential leakage sites, site-specific data on the natural background geochemistry would be necessary to make reliable predictions on the fate of methane in groundwater.

  4. Summary of case studies for cooperation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longa, Francesco Dalla; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade;

    2012-01-01

    This document is a summary report highlighting the main aspect analyzed in the RES4LESS case studies. The document starts with an introductory chapter where the background that led to the selection of the case studies is outlined. In the following three chapters the case studies are presented......, highlighting the most relevant results. A brief chapter concludes the document, giving an outlook on the follow-up activities of the RES4LESS project. This summary is intended not only as an introduction to the RES4LESS cases studies, but also as a guideline to read and interpret the in-depth analysis carried...... out in the final documents that describe the case studies in detail. These documents will be published in September 2012 on the RES4LESS website, www.res4less.eu....

  5. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  6. Making a case for case studies in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward; Iwakabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The evidence debate in psychotherapy pays little attention to developing an evidence base for training practices. Understanding effective training requires an examination of what makes training work. This article examines the role of case studies in psychotherapy training. This has not been...... articulated explicitly or researched systematically in spite of its cardinal importance. An analysis of the role of case studies in psychotherapy training is presented. Reading, watching, or hearing about cases can offer novice psychotherapists access to a closed world; access to psychological theory...... in action; access to whole courses of therapy; access to different approaches; access to significant moments; access to the therapeutic relationship; access to a wide range of client types; access to working in different contexts; and the opportunity of identifying with therapists and clients. Writing...

  7. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M B D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or "Classical psychoanalysis" dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals.

  8. [Ergotamine poisoning: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Szponar, Jarosław; Górska, Agnieszka; Niewiedzioł, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Ergotamine is a well known pharmacological remedy applied in neurology (treatment of vascular headache) and in obstetrics (abortive remedy, uterus atony). But today it is rarely used, because of new safer anti-migraine medicine (triptanes) which cause fewer side effects. According to obstetrical indications ergotamine is applied only in hospital treatment. For that reason, cases of intoxication by this class of drugs are rarely observed. Ergotamine causes constriction of the blood vessels through the blockade of alpha-receptors and stimulation of the serotonin-receptors on the walls of blood vessels both in the central nervous system and in peripheral circulation. Intoxication/overdose symptoms may appear on application of therapeutic dose by sensitive patients, mostly by patients with migraine headache using ergotamine preparation for relief of migraine attacks. In the Regional Centre of Clinical Toxicology, a 21-year-old patient was hospitalized. She took about 20 tablets of Cafergot (complex preparation containing 1mg ergotamine tartare and 100mg caffeine). During her stay on the ward, typical symptoms of severe poisoning were observed: nausea, severe vomiting, dizziness, decreased blood pressure without perceptible pulse, narrowing of the blood vessels in the extremities of the body (peripheral vasoconstriction) - paresthesia, digital cyanosis, refrigeration of legs, angina. Due to taking once of a great dose of the drug by the patient, violent process of intoxication, possibility of dangerous complication and also the unavailability of specific antidotes and lack of efficient methods of extracorporeal elimination of the drug, the patient was intensively controlled and symptomatic treatments according to the law of intensive therapy was applied.

  9. Preliminary decommissioning plan for Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels); Preliminaer avvecklingsplan foer Clab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatter, Patrik; Wikstroem, Nina [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden); Hallberg, Bengt [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    In the The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority's Regulations SSI FS 2002:04 and The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate's Regulations SKI FS 2004:1 it is stated that the owner of a nuclear facility must have a preliminary plan for decommissioning of the plant. The present report is a preliminary plan for decommissioning the Central interim storage for spent fuels (Clab). Clab will be decommissioned when all spent fuels and reactor core components have been sent to final disposal. The time for the decommissioning is dependent on the time for phasing out the last Swedish nuclear reactor. At present it is thought that Clab will remain in operation until after year 2050. During the work with this project, nothing has been found that indicates that decommissioning Clab could be more complicated than other plants whose decommissioning is closer in time. On the contrary, smaller radiation doses to the personnel are expected, as well as limited amounts of low and medium activity waste. This plan will be updated and more detailed as the time for decommissioning approaches.

  10. Decontamination and decommissioning technology tree and the current status of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H.J.; Kim, G.N.; Lee, K.W.; Chol, W.K.; Jung, C.H.; Kim, C.J.; Kim, S.H.; Kwon, S.O.; Chung, C.M

    2001-03-01

    A technology tree diagram was developed on the basis of the necessary technologies applicable to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The technology tree diagram is consist of 6 main areas such as characterization, decontamination, decommissioning and remote technology, radwaste management, site restoration, and decommissioning plan and engineering. Characterization is divided into 4 regions such as sampling and data collection, general characterization, chemical analysis and radiological analysis. Decontamination is also divided into 4 regions such as chemical decontamination, mechanical decontamination, the other decontamination technologies and new decontamination technologies. Decommissioning and remote technology area is divided into 4 regions such as cutting techniques, decommissioning technologies, new developing technologies and remote technologies. Radwaste management area is divided into 5 regions such as solid waste treatment, sludge treatment, liquid waste treatment, gas waste treatment and thermal treatment. Site restoration area is divided into 3 regions such as the evaluation of site contamination, soil decontamination and ground water decontamination. Finally, permission, decommissioning process, cost evaluation, quality assurance and the estimation of radionuclide inventory were mentioned in the decommissioning plan and engineering area. The estimated items for each technology are applicable domestic D and D facilities, D and D problem area and contamination/requirement, classification of D and D technology, similar technology, principle and overview of technology, status, science technology needs, implementation needs, reference and contact point.

  11. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Roberts, K.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business)

    1992-01-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  12. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, K.H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business

    1992-09-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  13. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  14. Case Study on Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Zahida

    2011-01-01

    Quality of Education, especially at Primary level, is an important issue to be discussed at the International Forum. This study highlights the quality of primary education through a comparison of the quality of Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in Pakistan. Community Model Schools were established under Girls Primary…

  15. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Faust, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography of 657 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fourth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic documents of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been references in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; and (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author, or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. Appendix A lists 264 bibliographic references to literature identified during this reporting period but not abstracted due to time constraints. Title and publication description indexes are given for this appendix. Appendix B defines frequently used acronyms, and Appendix C lists the recipients of this report according to their corporate affiliation.

  16. Asset Decommissioning Risk Metrics for Floating Structures in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Public companies in the United States are required to report standardized values of their proved reserves and asset retirement obligations on an annual basis. When compared, these two measures provide an aggregate indicator of corporate decommissioning risk but, because of their consolidated nature, cannot readily be decomposed at a more granular level. The purpose of this article is to introduce a decommissioning risk metric defined in terms of the ratio of the expected value of an asset's reserves to its expected cost of decommissioning. Asset decommissioning risk (ADR) is more difficult to compute than a consolidated corporate risk measure, but can be used to quantify the decommissioning risk of structures and to perform regional comparisons, and also provides market signals of future decommissioning activity. We formalize two risk metrics for decommissioning and apply the ADR metric to the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) floater inventory. Deepwater oil and gas structures are expensive to construct, and at the end of their useful life, will be expensive to decommission. The value of proved reserves for the 42 floating structures in the GOM circa January 2013 is estimated to range between $37 and $80 billion for future oil prices between 60 and 120 $/bbl, which is about 10 to 20 times greater than the estimated $4.3 billion to decommission the inventory. Eni's Allegheny and MC Offshore's Jolliet tension leg platforms have ADR metrics less than one and are approaching the end of their useful life. Application of the proposed metrics in the regulatory review of supplemental bonding requirements in the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf is suggested to complement the current suite of financial metrics employed.

  17. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Charnallet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive episodic models of memory [4].

  18. Arctic bioremediation -- A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C. (Harding Lawson Associates, Novato, CA (United States)); Liddell, B.V.

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses the use of bioremediation as an effective method to clean up diesel-range hydrocarbon spills in northern latitudes. The results of a laboratory study of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons under simulated arctic conditions showed that bioremediation can be effective in cold climates and led to the implementation of a large-scale field program. The results of 3 years of field testing have led to a significant reduction in diesel-range hydrocarbon concentrations in the contaminated area.

  19. Revised cost estimate for the decommissioning of the reactor DR3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The report describes a revision of the cost estimate for the decommissioning of the research Reactor DR 3 as described in the report Risø-R-1250(EN). Decommissioning of the Nuclear Facilities at Risø National Laboratory. Edited by Kurt Lauridsen. Therevision has been performed by the planning group...... in the Risø Decommissioning Department, and has been carried out as a discussion and evaluation of procedures methods and necessary resources to overcome the different phases of the the decommissioningtask of the Reactor....

  20. Case Study: A Strategic Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul B.M. Noor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the literature on case study as a strategic qualitative research methodology. Although case studies have been criticised by some authors as lacking scientific rigour and do not address generalizability, this research, however, reiterated its appropriateness when dealing with a process or a complex real-life activities in great-depth. Case study has been commonly used in social science fields like sociology, industrial relations and anthropology eventhough generally was considered an underutilized strategy. Hence, this research explained the general concept of a case study, strengths and weaknesses of using this method knowing that theoretically case is exciting and data rich. Based on a study of four organizations and the researcher’s own experience, this article described matters on how case study was undertaken, gaining excess to those organizations and the systematic process of data collection and triangulation (multiple techniques. It was noted that combining multiple techniques for elicitng data in case study research actually strengthens and confirmed results.

  1. Case study on printed matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Introduction Existing product Life Cycle Assessments (LCA’s) on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating contributor to the impacts from the life-cycle of this category of products. This dominating role of paper is primarily founded in the energy-related impact categories...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...... on the dissertation “Assessment of chemical emissions in life cycle impact assessment” (Larsen 2004) and the paper “Life-cycle assessment of offset printed matter with EDIP97 – how important are emissions of chemicals? “ (Larsen et al. 2009). Goal and scope The goal of the study is to identify the distribution...

  2. Case Study of above Average Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Morse, Sylvia; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

    2005-01-01

    This case study explores the duty of midmanagement administrators to enforce district policies with which they do not necessarily agree. The case addresses the issues of moral leadership, distribution of power, emotional responses that impact decision making, class differences, and equity. It also examines the role conflict that many married…

  3. Abbreviated Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanguri, Deloris McGee

    2005-01-01

    The cases contained within organizational communication texts are generally two to three pages, often followed by questions. These case studies are certainly useful. They generally describe events in the present, provide some type of organizational context, include first-hand data, include a record of what people say and think, develop a…

  4. Case Study Report about Gender Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...

  5. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The inv

  6. Case studies of steel structure failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bernasovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with some case studies of steel structure failures, which happened in Slovakia a few years ago. Features of cracking are illustrated on real cases of breakdowns in the transmission gas pipelines, at the cement works and in the petrochemical indus-try. All failures were caused by an incorrect technical approach. Possible remedial measures are proposed.

  7. Implementing Product Platforms: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fiil; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a case study dealing with the process of creating and implementing a product platform. The paper espessially deals with the fact that to obtain the benefits of platforms a permanent change in behaviour in product development must be ensured. This change in behaviour requires...... acceptance and approval from the organisation in general and the commitment from management to enforce agreed-upon decisions. The case study itself was performed in the Danish company LEGO Group. The case study had two objectives: To create a technical architecture and align this architecture...

  8. Case study in professionally-oriented training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valitov Shamil M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern educational technologies are based on competence approach and focus on the future professional activity. Case study is one of the most significant technologies in modern higher education. The basic concepts used in the case study method are a “situation” and an “analysis”, as well as their derivative - “analysis of the situation”. The case study method of is one of the best tools for gaining experience, as it investigates practical situations that occur in managerial job. It combines theoretical knowledge with the analysis of the actual practical experience in accordance with a major. Doing case studies students read the description of the situation and offer divergent projects of managerial decisions that could be used by real managers dealing with the problem posed by the case study author. Answers to the questions posed in the case description are not given, as a rule, since the main purpose in the case analysis is to organize a discussion in the classroom or provoke speculations of those who do the self-study.

  9. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, T. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: A forty-two-year-old male presented to the Royal Adelaide Hospital with symptoms of increasing shortness of breath, swelling in both ankles, petechial rash and blood in his sputum. Initial investigations showed cardiomegaly, right ventricular hypertrophy, patchy lung infiltrates, a platelet count of 1500 and a clotting time of 60 seconds. A V/Q scan indicated a high probability of pulmonary embolism. Further investigations showed that the patient was positive for lupus anticoagulant and cardiolipin antibodies. A diagnosis of primary antiphospholipid syndrome was made. The patient``s high risk of strokes and hemorrhaging prompted investigation by a {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO brain scan. Further V/Q scans were performed to follow up the initial finding of multiple pulmonary embolism and a R-L shunt study was performed to investigate a left subclavian murmur. The patient was admitted for four weeks and began treatment which included cyclaphosphamide, corticosteroids and plasmaphoresis and was discharged when stable. Over the next six months he was re admitted three times for relapse of antiphospholipid syndrome. On his fourth admission he collapsed and died five hours after admission. Cause of death was due to cardiac arrhythmia secondary to severe right ventricular hypertrophy and dilation. The effects of antiphospholipid syndrome was believed to be responsible for this outcome.

  10. Energy Audit: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This India is the Fifth largest producer of Electricalenergy in the world. Despite such achievements the gapbetween demand and supply of electrical energy is increasingevery year and power sector is highly capital – intensive. Thusthe deficit in installed capacity was nearly 10000MWper year.So the gap between demand and supply is continuouslyincreasing day by day. An energy audit is a study of a plant orfacility to determine how and where energy is used and toidentify methods for energy savings. The opportunities lie inthe use of existing renewable energy technologies, greaterefforts at energy efficiency and the dissemination of thesetechnologies and options. This thesis provides an overview of ageneral energy conservation measures (ECMs that can becommonly recommended for NIT Hamirpur. It should be notedthat the Energy auidut presented in this paper does not pretendto be exhaustive nor comprehensive. It provides merely toindicate some of the options that energy auditor can considerwhen performing an analysis of this institute. Energyconservation and exploration of new energy avenues are thewell accepted solution to fulfil the demand in future. The totalcost of energy plays a vital role in determining the product costof a commodity. Therefore the identification of potential energysavings and implementation for a given institutional facility isunimportant to ensure its competitive advantage over otherinstitute. This paper work presents such energy saving methodsin a methodological approach, experienced during a detailedenergy audit of NIT Hamirpur.

  11. Case Study Orientation for New Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James M.

    1979-01-01

    This article describes Oldfields School's systematic orientation program for beginning teachers. They meet as a group and discuss case studies, which give substance to the regulations and policies listed in the school handbooks. (SJL)

  12. Towards More Case Study Research in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Duxbury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

  13. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure: Main report, draft report for comment. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    On June 27, 1988, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published in the Federal Register (53 FR 24018) the final rule for the General Requirements for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities. With the issuance of the final rule, owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the NRC for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of updated bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s Washington Nuclear Plant Two (WNP-2), including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB alternatives, which now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste. Costs for labor, transport, and disposal activities are given in 1993 dollars. Sensitivities of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances are also examined.

  14. In-situ determination of radionuclide levels in facilities to be decommissioned using the allowable residual contamination level method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.J.; Haggard, D.L.

    1989-07-01

    This feasibility study resulted in verification of a direct and two alternate indirect techniques for making in-situ determinations of {sup 90}Sr and other radionuclide levels in a Hanford facility to be decommissioned that was evaluated using the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. The ARCL method is used to determine the extent of decontamination that will be required before a facility can be decommissioned. A sump in the 1608F Building was chosen for the feasibility study. Hanford decommissioning personnel had previously taken 79 concrete and surface scale samples from the building to be analyzed by radiochemical analysis. The results of the radiochemical analyses compare favorably with the values derived by the in-situ methods presented in this report. Results obtained using a portable spectrometer and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were both very close to the radiochemistry results. Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump floor were 550 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system and 780 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. This compares favorably with the levels determined by radiochemical analyses (i.e., 230 to 730 pCi/cm{sup 2}). Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump wall ranged between 10 and 80 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system, compared with a conservative 200 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. The radiochemical results ranged between 19 and 77 pCi/cm{sup 2} for the four samples taken from the wall at indeterminate locations. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Development of the scenario-based training system to reduce hazards and prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, Jong-Won; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Kang, ShinYoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be accomplished by assuring the safety of workers. Decommissioning workers need familiarization with working environments because working environment is under high radioactivity and work difficulty during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On-the-job training of decommissioning works could effectively train decommissioning workers but this training approach could consume much costs and poor modifications of scenarios. The efficiency of virtual training system could be much better than that of physical training system. This paper was intended to develop the training system to prevent accidents for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The requirements for the training system were drawn. The data management modules for the training system were designed. The training system of decommissioning workers was developed on the basis of virtual reality which is flexibly modified. The visualization and measurement in the training system were real-time done according as changes of the decommissioning scenario. It can be concluded that this training system enables the subject to improve his familiarization about working environments and to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. In the end, the safety during decommissioning of nuclear facilities will be guaranteed under the principle of ALARA.

  16. 76 FR 8785 - ABB Inc.; License Amendment Request for Decommissioning of the ABB Inc., Combustion Engineering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... specific DCGLs for Th- 232 and Ra-226. The revised decommissioning plan also includes a description of... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to...

  17. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  18. 75 FR 54363 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0142, Decommissioning Activities, Extension of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, subpart Q, Decommissioning Activities. OMB Control... prevent or minimize the likelihood of blowouts, loss of well control, fires, spillages, physical... equipment and subsea protective covering; or other departures. Subtotal 50 responses 150...

