WorldWideScience

Sample records for case studies decommissioning

  1. Practitioner versus analyst methods: a nuclear decommissioning case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Cooper, Mhairi; Thompson, Pauline; Jenkins, Dan

    2014-11-01

    A requirement arose during decommissioning work at a UK Magnox Nuclear Power Station to identify the hazards involved in removing High Dose Rate Items from a Cartridge Cooling Pond. Removing objects from the cooling pond under normal situations is a routine event with well understood risks but the situation described in this paper is not a routine event. The power station has shifted from an operational phase in its life-cycle to a decommissioning phase, and as such the risks, and procedures to deal with them, have become more novel and uncertain. This raises an important question. Are the hazard identification methods that have proven useful in one phase of the system lifecycle just as useful in another, and if not, what methods should be used? An opportunity arose at this site to put the issue to a direct test. Two methods were used, one practitioner focussed and in widespread use during the plant's operational phase (the Structured What-If method), the other was an analyst method (Cognitive Work Analysis). The former is proven on this site but might not be best suited to the novelty and uncertainty brought about by a shift in context from operations to decommissioning. The latter is not proven on this site but it is designed for novelty and uncertainty. The paper presents the outcomes of applying both methods to a real-world hazard identification task. PMID:24947001

  2. Los Alamos National Laboratory case studies on decommissioning of research reactors and a small nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 200 contaminated surplus structures require decommissioning at Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the last 10 years, 50 of these structures have undergone decommissioning. These facilities vary from experimental research reactors to process/research facilities contaminated with plutonium-enriched uranium, tritium, and high explosives. Three case studies are presented: (1) a filter building contaminated with transuranic radionuclides; (2) a historical water boiler that operated with a uranyl-nitrate solution; and (3) the ultra-high-temperature reactor experiment, which used enriched uranium as fuel

  3. INL - NNL an International Technology Collaboration Case Study - Advanced Fogging Technologies for Decommissioning - 13463

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International collaboration and partnerships have become a reality as markets continue to globalize. This is the case in nuclear sector where over recent years partnerships commonly form to bid for capital projects internationally in the increasingly contractorized world and international consortia regularly bid and lead Management and Operations (M and O) / Parent Body Organization (PBO) site management contracts. International collaboration can also benefit research and technology development. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) are internationally recognized organizations delivering leading science and technology development programmes both nationally and internationally. The Laboratories are actively collaborating in several areas with benefits to both the laboratories and their customers. Recent collaborations have focused on fuel cycle separations, systems engineering supporting waste management and decommissioning, the use of misting for decontamination and in-situ waste characterisation. This paper focuses on a case study illustrating how integration of two technologies developed on different sides of the Atlantic are being integrated through international collaboration to address real decommissioning challenges using fogging technology. (authors)

  4. Decommissioning and decontamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of retired Hanford facilities requires careful consideration of environmentally-related factors. Applicable ecology programs have been designed to: develop the technology associated with burial ground stabilization, thereby minimizing biotic access and transport of radioactive wastes and, characterize present 300 Area burial grounds to ascertain the potential biotic transport of waste materials away from managed facilities. Results are reported from studies on the role of plants, small mammals, and ants as potential transport vectors of radionuclides from radioactive waste burial grounds

  5. Summary of case studies presented at the WPDD topical session on stakeholder involvement in decommissioning projects - november 14, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Two case studies were presented on experiences with stakeholder involvement in decommissioning projects. The first paper described the development of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority's (UKAEA) stakeholder involvement activities for the Dounreay Nuclear Reactor Test Establishment. The second paper presented the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory process for decommissioning that includes opportunities for public involvement. The presentation contrasted the stakeholder involvement for two commercial US nuclear power plants (NPPs) that completed decommissioning in 2005, the Trojan NPP and the Maine Yankee NPP. The two case studies highlighted the importance of involving stakeholders in decommissioning projects, and provide important lessons learned. The Dounreay case study demonstrated the UKAEA's determination and commitment to continuously improve its stakeholder engagement program. In 2002, the UKAEA set out to broaden its stakeholder program by improving both public understanding and participation. With regard to public understanding, the UKAEA committed to keep the public informed on decommissioning developments, and ensure that communication was in an understandable form. To improve participation, the UKAEA actively worked to identify and engage stakeholders. The UKAEA then made efforts to involve stakeholders in decision-making activities, including the use of stakeholder panels to discuss and consider options for specific aspects of the Dounreay decommissioning and site restoration plan. In 2004, the UKAEA commissioned an independent review of its stakeholder involvement program to assess the program's effectiveness and benchmark it against best practices. The program was found to be useful, and positive feedback was provided on the use of stakeholder panels and the UKAEA's determination to deliver a broad based and effective stakeholder strategy. Recommendations to UKAEA included involving stakeholders

  6. The Relationship between Thermal Output and Waste Volume Produced from Decommissioning Activities Case Study : Research Reactor in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning activities produce big amount of radioactive waste that is costly for treating this waste. In the planning steps, all aspects related to decommissioning operation should be detail calculated. Decommissioning activities could be done appropriately by knowing waste volume prior to execution steps. Therefore, the relation between thermal output of research reactor and waste volume produced has been studied. The results could be used as a reference for other research reactors decommissioning, especially reactors decommission in Indonesia. Data of research reactor thermal outputs and volume of waste produced were collected by literatures and interview JAEA staffs. Data was analysed by regression method and analysis of variance using Minitab 14 program. Waste volume produced from research reactor decommissioning is significantly affected by the reactor’s thermal output. The relationship is described by polynomial equation. This equation will assist on planning of decommissioning, thus resources needed for this activities could be appropriate prepared. (author)

  7. Direction for the Estimation of Required Resources for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning based on BIM via Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. As demands on efficient management and use of complicated construction information increased these days, demands on the introduction of Building Information Modeling (herein after referred to as BIM) technology has increased. In the area of quotation, considerable effects are expected as to the accuracy and reliability predicting construction costs through the characteristics that can automatically estimate quantities by using attribute information of BIM model. BIM-based estimation and quotation of required resources is more accurate than the existing 2D-based quotations and have many advantages such as reviews over constructability and interference. It can be desirable to estimate decommissioning required resources in nuclear power plants using BIM as well as using tools that are compatible with usual international/industrial standards. As we looked into the cases where required resources were estimated, using BIM in Korea and abroad, they dealt with estimation of required resources, estimation of construction cost and process management at large. In each area, methodologies, classification systems, BIM, and realization tests have been used variably. Nonetheless, several problems have been reported, and among them, it is noticeable that although BIM standard classification system exists, no case was found that has used standard classification system. This means that no interlink among OBS (Object Breakdown Structure), WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) and CBS (Cost Breakdown Structure) was possible. Thus, for nuclear power plant decommissioning, decommissioning method and process, etc. shall be defined clearly in the stage of decommissioning strategy establishment, so that classification systems must be set up

  8. Direction for the Estimation of Required Resources for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning based on BIM via Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Insu [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woojung [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. As demands on efficient management and use of complicated construction information increased these days, demands on the introduction of Building Information Modeling (herein after referred to as BIM) technology has increased. In the area of quotation, considerable effects are expected as to the accuracy and reliability predicting construction costs through the characteristics that can automatically estimate quantities by using attribute information of BIM model. BIM-based estimation and quotation of required resources is more accurate than the existing 2D-based quotations and have many advantages such as reviews over constructability and interference. It can be desirable to estimate decommissioning required resources in nuclear power plants using BIM as well as using tools that are compatible with usual international/industrial standards. As we looked into the cases where required resources were estimated, using BIM in Korea and abroad, they dealt with estimation of required resources, estimation of construction cost and process management at large. In each area, methodologies, classification systems, BIM, and realization tests have been used variably. Nonetheless, several problems have been reported, and among them, it is noticeable that although BIM standard classification system exists, no case was found that has used standard classification system. This means that no interlink among OBS (Object Breakdown Structure), WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) and CBS (Cost Breakdown Structure) was possible. Thus, for nuclear power plant decommissioning, decommissioning method and process, etc. shall be defined clearly in the stage of decommissioning strategy establishment, so that classification systems must be set up

  9. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  10. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  11. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  12. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  13. Case studies: Mining, decommissioning and rehabilitation of the Mecsek mining centre in Hungary (1956-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mecsek Mine, an underground facility, was the only uranium producer in Hungary. It was operated as the state owned Mecsek Ore Mining Company. The mining complex began operation in 1956 and was producing ore from a depth of 600 to 800 m in 1997 when it was permanently shutdown. The uranium ore bodies were 0 to 200 m deep in the southern part of the mountain ridge and up to 1 200 m deep in the northern area. From 1965 to 1989 the company mined 0.1 to 0.3% uranium from Upper Permian (270 Ma) sandstone 'roll-front' ore deposits; additionally, low grade (100-300 ppm) uranium ores were processed for heap leaching. During this period, 7.2 million tonnes of low grade ore were crushed with an average mining recovery of 50-60%. Total uranium production was 21 050 tonnes of uranium, including 525 tonnes of uranium recovered by heap leaching. During the operation, the town of Pecs and the surrounding countryside, including its hillside vineyards and groundwater, were given high priority regarding environmental protection. The most important activities since mine closure in 1997 were the experimental covering of tailings ponds and vertical drainage with waste rock. The decommissioning and remediation efforts gave jobs to hundreds of workers. The programme for total remediation was expected to continue until the end of 2004, but budget constraints resulted in delays and in 2007 final completion of some aspects had yet to be achieved. The Hungarian government assumed full financial responsibility for decommissioning and remediation because the uranium industry was directed and operated by a state owned company. The total cost of the decommissioning and remediation, including radiation protection and human health issues, was about US $105-115 million or US $5 per kilogram of uranium produced. Such a mining venture would probably not be sustainable in today's free enterprise economy. However, at the time of its production, it served the purpose of developing infrastructure for

  14. Concrete release protocol case studies for decommissioning work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in 1996 was used in the analysis; therefore, because of radioactive decay, the resultant doses to receptors (now or later) would be less than the values reported in this analysis. For the generic case study, costs associated with Alternatives A and C were shown to be much smaller than for Alternative E. For the INEEL-specific case, in general, costs were much higher for Alternatives A and C than for Alternative E because of on-site disposal with zero disposal cost

  15. Detritiation studies for JET decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JET is the world largest tokamak and has the capacity of operating with a tritium plasma. Three experimental campaigns, the Preliminary Tritium Experiment (0.1g T2) in 1991, the Trace Tritium Experiment (5g T2) in 2005, and the large experiment, the Deuterium-Tritium Experiment (DTE1) (100g T2) in 1997, were carried out at JET with tritium plasmas. In DTE1 about 35 grams of tritium were fed directly into the vacuum vessel, with about 30% of this tritium being retained inside the vessel. In several years time JET will cease experimental operations and enter a decommissioning phase. In preparation for this the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the JET Operator, has been carrying out studies of various detritiation techniques. The materials which have been the subject of these studies include solid materials, such as various metals (Inconel 600 and 625, stainless steel 316L, beryllium, ''oxygen-free'' copper, aluminium bronze), carbon fibre composite tiles, ''carbon'' flakes and dust present in the vacuum vessel and also soft housekeeping materials. Liquid materials include organic liquids, such as vacuum oils and scintillation cocktails, and water. Detritiation of gas streams was also investigated. The purpose of the studies was to select and experimentally prove primary and auxiliary technologies for in-situ detritiation of in-vessel components and ex-situ detritiation of components removed from the vessel. The targets of ex-vessel detritiation were a reduction of the tritium inventory in and the rate of tritium out-gassing from the materials, and conversion, if possible, of intermediate level waste to low level waste and a reduction in volume of waste for disposal. The results of experimental trials and their potential application are presented. (orig.)

  16. Studies on the decommissioning cost of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzes the existing literature on decommissioning costs abroad systematically, giving special attention to the OECD member states. Then, the feasible range of decommissioning costs obtained by the analysis is compared to the decommissioning fund being raised by the country's only electric utility, KEPCO. This study concludes that the decommissioning fund is being raised enough to cover future expenses for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. 1 fig., 13 tabs., 8 refs. (Author)

  17. Barsebaeck after Barsebaeck - A case study on the conflicting issues concerning land use after a total clean-up (decommissioning) of a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the case study of Barsebaeck and the conflicting issues concerning land use after the decommissioning of a nuclear facility. It stresses on the right of the municipalities to decide over the future local planning and land use and discusses the conflicts which may arise between national decision and local interests. It emphasizes the importance of the EIA process and the active role which should be played by the local population during the first stage of the process. Finally it indicates that municipalities need financial resources to engage independent experts who can provide advice during the dialogue with the implementer and education/training of local politicians and civil servants

  18. A study of the decommissioning cost estimation for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Gyu; Jeong, Kwan Seong; Lee, Keun Woo; Oh, Won Zin [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is to study on the decommissioning cost estimation for nuclear facilities of advanced nuclear organizations and countries for deriving the cost factors to be taken considerations into accomplishing decommissioning projects. Of cost categories producing the factors of decommissioning costs, dismantling and waste processing and disposals activities are examined to increase the its costs. Of labor, materials and other costs categories, labor costs are summarized to have overall majorities in the decommissioning cost factors. The main parameters of all factors affecting the decommissioning costs are analyzed as work difficulty, regional labor costs, peripheral cost, disposal cost and final burial costs.

  19. A study of the decommissioning cost estimation for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is to study on the decommissioning cost estimation for nuclear facilities of advanced nuclear organizations and countries for deriving the cost factors to be taken considerations into accomplishing decommissioning projects. Of cost categories producing the factors of decommissioning costs, dismantling and waste processing and disposals activities are examined to increase the its costs. Of labor, materials and other costs categories, labor costs are summarized to have overall majorities in the decommissioning cost factors. The main parameters of all factors affecting the decommissioning costs are analyzed as work difficulty, regional labor costs, peripheral cost, disposal cost and final burial costs

  20. A Human Factors Study on an Information Visualization System for Nuclear Power Plants Decommissioning Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chih Wei; Yang, Li Chen [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Longtan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Most nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world have an operating life of up to 40 years. The utility should prepare a comprehensive decommissioning plan with purpose to document and to display how decommissioning activities can be safely performed. In the past, most studies related to NPPs decommissioning planning put emphasis on technical issues, little attention have been given to human factors in decommissioning activities. In fact, human factors are a critical factor to successful NPPs decommissioning. NPPs decommissioning will face potential risks. These risks include not only dismantling and moving large equipment but also treating with the radioactive materials. Using information visualization system, such as virtual reality (VR) technology, for staff training can improve decommissioning work safety and economy. Therefore, this study presents a study using VR to solve real world problems in the nuclear plant decommissioning. Then appropriate cases for introducing VR systems are summarized and future prospects are given. This study assesses availability and performance of the work training system by using heuristic evaluation and actual experiment. In the result, block type of radiation visibility was found relatively better both in performance and person's preference than other types. The results presented in this paper illustrate the VR applications a NPP decommissioning perspective.

  1. A Human Factors Study on an Information Visualization System for Nuclear Power Plants Decommissioning Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world have an operating life of up to 40 years. The utility should prepare a comprehensive decommissioning plan with purpose to document and to display how decommissioning activities can be safely performed. In the past, most studies related to NPPs decommissioning planning put emphasis on technical issues, little attention have been given to human factors in decommissioning activities. In fact, human factors are a critical factor to successful NPPs decommissioning. NPPs decommissioning will face potential risks. These risks include not only dismantling and moving large equipment but also treating with the radioactive materials. Using information visualization system, such as virtual reality (VR) technology, for staff training can improve decommissioning work safety and economy. Therefore, this study presents a study using VR to solve real world problems in the nuclear plant decommissioning. Then appropriate cases for introducing VR systems are summarized and future prospects are given. This study assesses availability and performance of the work training system by using heuristic evaluation and actual experiment. In the result, block type of radiation visibility was found relatively better both in performance and person's preference than other types. The results presented in this paper illustrate the VR applications a NPP decommissioning perspective

  2. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamentals on the plan, the national policy, the safety securities for the life extension of the nuclear power plant was established from the domestic/abroad documents and case studies in relation with the life extension and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the domestic/abroad standard of the decommissioning (decontamination. dismantling) technology and regulation. Moreover, the study on the cost estimation method has been carried out for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  3. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y

    2000-01-01

    Fundamentals on the plan, the national policy, the safety securities for the life extension of the nuclear power plant was established from the domestic/abroad documents and case studies in relation with the life extension and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the domestic/abroad standard of the decommissioning (decontamination. dismantling) technology and regulation. Moreover, the study on the cost estimation method has been carried out for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  4. Envisioning Communications with Future Stakeholders - A Case Study Using the In-Situ Decommissioning of P-Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will explore opportunities to expand the CAB's public outreach by the incorporation of technologies typically used in social networks and distance learning. Envisioning opportunities to engage next generation CAB members in public involvement will be delineated by retracing the decision process used with the in-situ decommissioning of P-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This paper will discuss existing opportunities to enable another group of stakeholders to take part in the environmental policy decision making process regarding the inclusion of some very long lived radioactive constituents. The aim of the paper will be to locate places in the current process where alternate or parallel informational dissemination pathways could exist. These alternatives will incorporate the next generation's expectation for instantaneous information and universal ownership of hand-held communication devices. The goal of this paper is to use the present framework of CAB communications and add the components of virtual networking and distance learning in hopes of bridging the generational technology gap and extending the dialog to future stakeholders. (authors)

  5. Study on decommissioning (Annual safety research report, JFY 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project consists of researches on (1) establishment of review plan on application of decommissioning, (2) establishment of specific method to confirm decommissioning completion, of decommissioning and (3) establishment of radioactive waste management guideline during dismantling and (4) development of the regulatory system on decommissioning in response to Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. About researches on establishment of review plan on application of decommissioning. 'Planning of the Commercial Power Reactor Decommissioning:2001' which was published by Atomic Energy Society of Japan, was evaluated whether it suited the requirement for the decommissioning stipulated in the law, and the draft evaluation report was prepared. About researches on establishment of specific method to confirm decommissioning completion, technical information of practical procedures on the confirmation in U.S.A. were organized based on MARSSIM (Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual, NUREG-1575) and applicability of MARSSIM on the confirmation in Japan was examined. Exposed doses for public during decommissioning period were estimated to study dose criterion of the confirmation. Radioactive concentrations in the soil of Tokai and Hamaoka NPP caused by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident were also investigated. About researches on establishment of radioactive waste management guideline during dismantling, one concrete core was sampled in biological shield of the Tokai NPP and radioactive concentrations were investigated. About researches on development of the regulatory system on decommissioning in response to Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, present status of Three Mile Island Unit 2 and Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 were investigated. Present status of regulatory systems for decommissioning in foreign countries taken in consideration of the accident was also researched. (author)

  6. Studies on future decommissioning of the Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financing of future decommissioning of the Swiss nuclear power plants and the permanent, safe disposal of the wastes arising therefrom is secured by payments into a legally established decommissioning fund. In order to update the required level of payments into the fund, which have been ongoing since 1984, 20 years after the first study the costs of decommissioning have been re-calculated from scratch using complete decommissioning studies for each plant. Following the specification of boundary conditions which take into account the specific situation in Switzerland, decommissioning concepts are drawn up for the individual plants. The measures outlined in these concepts are integrated into a cost structuring plan and the decommissioning costs are then calculated using standard models (e.g. STILLKO). The radiological inventory, which is re-calculated for each plant, has a significant influence on costs. Furthermore, the disposal costs which can be allocated to decommissioning waste have to be determined; these are based on a concept in which only two types of containers are considered for disposal. The studies have resulted in decommissioning costs which, with a range between 200 and 390 million Euro, are comparable with costs in other countries. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear decommissioning trusts: A case for convertible bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asset-liability management is studied with special emphasis on application of the author's findings to the management of nuclear decommissioning trusts (NDTs). The trust themselves are investment vehicles established to accumulate and build funds to be used to defray future decommissioning costs. Decommissioning, in turn, is the process of dismantling the shell of a nuclear reactor and the surrounding concrete structures, followed by disposal of the radioactive material, the objective being to return the site to a greenfield state i.e. the site is freed up for unrestricted use. Unfortunately, the assets of NDTs are not so easily managed. The liability that the trusts have been established to fund is a highly uncertain moving target for which little historical data is available. This study first develops a framework for selecting portfolios when the investment objective is to invest against a future liability. The challenge then is to build an investment strategy around an uncertain liability, in the presence of taxes and miscellaneous portfolio constraints. The study then explores the viability of convertible bonds for liability-driven investment strategies because of the hybrid debt/equity nature of these instruments

  8. A study on the decommissioning of research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the result of study on decommissioning, discussion has made and data have been collected about experiences, plannings, and techniques for decommissioning through visit to GA and JAERI. GA supplied our Research Reactor No. 1 and No. 2, and JAERI made a memorial museum after dicommissioning of JRR-1 and is dismentling JPDR now. Also many kinds of documents are collected and arranged such as documents related to TRIGA reactor dicommissioning, 30 kinds of documents including decommissioning plan, technical criteria and related regulatory, and 1,200 kinds of facility description data. (Author)

  9. Topical Session on the Decommissioning and Dismantling Safety Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Set up by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), the WPDD brings together senior representatives of national organisations who have a broad overview of Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) issues through their work as regulators, implementers, R and D experts or policy makers. These include representatives from regulatory authorities, industrial decommissioners from the NEA Cooperative Programme on Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information on Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Projects (CPD), and cross-representation from the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health, and the RWMC. The EC is a member of the WPDD and the IAEA also participates. This ensures co-ordination amongst activities in these international programmes. Participation from civil society organisations is considered on a case by case basis, and has already taken place through the active involvement of the Group of Municipalities with Nuclear Installations at the first meeting of the WPDD At its second meeting, in Paris, 5-7 December 2001, the WPDD held two topical sessions on the D and D Safety Case and on the Management of Materials from D and D, respectively. This report documents the topical session on the safety case. The topical session was meant to provide an exchange of information and experience on the following issues: What topics should be included in a safety case? Of what should it consist? Is there sufficient and complete guidance nationally and internationally? How do practices differ internationally? Main boundary condition to this session was that it would deal with plants where spent fuel has been removed. Also the topical sessions was kept at a level that makes the most of the varied constituency of the WPDD. Namely, interface issues are important, and issue-identification and discussion was the immediate goal. There was less interest in examining areas where variability amongst national

  10. Development of decommissioning management system. 8. Study of JWTF decommissioning procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning evaluation system that evaluated and optimizes the decommissioning scenario (total amount of men and days, period of works, exposure dose, abundance of waste, cost) has been developed. In this report, for test study of old JWTF decontamination using the decommissioning evaluation system, survey work of location and surface dose rate of machines and pipes in old JWTF, calculation using the decommissioning evaluation system, comparing a scenario carrying out a decontamination work and one which did not use the decontamination work were carried out. Results are as follows. (1) The DECMAN calculated that total amount of men and days was 4.5 x 103 man day, period of works was 490 days, cost was 3.9 x 105 yen, abundance of waste was 1.4 x 102 ton (radioactive waste was 6.9 ton). (2) Total amount of men and days of a scenario using decontamination (scenario A) was nearly 1.3 times as large as one of a scenario which did not use decontamination (scenario B). Cost of 'A' was 2.0 times as large as that of B'. Exposure dose of 'A' was 1/4 times as low as that of 'B'. (3) The DECMAN overestimated exposed dose. The reason was thought as follows. The exposed dose from each equipments was estimated in 2 dimension. Distance between each equipments in the DECMAN was estimated short compared with actual distance. Workers were moving around the equipment in actual work, and averted stopping at high dose rate points. The system could not add the process in calculation. (author)

  11. Safety case methodology for decommissioning of research reactors. Assessment of the long term impact of a flooding scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper contains the assessment methodology of a Safety Case fuel decommissioning of research reactors, taking into account the international approach principles. The paper also includes the assessment of a flooding scenario for a decommissioned research reactor (stage 1 of decommissioning). The scenario presents the flooding of reactor basement, radionuclide migration through environment and long term radiological impact for public. (authors)

  12. Study on scenario evaluation methodology for decommissioning nuclear facilities using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since there are many scenarios of the process from start to completion of a decommissioning project, it is important to study scenarios of decommissioning by evaluating such properties as safety, cost, and technology. An optimum scenario with the highest feasibility in accordance with the facility and environmental conditions should be selected on the basis of the results of the study. For analyzing a scenario of decommissioning, we prepared structured work packages by using the work breakdown structures (WBS) method together with qualitative evaluation of the technologies being applied to work packages located at the bottom (the third level) of the WBS. A calculation model was constructed to evaluate the feasibility of a scenario where fuzzy logic is applied to derive a score of technology performance and TOPSIS is applied for getting a feasibility grade of the scenario from technical performance scoring. As a case study, the model was applied to the debris removal scenario of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant to confirm its applicability. Two scenarios, underwater and in-air debris removal cases, were characterized by extracting the work packages with the lowest feasibility and by obtaining total average scores of the scenarios. It is confirmed that the methodology developed is useful for the scenario evaluation of decommissioning nuclear facilities. (author)

  13. Decommissioning nuclear power plants: a case for external funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendren, C.B.

    In deciding how to finance the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, there are five basic criteria for choosing between internal and external funding methods: (1) the desire for financial assurance, (2) the cost of the assurance, (3) the degree of equity in the recovery program, (4) the program's ability to respond to changes, and (5) the program's adaptability to different utilities. To fulfill its obligations to protect long-term public interests, the Missouri Public Service Commission decided it had to assure, to the maximum extent possible, that sufficient decommissioning funds were available when needed. For this reason, it chose the external funding method. In an external fund, the money currently collected from ratepayers to cover decommissioning costs is placed in an independent trust fund comprised of low-risk investments. The funds and the interest they accrue are available to the utility only at the time of decommissioning (and only for that purpose), thus assuring a certain amount of money will be on-hand to cover decommissioning costs as they arise. Such a fund may prove critical to the financial well-being of the utility, particularly if one considers that the utility would need additional generating facilities to replace the capacity lost through the retirement of its nuclear plant. 3 references.

  14. Decommissioning nuclear power plants: a case for external funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In deciding how to finance the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, there are five basic criteria for choosing between internal and external funding methods: (1) the desire for financial assurance, (2) the cost of the assurance, (3) the degree of equity in the recovery program, (4) the program's ability to respond to changes, and (5) the program's adaptability to different utilities. To fulfill its obligations to protect long-term public interests, the Missouri Public Service Commission decided it had to assure, to the maximum extent possible, that sufficient decommissioning funds were available when needed. For this reason, it chose the external funding method. In an external fund, the money currently collected from ratepayers to cover decommissioning costs is placed in an independent trust fund comprised of low-risk investments. The funds and the interest they accrue are available to the utility only at the time of decommissioning (and only for that purpose), thus assuring a certain amount of money will be on-hand to cover decommissioning costs as they arise. Such a fund may prove critical to the financial well-being of the utility, particularly if one considers that the utility would need additional generating facilities to replace the capacity lost through the retirement of its nuclear plant. 3 references

  15. Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe. It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries. The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries. (authors)

  16. Study on the state-of-the-arts Approaches and Methodologies for the Decommissioning Cost Estimation of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the sate-of-the-arts approaches and assessments of cost estimation are summarized and analyzed to establish the methodology of decommissioning cost estimating on nuclear facilities. This report consists of as follows : The study on the approaches and methodologies of decommissioning cost estimating, the study on the program tools and system configurations of decommissioning cost estimating, the study on the results and assessments of decommissioning cost estimating, The proposed methodology on decommissioning cost estimating of research reactors

  17. Workshop on decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

  18. Innovative Integration of Decommissioning and Deactivation Program with Soil-Groundwater Clean Up Program Has Positive Results on Budget and Schedule: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative approach to integrate the activities of a decommissioning and deactivation program (D and D) with a soil-groundwater clean up program has had significant positive results saving both money and time at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. The accomplishments that have been achieved by the combining the two programs have been remarkable including significant cost savings, economies of scale for sampling and document generation, and alignment of common objectives. Because of the coordination of both activities area-wide ''end states'' can be formulated and be consistent with the customers' cleanup goals and federal regulations. This coordinates and aligns both the environmental clean up and D and D objectives because each must be addressed simultaneously and comprehensively. In this respect, resources from both organizations can be pooled to take advantage of the strengths of each. The new approach allows more efficient use of lean financial resources and optimizes workforce activities to attain the common objectives while being more cost effective, more protective of the environment, and optimizing the use existing resources

  19. Innovative integration of decommissioning and deactivation program with soil-groundwater clean up program has positive results on budget and schedule: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative approach to integrate the activities of a decommissioning and deactivation program (D and D) with a soil-groundwater clean up program has had significant positive results saving both money and time at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. The accomplishments that have been achieved by the combining the two programs have been remarkable including significant cost savings, economies of scale for sampling and document generation, and alignment of common objectives. Because of the coordination of both activities area-wide 'end states' can be formulated and be consistent with the customers' cleanup goals and federal regulations. This coordinates and aligns both the environmental clean up and D and D objectives because each must be addressed simultaneously and comprehensively. In this respect, resources from both organizations can be pooled to take advantage of the strengths of each. The new approach allows more efficient use of lean financial resources and optimizes workforce activities to attain the common objectives while being more cost effective, more protective of the environment, and optimizing the use existing resources. (authors)

  20. Study on decommissioning (Annual safety research report, JFY 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project consists of researches for 1. review plan for decommissioning plan, 2. specific method to confirm completion of decommissioning and 3. dismantling waste management method. Dismantling experiences and knowledge of domestic and international trends of decommissioning were examined and the confirmation items for authorization of decommissioning plan were extracted. The estimation of site contamination during dismantling period was performed by use of radioactive material release data of the Tokai NPP. Domestic and some foreign countries knowledge of experience of decommissioning completion confirmation was examined. This knowledge was reflected in NISA's Committee Report 'Basic concept to confirm completion of decommissioning (Interim report) - Main issues and direction of future investigation-'. Three concrete cores were sampled in biological shield of the Tokai NPP to establish method of waste package verification based on radiation level evaluation in decommissioning and dismantling waste management method. (author)

  1. A study on the decommissioning methods of nuclear facilities of North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For Korea, it is essential to participate in the decommissioning of North Korean nuclear facilities for Pu-based weapon program and to lead the project for the protection of the environments from the possible spread of nuclear contamination. Before, the studies for the verification of the North Korea nuclear facilities and for the technical preparation of the decommissioning of north Korea were conducted but the depth of the studies was not reached to the evaluation of the decommissioning project by the documentation of a decommissioning plan to the provision of the technical information to the policy decision makers. It is very helpful for understanding the characteristics of the decommissioning projects to formulate a possible dismantling scenario and to make a decommissioning plan. The cost and the periods estimated on the base of this scenario is more exact and the analysis for the selection of different policies will be possible

  2. Environmentally compatible decommissioning and remediation of uranium mines - case history WISMUT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning and remediation of mines is a complex process. Systematic analyses and planning are required in order to prevent hazards to human and the environment. In the case of the WISMUT, the biggest problem was the contaminated water surfacing from flooded mines. The flooding process must be controlled and modelled hydraulically, hydrogeologically and geochemically in order to identify key parameters for the water treatment plant including its time of operation

  3. Nuclear decommissioning planning, execution and international experience

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    A title that critically reviews the decommissioning and decontamination processes and technologies available for rehabilitating sites used for nuclear power generation and civilian nuclear facilities, from fundamental issues and best practices, to procedures and technology, and onto decommissioning and decontamination case studies.$bOnce a nuclear installation has reached the end of its safe and economical operational lifetime, the need for its decommissioning arises. Different strategies can be employed for nuclear decommissioning, based on the evaluation of particular hazards and their attendant risks, as well as on the analysis of costs of clean-up and waste management. This allows for decommissioning either soon after permanent shutdown, or perhaps a long time later, the latter course allowing for radioactivity levels to drop in any activated or contaminated components. It is crucial for clear processes and best practices to be applied in decommissioning such installations and sites, particular where any ...

  4. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present concepts on stages of, designing for and costs of decommissioning, together with criteria for site release, are described. Recent operations and studies and assessments in progress are summarized. Wastes from decommissioning are characterized

  5. Simulation studies for quantification of solid waste during decommissioning of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning is the final phase in the lifecycle of a nuclear installation and in the area of occupational radiation protection, decommissioning constitute a challenge mainly due to the huge and complex radioactive waste generation. In the context of management and disposal of waste and reuse/recycle of usable materials during decommissioning of reactors, clearance levels for relevant radionuclides are of vital importance. During the process of decommissioning radionuclide-specific clearance levels allow the release of a major quantity of materials to the environment, without regulatory considerations. These levels may also be used to declare the usable materials for reuse or recycle. Assessment of activity concentration in huge quantities of material, for the purpose of clearance, is a challenge in decommissioning process. This paper describes the simulation studies being carried out for the design of a monitoring system for the estimation of activity concentration of the decommissioned materials, especially rubbles/concrete, using mathematical models. Several designs were studied using simulation and it was observed that for the estimation of very low levels of activity concentration, to satisfy the conditions of unrestricted releases, detection system using the principle of Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) is the best suitable method. (author)

  6. A study of a decommissioning activities classification structure for decommissioning of the project management of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning activities and requirements that was established in the planning stage should be organized systematically in the course of dismantling the NPP. The work breakdown structure is essential to ensuring that all the project scope is identified, estimated and executed. The project manager needs to ensure that a WBS is established early in the project and maintained throughout the project life cycle. A project management system is ongoing under the circumstance of having no experience dismantling the NPP. The system related to the NPP decommissioning should have technical criteria as well as regulatory requirements in the full scale of decommissioning stage. In the dismantling stage, decommissioning plan document should include the results of radiation/radioactivity characterization, evaluation of the amount of dismantled waste, calculation of the expose dose rate, evaluation of decommissioning cost and schedule after shutdown

  7. A study of a decommissioning activities classification structure for decommissioning of the project management of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Seong; Park, Seung Kook; Jin, Hyung Gon; Song, Chan Ho; Ha, Jei Hyun; Moon, Jei kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Decommissioning activities and requirements that was established in the planning stage should be organized systematically in the course of dismantling the NPP. The work breakdown structure is essential to ensuring that all the project scope is identified, estimated and executed. The project manager needs to ensure that a WBS is established early in the project and maintained throughout the project life cycle. A project management system is ongoing under the circumstance of having no experience dismantling the NPP. The system related to the NPP decommissioning should have technical criteria as well as regulatory requirements in the full scale of decommissioning stage. In the dismantling stage, decommissioning plan document should include the results of radiation/radioactivity characterization, evaluation of the amount of dismantled waste, calculation of the expose dose rate, evaluation of decommissioning cost and schedule after shutdown.

  8. Decommissioning standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  9. Studies validating of BN-350 reactor decommissioning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major tasks performed at the first stage of BN-350 decommissioning (transfer to a safe stage) are as follows: placement of the spent fuel for a long-term storage; processing and placement for a long-term storage of accumulated operational nuclear wastes; draining and processing of radioactive sodium coolant, placement of the processing products for storage. To enhance the fuel physical protection, it is packed into sealed canisters containing four/six fuel assemblies (FAs) each. By now executed packaging operations and planned transportation and placement ones are radiation/nuclear hazardous. That is way, at the stage of canister designing and fuel packaging, close attention was devoted to analysis and validation of canister design safety and this of SFAs loading, transportation and storing technologies. The calculation performed shows that the canister design and selected technologies provide for nuclear safety in both normal and emergency mode with all possible configurations of individual and grouped canisters with SFAs keff<0.95. Basing on analysis of the existing liquid RW processing technologies, it was assumed that the most appropriate for the wastes accumulated in the BN-350 reactor LRW storage facility is that of selective sorption with following cementing. Basic circuit and constructive decision were developed for LRW processing facility, and preliminary analysis to validate safety of the proposed facility was performed. Results of the system-logical analysis and calculation assessment demonstrate that effect of hazards on personnel and public existing in the normal mode of the work flow and in emergency does not exceed the limits specified by regulating documents currently in force in Kazakhstan. The proposed technical and design decisions, safety measures and system assure the required safety level in the course of LRW processing applying the selective sorption with following cementing technology. From the safety viewpoint, the problem of the

  10. Study on the promotion of international cooperation for nuclear facility decommissioning between OECD/NEA member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ways of international cooperation on decommissioning were investigated through the review and analysis on the activity of CPD, the status of decommissioning market, decommissioning technologies and the activity of expert group in TAG. It was conducted the acquisition of the current status of the art and the technical information in Member Countries, and report to our decommissioning status as participate in regular meeting and expert meeting of the CPD. The acquired technological information could be applied to the decommissioning of KRR-1 and 2 and Uranium Conversion Facility. And the results of this study could be used to search the way to participate in nuclear facility decommissioning project through exchange of the technical information between member countries

  11. Comparative analysis of the Oskarshamn 3 and Barsebaeck site decommissioning studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Bertil (Bewon, Loeddekoepinge (Sweden)); Joensson, Lars-Olof (Barsebaeck Kraft AB, Loeddekoepinge (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    Several projects concerning the decommissioning of different types of nuclear facilities have shown that technical methods and equipment are available today for safe dismantling of nuclear facilities of any type or size. However, comparison of individual cost estimates for specific facilities exhibit relatively large variations, and several studies have tried to identify the reasons for these variations. Analysis has shown that decommissioning cost estimates vary depending on a number of factors, including: the boundary conditions and strategy chosen; the cost items taken into account; the origin of the cost estimate; the methodology applied; the political-administrative framework; and the way contingencies are included. In this study, a comparison has been made between two decommissioning studies in the same country, with more or less same decommissioning schedule and with similar overall ideas on cost estimates. However, the two studies had from the start a different focus and different objectives. One study is intended as a reference study for all BWRs in Sweden, while the other focuses on a full site decommissioning. Furthermore, one of the studies is based on direct dismantling and the other on deferred dismantling. A great deal of work therefore had to be devoted in the present study to giving the studies comparable structures and boundary conditions using the OECD/NEA cost estimate structure. The boundary conditions in each of the studies have been thoroughly evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively, and the differences have been explained. In the end, values have been set in the quantitative analysis to verify that the studies could be compared, within the accuracy of what is defined in the industry as a 'budgetary estimate'. Differences still exist relating to what has been included in the studies and to the decommissioning plans and the resulting inventory from site characterization. Such differences must be accepted as long as it is clear

  12. Comparative analysis of the Oskarshamn 3 and Barsebaeck site decommissioning studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several projects concerning the decommissioning of different types of nuclear facilities have shown that technical methods and equipment are available today for safe dismantling of nuclear facilities of any type or size. However, comparison of individual cost estimates for specific facilities exhibit relatively large variations, and several studies have tried to identify the reasons for these variations. Analysis has shown that decommissioning cost estimates vary depending on a number of factors, including: the boundary conditions and strategy chosen; the cost items taken into account; the origin of the cost estimate; the methodology applied; the political-administrative framework; and the way contingencies are included. In this study, a comparison has been made between two decommissioning studies in the same country, with more or less same decommissioning schedule and with similar overall ideas on cost estimates. However, the two studies had from the start a different focus and different objectives. One study is intended as a reference study for all BWRs in Sweden, while the other focuses on a full site decommissioning. Furthermore, one of the studies is based on direct dismantling and the other on deferred dismantling. A great deal of work therefore had to be devoted in the present study to giving the studies comparable structures and boundary conditions using the OECD/NEA cost estimate structure. The boundary conditions in each of the studies have been thoroughly evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively, and the differences have been explained. In the end, values have been set in the quantitative analysis to verify that the studies could be compared, within the accuracy of what is defined in the industry as a 'budgetary estimate'. Differences still exist relating to what has been included in the studies and to the decommissioning plans and the resulting inventory from site characterization. Such differences must be accepted as long as it is clear what is

  13. Training for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants entering decommissioning face many challenges One of the most important is the challenge of training for decommissioning This is important because: The facility operators and management have spent many years successfully operating the facility; The facility management arrangements are geared to operation; Decommissioning will include non-nuclear specialists and other stakeholders; Other skills are needed to decommission successfully. UKAEA has decommissioned many facilities at its sites in Dounreay, Windscale, Harwell and Winfrith in the UK. We have faced all of the challenges previously described and have developed many training methods for ensuring the challenges are met safely and effectively. We have developed courses for specialised skills such as safety cases which can be deployed to support any decommissioning. (author)

  14. In-core power sharing and fuel requirement study for a decommissioning Boiling Water Reactor using the linear reactivity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Linear reactivity model (LRM) was modified and applied to Boiling Water Reactor. • The power sharing and fuel requirement study of the last cycle and two cycles before decommissioning was implemented. • The loading pattern design concept for the cycles before decommissioning is carried out. - Abstract: A study of in-core power sharing and fuel requirement for a decommissioning BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) was carried out using the linear reactivity model (LRM). The power sharing of each fuel batch was taken as an independent variable, and the related parameters were set and modified to simulate actual cases. Optimizations of the last cycle and two cycles before decommissioning were both implemented; in the last-one-cycle optimization, a single cycle optimization was carried out with different upper limits of fuel batch power, whereas, in the two-cycle optimization, two cycles were optimized with different cycle lengths, along with two different optimization approaches which are the simultaneous optimization of two cycles (MO) and two successive single-cycle optimizations (SO). The results of the last-one-cycle optimization show that it is better to increase the fresh fuel power and decrease the thrice-burnt fuel power as much as possible. It also shows that relaxing the power limit is good to the fresh fuel requirement which will be reduced under lower power limit. On the other hand, the results of the last-two-cycle (cycle N-1 and N) optimization show that the MO is better than SO, and the power of fresh fuel batch should be decreased in cycle N-1 to save its energy for the next cycle. The results of the single-cycle optimization are found to be the same as that in cycle N of the multi-cycle optimization. Besides that, under the same total energy requirement of two cycles, a long-short distribution of cycle length design can save more fresh fuel

  15. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. (authors)

  16. Guide for International Peer Reviews of Decommissioning Cost Studies for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peer reviews are a standard co-operative OECD working tool that offer member countries a framework to compare experiences and examine best practices in a host of areas. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has developed a proven methodology for conducting peer reviews in radioactive waste management and nuclear R and D. Using this methodology, the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee's Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD) developed the present guide as a framework for decommissioning cost reviewers and reviewees to prepare for and conduct international peer reviews of decommissioning cost estimate studies for nuclear facilities. It includes checklists that will help national programmes or relevant organisations to assess and improve decommissioning cost estimate practices in the future. This guide will act as the NEA reference for conducting such international peer reviews. The remainder of this guide is divided into eight chapters. Chapter 2 describes gathering the cost estimate study and underpinning documents, reviewing the study and writing a final report. Chapter 3 provides a detailed checklist approach for the review of the cost study report. Chapter 4 provides checklists to assist in reviewing benchmarked information. Chapter 5 provides comments on the approach and recommendations for use of this guide. Chapters 6 and 7 provide the background material used in developing this guide and Chapter 8 provides a list of the abbreviations and acronyms used in this guide

  17. Research reactor back-end options - decommissioning: a necessary consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning is a challenge, which all radioactive site licensees eventually need to face and research reactors are no exception. BNFL has completed numerous major decommissioning projects at its own operational sites and has undertaken similar works at customers' sites including the decommissioning of the Universities Research Reactor (URR), Risley and the ICI TRIGA 1-Mk I Reactor at Billingham. Based on the execution of such projects BNFL has gained an understanding of the variety of customer requirements and the effectiveness of specific decommissioning techniques for research reactors. This paper addresses factors to be considered when reviewing the way forward following shut down and how these affect the final decisions for fuel management and the extent of decommissioning. Case studies are described from BNFL's recent experience decommissioning both the URR and ICI TRIGA reactors. (author)

  18. Workshop on decommissioning; Seminarium om avveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. (ed.)

    2005-12-15

    A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

  19. The SSI project on decommissioning of nuclear plants - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SSI will amend and complete regulations and stipulations for nuclear plants in order to take into account issues which arise in connection with decommissioning. The objective of a pilot study, performed during 1998, was to identify the questions at issue, what the authority should control and how SSI should proceed with the work. The recommendations and the result of the pilot study are presented in this report

  20. The development of the strategy and plan for the decommissioning and abandonment of 36'' offshore oil export pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Richard J. [PIMS of London Ltd, London, (United Kingdom); Galvez Reyes, Marco Antonio [PEMEX Refinacion, Veracruz, (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The decommissioning and abandonment of platforms and pipelines are big challenges for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment processes based on a study case, the Rabon Grande pipeline system. First, the applicable international codes, standards and regulations associated with the decommissioning of pipelines are discussed. Next, this paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment options and considerations available for the study case. The Rabon Grande pipeline system, which was shut down and isolated in 1990 pending decommissioning, is used as an example of applying decommissioning and abandonment best practice and establishing a realistic scope of work. A decommissioning plan is developed in light of these previous studies, followed by an environmental impact assessment. It is found that contrary to what was done in the case of the Rabon Grande pipeline, when a pipeline is to be shutdown, the best practice methodology is to temporally or fully decommission the system as soon as possible.