  19. Decommissioning in Germany. Current status and perspectives; Stilllegung in Deutschland. Status und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Michael [VGB Power Tech, Essen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In 2011 the German government decided as consequence of the Fukushima accident nuclear phase-out. Eight nuclear power plants were shut down, the operating license was withdrawn, nine nuclear power plants are still operated but have a defined shut-down schedule. In view of the NPP companies this decision is contrary to law, the first constitutional complaints were submitted. The decommissioning has not been planned since shortly before lifetime extension has been agreed by the government. A reference concept for the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants has been developed during the past, the decommissioning and dismantling technology is no more a challenge. The real challenge is the organization of the decommissioning of many plants at the same time, since manpower in the plants, but also in the authorities has to be increased.

  20. Anencephaly: A pathological study of 41 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Panduranga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anencephaly is a lethal neural tube defect which is due to the defective closure of rostral pore of neural tube. In more than 50% of cases it is associated with other systemic anomalies. Hence this study was undertaken to assess pathological parameters associated with anencephaly in particular attention to associated systemic anomalies. Materials and Methods: It is a study on 41 anencephaly fetuses conducted in the Department of Pathology. The period of study is from January 2001 to December 2011. Results: Out of 41 cases, 30 (73% cases showed presence of systemic anomalies, 48.5% of the cases were observed in primigravida. Most common associated anomaly was spina bifida followed by gastrointestinal anomalies. Conclusion: Pathological examination of the abortus is essential to document the associated anomalies.

  1. Case studies of nurseries in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namoto, M.; Likoswe, M.G.

    This study of 42 case studies of nurseries was made as part of a major sample survey of 360 nurseries in 6 districts in Malawi. The purpose of the study was to let the small nurseries in the country explain in their own words how they source seed, how and for whom they produce seedlings...

  2. Predicting Students Drop Out: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Gerben W.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Vleeshouwers, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and support of university freshmen is considered very important at many educational institutions. In this paper we describe the results of the educational data mining case study aimed at predicting the Electrical Engineering (EE) students drop out after the first semester of their studies or even before they enter the study program…

  3. Nuclear reactor decommissioning. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning nuclear power and research reactor decommissioning and decontamination plans, costs, and safety standards. References discuss the design and evaluation of protective confinement, entombment, and dismantling systems. Topics include decommissioning regulations and rules, public and occupational radiation exposure estimates, comparative evaluation, and reactor performance under high neutron flux conditions. Waste packaging and disposal, environmental compliance, and public opinion are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Jenkins, C.E.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    Safety and cost information were developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a fuel reprocessing plant with characteristics similar to the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. The main process building, spent fuel receiving and storage station, liquid radioactive waste storage tank system, and a conceptual high-level waste-solidification facility were postulated to be decommissioned. The plant was conceptually decommissioned to three decommissioning states or modes; layaway, protective storage, and dismantlement. Assuming favorable work performance, the elapsed time required to perform the decommissioning work in each mode following plant shutdown was estimated to be 2.4 years for layaway, 2.7 years for protective storage, and 5.2 years for dismantlement. In addition to these times, approximately 2 years of planning and preparation are required before plant shutdown. Costs, in constant 1975 dollars, for decommissioning were estimated to be $18 million for layaway, $19 million for protective storage and $58 million for dismantlement. Maintenance and surveillance costs were estimated to be $680,000 per year after layaway and $140,000 per year after protective storage. The combination mode of protective storage followed by dismantlement deferred for 10, 30, and 100 years was estimated to cost $64 million, $67 million and $77 million, respectively, in nondiscounted total 1975 dollars. Present values of these costs give reduced costs as dismantlement is deferred. Safety analyses indicate that radiological and nonradiological safety impacts from decommissioning activities should be small. The 50-year radiation dose commitment to the members of the public from airborne releases from normal decommissioning activities were estimated to be less than 11 man-rem.

  5. SGDes project. Decommissioning management system of Enresa; Proyecto SGDes. Sistema de Gestion de Desmantelamiento de Enresa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Lopez, M.; Julian, A. de

    2013-03-01

    ENRESA, the public company responsible for managing radioactive waste produced in spain and nuclear facilities decommissioning work, has developed a management information system (SGDes) for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, critical for the company. SGDes system is capable of responding to operational needs for efficient, controlled and secure way. Dismantling activities require a rigorous operations control within highly specialized, process systematization and safety framework, both the human and technological point of view. (Author)

  6. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. Culp

    2006-10-01

    Preparation of this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA) process as an approach for decommissioning.

  7. Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This standard guide defines the process for developing a strategy for dispositioning concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. It outlines a 10-step method to evaluate disposal options for radioactively contaminated concrete. One of the steps is to complete a detailed analysis of the cost and dose to nonradiation workers (the public); the methodology and supporting data to perform this analysis are detailed in the appendices. The resulting data can be used to balance dose and cost and select the best disposal option. These data, which establish a technical basis to apply to release the concrete, can be used in several ways: (1) to show that the release meets existing release criteria, (2) to establish a basis to request release of the concrete on a case-by-case basis, (3) to develop a basis for establishing release criteria where none exists. 1.2 This standard guide is based on the “Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Sites,” (1) from ...

  8. United States nuclear regulatory commission program for inspection of decommissioning nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, P.W. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC or Commission) has been inspecting decommissioning commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (U.S.) since the first such facility permanently shutdown in September 1967. Decommissioning inspections have principally focused on the safe storage and maintenance of spent reactor fuel; occupational radiation exposure; environmental radiological releases; the dismantlement and decontamination of structures, systems, and components identified to contain or potentially contain licensed radioactive material; and the performance of final radiological survey of the site and remaining structures to support termination of the USNRC-issued operating license. Over the last 5 years, USNRC inspection effort in these areas has been assessed and found to provide reasonable confidence that decommissioning can be conducted safely and in accordance with Commission rules and regulations. Recently, the staff has achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with particular decommissioning accidents 1 and plans to apply these insights to amendments proposed to enhance decommissioning rules and regulations. The probabilities, scenarios, and conclusions resulting from this effort are being assessed as to their applicability to the inspection of decommissioning commercial power reactors. (author)

  9. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  10. Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Franiel, Tobias; Grimm, Marc-Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present the first case study of idiopathic gigantic suprapubic lymphedema and buried penis treated with puboscrotal reconstruction in a patient with initial extreme obesity after an extensive weight reduction (120 kg). Massive localized lymphedema of the suprapubic region should be differentiated from the scrotal type. Severe lymphedema could not resolve on its own and weight reduction does not seem to be helpful in such cases. PMID:27574599

  11. [Asteroid hyalopathy. Ultrastructural study of 3 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenis, J P; Leboutet, M J; Loubet, R

    1984-01-01

    The vitreous of three patients with asteroïd hyalosis (average age: 57 years) was obtained by a two-hand closed pars plana vitrectomy. Asteroïd hyalosis was associated with alcoholic neuropathy in the first case, long standing retinal detachment in the second case, and diabetes mellitus in the third case. The visual acuity before and after the surgical procedure improved from 1.2/6 to 6/6 in the first case, from light perception to 0.3/6 in the second case, from 0.6/6 to 4.8/6 in the third case. The vitreous was studied by different ultrastructural technics : transmission electron microscopy (T.E.M.) scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.) and electron diffraction X ray analysis (E.D.A.X.). By S.E.M. the asteroïd bodies appeared as rounded structures with an irregular surface connected to each other by fibrous strands among sodium chloride crystals. No cellular remnants were observed. By T.E.M. the asteroïd bodies were composed of interwinned ribbons of multilaminar membranes with a periodicity (10 to 60 A) characteristic of complex lipids, especially phospholipids. At the edge of the ribbons there were dots and sometimes clumps of opaque material that tended to crack out of the specimen with the heat of the electron beam. T.E.M. study disclosed the irregular disposition of the calcific bodies. By E.D.A.X. the calcific composition of the rounded structures could be determined : calcium and phosphorus were the main elements detectable in asteroïd bodies of all sizes for all three patients. The average calcium counts for the three successive cases were : 18, 30, 43 and for phosphorus : 9, 14, 26. Potassium was found in the first case, and sulfur in the third case.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Nanomaterial Case Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft document is intended to be used as part of a process to identify what is known and, more importantly, what is not yet known that could be of value in assessing the broad implications of specific nanomaterials. Like previous case studies (see History/ Chronology below), this draft case study on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is based on the comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach, which consists of both a framework and a process. Unlike previous case studies this case study incorporates information about a traditional (i.e., “non-nano-enabled”) product, against which the MWCNT flame-retardant coating applied to upholstery textiles (i.e., the “nano-enabled” product) can be compared. The comparative element serves dual-purposes: 1) to provide a more robust database that facilitates identification of data gaps related to the nano-enabled product and 2) to provide a context for identifying key factors and data gaps for future efforts to evaluate risk-related trade-offs between a nano-enabled and non-nano-enabled product. This draft case study does not represent a completed or even a preliminary assessment of MWCNTs; rather, it uses the CEA framework to structure information from available literature and other resources (e.g., government reports) on the product life cycle, fate and transport processes in various environmental media, exposure-dose characterization, and impacts in human, ecological, and environmental receptors.

  13. Mapping Wind Farm Loads and Power Production - A Case Study on Horns Rev 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinos, Christos; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Larsen, Torben J.; Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Kurt S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a wind turbine (WT) component lifetime fatigue load variation map within an offshore wind farm. A case study on the offshore wind farm Horns Rev I is conducted with this purpose, by quantifying wake effects using the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) method, which has previously been validated based on CFD, Lidar and full scale load measurements. Fully coupled aeroelastic load simulations using turbulent wind conditions are conducted for all wind directions and mean wind speeds between cut-in and cut-out using site specific turbulence level measurements. Based on the mean wind speed and direction distribution, the representative 20-year lifetime fatigue loads are calculated. It is found that the heaviest loaded WT is not the same when looking at blade root, tower top or tower base components. The blade loads are mainly dominated by the wake situations above rated wind speed and the highest loaded blades are in the easternmost row as the dominating wind direction is from West. Regarding the tower components, the highest loaded WTs are also located towards the eastern central location. The turbines with highest power production are, not surprisingly, the ones facing a free sector towards west and south. The power production results of few turbines are compared with SCADA data. The results of this paper are expected to have significance for operation and maintenance planning, where the schedules for inspection and service activities can be adjusted to the requirements arising from the varying fatigue levels. Furthermore, the results can be used in the context of remaining fatigue lifetime assessment and planning of decommissioning.

  14. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen...

  15. Connecting Reading and Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanfang

    2015-01-01

    Connecting reading and writing, proposed by many scholars, is realized in this case study. The 30 participants in this study are the English majors of the third year in one School of Foreign Languages in Beijing. They are encouraged to write journals every week, based on the source text materials in their Intensive Reading class, with the final…

  16. A Multiple Case Study of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Khoury, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore how leadership and contextual factors influence innovation in R&D teams in national laboratories, using the approach of multiple case studies. This paper provides some preliminary findings from two highly innovative teams residing in two national laboratories in the US. The preliminary results suggested several common…

  17. Prader-Willi Disease: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbus, William R., III

    A case study focuses on the characteristics and physical management of a 15-year-old with Prader-Willi Syndrome, a birth defect associated with hypotonia, insatiable appetite, hypogonadism, central nervous system dysfunction, and abnormal growth and development . A literature review addresses studies dealing with behavior modification of obesity…

  18. Measuring marketing performance - A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to develop a marketing dashboard for a Finnish company that operates in the financial industry. The identification of suitable metrics for assessing marketing performance is considered central. This study proposes a new construct (a dashboard) that aims to providing management relevant information on marketing performance from decision-making perspective. METHODOLOGY AND DATA The methodology is a constructive case study. In the...

  19. Application of Robotics in Decommissioning and Decontamination - 12536

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banford, Anthony; Kuo, Jeffrey A. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Bowen, R.A. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Szilagyi, Andrew; Kirk, Paula [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities is a significant challenge worldwide and one which is growing in size as more plants reach the end of their operational lives. The strategy chosen for individual projects varies from the hands-on approach with significant manual intervention using traditional demolition equipment at one extreme to bespoke highly engineered robotic solutions at the other. The degree of manual intervention is limited by the hazards and risks involved, and in some plants are unacceptable. Robotic remote engineering is often viewed as more expensive and less reliable than manual approaches, with significant lead times and capital expenditure. However, advances in robotics and automation in other industries offer potential benefits for future decommissioning activities, with the high probability of reducing worker exposure and other safety risks as well as reducing the schedule and costs required to complete these activities. Some nuclear decommissioning tasks and facility environments are so hazardous that they can only be accomplished by exclusive use of robotic and remote intervention. Less hazardous tasks can be accomplished by manual intervention and the use of PPE. However, PPE greatly decreases worker productivity and still exposes the worker to both risk and dose making remote operation preferable to achieve ALARP. Before remote operations can be widely accepted and deployed, there are some economic and technological challenges that must be addressed. These challenges will require long term investment commitments in order for technology to be: - Specifically developed for nuclear applications; - At a sufficient TRL for practical deployment; - Readily available as a COTS. Tremendous opportunities exist to reduce cost and schedule and improve safety in D and D activities through the use of robotic and/or tele-operated systems. - Increasing the level of remote intervention reduces the risk and dose to an operator. Better

  20. Development of a risk based remedial strategy for an MGP site in northern Italy - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, R.; Battaglia, A.; Goldstein, R.; Wilson, D. [AEM, Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    The `Officina del Gas della Bovisa`, or Bovisa MGP, started operations in 1908, to generate gas for distribution to the city of Milan, Italy. From its inception to 1969, gas was manufactured at the Bovisa site by distillation of coal. By 1969, the coal distillation plant was decommissioned and totally replaced with a plant for the production of gas via the reforming of light petroleum hydrocarbons and mixing of air with methane. In 1981, the Bovisa MGP and the Milan distribution network were taken over by Azienda Energetica Municipale (AEM), Milan, which started the process of changing over gas service to methane. This `methanization` project was completed in 1994, at which time all gas production equipment at the Bovisa site was decommissioned. A site remediation feasibility study was carried out, first involving a site investigation through soil sampling, then a risk assessment and feasibility study.

  1. Integrating Ethics into Case Study Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A. Marshall

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available I teach an upper-level writing course, Genes, Race, Gender, and Society, designed for Life Science majors, in which I utilize a case study to expose students to ethical ways of thinking.  Students first work through the topical case study and then are challenged to rethink their responses through the lenses of ethics, taking into account different ethical frameworks.  Students then develop their own case study, integrating ethical components.  I want to expose my students to this way of thinking because I see technology being driven by the Jurassic Park phenomenon, "Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn't stop to think if they should." and want future physicians grounded in a sense of how their actions relate to the greater good.

  2. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  3. Shuttle Case Study Collection Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    As a continuation from summer 2012, the Shuttle Case Study Collection has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. Decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle is gathered into a single database to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes. The goal is to provide additional engineering materials that enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. During this second phase of the project, the Shuttle Case Study Collection website was developed. Extensive HTML coding to link downloadable documents, videos, and images was required, as was training to learn NASA's Content Management System (CMS) for website design. As the final stage of the collection development, the website is designed to allow for distribution of information to the public as well as for case study report submissions from other educators online.

  4. A State of the Art on the Technology for Recycling and Reuse of the Decommissioning Concrete Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chung Hun; Choi, Wang Kyu; Min, Byung Youn; Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Kun Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    This report describes the reduction and recycling technology of decommissioning concrete waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) becomes one of the most important nuclear markets especially in the developed countries including USA, UK and France where lots of the retired nuclear facilities have been waiting for decommissioning. In our country the KAERI has been carrying out the decommissioning of the retired TRIGA MARK II and III research reactors and an uranium conversion plant as the first national decommissioning project since 1998. One of the most important areas of the decommissioning is a management of a huge amount of a decommissioning waste the cost of which is more than half of the total decommissioning cost. Therefore reduction in decommissioning waste by a reuse or a recycle is an important subject of decommissioning technology development in the world. Recently much countries pay attention to recycle the large amount of concrete dismantling waste resulted from both a nuclear and a non nuclear industries. In our country, much attention was taken in a recycle of concrete dismantling waste as a concrete aggregate, but a little success has been resulted due to the disadvantages such as a weakness of hardness and surface mortar contamination. A recycle in nuclear industry and a self disposal of the radioactively contaminated concrete wastes are main directions of concrete wastes resulted from a nuclear facility decommissioning. In this report it was reviewed the state of art of the related technologies for a reduction and a recycle of concrete wastes from a nuclear decommissioning in the country and abroad. Prior to recycle and reuse in the nuclear sector, however, the regulatory criteria for the recycle and reuse of concrete waste should be established in parallel with the development of the recycling technology.

  5. Repurposing legacy data innovative case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2015-01-01

    Repurposing Legacy Data: Innovative Case Studies takes a look at how data scientists have re-purposed legacy data, whether their own, or legacy data that has been donated to the public domain. Most of the data stored worldwide is legacy data-data created some time in the past, for a particular purpose, and left in obsolete formats. As with keepsakes in an attic, we retain this information thinking it may have value in the future, though we have no current use for it. The case studies in this book, from such diverse fields as cosmology, quantum physics, high-energy physics, microbiology,

  6. Presenting Software Metrics Indicators- A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas; Shollo, Arisa; Staron, Miroslaw;

    2010-01-01

    decisions based on indicators. In essence, visualizing indicators and their dependencies can communicate the information to the stakeholders efficiently if done correctly, or mislead them if not done properly. In this paper we present results of a case study conducted in a unit of Ericsson. During the case...... study we identified the main requirements for methods for visualizing the indicators, developed these visualizations and conducted a series of interviews evaluating them. The results show that the dashboard presentation is the best solution, but that the simple, tabular visualizations are next best...

  7. SYNONYMS IN ACTION: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Clift

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses what the methods of conversation analysis (CA might have to offer the study of linguistic synonymy. It takes as a case study two items commonly held to be synonyms -'actually' and 'in fact'- and shows considerable differences between the two in their interactional implementation: they are implicated in the prosecution of differing courses of action. Such cases argue that it is analytically more profitable to consider what a lexical item does in the context of talk than what it means.