  1. Technical support to the social cost study of Ignalina NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of Phare project on assessment of social cost related with decommissioning of unit 1 of Ignalina NPP is presented. This is the first project of social guarantees in Visaginas financed by European Commission Project will develop pilot studies aimed at encouraging small and medium size business in Visaginas, creating new jobs, employment of young people. The project will also consult about the activities of the said projects, inform the community about the things being done to mitigate social impact

  2. Study on the financing mechanism and management for decommissioning of nuclear installations in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole cycle of the decommissioning process development of repository requires the relevant bodies to have a financial system to ensure that it has sufficient funds for its whole life cycle (over periods of many decades). Therefore, the financing mechanism and management system shall respect the following status: the national position, institutional and legislative environment, technical capabilities, the waste origin, ownership, characteristics and inventories. The main objective of the studies is to focus on the cost considerations, alternative funding managements and mechanisms, technical and non-technical factors that may affect the repository life-cycle costs. As a conclusion, the outcomes of this paper is to make a good recommendation and could be applied to the national planners, regulatory body, engineers, or the managers, to form a financial management plan for the decommissioning of the Nuclear Installation

  3. Study on the financing mechanism and management for decommissioning of nuclear installations in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Lydia Ilaiza, E-mail: lydiailaiza@gmail.com; Ryong, Kim Tae [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School (KINGS) 658-91 Haemaji-ro, Seosaeng-myeon, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-882 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-29

    The whole cycle of the decommissioning process development of repository requires the relevant bodies to have a financial system to ensure that it has sufficient funds for its whole life cycle (over periods of many decades). Therefore, the financing mechanism and management system shall respect the following status: the national position, institutional and legislative environment, technical capabilities, the waste origin, ownership, characteristics and inventories. The main objective of the studies is to focus on the cost considerations, alternative funding managements and mechanisms, technical and non-technical factors that may affect the repository life-cycle costs. As a conclusion, the outcomes of this paper is to make a good recommendation and could be applied to the national planners, regulatory body, engineers, or the managers, to form a financial management plan for the decommissioning of the Nuclear Installation.

  4. Study on the financing mechanism and management for decommissioning of nuclear installations in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Lydia Ilaiza; Ryong, Kim Tae

    2015-04-01

    The whole cycle of the decommissioning process development of repository requires the relevant bodies to have a financial system to ensure that it has sufficient funds for its whole life cycle (over periods of many decades). Therefore, the financing mechanism and management system shall respect the following status: the national position, institutional and legislative environment, technical capabilities, the waste origin, ownership, characteristics and inventories. The main objective of the studies is to focus on the cost considerations, alternative funding managements and mechanisms, technical and non-technical factors that may affect the repository life-cycle costs. As a conclusion, the outcomes of this paper is to make a good recommendation and could be applied to the national planners, regulatory body, engineers, or the managers, to form a financial management plan for the decommissioning of the Nuclear Installation.

  5. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission regulatory process for decommissioning a uranium mining facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates uranium mining in Canada. The CNSC regulatory process requires that a licence applicant plan for and commit to future decommissioning before irrevocable decisions are made, and throughout the life of a uranium mine. These requirements include conceptual decommissioning plans and the provision of financial assurances to ensure the availability of funds for decommissioning activities. When an application for decommissioning is submitted to the CNSC, an environmental assessment is required prior to initiating the licensing process. A case study is presented for COGEMA Resources Inc. (COGEMA), who is entering the decommissioning phase with the CNSC for the Cluff Lake uranium mine. As part of the licensing process, CNSC multidisciplinary staff assesses the decommissioning plan, associated costs, and the environmental assessment. When the CNSC is satisfied that all of its requirements are met, a decommissioning licence may be issued. (author)

  6. Irradiated graphite studies prior to decommissioning of G1, G2 and G3 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G1 (46 MWth), G2 (250 MWth) and G3 (250 MWth) are the first French plutonium production reactors owned by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique). They started to be operated in 1956 (G1), 1959 (G2) and 1960 (G3); their final shutdown occurred in 1968, 1980 and 1984 respectively. Each reactor used about 1200 tons of graphite as moderator, moreover in G2 and G3, a 95 tons graphite wall is used to shield the rear side concrete from neutron irradiation. G1 is an air cooled reactor operated at a graphite temperature ranging from 30 C to 230 C; G2 and G3 are CO2 cooled reactors and during operation the graphite temperature is higher (140 C to 400 C). These reactors are now partly decommissioned, but the graphite stacks are still inside the reactors. The graphite core radioactivity has decreased enough so that a full decommissioning stage may be considered. Conceming this decommissioning, the studies reported here are: (i) stored energy in graphite, (ii) graphite radioactivity measurements, (iii) leaching of radionuclide (14C, 36Cl, 63Ni, 60Co,3H) from graphite, (iv) chlorine diffusion through graphite. (authors)

  7. Decommissioning Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Decommissioning Handbook is a technical guide for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the removal of the radioactive and, for practical reasons, hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. This handbook identifies and technologies and techniques that will accomplish these objectives. The emphasis in this handbook is on characterization; waste treatment; decontamination; dismantling, segmenting, demolition; and remote technologies. Other aspects that are discussed in some detail include the regulations governing decommissioning, worker and environmental protection, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials. The handbook describes in general terms the overall decommissioning project, including planning, cost estimating, and operating practices that would ease preparation of the Decommissioning Plan and the decommissioning itself. The reader is referred to other documents for more detailed information. This Decommissioning Handbook has been prepared by Enserch Environmental Corporation for the US Department of Energy and is a complete restructuring of the original handbook developed in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services. The significant changes between the two documents are the addition of current and the deletion of obsolete technologies and the addition of chapters on project planning and the Decommissioning Plan, regulatory requirements, characterization, remote technology, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials.

  8. International decommissioning strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the radiological hazards resulting from the activities associated with the decommissioning of nuclear reactors, primarily with decommissioning after planned final shutdown. Many of the provisions are also applicable to decommissioning after an abnormal event that has resulted in serious facility damage or contamination. In this case, this Safety Guide may be used as a basis for developing special decommissioning provisions, although additional considerations will be necessary. Due to the short extension of the present paper, we will emphasize only on some critical tasks of decommissioning research reactors. The removal of nuclear fuel from the reactor installation at the end of its operational lifetime should preferably be performed as part of operations or as one of the initial activities in decommissioning. At the beginning of decommissioning, all readily removable radioactive sources (operational waste, sealed sources, liquids) should be removed for reuse, storage in approved location or disposal. The removal of sources will normally result in a significant reduction of the radiation hazards. The operating organization should have, or have access to, competent staff to cover areas such as: safety requirements of the licence, radiation protection, waste management, quality management etc. Personnel should be competent to perform their assigned work safely. The management and staff involved in the decommissioning project should be made aware of and trained, if necessary, in the methods of minimizing the waste generated in the tasks assigned. Appropriate levels of control and supervision should be provided to ensure safety. The organizational structure to be employed during decommissioning should be described in the decommissioning plan. In the description of the organizational structure, there should be a clear delineation of authorities and responsibilities amongst the various units. This is particularly necessary when the operating organization uses outside

  9. Establishment the code for prediction of waste volume on NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -2 and developed DEMOS(DEcommissioning MOdeling System) and DEPES(DEcommissioning Process Establish System) using these data. These systems may be able to help to establish decommissioning strategy of nuclear power plant. We tried to apply research reactor data to OPR-1000 which is commercial nuclear power plant. But code for research reactor was not consistent when applying to nuclear power plant. The decommissioning activity of nuclear power plant is basically performed by the unit facility or room. In order to apply research reactor data, each WBS code is needed to apply to the object of each facility. This means that one FAC code may have several WBS codes. However, current codes in DECOMMIS are hard to map WBS code to FAC code one by one, and are specialized to research reactor. So it is difficult to apply to nuclear power plant directly. In order to solve this problem, the common code that can be adapted to commercial nuclear power plant as well as to research reactor is required. It may be inferred from the mapping data in the case of mismatching, or it can be applied with some modifications in the case of similar facility. In this paper, the establishment method of the code which uses the research reactor data in decommissioning project of nuclear power plant was studied. Method for prediction of the decommissioning waste volume was discussed on the basis of the domestic nuclear power plant, OPR-1000. Decommissioning experience is very important to apply to the estimation of decommissioning waste volume. So method for the estimation of decommissioning waste volume using common code that link OPR-1000 and KRR-2 was suggested. This research result will be helpful to reliable estimation of decommissioning waste volume and further estimation of the decommissioning cost and establishment of decommissioning strategies

  10. Establishment the code for prediction of waste volume on NPP decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, W. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, Y. D.; Kim, I. S.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    -2 and developed DEMOS(DEcommissioning MOdeling System) and DEPES(DEcommissioning Process Establish System) using these data. These systems may be able to help to establish decommissioning strategy of nuclear power plant. We tried to apply research reactor data to OPR-1000 which is commercial nuclear power plant. But code for research reactor was not consistent when applying to nuclear power plant. The decommissioning activity of nuclear power plant is basically performed by the unit facility or room. In order to apply research reactor data, each WBS code is needed to apply to the object of each facility. This means that one FAC code may have several WBS codes. However, current codes in DECOMMIS are hard to map WBS code to FAC code one by one, and are specialized to research reactor. So it is difficult to apply to nuclear power plant directly. In order to solve this problem, the common code that can be adapted to commercial nuclear power plant as well as to research reactor is required. It may be inferred from the mapping data in the case of mismatching, or it can be applied with some modifications in the case of similar facility. In this paper, the establishment method of the code which uses the research reactor data in decommissioning project of nuclear power plant was studied. Method for prediction of the decommissioning waste volume was discussed on the basis of the domestic nuclear power plant, OPR-1000. Decommissioning experience is very important to apply to the estimation of decommissioning waste volume. So method for the estimation of decommissioning waste volume using common code that link OPR-1000 and KRR-2 was suggested. This research result will be helpful to reliable estimation of decommissioning waste volume and further estimation of the decommissioning cost and establishment of decommissioning strategies.

  11. Safety Assessment for Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few decades, international guidance has been developed on methods for assessing the safety of predisposal and disposal facilities for radioactive waste. More recently, it has been recognized that there is also a need for specific guidance on safety assessment in the context of decommissioning nuclear facilities. The importance of safety during decommissioning was highlighted at the International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities held in Berlin in 2002 and at the First Review Meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management in 2003. At its June 2004 meeting, the Board of Governors of the IAEA approved the International Action Plan on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (GOV/2004/40), which called on the IAEA to: ''establish a forum for the sharing and exchange of national information and experience on the application of safety assessment in the context of decommissioning and provide a means to convey this information to other interested parties, also drawing on the work of other international organizations in this area''. In response, in November 2004, the IAEA launched the international project Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety for Decommissioning of Facilities Using Radioactive Material (DeSa) with the following objectives: -To develop a harmonized approach to safety assessment and to define the elements of safety assessment for decommissioning, including the application of a graded approach; -To investigate the practical applicability of the methodology and performance of safety assessments for the decommissioning of various types of facility through a selected number of test cases; -To investigate approaches for the review of safety assessments for decommissioning activities and the development of a regulatory approach for reviewing safety assessments for decommissioning activities and as a basis for regulatory decision making; -To provide a forum

  12. Study on dismantling scenario for large equipment in decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Utilization of validation result of applicability of project management data evaluation code to decommissioning project of FUGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the first step of inspection of the applicability of the PRODIA Code for dismantling activities in the decommissioning of FUGEN, manpower needs for dismantling activities in FUGEN conducted in 2008 were calculated with conventional calculation formulas developed from the data obtained from the JPDR decommissioning program. In this inspection, it was found that the actual data for the dismantling of feedwater heaters show the following two characteristic profiles: 1) the actual data were significantly smaller than the results of the conventional calculation formulas and 2) the actual data for the dismantling of the 3rd feedwater heater were two times larger than those for the dismantling of the 4th one, although both data were almost of the same weight. In order to use the PRODIA Code for further dismantling activities in the decommissioning of FUGEN, the origin of these results was investigated. This investigation showed that both of the differences in the work description between FUGEN and JPDR and between the 3rd feedwater heater of FUGEN and the 4th one produce these characteristic profiles. Since this means that the conventional calculation formula for the dismantling of feedwater heaters has no applicability, it was considered necessary to construct a new calculation formula reflecting the work description of the dismantling of feedwater heaters in FUGEN. It was found that the calculation results with this new formula showed good agreement with the actual data of both the 3rd and 4th feedwater heaters. Based on these findings, some case studies for the dismantling of feedwater heaters were conducted. (author)

  13. Research reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Of the ∼ 800 research reactors constructed worldwide to date, ∼50% have been shut down and are at various stages of decommissioning. Many reached the end of their design lives or were shut down due to strategic, economic or regulatory considerations. 27% of those in operation are over 40 years old and will need to be decommissioned soon. Decommissioning normally takes the facility permanently out of service and subjects it to progressive hazard reduction, dismantling and decontamination in a safe, secure economically viable way, using best practicable means to meet the best practicable environmental option, such that the risks and doses to workers and the general public are maintained as low as reasonably practicable. Whilst most decommissioning techniques are well established there are still some challenging and important issues that need resolution. Perhaps the most challenging issue is radioactive waste management and storage. It is vitally important that all local and national waste classification, transportation, storage and end point requirements are known, as the adopted strategy will be heavily influenced by these factors. Other equally important but softer issues include the requirement for early decommissioning plans, adequate funding/cost estimates and the involvement of all relevant stakeholders. A comprehensive decommissioning plan should be produced up front that encompasses an early radiological characterisation survey of the facility/site. An appropriate funding mechanism needs to be assured. Whilst regular revisions of the decommissioning cost study should help to determine required funds, it is important to validate these cost estimates by benchmarking other decommissioning projects and accumulated experience. The use of appropriate 'stakeholder dialogue' methods by the facility operator to inform and communicate with all interested parties, such as government and non-government organisations, regulators, trades unions, anti

  14. Study on the Development of Methodology for Cost Calculations and Financial Planning of Decommissioning Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following study deals with the development of methodology for cost calculations and financial planning of decommissioning operations. It has been carried out by EDF / FRAMATOME / VUJE / SCK-CEN in the frame of the contract B7-032/2000/291058/MAR/C2 awarded by the European Commission. This study consists of 4 parts. The first task objective is to develop a reliable and transparent methodology for cost assessment and financial planning sufficient precise but without long and in depth investigations and studies. This methodology mainly contains: Calculation methods and algorithms for the elaboration of costs items making up the whole decommissioning cost. Estimated or standard values for the parameters and for the cost factors to be used in the above-mentioned algorithms Financial mechanism to be applied as to establish a financial planning. The second part task is the provision of standard values for the different parameters and costs factors described in the above-mentioned algorithms. This provision of data is based on the own various experience acquired by the members of the working team and on existing international references (databases, publications and reports). As decommissioning operations are spreading over several dozens of years, the scope of this task the description of the financial mechanisms to be applied to the different cost items as to establish a complete financial cost. It takes into account the financial schedule issued in task 1. The scope of this task consists in bringing together in a guideline all the information collected before: algorithms, data and financial mechanisms. (A.L.B.)

  15. Decommissioning of commercial reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, Kohei [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In the case of nuclear reactors, the diversion is often difficult as they are highly purposive, the disassembling is not easy as they are robust, and attention is required to handle the equipment containing radioactive substances. Decommissioning is defined as all the measures taken from the state that facilities become unused to the state of becoming green field. In Japan, already 40 years have elapsed since the effort for nuclear power was begun, and in this paper, the present state and future subjects of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are summarized at the opportunity that the stop of commercial operation of Tokai Nuclear Power Station was decided recently. In the Tokai Nuclear Power Station, 166 MWe graphite-moderated, carbon dioxide-cooled reactor called improved Calder Hall type is installed, which started the operation in 1966. The circumstances of the decision to stop its operation are explained. The basic policy of the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power stations has been already published by the Advisory Committee for Energy. The state of the decommissioning in various foreign countries is reported. In Japan, the state of green field was realized in 1996 in the decommissioning of the JPDR in Japan Atomic Energy Research institute, and the decommissioning of the atomic powered ship ``Mutsu`` was completed. (K.I.)

  16. How it is possible to build a national system for decommissioning waste management without site nor waste liberation: the case of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past experience in decommissioning in France has shown that a national system has to be put in place to deal with decommissioning, waste elimination and site cleaning up activities in order to allow a consistent, safe, transparent and industrially applicable management of these matters. A system founded on successive lines of defence has been put into enforcement, which does not involve any site nor waste liberation, as it is considered that the criteria associated are always prone to discussion and contradiction. This system is based on the following concepts: - 'nuclear waste', waste prone to have been contaminated or activated, is segregated from 'conventional waste' using a system involving successive lines of defence, and hence, building a very high level of confidence that no 'nuclear waste' will be eliminated without control in conventional waste eliminators or recycling facilities; - 'nuclear waste' is eliminated in dedicated facilities or repositories, or in conventional facilities under the condition of a special authorization based on a radiological impact study and a public inquiry; - a global safety evaluation of the nuclear site is conducted after decommissioning in order to define possible use restrictions. In all cases, minimum restrictions will be put into enforcement in urbanization plans to ensure sufficient precaution when planning future uses of the ground or the building. This paper describes this global system in detail and shows that its inherent consistency allows it to be easily applicable by operators while achieving a high level of safety and confidence. It is now widely accepted by stakeholders. The French Nuclear Safety Authority is now working to apply this methodology more widely to other nuclear practices like the waste management from medical, research and industrial activities, or from past or remediation activities. (authors)

  17. Decommissioning handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the Handbook and its application as a resource in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) work. The nature of the unique hazards contained in nuclear facilities demand a comprehensive step-by-step program to cover their design, licensing, and commissioning or start-up. Similarly, because of residual radioactivity, a termination of operations (decommissioning) also presents hazards that must be addressed from a technological and programmatic standpoint. To meet the needs raised by these issues, the original Decommissioning Handbook was prepared in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services under contract to the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Its mission was to provide technical guidance on the D and D of both commercial and government-owned nuclear facilities, including characterization, decontamination, dismantling, and disposition (disposal or salvage) of a facility's equipment and structure. In addition, depending on the regulatory requirements for material disposal and/or the wastes generated by decontamination, the management of waste can also be considered as a decommissioning activity. Chapters are Operational and predecommissioning activities; Decommissioning project; Decommissioning plan; Regulations; Final project configuration; Characterization; Waste treatment; Decontamination; Dismantling, segmenting, and demolition; Remote handling equipment; Environmental protection; Packaging and transportation; and Decommissioning cost estimates. Appendices contain a prediction method for estimation of radiactive inventory and a glossary

  18. Joint US/Russian study on the development of a decommissioning strategy plan for RBMK-1000 unit No. 1 at the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this joint U.S./Russian study was to develop a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable strategy for decommissioning Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP) Unit No. 1 as a representative first-generation RBMK-1000 reactor. The ultimate goal in developing the decommissioning strategy was to select the most suitable decommissioning alternative and end state, taking into account the socioeconomic conditions, the regulatory environment, and decommissioning experience in Russia. This study was performed by a group of Russian and American experts led by Kurchatov Institute for the Russian efforts and by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. efforts and for the overall project

  19. Joint US/Russian study on the development of a decommissioning strategy plan for RBMK-1000 unit No. 1 at the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this joint U.S./Russian study was to develop a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable strategy for decommissioning Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP) Unit No. 1 as a representative first-generation RBMK-1000 reactor. The ultimate goal in developing the decommissioning strategy was to select the most suitable decommissioning alternative and end state, taking into account the socioeconomic conditions, the regulatory environment, and decommissioning experience in Russia. This study was performed by a group of Russian and American experts led by Kurchatov Institute for the Russian efforts and by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. efforts and for the overall project.

  20. The development of a tailings decommissioning concept: A case history, Rabbit Lake, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rabbit Lake orebody was discovered in 1968. From 1975 to 1985, approximately 6.5 million tonnes of tailings were deposited in a valley confined by bedrock ridges and two earth-filled dams. Planning for the decommissioning of the Rabbit Lake tailings management facility started in 1983 when the relocation of the tailings into the mined out Rabbit Lake open pit and alternatively, the in-situ decommissioning were examined. The latter was preferred since it offered a sufficiently low individual dose rate and an insignificant environmental impact. To pursue the in-situ decommissioning, three options were considered: (1) A concave surface with natural cover, surface water management and dam stabilization, (2) a convex surface with natural cover, surface water management and dam stabilization and (3) a minimum reclamation option incorporating surface water management only. By 1988, an electromagnetic conductivity survey, a pathway analysis, a stream flow reconnaissance and continued environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the tailings area were completed. On the basis of the results, the cover design was optimized taking into account areas of higher consolidation defined by the presence of distal slimes and frozen layers. In addition, pre-loading of the slime area was considered to alleviate post-construction settlements. (Abstract only)

  1. Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proven options available to Sri Lanka for large scale electricity generation in the future are coal-fired thermal, oil-fired thermal and Nuclear. Four case studies for groups participated are indicated. Case study for group 1 is comparison of the three options by taking into consideration the capital and recurrent expenditure involved. Environmental effects of the three options are also given. Case study for group 2 is economic comparison of three renewable energy based power generation system. Case study for group 3 is based on energy conservation, efficiency, improvement and demand management. Assuming that a continuous saving of 20 MW of demand from 1996 onwards is effective two projects are suggested to achieve this result. Case study for group 4 is a feasibility study for hydro power development of the Kukule Ganga (river) in Sri Lanka. Participants are required to evaluate one of the three optional development concepts which are technically feasible

  2. The technological study on the decommissioning of nuclear facility, etc. in the Tokai Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since JPDR is dismantled and is removed, in Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the dismantling of nuclear facility which finished the mission, etc. is advanced. At present, nuclear facility as a dismantling object count the approximately 20 facilities, and decommissioning plan of these facilities becomes an important problem, when the decommissioning countermeasure is considered. However, decommissioning techniques in proportion to various nuclear facility, etc. are clearly, and it has not been determined. In this report, the technical consideration on decommissioning techniques of nuclear facility promoted on the basis of this experience in future, while until now decommissioning experience and technical knowledge are arranged, etc. was added in order to appropriately and surely carry out decommissioning techniques and legal procedures, etc. (author)

  3. Decommissioning: a problem or a challenge?

    OpenAIRE

    Mele Irena

    2004-01-01

    With the ageing of nuclear facilities or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. To avoid such problems, future liailities should be thoroughly estimated in drawing up the decommissioning and waste manageme...

  4. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Ha, Jea-Hyun; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost.

  5. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost

  6. Decommissioning of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactors of WWR-S type were built in countries under Soviet influence in '60, last century and consequently reached their service life. Decommissioning implies removal of all radioactive components, processing, conditioning and final disposal in full safety of all sources on site of radiological pollution. The WWR-S reactor at Bucuresti-Magurele was put into function in 1957 and operated until 1997 when it was stopped and put into conservation in view of decommissioning. Presented are three decommissioning variants: 1. Reactor shut-down for a long period (30-50 years) what would entail a substantial decrease of contamination with lower costs in dismantling, mechanical, chemical and physical processing followed by final disposal of the radioactive wastes. The drawback of this solution is the life prolongation of a non-productive nuclear unit requiring funds for personnel, control, maintenance, etc; 2. Decommissioning in a single stage what implies large funds for a immediate investment; 3. Extending the operation on a series of stages rather phased in time to allow a more convenient flow of funds and also to gather technical solutions, better than the present ones. This latter option seems to be optimal for the case of the WWR-S Research at Bucharest-Magurele Reactor. Equipment and technologies should be developed in order to ensure the technical background of the first operations of decommissioning: equipment for scarification, dismantling, dismemberment in a highly radioactive environment; cutting-to-pieces and disassembling technologies; decontamination modern technologies. Concomitantly, nuclear safety and quality assurance regulations and programmes, specific to decommissioning projects should be implemented, as well as a modern, coherent and reliable system of data acquisition, recording and storing. Also the impact of decommissioning must be thoroughly evaluated. The national team of specialists will be assisted by IAEA experts to ensure the

  7. Study on Evaluation of Project Management Data for Decommissioning of Uranium Refining and Conversion Plant - 12234

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of nuclear facilities that would no longer be required have been decommissioned in JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). A lot of nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned in JAEA in near future. To implement decommissioning of nuclear facilities, it was important to make a rational decommissioning plan. Therefore, project management data evaluation system for dismantling activities (PRODIA code) has been developed, and will be useful for making a detailed decommissioning plan for an object facility. Dismantling of dry conversion facility in the uranium refining and conversion plant (URCP) at Ningyo-toge began in 2008. During dismantling activities, project management data such as manpower and amount of waste generation have been collected. Such collected project management data has been evaluated and used to establish a calculation formula to calculate manpower for dismantling equipment of chemical process and calculate manpower for using a green house (GH) which was a temporary structure for preventing the spread of contaminants during dismantling. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to dismantling of equipment, the relation of dismantling manpower to each piece of equipment was evaluated. Furthermore, the relation of dismantling manpower to each chemical process was evaluated. The results showed promise for evaluating dismantling manpower with respect to each chemical process. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to use of the GH, relations of GH installation manpower and removal manpower to GH footprint were evaluated. Furthermore, the calculation formula for secondary waste generation was established. In this study, project management data related to dismantling of equipment and use of the GH were evaluated and analyzed. The project management data, manpower for dismantling of equipment, manpower for installation and removal of GH, and secondary waste generation from GH were considered

  8. Decommissioning handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained

  9. Decommissioning handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manion, W.J.; LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-11-01

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained.

  10. Study on radon eduction rate for remediation and decommissioning of uranium tailings impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author studies the measurement, calculation of radon eduction rate and the control to radon eduction rate by covering some material in big area of tailings for remediation and decommissioning of uranium tailings impoundment. In order to eliminate the effect on the measurement of radon eduction rate by the weather and the inhomogeneous radium content of tailings, the suitable measuring time, network and times should be considered in the measurement of the average annual radon eduction rate of uranium tailings. It is proposed that the better economic and social benefits will be obtained with natural material (soil, gravel etc) as cover material to reduce radon eduction rate. The author describes how to determine the cover thickness by comparing the results in site test with that in calculation

  11. A study on the radioactivity analysis of decommissioning concrete using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to decommission the shielding concrete of KRR(Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2, it must be exactly determined activated level and range by neutron irradiation during operation. To determine the activated level and range, it must be sampled and analyzed the core sample. But, there are difficulties in sample preparation and determination of the measurement efficiency by self-absorption. In the study, the full energy efficiency of the HPGe detector was compared with the measured value using standard source and the calculated one using Monte Carlo simulation. Also, self-absorption effects due to the density and component change of the concrete were calculated using the Monte Carlo method. Its results will be used radioactivity analysis of the real concrete core sample in the future

  12. A study on the radioactivity analysis of decommissioning concrete using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Bum Kyoung; Kim, Gye Hong; Chung, Un Soo; Lee, Keun Woo; Oh, Won Zin; Park, Jin Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    In order to decommission the shielding concrete of KRR(Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2, it must be exactly determined activated level and range by neutron irradiation during operation. To determine the activated level and range, it must be sampled and analyzed the core sample. But, there are difficulties in sample preparation and determination of the measurement efficiency by self-absorption. In the study, the full energy efficiency of the HPGe detector was compared with the measured value using standard source and the calculated one using Monte Carlo simulation. Also, self-absorption effects due to the density and component change of the concrete were calculated using the Monte Carlo method. Its results will be used radioactivity analysis of the real concrete core sample in the future.

  13. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed

  14. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the United Kingdom, good progress has been made with the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  15. Decommissioning planning of research reactors in Argentina: The RA-1 case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are 6 research reactors operational in Argentina, 4 of them at CNEA (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica) and 2 at national universities. Decommissioning of none of them is foreseen in the near future, but nevertheless CNEA (legally responsible of D and D of all relevant nuclear facilities in the country) has started D and D planning activities on the research reactors. D and D planning has two aims: to be prepared for the end of life of the existing facilities, and to estimate both the amount and characteristics of the radioactive wastes arising from decommissioning, as a necessary feedback to the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. D and D activities are based on previous experience in the country, and on international cooperation. CNEA has received technical support from IAEA (through a Technical Cooperation Project and expert missions), and has cooperation agreements covering D and D with the US Department of Energy, Belgium, Germany and ENRESA from Spain. Regarding previous experience, among others the critical assembly RA-2 was dismantled between 1984-1989, and its site released for unrestricted use; the radioisotope production reactor RA-3 internals were dismantled and changed between 1988-1990. A Quality Management System has been developed for all decommissioning activities in CNEA based on a compatibilization of the requirements of ISO 9001:2000, ISO 14001:1996, IRAM 3800:1998 (national norm similar to BS 8800:1996), IAEA code 50-C-Q and 50-SG-Q14 guide. D and D planning has started with the RA-1 research reactor, located at the Constituyentes Atomic Center - CAC, near Buenos Aires city. RA-1 is the eldest relevant nuclear facility in the country: It reached criticality in January 1958, as a 1 watt Argonaut critical assembly, built in the country based on Argonne National Lab. basic engineering, and during the last 45 years has undergone substantial modifications to become the present 40 kw research reactor. Radiological

  16. Summary of comments received at workshop on use of a Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) to facilitate public participation in decommissioning cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting an enhanced participatory rulemaking to establish radiological criteria for the decommissioning of NRC-licensed facilities. As part of this rulemaking, On August 20, 1994 the NRC published a proposed rule for public comment. Paragraph 20.1406(b) of the proposed rule would require that the licensee convene a Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) if the licensee proposed release of the site for restricted use after decommissioning. To encourage comment the NRC held a workshop on the subject of $SABs on December 6, 7, and 8, 1994. This report summarizes the 567 comments categorized from the transcript of the workshop. The commenters at the workshop generally supported public participation in decommissioning cases. Many participants favored promulgating requirements in the NRC's rules. Some industry participants favored relying on voluntary exchanges between the public and the licensees. Many participants indicated that a SSAB or something functionally equivalent is needed in controversial decommissioning cases, but that some lesser undertaking can achieve meaningful public participation in other cases. No analysis or response to the comments is included in this report

  17. Summary of comments received at workshop on use of a Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) to facilitate public participation in decommissioning cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplin, J.; Padge, G.; Smith, D.; Wiblin, C. [Advanced Systems Technology, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting an enhanced participatory rulemaking to establish radiological criteria for the decommissioning of NRC-licensed facilities. As part of this rulemaking, On August 20, 1994 the NRC published a proposed rule for public comment. Paragraph 20.1406(b) of the proposed rule would require that the licensee convene a Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) if the licensee proposed release of the site for restricted use after decommissioning. To encourage comment the NRC held a workshop on the subject of $SABs on December 6, 7, and 8, 1994. This report summarizes the 567 comments categorized from the transcript of the workshop. The commenters at the workshop generally supported public participation in decommissioning cases. Many participants favored promulgating requirements in the NRC`s rules. Some industry participants favored relying on voluntary exchanges between the public and the licensees. Many participants indicated that a SSAB or something functionally equivalent is needed in controversial decommissioning cases, but that some lesser undertaking can achieve meaningful public participation in other cases. No analysis or response to the comments is included in this report.

  18. Decommissioning: a problem or a challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mele Irena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ageing of nuclear facilities or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. To avoid such problems, future liailities should be thoroughly estimated in drawing up the decommissioning and waste management programme for each nuclear facility in time, and financial provisions for implementing such programme should be provided. In this paper a presentation of current decommissioning experience in Slovenia is given. The main problems and difficulties in decommissioning of the Žirovski Vrh Uranium Mine are exposed and the lesson learned from this case is presented. The preparation of the decommissioning programme for the Nuclear Power Plant Krško is also described, and the situation at the TRIGA research reactor is briefly discussed.

  19. Development of decommissioning system engineering technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the decommissioning planning stage, it is important to select the optimized decommissioning process considering the cost and safety. Especially the selection of the optimized decommissioning process is necessary because it affects to improve worker's safety and decommissioning work efficiency. The decommissioning process evaluation technology can provide the optimized decommissioning process as constructing various decommissioning scenarios and it can help to prevent the potential accidents as delivering the exact work procedures to workers and to help workers to perform decommissioning work skillfully. It's necessary to measure the radioactive contamination in the highly contaminated facilities such as hot-cells or glove-boxes to be decommissioned for decommissioning planning. These facilities are very high radiation level, so it is difficult to approach. In this case the detector system is preferable to separate the sensor and electronics, which have to locate in the facility outside to avoid the electric noise and worker's radiation exposure. In this project, we developed the remote detection system for radiation measurement and signal transmission in the high radiation area. In order to minimize worker's exposure when decommissioning highly activated nuclear facilities, it is necessary to develop the remote handling tool to perform the dismantling work remotely. Especially, since cutting, measuring, and decontamination works should be performed remotely in the highly activated area, the remote handling tool for conducting these works should be developed. Therefore, the multi-purpose dismantling machine that can measuring dose, facility cutting, and remote handling for maintenance and decommissioning of highly activated facility should be needed

  20. Assessment of foreign decommissioning technology with potential application to US decommissioning needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and technically assess foreign decommissioning technology developments that may represent significant improvements over decommissioning technology currently available or under development in the United States. Technology need areas for nuclear power reactor decommissioning operations were identified and prioritized using the results of past light water reactor (LWR) decommissioning studies to quantitatively evaluate the potential for reducing cost and decommissioning worker radiation dose for each major decommissioning activity. Based on these identified needs, current foreign decommissioning technologies of potential interest to the US were identified through personal contacts and the collection and review of an extensive body of decommissioning literature. These technologies were then assessed qualitatively to evaluate their uniqueness, potential for a significant reduction in decommissioning costs and/or worker radiation dose, development status, and other factors affecting their value and applicability to US needs

  1. Decommissioning in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of

  2. Progress of JPDR decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) decommissioning project is progressively achieving its final goal; the project will be finished by March 1996 to release the JPDR's site into unrestricted use in a green field condition. The new techniques which developed or improved in R and D, the first phase of this program, have been successfully applied to the actual dismantling activities. Some decommissioning wastes have been managed as the first case of onsite shallow land burial based on the new regulatory frame of radioactive waste management. The experiences and the data obtained from the JPDR dismantling activities are expected to contribute to future decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. (author)

  3. Experiences in teaching decommissioning - 16179

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the experience gained by the author in teaching decommissioning in the Highlands of Scotland. Initially when asked to teach the subject of decommissioning to students sitting for a BSc degree in 'Electrical or Mechanical Engineering with Decommissioning Studies', the author was taken aback, not having previously taught degree students and there was no precedent since there was no previous material or examples to build on. It was just as difficult for the students since whilst some had progressed from completing HND studies, the majority were employed at the Dounreay site and were mature students with families who were availing themselves of the opportunity for career advancement (CPD). Some of the students were from the UKAEA and its contractors whilst others were from Rolls-Royce working at Vulcan, the Royal Navy's establishment for testing nuclear reactors for submarines. A number of the students had not been in a formal learning environment for many years. The College which had originally been funded by the UKAEA and the nuclear industry in the 1950's was anxious to break into the new field of Decommissioning and were keen to promote these courses in order to support the work progressing on site. Many families in Thurso, and in Caithness, have a long tradition of working in the nuclear industry and it was thought at the time that expertise in nuclear decommissioning could be developed and indeed exported elsewhere. In addition the courses being promoted by the College would attract students from other parts so that a centre of excellence could be established. In parallel with formal teaching, online courses were also developed to extend the reach of the College. The material was developed as a mixture of power point presentations and formal notes and was obtained from existing literature, web searches and interactive discussions with people in the industry as well as case studies obtained from actual situations. Assignments were set and

  4. Ringhals Site Study 2013 - An assessment of the decommissioning cost for the Ringhals site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the decommissioning cost for the Ringhals site as of 2013. The objective has been to make a best estimate of the costs within the uncertainties of a budgetary estimate. To achieve this, the decommissioning costs have been assessed with support from TLG Services Inc., utilizing their knowledge and experience from U.S. decommissioning projects incorporated in their cost estimation platform DECCER. The 2013 estimate has included the development of a Ringhals-specific cost estimation method that allows for successive improvement in the future. In-house experiences have been included and the method is based on the present decommissioning strategy according to Ringhals decommissioning plan. Two basic approaches have been used in the cost assessment; a bottom up approach to develop unit cost factors (UCF) for recurrent work; and a specific analogy approach for cost estimating special items. The basic, activity-dependent, costs have been complemented by period-dependent costs, derived, among other things, from SKB's newly developed reference planning and organizational model for a Swedish decommissioning project. Furthermore, collateral costs based on the experiences of Barsebaeck have been included. As a final point, all costs have been adjusted for industrial standard contingencies, as suggested by TLG, to achieve a best estimate. In order to make the cost intelligible a comprehensive description of the assumptions, boundary conditions and general basis of the estimate is included in this report. All costs have been reported both according to the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations published by OECD/NEA and according to the SKB developed EEF structure. Furthermore, common costs have been isolated to a theoretical unit 0 to make the cost for respective unit even more comparable on a national and international scale. The calculations show that the total cost for the decommissioning of the Ringhals site is

  5. Ringhals Site Study 2013 - An assessment of the decommissioning cost for the Ringhals site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Tommy [Ringhals AB, Ringhals (Sweden); Norberg, Thomas [Solvina AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Knutsson, Andreas; Fors, Patrik; Sandebert, Camilla [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    This report presents the decommissioning cost for the Ringhals site as of 2013. The objective has been to make a best estimate of the costs within the uncertainties of a budgetary estimate. To achieve this, the decommissioning costs have been assessed with support from TLG Services Inc., utilizing their knowledge and experience from U.S. decommissioning projects incorporated in their cost estimation platform DECCER. The 2013 estimate has included the development of a Ringhals-specific cost estimation method that allows for successive improvement in the future. In-house experiences have been included and the method is based on the present decommissioning strategy according to Ringhals decommissioning plan. Two basic approaches have been used in the cost assessment; a bottom up approach to develop unit cost factors (UCF) for recurrent work; and a specific analogy approach for cost estimating special items. The basic, activity-dependent, costs have been complemented by period-dependent costs, derived, among other things, from SKB's newly developed reference planning and organizational model for a Swedish decommissioning project. Furthermore, collateral costs based on the experiences of Barsebaeck have been included. As a final point, all costs have been adjusted for industrial standard contingencies, as suggested by TLG, to achieve a best estimate. In order to make the cost intelligible a comprehensive description of the assumptions, boundary conditions and general basis of the estimate is included in this report. All costs have been reported both according to the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations published by OECD/NEA and according to the SKB developed EEF structure. Furthermore, common costs have been isolated to a theoretical unit 0 to make the cost for respective unit even more comparable on a national and international scale. The calculations show that the total cost for the decommissioning of the Ringhals

  6. Engineering studies for the surplus production reactor decommissioning project at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight nuclear reactors on the Hanford Site are retired from service and ready for decommissioning. Viable, decommissioning alternatives for these facilities were assessed, and the Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision for the Decommissioning of Eight Surplus Production Reactors at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington on September 14, 1993. This document indicated DOE's selection of safe storage followed by deferred one-piece removal on a time frame consistent with the proposed Hanford cleanup schedule for remedial actions included in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). One-piece removal, following conventional Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the reactor building, will dispose of the reactor blocks by transporting them intact to a disposal facility for burial. The project is technically complex; each reactor block weighs 9,000-11,000 tons and will be transported from 5/14 miles to the disposal site. The Westinghouse Hanford Company subsequently established the Surplus Production Reactor Decommissioning Project (SPRDP), and conceptual engineering for the SPRDP has been initiated

  7. 1982 international decommissioning symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-four papers were presented at the following sessions: policy, regulations, and standards; management of decommissioning wastes; decommissioning experience; decommissioning tooling and techniques; radiological concerns; and planning and engineering