  8. A Comparative Comment on the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Ley, Thomas; Jensen, Niels Rosendal;

    2012-01-01

    Denne konklusion sammenfatter hovedtrækkene af de gennemførte case studies i WorkAble-projektet. Vigtige pointer er, at unge på tværs af de forskellige case studies har vanskeligt ved at blive hørt og taget alvorligt. I stedet spises de af med "realistisk vejledning" eller dårlige uddannelses- og...... arbejdstilbud. Konklusionen foreslår at give unge mere tid til at træffe de alvorlige valg vedr. deres fremtid ved at indføre et refugium, som i tankegang minder om Eriksons ungdomsmoratorium....

  9. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 2: Technology logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 2 has been divided into five sections: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Robotics/Automation, and Waste Management. Each section contains logical breakdowns of the Y-12 D and D problems by subject area and identifies technologies that can be reasonably applied to each D and D challenge.

  10. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    and science through co-operation with Science Shops as a mediator between universities and civil society. The Danish national case study report analyses three projects carried out through the Science Shops at DTU and RUC. One case is a co-operation between two DTU students and an NGO, whom is working towards...... that all three NGO’s have used the results and findings to try influencing the societal discourses, and that the results and findings have helped two of the NGOs to gain influence. The analysis further shows that this influence seems to depend on the ability of the NGOs to build alliances with other actors......This report is the Danish case study report in the EU-financed project INTERACTS, which analyses experience and expectations to the interaction between NGOs, Science Shops and universities. The report analyses potentials and barriers to NGO’s and similar civil society groups’ use of research...

  11. Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Study of 48 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurjit; Bharpoda, Pragnesh; Reddy, Raghuveer

    2015-12-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis represents a group of highly lethal infections characterized by rapidly progressing inflammation and necrosis. The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical profile, microbial flora, and predisposing risk factors in patients with necrotizing fasciitis. Lastly, we aimed to formulate a protocol for management of necrotizing fasciitis. Forty-eight cases of necrotizing fasciitis patients who reported to our hospital between April 2007 and September 2009 were included in the study. The commonest predisposing factors were age greater than 50 years (58 % cases) and diabetes mellitus (52 % cases). The commonest site involved was extremity (70.8 %). Majority of infections were polymicrobial (87.5 %). Repeated aggressive debridement was the commonest surgical procedure performed. Early and aggressive surgical debridement, often in multiple sittings, supplemented by appropriate antibiotics and supportive therapy, forms the key to a successful outcome in necrotizing fasciitis.

  12. Microbial study of meningitis and encephalitis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Heba S; El-Barrawy, Mohamed A; Rakha, Magda E; Yingst, Samuel L; Baskharoun, Magda F

    2007-01-01

    Meningitis and/or encephalitis can pose a serious public health problem especially during outbreaks. A rapid and accurate diagnosis is important for effective earlier treatment. This study aimed to identify the possible microbial causes of meningitis and/or encephalitis cases. CSF and serum samples were collected from 322 patients who had signs and symptoms suggestive of meningitis and/or encephalitis. Out of 250 cases with confirmed clinical diagnosis, 83 (33.2%) were definitely diagnosed as bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis cases (by using CSF culture, biochemical tests, latex agglutination test, and CSF stain), 17 (6.8%) were definitely diagnosed as having viral causes ( by viral isolation on tissue culture, PCR and ELISA), and one (0.4%) was diagnosed as fungal meningitis case (by India ink stain, culture, and biochemical tests). Also, there was one encephalitis case with positive serum ELISA IgM antibodies against Sandfly scilian virus. N. meningitidis, S. pneumonia and M. tuberculosis were the most frequently detected bacterial agents, while Enteroviruses, herpes simplex viruses and varicella zoster viruses were the most common viral agents encountered. Further studies are needed to assess the role of different microbial agents in CNS infections and their effective methods of diagnosis.

  13. Decommissioning of the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J. P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Reciniello, R. N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Holden, N. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2011-05-27

    The High Flux Beam Reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory was a heavy water cooled and moderated reactor that achieved criticality on October 31, 1965. It operated at a power level of 40 mega-watts. An equipment upgrade in 1982 allowed operations at 60 mega-watts. After a 1989 reactor shutdown to reanalyze safety impact of a hypothetical loss of coolant accident, the reactor was restarted in 1991 at 30 mega-watts. The HFBR was shutdown in December 1996 for routine maintenance and refueling. At that time, a leak of tritiated water was identified by routine sampling of ground water from wells located adjacent to the reactor’s spent fuel pool. The reactor remained shutdown for almost three years for safety and environmental reviews. In November 1999 the United States Department of Energy decided to permanently shutdown the HFBR. The decontamination and decommissioning of the HFBR complex, consisting of multiple structures and systems to operate and maintain the reactor, were complete in 2009 after removing and shipping off all the control rod blades. The emptied and cleaned HFBR dome which still contains the irradiated reactor vessel is presently under 24/7 surveillance for safety. Details of the HFBR cleanup conducted during 1999-2009 will be described in the paper.

  14. Fission-Product Development Laboratory cell-decommissioning project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrick, T.E.; Schaich, R.W.; Williams, F.V.

    1983-08-01

    The Fission Product Development Laboratory (FPDL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was a full-scale processing facility for separating megacurie quantities of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 144/Ce for a variety of source applications, operating at full capacity from 1958 to 1975. Since facility shutdown, the inactive portions of the FPDL have been maintained in a protective storage mode as part of the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). Due to the significant radio-nuclide inventory remaining in the facility, the high surveillance and maintenance costs necessary to assure radionuclide containment, and the potential for reuse of the facility by other programs, the decommissioning of the inactive portions of the FPDL has been given a high priority by the SFMP. In response to this program direction, plans are being made for initiation of these activities in late FY 1983. This project plan has been prepared to satisfy the program documentation requirements for SFMP project planning. The plan outlines the scope of the proposed effort, describes the proposed methods of project accomplishment, and provides estimates of the project resource needs and schedule.

  15. STUDY OF 200 CASES OF PLEURAL FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND We have studied 200 patients of pleural fluid presenting to our tertiary care centre. Presence of cases of pleural fluid is a common presentation both in pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. We analysed the patients having both exudates and transudates and studied the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS We selected patients above 20 years of age and classified the patients with pleural fluid as having transudates and exudates. We studied the causes of transudates and exudates. A total of 200 patients are studied in this prospective study. Diagnosis of pleural exudates is made on the basis of Light’s criteria, chest x-ray, pleural fluid analysis, CT scan in selected patients, sputum examination, bronchoscopy and bronchial washings. Moribund and non-cooperative patients and HIV positives were excluded from the study. RESULTS Among the 200 patients, 91% have exudates. 9% have transudates by Light’s criteria. Tuberculosis is the commonest cause of effusions (64.83% followed by malignancy (13.73% and sympneumonic or parapneumonic effusions (9.89%. Pleural effusions occurred predominantly in males. Prevalence of diabetes Mellitus among cases of tuberculous pleural effusions is 13.56%. Tuberculous effusions are predominantly right-sided. CONCLUSION Predominant cases of pleural fluid are exudates. Commonest cause of pleural effusion is Tuberculosis followed by malignancy both pulmonary and extrapulmonary and sym. and parapneumonic effusions. Prevalence of Diabetes among Tuberculous pleural effusion cases is more or less same as in general population. Cough, expectoration fever, chest pain and breathlessness are the common symptoms occurring in three fourths of the patients of tuberculous pleural effusion. Most of the cases of Tuberculous effusion are above 30 years of age. In the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion, Pleural fluid ADA is very important. Pleural fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, bronchoscopy, bronchial washings and sputum

  16. Aerospace Mechanisms and Tribology Technology: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses attention on tribology technology practice related to vacuum tribology. A case study describes an aspect of a real problem in sufficient detail for the engineer and scientist to understand the tribological situation and the failure. The nature of the problem is analyzed and the tribological properties are examined.

  17. Aerospace Mechanisms and Tribology Technology: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses attention on tribology technology practice related to vacuum tribology and space tribology. Two case studies describe aspects of real problems in sufficient detail for the engineer and the scientist to understand the tribological situations and the failures. The nature of the problems is analyzed and the range of potential solutions is evaluated. Courses of action are recommended.

  18. Case Study of Home-School Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguerrebere, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    This case study evaluated one site of a California teacher home visit program. Home visits have been an important means of connecting families and schooling. In 1999, California inaugurated a statewide home visit program to promote effective partnership between home and school for low-achieving schools. At this site, families in 3 kindergarten…

  19. Learning Team Strategies: Soccer Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Salustowicz, R.P.; Schmidhuber, J.

    1998-01-01

    We use simulated soccer to study multiagent learning. Each team's players (agents) share action set and policy, but may behave differently due to position-dependent inputs. All agents making up a team are rewarded or punished collectively in case of goals. We conduct simulations with varying t

  20. Learning Machine Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavesson, N.

    2010-01-01

    This correspondence reports on a case study conducted in the Master's-level Machine Learning (ML) course at Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden. The students participated in a self-assessment test and a diagnostic test of prerequisite subjects, and their results on these tests are correlated with their achievement of the course's learning…

  1. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  2. Climate wise case study compendium: Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This case study compendium is one of several Climate Wise tools available to help interested companies identify cost-effective options. Climate Wise, a private-public partnership program, is a key Federal initiative to return greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000.

  3. Marietta Celebration of Unity Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Meg; Phillips, Rebecca

    This case study concerns the forming of a Marietta, Ohio unity committee, entitled Citizens for Social and Racial Justice, in response to the local Ku Klux Klan's (KKK) request for a parade permit in order to demonstrate against blacks in this city. Marietta, the county seat of Washington County, Ohio, has a population composed of both white and…

  4. Gifted Teenagers with Problems: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Theresa; Goodner, Jane

    Case studies are presented of three gifted students, indicating the social and academic problems which are standing in the way of their potential development. The students include a Vietnamese-American ninth-grade girl who has difficulty with English and does not feel accepted by other students, an underachieving seventh grade boy who speaks out…

  5. Sustainability in Housing: A Curriculum Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Kathleen; Emmel, Joann M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of environmental issues on the field of housing, from the perspective of sustainable housing. Presents a case study of the development of a college course to address these issues by integrating energy management, air quality, water quality, and waste management. (Author)

  6. A Codesign Case Study in Computer Graphics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brage, Jens P.; Madsen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a codesign case study where a computer graphics application is examined with the intention to speed up its execution. The application is specified as a C program, and is characterized by the lack of a simple compute-intensive kernel. The hardware/software partitioning is based...

  7. WP6 - The Ag2020 Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens G; Borch, Kristian; Trombi, Giacomo;

    2010-01-01

    of the Future are presented. Finally, in section 1.4, is described the structure of the present report,which is firmly followed by the four case studies involved in the Project, namely the Rhodope Mountainous region in Bulgaria (CS1), The Kastelli region (Herakleion nomos) in Greece (CS2), the Central Denmark...

  8. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  9. Recurrent perinatal loss: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, K; Robertson, P A

    1999-01-01

    To date, investigators have not demonstrated a clear relationship between a parent's history of prior perinatal losses and intensity of grief response following a subsequent perinatal loss. Examining this relationship for low-income, African-American parents is important because they are a vulnerable population due to the high incidence of perinatal mortality in Blacks and their other life stressors that can impact on grief response and caring needs. The purpose of this case study was to examine the impact of recurrent perinatal loss on a low-income African-American parent. The research design for this study was case report, using interview data collected from a mother who had recently experienced her fourth perinatal loss, which occurred at twenty-five weeks of gestation. Transcripts from two open-ended interviews were analyzed. The theoretical framework used to guide analysis of this case study was Lazarus and Folkman's stress and coping theory. Results demonstrated that the prior perinatal losses did not appear as critical components of the way the mother responded to her most recent loss. Instead, perception of the care she received from healthcare providers and how that care related to her experiences with her one living child who was born at the same gestational age was an important determinant in how she responded to her loss. The results of this case study demonstrate the importance assessing a person's perception of their experience and those factors which contribute to the way they respond.

  10. The Interim Superintendent: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Gary; Nix, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the vitally important role that the superintendent plays in the overall functioning and wellbeing of any school district, the filling of that position should never be done in haste. Due to the importance of this process and the time it requires, school districts often employ an interim superintendent. In this single case study, one…

  11. Biliteracy, Spelling, and Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgette, Ekaterina; Philippakos, Zoi A.

    2016-01-01

    The overall purpose of this case study is to examine biliteracy and its effects on a young child's orthographic and writing growth. The analysis of the kindergartener's spelling development and compositional growth in reference to both language systems indicates that biliteracy had a positive effect on the student's acquisition of English…

  12. Makerspaces in Engineering Education: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mougaard, Krestine

    2016-01-01

    it by opening makerspaces and adopting elements of the Maker Movement in their offerings. This paper investigates how university driven makerspaces can affect engineering design and product development education trough a case study. We provide our findings based on interviews and data collected from educators...

  13. Career Development of Black Males: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baskin, Monica L.; Case, Andrew B.

    1999-01-01

    Case studies of six black males explored background, school and work experiences, and career issues. These themes emerged: fathers' financial support and role modeling influenced career development; other male role models affected aspirations; social, especially parental support for education and careers influenced decision making; and racism…

  14. Helping Adolescents in Crisis: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Obaid, Beatrice

    1989-01-01

    Addresses problem of adolescent suicide by developing five stages (suicidal signs, establishing rapport, making referral, constructive actions, and self-management) that may be used to help adolescents in distress. Uses five stages in case study to demonstrate the roles played by teacher, friend, and parents in helping adolescent through a crisis.…

  15. New Lives: Some Case Studies in Minamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Kazuko

    Three case studies of young Japanese adults who fell ill with Minamata disease (a form of methyl-mercury poisoning) are presented and the adjustment of the individuals to the disease is analyzed in terms of a model of creativity. The model distinguishes three types of creativity: identificational (in which one identifies with old ideas and…

  16. ESL and Digital Video Integration: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J., Ed.; Gromik, N., Ed.; Edwards, N., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    It should come as no surprise that digital video technology is of particular interest to English language learners; students are drawn to its visual appeal and vibrant creative potential. The seven original case studies in this book demonstrate how video can be an effective and powerful tool to create fluid, fun, interactive, and collaborative…

  17. Eastern's Employee Communication Crisis: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Martha

    1988-01-01

    Explores communication behaviors and reactions of employees during crisis periods, using a qualitative case study of Eastern Airlines pilots. Finds that useful theories for crisis communication can be developed only after sufficient inquiry into the communication needs and behaviors of message receivers. (MS)

  18. Interdisciplinary Student Teams Projects: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruck, S. E.; Teer, Faye P.

    2009-01-01

    In today's organizations team work has become an integral part of the day-to-day routine. For this reason, University professors are including group projects in many courses. In such group assessments, we advocate the use of interdisciplinary teams, where possible. As a case study, we report an interdisciplinary group technical project with…

  19. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft document presents two case studies of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) used (1) to remove arsenic from drinking water and (2) as an active ingredient in topical sunscreen. The draft case studies are organized around a comprehensive environmental assessment approach that combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm. The document does not draw conclusions about potential risks. Rather, the case studies are intended to help identify what needs to be known in order to conduct a comprehensive environmental assessment of the potential risks related to nano-TiO2. This draft document is part of a process that will inform the development of EPA’s research strategy to support nanomaterial risk assessments. The complex properties of various nanomaterials make evaluating them in the abstract or with generalizations difficult if not impossible. Thus, this document focuses on two specific uses of nano-TiO2, as a drinking water treatment and as topical sunscreen. These case studies do not represent completed or even preliminary assessments; rather, they present the structure for identifying and prioritizing research needed to support future assessments.

  20. It's Not Funny: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Morse, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    This case study may be used with personnel supervision, school law, and other school leadership courses. It describes the behavior and actions of one teacher toward another. Student discussions can focus on supervision, workplace mobbing, workplace bullying, as well as sexual harassment. Students should focus on a school leader's role in such…

  1. Lifelong Learning in SMEs: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Rick; Smith, Vikki; Devins, Dave

    2002-01-01

    Learning centers using information-communications technologies were established in three British industrial estates. A case study of one organization shows the center contributed to lifelong learning and enhanced information technology training and employee confidence. Transfer of training and productivity improvements were not as clear. (Contains…

  2. Makerspaces in Engineering Education: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mougaard, Krestine

    2016-01-01

    it by opening makerspaces and adopting elements of the Maker Movement in their offerings. This paper investigates how university driven makerspaces can affect engineering design and product development education trough a case study. We provide our findings based on interviews and data collected from educators...... engineering design education....

  3. Fraternization in Accounting Firms: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Tim; Kizirian, Tim; Leese, Wallace

    2004-01-01

    This case study sheds light on how to avoid risks caused by manager-subordinate dating relationships (fraternization) such as employee misunderstandings, retaliation charges, favoritism complaints, wrongful termination lawsuits, and sexual harassment lawsuits, as well as associated ethical risks. Risk avoidance can be accomplished through a better…

  4. Avio case study: the MRO process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corallo, Angelo; Dimartino, Angelo; Errico, Fabrizio; Giangreco, Enza

    This chapter presents the case study of the Avio Brindisi plant where a profound process of change has been in progress for a number of years. We use the TEKNE Project methodology of change to analyze the different aspects of the case, highlighting the firm's strategic, organizational and technological characteristics and the environment it operates in. In particular, we envisage a change in the plant's business model in response to the expansion of its client segments and a potential new approach to MRO operations based on advanced fleet management practices that would radically change the firm's organization and value network with respect to its MRO service offering, thereby yielding extensive global market opportunities.

  5. Mobile Technologies Adoption: An Exploratory Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Yan; HUANG Lihua

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theory of task-technology fit and literature review of mobile technology acceptance, a research model is presented based on the features of mobile technologies and the actual usage of mobile applications in business environments, which identifies the characteristics of mobile applications and fitting tasks. An exploratory case is studied to understand how ABC Company, Hong Kong, utilizes mobile selling applications in their sales management process. This study gives some managerial suggestions for enterprises to successfully use mobile applications.

  6. Empathy Development Through Case Study and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennenga, Heidi A; Bassett, Susan; Pasquariello, Libby

    2016-01-01

    Because empathy is integral to the nurse-patient relationship, nurse educators are challenged to explore teaching strategies that may aid in the development of empathy among students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consistent exposure to a single patient through case study and simulation had an impact on empathy levels in senior-level baccalaureate nursing students. Results provide interesting conclusions for faculty members and offer a basis for ongoing discussion.

  7. CAT: A CASE STUDY OF GRE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZe; ChenJiliang

    2004-01-01

    The Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) has developedsuccessfully with its adoption by testing agencies. The authors ofthis paper point out the advantages and disadvantages of CATsand then take GRE as a case study to probe into the scoringalgorithm in CAT. By analyzing some typical score reports ofcomputer-adaptive GRE General Test, they study some majorfactors affecting the final score such as the percentage ofcorrectness and difficulty levels.

  8. PANCYTOPENIA - A STUDY OF 58 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancytopenia means decrease in all three cell lines. It is the striking feature of of many illness ranging from megaloblastic anaemia to leukemias. The underlying pathology of pancytopenia will determine the management and prognosis. OB JECTIVE: To identify the various causes of Pancytopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was undertaken at A Private Lab. RESULTS: 58 cases were studied, 30males and 28 females with age ranging from 3 yrs to 90 yrs. Most of the cases presented wit h generalized weakness, followed by pallor, hepatosplenomegaly and bleeding manifestations. CONCLUSION: The present study was helpful in understanding the various causes of diseases process with bone marrow aspiration done in few of the pancytopenic patien ts along with support of biochemical investigations which were helpful in planning further investigations and management.

  9. Decommissioning of a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant at Winfrith Technolgy Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengelly, M.G.A. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    The Alpha Materials Laboratory (Building A52) at Winfrith contained a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant which had a capability of producing 10 te/yr of pelleted/compacted fuel and was in operation from 1962 until 1980, when the requirement for this type of fuel in the UK diminished, and the plant became surplus to requirements. A program to develop decommissioning techniques for plutonium plants was started in 1983, addressing the following aspects of alpha plant decommissioning: (1) Re-usable containment systems, (2) Strippable coating technology, (3) Mobile air filtration plant, (4) Size reduction primarily using cold cutting, (5) techniques, (6) Waste packing, and (7) Alpha plant decommissioning methodology. The technology developed has been used to safely and efficiently decommission radioactive plant and equipment including Pu contaminated glove boxes. (63 glove boxes to date) The technology has been widely adopted in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. This paper outlines the general strategies adopted and techniques used for glove box decommissioning in building A52.

  10. Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risø National Laboratory. Descriptions and cost assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, K.

    2001-01-01

    The report is the result of a project initiated by Risø National Laboratory in June 2000 on request from the Minister of Research and Information Technology. It describes the nuclear facilities at Risø National Laboratory to be decommissioned and gives anassessment of the work to be done and the ......The report is the result of a project initiated by Risø National Laboratory in June 2000 on request from the Minister of Research and Information Technology. It describes the nuclear facilities at Risø National Laboratory to be decommissioned and gives anassessment of the work to be done...... and the costs incurred. Three decommissioning scenarios were considered with decay times of 10, 25 and 40 years for the DR 3 reactor. The assessments conclude, however, that there will not be much to gain by allowing forthe longer decay periods; some operations still will need to be performed remotely....... Furthermore, the report describes some of the legal and licensing framework for the decommissioning and gives an assessment of the amounts of radioactive waste to betransferred to a Danish repository. For a revision of the cost estimate for the decommissioning of the research Reactor DR 3 please consult...

  11. Guide for radiological characterization and measurements for decommissioning of US Department of Energy surplus facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denahm, D. H.; Barnes, M. G.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.; Gilbert, R. O.; Hoenes, G. R.; Jamison, J. D.; McMurray, B. J.; Watson, E. C.

    1983-08-01

    This Guide describes the elements of radiological characterization at DOE excess facilities in preparation for, during, and subsequent to decommissioning operations. It is the intent of this Guide and accompanying appendices to provide the reader (user) with sufficient information to carry out that task with a minimum of confusion and to provide a uniform basis for evaluating site conditions and verifying that decommissioning operations are conducted according to a specific plan. Some areas of particular interest in this Guide are: the need to involve appropriate staff from the affected states in the early planning stages of decommissioning; the need for and suggested methods of radiological site characterization to complete a decommissioning project, including: historical surveys, environmental pathway analyses, statistical sampling design, and choosing appropriate instrumentation and measurements; the need for and emphasis on quality assurance, documentation and records retention; the establishment of a Design Objective approach to applying site-specific contamination limits based on the ALARA philosophy; the establishment of a ''de minimis'' or minimum dose level of concern for decommissioning operations based on existing standards, experience and ALARA considerations.

  12. Dieulafoy's lesion: A case series study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RS Walmsley; Yuk-Tong Lee; Joseph JY Sung

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Dieulafoy's lesion (DL) accounts for 1-5.8% of cases of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Its mortality is high, approaching 20%, despite recent advances in endoscopic therapy. We aimed to report our experience in the treatment of DL.METHODS: A retrospective case study of all patients with DL between January 1993 and January 2003 was done. Characteristics, treatment methods, success rates and 30-d mortality of the patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were noted to have DL in the study period. Thirty-three records were available for assessment in which 35 DL were identified. The median age of the patients was 67 years with male to female ratio of 5.6:1. Significant comorbidities existed in 69% of the patients. Eighty-nine percent of the DL was found at first endoscopy, three DL at laparotomy. Significant coexistent endoscopic findings existed in 23%. Hemostasis was achieved in 88% by using adrenaline injection, or in combination with heater probe application at first endoscopy. Four cases had re-bleeding, all were successfully treated endoscopically. The 30-d mortality rate was 23%.CONCLUSION: Successful endoscopic hemostasis could be achieved in 100% of cases of DL. The overall mortality may still remain high, mainly due to the comorbidities and age of these patients.

  13. The Pendulum A Case Study in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Gregory L

    2005-01-01

    The pendulum: a case study in physics is a unique book in several ways. Firstly, it is a comprehensive quantitative study of one physical system, the pendulum, from the viewpoint of elementary and more advanced classical physics, modern chaotic dynamics, and quantum mechanics. In addition, coupled pendulums and pendulum analogs of superconducting devices are also discussed. Secondly, this book treats the physics of the pendulum within a historical and cultural context,showing, for example, that the pendulum has been intimately connected with studies of the earth's density, the earth's motion,

  14. Management & Communication: Project Management Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2004-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the recent launch of a new workshop on Project Management. This is designed for People with budgetary, scheduling and/or organizational responsibilities in a project or a sub-project. The objectives through a management case study specially suited to CERN are: to become familiar with modern management techniques in use for structuring, planning, scheduling, costing and progress monitoring of a project or a sub-project. to understand in-depth issues associated with Deliverable-oriented Project Management, Earned Value Management, Advanced Project Cost Engineering and Project Risk Management. The full description of this workshop can be found here. The next session will be held on 8 October 2004. If you are interested in this workshop, please contact Nathalie Dumeaux, email or 78144. Programme of Seminars October to December 2004 Situation : 21.09.2004 Séminaires bilingues Dates Jours Places disponibles Project Management Case study 8 October 1 oui Intr...

  15. Case studies in government procurement fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Gayton, James R. S.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited MBA Professional Report The purpose of this research is to provide guidance that will increase awareness and facilitate class discussions on ethical situations that contracting officers are exposed to during their business relationships with contracting firms. The cases explore the specifics of individual incidents of ethical and procedural procurement violations. Additionally, this study provides conclusions and recommendations tha...

  16. Web Fuzzy Clustering and a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mao-fu; HE Jing; HE Yan-xiang; HU Hui-jun

    2004-01-01

    We combine the web usage mining and fuzzy clustering and give the concept of web fuzzy clustering, and then put forward the web fuzzy clustering processing model which is discussed in detail. Web fuzzy clustering can be used in the web users clustering and web pages clustering. In the end, a case study is given and the result has proved the feasibility of using web fuzzy clustering in web pages clustering.

  17. RECURRENT PERINATAL LOSS: A CASE STUDY*

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    To date, investigators have not demonstrated a clear relationship between a parent’s history of prior perinatal losses and intensity of grief response following a subsequent perinatal loss. Examining this relationship for low-income, African-American parents is important because they are a vulnerable population due to the high incidence of perinatal mortality in Blacks and their other life stressors that can impact on grief response and caring needs. The purpose of this case study was to exam...

  18. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet; Laurent Guillier; Murielle Naïtali

    2015-01-01

    Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours) in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated w...

  19. A warehouse design decision model: case study

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldes, Carla A. S. (Ed.); Carvalho, Maria do Sameiro; Pereira, Guilherme

    2008-01-01

    Today’s competitive and volatile market requires flexibility, quality and efficiency from the logistics operations. In this context, warehouses are an important link of the logistic chain and warehouse management plays an important role over customer's service. Throughout this work we analyze a mathematical model aiming to support warehouse management decisions. A case study is used for that purpose and the model jointly identifies product allocation to the functional areas in the warehouse, ...

  20. Concentrated Photo Voltaics (CPV: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Centro S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated PhotoVoltaic (CPV, among green energy solutions, nowadays has the ambition to reach grid-parity without subside. CPV substitutes large areas of expensive semiconductor solar cells, with concentrating optics made of cheap materials. Moreover the cells that are suitable for CPV exhibits an unprecedented efficiency and their technology is progressing every year. A case study project, TwinFocus®, will be presented in detail.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Case Studies in Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    BOYACI, Reviewed By Dr. Adnan

    2005-01-01

    161Case Studies in Knowledge ManagementEdited by Murray JennexHersley: PA: Idea Group, 2005, pp. 372, ISBN 1-59140-352-9Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACIAnadolu UniversityEskişehir-TurkeyKnowledge management (KM) as a structured system and the way to the effectiveness isrelatively new field for the contemporary organizations functioning in different andcompetitive domain of public and private sectors in terms of getting optimal effectivenessunderlined by the concepts such as quality, productivity…...

  2. Case studies of soil in art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.

    2015-08-01

    The material and symbolic appropriations of soil in artworks are numerous and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in film, architecture, and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and film are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, and with soil as a contribution to raising soil awareness.

  3. Global Hawk Systems Engineering. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    as Aurora and Grob. Fourteen teams responded. The bids submitted covered a wide-range of size and performance for a $10 million UFP, causing the...Delos Reyes , 95th Air Base Wing Public Affairs, 1 December 2006 Roll Out of Firs Production Block 10 Global Hawk Systems Engineering Case Study...Delos Reyes , 95th DoD News Briefing, June 28, 1995 Air Base Wing Public Affairs, December 1, 2006 Edwards Test Production Global Hawk for Possible

  4. The Graduate Experience: Living and Studying Abroad (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Hernández Castañeda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a qualitative case study describing the experience of Angélica an international graduate student from Latin America, who received her doctorate at the University of New Mexico in the United States. Her case demonstrated how administrators and faculty learn about the experience and struggles endured by international students, especially those who learned English a short time before admission to graduate studies. While a single case is understandably idiographic in nature and inevitably requires a larger sample, from the analysis of Angélica’s case and the analysis of the relevant literature common topics emerged persuading me to conclude that the issues that commonly impact the life of international students have to do with: 1 second language problems; 2 the quality of academic advisement received; 3 the availability of financial support; 4 the level of integration into their academic program; and 5 the level of cultural adjustment in their host country.

  5. Decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-08

    The Chicago Pile 5 (CP-5) Reactor, the first reactor built on the Argonne National Laboratory-East site, followed a rich history that had begun in 1942 with Enrico Fermi's original pile built under the west stands at the Stagg Field Stadium of The University of Chicago. CP-5 was a 5-megawatt, heavy water-moderated, enriched uranium-fueled reactor used to produce neutrons for scientific research from 1954--79. The reactor was shut down and defueled in 1979, and placed into a lay-up condition pending funding for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). In 1990, work was initiated on the D and D of the facility in order to alleviate safety and environmental concerns associated with the site due to the deterioration of the building and its associated support systems. A decision was made in early Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 to direct focus and resources to the completion of the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project. An award of contract was made in December 1998 to Duke Engineering and Services (Marlborough, MA), and a D and D crew was on site in March 1999 to begin work, The project is scheduled to be completed in July 2000. The Laboratory has determined that the building housing the CP-5 facility is surplus to the Laboratory's needs and will be a candidate for demolition. In addition to a photographic chronology of FY 1999 activities at the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project, brief descriptions of other FY 1999 activities and of projects planned for the future are provided in this photobriefing book.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FOR DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this one-year investigation is to perform a technology integration/search, thereby ensuring that the safest and most cost-effective options are developed and subsequently used during the deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sites. Issues of worker health and safety are the main concern, followed by cost. Two lines of action were explored: innovative Personal Cooling Systems (PCS) and Personal Monitoring Equipment (PME). PME refers to sensors affixed to the worker that warn of an approaching heat stress condition, thereby preventing it. Three types of cooling systems were investigated: Pre-Chilled or Forced-Air System (PCFA), Umbilical Fluid-Chilled System (UFCS), and Passive Vest System (PVS). Of these, the UFCS leads the way. The PVS or Gel pack vest lagged due to a limited cooling duration. And the PCFA or chilled liquid air supply was cumbersome and required an expensive and complex recharge system. The UFCS in the form of the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS) performed exceptionally. The technology uses a chilled liquid circulating undergarment and a Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) external pump and ice reservoir. The system is moderately expensive, but the recharge is low-tech and inexpensive enough to offset the cost. There are commercially available PME that can be augmented to meet the DOE's heat stress alleviation need. The technology is costly, in excess of $4,000 per unit. Workers easily ignore the alarm. The benefit to health & safety is indirect so can be overlooked. A PCS is a more justifiable expenditure.

  7. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING (D AND D) TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the ongoing task of making Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) operations more efficient, this subtask has addressed the need to integrate existing characterization technologies with decontamination technologies in order to provide real-time data on the progress of contamination removal. Specifically, technologies associated with concrete decontamination and/or removal have been examined with the goal of integrating existing technologies and commercializing the resulting hybrid. The Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete will require disposition as 1200 buildings undergo the D&D process. All concrete removal to be performed will also necessitate extensive use of characterization techniques. The in-process characterization presents the most potential for improvement and cost-savings as compared to other types. Current methods for in-process characterization usually require cessation of work to allow for radiation surveys to assess the rate of decontamination. Combining together decontamination and characterization technologies would allow for in-process evaluation of decontamination efforts. Since the present methods do not use in-process evaluations for the progress of decontamination, they may allow for ''overremoval'' of materials (removal of contaminated along with non-contaminated materials). Overremoval increases the volume of waste and therefore the costs associated with disposal. Integrating technologies would facilitate the removal of only contaminated concrete and reduce the total volume of radioactive waste, which would be disposed of. This would eventually ensure better productivity and time savings. This project presents a general procedure to integrate the above-mentioned technologies in the form of the Technology Integration Module (TIM) along with combination lists of commercially available decontamination and characterization technologies. The scope of the project has also

  8. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The Phase I effort was based on a robot called the Remote Work Vehicle (RWV) that was previously developed by CMU for use in D&D operations at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement. During Phase I of this program, the RWV was rehabilitated and upgraded with contemporary control and user interface technologies and used as a testbed for remote D&D operations. We established a close working relationship with the DOE Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). In the second phase, we designed and developed a next generation mobile worksystem, called Rosie, and a semi-automatic task space scene analysis system, called Artisan, using guidance from RTDP. Both systems are designed to work with and complement other RTDP D&D technologies to execute selective equipment removal scenarios in which some part of an apparatus is extricated while minimally disturbing the surrounding objects. RTDP has identified selective equipment removal as a timely D&D mission, one that is particularly relevant during the de-activation and de-inventory stages of facility transitioning as a means to reduce the costs and risks associated with subsequent surveillance and monitoring. In the third phase, we tested and demonstrated core capabilities of Rosie and Artisan; we also implemented modifications and enhancements that improve their relevance to DOE`s facility transitioning mission.

  9. Shuttle Transportation System Case-Study Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah

    2012-01-01

    A case-study collection was developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Using lessons learned and documented by NASA KSC engineers, analysts, and contractors, decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle was gathered into a single database. The goal was to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes and to enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. Suggested formats were created to assist both external educators and internal NASA employees to develop and contribute their own case-study reports to share with other educators and students. Via group project, class discussion, or open-ended research format, students will be introduced to the unique decision making process related to Shuttle missions and development. Teaching notes, images, and related documents will be made accessible to the public for presentation of Space Shuttle reports. Lessons investigated included the engine cutoff (ECO) sensor anomaly which occurred during mission STS-114. Students will be presented with general mission infom1ation as well as an explanation of ECO sensors. The project will conclude with the design of a website that allows for distribution of information to the public as well as case-study report submissions from other educators online.