  8. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Map Tube Facility 317 Area Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    less. Unlike the MTF, AT has some storage vaults in addition to storage tubes. Based on available descriptions of the nature of the wastes stored in AT and the MTF, in general terms the range of wastes appears to be somewhat similar. In the case of the MTF it was determined that radioactive sludge was present at the bottom of the tubes, resulting from water ingress and corrosion of both storage containers and their contents. In the case of AT it is not known exactly what the condition of the tubes is but it is recognised that leakage/contamination in the lower parts of the tubes is likely to have occurred. This is an important consideration in the planning of the AT decommissioning program and the related cost estimate, principally because of the potential consequence of different approaches and specific techniques chosen to implement decommissioning. The AT decommissioning cost estimate report is not entirely clear in detail regarding the specific methodology to be adopted. In addition there are a number of important uncertainties concerning the extent of radioactive contamination. Depending on what the reality turns out to be, the decommissioning methodology could be affected and the quantities of wastes in various categories also could vary. In any event, the AT cost estimate report is unclear regarding waste volumes in a number of respects. The AT cost estimate is presented in a similar fashion to several other recent decommissioning cost estimates prepared by Westinghouse for SVAFO, using an approach and presentation format that suffers somewhat from: - Not always being clear, - Not always being unambiguous and easy to understand and, - Lack of detail and clear substantiation of assumptions in some important areas. Setting these concerns aside, the available information has been evaluated and compared with the Argonne MTF decommissioning costs and other selected NAC derived decommissioning cost benchmarks. In summary the conclusions for the AT decommissioning cost

  9. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Map Tube Facility 317 Area Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    less. Unlike the MTF, AT has some storage vaults in addition to storage tubes. Based on available descriptions of the nature of the wastes stored in AT and the MTF, in general terms the range of wastes appears to be somewhat similar. In the case of the MTF it was determined that radioactive sludge was present at the bottom of the tubes, resulting from water ingress and corrosion of both storage containers and their contents. In the case of AT it is not known exactly what the condition of the tubes is but it is recognised that leakage/contamination in the lower parts of the tubes is likely to have occurred. This is an important consideration in the planning of the AT decommissioning program and the related cost estimate, principally because of the potential consequence of different approaches and specific techniques chosen to implement decommissioning. The AT decommissioning cost estimate report is not entirely clear in detail regarding the specific methodology to be adopted. In addition there are a number of important uncertainties concerning the extent of radioactive contamination. Depending on what the reality turns out to be, the decommissioning methodology could be affected and the quantities of wastes in various categories also could vary. In any event, the AT cost estimate report is unclear regarding waste volumes in a number of respects. The AT cost estimate is presented in a similar fashion to several other recent decommissioning cost estimates prepared by Westinghouse for SVAFO, using an approach and presentation format that suffers somewhat from: - Not always being clear, - Not always being unambiguous and easy to understand and, - Lack of detail and clear substantiation of assumptions in some important areas. Setting these concerns aside, the available information has been evaluated and compared with the Argonne MTF decommissioning costs and other selected NAC derived decommissioning cost benchmarks. In summary the conclusions for the AT decommissioning cost

  10. NPP activation inventory calculations for the Swiss decommissioning study using MCNP5 and GRSAKTIV-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron flux distribution inside the reactor pressure vessels and up to far away ex-core regions for all Swiss nuclear power plants are determined by using the Monte Carlo Code MCNP5. Supported by current data about core power and void distributions, material specifications and plant dimensions these transport simulations lead to the best yet knowledge of the input spectra for the ensuing activation calculation with the burn-up and depletion code GRSAKTIV-II. The resulting neutron flux distributions demonstrate relevant pathways for neutron propagation through different shielding structures as well as for neutron streaming through existing gaps inside the reactor buildings. Some of the calculated flux values are compared to available measurement data outside the reactor pressure vessel and to activated vessel samples of a similar reactor. The comparisons partly show agreement with the calculations but also indicate that more knowledge especially of material compositions (i.e. concrete water content and material impurities) and further investigations of some plant details have still to be undertaken. The resulting nuclide inventories of this ongoing work for the Swiss nuclear power plants will be adequately prepared in form of activation maps and inventory data files as input for the new cost estimate within the next revision of the Swiss decommissioning study. (author)

  11. A study on people's awareness about the restarting and decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we conducted two questionnaire surveys targeting a total of 918 respondents living in the cities of Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe, in order to elucidate people's awareness of three things: 1) restart of nuclear power plants; 2) extension of the operation period of aging plants; and 3) decommissioning. The results are as follows: 1) People who think that electrical power companies voluntarily take higher safety measures trust the power companies and do not oppose the restart of the nuclear power plants, as compared to people who think that power companies only meet the requirements set by the nuclear regulatory agency. 2) When people were given information about aging measures and conforming to new regulatory standards, their anxiety toward the operation of aging plants was reduced. 3) People thought that decommissioning work was important for society. However, a small number of people thought it was a job worthwhile doing. (author)

  12. Decommissioning plans and activities in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the ageing of nuclear facilities, or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. In this paper a presentation is given of current decommissioning experience in Slovenia. The main problems and difficulties in decommissioning of the Zirovski vrh Uranium Mine are exposed, and the lesson learned from this case is presented. The preparation of the decommissioning programme for the nuclear power plant Krsko is also described, and the situation at the TRIGA research reactor is briefly discussed. (author)

  13. Spent Fuel Pool Decommissioning After a Severe Accident. Appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    with during the stabilization and recovery phases, or later during decommissioning. For example, treatment of liquid waste initiated during the recovery phase may continue well into the decommissioning phase. It is only in planning for or implementing decommissioning, however, when access to structures, systems and components of the plant is re-established, that the full extent and actual or potential issues are identified and necessarily tackled. This study uses the decommissioning of pools (in this case, spent fuel pools) as an example of decommissioning activities that, after a severe accident, have to be planned and implemented in a different way from planned shutdown. The study is mostly based on the recent Fukushima Daiichi accident, but relevant information is also extracted from other reactors that have undergone severe accidents

  14. Decommissioning strategy and schedule for a multiple reactor nuclear power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning is an important part of every Nuclear Power Plant life cycle gaining importance when there are more than one plant at the same site due to interactions that can arise from the operational ones and a decommissioning plant. In order to prevent undesirable problems, a suitable strategy and a very rigorous schedule should implemented and carried. In this way, decommissioning tasks such as fully decontamination and dismantling of activated and contaminated systems, rooms and structures could be delayed, posing as an interesting option to multiple reactor sites. The present work aims to purpose a strategy and a schedule for the decommissioning of a multiple reactor site highlighting the benefits of delay operational tasks and constructs some auxiliary services in the site during the stand by period of the shutdown plants. As a case study, will be presented a three-reactor site which the decommissioning process actually is in planning stage and that should start in the next decade. (author)

  15. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented

  16. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented

  17. Numerical investigation of methane and formation fluid leakage along the casing of a decommissioned shale gas well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowamooz, A.; Lemieux, J.-M.; Molson, J.; Therrien, R.

    2015-06-01

    Methane and brine leakage rates and associated time scales along the cemented casing of a hypothetical decommissioned shale gas well have been assessed with a multiphase flow and multicomponent numerical model. The conceptual model used for the simulations assumes that the target shale formation is 200 m thick, overlain by a 750 m thick caprock, which is in turn overlain by a 50 m thick surficial sand aquifer, the 1000 m geological sequence being intersected by a fully penetrating borehole. This succession of geological units is representative of the region targeted for shale gas exploration in the St. Lawrence Lowlands (Québec, Canada). The simulations aimed at assessing the impact of well casing cementation quality on methane and brine leakage at the base of a surficial aquifer. The leakage of fluids can subsequently lead to the contamination of groundwater resources and/or, in the case of methane migration to ground surface, to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions. The minimum reported surface casing vent flow (measured at ground level) for shale gas wells in Quebec (0.01 m3/d) is used as a reference to evaluate the impact of well casing cementation quality on methane and brine migration. The simulations suggest that an adequately cemented borehole (with a casing annulus permeability kc≤ 1 mD) can prevent methane and brine leakage over a time scale of up to 100 years. However, a poorly cemented borehole (kc≥ 10 mD) could yield methane leakage rates at the base of an aquifer ranging from 0.04 m3/d to more than 100 m3/d, depending on the permeability of the target shale gas formation after abandonment and on the quantity of mobile gas in the formation. These values are compatible with surface casing vent flows reported for shale gas wells in the St. Lawrence Lowlands (Quebec, Canada). The simulated travel time of methane from the target shale formation to the surficial aquifer is between a few months and 30 years, depending on cementation quality and

  18. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  19. A model study of cost estimates of decontamination and decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material using OMEGA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofova, Kristina; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Rehak, Ivan; Vasko, Marek [DECOM SLOVAKIA spol. s.r.o., Trnava (Slovakia)

    2004-12-01

    The presented study is focused on model decommissioning cost calculations for primary circuit of A-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice. In addition, the survey of advanced decommissioning costing is included together with impact analyses of contamination on particular decommissioning parameters. OMEGA code decommissioning cost calculations for primary circuit of A-1 NPP presented in the study are performed and evaluated under the following conditions: different contamination level of inner and outer surfaces; different waste management scenarios; application and non-application of pre-dismantling decontamination; different start of decommissioning: 2004, 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040; radionuclide composition of primary circuit contamination in A-1 NPP with occurrence of alpha radionuclides and fission products as a consequence of operational accident with damaged fuel cladding; radionuclide composition of primary circuit contamination in V-2 NPP in Jaslovske Bohunice as a representative NPP with an operation without accidents and therefore neither non-alpha contaminants nor fission products are included. The results of all the above mentioned conditions impacts on calculated costs, manpower, exposure and distribution of materials arisen from decommissioning are evaluated in detail within the calculation sensitivity analysis.

  20. A model study of cost estimates of decontamination and decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha-contaminated material using OMEGA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented study is focused on model decommissioning cost calculations for primary circuit of A-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice. In addition, the survey of advanced decommissioning costing is included together with impact analyses of contamination on particular decommissioning parameters. OMEGA code decommissioning cost calculations for primary circuit of A-1 NPP presented in the study are performed and evaluated under the following conditions: different contamination level of inner and outer surfaces; different waste management scenarios; application and non-application of pre-dismantling decontamination; different start of decommissioning: 2004, 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040; radionuclide composition of primary circuit contamination in A-1 NPP with occurrence of alpha radionuclides and fission products as a consequence of operational accident with damaged fuel cladding; radionuclide composition of primary circuit contamination in V-2 NPP in Jaslovske Bohunice as a representative NPP with an operation without accidents and therefore neither non-alpha contaminants nor fission products are included. The results of all the above mentioned conditions impacts on calculated costs, manpower, exposure and distribution of materials arisen from decommissioning are evaluated in detail within the calculation sensitivity analysis

  1. Needs for European decommissioning academy (EDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11.9.2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 500 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 35 per year. Having in mind the actual EHRO-N report from 2013 focused on operation of nuclear facilities and an assumption that the ratio between nuclear experts, nuclearized and nuclear aware people is comparable also for decommissioning, as well as the fact that the special study branch for decommissioning in the European countries almost does not exist, this European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) could be helpful in the over-bridging this gap. The main goal is - from about 74% of nuclearized experts (graduated at different technical Universities and increased their nuclear knowledge and skills mostly via on-job training and often in the area of NPP operation) to create nuclear experts for decommissioning via our post-gradual coursed organized in two semester study at our Academy, which will include the lessons, practical exercises in our laboratories, on-site training at NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia as well as 3 days technical tour to JAVYS (Slovakia), UJV Rez (Czech Rep.) and PURAM (Hungary), respectively. Beside the exams in selected topics (courses), the final thesis written under supervision of recognized experts will be the precondition for graduation and certification of the participants. For the first run of the EDA scheduled on 2014 we would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future in Europe. The growing decommissioning market creates a potential for new activities, with highly skilled jobs in an innovative field, involving high-level technologies. A clear global positioning of the EU will stimulate the export of know-how to

  2. Decommissioning of Ukrainian NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision about the development of 'Decommissioning Concept of Ukrainian NPPs' being on commercial operational stage was approved by NAEK 'Energoatom' Board of Administration by way of the decommissioning activity effective planning. The Concept will be the branch document, containing common approaches formulations on problem decisions according to the units decommissioning with generated resources, and RAW and SNF management strategy during decommissioning

  3. On Cost Estimate for Decommissioning of one Isotope Central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main scope of this study has been to calculate the future cost for decommission and dismantling the Isotope central at the Studsvik site using the OMEGA CODE. Detailed empirical information is used in the study for 'bench-marking' purposes, in such cases when there is a need to supplement and correct field data from the industry. In the present study, data has been retrieved and organized such that the estimated costs for decommissioning of the Isotope Central become transparent and reliable. This approach gives a preliminary qualitative indication about the accuracy of the cost estimate delivered by the industry

  4. Considerations about the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11.9.2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 500 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 35 per year.Having in mind the actual EHRO-N report from 2013 focused on operation of nuclear facilities and an assumption that the ratio between nuclear experts, nuclearized and nuclear aware people is comparable also for decommissioning (16:74:10), as well as the fact that the special study branch for decommissioning in the European countries almost does not exist, this European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) could be helpful in the overbridging this gap.For the first run of the EDA scheduled on 2014 we would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future in Europe.A graduate of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) should have at least bachelor level from technical or natural science Universities or Colleges and at least one year working experiences in the area of NPP decommissioning or nuclear power engineering. This study creates prerequisites for acquiring and completion of professional and specialized knowledge in the subjects which are described. (authors)

  5. A study on site release criterion assessment of nuclear power facilites for TRIGA research reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of establishing the site release criterion in MARSSIM is a guide which makes a decision if the contamination level of the building in the site meets guide level, so it is able to classify the contamination site with the expected contamination level in facility site as the process to raise the working efficiency with applying to the site facility building of TRIGA research reactor on the progress of the internal decommissioning plan. It is unreasonable to establish the criterion for site recycling so far due to the lack of survey because the decommissioning plan of TRIGA research reactor is still on the progress. But it is able to design process to establish the site recycling criterion according to survey result with using the method to decide survey quantity and location in MARSSIM process guide

  6. Investigation Study on Gamma Ray Imaging Technology for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Guk; Jeong, Woo Tae [Machinery and Materials Laboratory, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The gamma ray imaging system provides an estimated dose-rate of the source at 30 cm above. The gamma detector is a terbium activated glass scintillator. The system is capable of producing a color two dimensional image of a radiation field superimposed on a black and white visual image. The system used in US power plants consists of a portable sensor head that contains both gamma ray and visual imaging systems and a portable control computer. The gamma ray imaging system has been successfully used as an ALARA tool for identifying source terms and determining the adequacy of existing shielding. Because the control system can be positioned away from the camera, the radiation exposure to personnel can be reduced without extensive shielding requirements. The gamma ray imaging system has been used to date in the decommissioning of Maine Yankee, Big Rock point,Trojan, San Onofre1, and Millstone 1. The equipment has also been used at normal refueling outages at a number of commercial nuclear power plants and at several Department of Energy Decommissioning sites. This paper is intended to review the applicability of gamma ray imaging system as decommissioning tool. In order to review the actual applicability, we are going to introduce applications for US power plants.

  7. BMU support in the licensing procedure concerning the decommissioning of the repository for radioactive waste Morsleben (ERAM). Studies and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To support the BMU in the licensing procedure concerning the decommissioning of the repository for radioactive waste Morsleben, GRS has derived requirements for the application and safety demonstration procedure as well as for the corresponding stages of work under nuclear as well as conventional engineering aspects. This report gives a survey of the current status of development of the definitive decommissioning concept, the requisite long-term safety case, and the planning status concerning the legal areas of conventional engineering touched by the plans put forward by the licensee. The comments on the characterisation under radiological and chemotoxic aspects of the materials emplaced and on the identification of the work necessary to establish the design conditions of the technical facilities until plan approval were updated in line with the development of the plans and the information provided. A comment was prepared on the latest technical plans concerning the premature backfilling of the central area of the Bartensleben mine. The reporting period covers the work carried out in the year 2001. (orig.)

  8. Decommissioning Trawsfynydd - How public consultation shaped the strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study discusses the ned of consulting the public when decommissioning a nuclear power plants. When Trawsfynydd power station in North Wales shutdown in July 1993, Nuclear Electric's strategy for decommissioning its stations was not clearly defined. The company had altered its corporate policy on decommissioning fro he strategy referred to as the 'Reference Case' which had been approved by the Government, to the preferred 'Deferred Safestore' strategy, which was waiting Government approval. Deferred Safestore is preferred as it simplifies the engineering work involved by capitalising an the basic strength and integrity of the reactor building. It minimises thd radiation exposure to workers and radioactivity released to the environment, reduces the amount of radioactive waste produced and significantly cuts the total decommissioning cost. The closure and the decommissioning of Trawsfynydd power station was a sensitive issue as: The station lies within a National Park of outstanding beauty. The economic circumstances in the area are such that employment opportunities are very limited. At a crucial time when the company was approaching a Government review which would decide its future, Nuclear Electric could not afford to lose any credibility. A public consultation programme was launched in the vicinity of the power station To gauge the reactions of the public and elected local government bodies to a series of decommissioning options. Nuclear Electric presented three main options with details on the employment opportunities, the costs, and the lorry loads of material involved with each. The people were identified on whom decommissioning Trawsfynydd power station is likely to have an environmental or socioeconomic impact. As a result of the polls the Nuclear Electric received feedback in two ways. Formal feedback from the local councils Independent analysis of the completed questionnaires. The company was wholly committed to a meaningful consultation. Before

  9. Studies on decommissioning of TRIGA reactors and site restoration technologies in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development on research reactor decommissioning and environmental restoration has been carried out at KAERI since 1997 to prepare for the decommissioning of KAERI's two TRIGA-type research reactors, which had been shut down since 1995. A 3-D graphic model of the TRIGA research reactor was built using IGRIP. The dismantling process was simulated in the graphic environment to verify the feasibility of individual operations before the execution of the remote dismantling process. An under-water wall-climbing robot, moving by propeller injection, and identifying its coordinates by using a laser sensor, was developed and tested in the TRIGA reactor pool by measuring a radioactive contamination map of the reactor surface. Using MODFLOW and TRIGA site geological data, a computer simulation of the underground migration of residual radionuclides, after the TRIGA reactor decommissioning, was carried out. It was found that the underground migration rate was very slow such that, when radionuclide decay and dilution are considered, the residual radionuclides will not have a significant environmental impact. The soil decontamination R and D, using soil washing, solvent flushing and electro-decontamination technologies, was carried out to determine the best method for decontaminating the soil waste accumulated in KAERI. The decontamination results indicated that, using the soil washing method, more than 80% of the soil wastes could be decontaminated well enough to discharge them to the environment. It was also determined that the control of solution pH and temperature in the soil washing process is important for the reduction of decontamination waste. Further decontamination, using an electro-kinetic decontamination method, was considered necessary for the residual soil waste, which consisted mainly of fine soil particles. (author)

  10. Preliminary study of the environmental radiological assessment for the Garigliano nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years many nuclear installations in the world have been stopped either because they reached the end of production lifetime, or for operation problems or, like in Italy, for political decisions. This stop started the decommissioning procedure. It consists in the dismantling of the nuclear installation with appropriate controls and limitations of environmental and radiological impact which arises from these operations. The evaluation of risk and the actions needed for the population safeguard are generally inspired to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), but each country faces the problem with different evaluation methodologies and calculations. That is due to different laws and environmental, social and economical context where nuclear installations are located. For this, the decommissioning operations must be separately evaluated for each nuclear installation. In this paper, we present the work carried out so far about the decommissioning of the Nuclear Power Plant of Garigliano (Caserta, Italy), which is managed by SoGIN (Societa di Gestione degli Impianti Nucleari). This Nuclear Power Plant began its activity in 1964 by using a boiling water reactor with a production of 160 MW electric power. In 1979 this nuclear installation was stopped for maintenance and operation has not been resumed until the referendum in 1986, after which all Italian nuclear plants were stopped. Now, the Nuclear Power Plant of Garigliano has the reactor isolated respect to the remaining part and all components and pipes have been drained and sealed. The underground tanks of radioactive wastes have been evacuated and decontaminated. The radioactive wastes have been completely conditioned with cementification in drums suitable to prevent outside release

  11. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. Twenty-five-year retrievability, decommissioning cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This estimate covers decommissioning costs of facilities for the receipt, handling, and storage in bedded salt of canistered spent fuel assemblies from both BWR and PWR commercial power plants. The estimate includes all decommissioning costs for a repository, based on 25-year retrievability, constructed in accordance with the design shown in Conceptual Design Report (CDR), as modified by Special Study No. 1 (KE Report No. 78-60-RE) and decommissioned in accordance with the program outlined in the Conceptual Design Description Report, KE Report No. 78-58-R. Costs for Operating Contractor personnel on the site at this time are included in this report and not in the Operating Cost Estimate (KE Report 78-63-RE). The operating cost estimates end with the completion of storage room backfilling. The three major elements of decommissioning are: demolition of surface facilities, backfilling of main entries and airways, and shaft liner removal and shaft plugging. EDIT, ECON, and DELOX computer programs and a chart of accounts were furnished by UCC-ND under direction of the Government and the line item-capital-cost estimate was prepared according to the prescribed format. The decommissioning cost estimate referenced herein is in the same format as its companion line item-capital-cost estimate KE Report 78-62-RE

  12. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors At Multiple-Reactor Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1982-01-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of large (1175-MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and large (1155-MWe) boiling water reactors {BWRs) at multiple-reactor stations. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). Safety and costs of decommissioning are estimated by determining the impact of probable features of multiple-reactor-station operation that are considered to be unavailable at a single-reactor station, and applying these estimated impacts to the decommissioning costs and radiation doses estimated in previous PWR and BWR decommissioning studies. The multiple-reactor-station features analyzed are: the use of interim onsite nuclear waste storage with later removal to an offsite nuclear waste disposal facility, the use of permanent onsite nuclear waste disposal, the dedication of the site to nuclear power generation, and the provision of centralized services. Five scenarios for decommissioning reactors at a multiple-reactor station are investigated. The number of reactors on a site is assumed to be either four or ten; nuclear waste disposal is varied between immediate offsite disposal, interim onsite storage, and immediate onsite disposal. It is assumed that the decommissioned reactors are not replaced in one scenario but are replaced in the other scenarios. Centralized service facilities are provided in two scenarios but are not provided in the other three. Decommissioning of a PWR or a BWR at a multiple-reactor station probably will be less costly and result in lower radiation doses than decommissioning an identical reactor at a single-reactor station. Regardless of whether the light water reactor being decommissioned is at a single- or multiple-reactor station: • the estimated occupational radiation dose for decommissioning an LWR is lowest for SAFSTOR and highest for DECON • the estimated

  13. Utility planning for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  14. Estimated long lived isotope activities in ET-RR-1 reactor structural materials for decommissioning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first Egyptian research reactor, ET-RR-1 is tank type with light water as a moderator, coolant and reflector. Its nominal power is 2MWt and the average thermal neutron flux is 10 13 n/cm2 sec-1. Its criticality was on the fall of 1961. The reactor went through several modifications and updating and is still utilized for experimental research. A plan for decommissioning of ET-RR-1 reactor should include estimation of radioactivity in structural materials. The inventory will help in assessing the radiological consequences of decommissioning. This paper presents a conservative calculation to estimate the activity of the long lived isotopes which can be produced by neutron activation. The materials which are presented in significant quantities in the reactor structural materials are aluminum, cast iron, graphite, ordinary and iron shot concrete. The radioactivity of each component is dependent not only upon the major elements, but also on the concentration of the trace elements. The main radioactive inventory are expected to be from 60Co and 55Fe which are presented in aluminium as trace elements and in large quantities in other construction materials. (author)

  15. Decommissioning of Radiotherapy Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy units containing high activity sealed radioactive sources of 60Co or 137Cs are mainly use for medical, research or calibration applications. After several half-lives of decay, the radionuclide source has to be changed or the unit is decommissioned if no longer required. Before starting a decommissioning project it is very important to look for documents relating to any sources held or installed in equipment. In general this should be no problem because the recommended working life of such sealed radioactive sources is limited to 10 or a maximum of 15 years. These time periods are short in comparison with other facilities like research laboratories or small reactors. These documents (source certificates) will be very helpful to plan the decommissioning because they say everything about the original activity of the source at a reference date, the type of the source and the manufacturer. The next step may be to contact the machine supplier or the source manufacturer, but be aware that neither may still be in existence or may have changed their type of business. In such cases, it is recommended to contact national or international sealed source manufacturers or suppliers for help. Sometimes it is also helpful to contact colleagues in other hospitals or research centres to ask for information about specialists in this topic. In general it is not useful, and even very dangerous, to try to decommission such a unit without expert help It is essential to have specialist tools and shielded containers to recover the source out of the unit. It is strongly recommended to invite the source removal specialist for a site visit to review the situation before starting any decommissioning process. A further problem can occur, if the source must be transported to a national storage centre or even an international storage facility, as the source must be packaged to meet international transport requirements. The end state of such a project should be an empty room where the

  16. Criteria for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors describe three risk acceptability criteria as parts of a strategy to clean up decommissioned facilities, related to both the status quo and to a variety of alternative technical clean-up options. The acceptability of risk is a consideration that must enter into any decision to establish when a site is properly decommissioned. To do so, both the corporate and public aspects of the acceptability issue must be considered. The reasons for discussion the acceptability of risk are to: Legitimize the process for making cleanup decisions; Determine who is at risk, who benefits, and who bears the costs of site cleanup, for each specific cleanup option, including the do nothing option; Establish those factors that, taken as a whole, determine measures of acceptability; Determine chemical-specific aggregate and individual risk levels; and Establish levels for cleanup. The choice of these reasons is pragmatic. The method consistent with these factors is risk-risk-effectiveness: the level of cleanup must be consistent with the foreseeable use of the site and budget constraints. Natural background contamination is the level below which further cleanup is generally inefficient. Case-by-case departures from natural background are to be considered depending on demonstrated risk. For example, a hot spot is obviously a prima facie exception, but should be rebuttable. Rebuttability means that, through consensus, the ''hot spot'' is shown not to be associated with exposure

  17. Large transport packages for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main tasks performed during the period related to the influence of manufacture, transport and disposal on the design of such packages. It is deduced that decommissioning wastes will be transported under the IAEA Transport Regulations under either the Type B or Low Specific Activity (LSA) categories. If the LSA packages are self-shielded, reinforced concrete is the preferred material of construction. But the high cost of disposal implies that there is a strong reason to investigate the use of returnable shields for LSA packages and in such cases they are likely to be made of ferrous metal. Economic considerations favour the use of spheroidal graphite cast iron for this purpose. Transport operating hazards have been investigated using a mixture of desk studies, routes surveys and operations data from the railway organisations. Reference routes were chosen in the Federal Republic of Germany, France and the United Kingdom. This work has led to a description of ten accident scenarios and an evaluation of the associated accident probabilities. The effect of disposal on design of packages has been assessed in terms of the radiological impact of decommissioning wastes, an in addition corrosion and gas evolution have been examined. The inventory of radionuclides in a decommissioning waste package has low environmental impact. If metal clad reinforced concrete packages are to be used, the amount of gas evolution is such that a vent would need to be included in the design. Similar unclad packages would be sufficiently permeable to gases to prevent a pressure build-up. (author)

  18. Measuring and reporting on decommissioning progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the challenges facing AECL, as well as other organizations charged with the responsibility of decommissioning nuclear facilities, is the means by which to measure and report on decommissioning progress to various audiences which, in some cases, may only have a peripheral knowledge or understanding of the complexities associated with the decommissioning process. The reporting and measurement of decommissioning progress is important for a number of reasons, i.e., It provides a vehicle by which to effectively communicate the nature of the decommissioning process; It ensures that stakeholders and shareholders are provided with a transparent and understandable means for assessing value for money; It provides a means by which to integrate the planning, measurement, and operational aspects of decommissioning One underlying reason behind the challenge of reporting decommissioning progress lies in the fact that decommissioning programs are generally executed over periods of time that far exceed those generally associated with typical design and build projects. For example, a decommissioning program could take decades to complete in which case progress on the order of a few percent in any one year might be typical. However, such progress may appear low compared to that seen with more typical projects that can be completed in a matter of years. As a consequence, AECL undertook to develop a system by which to measure decommissioning progress in a straightforward, meaningful, and understandable fashion. The system is not rigorously objective, and there are subjective aspects that are necessitated by the need to keep the system readily understandable. It is also important to note that while the system is simple in concept, there is, nonetheless, significant effort involved in generating and updating the parameters used as input, and in the actual calculations. (author)

  19. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  20. Integrated approach to planning the remediation of sites undergoing decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responding to the needs of Member States, the IAEA has launched an environmental remediation guidance initiative dealing with the issues of radioactive contamination world wide. Its aim is to collate and disseminate information concerning the key issues affecting environmental remediation of contaminated sites. This IAEA initiative includes the development of documents that report on remediation technologies available, best practices, and information and guidance concerning (a) Strategy development for environmental remediation; (b) Characterization and remediation of contaminated sites and contaminated groundwater; (c) Management of waste and residues from mining and milling of uranium and thorium; (d) Decommissioning of buildings; (e) A database for contaminated sites. The subject of this present report concerns the integration of decommissioning and remediation activities at sites undergoing decommissioning and this fits within the first category of guidance documentation (strategy development). This document addresses key strategic planning issues. It is intended to provide practical advice and complement other reports that focus on decommissioning and remediation at nuclear facilities. The document is designed to encourage site remediation activities that take advantage of synergies with decommissioning in order to reduce the duplication of effort by various parties and minimize adverse impacts on human health, the environment, and costs through the transfer of experience and knowledge. To achieve this objective, the document is designed to help Member States gain perspective by summarizing available information about synergies between decommissioning and remediation, strategic planning and project management and planning tools and techniques to support decision making and remediation. Case studies are also presented as to give concrete examples of the theoretical elements elaborated in the documents. This publication investigates the potential synergies

  1. Development Of Decommissioning Information Management System for 101 HWRR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Song

    2016-01-01

    Decommissioning of 101 Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR) is radioactive and high-risk project which has to consider the effects of radiation and nuclear waste disposal, so the information system covering 101 HWRR decommissioning project must be established to ensure safety of the project. In this study, by col ecting the decommissioning activity data to establish the decommissioning database, and based on the database to develop information management system.

  2. The IAEA Safety Regime for Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The International Atomic Energy Agency is developing an international framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities that consists of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, and a hierarchy of Safety Standards applicable to decommissioning. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001 and as of December 2001 had been ratified by 27 IAEA Member States. The Joint Convention contains a number of articles dealing with planning for, financing, staffing and record keeping for decommissioning. The Joint Convention requires Contracting Parties to apply the same operational radiation protection criteria, discharge limits and criteria for controlling unplanned releases during decommissioning that are applied during operations. The IAEA has issued Safety Requirements document and three Safety Guides applicable to decommissioning of facilities. The Safety Requirements document, WS-R-2, Pre-disposal Management of Radioactive Waste, including Decommissioning, contains requirements applicable to regulatory control, planning and funding, management of radioactive waste, quality assurance, and environmental and safety assessment of the decommissioning process. The three Safety Guides are WS-G-2.1, Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors, WS-G-2.2, Decommissioning of Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities, an WS-G-2.4, Decommissioning of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. They contain guidance on how to meet the requirements of WS-R-2 applicable to decommissioning of specific types of facilities. These Standards contain only general requirements and guidance relative to safety assessment and do not contain details regarding the content of the safety case. More detailed guidance will be published in future Safety Reports currently in preparation within the Waste Safety Section of the IAEA. Because much material arising during the decommissioning

  3. A study on source term assessment and waste disposal requirement of decontamination and decommissioning for the TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Kyung JIn; Lee, Jae Min; Choi, Gyu Seup; Shin, Byoung Sun [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    The objective and necessity of the project : TRIGA is the first nuclear facility that decide to decommission and decontamination in our nation. As we estimate the expected life of nuclear power generation at 30 or 40 years, the decommissioning business should be conducted around 2010, and the development of regulatory technique supporting it should be developed previously. From a view of decommissioning and decontamination, the research reactor is just small in scale but it include all decommissioning and decontamination conditions. So, the rules by regulatory authority with decommissioning will be a guide for nuclear power plant in the future. The basis of regulatory technique required when decommissioning the research reactor are the radiological safety security and the data for it. The source term is very important condition not only for security of worker but for evaluating how we dispose the waste is appropriate for conducting the middle store and the procedure after it when the final disposal is considered. The content and the scope in this report contain the procedure of conducting the assessment of the source term which is most important in understanding the general concept of the decommissioning procedure of the decommissioning and decontamination of TRIGA research reactor. That is, the sampling and measuring method is presented as how to measure the volume of the radioactivity of the nuclear facilities. And also, the criterion of classifying the waste occurred in other countries and the site release criteria which is the final step of decommissioning and decontamination presented through MARSSIM. Finally, the program to be applicable through comparing the methods of our nation and other countries ones is presented as plan for disposal of the waste in the decommissioning.

  4. An analysis on the annual decommissioning deposit in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study re-evaluated the methods for estimating and distributing decommissioning cost of nuclear power plant over lifetime. It was resulted out that the annual decommissioning deposit and consequently, the annual decommissioning cost could vary significantly depending on estimating and distributing methods, for instances, the accounting method being used presently by KEPCO and the lifetime levelized method being commonly applied in economic analysis

  5. Financial aspects of decommissioning (key aspects of decommissioning costing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the following aspects of NPPs decommissioning are discussed: Requirements and purpose of decommissioning costing; Decommissioning costing methodologies; Standardised decommissioning cost structure; Input data for cost estimate process; Waste management in cost estimate process; Grading aspects in cost estimating; Cost control in decommissioning projects; Summary of the cost estimation process; Conclusions and recommendations.

  6. Comparison of decommissioning options for the example of 2 research reactors of type TRIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For decommissioning of nuclear facilities usually the two decommissioning strategies 'immediate dismantling' or 'deferred dismantling (safe enclosure)' are applied. In general, immediate dismantling is regarded as the more advantageous and more preferable option. Accordingly, immediate dismantling is the mostly selected option. Nevertheless, only in a case by case analysis it can be shown, which decommissioning option is the better one e. g. with respect to technical aspects or to a use of the facility / remaining facility. For two real decommissioning projects of two similar research reactors of TRIGA type GRS with support of the operator, German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, performed a study on possible advantages of the two different strategies selected. While the first research reactor, TRIGA HD I, was dismantled immediately, the second research reactor, TRIGA HD II, was dismantled after a 20 years period of safe enclosure. As a result, it could be shown, that the selected different decommissioning strategies reflected the special conditions of each both research reactor in best way, so that a clear preference for one of the two decommissioning strategies can not be deduced. The slides of the presentation have been added at the end of the paper. (authors)

  7. Decommissioning of uranium conversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since about 20 years have passed after the construction of the uranium conversion plant, most equipments installed have worn out. Liquid wastes stored in lagoons which were generated during the operation of this plant are needed to be treated safely. Therefore, the decommissioning project on the uranium conversion plant was started from 2001. This study is a preliminary step for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant. It was reviewed on the plant status overall, especially facility descriptions and operational histories for the installations located inside and outside of the plant and methods of decontamination and of dismantling to the contamination conditions. And some proper options on each main object was proposed

  8. Fort St. Vrain decommissioning experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) is in the process of decommissioning the Fort St Vrain nuclear station, the first large-scale commercial nuclear plant to be decommissioned under the U.S. NRC's decommissioning rule. The experience has included providing for the disposition of spent fuel, choosing a decommissioning alternative, and actively decommissioning the plant from dismantlement and decontamination through final survey

  9. Decommissioning plan for TRIGA Mark-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kook; Lee, B.J.

    1999-04-01

    Korea Research Reactor 1(KRR 1; TRIGA Mark-2) is the first reactor in Korea, but its decommissioning is underway due to its life. In this paper, presenting the reason and object of decommissioning KRR 1, then describing reactor structure and survey result of the facility, activation and contamination status around reactor and nearby equipment and vicinity. Estimating dose rate was evaluated for every work stage. Those of survey, evaluation and radiological status were considered to determine the safe and reasonable decommissioning methods. The order of decommissioning works are divided by section to minimize possible hazard. Proposed decommissioning plan is based on hazard and operability study to protect workers and residents from radiation expose. (author). 12 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Conceptual data modeling on the decommissioning database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISP (Information Strategy Planning), which is the first step of the whole database development, has been studied to manage effectively information and data related to the decommissioning activities of the Korea Research Reactor 1 and 2 (KRR 1 and 2). A record management system (RMS) of large nuclear facilities of national experience such as in the U. S. A., Japan, Belgium, and Russian were reviewed. In order to establish the scope of the decommissioning DB, user requirement and the importance of the information were analyzed and set up the conceptual design of the decommissioning DB. The results have been reviewed an national experience were recognized to acquire the technology of the decommissioning DB for the whole decommissioning process. It has been extracted the principle information such as working information, facilities information, radioactive waste treatment, and radiological surveying and analysis during the interviewing with an experts. These information and data will be used as the basic data to design the prototyping

  11. Decommissioning plan for TRIGA Mark-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Research Reactor 1(KRR 1; TRIGA Mark-2) is the first reactor in Korea, but its decommissioning is underway due to its life. In this paper, presenting the reason and object of decommissioning KRR 1, then describing reactor structure and survey result of the facility, activation and contamination status around reactor and nearby equipment and vicinity. Estimating dose rate was evaluated for every work stage. Those of survey, evaluation and radiological status were considered to determine the safe and reasonable decommissioning methods. The order of decommissioning works are divided by section to minimize possible hazard. Proposed decommissioning plan is based on hazard and operability study to protect workers and residents from radiation expose. (author). 12 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  12. The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

  13. Decommissioning of nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision-making process involving the decommissioning of the British graphite-moderated, gas-cooled Magnox power stations is complex. There are timing, engineering, waste disposal, cost and lost generation capacity factors and the ultimate uptake of radiation dose to consider and, bearing on all of these, the overall decision of when and how to proceed with decommissioning may be heavily weighed by political and public tolerance dimensions. These factors and dimensions are briefly reviewed with reference to the ageing Magnox nuclear power stations, of which Berkeley and Hunterston A are now closed down and undergoing the first stages of decommissioning and Trawsfynydd, although still considered as available capacity, has had both reactors closed down since February 1991 and is awaiting substantiation and acceptance of a revised reactor pressure vessel safety case. Although the other first-generation Magnox power station at Hinkley Point, Bradwell, Dungeness and Sizewell are operational, it is most doubtful that these stations will be able to eke out a generating function for much longer. It is concluded that the British nuclear industry has adopted a policy of deferred decommissioning, that is delaying the process of complete dismantlement of the radioactive components and assemblies for at least one hundred years following close-down of the plant. (Author)

  14. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. On decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the number of nuclear power plants commissioned is increasing worldwide, both the responsible goverment agencies and the public are more and more concerned about decommissioning nuclear facilities after they have been shut down for good. IAEA organized a symposium on November 13-17, 1978 which dealt with problems of decommissioning, covering national objectives, technical processes, radiological questions, experience in plant decommissioning, decontamination techniques and remote handling procedures. It turned out that sufficient practical experience and highly developed decommissioning concepts and techniques are now available. Experts feel that also in the future no insoluble technical problems or problems must be expected which could only be solved at inordinately high technical expenditure. The article contains a survey of the present staus of problem solutions. Current work is being dedicated to the dose rates accumulated by decommissioning personnel and to the costs of decommissioning. (orig.)