  10. National Environmental Change Information System Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Ritschard, R.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Hatch, U.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG), now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to determine the feasibility of an interagency National Environmental Change Information System (NECIS). In order to better understand the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level, the DIWG asked the case study team to choose a regional water resources issue in the southeastern United States that had an impact on a diverse group of stakeholders. The southeastern United States was also of interest because the region experiences interannual climatic variations and impacts due to El Nino and La Nina. Jointly, with input from the DIWG, a focus on future water resources planning in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basins of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida was selected. A tristate compact and water allocation formula is currently being negotiated between the states and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) that will affect the availability of water among competing uses within the ACF River basin. All major reservoirs on the ACF are federally owned and operated by the U.S. Army COE. A similar two-state negotiation is ongoing that addresses the water allocations in the adjacent Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River basin, which extends from northwest Georgia to Mobile Bay. The ACF and ACT basins are the subject of a comprehensive river basin study involving many stakeholders. The key objectives of this case study were to identify specific data and information needs of key stakeholders in the ACF region, determine what capabilities are needed to provide the most practical response to these user requests, and to identify any limitations in the use of federal data and information. The NECIS case study followed the terms of reference

  11. 30 CFR 285.517 - How will MMS determine the amounts of the supplemental and decommissioning financial assurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... supplemental and decommissioning financial assurance requirements associated with commercial leases? 285.517... Assurance Requirements Financial Assurance Requirements for Commercial Leases § 285.517 How will MMS... decommissioning financial assurance requirements on estimates of the cost to meet all accrued lease...

  12. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed technology, safety and cost information are presented for the conceptual decommissioning of a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Alternate methods of decommissioning are described including immediate dismantlement, safe storage for a period of time followed by dismantlement and entombment. Safety analyses, both occupational and public, and cost evaluations were conducted for each mode.

  13. 30 CFR 285.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.902 Section 285.902 Mineral Resources... SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by MMS under § 285.909, within 2 years following... under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a decommissioning application and receive approval from...

  14. Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory. Descriptions and cost assessment[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauridsen, Kurt [ed.

    2001-02-01

    The report is the result of a project initiated by Risoe National Laboratory in June 2000 on request from the Minister of Research and Information Technology. It describes the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory to be decommissioned and gives an assessment of the work to be done and the costs incurred. Three decommissioning scenarios were considered with decay times of 10, 25 and 40 years for the DR 3 reactor. The assessments conclude, however, that there will not be much to gain by allowing for the longer decay periods; some operations still will need to be performed remotely. Furthermore, the report describes some of the legal and licensing framework for the decommissioning and gives an assessment of the amounts of radioactive waste to be transferred to a Danish repository. (au)

  15. Standard Guide for Environmental Monitoring Plans for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the development or assessment of environmental monitoring plans for decommissioning nuclear facilities. This guide addresses: (1) development of an environmental baseline prior to commencement of decommissioning activities; (2) determination of release paths from site activities and their associated exposure pathways in the environment; and (3) selection of appropriate sampling locations and media to ensure that all exposure pathways in the environment are monitored appropriately. This guide also addresses the interfaces between the environmental monitoring plan and other planning documents for site decommissioning, such as radiation protection, site characterization, and waste management plans, and federal, state, and local environmental protection laws and guidance. This guide is applicable up to the point of completing D&D activities and the reuse of the facility or area for other purposes.

  16. Options and strategies in decontamination for decommissioning: after safe enclosure or directly after shutdown. Experiences in 2012; Opciones y Estrategias en Descontaminacion para el Desmantelamiento: Desmantelamiento aplazado o inmediato. Experiencias en 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sempere Belda, L.; Topf, C.; Moreira do Amaral, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    During the last years AREVA has been performing numerous large scale chemical decontaminations, including the simultaneous decontamination of the complete primary circuit and auxiliary systems ('Full System Decontamination'). Three of them have were completed during the course of the last twelve months, in the nuclear power plants of Chooz A in France and of Unterweser and Neckarwestheim 1 in Germany. This paper compares the consequences for the performance of the decontamination derived from the different decommissioning philosophies adopted: Immediate decommissioning after ceasing operation in the case of Unterweser and Neckarwestheim 1, and delayed dismantlement after safe enclosure (SAFSTORE) in the case of Chooz A. The authors, responsible for the application and process control also from a technical point of view, comment on the results obtained and on the differences between these approaches.

  17. Case Study on Printed Matter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2012-01-01

    60 of these substances fulfill one or more of the criteria (e.g., CMR, EDS) for the REACH Annex XIV candidate list (Authorisation List). This case study presents the results of the mapping of chemical substitution candidates some of which may be relevant regarding accumulation of additives...... in 2006. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals, which are the potential candidates for substitution (e.g., PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS). The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study and an investigation of the actual (2007) presence of candidate substances at 15 Danish...

  18. Case study of isosurface extraction algorithm performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, P M; Hansen, C D; Shen, H; Schikore, D

    1999-12-14

    Isosurface extraction is an important and useful visualization method. Over the past ten years, the field has seen numerous isosurface techniques published leaving the user in a quandary about which one should be used. Some papers have published complexity analysis of the techniques yet empirical evidence comparing different methods is lacking. This case study presents a comparative study of several representative isosurface extraction algorithms. It reports and analyzes empirical measurements of execution times and memory behavior for each algorithm. The results show that asymptotically optimal techniques may not be the best choice when implemented on modern computer architectures.

  19. Using Case Studies to Teach About Global Issues, Bali: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, James M.

    1974-01-01

    The South Pacific island of Bali is used as a case study of overpopulation and food shortage. A brief description of the resources, the typical lifestyle of the Balinese farmer, and possible teaching techniques are given. (DE)

  20. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. This report is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to be known about selected nanomaterials as part of a process to identify and prioritize research to inform future assessments of the potential ecological and health implications of these materials. Two specific applications of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) are considered: (1) as an agent for removing arsenic from drinking water; and (2) as an active ingredient in topical sunscreen. These case studies are organized around a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) framework that combines a product life cycle perspective with the risk assessment paradigm. They are intended to help identify what may need to be known in order to conduct a comprehensive environmental assessment of the potential risks related to nano-TiO2. These “case studies” do not represent completed or even preliminary assessments, nor are they intended to serve as a basis for risk management decisions in the near term on these specific uses of nano TiO2. Rather, the intent is to use this document in developing the scientific and technical information needed for future assessment efforts.

  1. The case study of biomaterials and biominerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The teaching of biomaterials as case study by on-line platform , susceptible to develop both individually and in groups, got different objectives proposed by the European Higher Education System, among which include: participate actively in the teaching-learning process by students, interpreting situations, adapt processes and solutions. It also improves oral and written communication, analytical skills and synthesis and also the ability to think critically. Biomaterials have their origin in biominerals. These are solid inorganic compounds of defined structure, consisting of molecular control mechanisms that operate in biological systems. Its main functions are: structural support, a reservoir of essential elements, sensors, mechanical protection and storage of toxic elements. Following the demand of materials compatible with certain functional systems of our body, developed biomaterials. Always meet the condition of biocompatibility. Should be tolerated by the body and do not provoke rejection. This involves a comprehensive study of physiological conditions and the anatomy of the body where a biomaterial has to be implemented. The possibility of generating new materials from biominerals has a major impact in medicine and other fields could reach as geology, construction, crystallography, etc. While the study of these issues is in its infancy today, can be viewed as an impact on the art and future technology. Planning case study that students would prepare its report for discussion in subgroups. Occurs then the pooling of individual analysis, joint case discussion and adoption by the subgroup of a consensual solution to the problem. The teacher as facilitator and coordinator of the final case analysis, sharing leads to group-wide class and said the unanimous decision reached by the students and gives his opinion on the resolution of the case. REFERENCES D.P. Ausubel. Psicología Educativa. Un punto de vista cognoscitivo. Trillas. Ed. 1983. E.W. Eisner. Procesos

  2. Terahertz applications in cultural heritage: case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannacci, D.; Martos-Levif, D.; Walker, G. C.; Menu, M.; Detalle, V.

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging is a non-destructive, non-contact, non-invasive technology emerging as a tool for the analysis of cultural heritage. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) techniques have the ability to retrieve information from different layers within a stratified sample, that enable the identification of hidden sub-layers in the case of paints and mural paintings. In this paper, we present the THz TDS2 system developed in the European Commission's 7th Framework Program project CHARISMA [grant agreement no. 228330]. Bespoke single processing algorithms; including a deconvolution algorithm can be deployed to increase the resolution and the global performance of the system. The potential and impact of this work is demonstrated through two case studies of mural paintings, where the capability to reveal the stratigraphy of the artworks is demonstrated.

  3. Survey of technology for decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 8. Remote handling and cutting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-03-01

    In nuclear fuel cycle facility decommissioning and refurbishment, the remote handling techniques such as dismantling, waste handling and decontamination are needed to reduce personnel radiation exposure. The survey research for the status of R and D activities on remote handling tools suitable for nuclear facilities in the world and domestic existing commercial cutting tools applicable to decommissioning of the facilities was conducted. In addition, the drive mechanism, sensing element and control system applicable to the remote handling devices were also surveyed. This report presents brief surveyed summaries. (H. Itami)

  4. AMNT 2014. Key Topic: Fuel, decommissioning and disposal - report. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seipolt, Thomas [NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); Weber, Stefan [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Kock, Ingo [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Summary report on the following Topical Sessions of the Key Topic 'Fuel, Decommissioning and Disposal' of the Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology held in Frankfurt, 6 to 8 May 2014: - From Pilot Project to an Industrial Service (Thomas Seipolt); - Radioactive Waste Management - Experiences with Interim and Final Storage (Stefan Weber and Ingo Kock). The other Sessions of the Key Topics 'Reactor Operation, Safety', 'Competence, Innovation, Regulation' and 'Fuel, Decommissioning and Disposal' have been covered in atw 10 and 12 (2014), 1 (2015) and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  5. Determination of the activation level in the decommissioning inventory of the NPP Krsko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaag, S.; Graebner, G.; Keck, B. [NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Alzenau (Germany); Glaser, B. [Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (Slovenia)

    2010-05-15

    In support of a plant specific preliminary decommissioning plan the MCNP 5 code system /1/ was used to model the Krsko-reactor core and its external components relevant for activation analysis and decommissioning in 3D-geometry. By MCNP neutron transport calculations transfer functions for the space-dependent total neutron flux and the space-dependent rates (1-group cross sections) of the most relevant nuclear reactions were generated. These transfer functions were combined with the reactor operational data, and ORIGEN-2.1 /2/ irradiation calculations were performed to provide the activation levels of the individual reactor components. The results are presented and the uncertainties are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Forecast Master Program case studies: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, R.; Granger, C.; Ramanathan, R. (ed.)

    1987-04-01

    This report presents a number of case studies using the computer software package FORECAST MASTER (FM). The series studied and forecast are, aggregate monthly California Electricity Sales, system energy demand data from Ontario Hydro, peak demand data for the residential and commercial customers of Georgia Power Company, Massachusetts Electric commercial sales, Narragansett Electric commercial sales, average and peak demand using Georgia Power Company data. A variety of methods have been studied by each of the contributing authors; trend line fitting, exponential smoothing, Box-Jenkins univariate forecasting, vector autoregression, state space modeling, dynamic econometric models including time-varying parameters and general order serial correlation corrections. Thus both the data sets and the modeling/forecasting methodologies are varied. A number of conclusions emerge from these case studies: FM provides a powerful set of tools to aid a utility forecaster, a great deal of caution should be exercised in pre-processing the data; it can have unintended side effects, diagnostic tests are very useful in econometric models, the Akaike Information Criterion is a useful measure for selecting the best state space model, and state space and econometric approaches both need equal amounts of care in model analysis and presentation.

  7. Fiscal years 1993 and 1994 decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book for the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site, Technology Development Division, Decontamination and Decommissioning Projects Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This photobriefing book describes the ongoing decontamination and decommissioning projects at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)-East Site near Lemont, Illinois. The book is broken down into three sections: introduction, project descriptions, and summary. The introduction elates the history and mission of the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Projects Department at ANL-East. The second section describes the active ANL-East D and D projects, giving a project history and detailing fiscal year (FY) 1993 and FY 1994 accomplishments and FY 1995 goals. The final section summarizes the goals of the D and D Projects Department and the current program status. The D/D projects include the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor, Chicago Pile-5 Reactor, that cells, and plutonium gloveboxes. 73 figs.

  8. Parameterized Synthesis Case Study: AMBA AHB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Bloem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the AMBA AHB case study that has been used as a benchmark for several reactive synthesis tools. Synthesizing AMBA AHB implementations that can serve a large number of masters is still a difficult problem. We demonstrate how to use parameterized synthesis in token rings to obtain an implementation for a component that serves a single master, and can be arranged in a ring of arbitrarily many components. We describe new tricks - property decompositional synthesis, and direct encoding of simple GR(1 - that together with previously described optimizations allowed us to synthesize a component model with 14 states in about 1 hour.

  9. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, K.J.; Laford, H.D. [URS Consultants, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m{sup 3} of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations.

  10. Russian Media Educators: Case Studies Portraits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to case studies of the media education works of some well knowns Russian media educators. The analysis of media educational work of the famous Russian media educators leads us to the conclusion that media education in Russia is developing, building on the synthesis of the aesthetic, socio-cultural, and practical concepts, with a focus on the development of media competence of the audience, mainly school and youth. The enthusiasts of media education, even devoid of substantial public support for its innovative projects, achieve significant and meaningful results.

  11. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.

    2016-07-01

    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area.

  12. Case studies in Bayesian microbial risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Joanne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of uncertainty and variability is a key component of quantitative risk analysis. Recent advances in Bayesian statistics make it ideal for integrating multiple sources of information, of different types and quality, and providing a realistic estimate of the combined uncertainty in the final risk estimates. Methods We present two case studies related to foodborne microbial risks. In the first, we combine models to describe the sequence of events resulting in illness from consumption of milk contaminated with VTEC O157. We used Monte Carlo simulation to propagate uncertainty in some of the inputs to computer models describing the farm and pasteurisation process. Resulting simulated contamination levels were then assigned to consumption events from a dietary survey. Finally we accounted for uncertainty in the dose-response relationship and uncertainty due to limited incidence data to derive uncertainty about yearly incidences of illness in young children. Options for altering the risk were considered by running the model with different hypothetical policy-driven exposure scenarios. In the second case study we illustrate an efficient Bayesian sensitivity analysis for identifying the most important parameters of a complex computer code that simulated VTEC O157 prevalence within a managed dairy herd. This was carried out in 2 stages, first to screen out the unimportant inputs, then to perform a more detailed analysis on the remaining inputs. The method works by building a Bayesian statistical approximation to the computer code using a number of known code input/output pairs (training runs. Results We estimated that the expected total number of children aged 1.5-4.5 who become ill due to VTEC O157 in milk is 8.6 per year, with 95% uncertainty interval (0,11.5. The most extreme policy we considered was banning on-farm pasteurisation of milk, which reduced the estimate to 6.4 with 95% interval (0,11. In the second

  13. Myonecrosis in Sickle Cell Anemia: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Lalita Prabha; Boddu, Prajwal; Kipferl, Steve; Basu, Anupam; Yorath, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 27 Final Diagnosis: Myonecrosis of sickle cell anaemia Symptoms: Pain • redness to feet • swelling foot Medication: — Clinical Procedure: MRI Specialty: Podiatry Objective: Rare disease Background: Myonecrosis is one of the more poorly studied, painful manifestations of sickle cell crisis. Medical literature is sparse detailing the manifestations and management of such symptoms. In myonecrosis, red cells containing sickle hemoglobin become rigid, resulting in reduced blood flow and myonecrosis. Case Report: We present a case study of a patient in sickle cell crisis with an episode of acute pain and swelling to the intrinsic muscles of the foot as a prominent feature of the crises. Although muscle biopsy is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of myositis or myonecrosis, a low intensity signal on T1 and high intensity signal on T2 at the affected muscle belly can be as conclusive as imaging studies. In an actively sickling patient any invasive intervention should be avoided as it can result in ischemic necrosis of the tissues, due to interruption of capillary flow in end-arteries. Conclusions: Early recognition is critical in sickle cell disease management, allowing for prompt and aggressive fluid resuscitation which remains a cornerstone in the management of most sickle cell vaso-occlusive crises. In this instance, off loading the extremity and early fluid resuscitation resolved the pain and swelling and prevented myonecrosis. PMID:28133359

  14. Learning with Multimedia Cases: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Berg, Ellen; Jansen, Leanne; Blijleven, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This article is about the relation between case-based learning and transfer in teacher education. Through a design research approach a multimedia case has been developed. The topic of the case is "outdoor activities in science education." The core of the case is a 17 minute video that is supplemented by all kinds of background information. Results…

  15. [The SAPHO syndrome: a study of 16 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivé, A; Pérez-Andrés, R; Rivas, A; Holgado, S; Casado, E; Gumá, M; Tena, X

    1999-01-23

    The SAPHO syndrome is characterized by synovitis, acne, palmo-plantar pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis. SAPHO syndrome has been occasionally described in Spain. We present our experience of 16 cases with the SAPHO syndrome diagnosed between 1984-1995. The predominant clinical symptoms were: anterior thoracic pain (14 cases), sacroiliac pain (7 cases) and peripheral arthritis (2 cases). Cutaneous involvement was characterized by palmo-plantar pustulosis (8 cases) acne (3 cases) and psoriasis (2 cases). The histocompatibility antigen B27 was negative in all cases. A computerized tomographic study revealed involvement of sterno-costo-clavicular and manubriosternal joints (14 cases) and sacroiliitis (8 cases).

  16. Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John MESSING

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study Jason HOWARTH John MESSING Irfan ALTAS Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga-AUSTRALIA ABSTRACT This paper represents a brief case study of delivering online examinations to a worldwide audience. These examinations are delivered in partnership with a commercial online testing company as part of the Industry Master’s degree at Charles Sturt University (CSU. The Industry Master’s degree is an academic program for students currently employed in the IT industry. Using Internet Based Testing (IBT, these students are examined in test centres throughout the world. This offers many benefits. For example, students have the freedom of sitting exams at any time during a designated interval. Computer-based testing also provides instructors with valuable feedback through test statistics and student comments. In this paper, we document CSU’s use of the IBT system, including how tests are built and delivered, and how both human and statistical feedback is used to evaluate and enhance the testing process.