  16. Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is of the view that every organisation should focus attention on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities after completion of their useful life. AERB is aware that, internationally there is a growing interest in plant life extension due to economic considerations. Regulatory bodies stipulate upgradation of safety features based on international experience and current safety standards. However, decommissioning becomes a necessity at some time after the extended life of the plant. Nuclear industry has demonstrated that, with modern technological developments, decommissioning of nuclear facilities can be carried out without undue risk to the occupational workers, members of the public and protection of the environment. In view of limited experience in the field of decommissioning, this document is being issued as a safety manual instead of a safety guide. This manual elaborates the various technical and safety considerations in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities including ultimate disposal of radioactive materials/ wastes generated during decommissioning. Details that are required to be furnished to the regulatory body while applying for authorisation for decommissioning and till its completion are enumerated. This manual is issued to assist Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) units in formulating a decommissioning programme. Since the subject of decommissioning of nuclear facilities is a continuously evolving process, AERB is of the view, that provisions of this manual will apply for a period of five years from the date of issue and will be subsequently revised, if necessary

  17. Fort St. Vrain decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first commercial reactor to be decommissioned under the NRC's decommissioning rule is Public Service Company of Colorado's Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Station. The dismantlement and decontamination of this 330 MWe High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has involved many challenges for PSC, including establishing adequate funding, obtaining required regulatory approvals, selecting a decommissioning alternative, defueling to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, arranging for sufficient waste disposal, and managing a large fixed-price decommissioning contract. With physical dismantlement activities about one-third complete, the project is approximately on schedule and within the agreed upon costs

  18. NPP Krsko decommissioning concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP Krsko. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for a decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill the decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economic aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling of all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP Krsko are presented. (author)

  19. NPP Krsko decommissioning concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP KRSKO. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and the results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economical aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP KRSKO are presented. (author)

  20. Decommissioning of underground structures, systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of operational and shut down nuclear installations have underground systems, structures and components such as pipes, tanks or vaults. This practice of incorporating such features into the design of nuclear facilities has been in use for an extended period of time during which decommissioning was not perceived as a serious issue and was rarely considered in plant design and construction. Underground features can present formidable decontamination and/or dismantling issues, and these are addressed in this report. Decommissioning issues include, among others, difficulty of access, the possible need for remotely operated technologies, leakage of the contents and the resulting contamination of foundations and soil, as well as issues such as problematic radiological characterization. Although to date there have been more than 40 IAEA publications on decommissioning, none of them has ever addressed this subject. Although cases of decommissioning of such facilities have been described in the technical literature, no systematic treatment of relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies is currently available. It was perhaps assumed that generic decontamination and dismantling approaches would also be adequate for these 'difficult' facilities. This may be only partly true due to a number of unique physical, layout and radiological characteristics. With growing experience in the decommissioning field, it is timely to address this subject in a systematic and comprehensive fashion. Practical guidance is given in this report on relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies for underground features of facilities. Also described are alternative design and construction approaches that could facilitate a smoother path forward through the decommissioning process. The objective of this report is to highlight important points in the decommissioning of underground systems, structures or components for policy makers, operators, waste managers and other

  1. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  2. International radiation safety recommendations on decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the radiological hazards resulting from the activities associated with the decommissioning of nuclear reactors, primarily with decommissioning after planned final shutdown. Many of the provisions are also applicable to decommissioning after an abnormal event that has resulted in serious facility damage or contamination. In this case, this Safety Guide may be used as a basis for developing special decommissioning provisions, although additional considerations will be necessary. Due to the short extension of the present paper, we will emphasize only on some critical tasks of decommissioning research reactors. The removal of nuclear fuel from the reactor installation at the end of its operational lifetime should preferably be performed as part of operations or as one of the initial activities in decommissioning. At the beginning of decommissioning, all readily removable radioactive sources (operational waste, sealed sources, liquids) should be removed for reuse, storage in approved location or disposal. The removal of sources will normally result in a significant reduction of the radiation hazards. The operating organization should have, or have access to, competent staff to cover areas such as: safety requirements of the licence, radiation protection, waste management, quality management etc. Personnel should be competent to perform their assigned work safely. The management and staff involved in the decommissioning project should be made aware of and trained, if necessary, in the methods of minimizing the waste generated in the tasks assigned. Appropriate levels of control and supervision should be provided to ensure safety. The organizational structure to be employed during decommissioning should be described in the decommissioning plan. In the description of the organizational structure, there should be a clear delineation of authorities and responsibilities amongst the various units. This is particularly necessary when the operating organization uses outside

  3. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Feasibility, needs and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor decommissioning activities generally are considered to begin after operations have ceased and the fuel has been removed from the reactor, although in some countries the activities may be started while the fuel is still at the reactor site. The three principal alternatives for decommissioning are described. The factors to be considered in selecting the decommissioning strategy, i.e. a stage or a combination of stages that comprise the total decommissioning programme, are reviewed. One presents a discussion of the feasibility of decommissioning techniques available for use on the larger reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The numbers and types of facilities to be decommissioned and the resultant waste volumes generated for disposal will then be projected. Finally, the costs of decommissioning these facilities, the effect of these costs on electricity generating costs, and alternative methods of financing decommissioning are discussed. The discussion of decommissioning draws on various countries' studies and experience in this area. Specific details about current activities and policies in NEA Member Countries are given in the short country specific Annexes. The nuclear facilities that are addressed in this study include reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, reprocessing facilities, associated radioactive waste storage facilities, enrichment facilities and other directly related fuel cycle support facilities. The present study focuses on the technical feasibility, needs, and costs of decommissioning the larger commercial facilities in the OECD member countries that are coming into service up to the year 2000. It is intended to inform the public and to assist in planning for the decommissioning of these facilities

  4. Decommissioning costs of WWER-440 nuclear power plants. Interim report: Data collection and preliminary evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    comparison of data. As a result, the cost figures were collected in a recommended structure and analysed. During progress of work, experts of participating Member States responded to a questionnaire, and explained the contents of individual cost items and cost groups during subsequent discussions. Comparison of cost estimates in the various decommissioning projects showed to be rather difficult, even with the support of the standardised list of items for costing purposes. In each country, the existing cost figures were many times allocated to different cost codes, and it was difficult to re-allocate costs that were grouped based on the individual costing methodologies. Verification of cost figures was sometimes executed while comparing with previous IAEA as well as OECD/NEA studies. The total costs for the immediate decommissioning option vary from 219 MUSD (Finland) to 1,370 MUSD (Germany). This large difference is mainly due to country and site specific conditions. In the case of Finland the possibility for on-site disposal of all dismantled material reduces the costs dramatically. In the case of the Greifswald project (Germany) major costs for post-operational and site support activities, as well as the construction of a large interim storage on the site are included. For the safe enclosure option the cost figures vary from 210 MUSD (Czech Republic) to 469 MUSD (Hungary). In this case the spread in the cost estimations is smaller, but still significant, the reason for this being the different scopes that are included. At this stage of cost estimating in the participating countries, overall comparisons seem to be premature and it is necessary to look at the detail of each cost item. Comparing the cost categories Labour Costs; Capital, Equipment and Material Costs; and Expenses has demonstrated that labour represents about 50 % of the total decommissioning costs. Comparing these results with former OECD/NEA cost studies shows quite good agreement. It may be concluded

  5. Safety in decommissioning of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide covers the technical and administrative considerations relevant to the nuclear aspects of safety in the decommissioning of reactors, as they apply to the reactor and the reactor site. While the treatment, transport and disposal of radioactive wastes arising from decommissioning are important considerations, these aspects are not specifically covered in this Guide. Likewise, other possible issues in decommissioning (e.g. land use and other environmental issues, industrial safety, financial assurance) which are not directly related to radiological safety are also not considered. Generally, decommissioning will be undertaken after planned final shutdown of the reactor. In some cases a reactor may have to be decommissioned following an unplanned or unexpected event of a series or damaging nature occurring during operation. In these cases special procedures for decommissioning may need to be developed, peculiar to the particular circumstances. This Guide could be used as a basis for the development of these procedures although specific consideration of the circumstances which create the need for them is beyond its scope

  6. Roadmap for implementation of light water reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While decommissioning of Tokai-mura reactor and JATR reactor has already started in Japan, Tsuruga reactor is announced shutdown in 2010 as the first decommissioning of commercial light water reactor (LWR). In 2030s or may be more earlier due to economic reasons, decommissioning of LWRs will take place in succession. Since rational decommissioning needs operating data of individual plants, ample time should be allowed for planning the reactor decommissioning. Committee of Nuclear Power Engineering Cooperation (NUPEC) had identified relevant issues to implement LWR decommissioning and established roadmaps showing fundamental approaches to solve seventeen items categorized in seven areas as action items. Harmonization of policy, regulations and technology development as a whole and reflection of accumulated lessons learned from overseas decommissioning experiences needed further study. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Options for Steam Generator Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selecting the best option for decommissioning steam generators is a key consideration in preparing for decommissioning PWR nuclear power plants. Steam Generators represent a discrete waste stream of large, complex items that can lend themselves to a variety of options for handling, treatment, recycling and disposal. Studsvik has significant experience in processing full size Steam Generators at its metal recycling facility in Sweden, and this paper will introduce the Studsvik steam generator treatment concept and the results achieved to date across a number of projects. The paper will outline the important parameters needed at an early stage to assess options and to help consider the balance between off-site and on-site treatment solutions, and the role of prior decontamination techniques. The paper also outlines the use of feasibility studies and demonstration projects that have been used to help customers prepare for decommissioning. The paper discusses physical, radiological and operational history data, Pro and Contra factors for on- and off-site treatment, the role of chemical decontamination prior to treatment, planning for off-site shipments as well as Studsvik experience This paper has an original focus upon the coming challenges of steam generator decommissioning and potential external treatment capacity constraints in the medium term. It also focuses on the potential during operations or initial shut-down to develop robust plans for steam generator management. (authors)

  8. Restoration of contaminated sites in the project PIMIC decommissioning. The case of the lentil; Restauracion de terrenos contaminados en el proyecto PIMIC desmantelamiento. El caso de la lenteja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Tellez, G.

    2010-07-01

    During execution PIMIC Decommissioning Project at CIEMAT has detected the existence of contaminated sites in some parts of the area affected by the project. The inclusion within the scope of this project, decontamination, involves dealing with special challenges, as to what are the decommissioning of contaminated systems and equipment in buildings.

  9. Odin - lessons learnt. Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article relates briefly to the abandoned natural gas field of Odin on the Norwegian continental shelf. The platform could be seen as the benchmark by which all other decommissioning activity in the North Sea takes place, since it is the first significantly large structure to have been decommissioned in deep water. 1 fig

  10. Design features facilitating the decommissioning of advanced gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the advanced gas-cooled reactors is discussed as is the proposed decommissioning plan for delayed decommissioning. The special features which assist in decommissioning are presented. As a result of the study a catalogue of design features which will facilitate decommissioning is given. In addition to the catalogue of design features, the radioactive inventory 10 years after shutdown and 100 years after shutdown has been calculated. From this a provisional operator dose from activities associated with decommissioning has been assessed

  11. Decommissioning and jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One aspect of the decommissioning web is its effect on socioeconomics, particularly jobs. What will reactor retirement mean to jobs, especially in rural communities where power plant operations may be the most reliable and dominant source of direct and indirect employment in the area? The problems which any plant closure produces for job security are generally understood, but the decommissioning of nuclear power plants is different because of the residual radioactivity and because of the greater isolation of the power plant sites. For example, what will be the specific employment effects of several possible decommissioning scenarios such as immediate dismantlement and delayed dismantlement? The varying effects of decommissioning on jobs is discussed. It is concluded that the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in some areas such as Wales could bring benefits to the surrounding communities. (author)

  12. Decommissioning activities in FUGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FUGEN Decommissioning Engineering Center (hereinafter called as 'FUGEN'), JAEA obtained the approval of the decommissioning program for the prototype Advanced Thermal Reactor on February, 2008. FUGEN has been carrying out decommissioning works based on its decommissioning program since then. In the initial stage, the dismantling works were launched in turbine system whose contamination was relatively low level and their various data have been accumulating. And the draining heavy water, tritium decontamination and transferring of heavy water were carried out safely and reasonably. The preparation for introducing the clearance system, and the research and development works for the reactor core dismantling have been progressed steadily as well. Meanwhile, FUGEN has affiliations with local industries and universities for collaboration research, and has exchanged the decommissioning information with domestic and overseas organizations continuously. (author)

  13. International Decommissioning Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has been developing guidance and technical information relating to the decommissioning and decommissioning strategies of nuclear facilities for over 20 years. During this time, the international concept of decommissioning strategies, and its importance, has changed. Three basic decommissioning strategies are envisaged as possibilities for nuclear installations: immediate dismantling, deferred dismantling and entombment. All have advantages and disadvantages, but the International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities demonstrated that immediate dismantling is the generally preferred option. However, there are a number of factors that might lead operators to choose one of the other strategies, and each situation has to be examined individually to identify the optimal strategy for that situation. The basic approach of these three strategies is discussed in the paper. (author)

  14. Social effects of decommissioning Trawsfynydd Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision to close Trawsfynydd in 1993 had significant implications for the staff and local community. The site is situated within a National Park and local employment opportunities are limited. The staff and local communities were consulted regarding the issues arising from closure and decommissioning. This consultation influenced the decommissioning strategy for the site, with emphasis placed on the mitigation of the effects of closure. Subsequent studies have shown that the adopted strategies have served to limit the social and economic effects. The experience at Trawsfynydd has proved to be generally applicable at other decommissioning sites. (author)

  15. Power Plant decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mažeika Jonas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available On a first attempt, the determination of 14C and 36Cl activity concentrations in basic operational waste (spent ion-exchange resins and perlite mixture, in decommissioning waste (construction concrete, sand, stainless steel and serpentinite and irradiated graphite from the Ignalina NPP has been performed. The samples for measurement of the specific activity of 14C and 36Cl were obtained from the selected places, where the highest values of the dose rate and the activity concentrations of gamma emitters were found. The performed study of the total 14C and 36Cl activity concentrations was based on estimated chemical forms of 14C (inorganic and organic compounds and 36Cl as Cl- ion. The tested methods used in this study were found to be suitable for estimation of activity concentrations of measured radionuclides.

  16. Nuclear decommissioning: Funding arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This statement describes the United Kingdom's approach to funding civil nuclear decommissioning activities and explain proposed changes to the current arrangements. The UK has nuclear operators both in the private and public sectors and the approach to decommissioning funding differs. British Energy (BE), which operates a fleet of AGR power stations and a PWR, is in the private sector. On privatization, a segregated fund was established to cover BE's future decommissioning costs. Money paid into the fund is invested and the accumulated assets used to meet future decommissioning and cleanup costs. The precise amount of money that will be required to cover decommissioning costs is not an exact science. That is why the performance of the segregated fund is reviewed at five yearly intervals, at which stage BE's annual contribution can be adjusted as appropriate. To ensure that the fund is managed effectively and investments are made wisely, the fund is managed by independent trustees jointly appointed by the Government and the company. So far, the fund is performing as expected and it is on target to cover BE's decommissioning costs. Operators in the public sector include British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). BNFL operates the fleet of Magnox power stations, a number of which are in various stages of decommissioning. BNFL also operates Sellafield (reprocessing, MOX and other operations) and Springfields (fuel manufacture). UKAEA is responsible for decommissioning the UK's former research reactor sites at Dounreay, Windscale (Cumbria), Harwell and Winfrith (Dorset). Under current arrangements, taxpayers meet the cost of decommissioning and cleanup at UKAEA sites; taxpayers will also meet the costs associated with the decommissioning of Magnox power stations from 2008 onwards

  17. The environmental risk between forgetting and managing the past: the case of the decommissioning of a uranium mine in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This description of how a uranium mine (the Lucette mine) in western France was managed once it had been shut down draws attention to what was left behind. The article emphasizes how the mine became something common, ordinary, since the work conducted there during the nineties gradually erased evidence of the mining of uranium and was like a progressive return to a pristine state. But 3 events that happened after the decommissioning of the mine revealed to be strong memories of the past activity of the mine. First, some important land surface collapses happened which led to a zoning and a regular monitoring of the site. Secondly, red-colored water seepage appeared on the site and flowed into a nearby river. Analysis have shown the presence of radium, uranium and sodium chloride in the seeping. Thirdly, the tailings were being used by a construction enterprise to build and repair roads until the tailings were considered too radioactive to be used. The example of the Lucette mine provides a framework for broader questions about the effect of what is left behind in articulating past and present, and in the public construction of what is 'memorable' in environmental management

  18. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final open-quotes green fieldclose quotes stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.; Weil, L.

    1997-08-01

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Decommissioning activities for Salaspils research reactor - 59055

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). The reactor is out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study for the decommissioning of SRR has been carried out by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH at 1998-1999. The Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to 'green field' in October 26, 1999. The upgrade of decommissioning and dismantling plan was performed in 2003-2004 years, which change the main goal of decommissioning to the 'brown field'. The paper deals with the SRR decommissioning experience during 1999-2010. The main decommissioning stages are discussed including spent fuel and radioactive wastes management. The legal aspects and procedures for decommissioning of SRR are described in the paper. It was found, that the involvement of stakeholders at the early stages significantly promotes the decommissioning of nuclear facility. Radioactive waste management's main efforts were devoted to collecting and conditioning of 'historical' radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside of reactor hall. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons) were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in the radioactive wastes repository 'Radons' at Baldone site. The dismantling of contaminated and activated components of SRR systems is discussed in paper. The cementation of dismantled radioactive wastes in concrete containers is discussed. Infrastructure of SRR, including personal protective and radiation measurement equipment, for decommissioning purposes was upgraded significantly. Additional attention was devoted to the free release measurement's technique. The certified laboratory was installed for supporting of all decommissioning activities. All non-radioactive equipments and materials outside of reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reusing or conventional disposing. Weakly contaminated materials from reactor hall were collected

  1. Study on recycle of materials and components from waste streams during decommissioning for heavy water research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recycle of valuable materials from potential waste streams is one of important elements of waste minimization, and it can minimize the environment impact. The recycle of the arising was researched with taking the decommissioning of heavy water research reactor (HWRR) in China Institute of Atomic Energy as an example. By analyzing all the possible wastes that could generate during the decommissioning of HWRR, some amount of materials have potential values to recycle and may be used either directly or after appropriate treatment for other purposes. The research results show that in HWRR decommissioning at least tons of irons, 10 tons of aluminum and 5 tons of heavy water can be recycled by carrying out the waste minimization control measures (eg. waste classification and waste stream segregation), adopting appropriate decontamination technologies, and performing the requirements of clearance. (authors)

  2. Study on the state-of-the-arts technologies and policy trends for the decommissioning of nuclear installations and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D and D project of the nuclear facilities is now the one of the biggest projects among the nuclear ones in the world. The nuclear facilities have their unique characteristics so making preparations about technical research in advance is very important in economic side and worker's protection side. Especially, because workers have a high possibility to contact radioactive material directly, an automation technology and shielding technology for worker's protection as well as a system development which can perform D and D work efficiently are necessary for D and D project. The waste reduction technology development, D and D equipment development, container development, and the study related the establishment of the level of the release regulation for radioactive waste are also important. The purpose of this research is to grasp of the national and internal D and D status for the nuclear facilities and to estimate them so we expect to prevent the possibility of a tremendous economical loss as the initiative of the nuclear D and D market is lost due to not understand the situation about the status of the related technologies. And we also expect to practical use the accumulated experience to decommissioning facilities in North

  3. Decommissioning and disposal costs in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction Goal: Secure sufficient financial resources. Question: How much money is needed? Mean: Concrete plans for decommissioning and waste disposal. - It is the task of the operators to elaborate these plans and to evaluate the corresponding costs - Plans and costs are to be reviewed by the authorities Decommissioning Plans and Costs - Comprise decommissioning, dismantling and management (including disposal) of the waste. - New studies 2001 for each Swiss nuclear power plant (KKB 2 x 380 MWe, KKM 370 MWe, KKG 1020 MWe, KKL 1180 MWe). - Studies performed by NIS (D). - Last developments taken into account (Niederaichbach, Gundremmingen, Kahl). Decommissioning: Results and Review Results: Total cost estimates decreasing (billion CHF) 1994 1998 2001 13.7 13.1 11.8 Lower costs for spent fuel conditioning and BE/HAA/LMA repository (Opalinus Clay) Split in 2025: 5.6 bil. CHF paid by NPP 6.2 billion CHF in Fund Review: Concentrates on disposal, ongoing

  4. Decommissioning: an insurance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear insurance pools, through American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) and the Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters (MAELU), have been providing third-party nuclear liability insurance to the nuclear industry since 1957. Third-party liability and property damage coverage resulting from the nuclear hazard are provided by separate insurance policies issued by the nuclear insurance pools. A liability insurer's view of decommissioning is addressed by discussing the following: insurer's perspective of potential nuclear liability; insurance claim experience and trends; objectives and accomplishments of ANI/MAELU's involvement with facility decommissioning; and important nuclear liability considerations for facility decommissioning

  5. Decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear facilities present a number of problems at the end of their working lives. They require dismantling and removal but public and environmental protection remain a priority. The principles and strategies are outlined. Experience of decommissioning in France and the U.K. had touched every major stage of the fuel cycle by the early 1990's. Decommissioning projects attempt to restrict waste production and proliferation as waste treatment and disposal are costly. It is concluded that technical means exist to deal with present civil plant and costs are now predictable. Strategies for decommissioning and future financial provisions are important. (UK)

  6. Decommissioning: from COMECON to CIS and RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP decommissioning experience in the USSR and the Commonwealth Independent States (CIS) members was actively accumulated over ten years since 1982, by Russian experts in particular. Nevertheless, it is not well renowned throughout the scientists and engineers from both Russia and other near' (the CIS) and 'distant' foreign countries. A general review on NPP decommissioning in the CIS has been published just now. An unshown before NPP decommissioning issues are presented in the report. The first program on NPP decommissioning was developed under the aegis of COMECOM with the leadership of Russian experts. The most considerable results are the feasibility studies of Armenia NPP, the Novovoronezh NPP first construction stage (two units) and Bohunice V - 1 unit. (J.P.N.)

  7. The decommissioning of Berkeley II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the decommissioning progress at the Magnox site at Berkeley in Gloucestershire.Throughout the work at Berkeley the emphasis has been on conducting decommissioning safely. This has been reflected in the progress of decommissioning starting with removal of the fuel from site and thus much greater than 99% of the radioactive inventory. The major radioactive hazard is the Intermediate Level Waste in the form of fuel element debris (graphite struts and extraneous magnox components removed to increase the packing density of fuel elements in flasks going to Sellafield), miscellaneous activated components, sludges and resins. Approximately 1500 m3 of such material exists and is stored in underground waste vaults on site. Work is underway to recover and encapsulate the waste in cement so rendering it 'passively safe'. All work on site is covered by a nuclear safety case which has a key objective of minimising the radiological exposures that could accrue to workers. Reflecting this an early decision has been taken to leave work on the Reactor Pressure Vessels themselves for several decades. Also important in protection of the workforce has been control of asbestos.Much material has been removed with redundant plant and equipment, but a programme of remediation in line with government legislation has been required to ensure personnel safety throughout the decommissioning period and into Care and Maintenance.In addition to health and safety matters the site approach to environmental issues has been consistent. Formally such standards as ISO 14001 have been adhered to and the appropriate certification maintained. At a working level the principles of reduce, reuse and recycle have been inculcated

  8. Subsidies to the decommissioning of the first uranium mining and processing plant in Brazil - the case of the mineral industrial complex in Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The closure of an uranium mining and milling facility has the potential to cause risks (radiological and non-radiological) to the human health and to the environment as a whole; these risks may be incurred in the short as well in the long terms. The present work took the mining and milling facility of Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais - as a study case. The following aspects were covered by the work: analysis of the impacts associated to the facility operation; assessment of the geological processes involved in the mobilization of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants from the main sources of these pollutants in the environment - the waste rock piles and the tailings dam; quantification of the resulting impacts associated to the emission of pollutants into the environment in future scenarios and establishment of remedial actions taking into account the risk reduction and the association costs. The main aspects arising from the study were: the wastes in the tailings dam are stratified in relation to metal and radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 210 Pb and 226 Ra. The stratification is caused by the oxidation of the residual pyrite in the tailings, and is also related to metal and radionuclide concentrations in seepage water being higher in the upper zone and lower in the deeper zones. Sulfate anion was the only pollutant present in the seepage water to be detected in the groundwater below the tailings dam. Mathematical simulations taking into account the rest of the potential pollutants indicated the probability of groundwater contamination after 800 years. Direct liquid effluent releases into superficial waters are associated with a dose of about 8.0 mSv/y (conservative scenario) and less than 0.62 mSv/y (non-conservative scenario). If houses are built over the tailings, doses as high as 40 mSv/y and 8.0 mSv/y are to expected due to the Rn exhalation and external gamma respectively. Finally, covering the tailings dam with a clay layer 1.0 m thick

  9. Decommissioning Russian Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosatomnadzor of Russia is conducting the safety regulation and inspection activity related to nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear research facilities (RR), including research reactors, critical assemblies and sub-critical assemblies. Most of the Russian RR were built and put in operation more than 30 years ago. The problems of ageing equipment and strengthening of safety requirements in time, the lack of further experimental programmes and financial resources, have created a condition when some of the RR were forced to take decisions on their decommissioning. The result of these problems was reflected in reducing the number of RR from 113 in 1998 to 81 in the current year. At present, seven RR are already under decommissioning or pending it. Last year, the Ministry of Atomic Energy took the decision to finally shut down two remaining actual research reactors in the Physics and Power Engineering Institute in Obninsk: AM-1, the first reactor in the world built for peaceful purposes, graphite-type reactor, and the fast liquid metal reactor BR-10, and to start their preparation for decommissioning. It is not enough just to declare the decommissioning of a RR: it is also vital to find financial resources for that purpose. For this reason, due to lack of financing, the MR reactor at the Kurchatov Institute has been pending decommissioning since 1992 and still is. The other example of long-lasting decommissioning is TVR, a heavy water reactor at the Institute of Theoretical Physics in Moscow (ITEF). The reason is also poor financing. Another example discussed in the paper concerns on-site disposal of a RR located above the Arctic Pole Circle, owned by the Norilsk Mining Company. Furthermore, the experience of the plutonium reactor decommissioning at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research is also discussed. As shown, the Russian Federation has had good experiences in the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities. (author)

  10. Decommissioning and Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's decommissioning and decontamination programme are (1) to develop, test and optimise the technologies and procedures for decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear installations in order to minimise the waste arising and the distributed dose; (2) to optimise the environmental impact; (3) to reduce the cost of the end-of-life of the installation; (4) to make these new techniques available to the industry; (5) to share skills and competences. The programme and achievements in 1999 are summarised

  11. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Ku; Kim, Tae Ryong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down.

  12. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down

  13. Legislative conditions for decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning nuclear facilities, like building and operating them, is associated with legal conditions spelt out in the German Atomic Energy Act and other applicable legal regulations. Under the Atomic Energy Act, the basis is the required permit for decommissioning with the main requirement that all necessary precautions against damage have been taken in the light of the state of the art. Applicability needs to be examined in each individual case, and every decommissioning step must reduce the risk potential by further removing radioactive plant components. Considerable expense is entailed by the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) required under the directives of the European Union. The directive in existence so far required an EIA only for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, and was executed in Germany with the EIA Act of 1990. This EU directive is being extended so as to include also decommissioning activities; the integration of this extension into national law in Germany is still in the stage of a ministerial draft bill. In the licensing procedure under the Atomic Energy Act, the basic question arises with respect to the demolition of plants whether the 'entire range planned' of decommissioning measures requires a step-by-step procedure with a so-called positive overall decision. This question arises out of the comparison between the construction phase and the demolition phase. Basically, in very few special cases, an analogy can be drawn to the requirement of a preliminary positive overall decision. (orig.)

  14. Decommissioning analysis of the scrapers in the NSRL Linac using depth profiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽娟; 李裕熊; 李为民; 陈裕凯; 任广益

    2015-01-01

    For a high-energy electron facility, estimates of induced radioactivity in materials are of considerable impor-tance to ensure that the exposure of personnel and the environment remains as low as reasonably achievable. In addition, accurate predictions of induced radioactivity are essential to the design, operation, and decommission-ing of a high-energy electron linear accelerator. In the case of the 200-MeV electron linac of the National Syn-chrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), the electrons are accelerated by five acceleration tubes and collimated by copper scrapers. The scrapers, which play a vital role in protecting the acceleration cavity, are bombarded by many electrons over a long-term operation, which causes a significant amount of induced radioactivity. Re-cently, the NSRL Linac is the first high-energy electron linear accelerator in China to be out of commission. Its decommissioning is highly significant for obtaining decommissioning experience. This paper focuses on the measurement of induced radioactivity on the fourth scraper, where the electron energy was 158 MeV. The radionuclides were classified according to their half-lives. Such a classification provides a reliable basis for the formulation of radiation protection and facility decommissioning. To determine the high-radioactivity area and to facilitate the decommissioning process, the slicing method was applied in this study. The specific activity of 60Co in each slice was measured at a cooling time of ten months, and the results were compared with the predictions generated by Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The trend of the measured results is in good agreement with the normalized simulation results. The slicing simulation using Monte Carlo method is useful for the de-termination of high-radiation areas and proper material handling protocols and, therefore, lays a foundation for the accumulation of decommissioning experience.

  15. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file includes five parts: the first part is devoted to the strategies of the different operators and includes the following files: the decommissioning of nuclear facilities Asn point of view, decommissioning of secret nuclear facilities, decommissioning at the civil Cea strategy and programs, EDF de-construction strategy, Areva strategy for decommissioning of nuclear facilities; the second one concerns the stakes of dismantling and includes the articles as follow: complete cleanup of buildings structures in nuclear facilities, decommissioning of nuclear facilities and safety assessment, decommissioning wastes management issues, securing the financing of long-term decommissioning and waste management costs, organizational and human factors in decommissioning projects, training for the decommissioning professions: the example of the Grenoble University master degree; the third part is devoted to the management of dismantling work sites and includes the different articles as follow: decommissioning progress at S.I.C.N. plant, example of decommissioning work site in Cea Grenoble: Siloette reactor decommissioning, matters related to decommissioning sites, decommissioning of french nuclear installations: the viewpoint of a specialist company, specificities of inspections during decommissioning: the Asn inspector point of view; the fourth part is in relation with the international approach and includes as follow: IAEA role in establishing a global safety regime on decommissioning, towards harmonization of nuclear safety practices in Europe: W.E.N.R.A. and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, EPA superfund program policy for decontamination and decommissioning, progress with remediation at Sellafield, progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, activities of I.R.S.N. and its daughter company Risk-audit I.r.s.n./G.r.s. international in the field of decommissioning of nuclear facilities in eastern countries

  16. Cost estimation for decommissioning: a review of current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    boundary conditions; cost estimation methodologies; and experience gained during the process. Twelve countries provided responses and participated in the analysis: Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. The final report documenting the study is nearing publication. Its main findings are reported in this article. There is no single cost assessment methodology that applies equally at all stages of a decommissioning project. This means that different cost assessment methodologies may need to be used as the project advances. Such methodologies should be continuously updated using cost data from actual decommissioning projects, thus improving the cost assessment, providing better control of uncertainties and contingencies for each major cost category, and facilitating the preparation of an annualized schedule of expenditures for each facility. In the future, risk management may benefit from an approach that uses a deterministic calculation (base case) that feeds into a probabilistic assessment of future costs. Such approaches may be used to gain a better understanding of potential cost and programme requirements. Attention should also be given early on to socio-economic factors, including impacts caused by loss of employment, to help in building public support and acceptance of a decommissioning project. Early meetings with stakeholders may be used to gain agreement on project boundary conditions, strategy, release criteria and measurement protocols, and waste containers used. In view of the very significant impacts that changes and increases in scope may have on cost estimates, it is important that these be identified and controlled immediately, and incorporated into the estimate so that the estimate may continue to provide a viable benchmarking resource. Characterisation is acknowledged to be an important part of cost estimating accuracy, as it affects system and structure

  17. Decommissioning plan - decommissioning project for KRR 1 and 2 (revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the revised Decommissioning Plan for the license of TRIGA research reactor decommissioning project according to Atomic Energy Act No. 31 and No. 36. The decommissioning plan includes the TRIGA reactor facilities, project management, decommissioning method, decontamination and dismantling activity, treatment, packaging, transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. the report also explained the radiation protection plan and radiation safety management during the decommissioning period, and expressed the quality assurance system during the period and the site restoration after decommissioning. The first decommissioning plan was made by Hyundai Engineering Co, who is the design service company, was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and then was reviewed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first decommissioning plan was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process

  18. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Project summary report, Elk River Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Elk River Reactor. Decommissioning data from available documents were input into a computerized data-handling system in a manner that permits specific information to be readily retrieved. The information is in a form that assists the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in its assessment of decommissioning alternatives and ALARA methods for future decommissionings projects. Samples of computer reports are included in the report. Decommissioning of other reactors, including NRC reference decommissioning studies, will be described in similar reports

  19. WPDD workshop on: 'safe, efficient, and cost-effective decommissioning'. Workshop Conclusions/Final Stocktaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 6-10, 2004 a workshop on 'Safe, Efficient, and Cost-Effective Decommissioning' was held in Rome (Italy) to enable international experts on decommissioning to compare and evaluate respective approaches and experiences in decommissioning nuclear power and fuel cycle facilities and to formulate proposals for future international cooperation in the decommissioning arena. The main messages emerging from the workshop are: - Decommissioning is a mature industrial process and many projects have been safely completed with support of local communities. Technical and scientific issues are well-understood and practical experience and associated lessons are being documented to guide future activities. Emphasis is being placed on effective planning with active programmes of community involvement. - Individual countries need to further develop integrated decommissioning and waste management strategies to ensure that long-term solutions will be available for all wastes generated from decommissioning. National systems are evolving to meet national needs, against a framework provided by the international organisations, and these seem increasingly to favour early dismantling regardless of the availability of waste disposal routes. - Realistic and streamlined regulatory programmes are being developed with feed back from industry experience and are placing more responsibility and accountability on licensees. - Accurate decommissioning waste cost calculation methods is needed. Waste volumes may vary from project to project even for similar installations. There though appears to be a strong case for accumulating data and benchmarking costs for similar plants and processes. Further work and experience exchange on cost comparisons between different strategies (for example clearance and recycling/reuse of materials versus direct surface disposal) would be valuable. - International clearance criteria have been established, with individual countries free to adopt them

  20. Computer System Analysis for Decommissioning Management of Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactor decommissioning is a complex activity that should be planed and implemented carefully. A system based on computer need to be developed to support nuclear reactor decommissioning. Some computer systems have been studied for management of nuclear power reactor. Software system COSMARD and DEXUS that have been developed in Japan and IDMT in Italy used as models for analysis and discussion. Its can be concluded that a computer system for nuclear reactor decommissioning management is quite complex that involved some computer code for radioactive inventory database calculation, calculation module on the stages of decommissioning phase, and spatial data system development for virtual reality. (author)

  1. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies on conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference pressurized water reactor (PWR) described in the earlier study; defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs; and completing a study of recent PWR steam generator replacements to determine realistic estimates for time, costs and doses associated with steam generator removal during decommissioning. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in four areas concerning decommissioning of the reference PWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; assessing the cost and dose impacts of recent steam generator replacements; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation

  2. Verification for radiological decommissioning - Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 10 years, the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) at Oak ridge Associated Universities has performed radiological surveys to confirm the adequacy of cleanup and/or decommissioning actions at sites and facilities where radioactive materials have been handled. These surveys are part of the independent oversight programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Results of verification activities have been discouraging. Numerous independent surveys have identified residual contamination requiring further remediation; in some cases, initial decontamination and postremedial action monitoring were totally inadequate. While participating in decommission projects, ESSAP learned valuable lessons and has given this information to regulating agencies and decommissioning sites. The goal of this presentation is to highlight the difficulties encountered by ESSAP in its involvement with NRC and DOE decommissioning projects. Decommissioning projects require teamwork, and success depends to a large degree on the communication, cooperation, and coordination of efforts among the individual organizations involved. This information could be used by organizations involved in future decontamination projects to avoid some of the pitfalls associated with this process

  3. Financial aspects of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Commission adopted recently two proposals of Directives designed to pave the way for a Community approach to the safety of nuclear power plants and the processing of radioactive waste. Nuclear safety cannot be guaranteed without making available adequate financial resources. With regard, in particular, to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the Directive defines the Community rules for the establishment, management and use of decommissioning funds allocated to a body with legal personality separate from that of the nuclear operator. In order to comply with the acquis communautaire, Romanian Government issued the Emergency Ordinance no. 11/2003 which set up the National Agency for Radioactive Waste (ANDRAD) and soon will be established the financial mechanism for raising the necessary funds. Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A. operates, through one of its branches, Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and has to prepare its decommissioning strategy and to analyze the options to assure the financing for covering the future costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the financial systems' mechanisms to the satisfaction of the nuclear operator obligations, according to the disbursement schedule foreseen by decommissioning projects . The availability of cash to pay for all the decommissioning expenditure must be foreseen by setting up assets and establishing a suitable financing plan. The different practices of assets management shall be presented in this paper on the basis of the international experience. Some calculation samples shall be given as an illustration. (author)

  4. Decommissioning and environmental remediation: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective in both decommissioning and environmental remediation is to lower levels of residual radioactivity enough that the sites may be used for any purpose, without restriction. In some cases, however, this may not be practical and restrictions may be placed on future land use. Following decommissioning, for example, some sites may be reused for non-nuclear industrial activities, but not for habitation. Some former uranium mining sites may be released for reuse as nature reserves or for other leisure activities. Both decommissioning and environmental remediation are major industrial projects in which the safety of the workforce, the local public and the environment must be ensured from both radiological and conventional hazards. Hence, an appropriate legal and regulatory framework, as well as proper training for personnel both in implementation and in regulatory oversight are among the necessary preconditions to ensure safety

  5. Management of safety and safety culture in regulatory work - The case of decommissioning of a Swedish plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of early closure of one of the units at a plant is one example of a situation where the regulator has to reflect on and choose its role in order to prevent an impairment of the safety culture at the plant. The strategy chosen by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate is presented and some conclusions are drawn. (author)

  6. Decommissioning funding: ethics, implementation, uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This status report on Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties also draws on the experience of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD). The report offers, in a concise form, an overview of relevant considerations on decommissioning funding mechanisms with regard to ethics, implementation and uncertainties. Underlying ethical principles found in international agreements are identified, and factors influencing the accumulation and management of funds for decommissioning nuclear facilities are discussed together with the main sources of uncertainties of funding systems. (authors)

  7. Decommissioning Peach Bottom Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning activities are described for Peach Bottom Unit No. 1, a 40 mw(e) HTGR demonstration plant owned and operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company. Radiological aspects of decommission are discussed. The application of advance planning and effective health physics techniques used during the Peach Bottom decommission program demonstrated the feasibility of decommissioning a nuclear facility economically at low personnel exposure levels and with a negligible environmental impact

  8. IAEA Assistance on Decommissioning of Small Facilities with Limited Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of facilities reaching their lifetime is increasing and drawing the attention of operators, regulators, public and other interested parties (potential users of the site after decommissioning) on the importance of adequate planning, funding and implementation of decommissioning activities in compliance with regulatory requirements and criteria. Specific attention is required for small facilities that have been used for research purposes and in most cases state owned by and dependent on state funding. With the current tendency for expansion of the nuclear industry such small facilities could become less of importance for the operators which can increase the probability that these facilities become abandoned, hazardous and imposing undue burden to future generations. This concern is more related to countries with limited human and financial resources at the operating organizations and the regulatory body. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working on the; (i) establishment of internationally recognized safety standards on decommissioning and (ii) providing Member States with assistance on the application of these standards. The recent international conference on Lessons Learned from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities and the Safe Termination of Practices (Athens, Greece, 2006) has demonstrated that the set of IAEA standards is almost complete and that the International Action Plan on Decommissioning (2004), that is addressing decommissioning of small facilities, is being successfully implemented. However the need for further assistance on decommissioning of small facilities in countries with limited resources was also recognized and the Agency is planning its future work in this field. The IAEA also addresses the needs of small nuclear countries that have only a limited number of nuclear facilities, e.g. a research reactor, in its Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R2D2P. The Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1

  9. Tunney's Pasture decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL's Tunney's Pasture facility located in Ottawa was used for research, production and worldwide shipping of radioisotopes. After 30 years of operation, it was shut down in 1984, and decommissioned in two phases. During the first phase, which began in 1985 and lasted until 1987, staff moving to the new Kanata facility, now the property of Nordion International, removed the bulk of the equipment. After a three year period of storage under surveillance, AECL in 1990 initiated the second phase of decommissioning, which was completed in August 1993. In January 1994, the AECB unconditionally released the facility for unrestricted use. The paper provides an overview of the second phase of decommissioning, and a summary of a few lessons learned. 4 figs

  10. Site decommissioning management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

  11. Site decommissioning management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff's strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites

  12. Decommissioning licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning or closure of a nuclear power plant, defined as the fact that takes place from the moment that the plant stops producing for the purpose it was built, is causing preocupation. So this specialist meeting on Regulatory Review seems to be the right place for presenting and discusing the need of considering the decommissioning in the safety analysis report. The main goal of this paper related to the licensing procedure is to suggest the need of a new chapter in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (P.S.A.R.) dealing with the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Therefore, after a brief introduction the problem is exposed from the point of view of nuclear safety and finally a format of the new chapter is proposed. (author)

  13. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  14. Preparation for Ignalina NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latest developments of atomic energy in Lithuania, works done to prepare Ignalina NPP for final shutdown and decommissioning are described. Information on decommissioning program for Ignalina NPP unit 1, decommissioning method, stages and funding is presented. Other topics: radiation protection, radioactive waste management and disposal. Key facts related to nuclear energy in Lithuania are listed

  15. Decommissioning Challenges, strategy and programme development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers 4 short articles. The first one presents the IAEA decommissioning activities. These activities include: -) the development and implementation of the international action on decommissioning, -) the provision of experts and equipment to assist member states, -) networking activities such as training or exchange of knowledge and experience. The second article presents the work program of the Nea (nuclear energy agency) in the field of decommissioning and reports on the lessons that have been learnt. Among these lessons we can quote: -) selecting a strategy for decommissioning and funding it adequately, -) regulating the decommissioning of nuclear activities, -) thinking of the future in terms of reusing materials, buildings and sites, -) involving local and regional actors in the decommissioning process from decision-making to dismantling work itself, and -) increasing transparency in decision-making in order to build trust. The third article presents the management of radioactive wastes in France. This management is based on the categorization of wastes in 6 categories according to both the activity level and the radioactive half-life T: 1) very low activity, 2) low activity and T 31 years, 4) intermediate activity and T 31 years, and 6) high activity. For categories 1, 2, 3 and 5, the waste treatment process and the disposal places have been operating for a long time while for categories 4 and 6, the disposal places are still being studied: low-depth repository and deep geological repository respectively. The last article presents the action of the US Department of energy in decommissioning activities and environmental remediation, the example of the work done at the ancient nuclear site of Rocky Flats gives an idea of the magnitude and complexity of the operations made. (A.C.)

  16. Platform decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are over 6500 platforms worldwide contributing to the offshore oil and gas production industry. In the North Sea there are around 500 platforms in place. There are many factors to be considered in planning for platform decommissioning and the evaluation of options for removal and disposal. The environmental impact, technical feasibility, safety and cost factors all have to be considered. This presentation considers what information is available about the overall decommissioning costs for the North Sea and the costs of different removal and disposal options for individual platforms. 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Planning of MZFR decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept chosen for decommissioning the MZFR reactor of plant components followed by the safe enclosure of the reactor building for about 30 years. It is intended that after lifting of the controlled areas the auxiliary building will be reused within the framework of KfK research projects. A decommissioning will be carried out in steps, the scope of licensing will be broken down into partial licences. It is expected that the last partial licence for safe enclosure will be granted in 1988. (orig.)

  18. Decommissioning of IFEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IFEC nuclear fuel fabrication plant operated in Italy for more then thirty years and has now been successfully decommissioned. The rules and regulations relating to Quality Assurance established during the fabrication of Cirene reactor fuel have been adhered to during the decommissioning phase. The use of personnel with large experience in the nuclear field has resulted in vast majority of cares of material and apparatus to be reutilized in conventional activities without the need of calling on the assistance of external firms. The whole decontamination process was successfully completed on time and in particular the quantity of contaminated wastes was kept to eminimun

  19. Vinca nuclear decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a preliminary program for the nuclear decommissioning in The Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences is presented. Proposed Projects and Activities, planned to be done in the next 10 years within the frames of the Program, should improve nuclear and radiation safety and should solve the main problems that have arisen in the previous period. Project of removal of irradiated spent nuclear fuel from the RA reactor, as a first step in all possible decommissioning strategies and the main activity in the first two-three years of the Program realization, is considered in more details. (author)

  20. The regulatory process for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this publication is to provide general guidance to Member States for regulating the decommissioning of nuclear facilities within the established nuclear regulatory framework. The Guide should also be useful to those responsible for, or interested in, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The Guide describes in general terms the process to be used in regulating decommissioning and the considerations to be applied in the development of decommissioning regulations and guides. It also delineates the responsibilities of the regulatory body and the licensee in decommissioning. The provisions of this Guide are intended to apply to all facilities within the nuclear fuel cycle and larger industrial installations using long lived radionuclides. For smaller installations, however, less extensive planning and less complex regulatory control systems should be acceptable. The Guide deals primarily with decommissioning after planned shutdown. Most provisions, however, are also applicable to decommissioning after an abnormal event, once cleanup operations have been terminated. The decommissioning planning in this case must take account of the abnormal event. 28 refs, 1 fig

  1. The emergence of sustainable practice within decommissioning - 16059

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the advance of sustainable practice and energy efficient techniques outside of the nuclear industry, at the start of the 21. Century there was a lack of published guidance aimed at their adoption at specifically nuclear facilities. Even with the establishment of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, there is very little guidance published on how to adopt sustainable practices during decommissioning. There have been instances where energy efficiency had affected design and operations decisions. Projects aimed at responsible housekeeping, switching off lights, and changes to the nuclear ventilation design philosophy illustrate a desire for action, but these activities were championed by interested and motivated employees. Sustainable practice had not at that time received a strategic lead that resulted in a management structure to enable a coordinated and concerted effort in sustainable practice. This paper traces the progress during the 20. and early 21. Centuries, whereby sustainable practice is now established within a much firmer foundation of case study, guidance and organisational structure; to embed sustainable practice within the United Kingdom's current decommissioning programme. It looks at the development of relevant literature and, through interviews with key managers and external stakeholders, demonstrates (i) the degree to which two essential guidance documents (the NiCOP and CIRIA SD:SPUR) are permeating the industry, (ii) how the current work of the Characterisation and Clearance Group has evolved to influence the decontamination and dismantling planning procedures and (iii) the transition from identifying 'free-release' materials to actually releasing them for re-use in the community. (authors)

  2. The NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning. A Decade of Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    decommissioning techniques like dry abrasive blasting, cutting, removal of biological shielding and decontamination of concrete surfaces. Regarding the use of ventilated suits for workers in specific decommissioning activities, the information exchange in the CPD has helped push programmes to either improve the ventilated suits or to reduce the need for these systems. To address more general issues of common interest the CPD Technical Advisory Group established specific Task Groups. The Task Group on Decommissioning Costs developed, in co-operation with IAEA and EC, a standardised list of items for costing purposes, which allows for comparison of project costs. The Task Group on Recycling and Re-use put together case studies and provided information on the practicality and usefulness of the criteria under development for the release of slightly contaminated material from decommissioning, seen from the perspective of organisations engaged in actual decommissioning operations. Decontamination issues have been addressed by another Task Group that surveyed applied decommissioning techniques and characterised selected techniques in connection with decommissioning. Finally, the Task Group on Release Measurements studied collected relevant data from CPD projects and produced a report giving an overview on equipment and methods for and applications of release measurement. Looking back over the twenty years since the OECD-NEA established the CPD, the Programme has functioned as the main international forum for the exchange of technical and other information arising from nuclear decommissioning projects

  3. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants: policies, strategies and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As many nuclear power plants will reach the end of their lifetime during the next 20 years or so, decommissioning is an increasingly important topic for governments, regulators and industries. From a governmental viewpoint, particularly in a deregulated market, one essential aspect is to ensure that money for the decommissioning of nuclear installations will be available at the time it is needed, and that no 'stranded' liabilities will be left to be financed by the taxpayers rather than by the electricity consumers. For this reason, there is governmental interest in understanding decommissioning costs, and in periodically reviewing decommissioning cost estimates from nuclear installation owners. Robust cost estimates are key elements in designing and implementing a coherent and comprehensive national decommissioning policy including the legal and regulatory bases for the collection, saving and use of decommissioning funds. From the industry viewpoint, it is essential to assess and monitor decommissioning costs in order to develop a coherent decommissioning strategy that reflects national policy and assures worker and public safety, whilst also being cost effective. For these reasons, nuclear power plant owners are interested in understanding decommissioning costs as best as possible and in identifying major cost drivers, whether they be policy, strategy or 'physical' in nature. National policy considerations will guide the development of national regulations that are relevant for decommissioning activities. Following these policies and regulations, industrial managers responsible for decommissioning activities will develop strategies which best suit their needs, while appropriately meeting all government requirements. Decommissioning costs will be determined by technical and economic conditions, as well as by the strategy adopted. Against this backdrop, the study analyses the relationships among decommissioning policy as developed by governments, decommissioning

  4. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  5. Decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; and (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. These four phases of work were conducted in accordance with applicable regulations for D and D of research facilities and applicable regulations for packaging, transportation, and burial and storage of radioactive materials. The final result is that the Advanced Fuel Laboratories now meet requirements of ANSI 13.12 and can be released for unrestricted use. The four principal documents utilized in the D and D of the Cheswick Site were: (1) Plan for Fully Decontaminating and Decommissioning, Revision 3; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontaminating and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pa.; (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontaminating and Decommissioning Activities; and (4) Health Physics, Fire Control, and Site Emergency Manual. These documents are provided as Attachments 1, 2, 3 and 4

  6. Economical aspect of the decommissioning for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimated, analysed and founding of the economical aspect at decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) have been studied. The data that have been obtained from literature, then the calculation and analysing have been done base to the future condition. The cost for NPP decommissioning depend on the internal factor such as type, capacity and safe storage time, and the external factor such as policy, manpower and the technology preparation. The successfulness of funding, depend on the rate of inflation, discount rate of interest and the currency fluctuation. For the internal factor, the influence of the type of the reactor (BWR or PWR) to the decommissioning cost is negligible, the big reactor capacity (±1100 MW), and the safe storage between 30 to 100 years are recommended, and for the external factor, specially Indonesia, to meet the future need the ratio of decommissioning cost and capital cost will be lower than in develop countries at the present (10%). The ratio between decommissioning fund and electricity generation cost relatively very low, are more less than 1.79 % for 30 years safe storage, and discount rate of interest 3%, or more less than 0.30 % for safe storage 30 years, and discount rate of interest 6%. (author)

  7. Decommissioning database of V1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2001, the preparation of V1 NPP practical decommissioning has been supported and partly financed by the Bohunice International Decommissioning Support Fund (BIDSF), under the administration of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. AMEC Nuclear Slovakia, together with partners STM Power and EWN GmbH, have been carrying out BIDSF B6.4 project - Decommissioning database development (June 2008 until July 2010). The main purpose of the B6.4 project is to develop a comprehensive physical and radiological inventory database to support RAW management development of the decommissioning studies and decommissioning project of Bohunice V1 NPP. AMEC Nuclear Slovakia was responsible mainly for DDB design, planning documents and physical and radiological characterization including sampling and analyses of the plant controlled area. After finalization of all activities DDB includes over 75.000 records related to individual equipment and civil structures described by almost 3.000.000 parameters. On the basis of successful completion of the original contract the amendment was signed between JAVYS and Consultant's Consortium related to experimental characterization of NPP activated components. The works within this amendment have been still running. (authors)

  8. Assessment methodology applicable to safe decommissioning of Romanian VVR-S research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper contains the results of research activity performed by CITON specialists regarding the assessment methodology intended to be applied to safe decommissioning of the research reactors, developed taking into account specific conditions of the Romanian VVR-S Research Reactor. The Romanian VVR-S Research Reactor is an old reactor (1957) and its Decommissioning Plan is under study. The main topics of paper are as follows: Safety approach of nuclear facilities decommissioning. Applicable safety principles; Main steps of the proposed assessment methodology; Generic content of Decommissioning Plan. Main decommissioning activities. Discussion about the proposed Decommissioning Plan for Romanian Research Reactor; Safety risks which may occur during decommissioning activities. Normal decommissioning operations. Fault conditions. Internal and external hazards; Typical development of a scenario. Features, Events and Processes List. Exposure pathways. Calculation methodology. (author)

  9. CNEA decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: According to chapter I, Art. 2.e of the National Law Nr. 24804 ruling nuclear activities in Argentina, CNEA is responsible for determining the procedure for decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants and any other relevant radioactive facilities'. The implementation the Nuclear Law, states that CNEA is responsible for deactivation and decommissioning of all relevant radioactive facilities in the country, at end of life. Consequently CNEA have created the D and D Branch in order to perform this activity. It is important point out that none of the 28 nuclear installations in Argentina is undergoing decommissioning. Nevertheless planning stages prior decommissioning have been started with the criterion of prioritising those that will probably generate the greatest volume of radioactive waste. Decommissioning plan for research reactors and Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, radiological characterization, decontamination and treatment of miscellaneous equipment and components of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant and old installations are being carry out. The main task is to get the technical capability of the steps which must be followed. In order to accomplish this objective the main activities are: a) Coordinates the training of personnel and organizes the experience and technical knowledge already existing in CNEA and members of the Argentinean nuclear sector; b) Coordinates a R and D program on D and D technologies; c) Establishes close links with the operators of nuclear facilities, whose participation both in planning and in actual D and D work is considered extremely important; d)Preliminary planning and radiological characterization of significant nuclear installations. This paper summarizes general aspects of the activities which are currently in progress. (author)

  10. Cost Estimation for Research Reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency, and the European Commission as the general platform for decommissioning cost estimation purposes. Use of the ISDC based model facilitates the preliminary costing stages in the absence of decommissioning plans. For proper establishment of the costing case, the intended decommissioning strategy is used. The model should be flexible as to the extent and details of the inventory data. The impact of individual inventory items (working constraints) should be respected. Implementing the ISDC as the basis for the cost calculation structure ensures compatibility with the IAEA classification scheme for radioactive waste. The developed tool is intended for experts who are familiar with the facility, such as the former or actual operators of research reactors. A basic knowledge of decommissioning issues is recommended. (author)

  11. Decommissioning and material recycling. Radiation risk management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once nuclear fuel cycle facilities have permanently stopped operations they have to be decommissioned. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the surveillance and dismantling of the facility systems and buildings, the management of the materials resulting from the dismantling activities and the release of the site for further use. The management of radiation risks associated with these activities plays an important role in the decommissioning process. Existing legislation covers many aspects of the decommissioning process. However, in most countries with nuclear power programmes legislation with respect to decommissioning is incomplete. In particular this is true in the Netherlands, where government policy with respect to decommissioning is still in development. Therefore a study was performed to obtain an overview of the radiation risk management issues associated with decommissioning and the status of the relevant legislation. This report describes the results of that study. It is concluded that future work at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation on decommissioning and radiation risk management issues should concentrate on surveillance and dismantling activities and on criteria for site release. (orig.)

  12. Decommissioning and material recycling. Radiation risk management issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, D.H.

    1996-09-01

    Once nuclear fuel cycle facilities have permanently stopped operations they have to be decommissioned. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the surveillance and dismantling of the facility systems and buildings, the management of the materials resulting from the dismantling activities and the release of the site for further use. The management of radiation risks associated with these activities plays an important role in the decommissioning process. Existing legislation covers many aspects of the decommissioning process. However, in most countries with nuclear power programmes legislation with respect to decommissioning is incomplete. In particular this is true in the Netherlands, where government policy with respect to decommissioning is still in development. Therefore a study was performed to obtain an overview of the radiation risk management issues associated with decommissioning and the status of the relevant legislation. This report describes the results of that study. It is concluded that future work at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation on decommissioning and radiation risk management issues should concentrate on surveillance and dismantling activities and on criteria for site release. (orig.).

  13. Estimated doses from decommissioning activities at commercial nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews generic population dose estimates for decommissioning reference boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and provides extrapolated estimates of the total collective dose resulting from decommissioning commercial nuclear reactors operated in the United States. Decontamination and decommissioning of retired nuclear power reactors is a necessary part of the nuclear fuel cycle. During decommissioning of large facilities, radioactivity will be encountered in activated reactor components and in contaminated piping, equipment, and building surfaces. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored a series of studies to evaluate the technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a variety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The NRC adopted the following standardized definitions concerning decommissioning: (1) decommissioning: the measures taken at the end of a facility's operating lifetime to ensure the protection of the public from any residual radioactivity or other hazards present in the facility; (2) DECON: immediate decontamination leading to the release of the facility for unrestricted use; (3) SAFSTOR: safe storage plus deferred decontamination leading to release of the facility for unrestricted use; and (4) ENTOMB: entombment plus decay leading to release of the facility for unrestricted use. In the NRC studies, the most likely decommissioning alternative for most facilities was assumed to be DECON or SAFSTOR

  14. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may be...... achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  15. MARSSIM recommended in states' guidance document for decommissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBaugh, Debra; Stoffey, Phillip; Shuman, Howard; Young, Robert; Zannoni, Dennis

    2003-06-01

    States appreciate guidance for activities done infrequently or at only a few locations in the state. For many states, this is the case for decommissioning. Some states have reactors being decommissioned, some DOE sites undergoing cleanup, and some uranium mill or radium sites. Many, however, only occasionally do a small facility cleanup or, once in a great while, a large one. For this reason, most states participated in the readily available MARSSIM training and now recommend its use. For this same reason, the CRCPD Committee on Decontamination and Decommissioning (E24) developed a brief guidance document for state and licensee use. PMID:12792402

  16. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a refernce boiling water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies of conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference boiling water reactor (BWR) described in the earlier study; and defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in three areas concerning decommissioning of the reference BWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation

  17. Nesidioblastosis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, A L

    1997-09-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common problem among neonates. Transient in nature, it usually resolves with an increase in glucose intake. However, as clinicians, we must recognize that prolonged hypoglycemia may be caused by increased insulin production. Nesidioblastosis is one cause of persistent hyperinsulinism of the newborn. This case study reviews fetal physiology, neonatal presentation, and treatment. PMID:9325879

  18. : Case studies: France

    OpenAIRE

    Bonerandi, Emmanuelle; Santamaria, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Case studies on territorial governance : urban region of Lyon (France) and the "Pays" policy (France) in the framework of the ESPON 2.3.2 project Études de cas sur la gouvernance territoriale : région urbaine de Lyon et politique des pays

  19. Decommissioning cost evaluation for Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study was performed to develop decommissioning cost evaluation technology and to establish optimum decommissioning plan for Korean nuclear power plants. Eight decommissioning options for Kori unit I including DECON, SAFSTOR and ENTOMB were considered for detailed cost analysis. Immediate and delayed dismantling scenarios were compared each other in regards to economic, technical and social aspects. Fourteen decommissioning unit activities were considered in estimating unit cost factors including labor cost, consumables cost and equipment cost. The decommissioning cost for Kori unit 1 was lowest for DECON option and highest for ENTOMB-3 option in which the site recovery was made after entombment of 300 years. The main cost of the SAFSTOR option resulted from the dismantling and extended safe storage. For a long decommissioning period, the discount rate is crucial in estimating the decommissioning cost. The difference among decommissioning options was negligible in cost if a discount rate of 2% was assumed. The long-term safe storage option also became advantageous relative to the immediate dismantling option as the discount rate increased. (author)

  20. Rotordynamic Stability Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury Pranabesh

    2004-01-01

    In this article case studies are presented involving rotordynamic instability of modern high-speed turbomachinery relating the field data to analytical methods. The studies include oil seal related field problems, instability caused by aerodynamic cross-coupling in high-pressure, high-speed compressors, and hydrodynamic bearing instability resulting in subsynchronous vibration of a high-speed turbocharger. It has been shown that the analytical tools not only help in problem diagnostics, bu...

  1. Prague Case Study Report

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostelecký, Tomáš; Patočková, Věra; Illner, Michal; Vobecká, Jana; Čermák, Daniel

    Aarau: Centre for Democracy Studies Aarau (ZDA), 2014 - (Widmer, C.; Kübler, D.), s. 131-177 ISBN 978-3-9524228-2-3 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280802 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : urban neighbourhods * regeneration * Prague Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://www.zdaarau.ch/dokumente/en/ZDA_Working-Papers/No3_RUN_case-studies_2014.pdf

  2. MIDAS case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusger, E.C.; Farber, M.A.; Sharpe Hayes, M.M.

    1989-07-01

    This series of three case studies illustrates the validity and usefulness of MIDAS, a microcomputer-based tool for integrated resource planning under uncertainty. The first, at Union Electric, serves to test and validate the model and to illustrate its use for demand/supply option evaluation. Focusing on nuclear plant life extension, the Virginia Power case demonstrates the model's extensive detail, particularly in the production cost and financial areas, as well as its flexibility in addressing approximately 70 uncertainty scenarios. Puget Sound Power Light, the third case, used MIDAS for the preparation of its integrated resource plan. A 108-endpoint decision tree illustrates the full power of the decision analysis capability.

  3. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of 3H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of 14C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of 123I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of 137Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of 241Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a facility, DECON requires that

  4. Decommissioning in western Europe; Kaernkraftsavveckling i Vaesteuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Castor arbetslivskonsulter AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe

  5. Case studies: The Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful decommissioning and closure, undertaken immediately following the cessation of mining and mill operations, took place in Australia. A decommissioning plan was developed prior to or during operation. The two mines (Mary Kathleen Uranium and Nabarlek) are also of interest as they offer examples of remediation in dry and wet tropical environments, respectively. The first part of the paper reports on the Mary Kathleen Uranium Mine and its remediation in a dry climate. It informs about its operation, decommissioning of the mine and mill, tailing and water management, waste rocket piles, detailed monitoring throughout the rehabilitation work and the cost of rehabilitation. The second part reports about the Nabarlek mine and its remediation in a humid tropical climate. It informs about its operation, decommissioning and remediation, tailing management, water management and revegetation. A long term stewardship at Nabarlek is being actively debated by the stakeholders, including the regulating authority, the Commonwealth Government and the Aboriginal Traditional Owners

  6. Offshore decommissioning issues: Deductibility and transferability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dealing with the decommissioning of petroleum installations is a relatively new challenge to most producer countries. It is natural to expect that industry's experience in building platforms is much greater than the one of dismantling them. Even if manifold and varied efforts are underway towards establishing international 'best practices' standards in this sector, countries still enjoy rather extensive discretionary power as they practice a particular national style in the regulation of decommissioning activities in their state's jurisdiction. The present paper offers a broad panorama of this discussion, concentrating mainly on two controversial aspects. The first one analyses the ex-ante deductibility of decommissioning costs as they constitute an ex-post expense. The second discussion refers to the assignment of decommissioning responsibility in the case of transfer of exploration and production rights to new lessees during the project's life. Finally the paper applies concepts commonly used in project financing as well as structures generally used in organising pension funds to develop insights into these discussions

  7. Study on the design and manufacturing requirements of container for low level radioactive solid waste form KRR decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design requirement and manufacturing criteria have been proposed on the container for the storage and transportation of low level radioactive solid waste from decommissioning of KRR 1 and 2. The structure analysis was carried out based on the design criteria, and the safety of the container was assessed. The ISO container with its capacity of 4m3 was selected for the radioactive solid waste storage. The proposed container was satisfied the criteria of ISO 1496/1 and the packaging standard of atomic energy act. manufacturing and test standards of IAEA were also applied to the container. Stress distribution and deformation were analyzed under given condition using ANSYS code, and the maximum stress was verified to be within yield stress without any structural deformation. From the results of lifting tests, it was verified that the container was safe

  8. The decommissioning and redevelopment of NECSA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The South African nuclear programme started in 1948 and was focussed on research and development in the nuclear field. In the early 70s a uranium conversion plant and a uranium enrichment plant were constructed on the NECSA site. The enriched uranium was used for military purposes, as fuel for the research reactor SAFARI-1 at Necsa. A semi-commercial uranium enrichment plant and a fuel manufacturing plant were commissioned in the 80's to supply fuel for the nuclear power plant at Koeberg near Cape Town. Currently the research reactor is utilized for the generation of radioactive isotopes for industrial and medical applications. Various other research projects were initiated and buildings constructed on the Necsa site to accommodate the different projects. The uranium conversion and enrichment projects were terminated in the early 90's, and many buildings on the Necsa site became redundant. An initial decommissioning strategy was to return the Necsa site to green fields. This endpoint of decommissioning has changed dramatically with the nuclear renaissance to include redevelopment and reuse options. In the case of a multi-facility nuclear site, such as the Necsa site, it is vital to develop a total site redevelopment plan rather than to decommission and allocate individual facilities for isolated reuse demands. A holistic approach should be assured by considering current and projected future redevelopment demands in the development of a redevelopment and reuse plan. It is important not to allow the redevelopment and reuse of a single facility on a multi-facility site based on short- term financial gain. With the recent increase in demand for nuclear facilities the redevelopment and reuse of nuclear facilities for non-nuclear applications should generally not be considered due to the inherent advantages associated with an existing licensed site. The initial decommissioning plan did not consider the Necsa site as a whole. Decommissioning costs, and the

  9. Fort St. Vrain decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), owner of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear generating station, achieved its final decommissioning goal on August 5, 1997 when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission terminated the Part 50 reactor license. PSCo pioneered and completed the world's first successful decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant after many years of operation. In August 1989, PSCo decided to permanently shutdown the reactor and proceed with its decommissioning. The decision to proceed with early dismantlement as the appropriate decommissioning method proved wise for all stake holders - present and future - by mitigating potential environmental impacts and reducing financial risks to company shareholders, customers, employees, neighboring communities and regulators. We believe that PSCo's decommissioning process set an exemplary standard for the world's nuclear industry and provided leadership, innovation, advancement and distinguished contributions to other decommissioning efforts throughout the world. (author)

  10. Decommissioning of nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intention of this Report is to set out in simple terms the options open to the Ministry of Defence in disposing of nuclear submarines, and the extent of the problem. To this end oral evidence was taken from United Kingdom Nirex Limited (Nirex) and from the Ministry of Defence, and written evidence was taken from MoD, Nirex, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and Rolls-Royce and Associates Limited. The immediate problem is what to do with the nuclear submarine, DREADNOUGHT. Since decommissioning in 1982, the submarine has been lying at Rosyth Naval Base on the Firth of Forth. Upon decommissioning, the highly radioactive reactor core with the uranium fuel was removed and transported to the Sellafield reprocessing plant. The remaining radioactive part is the reactor compartment and it is the size of this, not its level of radioactivity which makes it hard to deal with. By the year 2000 a further seven nuclear submarines will have been decommissioned. There are three main options for disposing of the reactor compartments; dumping at sea, land burial in a shallow trench and land burial in a deep repository. Dumping at sea is the option favoured by the Ministry of Defence and Government, but shallow land burial remains an option. Deep burial is not an option which is available immediately as there will not be a repository ready until 2005. (author)

  11. Corporate Governance. Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This paper pretends to do a theoretical approach of Corporate Governance, having as support some case studies about companies like Coca-Cola, Nokia, Microsoft, and Amazon.com. The methodology adopted for this work is based in information from these companies available in their websites and annual reports. I concluded that both companies show the corporate governance components according to their core business and their environmental business.

  12. Case study - Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture Case Study - Czechoslovakia with the sub-title 'Unified System of Personnel Preparation for Nuclear Programme in Czechoslovakia' the actual status and the current experience of NPP personnel training and preparation in Czechoslovakia are introduced. The above mentioned training system is presented and demonstrated by the story of a proxy person who is going to become shift engineer in a nuclear power plant in Czechoslovakia. (orig./HP)

  13. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  14. Tokai-1 decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokai-1 (GCR, Gas Cooled Reactor) nuclear power plant of JAPC (the Japan Atomic Power Company) started commercial operation in 1966 as the first commercial nuclear power plant in Japan. The unit had helped introduction and establishment of the construction and operation technologies regarding nuclear power plant at early stage in Japan by its construction and operating experiences. However, The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC), the operator and owner of Tokai-1, decided to cease its operation permanently because of a fulfillment of its mission and economical reason. The unit was finally shut down in March 1998 after about 32 year operation. It took about three years for removal of all spent fuels from the site, and then decommissioning started in 2001. JAPC, always on the forefront of the nation's nuclear power generation, is now grappling Japan's first decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant, striving to establish effective, advanced decommissioning. The decommissioning for Tokai-1 was scheduled as 20 years project. At the beginning, the reactor was started to be in a static condition ('safe storage period'). While the reactor had been safely stored, the phased decommissioning works started from non-radioactive or low radioactive equipment toward high radioactive equipment. First five years of the project, JAPC concentrated to drain and clean spent fuel cartridge cooling pond and to remove conventional equipments such as turbine, feed water pump and fuel charge machine as planed and budgeted. From 2006, the project came into a new phase. JAPC has been trying to remove four Steam Raising Units (SRUs). The SRUs are huge component (750ton, φ6.3m, H24.7m) of the Gas Cooling Reactor (GCR) and inside of the SRUs are radioactively contaminated. Major concerns are workers safety and minimizing contamination areas during SRU removal. Therefore, JAPC is developing and introducing Jack-down method and remote control multi-functional dismantling system. This

  15. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference large irradiator and reference sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffner, D.R.; Villelgas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to examine the decommissioning of large radioactive irradiators and their respective facilities, and a broad spectrum of sealed radioactive sources and their respective devices. Conceptual decommissioning activities are identified, and the technology, safety, and costs (in early 1993 dollars) associated with decommissioning the reference large irradiator and sealed source facilities are evaluated. The study provides bases and background data for possible future NRC rulemaking regarding decommissioning, for evaluation of the reasonableness of planned decommissioning actions, and for determining if adequate funds are reserved by the licensees for decommissioning of their large irradiator or sealed source facilities. Another purpose of this study is to provide background and information to assist licensees in planning and carrying out the decommissioning of their sealed radioactive sources and respective facilities.

  16. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference large irradiator and reference sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to examine the decommissioning of large radioactive irradiators and their respective facilities, and a broad spectrum of sealed radioactive sources and their respective devices. Conceptual decommissioning activities are identified, and the technology, safety, and costs (in early 1993 dollars) associated with decommissioning the reference large irradiator and sealed source facilities are evaluated. The study provides bases and background data for possible future NRC rulemaking regarding decommissioning, for evaluation of the reasonableness of planned decommissioning actions, and for determining if adequate funds are reserved by the licensees for decommissioning of their large irradiator or sealed source facilities. Another purpose of this study is to provide background and information to assist licensees in planning and carrying out the decommissioning of their sealed radioactive sources and respective facilities

  17. An Applied Study of Implementation of the Advanced Decommissioning Costing Methodology for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik, Sweden with special emphasis to the application of the Omega code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented study is focused on an analysis of decommissioning costs for the Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel (FA) facility in Studsvik prepared by SVAFO and a proposal of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology application. Therefore, this applied study concentrates particularly in the following areas: 1. Analysis of FA facility cost estimates prepared by SVAFO including description of FA facility in Studsvik, summarised input data, applied cost estimates methodology and summarised results from SVAFO study. 2. Discussion of results of the SVAFO analysis, proposals for enhanced cost estimating methodology and upgraded structure of inputs/outputs for decommissioning study for FA facility. 3. Review of costing methodologies with the special emphasis on the advanced costing methodology and cost calculation code OMEGA. 4. Discussion on implementation of the advanced costing methodology for FA facility in Studsvik together with: - identification of areas of implementation; - analyses of local decommissioning infrastructure; - adaptation of the data for the calculation database; - inventory database; and - implementation of the style of work with the computer code OMEGA

  18. An Applied Study of Implementation of the Advanced Decommissioning Costing Methodology for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik, Sweden with special emphasis to the application of the Omega code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofova, Kristina; Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    The presented study is focused on an analysis of decommissioning costs for the Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel (FA) facility in Studsvik prepared by SVAFO and a proposal of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology application. Therefore, this applied study concentrates particularly in the following areas: 1. Analysis of FA facility cost estimates prepared by SVAFO including description of FA facility in Studsvik, summarised input data, applied cost estimates methodology and summarised results from SVAFO study. 2. Discussion of results of the SVAFO analysis, proposals for enhanced cost estimating methodology and upgraded structure of inputs/outputs for decommissioning study for FA facility. 3. Review of costing methodologies with the special emphasis on the advanced costing methodology and cost calculation code OMEGA. 4. Discussion on implementation of the advanced costing methodology for FA facility in Studsvik together with: - identification of areas of implementation; - analyses of local decommissioning infrastructure; - adaptation of the data for the calculation database; - inventory database; and - implementation of the style of work with the computer code OMEGA.

  19. Decommissioning of Salaspils nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1995, the Latvian Government decided to shut down the Research Reactor Salaspils (SRR) and to dispense with nuclear energy in future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study for the decommissioning of SRR has been carried out by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH from 1998-1999. he Latvian Government decided on 26 October 1999 to start the direct dismantling to 'green field' in 2001. The results of decommissioning and dismantling performed in 1999-2001 are presented and discussed. The main efforts were devoted to collecting and conditioning 'historical' radioactive waste from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall. All radioactive material more than 20 tons were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in the radioactive waste depository 'Radons' in the Baldone site. Personal protective and radiation measurement equipment was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and material outside the reactor buildings were free-released and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Weakly contaminated material from the reactor hall was collected and removed for free-release measurements. The technology of dismantling of the reactor's systems, i.e. second cooling circuit, zero power reactors and equipment, is discussed in the paper. (author)

  20. When a plant shuts down: The psychology of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the next decade, 10 to 25 nuclear plants in the United States may be taken off line. Many will have reached the end of their 40-year life cycles, but others will be retired because the cost of operating them has begun to outweigh their economic benefit. Such was the case at Fort St. Vrain, the first decommissioning of a US commercial plant under new Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Two major problems associated with decommissioning plants have been obvious: (1) the technical challenges and costs of decommissioning, and (2) the cost of maintaining and finally decommissioning a plant after a safe storage (SAFSTOR) period of approximately 60 years. What has received little attention is the challenge that affects not only the people who make a plant work, but the quality of the solutions to these problems: how to maintain effective organizational performance during the process of downsizing and decommissioning and/or SAFSTOR. The quality of technical solutions for closing a plant, as well as how successfully the decommissioning process is held within or below budget, will depend largely on how effectively the nuclear organization functions as a social unit. Technical and people issues are bound together. The difficulty is how to operate a plant effectively when plant personnel have no sense of long-term security. As the nuclear power industry matures and the pace for closing operating plants accelerates, the time has come to prepare for the widespread decommissioning of plants. The industry would be well served by conducting a selective, industry-wide evaluation of plants to assess its overall readiness for the decommissioning process. A decommissioning is not likely to be trouble free, but with a healthy appreciation for the human side of the process, it will undoubtedly go more smoothly than if approached as a matter of dismantling a machine

  1. When a plant shuts down: The psychology of decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, J.; Crawford, A.C. (Nuclear Behavioral Sciences Group of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Englewood, CO (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Within the next decade, 10 to 25 nuclear plants in the United States may be taken off line. Many will have reached the end of their 40-year life cycles, but others will be retired because the cost of operating them has begun to outweigh their economic benefit. Such was the case at Fort St. Vrain, the first decommissioning of a US commercial plant under new Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Two major problems associated with decommissioning plants have been obvious: (1) the technical challenges and costs of decommissioning, and (2) the cost of maintaining and finally decommissioning a plant after a safe storage (SAFSTOR) period of approximately 60 years. What has received little attention is the challenge that affects not only the people who make a plant work, but the quality of the solutions to these problems: how to maintain effective organizational performance during the process of downsizing and decommissioning and/or SAFSTOR. The quality of technical solutions for closing a plant, as well as how successfully the decommissioning process is held within or below budget, will depend largely on how effectively the nuclear organization functions as a social unit. Technical and people issues are bound together. The difficulty is how to operate a plant effectively when plant personnel have no sense of long-term security. As the nuclear power industry matures and the pace for closing operating plants accelerates, the time has come to prepare for the widespread decommissioning of plants. The industry would be well served by conducting a selective, industry-wide evaluation of plants to assess its overall readiness for the decommissioning process. A decommissioning is not likely to be trouble free, but with a healthy appreciation for the human side of the process, it will undoubtedly go more smoothly than if approached as a matter of dismantling a machine.

  2. Environmental assessment after decommissioning at the North Sea- Froey oil production site: a field study with biomarkers in fish and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinturier, Laurence; Beyer, Jonny; Moltu, Ulf; Plisson, Saune Stephan; Berland, Harald; Sundt, Rolf; Bjoernstad, Anne; Sanni, Steinar

    2006-03-15

    sediment environmental survey carried in 2003 indicating that sediment fauna disturbance were limited to the immediate vicinity of the field centre (less than 250 m). It was the first time that biological effects parameters were used to assess the environmental condition of an oil field after decommissioning. This survey demonstrates the feasibility of such study and its potential for assessing the condition of benthic community living in the water and at the surface sediment. (Author)

  3. Dose assessment and dose optimisation in decommissioning using the VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimisation of radiological protection of the workers in nuclear industry is an important part of the safety culture especially in the field of decommissioning where we are confronted with a radioactive environment that is in the process of constant change. The application of the ALARA concept (to keep exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable) is not always straightforward in such cases. A good ALARA pre-job study must be performed and should contain predicted doses in the work area and investigate the effects of geometry, material, source or work position changes. This information provides a quantitative basis to select between various alternative work scenario's for a specific operation. In order to handle this information SCK-CEN developed the VISIPLAN 3D ALARA planning tool. This PC-based tool makes it possible to create and edit work scenarios taking into account worker positions and subsequent geometry and source distribution changes in a 3D environment. The presentation will show the current status of the tool and its application to the decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and other installations. New developments will also be presented regarding the geometric and radioactive characterisation of a decommissioning site. The use of human motion simulation tools in ALARA assessment will also be discussed. This will show how new developments of software and measurement tools can help dealing with the new challenges of decommissioning in the field of dose optimization. (authors)

  4. Operational experience of decommissioning techniques for research reactors in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous co-ordinated research projects (CRP) conducted by the IAEA no distinction was made between decommissioning activities carried out at nuclear power plants, research reactors or nuclear fuel cycle facilities. As experience was gained and technology advanced it became clear that decommissioning of research reactors had certain specific characteristics which needed a dedicated approach. It was within this context that a CRP on Decommissioning Techniques for Research Reactors was launched and conducted by the IAEA from 1997 to 2001. This paper considers the experience gained from the decommissioning of two research reactors during the course of the CRP namely: (a) the ICI Triga Mk I reactor at Billingham UK which was largely complete by the end of the research project and (b) the Argonaut 100 reactor at the Scottish Universities Research and Reactor centre at East Kilbride in Scotland which is currently is the early stages of dismantling/site operations. It is the intention of this paper with reference to the two case studies outlined above to compare the actual implementation of these works against the original proposals and identify areas that were found to be problematical and/or identify any lessons learnt. (author)

  5. Present status and plans for disposal of decommissioning waste in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of the first commercial power reactor, Tokai power station of The Japan Atomic Power Company, gas cooled reactor (GCR), was started in December 2001. The project consists of the following phases: (1) first phase (2001-2005): conventional facilities are removed and some preparation works are done; (2) second phase (2006-2010): steam raising units and primary gas duct outside the safe-store are dismantled; (3) third phase (2011-2017): all reactor structure and miscellaneous buildings are demolished. The management of radioactive waste, generated from the decommissioning activity is the most important issue in the safety of decommissioning process. All radioactive waste arising from dismantling is treated and finally disposed of. The disposal of reactor internals and the establishment of clearance levels are key issues of decommissioning. In addition, in the case of the GCR, the treatment and disposal of activated graphite inside reactor vessel is also an important issue. The Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Safety Commission have established a disposal policy and a basic regulatory concept for the disposal of this waste. Reactor internals, which are contaminated to relatively high activities, will be disposed of at 50-100 m depth. The regulatory authority, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, established laws on the upper limit of activity level for this type of disposal facility in 2000. The utilities and Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd are carrying out basic studies and a site investigation. The establishment of regulations for clearance is now being considered. (author)

  6. Case studies: Decommissioning and rehabilitation of old production centers of the former USSR (1945-1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, the extent and the conditions under which uranium had been produced since 1945 became visible. Up to the end of 1992, centrally planned economies (the former USSR and its neighbouring countries) produced over 671 000 t U for military purposes and for nuclear electricity generation (East Germany 213 380 t U, Czech Republic 105 351 t U, Russia 93 980 t U, Kazakhstan 72 000 t U, Uzbekistan 82 763 t U, Ukraine over 50 000 t U, etc.). Within the former USSR, approximately 50 combinates existed, some of which continued production until 1995; others stopped production immediately after the former USSR ceased to exist. Generally, each combinate included several mines, which supplied one processing centre. Mining and processing operations were often placed near the deposit, even when the areas were densely populated. In the early phases, physical concentrates were transported over 1000 kilometres to hydrometallurgical plants, the second type of production centre, in Central Russia. There the ores were chemically leached and a chemical concentrate (yellowcake) was produced. After 1960, when the vein deposits became exhausted, more and more low grade ores such as black shale, phosphates or radioactive coal were mined and processed. Due to the huge amounts of ore involved, concentration and transport became very complicated and new mills with high capacities were built near the mines. Also, more sophisticated techniques in hydrometallurgical processing, especially alkaline leaching, were developed. Today, tailing ponds with contents of 10 to 70 million t have been inherited from this production phase. The production facilities were co-located in so-called industrial combinates, because housing for workers, medical complexes, power generation, water supply and administrative facilities as well as all industrial installations were centralized in one place. After 1990, most of the Russian technical staff left the combinates and the new governments in Eastern Europe and Central Asia became their owners. The governments decided to close the centres and carry out remediation at public expense. Germany suspended production in 1992, Bulgaria in 1994, Hungary in 1997 and the Czech Republic in 2003. The Ukraine and Central Asian republics reduced production sharply. Today, remediating the legacies left by former Soviet uranium production is one of the largest ecological and economic challenges facing Eastern European and Central Asian countries and it is very important this remediation take place in order for the public to accept nuclear energy

  7. NOx trade. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the questions with respect to the trade of nitrogen oxides that businesses in the Netherlands have to deal with are dealt with: should a business buy or sell rights for NOx emission; which measures must be taken to reduce NOx emission; how much must be invested; and how to deal with uncertainties with regard to prices. Simulations were carried out with the MOSES model to find the answers to those questions. Results of some case studies are presented, focusing on the chemical sector in the Netherlands. Finally, the financial (dis)advantages of NOx trade and the related uncertainties for a single enterprise are discussed

  8. Decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, D.R.; England, M.R.; Ward, A. [BNFL, Sellafield (United Kingdom); Green, D. [ICI Chemical Polymers Ltd, Billingham (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper considers the fuel removal, transportation and subsequent decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I Reactor at Billingham, UK. BNFL Waste Management and Decommissioning carried out this work on behalf of ICI. The decommissioning methodology was considered in the four stages to be described, namely Preparatory Works, Reactor Defueling, Intermediate Level Waste Removal and Low Level Waste Removal. This paper describes the principal methodologies involved in the defueling of the reactor and subsequent decommissioning operations, highlighting in particular the design and safety case methodologies used in order to achieve a solution which was completed without incident or accident and resulted in a cumulative radiation dose to personnel of only 1.57 mSv. (author)

  9. Decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the fuel removal, transportation and subsequent decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I Reactor at Billingham, UK. BNFL Waste Management and Decommissioning carried out this work on behalf of ICI. The decommissioning methodology was considered in the four stages to be described, namely Preparatory Works, Reactor Defueling, Intermediate Level Waste Removal and Low Level Waste Removal. This paper describes the principal methodologies involved in the defueling of the reactor and subsequent decommissioning operations, highlighting in particular the design and safety case methodologies used in order to achieve a solution which was completed without incident or accident and resulted in a cumulative radiation dose to personnel of only 1.57 mSv. (author)

  10. Evaluation of neutron flux distribution for radioactivity analysis of biological shield concrete required for study on decommissioning of Tokai 1 Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokai Power Station, a 166 MWe gas cooled reactor, ceased commercial operation in March 31, 1998 and at present spent fuels are being discharged. Meanwhile, a specific plan for the decommissioning to be performed after the fuel discharging is being studied. The reactor is surrounded by thick primary biological shield, but large penetrations such as primary cooling gas ducts filled with CO2 and shield cooling ducts and also the large opening covered with thin steel doors called rapture doors exist in the primary biological shield. They cause big neutron leakages into the outer region, called duct enclosure area, surrounded by secondary biological shield, and then enhance the radioactive nuclide concentration in the surrounding shield wall concrete. The radioactive nuclide concentration in this area distributes widely from the low level radioactive waste to below the clearance level. Its precise evaluation, which depends on data of neutron flux distribution, is essential for estimation of dismantling work, dismantling cost, disposal cost of the dismantled waste etc. of the decommission planing. In order to obtain the neutron flux distribution data, a few kinds of activation metal foils were placed at many positions in the space and on the wall surface in the duct enclosure area during the reactor operations. Also neutron transport calculation covering several floors was performed with use of three-dimensional discrete ordinates code, which is suitable for complicated geometry with some neutron streaming paths from the reactor room through the primary shield. By comparing results of calculation and measurement, good correlation was confirmed between them. (author)

  11. Plan for reevaluation of NRC policy on decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing that the current generation of large commercial reactors and supporting nuclear facilities would substantially increase future decommissioning needs, the NRC staff began an in-depth review and re-evaluation of NRC's regulatory approach to decommissioning in 1975. Major technical studies on decommissioning have been initiated at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory in order to provide a firm information base on the engineering methodology, radiation risks, and estimated costs of decommissioning light water reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is now considering development of a more explicit overall policy for nuclear facility decommissioning and amending its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 50, and 70 to include more specific guidance on decommissioning criteria for production and utilization facility licensees and byproduct, source, and special nuclear material licensees. The report sets forth in detail the NRC staff plan for the development of an overall NRC policy on decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  12. Study of basic safety-related aspects of decommissioning nuclear installations. Pt. 1. Legal aspects and set of technical rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The set of nuclear rules is checked for its applicability to the decommissioning, safe containment and dismantling of nuclear installations. In the foreground of the individual parts of the set of rules is the question about the relevance of licensing procedures according to No. 7 para. 3 of the Atomic Energy Law. The set of rules checked, basically consists of: 1. the Atomic Energy Law (AtG), the ordinances adopted on its basis (AtVfV, StrSchV, AtDeckV, AtKostV, EndlagerVIV, AtSMV) and on neighbouring laws (StrVG, BImschG, UVPG, AbfG); 2. the announcements of the BMU, BMI and BMFT: 3. the recommendations of the RSK, SSK, the rules of the KTA, the DIN standards, and 4. several international guidelines and recommendations (European Union EU, IAEA, NEA of the OECD). A generic assessment is performed, in the course of which, starting from the content or treated facts, reference to defined licensing facts and the wording, it is determined whether a specific regulation or rule is relevant or irrelevant in the licensing procedure according to No. 7 para. 3 Atomic Energy Law. In addition, a plant-related evaluation based on implemented licensing procedures is done. The expertises and licensing notifications referred to for this purpose, which represent a wide cross-section of German nuclear installations, were evaluated to find out which of the regulations and rules were explicitely applied. (orig./HP)

  13. Disposal technique inspect of France's uranium mine and mill facilities decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invited by Linet F.L., the director of France Atomic Energy Committee, China disposal technique inspection delegation on uranium mine and mill facilities decommissioning (UMMFD) inspected France's UMMFD disposal techniques on Oct. 7∼30, 1997. Introduces in detail the disposal Standard, environmental radiation monitoring and evaluation, covering experiment and decommissioning disposal procedure, and gives certain case of France's uranium mine and mill facilities decommissioning disposal

  14. Consideration of ISDC for Decommissioning Cost Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009, they decided to update the Yellow Book, and began to update it by analyzing user experiences. They found that several countries have adopted the proposed standardized cost structure for the production of cost estimates directly or for mapping national estimates onto a common structure. They also made conclusions that more detailed advice should be given on the use of the standardized structure and on the definition of cost items to avoid ambiguity. The revised cost structure, to be known as the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC), was published in 2012. The standardized cost structure developed in the report may be used for estimating the costs of decommissioning of any type of nuclear facility. We analyzed this standardized cost structure (ISDC) and applied it to DECOMMIS which was developed by KAERI. The appropriate estimation system for domestic application was examined by comparing the estimation results. KAERI made WBS code in DECOMMIS and data obtained during decommissioning work of KRR2 and UCP. Recently the IAEA updated the decommissioning cost items and its structure by ISDC. The cost estimation items of the DECOMMIS were applied to ISDC structure. For applying, the ISDC code compared with WBS code of DECOMMIS as on text of the activity name from daily report basis. The mapping result of the ISDC items to WBS code of the DECOMMIS is much different. AS results of this study that it need the corresponding cost category which classified in accordance with the national standard price estimates

  15. Estimation of decommissioning costs: History and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the mid-1970s. the subject of the cost of decommissioning nuclear power stations became a topic of considerable interest to the industry. A number of early demonstration plants in the US had been retired and most had been entombed. Only one plant, the Elk River Reactor (a small boiling water facility) had been totally dismantled and removed from the site (Welsh 1974). Thus, there was a very limited data base from which to develop estimates for decommissioning the much larger stations then under construction and coming into service. The nuclear industry sponsored another study for estimating decommissioning costs using an approach known as the Unit Cost Factor (UCF) method. This methodology is documented in AIF/NESP-0036 (LaGuardia 1986). and forms the basis for many of the estimates prepared by (or for) utilities for usein making submissions to their utility rate commissions to recover future decommissioning costs through current rates. This and other estimating approaches mentioned above are discussed in more detail in this paper

  16. BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

  17. Decommissioning policy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden the nuclear power program is, according to a parliamentary decision, limited to twelve power producing reactors. The last reactor shall be taken out of service no later than the year 2010. As a result of the Chernobyl accident the program for taking the reactors out of service will be accelerated. This report is the first approach by the Swedish authorities to formulate a decommissioning policy. It is not the final policy document but it discusses the principal questions from the special Swedish viewpoint. (orig.)