  17. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, William

    2011-01-01

    Pain is a widespread issue in the United States. Nine of 10 Americans regularly suffer from pain, and nearly every person will experience low back pain at one point in their lives. Undertreated or unrelieved pain costs more than $60 billion a year from decreased productivity, lost income, and medical expenses. The ability to diagnose and provide appropriate medical treatment is imperative. This case study examines a 23-year-old Active Duty woman who is preparing to be involuntarily released from military duty for an easily correctable medical condition. She has complained of chronic low back pain that radiates into her hip and down her leg since experiencing a work-related injury. She has been seen by numerous providers for the previous 11 months before being referred to the chronic pain clinic. Upon the first appointment to the chronic pain clinic, she has been diagnosed with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. This case study will demonstrate the importance of a quality lower back pain assessment.

  18. Case Study of the California Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Powell, Frank; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Friedmann, Rafael

    2005-05-01

    California is the largest cement producing state in theU.S., accounting for between 10 percent and 15 percent of U.S. cementproduction and cement industry employment. The cement industry inCalifornia consists of 31 sites that consume large amounts of energy,annually: 1,600 GWh of electricity, 22 million therms of natural gas, 2.3million tons of coal, 0.25 tons of coke, and smaller amounts of wastematerials, including tires. The case study summarized in this paperfocused on providing background information, an assessment ofenergy-efficiency opportunities and barriers, and program recommendationsthat can be used by program planners to better target products to thecement industry. The primary approach to this case study involvedwalk-through surveys of customer facilities and in depth interviews withcustomer decision makers and subsequent analysis of collected data. Inaddition, a basic review of the cement production process was developed,and summary cement industry energy and economic data were collected, andanalyzed. The analysis of secondary data provides background informationon the cement industry and identification of potential energy-efficiencyopportunities. The interviews provide some understanding of the customerperspective about implementation of energy-efficiencyprojects.

  19. Commercializing Emerging Renewable Energy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Lehtovaara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A broad scientific consensus exists that the global climate is changing. The Earth’s surface temperature could rise significantly over the next few decades, leading to us witnessing an entirely new and unknown planet. Improved energy efficiency, decreasing use of fossil fuels and wide diffusion of various renewable energy sources are among the focal measures to limit global warming to a sustainable level. The objective of this study is to analyse how renewable energy, such as wind power and bioenergy, could be efficiently commercialized. The evaluation is based on a case study and expert analyses exploiting lateral and parallel thinking methods, and group decision support systems tools. The results reveal that some of the generated ideas are ready for implementation to commercialize renewable energy, whereas others still require technical and commercial development and improvements before maturity.

  20. Social Architecture: An Emergency Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Qumer Gill

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emergency management agencies are progressively using social media for the sourcing and distribution of disaster information. Emergency management agencies are often unsure as to how to best identify and assess social media concerns (e.g. information security, trust which must be addressed to develop a social media-enabled disaster information management environment. This paper adopts the Social Architecture Viewpoint Assessment (SAVA framework for identifying and assessing social media concerns from four different viewpoints: IT, Value, Resource and Management. This paper demonstrates the use of the SAVA framework in the context of an in-depth empirical case study of an Australian emergency management agency. The results of this study indicate that the SAVA framework is useful for emergency information management managers in identifying and assessing social media concerns.

  1. Climate change: a case study over India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, A.K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India)

    1998-12-31

    A brief account of various causes of climate change in recent decades and climate change trends in the Indian region is presented. Local temperature is one of the major climatic elements to record the changes in the atmospheric environment caused by industrialization and urbanization. Literature data show that there is either a cooling tendency or cessation of warming after the late 1950s at most of the Indian industrial cities. A case study of Nagpur, a centrally located city in India, is done to understand the possible causes of cooling. Nagpur is the only city in India for which a long-term record of temperature, for urban (Mayo Hospital) and relatively suburban (Sonegaon Airport) area, is available. The study of the diurnal asymmetry in maximum and minimum temperatures indicates that the role of suspended particulate matter dominates over that of increasing greenhouse gases.

  2. Nightmares and psychotic decompensation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R; Daly, R S

    1998-01-01

    There have been numerous reports in the literature on the descriptive similarities between a severe nightmare and an acute psychotic episode. Nightmares may be a prelude to psychotic decompensation, and it has been suggested that frequent lifelong nightmares may even be diagnostic of an underlying vulnerability to psychosis. In this report, we present a case study of a 40-year old female experiencing chronic paranoid schizophrenia, whose two witnessed psychotic relapses in the hospital were immediately preceded by intense and vivid nightmare attacks. Significantly, the content of these nocturnal dreams was thematically consistent with her waking hallucinations, suggesting a direct continuity between these experiences. We propose that further systematic study of the dreams and nightmares of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia may be particularly useful in understanding their phenomenological experience.

  3. Scheduling job shop - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, M.; Abbas, A.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The scheduling in job shop is important for efficient utilization of machines in the manufacturing industry. There are number of algorithms available for scheduling of jobs which depend on machines tools, indirect consumables and jobs which are to be processed. In this paper a case study is presented for scheduling of jobs when parts are treated on available machines. Through time and motion study setup time and operation time are measured as total processing time for variety of products having different manufacturing processes. Based on due dates different level of priority are assigned to the jobs and the jobs are scheduled on the basis of priority. In view of the measured processing time, the times for processing of some new jobs are estimated and for efficient utilization of the machines available an algorithm is proposed and validated.

  4. STAKEHOLDERS AND APART HOTELS: MULTIPLE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Freire Ferreira Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Means of accommodation involve a wide range of social actors and agents, as well as different business models. Management strategies in this sector have been increasingly important for long-term sustainability and competitiveness of business organizations. This study aims to analyze the interactions between apart-hotels and their stakeholders to foster an improvement of services provided, aligning the interface of strategic management from the point of view of managers and their key stakeholders. It is an exploratory study, with qualitative chacter, along with multiple case studies of the following establishments: Travel Inn, Hotels Slaviero and Etoile george v. Brazilian enterprises, which manage lodging facilities with apart-hotel concepts, combining features that enable comparative analysis of the study. For conceptual understanding, this study was based on literature about stakeholders, taking the work of Freeman (1984 and Freeman et al (2010 as main references. The research was conducted through semi-structured interviews with managers of lodging facilities and their key stakeholders and through direct observation and documentation. We found that not all groups of influence are considered in the planning of service flats. However, the organizations surveyed indicated that the market has realized the importance of the groups that exert influence and are influenced by their goals, and are therefore increasingly alert for integration of such groups in their strategic planning.

  5. Decommissioning in the oil and gas industry and the inclusion of decommissioning permit in the Brazilian system of environmental permitting - first thoughts; O descomissionamento na industria de petroleo e gas e a inclusao da licenca de desinstalacao no procedimento de licenciamento ambiental brasileiro - primeiras reflexoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Luiz Gustavo Escorcio [Stroeter e Royster Advogados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]|[Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito. Programa de Estudos e Pesquisa em Direito do Petroleo (ANP - PRH33)

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to promote discussions regarding the decommissioning issue, its role in the protection of the environment and the feasibility of the inclusion of a Decommissioning Permit in the Brazilian System of Environmental Permitting. (author)

  6. 75 FR 8147 - Notice of Consideration of Amendment Request for Decommissioning of Analytical Bio-Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Consideration of Amendment Request for Decommissioning of Analytical Bio-Chemistry...-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc. (the Licensee) pursuant to 10 CFR part 30. By application dated October...

  7. 78 FR 38739 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ..., DG-1272, in the Federal Register on December 19, 2012 (77 FR 75198), for a 60-day public comment... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear... (NRC) is issuing Revision 1 of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for...

  8. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

  9. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FORTHE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE FUEL CHANNELS IN THECANDU NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As many nuclear power plants are reaching their end of lifecycle, the decommissioning of theseinstallations has become one of the 21stcentury’s great challenges. Each project may be managed differently,depending on the country, development policies, financial considerations, and the availability of qualifiedengineers or specialized companies to handle such projects. The principle objective of decommissioning is toplace a facility into such a condition that there is no unacceptable risk from the decommissioned facility topublic health and safety of the environment. In order to ensure that at the end of its life the risk from a facility iswithin acceptable bounds, action is normally required. The overall decommissioning strategy is todeliver a timely, cost-effective program while maintaining high standards of safety, security and environmentalprotection. If facilities were not decommissioned, they could degrade and potentially present an environmentalradiological hazard in the future. Simply abandoning or leaving a facility after ceasing operations is notconsidered to be an acceptable alternative to decommissioning. The final aim of decommissioning is torecover the geographic site to its original condition.

  10. Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-03-22

    Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

  11. Case-Studie af Fredericia Battle 1849

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2015-01-01

    En gennemgang af hvordan oplevelsesøkomien fungerer diskursivt - med Fredericia Battle 1849 som case.......En gennemgang af hvordan oplevelsesøkomien fungerer diskursivt - med Fredericia Battle 1849 som case....

  12. Study on Case-Based Fixture Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fixture is an important manufacturing activity. A fixture design system based on case-based reasoning (CBR) is proposed in this paper. A new method of case representation on the basis of fixture function is presented, where the case representation is constituted of workpiece knowledge, processing feature knowledge, and fixture feature knowledge. Running the prototype system shows that the knowledge representation method, using cases, is a better way to transform and explain the design knowledge.

  13. Logistics opportunity costs: A mining case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leani van Jaarsveld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study highlighted the importance of determining the impact that an ineffective mode of transport has on a firm’s transportation model and costs. The main focus of this study was to determine the logistics opportunity costs of using road transport within a mining firm. A case study approach was followed, as the investigation aimed to analyse a complex problem experienced by one company and present it in an easily understandable format. From the results of this study, it was apparent that the logistics opportunity costs associated with the mode of transport was substantial. This highlighted the need for firms to revise their choice of transport mode on a regular basis, as it has a major impact not only on their transportation costs, but also on their inventory holding and carbon emissions. The results also have implications for South Africa’s only freight railway, Transnet Freight Rail, which should not only focus on expanding its existing capacity, but also on improving its customer service delivery whilst containing tariff increases.

  14. Sixteen Years of International Co-operation. The OECD/NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, S.; Valencia, L.

    2002-02-25

    The Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning under the administration of the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has recently completed sixteen years of operation. The Programme, which is essentially an information exchange programme between decommissioning projects, came into being in 1985. It has grown from an initial 10 decommissioning projects from 7 countries to 39 projects from 14 countries today. From purely information exchange to start with, the Programme has, in later years, been functioning as a voice for the collective expression of views of the implementers of nuclear decommissioning. During the first sixteen years of the operation of the Co-operative Programme, nuclear decommissioning has grown from local specialist activities within projects to a competitive commercial industry. By the dismantling and release from regulatory control of over a dozen diverse nuclear facilities, the Programme has been able to demonstrate in practice, that nuclear decommissioning can be performed safely both for the workers and the public, and that this can be done at reasonable costs in an environmentally friendly fashion. During the recent years, discussions and work within the Co-operative Programme, specially within some of the Task Groups, have had/are having effects and repercussions not just in the field of nuclear decommissioning, but can possibly affect activities and regulations in other industries. This paper describes how the Programme and its activities and procedures have evolved over the years and indicate the directions of developments in the organization and execution of decommissioning projects. Finally, it gives a brief overview of the achievements of the Cooperative Programme and visualizes future developments in the field of nuclear decommissioning.

  15. Understanding Support - lessons from a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Sauer

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Support from top management and others is agreed to be an important factor in information systems success and failure, but little is written about how it has its effect and how it might be managed to a project's advantage. A recently developed conceptual framework is described. It covers the nature and forms of support, the way support affects project outcomes, the bases on which support is provided, and the strategies by which support may be managed. The framework is used to analyse a case study in several stages. At the end of the analysis of each stage, the framework's utility is assessed in terms of its explanatory value and the practical advice it suggests. Areas for further research are identified.

  16. Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jon; Theodosiou, Maria; Doshi, Sagar

    2014-02-01

    Rates of survival after cardiac arrest are low and correlate with the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Devices that deliver automated CPR (A-CPR) can provide sustained and effective chest compressions, which are especially useful during patient transfer and while simultaneous invasive procedures are being performed. The use of such devices can also release members of resuscitation teams for other work. This article presents a case study involving a man with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema. It describes how ED nursing and medical teams worked together to deliver A-CPR, discusses the use of A-CPR devices in a tertiary cardiac centre, and highlights the advantages of using such devices.

  17. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Christopher W; Woods, Amanda G; Cederholm, Carmen K

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB), formerly known as hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN), is a bleeding disorder in neonates that is caused by inadequate serum levels of vitamin K. Vitamin K is a nutrient essential for adequate function of the coagulation cascade. Certain internal and external factors place newborn infants at higher risk for VKDB. Therefore, vitamin K prophylaxis has become the standard of care for newborns. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the administration of vitamin K to newborns, some parents are choosing to withhold vitamin K administration at birth. This case study describes an infant who developed VKDB in the absence of vitamin K prophylaxis. Although parents ultimately have the right to choose whether or not to administer vitamin K, as healthcare professionals, it is important to provide education regarding the potential complications of withholding vitamin K and the signs of VKDB if vitamin K prophylaxis at birth is withheld.

  18. The virtual information: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevra Gravili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In todays economics, the fact that information is a major factor of production and of increasing importance as a source of competitive advantage is a generally accepted truism. The trend towards global markets has strongly impacted the competitive situation of many enterprises. Never has the economic environment been subject to so many drastic and rapid changes. This put new weight factors on the requirements for design of business process. This paper explores the case of an Italian legal office that has studied more and more innovative solutions both to satisfy the demands of the clienteles and to oppose the action of the new competitors. Comparing classic models and the theories of Porter with the characteristics and needs of new economy, it shows as the ability to possess, to easily have access, to creatively use of information constitutes one of the more strategic sources of the competitive advantage.

  19. Late ulnar paralysis. Study of seventeen cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansat, M; Bonnevialle, P; Fine, X; Guiraud, B; Testut, M F

    1983-01-01

    Seventeen cases of late ulnar paralysis treated by neurolysis-transposition are reported. The clinical characteristics of these paralysis are emphasized. A very prolonged symptom free interval, a rapid onset and a severe involvement. The ulnar transposition was most often done subcutaneously. Cubitus valgus and definite nerve compression proximal to the arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle are almost always present. The results as regards the neuropathy are notable: no patient is completely cured and only half are improved. An anatomical study of the nerve path shows the essential role, in the compression of the nerve, of the muscular arcade of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle which acts in a way similar to the bridge of a violin. Hence, opening it longitudinally is the principal procedure of the neurolysis. This should be routine before the first signs of neuropathy occur in an elbow whose axis is out of alignment as a sequela of a childhood injury.

  20. A case study in pathway knowledgebase verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Nigam H

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological databases and pathway knowledgebases are proliferating rapidly. We are developing software tools for computer-aided hypothesis design and evaluation, and we would like our tools to take advantage of the information stored in these repositories. But before we can reliably use a pathway knowledgebase as a data source, we need to proofread it to ensure that it can fully support computer-aided information integration and inference. Results We design a series of logical tests to detect potential problems we might encounter using a particular knowledgebase, the Reactome database, with a particular computer-aided hypothesis evaluation tool, HyBrow. We develop an explicit formal language from the language implicit in the Reactome data format and specify a logic to evaluate models expressed using this language. We use the formalism of finite model theory in this work. We then use this logic to formulate tests for desirable properties (such as completeness, consistency, and well-formedness for pathways stored in Reactome. We apply these tests to the publicly available Reactome releases (releases 10 through 14 and compare the results, which highlight Reactome's steady improvement in terms of decreasing inconsistencies. We also investigate and discuss Reactome's potential for supporting computer-aided inference tools. Conclusion The case study described in this work demonstrates that it is possible to use our model theory based approach to identify problems one might encounter using a knowledgebase to support hypothesis evaluation tools. The methodology we use is general and is in no way restricted to the specific knowledgebase employed in this case study. Future application of this methodology will enable us to compare pathway resources with respect to the generic properties such resources will need to possess if they are to support automated reasoning.

  1. Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning activities at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Lainetti, Paulo E.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: rcamilo@ipen.br, e-mail: lainetti@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    IPEN's fuel cycle activities were accomplished in laboratory and pilot plant scale and most facilities were built in the 70-80 years. Nevertheless, radical changes of the Brazilian nuclear policy in the beginning of 90's determined the interruption of several fuel cycle activities and facilities shutdown. Since then, IPEN has faced the problem of the pilot plants decommissioning considering that there was no experience/expertise in this field at all. In spite of this, some laboratory and pilot plant decommissioning activities have been performed in IPEN in the last years, even without previous experience and training support. One of the first decommissioning activities accomplished in IPEN involved the Hot Chemistry Laboratory. This facility was built in the beginning of the 80's with the proposal of supporting research and development in the nuclear chemistry area. It was decided to settle a new laboratory in the place where the Hot Chemistry Laboratory was installed, being necessary its total releasing from the radioactive contamination point of view. The previous work in the laboratory involved the manipulation of samples of irradiated nuclear fuel, besides plutonium-239 and uranium-233 standard solutions. There were 5 glove-boxes in the facility but only 3 were used with radioactive material. The glove-boxes contained several devices and materials, besides the radioactive compounds, such as: electric and electronic equipment, metallic and plastic pieces, chemical reagents, liquid and solid radioactive wastes, etc. The laboratory's decommissioning process was divided in 12 steps. This paper describes the procedures, problems faced and results related to the Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning operations and its reintegration as a new laboratory of the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center (CQMA) - IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  2. Recommended values for the distribution coefficient (Kd) to be used in dose assessments for decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan T.

    2014-06-09

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. The site contains two reactor Containment Buildings, a Fuel Building, an Auxiliary Building, and a Turbine Building that may be contaminated. The current decommissioning plan involves removing all above grade structures to a depth of 3 feet below grade. The remaining underground structures will be backfilled. The remaining underground structures will contain low amounts of residual licensed radioactive material. An important component of the decommissioning process is the demonstration that any remaining activity will not cause a hypothetical individual to receive a dose in excess of 25 mrem/y as specified in 10CFR20 SubpartE.