  18. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective). PMID:18481140

  19. DECOMMISSIONING OF A CAESIUM-137 SEALED SOURCE PRODUCTION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, A.; Abbott, H.

    2003-02-27

    Amersham owns a former Caesium-137 sealed source production facility. They commissioned RWE NUKEM to carry out an Option Study to determine a strategy for the management of this facility and then the subsequent decommissioning of it. The decommissioning was carried out in two sequential phases. Firstly robotic decommissioning followed by a phase of manual decommissioning. This paper describes the remote equipment designed built and operated, the robotic and manual decommissioning operations performed, the Safety Management arrangements and summarizes the lessons learned. Using the equipment described the facility was dismantled and decontaminated robotically. Some 2300kg of Intermediate Level Waste containing in the order of 4000Ci were removed robotically from the facility. Ambient dose rates were reduced from 100's of R per hour {gamma} to 100's of mR per hour {gamma}. The Telerobotic System was then removed to allow man access to complete the decommissioning. Manual decommissioning reduced ambient dose rates further to less than 1mR per hour {gamma} and loose contamination levels to less than 0.25Bq/cm2. This allowed access to the facility without respiratory protection.

  20. Decommissioning planning for the Joint European Torus Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint European Torus (JET) machine is an experimental nuclear fusion device built in the United Kingdom by a European consortium. Tritium was first introduced into the Torus as a fuel in 1991 and it is estimated that at the end of operations and following a period of tritium recovery there will be 2 grams of tritium in the vacuum circuit. All in-vessel items are also contaminated with beryllium and the structure of the machine is neutron activated. Decommissioning of the facility will commence immediately JET operations cease and the UKAEA's plan is to remove all the facilities and to landscape the site within 10 years. The decommissioning plan has been through a number of revisions since 1995 that have refined the detail, timescales and costs. The latest 2005 revision of the decommissioning plan highlighted the need to clarify the size reduction and packaging requirements for the ILW and LLW. Following a competitive tender exercise, a contract was placed by UKAEA with NUKEM Limited to undertake a review of the waste estimates and to produce a concept design for the planned size reduction and packaging facilities. The study demonstrated the benefit of refining decommissioning planning by increasing the detail as the decommissioning date approaches. It also showed how a review of decommissioning plans by independent personnel can explore alternative strategies and result in improved methodologies and estimates of cost and time. This paper aims to describe this part of the decommissioning planning process and draw technical and procedural conclusions. (authors)

  1. Procedures and Practices - Challenges for Decommissioning Management and Teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mental and practical approach to a decommissioning project is often not the same at all levels of an organization. Studies indicate that the early establishment of a decommissioning mindset throughout an organization is an important and frequently overlooked process. It is not enough to establish procedures, if practices and mental approaches are overlooked; and for decommissioning projects that are more often than not dominated by one of a kind problem solving, procedure design is challenging, and new requirements are put on communication. Our research considers stakeholder involvement in these processes in the wider sense of the term; however the main stakeholders in focus are regulators and the work force that will perform or lead the tasks related to decommissioning. Issues here treated include: Decommissioning mindset and the manifestation of mindset issues in decommissioning projects, including challenges and prospective solutions; trust building and trust breaking factors in communication and collaboration relevant to transition and decommissioning; new technologies for collaboration and communication and how these may impair or empower participants - experiences from several domains. This paper is based on work done in collaboration with the OECD NEA Halden Reactor Project. (author)

  2. Estimation of the Decommissioning Waste Arising for a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, Kori Unit 1(Pressurized Water Reactor, 587MW) began the first life extension operation since 2008 and Wolsong Unit 1(Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor, 679MW) has waited for the admission of life extension after license expiration since November 2012. However, after Fukushima Daichi nuclear power plant accident happened March 2011, the public support for the nuclear power plant life extension has been faded. This is reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. When it comes to the decommissioning cost estimation, the waste treatment and disposal possess about 17% ∼ 43% in the total decommissioning expense. Hence, the accurate analysis of the decommissioning cost has the immense influence on the determination of decommissioning strategy in later. Namely, as the fundamental investigation of the decommissioning outlay, the approach to the expected waste weight estimation is worth of study. In this study, the arising of waste weight during the decommissioning of Kori Unit 1 was estimated with some documents listed in the reference. Finally, the total expected waste amount during the Kori Unit 1 decommissioning is about 49,139 tons. Among them, assumed radioactive waste material is 1,915,214 kg(869 tons). Based on IAEA standard, these wastes are divided in HLW, ILW, LLW, VLLW and EW respectively. Future plan is to assess the radioactivity of primary side components and dose rate distribution of Kori Unit 1 using MCNP and ORIGEN-2 codes. This action will be helpful to design the reasonable decommissioning scenario in the future 4 session

  3. Managing the Unexpected in Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication explores the implications of decommissioning in the light of unexpected events and the trade-off between activities to reduce them and factors militating against any such extra work. It classifies and sets out some instances where unexpected findings in a decommissioning programme led to a need to either stop, or reconsider the work, re-think the options, or move forward on a different path. It provides practical guidance in planning and management of decommissioning taking into account unexpected events. This guidance includes an evaluation of the experience and lessons learned in tackling decommissioning that is often neglected. Thus it will enable future decommissioning teams to adopt the relevant lessons to reduce additional costs, time delays and radiation exposures

  4. Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This status report on decommissioning funding: ethics, implementation, uncertainties is based on a review of recent literature and materials presented at NEA meetings in 2003 and 2004, and particularly at a topical session organised in November 2004 on funding issues associated with the decommissioning of nuclear power facilities. The report also draws on the experience of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD). This report offers, in a concise form, an overview of relevant considerations on decommissioning funding mechanisms with regard to ethics, implementation and uncertainties. Underlying ethical principles found in international agreements are identified, and factors influencing the accumulation and management of funds for decommissioning nuclear facilities are discussed together with the main sources of uncertainties of funding systems

  5. Financing nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much is at stake in developing a financial strategy for decommissioning nuclear power plants. Since decommissioning experience is limited to relatively small reactors, will the costs associated with larger reactors be significantly higher. Certainly the decommissioning issue intersects with other critical issues that will help to determine the future of commercial nuclear power in the US. The author examines briefly the basic concepts and terms related to decommissioning expenses, namely: (1) segregated fund; (2) non-segregated fund; (3) external method; and (4) internal method. He concludes that state regulatory commissions have turned increasingly to the external funding method because of increasing costs and related problems associated with nuclear power, changing conditions and uncertainties concerned with utility restructuring, and recent changes in federal tax laws related to decommissioning. Further, this trend is likely to continue if financial assurance remains a primary concern of regulators to protect this public interest

  6. Nuclear reactor decommissioning: an analysis of the regulatory environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to highlight some of the current and likely regulations that will significantly affect the costs, technical alternatives and financing schemes for reactor decommissioning encountered by electric utilities and their customers. The paper includes a general review of the decommissioning literature, as well as information on specific regulations at the federal, state, and utility levels. Available estimated costs for the decommissioning of individual reactors are also presented. Finally, classification of the specific policies into common trends and practices among the various regulatory bodies is used to examine more general regulatory environments and their potential financial implications

  7. Organization and management for decommissioning of large nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    organizational aspects of decommissioning and describes factors relevant to the planning and management of a decommissioning project. It identifies the general issues to be addressed and provides an overview of organizational activities necessary to manage a decommissioning project in a safe, timely and cost effective manner. There are a number of facilities that present special cases and include those which have undergone a major accident as well as uranium mines and mills and radioactive waste repositories. These facilities are not dealt with in this report. This report is structured as follows. Section 1 contains background information, objectives and scope of the document. In Section 2 considerations important for decommissioning management are discussed which could affect the organization. Section 3 deals with the management for active phases of decommissioning and provides a discussion on the organization of the decommissioning management team. Section 4 gives an overview of the decommissioning planning and approval process. Section 5 provides information on quality assurance issues relevant to decommissioning. Management of decommissioning wastes is briefly discussed in Section 6. Responsibilities and qualifications of the decommissioning management team are dealt with in Section 7. Conclusions and recommendations are given in Section 8. The report is supplemented with references, Appendix I giving details on recent experience on data management, a glossary, and national annexes, some of which indicate how the principles set out in the main report are to be utilized in different countries, and some of which are real examples of arrangements used in decommissioning projects. A list of drafting and reviewing bodies is also included

  8. Vertebral Angiosarcoma. Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Bone angiosarcomas, especially vertebral angiosarcomas, are very rare. There are no studies based on large clinical samples in the literature, and only a few single case reports can be found. The symptoms of the disease are not specific. It is usually detected incidentally or at a late stage when pathological vertebral fractures or neurological complications occur. Diagnostic imaging and history help to recognize the tumour behind the symptoms, but do not allow accurate clinical diagnosis. The basis for a diagnosis is the histopathological examination supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. The case of a 26-year-old woman with an angiosarcoma involving the eighth thoracic vertebra we report reflects diagnostic problems adversely affecting the efficacy and accuracy of treatment offered to patients. The patient underwent three surgeries of the spine, including two biopsies. A needle biopsy did not provide sufficient information for the diagnosis. An open excisional biopsy, which at the same time temporarily reduced neurological deficits in the patient, was the only chance to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The third surgery was posterior decompression of the spinal cord due to the rapidly escalating paraparesis. It was not until 8 weeks later that the final diagnosis was established. At that time, the patient could not be qualified for any supplementary treatment. The patient died in hospital 6 months after the onset of disease. PMID:26468177

  9. DECOST: computer routine for decommissioning cost and funding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major controversies surrounding the decommissioning of nuclear facilities is the lack of financial information on just what the eventual costs will be. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has studies underway to analyze the costs of decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and some other similar studies have also been done by other groups. These studies all deal only with the final cost outlays needed to finance decommissioning in an unchangeable set of circumstances. Funding methods and planning to reduce the costs and financial risks are usually not attempted. The DECOST program package is intended to fill this void and allow wide-ranging study of the various options available when planning for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  10. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the project of Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology, the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  11. Decommissioning of VHTRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAERI modified the Semi-Homogeneous Experimental Critical Assembly (SHE) which had been used for reactor physical experiments of graphite moderated reactor since January 1961 to the Very High Temperature Reactor Critical Assembly (VHTRC) in 1985 in order to carry out nuclear safety evaluation etc. for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Since HTTR, which was constructed in the Oarai Research Establishment, achieved criticality in November 1998, JAERI decided to decommissioning VHTRC in 1999. The decommissioning project is planned to perform in two stages. At the first stage sampling and analysis were carried out for comparison of calculated results. Following these activities, reactor instruments, reactor control system and reactor itself were dismantled. The first stage was completed in FY2000. At the second stage, radiation shielding blocks and reactor building will be dismantled completely to green field conditions. These activities will be carried out after the clearance level is legislated in Japan. The first stage activities, which are the site characterization, radioactive inventory evaluation, surface contamination measurements for releasing the control room and the machine room from radiation controlled area to unrestricted area, neutron activation estimation on the basis of theoretical calculations, sampling and analyses of reactor components, and dismantling of reactor etc., are described in this report. (author)

  12. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65

  13. Alternatives evaluation and decommissioning study on shielded transfer tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, J.R.; Hinton, R.R.

    1994-08-01

    The shielded transfer tanks (STTs) are five obsolete cylindrical shipping casks which were used to transport high specific activity radioactive solutions by rail during the 1960s and early 1970s. The STTs are currently stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under a shed roof. This report is an evaluation to determine the preferred alternative for the final disposition of the five STTs. The decommissioning alternatives assessed include: (1) the no action alternative to leave the STTs in their present location with continued surveillance and maintenance; (2) solidification of contents within the tanks and holding the STTs in long term retrievable storage; (3) sale of one or more of the used STTs to private industry for use at their treatment facility with the remaining STTs processed as in Alternative 4; and (4) removal of tank contents for de-watering/retrievable storage, limited decontamination to meet acceptance criteria, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal through the DOE contaminated scrap metal program, and returning the shielding lead to the ORNL lead recovery program because the smelting contractor cannot reprocess the lead. To completely evaluate the alternatives for the disposition of the STTs, the contents of the tanks must be characterized. Shielding and handling requirements, risk considerations, and waste acceptance criteria all require that the radioactive inventory and free liquids residual in the STTs be known. Because characterization of the STT contents in the field was not input into a computer model to predict the probable inventory and amount of free liquid. The four alternatives considered were subjected to a numerical scoring procedure. Alternative 4, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal after removal/de-watering of the tank contents, had the highest score and is, therefore, recommended as the preferred alternative. However, if a buyer for one or more STT could be found, it is recommended that Alternative 3 be reconsidered.

  14. Alternatives evaluation and decommissioning study on shielded transfer tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shielded transfer tanks (STTs) are five obsolete cylindrical shipping casks which were used to transport high specific activity radioactive solutions by rail during the 1960s and early 1970s. The STTs are currently stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under a shed roof. This report is an evaluation to determine the preferred alternative for the final disposition of the five STTs. The decommissioning alternatives assessed include: (1) the no action alternative to leave the STTs in their present location with continued surveillance and maintenance; (2) solidification of contents within the tanks and holding the STTs in long term retrievable storage; (3) sale of one or more of the used STTs to private industry for use at their treatment facility with the remaining STTs processed as in Alternative 4; and (4) removal of tank contents for de-watering/retrievable storage, limited decontamination to meet acceptance criteria, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal through the DOE contaminated scrap metal program, and returning the shielding lead to the ORNL lead recovery program because the smelting contractor cannot reprocess the lead. To completely evaluate the alternatives for the disposition of the STTs, the contents of the tanks must be characterized. Shielding and handling requirements, risk considerations, and waste acceptance criteria all require that the radioactive inventory and free liquids residual in the STTs be known. Because characterization of the STT contents in the field was not input into a computer model to predict the probable inventory and amount of free liquid. The four alternatives considered were subjected to a numerical scoring procedure. Alternative 4, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal after removal/de-watering of the tank contents, had the highest score and is, therefore, recommended as the preferred alternative. However, if a buyer for one or more STT could be found, it is recommended that Alternative 3 be reconsidered

  15. The Financing of Decommissioning - A View on Legal Aspects in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities such as nuclear research facilities will be gradually decommissioned. In all cases of decommissioning, no matter what type of nuclear facility is concerned, it must be ensured that adequate financial means for carrying out the decommissioning process will be available when they are needed. This paper analyses whether the necessary measures have been taken in Germany, by describing the legislative framework of decommissioning and the German system for financing the decommissioning process. The author comes to the conclusion that so far, the German system for financing the decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been successful and that currently there is no reason to doubt the amount or the security of the operators' provisions. Eventually there will be a need for modifications to the German system in order to secure the availability of financial provisions in future. (authors)

  16. Implementation of the II. Stage decommissioning of A1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation is focused on the implementation of the II. stage decommissioning of A1 NPP. Introductory part focuses on brief characteristics of the power plant with a history of operation, basic technical parameters and actions that were made after operation. The next section describes the basic schedule for decommissioning, structure of management and implementation of the II. stage decommissioning of the A1 NPP and objectives of the individual stages. The last and largest part of the presentation is devoted to detailed description of the II. stage decommissioning of the A1 NPP, its individual tasks and verbal and visual description of the activities that were performed. Presented is decommissioning of the technology and construction of external objects NPP A1 including storage tanks for liquid RAW, next are presented activities carried out in the Main Production Unit - decommissioning of non-operating technologies in various places/rooms, management of waste arising from these activities, treatment of case of A1 long-term spent fuel storage and long-term spent fuel storage. The subsequent section is devoted to the management and handling of contaminated soil, concrete and construction waste, including management of VLLW. (authors)

  17. Progress in Decommissioning of Ignalina NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    very important issue is the technical support to VATESI and the Lithuanian TSO's (Technical Support Organisations) in their activities within the licensing process related to the Decommissioning of INPP. This includes regulatory assistance in the preparation of decommissioning and radioactive waste management regulatory documents, and technical assistance in the review of the safety case presented by the operator. The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN, France) and the French Nuclear Safety Authority (DSIN) as well as Swedish International Project (SIP) are providing their support to VATESI in these areas. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects (ENFDP) program is to provide the NRC licensing staff with data which will allow an assessment of radiation exposure during decommissioning and the implementation of ALARA techniques. The data will also provide information to determine the funding level necessary to ensure timely and safe decommissioning operations. Actual decommissioning costs, methods and radiation exposures are compared with those estimated by the Battelle-PNL and ORNL NUREGs on decommissioning. Exposure reduction techniques applied to decommissioning activities to meet ALARA objectives are described. The lessons learned concerning various decommissioning methods are evaluated

  19. Planning for decommissioning of Hifar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has operated the 10MW HIFAR research reactor since 1958. In addition to its role in research, the reactor provides radioisotopes for medical and industrial use and is a major supplier of NTD silicon for the semi-conductor industry. It is anticipated that HIFAR will finally shut down operations in December 2006. Although ANSTO has successfully decommissioned MOATA and undertaken other smaller decommissioning projects the proposed HIFAR decommissioning project will be the largest ever undertaken by ANSTO. ANSTO faces a number of challenges in HIFAR's final year of operation. These include: the establishment of a modern decommissioning strategy in the absence of a long-term nuclear waste repository management facility or waste acceptance criteria for the material generated by the decommissioning; the impact of the impeding closure of the facility on staff morale and retention of key staff; and to meet the our customer's needs up to the final closure. These challenges are compounded by competition for skilled resources required to commission the new research reactor (OPAL) and the need to continue to supply radioisotopes. Important 'lessons in progress' that will be discussed in this paper include staffing the decommissioning team, maintenance of a strong safety culture during final stages of operation, working towards regulatory approval for decommissioning and strategies for knowledge retention. (author)

  20. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  1. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  2. FMCT verification: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: How to manage the trade-off between the need for transparency and the concern about the disclosure of sensitive information would be a key issue during the negotiations of FMCT verification provision. This paper will explore the general concerns on FMCT verification; and demonstrate what verification measures might be applied to those reprocessing and enrichment plants. A primary goal of an FMCT will be to have the five declared nuclear weapon states and the three that operate unsafeguarded nuclear facilities become parties. One focus in negotiating the FMCT will be verification. Appropriate verification measures should be applied in each case. Most importantly, FMCT verification would focus, in the first instance, on these states' fissile material production facilities. After the FMCT enters into force, all these facilities should be declared. Some would continue operating to produce civil nuclear power or to produce fissile material for non- explosive military uses. The verification measures necessary for these operating facilities would be essentially IAEA safeguards, as currently being applied to non-nuclear weapon states under the NPT. However, some production facilities would be declared and shut down. Thus, one important task of the FMCT verifications will be to confirm the status of these closed facilities. As case studies, this paper will focus on the verification of those shutdown facilities. The FMCT verification system for former military facilities would have to differ in some ways from traditional IAEA safeguards. For example, there could be concerns about the potential loss of sensitive information at these facilities or at collocated facilities. Eventually, some safeguards measures such as environmental sampling might be seen as too intrusive. Thus, effective but less intrusive verification measures may be needed. Some sensitive nuclear facilities would be subject for the first time to international inspections, which could raise concerns

  3. Termination: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  4. Technologies for nuclear plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the commercial operation of a nuclear power plant has been shutdown, the plant enters a decommissioning phase where it is dismantled and removed. The Tokai Power Station was shutdown at the end of March 1998, followed by 'Fugen' and a light water reactor. The number of decommissioned plants in Japan is likely to increase in the future. Based on experience gained from the construction and maintenance of nuclear plants, Fuji Electric has developed techniques essential for decommissioning work. This paper describes recent technologies developed in this field, such as remote dismantling techniques for the reactor core and treatment and disposal techniques for the dismantled waste. (author)

  5. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.

  6. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist

  7. IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H. J.; Kim, K. N.; Lee, K. W.; Jung, C. H

    2001-03-01

    The following were studied through the project entitled 'IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors 1. Decontamination technology development for TRIGA radioactive soil waste - Electrokinetic soil decontamination experimental results and its mathematical simulation 2. The 2nd IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors - Meeting results and program 3. Hosting the 2001 IAEA/RCA D and D training course for research reactors and small nuclear facilities.

  8. Decommissioning Cost Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future costs for dismantling, decommissioning and handling of associated radioactive waste of nuclear installations represents substantial liabilities. It is the generations that benefits from the use of nuclear installations that shall carry the financial burden. Nuclear waste programmes have occasionally encountered set-backs related to the trust from society. This has resulted in delayed, redirected or halted activities, which has the common denominator of costs increases. In modern democratic countries, information sharing, knowledge transfer and open communication about costs for the management of radioactive waste are prerequisites for the task to develop modern methods for public participation and thus to develop well-founded and justified confidence for further development of nuclear energy. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role to provide unbiased information on any health, safety, financial and environmental related issues. This task requires a good understanding of the values and opinion of the public, and especially those of the younger generation

  9. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  10. Building confidence in decommissioning in France: Towards a safe, industrially applicable, coherent national system without site or waste liberation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of decommissioning in France is accelerating, as the first generation of power reactors will be actively decommissioned in the next few years. Experience has been gathered from past decommissioning activities and some current pilot decommissioning operations. This experience has shown that a national system has to be put in place to deal with decommissioning, waste elimination and site cleaning up activities in order to allow a consistent, safe, transparent and industrially applicable management of these matters. A system founded on successive lines of defence has been put into enforcement, which does not involve any site nor waste liberation, as it is considered that the criteria associated are always prone to discussion and contradiction. This system is based on the following concepts : 'nuclear waste', waste prone to have been contaminated or activated, is segregated from 'conventional waste' using a system involving successive lines of defence, and hence, building a very high level of confidence that no 'nuclear waste' will be eliminated without control in conventional waste eliminators or recycling facilities ; 'nuclear waste' is eliminated in dedicated facilities or repositories, or in conventional facilities under the condition of a special authorisation based on a radiological impact study and a public inquiry ; a global safety evaluation of the nuclear site is conducted after decommissioning in order to define possible use restrictions. In all cases, minimum restrictions will be put into enforcement in urbanisation plans to ensure sufficient precaution when planning future uses of the ground or the building. This paper describes this global system in detail and shows that its inherent consistency allows it to be easily applicable by operators while achieving a high level of safety and confidence. (author)

  11. Decommissioning and remediation of the uranium production centre of Pocos de Caldas - Potential benefits of an integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study is aimed at illustrating how an integrated approach to decommissioning and remediating a uranium mining and milling facility would have helped the operator to minimize costs and optimize outputs if the elements discussed in the document had been taken into consideration. Even at the present stage, the ideas developed in this study case will be very useful. On a broader perspective, the intention here is to give readers concrete elements that may contain some similarities to on-going projects in some Member States and by doing so help in the future implementation of integrated decommissioning and remediation works. The case study addresses the remediation of the first uranium mining and milling facility in Brazil which ceased uranium production operations in 1997

  12. FIR 1 TRIGA activity inventories for decommissioning planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study has been to estimate the residual activity in the decommissioning waste of TRIGA Mark II type research reactor FiR 1 in Finland. Neutron flux distributions were calculated with Monte Carlo code MCNP. These were used in ORIGEN-S point-depletion code to calculate the neutron induced activity of materials at different time points by modelling the irradiation history and radioactive decay. The knowledge of radioactive inventory of irradiated materials is important in the planning of the decommissioning activities and is essential for predicting the radiological impact to personnel and environment. Decommissioning waste consists mainly of ordinary concrete, aluminium, steel and graphite parts. Results include uncertainties due to assumptions on material compositions and possible diffusion of gaseous nuclides. Comparison to activity inventory estimates of two other decommissioned research reactors is also presented. (authors)

  13. Construction times and the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction and the decommissioning periods of nuclear power plants (NPP), are studied, due to their importance in the generation costs. With reference to the construction periods of these plants, a review is made of the situation and technical improvements made in different countries, with the purpose of shortening them. In regard to the decommissioning of NPP, the present and future situations are reviewed in connection with different stages of decommissioning and their related problems, as the residual radioactivity of different components, and the size of the final wastes to be disposed of. The possibilities of plant life extensions are also revised in connection with these problems. Finally, the expected decommissioning costs are analyzed. (Author)

  14. Decommissioning of the Wuergassen nuclear power plant, a commercial challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the inspection results which detected cracks in the core shroud, economic aspects have induced PreussenElektra to opt for decommissioning and dismantling of the Wuergassen reactor. As this shutdown of the nuclear power plant is not a planned shutdown, costs arising in addition to the original decommissioning framework studies have to be assessed, especially the expenditure for the adjusted plant manpower requirements, and the additional operating and phase-out costs. Experience has shown that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plants does not pose problems in terms of safety or technology, but still is a commercial challenge. Expense forecasts have to be adjusted in response to the unplanned shutdown. PreussenElektra therefore has set up a modified project and operating structure. The analysis and evaluation of the first decommissioning phase will show whether the cost assessment approaches are in agreement with reality. (orig.)

  15. On Decommissioning Costs of the Ranstad Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study has been to extend the review of the future cost to decommission and dismantling the industrial area at the site of the old uranium mine at Ranstad in Sweden. The feedback of experience and actual costs from a decommissioning project in the United Kingdom (A26 in Springfields) has been used to help in the assessment of the reasonableness of the estimated costs for decommissioning of the old uranium mine in Ranstad. A quantitative (albeit subjective) statement about the accuracy of the Ranstad cost estimate has been developed. Also, the factors relevant to the allocation of costs between the Swedish state and the current owners of the old uranium mine site have been evaluated and presented. The study has developed the following main conclusions: - The importance of thorough characterization/radiological mapping to the selection of the optimum decommissioning approach (technique) has been reinforced very strongly. - Thorough characterization has the related consequence of being able to better define the costs of decommissioning, in terms of equipment needed, labour hours required and, importantly, the volumes of different categories of waste requiring different routes (and associated different unit costs) for ultimate disposition. - Uncertainties in the Ranstad decommissioning cost estimate nevertheless remain, in particular relating to the viability of the proposed approach to dismantling and decontaminating the acid proof bricks that line the pools in the Large Leaching Hall; a method that is acknowledged to be not proven. The outcome could have an impact on actual dismantling and decontamination costs, as well as on the costs of ultimate waste disposition. The KB2010 cost estimate report does not offer an alternative in the event that the base plan proves to be unfeasible. - On balance it would appear that the continued presence of RMA at the Ranstad site ultimately will provide a net cost benefit to the program. The extra costs

  16. DECOM experience with decommissioning costing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OMEGA code has been used in numerous Slovak and international decommissioning planning and costing projects and in IAEA R and D projects and is continuously updated and upgraded. The next goal for the DECOM costing activities is to develop an universal and user-friendly ISDC costing tool accessible via internet - eOMEGA taking over the advantages of the long-term experience of DECOM and being in line with up-to date trends in decommissioning costing. DECOM members participate in international expert groups for further improvement of costing methodologies, such as the uncertainties, cost practices and cost peer reviews in decommissioning costing. DECOM members participate also in IAEA projects, expert missions and training courses related to decommissioning costing and planning. (authors)

  17. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  18. Decommissioning of the Loviisa NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imatran Voima Oy has revised the decommissioning plan for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant (Loviisa 1 and Loviisa 2) by the end of the year 1998. The thermal power of the power plant has been increased to 2x1500 MWth, and the life time has been designed to be extended to 45 years in the decommissioning plan. The decommissioning of the power plant is designed to begin in 2022 and it will be finished in 2048. The plan is based on immediate dismantlement (i.e. DECON) after the shut down of the power plant. Experienced plant personnel will still be available to lead the decommissioning work. Only the radioactive plant systems, components and structures will be dismantled and disposed of. Decommissioning wastes will be disposed into the underground disposal tunnels situating at the site in the depth of about 110 m. These tunnels are already partly ready for power plant wastes. The big and heavy reactor components, e.g. pressure vessels and steam generators, will be disposed of as such, without cutting them into smaller parts. This saves time and radiation doses. The total volume of decommissioning wastes is 14 800 m3, when packed in boxes. The manpower needed for decommissioning is about 2 800 manyears. The collective radiation dose for personnel is estimated to be about 9.2 manSv. The cost estimate of the decommissioning is about 1 117 million FIM. The spent fuel will be stored at the plant for 20 years after the shut down of the power plant. After that it will be transported from the site to the encapsulation plant for final disposal. (orig.)

  19. Brazilian nuclear power plants decommissioning plan for a multiple reactor site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actually, Brazil has two operating Nuclear Power Plants and a third one under construction, all at Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA. To comply with regulatory aspects the power plants operator, Eletronuclear, must present to Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Agency, CNEN, a decommissioning plan. Brazilian experience with decommissioning is limited because none of any nuclear reactor at the country was decommissioned. In literature, decommissioning process is well described despite few nuclear power reactors have been decommissioned around the world. Some different approach is desirable for multiple reactors sites, case of CNAAA site. During the decommissioning, a great amount of wastes will be produced and have to be properly managed. Particularly, the construction of Auxiliary Services on the site could be a good choice due to the possibility of reducing costs. The present work intends to present to the Eletronuclear some aspects of the decommissioning concept and decommissioning management, storage and disposal de wastes, based on the available literature, regulatory standards of CNEN and international experience as well as to suggest some solutions to be implemented at CNAAA site before starts the decommissioning project in order to maximize the benefits. (author)

  20. Preliminary decommissioning plan of the reactor IPEN-MB01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around the world, many nuclear plants were built and need to be turned off at a certain time because they are close to their recommended time of use is approximately 50 years. So the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), seeks to guide and recommend a set of guidelines for the conduct of activities of nuclear facilities, with special attention to countries that do not have a framework regulatory Legal that sustain the activities of decommissioning. Brazil, so far, does not have a specific standard to guide the steps of the guidelines regarding decommissioning research reactors. However, in March 2011 a study committee was formed with the main task facing the issues of decommissioning of nuclear installations in Brazil, culminating in Resolution 133 of November 8, 2012, a standard project that treat about the Decommissioning of nucleoelectric plants. O Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has two research reactors one being the reactor IPEN/MB-01. The purpose of this master dissertation is to develop a preliminary plan for decommissioning this research reactor, considering the technical documentation of the facility (RAS-Safety Analysis Report), the existing standards of CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), as well as IAEA recommendations. In terms of procedures for decommissioning research reactors, this work was based on what is most modern in experiences, strategies and lessons learned performed and documented in IAEA publications covering techniques and technologies for decommissioning. Considering these technical knowledge and due to the peculiarities of the facility, was selected to immediate dismantling strategy, which corresponds to the start of decommissioning activities once the installation is switched off, dividing it into work sectors. As a resource for monitoring and project management of reactor decommissioning and maintenance of records, we developed a database using Microsoft Access 2007, which contain all the items and

  1. The Decommissioning of the Trino Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusa, L.; DeSantis, R.; Nurden, P. L.; Walkden, P.; Watson, B.

    2002-02-27

    Following a referendum in Italy in 1987, the four Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) owned and operated by the state utility ENEL were closed. After closing the NPPs, ENEL selected a ''safestore'' decommissioning strategy; anticipating a safestore period of some 40-50 years. This approach was consistent with the funds collected during plant operation, and was reinforced by the lack of both a waste repository and a set of national free release limits for contaminated materials in Italy. During 1999, twin decisions were made to privatize ENEL and to transform the nuclear division into a separate subsidiary of the ENEL group. This group was renamed Sogin and during the following year, ownership of the company was transferred to the Italian Treasury. On formation, Sogin was asked by the Italian government to review the national decommissioning strategy. The objective of the review was to move from a safestore strategy to a prompt decommissioning strategy, with the target of releasing all of the nuclear sites by 2020. It was recognized that this target was conditional upon the availability of a national LLW repository together with interim stores for both spent fuel and HLW by 2009. The government also agreed that additional costs caused by the acceleration of the decommissioning program would be considered as stranded costs. These costs will be recovered by a levy on the kWh price of electricity, a process established and controlled by the Regulator of the Italian energy sector. Building on the successful collaboration to develop a prompt decommissioning strategy for the Latina Magnox reactor (1), BNFL and Sogin agreed to collaborate on an in depth study for the prompt decommissioning of the Sogin PWR at Trino. BNFL is currently decommissioning six NPPs and is at an advanced stage of planning for two further units, having completed a full and rigorous exercise to develop Baseline Decommissioning Plans (BDP's) for these stations. The BDP exercise

  2. An outsider's view of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is not just a technical or even a financial issue. Presenting decommissioning as a technically difficult task overcome by superhuman effort on the part of the industry will not gain much credit amongst sophisticated consumers who now require that any complex technology will work and work safely. Any engineering problems are surmountable given the money to find the solution. Some of the financial aspects of decommissioning are worrying, however, given their open-ended nature. The cost of waste disposal is one of these. Despite a lapse of fifty years since the start-up of its first reactor, the United Kingdom is unlikely to have available a repository for the disposal of intermediate level waste until about 2020. Waste disposal is a large consideration in decommissioning and the industry's forecasts of cost in this area lack credibility in the light of a poor track record in financial prediction. Financial engineering in the form of the segregated fund set up in March 1996 to cover the decommissioning of nuclear power stations in the United Kingdom is likely to provide only short term reassurance in the light of doubts about a credible future for nuclear power. This lack of confidence over the wider problems of nuclear power creates particular problems for decommissioning which go beyond technical difficulties and complicate financial considerations. (UK)

  3. Decommissioning challenges - an industrial reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellafield Limited has undergone many transformations in previous years. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has managed the site from April 2005, and a new Parent Body Organisation (PBO) is soon to be announced. In addition, it is an exciting time for the nuclear industry following the announcement of the UK government support new reactor builds. Should the site be selected for new build, the impact on Sellafield, its decommissioning program and economic impact on the local area can only be speculated at the current time. Every past, present and future decommissioning project at the Sellafield Limited site offers complex challenges, as each facility is unique. Specialist skills and experience must be engaged at pre-planned phases to result in a safe, efficient and successful decommissioning project. This paper provides an overview of a small selection of decommissioning projects, including examples of stakeholder engagement, plant and equipment dismantling using remote handling equipment and the application of innovative techniques and technologies. In addition, the final section provides a summary upon how future technologies required by the decommissioning projects are being assessed and developed. (authors)

  4. Intercultural Communicative Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The essay is mainly about the author's comprehension of cultural differences and intercultural communication after reading the book Communication Between Cultures.In addition,the author also analyses three cases with the theories and approaches mentioned in Communication Between Cultures.

  5. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MC Bierschbach; DR Haffner; KJ Schneider; SM Short

    2002-12-01

    Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 3}H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 14}C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 123}I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 137}Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 241}Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a

  6. Beneficial Re-use of Decommissioned Former Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the decision to decommission a nuclear facility, it is necessary to evaluate whether to fully demolish a facility or to re-use the facility in some capacity. This evaluation is often primarily driven by both the past mission of the site and the facility and the site's perceived future mission. In the case where the facility to be decommissioned is located within a large research or industrial complex and represents a significant resource to the site's future mission, it may be a perfect candidate to be re-used in some fashion. However, if the site is a rather remote older facility with little chance of being modified to today's standards for its re-use, the chances for its re-use will be substantially reduced. In this presentation, some specific cases of former nuclear facilities being decommissioned and re-used will be reviewed and some factors required to be considered in making this decision will be reviewed

  7. Money Related Decommissioning and Funding Decision Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Money makes the world go round', as the song says. It definitely influences decommissioning decision-making and financial assurance for future decommissioning. This paper will address two money-related decommissioning topics. The first is the evaluation of whether to continue or to halt decommissioning activities at Fermi 1. The second is maintaining adequacy of financial assurance for future decommissioning of operating plants. Decommissioning costs considerable money and costs are often higher than originally estimated. If costs increase significantly and decommissioning is not well funded, decommissioning activities may be deferred. Several decommissioning projects have been deferred when decision-makers determined future spending is preferable than current spending, or when costs have risen significantly. Decommissioning activity timing is being reevaluated for the Fermi 1 project. Assumptions for waste cost-escalation significantly impact the decision being made this year on the Fermi 1 decommissioning project. They also have a major impact on the estimated costs for decommissioning currently operating plants. Adequately funding full decommissioning during plant operation will ensure that the users who receive the benefit pay the full price of the nuclear-generated electricity. Funding throughout operation also will better ensure that money is available following shutdown to allow decommissioning to be conducted without need for additional funds

  8. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Appendices are presented concerning the evaluations of decommissioning financing alternatives; reference site description; reference BWR facility description; radiation dose rate and concrete surface contamination data; radionuclide inventories; public radiation dose models and calculated maximum annual doses; decommissioning methods; generic decommissioning information; immediate dismantlement details; passive safe storage, continuing care, and deferred dismantlement details; entombment details; demolition and site restoration details; cost estimating bases; public radiological safety assessment details; and details of alternate study bases.

  9. The use of managing agencies in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 1 April 1994 UKAEA Government Division was formed and one of its main responsibilities is the safe and cost effective management of the facilities which have already closed and the fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management plant required to assist in the current programme of decommissioning. UKAEA Government Division, working on behalf of DTI, is intended to be a lean and efficient programme management and procurement organisation. Rather than build up its own project management capability it intends to use external resources for this function, obtained in future by competitive tendering. For each major facility undergoing decommissioning a Managing Agency has been, or will be, appointed to act on behalf of UKAEA Government Division. The responsibilities of each Managing Agency will be to assist in the definition of tasks, the commissioning of option studies and safety studies, the specification of individual contracts, management of the tendering processes and the subsequent management of the Implementation Contractors carrying out the decommissioning work, including the associated safety and training responsibilities. Teams involved in Managing Agency work require skills in project management, relevant technical issues, contract and safety management. (author)

  10. Providing for decommissioning funds: minimum conditions for adequate funding and comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present contribution analyses the minimum criteria that need to be applied for adequate financial arrangements for decommissioning, as well as the possible financing mechanisms and the recommended investment policy for decommissioning funds. Furthermore, practical examples of decommissioning mechanisms in the United States of America, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Spain and Belgium will be studied. A question frequently asked about nuclear energy is how to deal with its impact on the environment. The issue of decommissioning of nuclear power plants, and in particular the funding of such decommissioning, is part of this discussion. The IAEA fundamental safety principles and safety requirements already make clear that radioactive waste must be managed in such a way as to avoid imposing an undue burden on future generations. The government shall make provision for the safe decommissioning of facilities, the safe management and disposal of radioactive waste arising from facilities and activities, and the safe management of spent fuel. (author)

  11. Radiological characterisation and decommissioning in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    alpha emitters will be incorporated into the inventory calculations. Due to the variable nature of the systems being decommissioned, the sampling procedures are based on ad hoc principles. The number of samples needed is determined by the conventional characterisation of the systems. For systems where conventional knowledge is limited, more samples are generally needed earlier in the decommissioning process. Otherwise sampling can take place prior to the packing of the containers for the interim storage facility. In this case less sampling is needed as few representative samples for each material from each system in the container are sufficient. (author)

  12. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  13. Customs Modernization Initiatives : Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    De Wulf, Luc; José B. Sokol

    2004-01-01

    This volume presents case studies of customs modernization initiatives in eight developing countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Morocco, Mozambique, Peru, the Philippines, Turkey, and Uganda. The purpose of these case studies was to obtain a firsthand view of how these countries undertook customs reforms and to assess their success. The overall lessons learned from these studies are presented in cha...

  14. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different...

  15. Experimental feedback on sodium loop decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present experimental feedback on sodium loop dismantling techniques at the CEA (The French Atomic Energy Commission) and to offer recommendations for the decommissioning of Fast Reactor secondary sodium loops. This study is based on acquired CEA decommissioning experience which primarily concerns the following: the decommissioning of RAPSODIE (France's first Fast Reactor), the Phenix reactor secondary loop replacement, the sodium loop decommissioning carried out by the Laboratory of Sodium Technologies and Treatment, and several technical documents. This paper deals with the main results of this survey. First, a comparison of 8 pipe-cutting techniques is made, taking into account speed in cutting, reliability, dissemination, fire risk due to the presence of sodium, cutting depth, and different types of waste (empty pipes, sodium-filled pipes, tanks). This comparison has led us to recommend the use of an alternative saw or a chain saw rather than the use of the plasma torch or grinder. Different techniques are recommended depending on if they are on-site, initial cuttings or if they are to be carried out in a specially-designed facility referred to hereafter as 'the cutting building'. After the cutting stage, the sodium waste must be processed with water to become an ultimate stable waste. Four treatment processes are compared with different standards: speed, cost, low activity adaptability and 'large sodium quantity' adaptability. Recommendations are also made for reliable storage, and for the general dismantling system organization. Last, calculations are presented concerning a complete dismantling facility prototype capable of treating large amounts and volume of sodium wastes. (author)

  16. CEA experimental feedback on sodium loop decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present experimental feedback on sodium loop dismantling techniques at the CEA (The French Atomic Energy Commission) and to offer recommendations for the decommissioning of Fast Reactor secondary sodium loops. This study is based on acquired CEA decommissioning experience which primarily concerns the following: the decommissioning of RAPSODIE (France's first Fast Reactor), the PHENIX reactor secondary loop replacement, the sodium loop decommissioning carried out by the Laboratory of Sodium Technologies and Treatment, and several technical documents. This paper deals with the main results of this survey. First, a comparison of 8 pipe-cutting techniques is made, taking into account speed in cutting, reliability, dissemination, fire risk due to the presence of sodium, cutting depth, and different types of waste (empty pipes, sodium-filled pipes, tanks...). This comparison has led us to recommend the use of an alternative saw or a chain saw rather than the use of the plasma torch or grinder. Different techniques are recommended depending on if they are on-site, initial cuttings or if they are to be carried out in a specially-designed facility referred to hereafter as 'the cutting building'. After the cutting stage, the sodium waste must be processed with water to become an ultimate stable waste. Four treatment processes are compared with different standards : speed, cost, low activity adaptability and 'large sodium quantity' adaptability. Recommendations are also made for reliable storage, and for the general dismantling system organization. Last, calculations are presented concerning a complete dismantling facility prototype capable of treating large amounts and volume of sodium wastes. (author)

  17. Current international issues in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999, the Italian Environmental Protection authorities (ANPA at that time) hosted in Rome a Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) meeting on the Regulatory Aspects of Decommissioning. This 'stock-taking' conference heard views from regulatory authorities, the decommissioning industry, waste management organisations and other relevant industrial sectors (e.g. the scrap metal industry) regarding the issues and aspects of decommissioning that should be further addressed, particularly at an international level. From this conference, six issues of relevance were identified which, since that time, have been addressed within the framework of the NEA. These issues are: - Decommissioning policies and strategies; - Waste management and materials reuse considerations; - Authorised release of sites and facilities; - Securing long-term funding and responsibility; - Framework for safety regulation of decommissioning; - Research and development in decommissioning. The NEA has focused on the international aspects of these issues, and on the roles of national governments in addressing the national and international aspects of these issues. This paper will present an overview of the NEA's findings in these areas. Realizing that these issues are important to the work of other international organisations, the NEA has tried to assess and use as appropriate the work of others in discussing these issues. As such, a brief review of relevant work at other international organisations will be presented. Based on its work, and in order to further advance these issues, the NEA is planning a second workshop on the Regulatory Aspects of Decommissioning, which will again be hosted by the Italian authorities in Rome, and will be held during the second half of 2004. (author)

  18. Decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramenkovs Andris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor and to dispense with nuclear energy in the future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study on the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor was drawn up by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH in 1998-1999. On October 26th, 1999, the Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to “green-field” in 2001. The upgrading of the decommissioning and dismantling plan was carried out from 2003-2004, resulting in a change of the primary goal of decommissioning. Collecting and conditioning of “historical” radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall became the primary goal. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons were conditioned for disposal in concrete containers at the radioactive wastes depository “Radons” at the Baldone site. Protective and radiation measurement equipment of the personnel was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and materials outside the reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Contaminated materials from the reactor hall were collected and removed for clearance measurements on a weekly basis.

  19. Decommissioning of small medical, industrial and research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of complexity, safety risk and radiological inventory. The key objective of this report is to provide information, experience and assistance on what is appropriate and sufficient for policy makers, regulators and operators of small facilities. It is intended to promote timely and cost effective decommissioning and waste management at the end of the life of a facility so as to render such a facility harmless. No statements in the report are intended to be prescriptive. There is significant documentation on the decommissioning of large nuclear facilities but the more modest requirements of small facilities have received little attention. If users of small facilities only have available to them published information for large, complex facilities, then there may be a tendency to overreact and engage in elaborate or unnecessary studies and activities. They also may shy away from important issues and do too little, either because they are not trained or advised properly or they do not have a decommissioning plan or adequate human and financial resources. They also are often unaware of the requirements, both legal and technical, of decommissioning and waste management. Some decades ago, when the first large power and demonstration reactors started to be shut down, there were many unknowns and uncertainties on how to proceed. There is now a significant experience database on common problems, which has been shared by the international nuclear power industry. This is not necessarily the case for small facilities, however, and this report is intended to encourage the interchange of information and experience. It is intended in this report to cover all aspects of decommissioning small facilities in which radioactive material and radiation sources are produced, received, used and/or stored. Power reactors, prototype and demonstration reactors, larger research reactors, fuel processing and reprocessing plants and their associated large nuclear chemical facilities, and all forms of

  20. Governments' role in decommissioning nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many nuclear power plants will reach the end of their operating lives over the next 20 years; some may be life-extended, others may not. This development will precipitate enhanced industrial and regulatory activities in the area of decommissioning. We are also witnessing in many countries a significant shift in the role of government itself: new pressures on governments, such as enhanced attention on environmental impact/mitigation and strategies to implement market-oriented approaches in a variety of sectors, including the energy sector are driving the public policy agenda. The paper will examine the range of policy issues, drawing from recent NEA studies on decommissioning policies and the recent NEA study on Government and Nuclear Energy and, strategies and costs, and other current trends and developments in the nuclear industry and in the nuclear policy fields. The paper will reflect on issues to be addressed during the conference and draw conclusions on the appropriate role of government in this area. Decommissioning policy is very specific and focused: it is not a high level policy/political issue in most instances and rarely gets the same attention as the issue surrounding the future of nuclear energy itself and public concerns regarding safety, waste and economics. One reason why decommissioning does not get the same attention as for example disposal of spent nuclear fuel might be the fact that technology is available for decommissioning, while technology for disposal of spent nuclear fuel is under development. High profile or not, it will remain an important issue for governments and industry alike particularly because of the cost and long lead times involved. In some instances, governments are the owners of the facilities to be decommissioned. In addition, decommissioning factors into issues surrounding the economics of nuclear energy and the sustainability of the nuclear option. Based on results of the Tarragona Seminar (Spain, September 2-4, 2003) and

  1. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus on...... the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications...... for research design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes...

  2. Case Studies on Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Sam CM

    2005-01-01

    This web site is developed with the aim to promote sustainable design and planning of buildings. A knowledge base of case studies and resources has been established to illustrate the sustainable design strategies and features in realistic building projects all over the world. The database of case studies can be searched by project names, locations, design strategies and design features.

  3. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  4. The Big Read: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  5. Business operations and decommissioning strategy for imperial college London research reactor 'Consort' - A financial risk management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperial College London (IC) operates commercially a 100 kW research reactor, and as site licensee is responsible for funding both operations and eventual decommissioning. With long lead times ahead urgent decisions on the future business options have had to be made in 2004/5 including choices on whether to move to early decommissioning, recognising the high costs entailed, or to pursue continuing operations involving life extension measures such as refuelling. To develop a coherent overall approach strategy a financial risk driven programme was initiated to help define a robust transparent business and termination case for the reactor. This study was carried out in collaboration with a UK firm of financial risk experts, PURE Risk Management Ltd (PURE), working within a dedicated IC London reactor project team. This work evaluated immediate closure options due to financial constraints or life limiting failures, and options for continuing operation extending to 2028. Decommissioning and clean up were reviewed. Bespoke financial models created single value cost outputs and ranges of probabilistic net present values (NPV) for decommissioning costs and financial provisions to meet those costs at various levels of risk acceptance and regulatory compliance. (author)

  6. The Tokai NPP decommissioning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and started decommissioning from December 2001 as a pioneer of NPP decommissioning. This article presented current state of Tokai NPP decommissioning technique. As the second stage of decommissioning works, removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) were started from 2006 by jacking down method with decommissioning data accumulated. Each heat exchanger was divided into top head, seven 'tears' of shell and bottom head. Each 'tear' was out and separated into a cylinder, and then divided into two by remote-operated cutting equipment with manipulators for gas cutting and motor disk cutting under monitoring works by fixed and mobile cameras. Divided 'tear' was further cut into center baffle plate, heat transfer tubes and fine pieces of shell. Cutting works would produce radioactive fine particles, which were filtered by temporary ventilation equipment with exhaust fan and filters. Appropriate works using existing technique combined and their rationalization were important at this stage. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Lessons learned during decommissioning of underground structures, systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following examples present some important lessons learned, some brief technical details and a description of problems encountered in the past in various decommissioning projects related to the removal of underground SSCs. Some cases refer to embedded components. The situations described here are typical of the types of difficulty that can arise when planning for or implementing the removal of underground SSCs as an element of the decommissioning process. The information presented here is not intended to be exhaustive and the reader is encouraged to evaluate the applicability of the specific lessons learned to their own particular decommissioning project or activity. It is not the intention of this annex to identify projects for criticism but rather to enhance future operations planning and implementation in order to reduce the likelihood of the recurrence of earlier problems. A short analysis of the root causes of these problems is presented

  8. Kickstarter - A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Willumsen, Ea Christina; Byg-Fabritius, Edith Ursula Tvede

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of the online crowdfunding platform Kickstarter, and discusses what makes a Kickstarter campaign successful. Two previous Kickstarter campaigns have been debated in focus groups interviews, as the basis of the study is a reception analysis of two focus group interviews. Ee apply theories from Schrøder (2000) and Batey (2008) to our analysis to study how the campaigns appeal to their backers. By drawing on ideas from Rogers (2003) and Pine & Gilmore (1998), we fu...

  9. Phenix Decommissioning Project - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first heading of your manuscript must be 'Introduction'. Phenix is the only remaining French fast breeder reactor after the shutdown of Superphenix (1999) and Rapsodie (1983). Phenix is located inside the Marcoule nuclear site along the Rhone river near Bagnols-sur-Ceze in southeastern France. Phenix is one of the facilities belonging the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) on the Marcoule site. It is a fast breeder reactor (FBR) developed at the end of the 1960's. that has been in operation since 1973 and was connected to the power grid in 1974. It is a second generation prototype developed while the first generation FBR, Rapsodie, was still in operation. Phenix is a 250 electrical MW power plant. During the first 20 years of operation, its main aim was to demonstrate the viability of sodium-cooled FBRs. Since the 1991 radioactive waste management act, Phenix has become an irradiation tool for the actinide transmutation program. To extend its operating life for 6 additional cycles, it was necessary to refurbish the plant; this involved major work performed from 1999 to 2003 at a total cost of about 250 M??. Today, with a realistic expectation, the final shutdown is planned for the beginning of 2009. The main objective of the Phenix dismantling project is to eliminate all the process equipment and clean all the building to remove all the radioactive zones. To reach this objective, three main hazards must be eliminated: Fuel (criticality hazard), Sodium, Radioactive equipment. The complexity of decommissioning a facility such as Phenix is increased by: - the lack of storage facility for high radioactive material, - the decision to treat all the radioactive sodium and sodium waste inside the plant, - the very high irradiation of the core structures due to the presence of cobalt alloys. On the other hand, Phenix plant is still under operating with a qualified staff and the radioactivity coming from structural activation is well known. After the final shutdown

  10. The Italian decommissioning industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Italy's step out from nuclear activities in 1987 deeply affected an industry that, in the previous years, had managed to grow up in quality and technology levels to meet the nuclear standards. Only a few companies were able to partially retain their skills through activities abroad. The decommissioning program represents a new challenge for the Italian industry at large and will require a consistent effort to properly qualify the potential suppliers. On the other side, a program with such implications in terms of investments and so depending from social aspects cannot be effectively implemented without a significant involvement of the local industry. Essential conditions for the success are a reliable program, as well as a careful supply management scheme, which must facilitate aggregation of skills spread among different subjects. 'Human Resources: Maintaining a Nuclear Culture in Italy' Bruno Panella Politecnico di Torino, Giuseppe Forasassi, Universita di Pisa, Inter-University Consortium for the Nuclear Technological Research (CIRTEN). After a brief history of the nuclear engineering education in Italy within the international and national nuclear energy scenario, the present situation, with reference to the Italian universities, is shown. In order to maintain a nuclear culture in Italy the solution, exploited with different peculiarities in each University, is to carry out high quality research activities in reciprocal collaboration (mostly within the CIRTEN inter university Consortium) as well as with the Industry and research Organisations and to collaborate actively in establishing a stable network and a synergy of teaching activities in Europe in the field of Nuclear Engineering Education. The aim is to maintain at a high level and as updated as possible the Italian educational offer in nuclear engineering and also to attract the best students for the enrolment. (author)

  11. Case study - Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antecedents and experience of nuclear activities in Argentina; the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). First development and research activities. Research reactors and radioisotopes plants. Health physics and safety regulations. - Feasibility studies for the first nuclear power plant. Awarding the first plant CNA I (Atucha I). Relevant data related to the different project stages. Plant performance. - Feasibility study for the second nuclear power plant. Awarding the second plant CNE (Central Nuclear Embalse). Relevant data related to established targets. Differences compared with the first station targets. Local participation. Plant performance. (orig./GL)

  12. Knowledge management for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current energy policy of the German government requires the gradual decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Germany. E.ON, a major energy corporation operating eight nuclear power plants in Germany, is in the process of decommissioning and dismantling its first two nuclear power plants in Wuergassen and Stade, Germany. Both ventures are pilots for the future decommissioning of further plants with corresponding reactor types. To harness the technological challenges, organizational complexity and cultural sensitivities of decommissioning projects, the nuclear power division of E.ON has developed and implemented a knowledge management (KM) concept to effectively capture and transfer critical knowledge, best practice and lessons learned within and between decommissioning projects. More specifically, the concept is targeting three objectives: To secure technical quality and safety standards during decommissioning projects; To minimize risks related to the duration and budget of decommissioning projects; To allow expeditious training and optimal use of project staff. On the basis of a quantitative KM business case, the development of the KM concept was initiated in October 2002. The operative concept was launched in March 2004. Key elements of the concept are: Communities of experience for eleven most critical knowledge fields; Up-to-date summaries of experiences and standards in each knowledge field; Briefing and debriefing processes integrated in the decommissioning process; Designated knowledge managers supporting KM on-site at working level; An intranet-based KM portal supporting document search and access, a discussion forum, news pages and other media - A KM scorecard supporting quarterly reports of KM costs, performance and results to plant and division management; Policies and activities rooting KM in the corporate culture. (An example is presented). Insights gathered during KM concept development and during the first months of KM operation in Wuergassen

  13. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) Decommissioning Project was initiated in 2009 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Removal Action with funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). This paper summarizes the history prior to 2009, the major D and D activities, and final end state of the facility at completion of decommissioning in June 2011. The HWCTR facility was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. In 2009 the $1.6 billion allocation from the ARRA to SRS for site footprint reduction at SRS reopened the doors to HWCTR - this time for final decommissioning. Alternative studies concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning was to remove the reactor vessel, both steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. The transfer coffin, originally above grade, was to be placed in the cavity vacated by the reactor vessel and the remaining below grade spaces would be grouted. Once all above equipment

  14. Decommissioning: guiding principles and best practices for involving local stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A wide range of nuclear facilities covering the entire nuclear fuel cycle have been constructed and operated for many years worldwide. For communities where the facilities are located, concerns about safety and environmental contamination are paramount. Working together with elected officials, local community leaders and the public at large during the earliest planning stages will help alleviate concerns about facility operation and ultimate disposition, and will result in better decisions about facility design, location, construction, operation and, ultimately, decommissioning. Such comprehensive community involvement has been the exception rather than the norm. Now that older facilities are being considered for decommissioning, efforts to involve local stakeholders and alleviate their concerns face major challenges. This is particularly true where some residual radioactive contamination will remain onsite and future use of the site may need to be restricted. Plans for stakeholder involvement at the decommissioning stage should be carefully designed and provide for honest, authentic and meaningful involvement of all stakeholders affected by decommissioning decisions. A set of principles and best practices is proposed to help guide the design and implementation of effective community involvement programs. The principles and best practices are drawn from the experiences of public involvement practitioners in a variety of environmental contamination applications. Successful community involvement is the result of a carefully crafted set of coordinated activities conducted over the long term. Ideally, facility decommissioning is simply the end stage of the involvement process, or the beginning of a site stewardship process in those cases where decommissioning does not produce an uncontaminated site. In either case, decommissioning will not be a new, unexpected event, and stakeholders could be involved just as they have been over the life of the facility. In

  15. 77 FR 41107 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Decommissioning Planning Rule (DPR) (June 17, 2011, 76 FR 33512). The DPR applies to the operational phase of a..., ``Decommissioning Planning During Operations'' (December 13, 2011, 76 FR 77431). The NRC received more than 100..., Decommissioning and Uranium Recovery Licensing Directorate, Division of Waste Management and...

  16. Platform decommissioning. Environmental challenges and practical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication gives a short introduction of platform decommissioning, followed by an overview of what to be decommissioned and removed. This will be followed by some of the vital technologies and methods within decommissioning, abandonment of wells, removal and handling of remains that is reuse and scrapping. A final presentation with a view of current research and developments is given. 3 figs

  17. Fort St. Vrain decommissioning experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plant decommissioning represents a significant expenditure of time and resources for nuclear utilities. Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC) is in the process of completing the decommissioning of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) Nuclear Station, the first large-scale commercial nuclear plant to be decommissioned under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) 1988 decommissioning rule. PSC's experience has included dispositioning spent fuel, choosing a decommissioning alternative, and actively decommissioning the plant from dismantlement and decontamination through final survey. When the plant was prematurely shut down in August 1989, PSC's initial task was to find a storage location for FSV's spent fuel. PSC had a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to ship FSV spent fuel to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and all previously removed spent fuel had been shipped there. However, Idaho legally blocked further FSV spent-fuel shipments to INEL, and PSC decided to license and build an on-site, passively cooled independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI). By June 1992, all FSV spent fuel was transferred from the reactor building to the ISFSI. PSC has been able to use low-level radioactive waste (LLWR) disposal facilities in the Northwest Compact, and disposal costs are within estimates. Industrial and radiological safety have been emphasized throughout the project, and performance in these areas has been outstanding. PSC has obtained NRC Aprilproval of a final survey plan that allows for many of the plant's components and systems to remain in place, and final survey activities are nearing completion. PSC is in the process of repowering the facility with natural gas-fired combustion turbines and heat recovery boilers. The first combustion turbine was placed in service Ap 30, 1996

  18. Geostatistical case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this volume of contributed chapters is to present a series of applications of geostatistics. These range from a careful variographic analysis on uranium data, through detailed studies on geologically complex deposits, right up to the latest nonlinear methods applied to deposits with highly skewed data contributions. Applications of new techniques such as the external drift method for combining well data with seismic information have also been included. The volume emphasizes geostatistics in practice. Notation has been kept to a minimum and mathematical details have been relegated to annexes

  19. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  20. The Practice of Cost Estimation for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of both commercial and R and D nuclear facilities is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, and the largest of such industrial decommissioning projects could command considerable budgets. Several approaches are currently being used for decommissioning cost estimations, with an international culture developing in the field. The present cost estimation practice guide was prepared in order to offer international actors specific guidance in preparing quality cost and schedule estimates to support detailed budgeting for the preparation of decommissioning plans, for the securing of funds and for decommissioning implementation. This guide is based on current practices and standards in a number of NEA member countries and aims to help consolidate the practice and process of decommissioning cost estimation so as to make it more widely understood. It offers a useful reference for the practitioner and for training programmes. The remainder of report is divided into the following chapters: - Chapter 2 covers the purpose and nature of decommissioning cost estimates, approaches to cost estimation and the major elements of a cost estimate. - Chapter 3 examines the development of the integrated schedule of the activity-dependent work scope and the determination of the project critical path. - Chapter 4 describes the attributes of a quality assurance programme applicable to cost estimation and the use and cautions of benchmarking the estimate from other estimates or actual costs. - Chapter 5 describes the pyramidal structure of the report, and the scope and content that should be included in the cost study report to ensure consistency and transparency in the estimate underpinnings. - Chapter 6 provides some observations, conclusions and recommendations on the use of this guide

  1. Decommissioning Experience: Chalk River, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has reported that work has continued on the decommissioning of old structures on the Chalk River laboratory site. An environmental assessment was approved in 2006 for the decommissioning of the NRX reactor fuel bays (A and B). The regulator approved two work packages for the removal of water and the wooden structure over the bays. The A bays were cleaned as far as possible and were emptied in 2007. Decontamination work will continue. Sections of the B bays were filled with sand and other parts filled with water. NRX is currently in storage (i.e. a dormant state) with surveillance. (author)

  2. Decommissioning: A critical component of the design for uranium tailings management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium was discovered in the Beaverlodge area of northern Saskatchewan in 1934 with the first major mill beginning operation in 1953. Little attention was paid to tailings quality or tailings management practices. With the onset of the modern uranium operations beginning in the late 1970's, it was repeatedly evident, that the public had significant concerns, particularly with respect to tailings management, that must be addressed if the developments were to be allowed to proceed. Primary considerations related to environmental protection, public safety and an assurance of the ongoing sustainable development of the region. Integrating the decommissioning of a mine/mill site into development planning from the very outset has proven to be a critical component that has contributed to the ongoing success of the Saskatchewan uranium operations. This paper will provide a case study of the evolution of the uranium tailings management technology utilized in Saskatchewan. It documents the evolution of tailings management processes and the characteristics of tailings produced by successive mines in northern Saskatchewan. It also discusses the evolution of technologies applied to management of uranium mill tailings and demonstrates how progressively increasing levels of environmental protection have been achieved during the last 47 years of uranium mill operation. The paper also shows that the planned and progressive decommissioning of an operational site is the key to: Minimizing environmental impacts; Satisfying public and regulatory concerns; Minimizing operational and decommissioning costs; Minimizing corporate liability; and Shifting public resistance to public support. (author)

  3. Decommissioning: A critical component of the design for uranium tailings management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium was discovered in the Beaverlodge area of northern Saskatchewan in 1934 with the first major mill beginning operation in 1953. Little attention was paid to tailings quality or tailings management practices. With the onset of the modem uranium operations beginning in the late 1970's, it was repeatedly evident, that the public had significant concerns, particularly with respect to tailings management, that must be addressed if the developments were to be allowed to proceed. Primary considerations related to environmental protection, public safety and an assurance of the ongoing sustainable development of the region. Integrating the decommissioning of a mine/mill site into development planning from the very outset has proven to be a critical component that has contributed to the ongoing success of the Saskatchewan uranium operations. This paper will provide a case study of the evolution of the uranium tailings management technology utilized in Saskatchewan. It documents the evolution of tailings management processes and the characteristics of tailings produced by successive mines in northern Saskatchewan. It also discusses the evolution of technologies applied to management of uranium mill tailings and demonstrates how progressively increasing levels of environmental protection have been achieved during the last 47 years of uranium mill operation. The paper also shows that the planned and progressive decommissioning of an operational site is the key to: Minimizing environmental impacts; Satisfying public and regulatory concerns; Minimizing operational and decommissioning costs; Minimizing corporate liability; and Shifting public resistance to public support. (author)

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  5. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  6. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  7. Decommissioning of nuclear installations at CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the work carried out by CIEMAT in the frame of decommissioning the research reactor JEN-1. Studies for evaluating different metal cutting techniques, including plasma-arc cutting, contact-arc cutting and mechanical saw cutting led to assessing the performance, advantages and associated problems for each technique. The main metallic material studied was aluminium, but some experiments with stainless steel were also conducted. Melting was also studied as a decontamination technique and as a way to reduce volume and facilitate the management of radioactive waste. (author)

  8. Progressive Application Decommissioning Models for U.S. Power and Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents progressive engineering techniques and experiences in decommissioning projects performed by Bums and Roe Enterprises within the last fifteen years. Specifically, engineering decommissioning technical methods and lessons learned are discussed related to the Trojan Large Component Removal Project, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Decommissioning Project and the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) Decommissioning Project Study. The 25 years since the 1979 TMI accident and the events following 9/11 have driven the nuclear industry away from excessive, closed/elitist conservative methods towards more pragmatic results-oriented and open processes. This includes the essential recognition that codes, standards and regulatory procedures must be efficient, effective and fit for purpose. Financial and open-interactive stakeholder pressures also force adherence to aggressive risk reduction posture in the area of a safety, security and operations. The engineering methods and techniques applied to each project presented unique technical solutions. The decommissioning design for each project had to adopt existing design rules applicable to construction of new nuclear power plants and systems. It was found that the existing ASME, NRC, and DOE codes and regulations for deconstruction were, at best, limited or extremely conservative in their applicability to decommissioning. This paper also suggests some practical modification to design code rules in application for decommissioning and deconstruction. The representative decommissioning projects, Trojan, SONGS and Brookhaven, are discussed separately and the uniqueness of each project, in terms of engineering processes and individual deconstruction steps, is discussed. Trojan Decommissioning. The project included removal of entire NSSS system. The engineering complexity was mainly related to the 1200 MW Reactor. The approach, process of removal, engineering method related to protect the worker

  9. Problems and experience of research reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the IAEA research reactor database there are about 300 research reactors worldwide. At present above 30% of them have lifetime more than 35 years, 60% - more then 25 years. After the Chernobyl accident significant efforts have been made by many countries to modernize old research reactors aiming, first of all, at ensuring of its safe operation. However, a large number of aging research reactor will be facing shutdown in the near future. Before developing the design and planning of the works it is necessary to define the concept of the reactor decommissioning. It is defined by the time of the beginning of dismantling works after the reactor shutdown and the finite state of the reactor site.The concept of the reactor decommissioning provides 3 variants in a general case: reactor conservation, or partial dismantling, or complete dismantling to 'green field' state. Specialists of three International institutions (European Commission, IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) have developed a detailed plan of all actions and operations on nuclear power plants decommissioning in the framework of a joint project for cost assessment. For the reactor decontamination the following main constructions, equipment and devices are necessary: temporary storage facility for the spent fuel; general site-dismantling equipment including manipulators and 'hot' cells; facilities for 'active' equipment, personnel, tooling and washing decontamination; equipment for concentration of liquid and compactness of solid radioactive waste; temporary storage facility for radioactive waste; instrumentation and radiometric devices including , α,β,γ-spectrometers; transportable containers and other means for transportation of fuel and radioactive materials

  10. Teaching astronomy with case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-11-01

    Breaking the students into small, collaborative learning groups to solve a meaningful task together is one of the most successful and fully evaluated teaching techniques implemented over the last century. Although there are many ways to accomplish small group learning, a long-standing and consistently successful collaborative class activity is to use the case study teaching strategy. The use of case studies is common in medical schools and law schools, but not so common in the teaching of astronomy. Case studies create meaningful conversations among students and with the professor by focusing on life-like dilemmas to be solved. Case study tasks ask audience members to synthesize several ideas or evaluate scenarios that have not been explicitly presented to them in the lecture or in available readings.

  11. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  12. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  13. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  14. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  15. On-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site disposal is not a novel decommissioning strategy in the history of the nuclear industry. Several projects based on this strategy have been implemented. Moreover, a number of studies and proposals have explored variations within the strategy, ranging from in situ disposal of entire facilities or portions thereof to disposal within the site boundary of major components such as the reactor pressure vessel or steam generators. Regardless of these initiatives, and despite a significant potential for dose, radioactive waste and cost reduction, on-site disposal has often been disregarded as a viable decommissioning strategy, generally as the result of environmental and other public concerns. Little attention has been given to on-site disposal in previous IAEA publications in the field of decommissioning. The objective of this report is to establish an awareness of technical factors that may or may not favour the adoption of on-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy. In addition, this report presents an overview of relevant national experiences, studies and proposals. The expected end result is to show that, subject to safety and environmental protection assessment, on-site disposal can be a viable decommissioning option and should be taken into consideration in decision making

  16. Methods of power reactor decommissioning cost recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes rate-regulatory tax, accounting and cost recovery factors, and these analyses lead to the following overall conclusions in connection with decommissioning cost recovery. 1) The internal use of accumulated decommissioning funds is strongly recommended because it results in the lowest net ratepayer cost of decommissioning, and 2) The most equitable decommissioning cost recovery method is based on current costs and on the prompt and continuous maintenance of the purchasing power of accumulated funds. Finally, it is noted that the cost recovery approach recommended for decommissioning would have similar advantage if applied to spent fuel cost recovery as well

  17. FAMS DECOMMISSIONING END-STATE ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Material Management (NMM) completed a comprehensive study at the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) in 2004 (Reference 11.1). The study evaluated the feasibility of removal and/or mitigation of the Pu-238 source term in the F-Area Material Storage (FAMS) facility during on-going material storage operations. The study recommended different options to remove and/or mitigate the Pu-238 source term depending on its location within the facility. During April 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE) sent a letter of direction (LOD) to Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) directing WSRC to implement a new program direction that would enable an accelerated shutdown and decommissioning of FAMS (Reference 11.2). Further direction in the LOD stated that effective December 1, 2006 the facility will be transitioned to begin deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) activities. To implement the LOD, Site D and D (SDD) and DOE agreed the planning end-state would be demolition of the FAMS structure to the building slab. SDD developed the D and D strategy, preliminary cost and schedule, and issued the deactivation project plan in December 2005 (Reference 11.3). Due to concerns and questions regarding the FAMS planning end-state and in support of the project's Critical Decision 1, an alternative study was performed to evaluate the various decommissioning end-states and the methods by which those end-states are achieved. This report documents the results of the alternative evaluation which was performed in a structured decision-making process as outlined in the E7 Manual, Procedure 2.15, ''Alternative Studies'' (Reference 11.4)

  18. 76 FR 35511 - Decommissioning Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... the January 27, 1988 (53 FR 24018), rule on planning for decommissioning require licensees to provide... regulations in 1997 as Subpart E of 10 CFR part 20 (62 FR 39058; July 21, 1997). This set of requirements is... contamination and the amount of funds set aside and expended on cleanup. (62 FR 39082; July 21, 1997)....

  19. Reactor decommissioning experience and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first describes the existing market context and available techniques, then reviews the contribution of past and present operations and research before discussing the future orientations necessary to develop the means (cutting tools, decontamination processes, telemanipulation and waste conditioning) required to improve the cost effectiveness of decommissioning nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. A Decommissioning Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Hong, S. B.; Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In 1996, it was determined that research reactors, the KRR-1 and the KRR-2, would be shut down and dismantled. A project for the decommissioning of these reactors was launched in January 1997 with the goal of a completion by 2008. The total budget of the project was 19.4 million US dollars, including the cost for the waste disposal and for the technology development. The work scopes during the decommissioning project were the dismantling of all the facilities and the removal of all the radioactive materials from the reactor site. After the removal of the entire radioactivity, the site and buildings will be released for an unconditional use. A separate project for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant was initiated in 2001. The plant was constructed for the development of the fuel manufacturing technologies and the localization of nuclear fuels in Korea. It was shut downed in 1993 and finally it was concluded in 2000 that the plant would be decommissioned. The project will be completed by 2008 and the total budget was 9.2 million US dollars. During this project, all vessels and equipment will be dismantled and the building surface will be decontaminated to be utilized as general laboratories.

  1. Study on the identification of the national research and development needs for nuclear decontamination and decommissioning in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa Sup; Song, Ki Dong; Oh, Won Zin; Oh, Keun Bae; Jung, Ki jung; Yang, Mang Ho; Kim, Cheol Jung; Lee, Han Myung; Kwack, Kim Ku; Moon, Kee Hwan; Choi, Wan Kyu; Kim, Hyun Jun; Jung, Jong Hun; Kim, Seung Su; Lee, Yong Bum; Cheong, Hwan Sam; Cheong, Un Soo; Lim, Chae Young; Park, Seong Kuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows: This study investigated and analyzed the current status of foreign and domestic D and D technology. For the domestic technology, the contents of and output from the projects for D and D technology development conducted so far in Korea were investigated and analyzed. For the foreign technology, the status of current D and D technology and D and D projects in the U.S., European countries, Japan, and others were investigated. Especially, some investigation and discussion on technical cooperation were made by visiting the Republic of Ukraine and France. This study discuss the appropriateness of establishing a national strategy for D and D technology development with viewpoints of technical capability, timing, and social and economic acceptability. Based on the discussion, this study set up three alternative strategies and then, suggested 'stepwise D and D technology development strategy' as the most desirable alternative in Korea. The final goal for the strategy and the intermediate goals for each stage were established. Then, attempts were made to suggest appropriate projects to be conducted in order to achieve those goals and their prioritie. 2 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  2. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO{sub 2} - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and

  3. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO2 - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and Dismantlement

  4. General Approach and Element for Estimating Decommissioning Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will briefly introduce the general approach and element for developing the decommissioning cost. The ultimate objective of the estimate is to assure adequate funding for decommissioning. The decommissioning cost estimating is highly dependent on the strategies and cost methodologies. The method most widely adopted internationally in estimating is the bottom-up technique, based on a building block approach known as the WBS. Therefore, cost estimator should consider various approaches and elements of cost estimation to achieve the ascension of accuracy. Cost estimation for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities has tended to vary considerably in format and content reflecting a variety of approaches both within and between countries. These differences do not facilitate the process of reviewing estimates and make comparisons between different estimates more complicated. The joint study of OECD/NEA, IAEA and EU was undertaken to propose a standard itemization of decommissioning costs either directly for the production of cost estimates or for mapping estimates onto a standard, common structure for purposes of comparison

  5. Identification and evaluation of facilitation techniques for decommissioning light water power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to identify practical techniques to facilitate the decommissioning of nuclear power generating facilities. The objective of these ''facilitation techniques'' is to reduce the radioactive exposures and/or volumes of waste generated during the decommissioning process. The report presents the possible facilitation techniques identified during the study and discusses the corresponding facilitation of the decommissioning process. Techniques are categorized by their applicability of being implemented during the three stages of power reactor life: design/construction, operation, or decommissioning. Detailed cost-benefit analyses were performed for each technique to determine the anticipated exposure and/or radioactive waste reduction; the estimated costs for implementing each technique were then calculated. Finally, these techniques were ranked by their effectiveness in facilitating the decommissioning process. This study is a part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's evaluation of decommissioning policy and its modification of regulations pertaining to the decommissioning process. The findings can be used by the utilities in the planning and establishment of activities to ensure that all objectives of decommissioning will be achieved

  6. National policies and regulations for decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, though produced as a follow-up to Safety Series No. 105, The Regulatory Process for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities, is not primarily intended as guidance. Rather, its objective is to provide an overview of national decommissioning policies and regulatory practices as part of the background knowledge which is an essential precondition for good decision making. It discusses the reasons for the similarities and differences in national approach using specific examples but without giving preference to any particular scheme; it aims rather to provide factual, general information on the choices that have been or are being made, and why. As many Member States are in a transient situation between the case-by-case approach to decommissioning and the establishment of national policies, strategies and regulations, this seems the right moment to assess existing national practices worldwide and that is the purpose for which the document is issued at this time. The information gathered in this report is based on submissions by Member States which have developed or are in the process of developing decommissioning oriented policies and regulations. 29 refs

  7. Nuclear decommissioning in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in the oil market, both in terms of barrel cost and in terms of security of supplies, and the severe black-outs that have plagued also Italy (the major one in September 2003 lasting in some areas for about 24 hours), have started a widespread discussion about energy alternatives and strategic energy plans. In this frame an increasing number of politicians and scientists are calling for a reconsideration of nuclear energy as a viable option also for Italy in a new energy mix. It is clear that public acceptance of nuclear energy is strictly connected not only to the demonstration of high safety standards of future plants, but also to the solution of radioactive waste disposal and of plant decommissioning. This is the link that could make the SOGIN mission even more strategic for the country

  8. Sternocleidomastoid syndrome: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Missaghi, Babak

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a patient diagnosed with dysfunction of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle, a condition which can result in head and face pain, nausea, dizziness, coryza, and lacrimation. In this particular case, the SCM muscle had developed tightness and weakness with presence of multiple trigger points within both heads. A combination of passive and active treatments were utilized to successfully treat this condition.

  9. Radionuclide characterization of reactor decommissioning waste and spent fuel assembly hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recently enacted rules setting forth technical, safety, and financial criteria for decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities, including commercial nuclear power stations. These rules have addressed six major issues, including decommissioning alternatives, timing, planning, financial assurance, residual radioactivity, and environmental review. Also, the rules governing disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in commercial shallow land burial facilities will be applicable to most of the wastes generated during reactor decommissioning. This study has been implemented to provide the NRC and licensees with a more comprehensive and defensible data base and regulatory assessment of the radiological factors associated with reactor decommissioning and disposal of wastes generated during these activities. The objectives of this study are being accomplished during a two-phase sampling, measurement, and appraisal program utilizing: (1) the decommissioning of Shippingport Atomic Power Station, and (2) neutron activated materials from commercial reactors. Radioactive materials obtained from Shippingport Station and from a number of commercial stations for comprehensive radionuclide and stable element analyses are being utilized to assess the following important aspects of reactor decommissioning and radioactive waste characterization: (1) radiological safety and technology assessment from an actual reactor decommissioning (Shippingport); (2) radiological characterization of intensely radioactive materials (greater than Class-C) associated with the reactor pressure vessel and spent fuel assembly hardware from commercial nuclear power plants; (3) evaluation of the accuracy of computer codes for predicting radionuclide inventories in retired reactors and neutron activated components; and (4) assessment of waste disposal options associated with reactor decommissioning

  10. Allocation of Decommissioning and Waste Liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work demonstrates that there are a number of methods available for cost allocation, the pros and cons of which are examined. The study investigates potential proportional and incremental methods in some depth. A recommendation in principle to use the latter methodology is given. It is concluded that a 'fair assumption' is that the potential allocation of costs for 'the RMA Leaching Hall' probably is small, in relation to the total costs, and estimated to be not more than about 175 kSEK, plus any costs associated with decommissioning/ disposal of a number of small pieces of equipment added by the current operator

  11. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning nuclear reactors at multiple-reactor stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of large (1175-MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWR) and large (1155-MWe) boiling water reactors (BWR) at multiple-reactor stations. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). Safety and costs of decommissioning are estimated by determining the impact of probable features of multiple-reactor-station operation that are considered to be unavailable at a single-reactor station, and applying these estimated impacts to the decommissioning costs and radiation doses estimated in previous PWR and BWR decommissioning studies. The multiple-reactor-station features analyzed are: the use of interim onsite nuclear waste storage with later removal to an offsite waste disposal facility, the use of permanent onsite nuclear waste disposal, the dedication of the site to nuclear power generation, and the provision of centralized services

  12. Kenya Groundwater Governance Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mumma, Albert; Lane, Michael; Kairu, Edward; Tuinhof, Albert; Hirji, Rafik

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a case study on groundwater governance in Kenya. The objectives of the study were to: (a) describe groundwater resource and socioeconomic settings for four selected aquifers; (b) describe governance arrangements for groundwater management in Kenya; and (c) identify the relevance of these arrangements for planning and implementing climate change mitigation measures. The ...

  13. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sorooshian, Shahryar; Jambulingam, Manimekalai; Dodangeh, Javad

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, i...

  14. Research reactor decommissioning experience - concrete removal and disposal -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal and disposal of neutron activated concrete from biological shields is the most significant operational task associated with research reactor decommissioning. During the period of 1985 thru 1989 Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. was the prime contractor for complete dismantlement and decommissioning of the Northrop TRIGA Mark F, the Virginia Tech Argonaut, and the Michigan State University TRIGA Mark I Reactor Facilities. This paper discusses operational requirements, methods employed, and results of the concrete removal, packaging, transport and disposal operations for these (3) research reactor decommissioning projects. Methods employed for each are compared. Disposal of concrete above and below regulatory release limits for unrestricted use are discussed. This study concludes that activated reactor biological shield concrete can be safely removed and buried under current regulations

  15. PUREX transition project case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE) directed that the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant be shut down and deactivated because it was no longer needed to support the nation's production of weapons-grade plutonium. The PUREX/UO2 Deactivation Project will establish a safe and environmentally secure configuration for the facility and preserve that configuration for 10 years. The 10-year span is used to predict future maintenance requirements and represents the estimated time needed to define, authorize, and initiate the follow-on decontamination and decommissioning activities. Accomplishing the deactivation project involves many activities. Removing major hazards, such as excess chemicals, spent fuel, and residual plutonium are major goals of the project. The scope of the PUREX Transition Project is described within

  16. Case studies of stakeholder decision making on radioactive waste management in the US and UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case study of stakeholder engagement for UK nuclear decommissioning and waste management and another for waste management decision making in the US are presented. The UK nuclear industry has begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. Historically, methods of engagement within the industry have varied, however, recent discussions have generally been carried out with the explicit understanding that engagement with stakeholders will be 'dialogue based' and will 'inform' the final decision made by the decision maker. Engagement is currently being carried out at several levels within the industry; at the national level (via the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's (NDA) National Stakeholder Group (NSG)); at a local site level (via Site Stakeholder Groups) and at a project level (usually via the Best Practicable Environmental Option process (BPEO)). Work by the co-author focuses on the preliminary findings of a questionnaire that has been issued to all members of the NDA NSG and associated sub-groups to assess stakeholder perceptions of the engagement process to date. Findings are reviewed. In the US case study, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Citizens Advisory Board (CAB), in Aiken, SC, considered upgrading the seismic design for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) at SRS. This decision, proposed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB), provoked heated debate among DOE, SRSCAB and DNFSB representatives. Theory advances are reviewed. (authors)

  17. Feedback from the decommissioning of two accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saclay Linear Accelerator (ALS) and Saturne synchrotron, both well known as international research instruments, have definitively stopped operating in 1990 and 1997 respectively. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has decided proceeding with the appropriate actions in order to dismantle these two nuclear installations (NIs) known as INB 43 (ALS) and INB 48 (Saturne). The SDA (Accelerator Decommissioning Division) was created to be in charge of the dismantling procedure of the above NIs under the following conditions: - to maintain within the team a few employees from the previous exploitation of two NIs, in order not to loose the details and history of accelerator operation; - to import the necessary skills for a good management of dismantling operation such as waste management, ANDRA rules, project AMEC34omelt.com. Learn more about GeoMelt ats-gssr410nuclear safety, radiation protection, ALARA concepts, etc. Presently the dismantling operations are well under way at INB 43 and nearly finished at INB 48. The project organisation established by SDA has allowed meeting both the schedule and cost requirements of the decommissioning. At the beginning, major decommissioning safety characteristics of large research instruments will be presented and dismantling aspects in particular. Afterwards, the organization of both projects will be detailed, emphasizing their statutory aspects (e.g., safety documents, zoning, traceability, etc.) and technical difficulties. Waste characterisation as well as the choice of evacuation paths for each category of the waste will then be described in detail for both accelerators. A number of difficulties met during these procedures will be analysed and proposals will be made in order to improve the statutory framework in particular, both on technical and nuclear safety aspects. The application of the above experience to the dismantling of two fuel cycle installations, namely the research nuclear reactors, is presently under study

  18. eCompetence Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Bækkelund

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches.......In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches....