  3. Recommended values for the distribution coefficient (Kd) to be used in dose assessments for decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-09-24

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. The site contains two reactor Containment Buildings, a Fuel Building, an Auxiliary Building, and a Turbine Building that may be contaminated. The current decommissioning plan involves removing all above grade structures to a depth of 3 feet below grade. The remaining underground structures will be backfilled. The remaining underground structures will contain low amounts of residual licensed radioactive material. An important component of the decommissioning process is the demonstration that any remaining activity will not cause a hypothetical individual to receive a dose in excess of 25 mrem/y as specified in 10CFR20 SubpartE.

  4. KIT competence center for decommissioning. Innovation and promotion of trainees; Kompetenzzentrum Rueckbau am KIT. Nachwuchsfoerderung und Innovationen fuer den Rueckbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentes, Sascha [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie und Management im Baubetrieb

    2016-03-15

    The safe decommissioning of nuclear installations is technically feasible, but is also still a challenge for science, technology and industry. The expertise and know how for decommissioning must be ensured because it will be needed for further decades. Already in 2008 the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) had identified this challenge that later emerged through the closure of nuclear power plants in Germany. The KIT opened the professorship Technology and Management of the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations. In 2014, this section was extended through the dismantling of conventional installations.

  5. Hubble Case Studies of Transiting Giant Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake; Barker, Adrian; Benneke, Björn; Delrez, Laetitia; Gillon, Michaël; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Jehin, Emmanuel; Knutson, Heather; Lewis, Nikole K.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Mandell, Avi; McCullough, Peter R.; Wakeford, Hannah R.

    2017-01-01

    The study of planets around other stars has entered a science-rich era of characterization, in which detailed information about individual planets can be inferred from observations beyond mere detection, which only yields bulk properties like mass or radius. Characterization probes more revealing quantities such as chemical abundances, albedo, and temperature/pressure profiles, which allow us to address larger questions of planet formation mechanisms, planetary evolution, and, eventually, habitability and presence of biosignature gases. The primary method for characterization of close-in planets is transit spectroscopy. This dissertation talk will focus on transiting exoplanet case studies with the Hubble Space Telescope’ Wide-Field Camera-3 (WFC-3) as a tool of exoplanet characterization in a near-infrared band dominated by strong water features. I will first present a characterization the WFC-3 systematic effects that must be mitigated to extract the incredibly small (tens to 200 parts per million) signals, and then a study of four transiting giant planets (HATS-7b, HAT-p-3b, HD 149026b, and WASP-18b) in transmission, and two (WASP-18b and CoRoT-2b) in eclipse. Finally, I will discuss the role of transit timing monitoring of WASP-18b with HST and other observatories as another clue to its evolution as a close-in, massive planet. The five planets range from Neptune-class to Super-Jupiter-class in size/mass. Though these planets may be relatively rare, their observability represents a unique opportunity to probe planet formation and evolution, as well as atmospheric structures in a high-irradiation environment. These observations also yield insights into aerosols (i.e. clouds/hazes) in the atmosphere; clouds and/or hazes should significantly impact atmospheric chemistry and observational signatures, and we as a community must get a better handle on the phenomenon of aerosols in advance of the next generation of space observatories, including JWST and WFIRST

  6. Geoelectrical monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage to support high-hazard nuclear decommissioning at the Sellafield Site, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuras, Oliver, E-mail: oku@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Paul B.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Oxby, Lucy S. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Uhlemann, Sebastian [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); ETH-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Geophysics, Sonneggstr. 5, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Chambers, Jonathan E. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Graham, James [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Smith, Nicholas T. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Williamson Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Atherton, Nick [Sellafield Ltd, Albion Square, Swingpump Lane, Whitehaven CA28 7NE (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    A full-scale field experiment applying 4D (3D time-lapse) cross-borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to the monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage was undertaken at a legacy nuclear waste silo at the Sellafield Site, UK. The experiment constituted the first application of geoelectrical monitoring in support of decommissioning work at a UK nuclear licensed site. Images of resistivity changes occurring since a baseline date prior to the simulated leaks revealed likely preferential pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the vadose zone and upper groundwater system. Geophysical evidence was found to be compatible with historic contamination detected in permeable facies in sediment cores retrieved from the ERT boreholes. Results indicate that laterally discontinuous till units forming localized hydraulic barriers substantially affect flow patterns and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface at Sellafield. We conclude that only geophysical imaging of the kind presented here has the potential to provide the detailed spatial and temporal information at the (sub-)meter scale needed to reduce the uncertainty in models of subsurface processes at nuclear sites. - Graphical abstract: 3D fractional resistivity change (resistivity change Δρ divided by baseline resistivity ρ{sub 0}) image showing results of Stage 1 silo liquor simulant injection. The black line delineates the preferential flow path; green cylinders show regions of historic contamination found in sediment cores from ERT boreholes. - Highlights: • 4D geoelectrical monitoring at Sellafield detected and tracked simulated silo leaks. • ERT revealed likely pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the subsurface. • The method can reduce uncertainty in subsurface process models at nuclear sites. • Has been applied in this form at a UK nuclear licensed site for the first time • Study demonstrates value of 4D geophysics for nuclear decommissioning.

  7. Case Study: Revising a Formal Case Study Presentation as an Independent Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the process of researching and revising a case study presentation on an individual who experienced anesthetic awareness during an abdominal surgery and eventually committed suicide. Topics addressed include the author's selection of an undergraduate student with a science and teaching background to work on the case…

  8. Tactile Astronomy - a Portuguese case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, L.; Alves, F.; Correia, A.

    2012-09-01

    Although astronomy plays an important role in the most various outreach initiatives, as well as school science curricula, due to its strong visual component in knowledge acquisition, astronomy subjects are not entirely well addressed and accessed by visually impaired students and/or general public. This stresses the need of more tactile material production, still very scarce in an educational context whether formal or informal. This is a case study activity developed based on different schematic tactile images of several objects present in our solar system. These images in relief, highlight, through touch, several relevant features present in the different astronomical objects studied. The scientific knowledge is apprehended through the use of a tactile key, complemented with additional information. Through proper hands-on activities implementation and careful analysis of the outcome, the adapted images associated with an explanatory key prove to be a valuable resource in tactile astronomy domain. Here we describe the process of implementing such initiative near visually impaired students. The struggles and challenges perceived by all involved and the enrichment experience of engaging astronomy with visually impaired audiences, broadening horizons in an overall experience accessible to all.

  9. Anorexia in the Adolescence - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida de Paiva, Maria O

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders lead to special biological and psychological states. The result of the total lack of food is treated in a distinct way by anorexia. Nutritionists have thus had difficulty in coming to an agreement on the best therapy to prevent such disorders. First it is essential to understand which treatment aims are and then to attempt to know how the several treatment models used nowadays can reach those aims. Someone who suffers from eating disorders, together with an inner deformation, suffers from too much sensitiveness. In order to solve these problems, one needs a change in the relationship with oneself, with the others and with the world. This study presents a teenager’s case study – Anorexia. Is, in fact, a problem that society faces and can’t ignore. Many youngsters have already died and others are following their steps. But there are also those ones that succeeded in overcoming the problem and now are reporting their stories.

  10. Odontoma: a retrospective study of 73 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical findings and treatment results for impacted permanent teeth associated with odontomas. We retrospectively investigated 73 odontomas in 72 patients who visited Kyungpook National University Dental Hospital from April 2004 through November 2011. The study was performed using medical records, panoramic radiographs, and pathological reports. Data gathered included age, gender, location, chief complaints, effects on dentition, and treatment of odontoma and the impacted tooth associated with odontoma. Most compound odontomas (46.7%) were found in the second decade and complex odontomas were not related to age. Odontomas showed no gender predilection. Fifty-five cases (75.3%) of odontomas were detected on routine dental radiographs. Sixty percent of compound odontomas occurred in the canine area and 57.1% of complex odontomas in the molar areas. Impaction of permanent teeth (61.6%) was the most common complication on the adjacent teeth. Most odontomas (84.9%) were removed surgically and impacted permanent teeth were managed by surgical removal (53.2%), orthodontic treatment (25.5%), or surgical repositioning (6.4%). There was a statistically significant relation between age and preservation of the impacted permanent teeth associated with odontomas (p<0.01). Early detection and treatment of odontomas increase the possibility of preservation of the impacted tooth. Therefore, it would be suggested that periodic panoramic examination during the first and second decade of life might be beneficial for the early detection and better prognosis of odontomas.

  11. Go with the flow: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.A. [Alfred Hospital, Prahran, VIC (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: A 55-year-old female presented to the Alfred Emergency Department semi-conscious with frank rectal bleeding requiring blood volume replacement. Labelled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy was requested in order to locate the site of bleeding. In vitro labelling of 3 mL of patient``s blood was performed (PYP as a diluted tinning agent and 1 GBq of freshly eluted {sup 99}mTc) and suspended red cells were injected. Using a GE Starcam system with high resolution collimation, images were acquired for 30 seconds (2 s per frame) and thereafter continuously for 1. 5 hours (30 s per frame). During imaging, patient history became available revealing portal hypertension, oesophageal and anal varices due to myelofibrosis and previous cholecystectomy. Initial flow images showed bizarre abdominal collateral vessels. Accumulation of labelled RBC over 1.5 hours in the right upper quadrant indicated the hepatic flexure as the site of bleeding. The initial flow study showing major porto-systemic collateral vessels indicated that therapeutic embolisation via angiography would be life threatening. The patient underwent emergency hemicolectomy and has been bleed-free to date. In this case, delayed RBC scintigraphy accurately located the haemorrhage site. However, the initial flow study demonstrating major vessel collateral flow was crucial in contraindicating angiographic embolisation. Surgery was then the only therapeutic option.

  12. Antineutrino reactor safeguards - a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Eric; Jaffke, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Antineutrinos have been proposed as a means of reactor safeguards for more than 30 years and there has been impressive experimental progress in neutrino detection. In this paper we conduct, for the first time, a case study of the application of antineutrino safeguards to a real-world scenario - the North Korean nuclear crisis in 1994. We derive detection limits to a partial or full core discharge in 1989 based on actual IAEA safeguards access and find that two independent methods would have yielded positive evidence for a second core with very high confidence. To generalize our results, we provide detailed estimates for the sensitivity to the plutonium content of various types of reactors, including most types of plutonium production reactors, based on detailed reactor simulations. A key finding of this study is that a wide class of reactors with a thermal power of less than 0.1-1 GWth can be safeguarded achieving IAEA goals for quantitative sensitivity and timeliness with detectors right outside the reactor ...

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Case Studies in Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 161Case Studies in Knowledge ManagementEdited by Murray JennexHersley: PA: Idea Group, 2005, pp. 372, ISBN 1-59140-352-9Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACIAnadolu UniversityEskişehir-TurkeyKnowledge management (KM as a structured system and the way to the effectiveness isrelatively new field for the contemporary organizations functioning in different andcompetitive domain of public and private sectors in terms of getting optimal effectivenessunderlined by the concepts such as quality, productivity…etc. Because of the growingimportance and the popularity of the KM either as a research topic or specialized coursesubject, a crucial need for understanding, conceptualization and implementation of KM asa system has emerged since the mid 1990’s. In this sense, the book contributes criticallyto fill the gap between theory and implementation as a teaching material.This edited book is published by Idea Group Publishing. The book has twenty chaptersdivided into seven sections. In addition to a section of authors’ biography contributing thebook and an index, there is a preface that the basic terms and key concepts underliningthe cases discussed following chapters, which is explained in a schematized way.Besides the editor, total of 47 authors have contributed to the book. These authors arefrom different countries, academic backgrounds, and institutions. Although approximatelyone third of the authors are from USA, the rest of the authors are from Canada, England,Austria, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, Egypt, Bahrain and China. The authorsrepresent a variety of universities, private companies, and military institutions. Most ofthem have strong professional backgrounds, which help them address the issues bothfrom theoretical and practical perspectives. Contributions of authors having differentbackgrounds and institutions enable the book to have very comprehensive spectrum andthis makes the book attractive practically for those working different sectors

  14. Guidelines for Conducting Positivist Case Study Research in Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shanks

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The case study research approach is widely used in a number of different ways within the information systems community. This paper focuses on positivist, deductive case study research in information systems. It provides clear definitions of important concepts in positivist case study research and illustrates these with an example research study. A critical analysis of the conduct and outcomes of two recently published positivist case studies is reported. One is a multiple case study that validated concepts in a framework for viewpoint development in requirements definition. The other is a single case study that examined the role of social enablers in enterprise resource planning systems implementation. A number of guidelines for successfully undertaking positivist case study research are identified including developing a clear understanding of key concepts and assumptions within the positivist paradigm; providing clear and unambiguous definitions of the units and interactions when using any theory; carefully defining the boundary of the theory used in the case study; using hypotheses rather than propositions in the empirical testing of theory; using fuzzy or probabilistic propositions in recognising that reality can never be perfectly known; selecting case studies carefully, particularly single case studies; and recognising that generalisation from positivist, single case studies is inherently different from generalisation from single experiments. When properly undertaken, positivist, deductive case study research is a valuable research approach for information systems researchers, particularly when used within pluralist research programs that use a number of different research approaches from different paradigms.

  15. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated with a specific product. To perform this task, they were given several documents including guides for good hygiene practices, reviews on microbiological hazards in the food sector, flow sheets, etc…  After three-hours of work, the working groups prepared and gave an oral presentation in front of their classmates and professors. This raised comments and discussion that allowed students to adjust their conclusions before beginning the next step of their work. This second step consisted in the evaluation of the safety risk associated with the two major microbiological hazards of the product studied, using predictive microbiology. Students then attended a general lecture on the different tools of predictive microbiology and tutorials (6 hours that made them familiar with the modelling of bacterial growth or inactivation. They applied these tools (9 hours to predict the shelf-life of the studied product according to various scenarios of preservation (refrigeration, water activity, concentration of salt or acid, modified atmosphere, etc… and/or consumption procedures (cooking. The module was concluded by oral presentations of each working group and included student evaluation (3 hours.

  16. Case Study Research in Software Engineering Guidelines and Examples

    CERN Document Server

    Runeson, Per; Rainer, Austen; Regnell, Bjorn

    2012-01-01

    Based on their own experiences of in-depth case studies of software projects in international corporations, in this book the authors present detailed practical guidelines on the preparation, conduct, design and reporting of case studies of software engineering.  This is the first software engineering specific book on the case study research method.

  17. Nuclide Inventory Calculation Using MCNPX for Wolsung Unit 1 Reactor Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie; Noh, Kyoung Ho; Hah, Chang Joo [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The CINDER90 computation process involves utilizing linear Markovian chains to determine the time dependent nuclide densities. The CINDER90 depletion algorithm is implemented the MCNPX code package. The coupled depletion process involves a Monte-Carlo steady-state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation. The process is shown in Fig.1. MCNPX runs a steady state calculation to determine the system eigenvalue collision densities, recoverable energies from fission and neutrons per fission events. In order to generate number densities for the next time step, the CINDER90 code takes the MCNPX generated values and performs a depletion calculation. MCNPX then takes the new number densities and caries out a new steady-stated calculation. The process repeats itself until the final time step. This paper describe the preliminary source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel using MCNPX, as a part of the activities to support the equilibrium core model development and decommissioning evaluation process of a Candu reactor. The aim of this study was to apply the MCNPX code for source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel. Nuclide inventories as a function of burnup will be used to model an equilibrium core for Candu reactor. The core lifetime neutron fluence obtained from the model is used to estimate radioactivity at the stage of decommisioning. In general, as expected, the actinides and fission products build up increase with increasing burnup. Despite the fact that the MCNPX code is still in development we can conclude that the code is capable of obtaining relevant results in burnup and source term calculation. It is recommended that in the future work, the calculation has to be verified on the basis of experimental data or comparison with other codes.

  18. Abbreviated sampling and analysis plan for planning decontamination and decommissioning at Test Reactor Area (TRA) facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    The objective is to sample and analyze for the presence of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents within certain areas of the Test Reactor Area (TRA), prior to D and D activities. The TRA is composed of three major reactor facilities and three smaller reactors built in support of programs studying the performance of reactor materials and components under high neutron flux conditions. The Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) and Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) facilities are currently pending D/D. Work consists of pre-D and D sampling of designated TRA (primarily ETR) process areas. This report addresses only a limited subset of the samples which will eventually be required to characterize MTR and ETR and plan their D and D. Sampling which is addressed in this document is intended to support planned D and D work which is funded at the present time. Biased samples, based on process knowledge and plant configuration, are to be performed. The multiple process areas which may be potentially sampled will be initially characterized by obtaining data for upstream source areas which, based on facility configuration, would affect downstream and as yet unsampled, process areas. Sampling and analysis will be conducted to determine the level of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents present in designated areas within buildings TRA-612, 642, 643, 644, 645, 647, 648, 663; and in the soils surrounding Facility TRA-611. These data will be used to plan the D and D and help determine disposition of material by D and D personnel. Both MTR and ETR facilities will eventually be decommissioned by total dismantlement so that the area can be restored to its original condition.

  19. SGN's experience in the field of decommissioning and site cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouques, F. [SGN, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, 78182 Saint Quentin-en-Yvelines Cedex (France); Destrait, L. [SGN, 30204 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2003-07-01

    As early as the 1980's, SGN participated in dismantling projects at CEA and COGEMA plants in France. The experience gained has since been applied to many projects in France and abroad. In close collaboration with the customer, SGN is prime contractor on a cleanup and dismantling project, from preliminary studies and tool and process development to release of the site. SGN's areas of expertise include waste retrieval, decontamination processes, intervention robotics, cutting tools and waste management and treatment. SGN's proposal is based on proven methods and feedback from earlier projects. SGN is currently participating in many cleanup and dismantling projects, including the three (LRTP project at Chernobyl, Marcoule Plant UP1 and Hanford in the U.S.A) presented below. The contents is as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. LRTP Project at Chernobyl; 2.1. Description of interim waste storage; 2.2. Organization; 2.3. Plant characteristics; 2.4. Process Implemented (waste retrieval from the storage tanks; waste sampling and pretreatment; Volume reduction; Cementing); 2.5. Schedule; 3. Marcoule plant UP1; 3.1 Description of plant UP1; 3.2 Organization; 3.3. Cleanup/Dismantling program; 3.3.1. Purpose of the decommissioning and cleanup operations; 3.3.2. D and D techniques Implemented (Cleanup techniques used; Examples of remote handling equipment): 3.3.3. Purpose of the waste retrieval and packaging operations; 3.3.4. Purpose of the dismantling operations; 4. Hanford in the U.S.A.; 4.1. Decontamination and cleanup of hot cells; 4.2. Liquid and sludge retrieval; 4.3. Retrieval and packaging of spent nuclear fuel.

  20. Generation solar case study : solar summer camp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presented a case study of the use of solar power at camp Tanamakoon in Ontario's Algonquin Park. It discussed camp facilities which include solar powered composting toilets and solar heated showers. Composting, recycling, and use of environmentally friendly products were also discussed. The camp also has a grid interactive solar electric system and a solar water heating system. The solar electric system provides backup power to critical loads such as safety lights and an emergency fridge and is also connected to the existing grid electricity system. Any excess energy from the solar system can be used by other kitchen appliances or, any other load anywhere in the camp. The main user of the solar heated water is a large automatic dishwasher which has as a built-in boost heater for those days when the solar heated water is insufficiently hot to sanitize dishes. It was concluded that while camp utility bills have been reduced by this investment in renewable energy technology, the primary objectives of the project were the protection of Tanamakoon's pristine Algonquin environment and the attraction and retention of clients for the camp by enhancing the camping experience. fig.

  1. Deep Energy Retrofits - Eleven California Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisher, Jeremy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This research documents and demonstrates viable approaches using existing materials, tools and technologies in owner-conducted deep energy retrofits (DERs). These retrofits are meant to reduce energy use by 70% or more, and include extensive upgrades to the building enclosure, heating, cooling and hot water equipment, and often incorporate appliance and lighting upgrades as well as the addition of renewable energy. In this report, 11 Northern California (IECC climate zone 3) DER case studies are described and analyzed in detail, including building diagnostic tests and end-use energy monitoring results. All projects recognized the need to improve the home and its systems approximately to current building code-levels, and then pursued deeper energy reductions through either enhanced technology/ building enclosure measures, or through occupant conservation efforts, both of which achieved impressive energy performance and reductions. The beyond-code incremental DER costs averaged $25,910 for the six homes where cost data were available. DERs were affordable when these incremental costs were financed as part of a remodel, averaging a $30 per month increase in the net-cost of home ownership.

  2. Hyperamonemia in children. Study of 72 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Pérez Mario

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperammonemia (HA is a metabolic emergency, and when not diagnosed and treated in a timely manner leads to severe neuro- logical damage and/ or death. HA may have multiple origins, but the EIM are one of the causes that should always be suspected. The objective of this work is to make a clinical description of the causes of HA in a sample of patients from the National Institute of Pediatrics (INP, to know the proportion of patients with HA in which could confirm the presence of an inborn error of metabolism (IEM. We found 72 patients with HA in the past 10 years, of whom 11 were patients already known to have an IEM and 61 with unknown cause; Of the latter, 46% of patients underwent metabolic studies (amino acids quantification, organic acids analysis and orotic acid quantification and in 14 cases (30% an IEM was diagnosed. The clinical symptoms most frequently observed were neurological (seizures, drowsiness, lethargy, irritability, developmental delay, and hypotonia stupor, etc., followed by digestive disturbances such as vomiting and refusal to eat. Urea cycle disorders, aminoacidopathies and organic acidemias were diagnosed, so the management and treatment of these should be known by the pediatricians, especially those dedicated to emergencies.

  3. Jazz improvisers’ shared understanding: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Schober

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To what extent and in what arenas do collaborating musicians need to understand what they are doing in the same way? Two experienced jazz musicians who had never previously played together played three improvisations on a jazz standard (It Could Happen to You on either side of a visual barrier. They were then immediately interviewed separately about the performances, their musical intentions, and their judgments of their partner’s musical intentions, both from memory and prompted with the audiorecordings of the performances. Statements from both (audiorecorded interviews as well as statements from an expert listener were extracted and anonymized. Two months later, the performers listened to the recordings and rated the extent to which they endorsed each statement. Performers endorsed statements they themselves had generated more often than statements by their performing partner and the expert listener; their overall level of agreement with each other was greater than chance but moderate to low, with disagreements about the quality of one of the performances and about who was responsible for it. The quality of the performances combined with the disparities in agreement suggest that, at least in this case study, fully shared understanding of what happened is not essential for successful improvisation. The fact that the performers endorsed an expert listener’s statements more than their partner’s argues against a simple notion that performers’ interpretations are always privileged relative to an outsider’s.

  4. Jazz improvisers' shared understanding: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michael F; Spiro, Neta

    2014-01-01

    To what extent and in what arenas do collaborating musicians need to understand what they are doing in the same way? Two experienced jazz musicians who had never previously played together played three improvisations on a jazz standard ("It Could Happen to You") on either side of a visual barrier. They were then immediately interviewed separately about the performances, their musical intentions, and their judgments of their partner's musical intentions, both from memory and prompted with the audiorecordings of the performances. Statements from both (audiorecorded) interviews as well as statements from an expert listener were extracted and anonymized. Two months later, the performers listened to the recordings and rated the extent to which they endorsed each statement. Performers endorsed statements they themselves had generated more often than statements by their performing partner and the expert listener; their overall level of agreement with each other was greater than chance but moderate to low, with disagreements about the quality of one of the performances and about who was responsible for it. The quality of the performances combined with the disparities in agreement suggest that, at least in this case study, fully shared understanding of what happened is not essential for successful improvisation. The fact that the performers endorsed an expert listener's statements more than their partner's argues against a simple notion that performers' interpretations are always privileged relative to an outsider's.

  5. Case study for a vaccine against leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvar, Jorge; Croft, Simon L; Kaye, Paul; Khamesipour, Ali; Sundar, Shyam; Reed, Steven G

    2013-04-18

    Leishmaniasis in many ways offers a unique vaccine case study. Two reasons for this are that leishmaniasis is a disease complex caused by several different species of parasite that are highly related, thus raising the possibility of developing a single vaccine to protect against multiple diseases. Another reason is the demonstration that a leishmaniasis vaccine may be used therapeutically as well as prophylactically. Although there is no registered human leishmaniasis vaccine today, immunization approaches using live or killed organisms, as well as defined vaccine candidates, have demonstrated at least some degree of efficacy in humans to prevent and to treat some forms of leishmaniasis, and there is a vigorous pipeline of candidates in development. Current approaches include using individual or combined antigens of the parasite or of salivary gland extract of the parasites' insect vector, administered with or without formulation in adjuvant. Animal data obtained with several vaccine candidates are promising and some have been or will be entered into clinical testing in the near future. There is sufficient scientific and epidemiological justification to continue to invest in the development of vaccines against leishmaniasis.

  6. Hybrid Risk Management Methodology: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Siu-Lun Ting

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is a decision-making process involving considerations of political, social, economic and engineering factors with relevant risk assessments relating to a potential hazard. In the last decade, a number of risk management tools are introduced and employed to manage and minimize the uncertainty and threats realization to the organizations. However, the focus of these methodologies are different; in which companies need to adopt various risk management principles to visualize a full picture of the organizational risk level. Regarding to this, this paper presents a new approach of risk management that integrates Hierarchical Holographic Modeling (HHM, Enterprise Risk Management (ERM and Business Recovery Planning (BCP for identifying and assessing risks as well as managing the consequences of realized residual risks. To illustrate the procedures of the proposed methodology, a logistic company ABC Limited is chosen to serve as a case study Through applying HHM and ERM to investigate and assess the risk, ABC Limited can be better evaluated the potential risks and then took the responsive actions (e.g. BCP to handle the risks and crisis in near future.

  7. Solar wind correlations: Statistical and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paularena, K. I.; Richardson, J. D.; Zastenker, G. N.; Dalin, P. A.

    1999-06-01

    Recent work on solar wind plasma correlations using data from several widely-separated spacecraft (IMP 8, INTERBALL-1, WIND, and ISEE-3) has shown that, for 6-hour periods, the average plasma correlation is ~0.7. The focus of these studies has been directed toward a statistical understanding of gross solar wind correlation behavior. In all correlations examined, lower average correlations are caused by the presence of many points from the low correlation subpopulation; nevertheless, data points from the high correlation population are still present. No single organizational factor has yet been found which adequately separates low-correlation periods from high-correlation periods. Some of the spread in correlations is due to the spatial orientations and dimensions of solar wind structures, and thus to the locational alignments of the spacecraft being correlated, but this does not adequately explain all the good or poor correlations since sometimes three nearby spacecraft show poor correlations, while sometimes three widely-separated space-craft show good correlations. Thus, in order to understand the underlying physics, detailed investigation of individual cases has been undertaken. These results will be important in assigning quality measures to space weather predictions using satellite measurements taken at L1, for example.

  8. Dynamic optimization case studies in DYNOPT tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Stepan; Pies, Martin; Docekal, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    Dynamic programming is typically applied to optimization problems. As the analytical solutions are generally very difficult, chosen software tools are used widely. These software packages are often third-party products bound for standard simulation software tools on the market. As typical examples of such tools, TOMLAB and DYNOPT could be effectively applied for solution of problems of dynamic programming. DYNOPT will be presented in this paper due to its licensing policy (free product under GPL) and simplicity of use. DYNOPT is a set of MATLAB functions for determination of optimal control trajectory by given description of the process, the cost to be minimized, subject to equality and inequality constraints, using orthogonal collocation on finite elements method. The actual optimal control problem is solved by complete parameterization both the control and the state profile vector. It is assumed, that the optimized dynamic model may be described by a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) or differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). This collection of functions extends the capability of the MATLAB Optimization Tool-box. The paper will introduce use of DYNOPT in the field of dynamic optimization problems by means of case studies regarding chosen laboratory physical educational models.

  9. Refugee Problem in Europe – Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esztella Varga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European refugee problem has grown dramatically in the last few months, putting a considerable amount of pressure on the European countries. Not only are they facing migrants from North Africa, but from the Middle East as well.In March 2011 the Arab Spring has reached Syria, causing a huge number of Syrians to flee their country and seek asylum in Turkey, and possibly going further to the EU. The refugees who fled Syria as well as those who are leaving North Africa (mostly the failed state of Libya are aiming to reach European soil, but Italy, Greece or Turkey is not ready to handle the amount of refugees. The cooperation of the Mediterranean countries and Europe has not been able to slow down the flow of refugees, and the Mediterranean and Aegean seas have become dangerous routes for the desperate migrants who attempt the sea-crossing. In my analysis I would like to highlight the role of the so-called elements of ‘soft power’ in the way of dealing with the refugee problem. According to my hypothesis, the issue can’t be successfully addressed using only the means of the ‘soft power’. No real solution for the crisis has been offered yet, and I would like to give case studies of the different ways of dealing with the problem – inside (Greece, Italy and outside (Turkey of the European Union.

  10. Environmental injustice: case studies from the South

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, Enrique [Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit, National Institute of Public Health, Mexico Environmental Sciences, Av Universidad 655, Cuernavaca CP 62508 (Mexico); Frumkin, Howard [National Centre Environmental Health, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road MS E-28, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    We selected three case studies to illustrate environmental injustice issues in the South. These examples relate to migrant agricultural workers, the maquiladora industry and artisanal mining, while reviewing some of the major mechanisms involved, e.g. multinational corporations, the development of free trade zones, multilateral free trade agreements and the export of hazards. A series of strategies are discussed in order to address environmental injustice and health disparities that exist on a global scale. Some of the recommendations involve policy initiatives; others, such as research and mentorship, fall within the traditional domain of public health practice. In this paper, special attention is given to concerned environmental and occupational health professionals using evidence-based data for advocacy. For lasting changes to be made, however, stronger institutions and legislation are required. Those who have the 'right to know' about environmental injustice issues include communities of concern, workers' representatives and lawyers. Government officials and company officials may eventually work on the basis of conflict resolution, compensation and remediation, to quote some examples. Systematic approaches to protect both the environment and public health must be updated.

  11. Environmental injustice: case studies from the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Frumkin, Howard

    2007-10-01

    We selected three case studies to illustrate environmental injustice issues in the South. These examples relate to migrant agricultural workers, the maquiladora industry and artisanal mining, while reviewing some of the major mechanisms involved, e.g. multinational corporations, the development of free trade zones, multilateral free trade agreements and the export of hazards. A series of strategies are discussed in order to address environmental injustice and health disparities that exist on a global scale. Some of the recommendations involve policy initiatives; others, such as research and mentorship, fall within the traditional domain of public health practice. In this paper, special attention is given to concerned environmental and occupational health professionals using evidence-based data for advocacy. For lasting changes to be made, however, stronger institutions and legislation are required. Those who have the 'right to know' about environmental injustice issues include communities of concern, workers' representatives and lawyers. Government officials and company officials may eventually work on the basis of conflict resolution, compensation and remediation, to quote some examples. Systematic approaches to protect both the environment and public health must be updated.

  12. PARTICULARITIES REGARDING THE OPERATING PROCESS OF THE CUTTING AND EXTRACTION DEVICE IN THE CANDU HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS PRESSURE TUBE DECOMMISSIONING PART II: CUTTING AND EXTRACTING PRESSURE TUBE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin POPESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some details of operation process for a Cutting and Extraction Device (CED in order to achieve the decommissioning of the horizontal fuel channels pressure tube in the CANDU 6 nuclear reactor. The most important characteristic of the Cutting and Extraction Device (CED is his capability of totally operator’s protection against the nuclear radiation during pressure tube decommissioning. The cutting and extracting pressure tube processes present few particularities due to special adopted technical solutions: a special module with three cutting rollers (system driven by an actuator, a guiding-extracting and connecting module (three fixing claws which are piloted by an actuator and block the device in the connecting position with extracting plugs. The Cutting and Extraction Device (CED is a train of modules equipped with special systems to be fully automated, connected with a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and controlled by an operator panel type Human Machine Interface (HMI. All processes are monitored by video cameras. In case of error, the process is automatically stopped, the operator receiving an error message and the last sequence could be reinitialized or aborted due to safety reasons.

  13. 77 FR 58591 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Burial Facilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG; request for comment... document entitled: NUREG-1307 Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning... a document is referenced. The NUREG-1307, Revision 15 is available electronically under...

  14. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  15. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains appendixes on small MOX fuel fabrication facility description, site description, residual radionuclide inventory estimates, decommissioning, financing, radiation dose methodology, general considerations, packaging and shipping of radioactive materials, cost assessment, and safety (JRD)

  16. 75 FR 43158 - Amended Record of Decision for the Decommissioning of Eight Surplus Production Reactors at the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... resources, ecological resources, and cumulative impacts. Preliminary calculations (based on near-term... ecological resources impacts were identified in the Supplement Analysis relevant to decommissioning... were issued. New engineering controls (such as development and deployment of robotics in an array...

  17. Bilingual education in Slovakia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pokrivčáková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual education is one of the areas in contemporary education that brings out some important controversies (philosophical, conceptual, sociological, political, economical, etc. and thus calls for extensive and intensive debate. Bilingual education in Europe (and here the European Union countries are meant has gained a very different status, due to the general European policy of developing language diversity and promoting “European plurilingualism and multilingualism”. In Slovakia, one of the younger members of the EU, bilingual education became an extraordinarily popular instrument for the fulfilment of this task.  Since the specifically defined topic of bilingual education and its current status in Slovakia has not been studied and systematically reviewed yet, the research presented in this paper was designed as a single-phenomenon revelatory case study investigating seven research areas: reflection of bilingual education in school legislation and state pedagogical documents, purposes of bilingual education in Slovakia, its organization (levels and types of schools, foreign languages incorporated, teachers, structure of bilingual schools curricula, types of bilingual education applied at Slovak bilingual schools, and how bilingual education is both reflected in and saturated by the latest research findings. The conclusions presented in the paper were collected from multiple sources: state curriculum, statistical data published by the Slovak Ministry of Education or its partner institutions, international treaties on establishing and supporting bilingual sections of schools, bilingual schools curricula, interviews with school directors, teachers, and learners, direct observations at bilingual schools, research studies and research reports, etc. In the conclusion, bilingual education in Slovakia is identified as a unique, dynamically developing system which is both significantly shaped by the foreign language education policy promoted by

  18. Cases for the Net Generation: An Empirical Examination of Students' Attitude toward Multimedia Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Michael; Vibert, Conor

    2016-01-01

    Case studies have been an important tool in business, legal, and medical education for generations of students. Traditional text-based cases tend to be self-contained and structured in such a way as to teach a particular concept. The multimedia cases introduced in this study feature unscripted web-hosted video interviews with business owners and…

  19. Case Study: What Makes a Good Case, Revisited: The Survey Monkey Tells All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herried, Clyde Freeman; Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie; Schiller, Nancy A.; Herreid, Ky F.; Wright, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. In this month's issue the authors provide a more definitive answer to the "What Makes a Good Case?" question based on a just-completed Survey Monkey survey given to NCCSTS teachers.

  20. In Case You Are Interested: Results of a Survey of Case Study Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.; Herreid, Ky F.; Wright, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Case study teaching had a long tradition in law and business before it made the jump to medical school education in the form of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in the 1970s. Today, both the University of Delaware's Clearinghouse and the University of Buffalo's National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science (NCCSTS) have hundreds of cases and…