  19. A costing model for offshore decommissioning in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Andrew; Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    California's 27 offshore oil and gas platforms will reach the end of their useful lifetimes sometime in the near future and will require decommissioning. Although existing leases require complete removal of all platforms and associated infrastructure, the underlying laws and regulations have changed in recent years to allow a number of alternative uses after decommissioning. In particular, AB 2503, signed into law in September 2010, provides for a rigs-to-reefs program that allows the state to accept ownership of decommissioned platforms in federal waters. Decisions about whether to remove platforms completely or leave them in place as artificial reefs will depend in part on the relative cost of the 2 options. In this study, we describe the design and use of a mathematical decision model that provides detailed cost estimates of complete and partial removal (to 85 feet below the water line) for California's offshore platforms. The model, PLATFORM, is loaded with Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) costs for complete removal, along with costs for partial removal calculated for this study and estimates of the uncertainty associated with decommissioning cost estimates. PLATFORM allows users to define a wide range of decommissioning and costing scenarios (e.g., number of platforms, choice of heavy lift vessel, shell mound removal, reef enhancement). As a benchmark cost, complete removal of all 27 offshore platforms, grouped into the 7 decommissioning projects defined by the most recent federal cost estimates produced in 2010, would cost an estimated $1.09 billion, whereas partial removal of these platforms, grouped into the same set of projects, would cost $478 million, with avoided costs of $616 million (with minor rounding). PMID:25914378

  20. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Sorooshian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, identifies the problems and provides recommendations for improvements. This study can be a guide for business advisers and those interested in analysing company performance, especially from a logistics viewpoint. We also suggest the methodology of this case study for those who want to have a better understanding of a business environment before starting their own business, or for benchmarking practice during strategic planning.

  1. Status of the NRC Decommissioning Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, D. A.; Camper, L.; Buckley, J.; Pogue, E.; Banovac, K.

    2003-02-24

    On July 21, 1997, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published the final rule on Radiological Criteria for License Termination (the License Termination Rule or LTR) as Subpart E to 10 CFR Part 20. NRC regulations require that materials licensees submit Decommissioning Plans to support the decommissioning of its facility if it is required by license condition, or if the procedures and activities necessary to carry out the decommissioning have not been approved by NRC and these procedures could increase the potential health and safety impacts to the workers or the public. NRC regulations also require that reactor licensees submit Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Reports and License Termination Plans to support the decommissioning of nuclear power facilities. This paper provides an update on the status of the NRC's decommissioning program that was presented during WM'02. It discusses the staff's current efforts to streamline the decommissioning process, current issues being faced in the decommissioning program, such as partial site release and restricted release of sites, as well as the status of the decommissioning of complex sites and those listed in the Site Decommissioning Management Plan. The paper discusses the status of permanently shut-down commercial power reactors and the transfer of complex decommissioning sites and sites listed on the SDMP to Agreement States. Finally the paper provides an update of the status of various tools and guidance the NRC is developing to assist licensees during decommissioning, including an effort to consolidate and risk-inform decommissioning guidance.

  2. Basic Research on Selecting ISDC Activity for Decommissioning Costing in KRR-2 Decommissioning Project Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    KAERI is performing research for calculation of expected time of a decommissioning work and evaluation of decommissioning cost and this research calculate a decommissioning work unit productivity based on the experience data of decommissioning activity for KRR-2. The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the experience data from the decommissioning activity through the Decommissioning Information Management System (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), and Decommissioning Work-unit Productivity Calculation System (DEWOCS). In this paper, the methodology was presented how select the ISDC activities in dismantling work procedures of a 'removal of radioactive concrete'. The reason to select the 'removal of radioactive concrete' is main key activity and generates the amount of radioactive waste. This data will take advantage of the cost estimation after the code for the selected items derived ISDC. There are various efforts for decommissioning costing in each country. In particular, OECD/NEA recommends decommissioning cost estimation using the ISDC and IAEA provides for Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel (CERREX) program that anyone is easy to use the cost evaluation from a limited decommissioning experience in domestic. In the future, for the decommissioning cost evaluation, the ISDC will be used more widely in a strong position. This paper has described a method for selecting the ISDC item from the actual dismantling work procedures.

  3. Annex. Decommissioning of a large central-station LMFBR power plant: a comparison with the PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) is qualitatively compared with that of a more conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR). The PWR and LMFBR are examined for differences which might impact the total station decommissioning costs, and the primary systems of both reactor types are compared to determine if design differences in their radioactive portions would substantially alter the overall balance of costs evaluated in earlier comparative studies of decommissioning alternatives. Consideration of the ease of disassembly, relative quantities of structural material to be treated, and the special aspects related to the sodium coolant indicated that, for otherwise equivalent circumstances, dismantling operations are of corresponding difficulty, decommissioning costs are comparable, and, if the primary sodium is reused in another reactor and proper credit taken, the sodium coolant does not add to the cost of decommissioning

  4. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  5. Reasons for inconsistencies between estimated and actual decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable cost estimating is one of the most important elements of decommissioning planning. Alternative technologies may be evaluated and compared based on their efficiency and effectiveness, and measured against a baseline cost as to the feasibility and benefits derived from the technology. When the plan is complete, those cost considerations ensure that it is economically sound and practical for funding.Estimates of decommissioning costs have been performed and published by many organizations for many different applications. The results often vary because of differences in the work scope. Labour force costs, monetary considerations, oversight costs, the specific contaminated materials involved, the waste stream and peripheral costs associated with that type of waste, or applicable environmental compliance requirements. Many of the differences in cost estimates are unavoidable since a reasonable degree of reliability and accuracy can only be achieved by developing decommissioning cost estimates on a case-by- case site-specific basis. The paper describes the estimating methodology and process applied to develop decommissioning cost estimates. A major effort has been made to standardize methodologies, and to understand the assumptions and bases that drive the costs. However, estimates are only as accurate as the information available from which to derive the costs. This information includes the assumptions of scope of the work, labour cost inputs, inflationary effects, and financial analyses that project these costs to year of expenditure. Attempts at comparison of estimates for two facilities of similar design and size must clearly identify the assumptions used in developing the estimate, and comparison of actual costs versus estimated costs must reflect these same assumptions. For the nuclear industry to grow, decommissioning estimating tools must improve to keep pace with changing technology, regulations and stakeholder issues. (author)

  6. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors: sensitivity of decommissioning radiation exposure and costs to selected parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.

    1983-07-01

    Additional analyses of decommissioning at the reference research and test (R and T) reactors and analyses of five recent reactor decommissionings are made that examine some parameters not covered in the initial study report (NUREG/CR-1756). The parameters examined for decommissioning are: (1) the effect on costs and radiation exposure of plant size and/or type; (2) the effects on costs of increasing disposal charges and of unavailability of waste disposal capacity at licensed waste disposal facilities; and (3) the costs of and the available alternatives for the disposal of nuclear R and T reactor fuel assemblies.

  7. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors: sensitivity of decommissioning radiation exposure and costs to selected parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additional analyses of decommissioning at the reference research and test (R and T) reactors and analyses of five recent reactor decommissionings are made that examine some parameters not covered in the initial study report (NUREG/CR-1756). The parameters examined for decommissioning are: (1) the effect on costs and radiation exposure of plant size and/or type; (2) the effects on costs of increasing disposal charges and of unavailability of waste disposal capacity at licensed waste disposal facilities; and (3) the costs of and the available alternatives for the disposal of nuclear R and T reactor fuel assemblies

  8. Roadmap and performance carried out during Ciemat site decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciemat (Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology) located in the heart of the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid, occupies a property of 20 Ha. Since its creation in 1951 as JEN, and in 1986 renowned as Ciemat, it has involved on R and D projects in the field of Energy and Environment, i.e., Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Fusion, Fossils Fuels, Renewable Energy. As a consequence of the R and D projects developed between 1951 - 1986 on Nuclear Fission field (fuel design, fabrication, characterization on irradiated fuels, safety studies, etc) and to the diversification of the goals as well, it is necessary to Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) from nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor, Hot Cells, Irradiation facility), buildings and soils. Preparations for D and D included a staged shutdown of operations, planning documentation and licensing for decommissioning. As a prerequisite to Ciemat application for a decommissioning license and nuclear environmental assessment was carried out according to Spanish Nuclear Council (CSN) and approval of the site decommissioning project was obtained in 2000 and valid until December 31, 2006. Since 2001 - 2003 is underway and focussed on the radiological characterization of the site (divided in pieces of ground), when each piece of ground is characterized a planning for D and D is presented to CSN in order to obtain a license for actuation. Nowadays several pieces of ground are decontaminated and modifications have been done in order to achieve a safe state of storage-with-surveillance. Later phases have planned waste management improvements for selected wastes already on temporally storage, eventually followed by final decommissioning of facilities and buildings and cleaning of contaminants from soils and removal of waste from the site. This paper describes the planning, nuclear and environment assessment and descriptions of decommissioning activities currently underway at Ciemat. (Author)

  9. Roadmap and performance carried out during Ciemat site decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Javier; Diaz Diaz, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    Ciemat (Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology) located in the heart of the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid, occupies a property of 20 Ha. Since its creation in 1951 as JEN, and in 1986 renowned as Ciemat, it has involved on R and D projects in the field of Energy and Environment, i.e., Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Fusion, Fossils Fuels, Renewable Energy. As a consequence of the R and D projects developed between 1951 - 1986 on Nuclear Fission field (fuel design, fabrication, characterization on irradiated fuels, safety studies, etc) and to the diversification of the goals as well, it is necessary to Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) from nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor, Hot Cells, Irradiation facility), buildings and soils. Preparations for D and D included a staged shutdown of operations, planning documentation and licensing for decommissioning. As a prerequisite to Ciemat application for a decommissioning license and nuclear environmental assessment was carried out according to Spanish Nuclear Council (CSN) and approval of the site decommissioning project was obtained in 2000 and valid until December 31, 2006. Since 2001 - 2003 is underway and focussed on the radiological characterization of the site (divided in pieces of ground), when each piece of ground is characterized a planning for D and D is presented to CSN in order to obtain a license for actuation. Nowadays several pieces of ground are decontaminated and modifications have been done in order to achieve a safe state of storage-with-surveillance. Later phases have planned waste management improvements for selected wastes already on temporally storage, eventually followed by final decommissioning of facilities and buildings and cleaning of contaminants from soils and removal of waste from the site. This paper describes the planning, nuclear and environment assessment and descriptions of decommissioning activities currently underway at Ciemat. (Author)

  10. Worldwide Overview of Lessons Learned from Decommissioning Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With an increasing number of radioactive facilities and reactors now reaching the end of their useful life and being taken out of service, there is a growing emphasis worldwide on the safe and efficient decommissioning of such plants. There is a wealth of experience already gained in decommissioning projects for all kinds of nuclear facilities. It is now possible to compare and discuss progress and accomplishments worldwide. In particular, rather than on the factual descriptions of projects, technologies and case histories, it is important to focus on lessons learned: in this way, the return of experience is felt to effectively contribute to progress. Key issues - inevitably based on a subjective ranking - are presented in this paper. Through the exchange of lessons learned, it is possible to achieve full awareness of the need for resources for and constraints of safe and cost-effective decommissioning. What remains now is the identification of specific, remaining issues that may hinder or delay the smooth progress of decommissioning. To this end, lessons learned provide the necessary background information; this paper tries to make extensive use of practical experience gained by the international community

  11. EPRI Guidance for Transition from Operations to Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of key activities are necessary after permanent shutdown of a nuclear power plant before active dismantlement of the plant can begin. This period is typically referred to as the transition period. In some cases these activities are prescribed by regulation and in others they may be more practically driven or even optional. In either case, planning for transition activities should optimally take place prior to final shutdown. Additionally, execution of some transition period activities, such as filing required regulatory submittals, may be performed prior to plant shut down. In addition to general transition period activities such as defueling, management of operational wastes, fulfilling regulatory requirements and changes to plant technical specifications, there are a number of optional activities that may have a long-range impact on future decommissioning activities. This includes activities such as the timing of staff reductions and performance of chemical decontamination. EPRI is nearing completion of a project to develop guidance for transitioning a nuclear power plant to decommissioning. This project includes the following elements: - A review of required and recommended transition period activities. For countries where a clear regulatory framework exists, this includes country-specific requirements; - A review of pending regulatory activities in the US and other countries where there is currently no clear regulatory framework for transitioning to decommissioning; - A summary of activities that have been performed during the transition period for past and current decommissioning sites, as well as current sites that are actively planning decommissioning activities; and - Guidance for development of a transition plan for changing from an operational to decommissioning status. Informed planning of the transition period activities will provide immediate benefits in reducing costs and minimizing the duration of the transition period, as well as longer

  12. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  13. Decommissioning of Salaspils Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR) is out of operation since July 1998 and the decommissioning of SRR was started in 1999 according to the decision of the Government of Latvia. The main decommissioning activities up to 2006 were connected with collecting and conditioning of historical radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside of reactor hall. The total amount of dismantled materials was about 700 tons, more than 77 tons were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in repository. The radioactive wastes management technology is discussed in the paper. It was found, that additional efforts must be spent for immobilization of radionuclides in cemented matrix to be comply with the wastes acceptance criteria. The investigations of mechanical stability of water-cement matrix are described and discussed in the paper

  14. Study on a new calibration methods of in-situ HPGe γ spectrometers used for non-destructive analyzing radioactivity in nuclear facilities decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new calibration technique, which is the Monte Carlo modeling technique, of in-situ HPGe γ spectrometers used for non-destructive analyzing radioactivity in nuclear facilities decommissioning, is presented. A series of assay for some stainless steel pipes and tanks in some nuclear facilities/laboratories of CIAE are taken on site with the in-situ HPGe γ spectrometer. At the same time, some examples are taken and analyzed in laboratories. The relative bias/variation between the values of activity measured by in-situ HPGe γ spectrometers on site and that analyzed in laboratory is less than ±45.0%. (authors)

  15. Integrated decommissioning management tools (IDMT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nuclear Power Plant decommissioning requires a number of demolition activities related to civil works and systems as well as the construction of temporary facilities used for treatment and conditioning of the dismantled parts. The presence of a radiological, potentially hazardous, environment due to the specific configuration and history of the plant require a professional, expert and qualified approach approved by the national safety authority. Dismantling activities must be designed, planned and analysed in detail during an evaluation phase taking into account different scenarios generated by possible dismantling sequences and specific waste treatments to be implemented. The optimisation process of the activities becomes very challenging taking into account the requirement of the minimisation of the radiological impact on exposed workers and people during normal and accident conditions. While remote operated equipment, waste treatment and conditioning facilities may be designed taking into account this primary goal also a centralised management system and corresponding software tools have to be designed and operated in order to guarantee the fulfilment of the imposed limits as well as the traceability of wastes. Ansaldo Nuclear Division has been strongly involved in the development of a qualified and certified software environment to manage the most critical activities of a decommissioning project. The IDMT system (Integrated Decommissioning Management Tools) provide a set of stand alone user friendly applications able to work in an integrated configuration to guarantee waste identification, traceability during treatment and conditioning process as well as location and identification at the Final Repository site. Additionally, the system can be used to identify, analyse and compare different specific operating scenarios to be optimised in term of both economical and radiological considerations. The paper provides an overview of the different phases of

  16. IDMT, Integrated Decommissioning Management Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Power Plant decommissioning requires a number of demolition activities related to civil works and systems as well as the construction of temporary facilities used for treatment and conditioning of the dismantled parts. The presence of a radiological, potentially hazardous, environment due to the specific configuration and history of the plant require a professional, expert and qualified approach approved by the national safety authority. Dismantling activities must be designed, planned and analysed in detail during an evaluation phase taking into account different scenarios generated by possible dismantling sequences and specific waste treatments to be implemented. The optimisation process of the activities becomes very challenging taking into account the requirement of the minimisation of the radiological impact on exposed workers and people during normal and accident conditions. While remote operated equipment, waste treatment and conditioning facilities may be designed taking into account this primary goal also a centralised management system and corresponding software tools have to be designed and operated in order to guarantee the fulfilment of the imposed limits as well as the traceability of wastes. Ansaldo Nuclear Division has been strongly involved in the development of a qualified and certified software environment to manage the most critical activities of a decommissioning project. The IDMT system (Integrated Decommissioning Management Tools) provide a set of stand alone user friendly applications able to work in an integrated configuration to guarantee waste identification, traceability during treatment and conditioning process as well as location and identification at the Final Repository site. Additionally, the system can be used to identify, analyse and compare different specific operating scenarios to be optimised in term of both economical and radiological considerations. The paper provides an overview of the different phases of

  17. Residual activity criteria for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission development of criteria for release of facilities and sites for unrestricted use following decommissioning is described. Residual activity limits for both materials and soil are covered. The objectives are: small risk of exposure, consistency with relevant existing standards, and feasibility of demonstration of compliance by measurement. Specific aspects discussed related to establishment of limits are: appropriate risk and dose limits, identification of radionuclides to be considered, dose assessment methodology, and confirmatory measurements

  18. Decommissioning - The keys to success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) owns and operates five sites across the United Kingdom. The Winfrith site in Dorset was established in the late 1950's as a centre for development of prototype reactors. During its history, nine research reactors have operated on the site together with: a fuel fabrication facility; a post irradiation examination facility; radiochemistry laboratories, etc. The largest reactor, a 100MWe Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor, was closed down in 1990 and the last research reactor was closed in 1995. Since the early 1990's the site has been undergoing a programme of progressive decommissioning with a view to releasing the site for alternative use unrestricted by the site's nuclear history. Key drivers for the design of the programme were safety, minimising adverse environmental effects, minimising costs and ensuring stakeholder support. One requirement of the stakeholders was to ensure that the site continued to provide high quality employment. This was successfully achieved by developing a Science and Technology Park on the nuclear site. Over 40 companies are now located on the Park providing over 1000 jobs. This paper will focus on the lessons learnt from over a decade of experience of decommissioning at Winfrith and will attempt to identify the 'keys to successful decommissioning'. These 'keys' will include: defining the site end-point; planning the programme; defining the commercial strategy; cost estimation; evaluation and management of risks; safety and environmental management; and stakeholder engagement. In particular, the paper will explore the very close relationship between: funding profiles; cost estimation; risk management and commercial strategy. It will show that these aspects of the programme cannot be considered separately. The paper will attempt to show that, with careful planning; decommissioning can be achieved safety and give good value for money to the funding authority. (author)

  19. Spatial multicriteria decision analysis of flood risks in aging-dam management in China: a framework and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Qian, Xin; Zhang, Yuchao; Sheng, Jinbao; Shen, Dengle; Ge, Yi

    2011-05-01

    Approximately 30,000 dams in China are aging and are considered to be high-level risks. Developing a framework for analyzing spatial multicriteria flood risk is crucial to ranking management scenarios for these dams, especially in densely populated areas. Based on the theories of spatial multicriteria decision analysis, this report generalizes a framework consisting of scenario definition, problem structuring, criteria construction, spatial quantification of criteria, criteria weighting, decision rules, sensitivity analyses, and scenario appraisal. The framework is presented in detail by using a case study to rank dam rehabilitation, decommissioning and existing-condition scenarios. The results show that there was a serious inundation, and that a dam rehabilitation scenario could reduce the multicriteria flood risk by 0.25 in the most affected areas; this indicates a mean risk decrease of less than 23%. Although increased risk (buildings, if the dam were to be decommissioned, the mean risk would not be greater than the current existing risk, indicating that the dam rehabilitation scenario had a higher rank for decreasing the flood risk than the decommissioning scenario, but that dam rehabilitation alone might be of little help in abating flood risk. With adjustments and improvement to the specific methods (according to the circumstances and available data) this framework may be applied to other sites. PMID:21655125

  20. Fort St. Vrain defueling ampersand decommissioning considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station (FSV) is one of the first commercial reactors to be decommissioned under NRC's decommissioning rule. The defueling and decommissioning of this 330 MWe High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has involved many challenges for Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC) including defueling to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI), establishing decommissioning funding, obtaining regulatory approvals, arranging for waste disposal, and managing a large fixed price decommissioning contract. In 1990, a team comprised of the Westinghouse Corporation and Morrison Knudsen Corporation, with the Scientific Ecology Group as a major subcontractor, was contracted by PSC to perform the decommissioning under a fixed price contract. Physical work activities began in August 1992. Currently, physical dismantlement activities are about 45% complete, the project is on schedule, and is within budget

  1. Safety yields decommissioning successes. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Panelists will speak to the most recent decommissioning projects successfully conducted. The projects represent facilities over the full range of commercial decommissioning, fuel storage, and weapons facilities. Lessons learned will be stressed to guide interested parties through future decommissioning activities. Human Factors Assessment of D and D Technologies and How This Relates to Improvement of Safety in Decommissioning Projects (Bruce Lippy (OENHP)); PPPL's Safety Practices, Safety Records, and Corrective Actions to Address Safety Issues (Keith Rule (PPPL)); INEEL's Safety Practices in Decommissioning Projects and Safety-Enhancing D and D Technologies (Richard Meservey (BWXT)); Big Rock Point Restoration Project Decommissioning Successes from a Safety Culture Perspective (William Trubilowicz (Consumers PWR, Big Rock Point))

  2. Decommissioning: a United Kingdom perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the United Kingdom legislative framework relevant to decommissioning of facilities on nuclear licensed sites. It describes the various legislative bodies involved in regulating this activity and the inspectorate concerned. The licensing regime is described in some detail highlighting the UK arrangements whereby a license is granted for the site upon which nuclear facilities are planned or exist. The license remains in place throughout the life of the plant on the site: from initial planning through to the end of decommissioning. A site (of part of) is not de-licensed until it can be stated that there has ceased to be any danger from ionising radiations from anything on the site (or appropriate part of the site). The final part of the paper considers the changes arising from the commercialization of the nuclear power industry in UK and the restatement of the Nuclear Installation Inspectorate's policy on decommissioning which has arisen as a result of a review made in response to these changes. (author)

  3. Decommissioning of naval nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next decade the two major nuclear powers will each have to decommission more than 100 naval nuclear vessels, in particular submarines. The problems connected with this task is considered in this report. Firstly the size of the task is considered, i.e. the number of nuclear vessels that has to be decommissioned. Secondly the reactors of these vessels, their fuel elements, their power level, the number of reactors per vessel and the amount of radioactivity to be handled are discussed. Thirdly the decommissioning procedures, i.e. The removal of fuel from the vessels, the temporary storage of the reactor fuel near the base, and the cleaning and disposal of the reactor and the primary circuit components are reviewed. Finally alternative uses of the newer submarines are briefly considered. It should be emphasizes that much of the detailed information on which this report is based, may be of dubious nature, and that may to some extent affect the validity of the conclusions of the report. (au)

  4. Decommissioning: a United Kingdom perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haworth, A.; Reed, D.L.; Bleeze, A. [Health and Safety Executive, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The paper considers the United Kingdom legislative framework relevant to decommissioning of facilities on nuclear licensed sites. It describes the various legislative bodies involved in regulating this activity and the inspectorate concerned. The licensing regime is described in some detail highlighting the UK arrangements whereby a license is granted for the site upon which nuclear facilities are planned or exist. The license remains in place throughout the life of the plant on the site: from initial planning through to the end of decommissioning. A site (of part of) is not de-licensed until it can be stated that there has ceased to be any danger from ionising radiations from anything on the site (or appropriate part of the site). The final part of the paper considers the changes arising from the commercialization of the nuclear power industry in UK and the restatement of the Nuclear Installation Inspectorate`s policy on decommissioning which has arisen as a result of a review made in response to these changes. (author).

  5. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a Reference Boiling Water Reactor Power Station. Main report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWe.

  6. How Does Decommissioning Forest Roads Effect Hydrologic and Geomorphic Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T.; Luce, C.; Cissel, R. M.; Nelson, N.; Staab, B.

    2010-12-01

    pipes and fills, and recontoured the hillslope. The length of road that was hydrologically connected to streams was reduced by 2,923 m, or 97%. The model predicts that fine sediment delivery was reduced by 98%, to 1.0 ton annually. The risk presented by stream crossings becoming plugged was eliminated. The potential for streamflow diversion onto roads and hillslopes was precluded. The slope stability risk below drain point locations on the original road was reduced as water was no longer concentrated and discharged through a single drainage feature. Treatments are predicted to return slope stability to near undisturbed levels. Gully initiation risks, already low prior to treatment, may be reduced to negligible values. Results from these two case studies suggest that high intensity road decommissioning can be effective at reducing the risk of road sediment delivery, hydrologic connectivity and failures associated with stream crossings. Post storm monitoring will help validate these predictions and reduce uncertainty around the hydrology of decommissioned roads. If decommissioned roads continue to concentrate water and discharge it onto steep slopes, landslides and gully risk may remain elevated.

  7. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: overview and justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this booklet is to brief the reader on the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and to summarize the benefits of funding the project in FY 1984. Background information on the station and the decommissioning project is provided in this section of the booklet; the need for a reactor decommissining demonstration is discussed in the next section; and a summary of how the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) provides the needed demonstration is provided in the final section

  8. IAEA Perspectives on Preparation for Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are about 160 power reactors in decommissioning phase worldwide. In addition, more than 400 other nuclear facilities, such as research reactors or nuclear fuel cycle facilities, have been shutdown for decommissioning, have been undergoing active decommissioning or have already been fully dismantled. Planned and systematic preparation for decommissioning is very important for further effective implementation of dismantling activities. While some preparatory activities for decommissioning start early in the facility life-cycle, the main preparatory activities are implemented towards the end of the operational period and during the transition period from operation to decommissioning. These may include a wide range of technical actions, such as physical and radiological characterization, pre-decommissioning decontamination, management of spent fuel and operational waste, establishment of new waste management facilities and modification of safety systems needed to support decommissioning. In parallel, some non-technical tasks are to be completed, e.g. preparation of the final decommissioning plan and its supporting documents, licensing activities, organizational changes, training of personnel for decommissioning, etc. Preparatory activities may be organized in various ways depending on considered decommissioning strategies and physical and radiological status of the nuclear facility after its routine operation is over. The IAEA published numerous safety and technical reports providing guidance, recommendations, experiences, good practices and lessons learned, fully or to some extent covering the preparatory phase for decommissioning. Many training courses, workshops, seminars etc. were organized to support sharing of good practices among specialists and organizations involved. This paper provides an overview of relevant activities and perspectives of the IAEA in this area. The paper also draws some general conclusions and identifies lessons learned on the basis of

  9. U.S. decommissioning requirements and recommendations on international principles and rules on decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. requirements for decommissioning nuclear power plants have been under development for the past seven years. During the year 1985, policies and requirements for the following areas will be developed: methods of decommissioning, timing, planning, and financial security. Due to the common nature of the problems with decommissioning, international exchange of information is highly desirable. (CW)

  10. Decommissioning Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is predicted that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant would happen in Korea since 2020 but the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension still has been on an increasing trend and its domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project we developed following several essential technologies as a decommissioning R and D. The measurement technology for in-pipe radioactive contamination was developed for measuring alpha/beta/gamma emitting nuclides simultaneously inside a in-pipe and it was tested into the liquid waste transfer pipe in KRR-2. And the digital mock-up system for KRR-1 and 2 was developed for choosing the best scenarios among several scenarios on the basis of various decommissioning information(schedule, waste volume, cost, etc.) that are from the DMU and the methodology of decommissioning cost estimation was also developed for estimating a research reactor's decommissioning cost and the DMU and the decommissioning cost estimation system were incorporated into the decommissioning information integrated management system. Finally the treatment and management technology of the irradiated graphites that happened after decommissioning KRR-2 was developed in order to treat and manage the irradiated graphites safely

  11. Status of the Fort St. Vrain decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort St. Vrain is a high temperature gas cooled reactor. It has been shut down as a result of financial and technical difficulties. Fort St. Vrain has been planning for defueling and decommissioning for at least three years. The preliminary decommissioning plan, in accordance with the NRC's final rule, has been submitted and is being reviewed by the NRC. The basis of the preliminary decommissioning plan has been SAFSTOR. Public Service Company, who is the owner and operator of FSV, is scheduled to submit a proposed decommissioning plan to the NRC in the fourth quarter of 1990. PSC has gone out for bid on the decontamination and dismantlement of FSV. This paper includes the defueling schedule, the independent spent fuel storage installation status, the probability of shipping fuel to DOE, the status of the preliminary decommissioning plan submittal, the issuance of a possession only license and what are the results of obtaining this license amendment, preliminary decommissioning activities allowed prior to the approval of a proposed decommissioning plan, the preparation of a proposed decommissioning plan and the status of our decision to proceed with SAFSTOR or DECON as identified in the NRC's final decommissioning rule

  12. European Decommissioning Academy (EDA). Ready to start

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slugen, Vladimir [Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Nuclear and Physical Engineering

    2015-02-15

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11 September 2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 2,000 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 150 each year. The article describes the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) which is prepared for the first term in June 2015 in Slovakia. The main goal is a creation of new nuclear experts generation for decommissioning via the Academy, which will include lessons, practical exercises in laboratories as well as 2 days on-site training at NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). Four days technical tour via most interesting European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy are planned as well. After the final exam, there is the option to continue in knowledge collection via participation at the 2nd Eastern and Central European Decommissioning (ECED) conference in Trnava (Slovakia). We would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future.

  13. European Decommissioning Academy (EDA). Ready to start

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11 September 2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 2,000 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 150 each year. The article describes the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) which is prepared for the first term in June 2015 in Slovakia. The main goal is a creation of new nuclear experts generation for decommissioning via the Academy, which will include lessons, practical exercises in laboratories as well as 2 days on-site training at NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). Four days technical tour via most interesting European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy are planned as well. After the final exam, there is the option to continue in knowledge collection via participation at the 2nd Eastern and Central European Decommissioning (ECED) conference in Trnava (Slovakia). We would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future.

  14. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station: Comparison of two decommissioning cost estimates developed for the same commercial nuclear reactor power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the results of a comparison of a previous decommissioning cost study by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and a recent decommissioning cost study of TLG Engineering, Inc., for the same commercial nuclear power reactor station. The purpose of this comparative analysis on the same plant is to determine the reasons why subsequent estimates for similar plants by others were significantly higher in cost and external occupational radiation exposure (ORE) than the PNL study. The primary purpose of the original study by PNL (NUREG/CR-0672) was to provide information on the available technology, the safety considerations, and the probable costs and ORE for the decommissioning of a large boiling water reactor (BWR) power station at the end of its operating life. This information was intended for use as background data and bases in the modification of existing regulations and in the development of new regulations pertaining to decommissioning activities. It was also intended for use by utilities in planning for the decommissioning of their nuclear power stations. The TLG study, initiated in 1987 and completed in 1989, was for the same plant, Washington Public Supply System's Unit 2 (WNP-2), that PNL used as its reference plant in its 1980 decommissioning study. Areas of agreement and disagreement are identified, and reasons for the areas of disagreement are discussed. 31 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs

  15. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Kwon, H. S.; Kim, G. N. and others

    1999-03-01

    Through the project of 'Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology', the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  16. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  17. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords

  18. Level 3 decommissioning of Triton - Nereide research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Atomic Energy Commission Center located at Fontenay-Aux-Roses has launched an extensive programme of site cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. This programme includes the level 3 decommissioning of the Triton and Nereide piles. These pool type research reactors were constructed in the late 1950's, primarily for R and D activities related to neutron physics studies, radiological shielding experiments and radioelement production. As of 1982, a level 2 decommissioning was achieved and over the the last twenty years, no activities were carried out in the facility. During 2001, there has been extensive investigation work carried out to acquire a better knowledge of the radiological status of the facility, in order to set up dismantling scenarios and to reduce the volume of generated radioactive waste. Indeed, one of the first and main operations to be carried out for dismantling Triton and Nereide piles is waste zoning, by using the facility layout, operating conditions and history, as well as the present radiological inventory. The paper describes the investigations and studies carried out to implement waste zoning. The paper also describes the preliminary dismantling operations undertaken on equipment and studies conducted to optimize the dismantling and cleanup of the facility. Finally, the paper presents the outline of the preferred dismantling and decommissioning options and the progress of the work to date. (author)

  19. Co-operation and consensus in the development of decommissioning approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning is an issue facing most of the developed countries with ageing nuclear power plants. However, the concept of transforming a regulated nuclear activity or facility to one that is no longer active or operational is a goal not limited to nuclear power plants alone. In some cases, the restoration of legacy sites and sites contaminated by natural radioactivity from non-nuclear resource development also falls under this broader transformation goal. The international technical community recognizes this need to decommission nuclear facilities to result in better protection of workers, the public and the environment, and to do so in a more cost efficient manner.Whether the aim is termed 'decommissioning' or whether decommissioning is part of this broader goal of safety and environmental protection, the focus is the same: maintaining consistent levels of radiation safety and protecting the environment. The global community recognizes the need to address decommissioning within a waste management programme by including it under the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Waste Convention). The recommendations by international organizations (the IAEA, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, International Commission on Radiological Protection, European Commission) include decommissioning and, in most cases, restoration of contaminated sites as part of a regulatory infrastructure for radiological protection and radioactive waste management. From these recommendations, individual countries can establish national regulations to protect individuals and the environment within the context of each nation's range of options, whether they are limitations on waste disposal strategies or resource (e.g. financial) limitations. Although an international goal may be uniformity and harmony in setting decommissioning requirements - and the international community is making great progress on that front - the higher objective

  20. Case Studies on Crossborder Ecotrade

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    This compilation of four country case studies provides a comprehensive understanding of challenges, good practices, and lessons learnt under different situations. In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, a cross-border vegetable trade agreement with its neighboring, Thailand, aided in stabilizing market prices and provided financial benefits to local contract farmers. Similarly, organic certification and geographic indication of sugar palm in Cambodia linked local farmers to the global market...

  1. Evaluation of the I. Stage of decommissioning and implementation of the II. Stage of decommissioning of NPP V1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper author deals with following aspects: 1. Introduction of company Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, plc; 2. Evaluation of the I. stage of decommissioning and implementation of the II. Stage of decommissioning of NPP V1; (author)

  2. Decommissioning of a hot laboratory and cyclotron complex to green field (Harwell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the UKAEA's Harwell Laboratory a substantial decommissioning programme has been under way for the past few years. Building 540.2 (the Variable Energy Cyclotron (VEC) and Hot Laboratory facility) was the first major facility within this programme to complete Stage 3 decommissioning; it was returned to a green field site in June 1994. The facility started operation in the mid-1960s and remained fully operational until its formal closure in April 1991. The Cyclotron's primary function was the production of radioisotopes (e.g., I123 for medical use) and the study of radiation damage to metals, particularly neutron damage. The Hot Laboratory contained a suite of fume cupboards and two heavily contaminated hot cells which were used in nuclear fuel handling studies. This paper concentrates on the remote decommissioning of the two hot cells and describes a number of key steps taken. It summarises the key factors identified in the options study and decommissioning plan and describes the steps taken to minimise risks in terms of project cost and timescale. The technologies involved (remote handling, waste posting and ventilation), the decommissioning methodology, tooling and the final manual decommissioning work are described. In addition, the paper also details the main elements of the programme to decommission the 250 ton Cyclotron and the subsequent Stage 3. civil demolition. of the ∼5000 tons of concrete shielding and the external building structure. Timescales and the operational experience for each of the above major Stages of work are discussed. (Author)

  3. Decommissioning and environmental restoration of nuclear facilities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the beginning of the 1980s, the Scientific and Technological Commission (STC) began the study on the environmental impact of the nuclear industry in China. At the end of the 1980s, the STC initiated the study on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and environmental restoration. In 1989 the STC completed the project entitled ''Radiological and Environmental Quality Assessment of the Nuclear Industry in China Over the Past Thirty Years''. The status of the environmental pollution of various nuclear facility sites was subsequently analysed. In 1994, the decommissioning and environmental restoration of the first research and manufacture complex for nuclear weapons was completed. The complex is now accessible to the public without restriction and the site has become a town. Some nuclear related facilities, such as uranium mines, are currently being decommissioned. Although uranium mining and milling has a more serious impact on the environment, the technology for decommissioning and environmental restoration in mining and milling installations is not much more complicated than that used for reactor and reprocessing facilities: much has been achieved in the area of mining and milling. (author)

  4. Research in decommissioning techniques for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in JNC. 7. JWTF decommissioning techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-02-01

    Decommissioning techniques such as radiation measuring and monitoring, decontamination, dismantling and remote handling in the world were surveyed to upgrading technical know-how database for decommissioning of Joyo Waste Treatment Facility (JWTF). As the result, five literatures for measuring and monitoring techniques, 14 for decontamination and 22 for dismantling feasible for JWTF decommissioning were obtained and were summarized in tables. On the basis of the research, practical applicability of those techniques to decommissioning of JWTF was evaluated. This report contains brief surveyed summaries related to JWTF decommissioning. (H. Itami)

  5. A case study of Impetigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri P

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin

  6. Decommissioning of NPPs with spent nuclear fuel present - efforts to amend the German regulatory framework to cope with this situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authorization to operate an installation for the fission of nuclear fuel for the commercial production of electricity was withdrawn for the seven oldest NPPs and NPP Kruemmel in Germany on August 6, 2011 after the events at Japanese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011. In the meantime, all these NPPs applied for decommissioning. One aspect reflected in the applications for these NPPs is the possibility that spent nuclear fuel elements or fuel rods will still be present in the cooling ponds at least during the first stage of decommissioning, i.a. due to limited availability of spent fuel casks. Although considerable decommissioning experiences are available in Germany, the approach 'decommissioning with fuel elements present' has been the exceptional case so far. The paper highlights the efforts undertaken to strengthen the regulatory framework with respect to decommissioning in Germany taking into account this changed approach. The paper presents a short introduction to the legal and regulatory requirements for decommissioning in Germany. Afterwards, the updates to the Decommissioning Guide, which includes proposals for an appropriate procedure for the decommissioning, safe enclosure and dismantling of facilities or parts thereof as defined in item 7 of the German Atomic Energy Act in respect of the application of the technical rules for planning and preparation of decommissioning measures as well as for licensing and supervision, are highlighted. In addition, the amendments to the Guidelines for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities of the Nuclear Waste Management Commission (ESK), which is complementary to the Decommissioning Guide in a technical sense, are reported as well. (authors)

  7. A Review of the Decommissioning Costs of the Ranstad Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study has been to review the future cost to decommission and dismantling the industrial area at the site of the old uranium mine at Ranstad in Sweden. Analyses of some detailed comparative empirical information have been used in the context of preliminary 'bench-marking' studies. The estimated costs for decommissioning of the old uranium mine in Ranstad have been compared with actual costs from other relevant decommissioning projects. In this way it has been possible to give a preliminary qualitative statement about the accuracy of the Ranstad cost estimate. The study gives the following lessons learned: 1. The available information suggests that the overall estimated cost may be reasonable, but there are still some points of weakness that need to be elaborated more in detail before a full statement about the adequacy of the forecast cost will be possible. 2. Especially the costs associated with declassification activities warrant further analysis in order to determine there level of accuracy. 3. There exists the possibility that the estimate might be low concerning decontamination, dismantling and planning and institutional work. 4. Further work and analysis is needed in order to develop a more transparent cost estimate in which the stakeholders can have the highest confidence. 5. A new bidding procedure for the conventional demolition may result in lower estimated costs. Hence, it would be beneficial to obtain an updated estimate based on at least more than one quotation. 6. The method of addressing uncertainty and risk should be more connected to the logistics of specific decommissioning activities, in order to be more transparent and clearer in details. There is a need for further study to develop a better estimate. In the short run follow-up work needs to be undertaken to provide a better understanding of what are the major contributors to risk and cost drivers in the planned decommissioning process at the Ranstad industrial area

  8. Technology and costs for decommissioning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning study for the Swedish nuclear power plants has been carried out during 1992 to 1994 and the work has been led by a steering group consisting of people from the nuclear utilities and SKB. The study has been focused on two reference plants, Oskarshamn 3 and Ringhals 2. Oskarshamn 3 is a boiling water reactor (BWR) and Ringhals 2 is a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Subsequently, the result from these plants have been translated to the other Swedish plants. The study gives an account of the procedures, costs, waste quantities and occupational doses associated with decommissioning of the Swedish nuclear power plants. Dismantling is assumed to start immediately after removal of the spent fuel. No attempts at optimization, in terms of technology or costs, have been made. The nuclear power plant site is restored after decommissioning so that it can be released for use without restriction for other industrial activities. The study shows that a reactor can be dismantled in about five years, with an average labour force of about 150 persons. The maximum labour force required for Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to about 300 persons. This peak load occurred the first years but is reduced to about 50 persons during the demolishing of the buildings. The cost of decommissioning Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to be about MSEK 940 in January 1994 prices. The decommissioning of Ringhals 2 has been estimated to be MSEK 640. The costs for the other Swedish nuclear power plants lie in the range MSEK 590-960. 17 refs, 21 figs, 15 tabs

  9. Decommissioning of Russian research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the most of our research facilities were built and put in operation more than 30 years ago there had been neither requirements no regulations concerning their future decommissioning (D and D). And due to that fact nobody thought of that in the initial designs of these facilities. The situation changed when in 1994 a top-level safety standard 'Safety Provision for Safety of Research Reactors' was issued by Gosatomnadzor of Russia with a special chapter 7, devoted to D and D issues. Unfortunately, it was just one page of requirements pertaining RR D and D in general terms and was not specific. Only in 2001 Gosatomnadzor of Russia developed and issued a more specific standard 'Rules for Safety Decommissioning of Nuclear Research Facilities'. From the total number of 85 Nuclear Research Facilities, including 34 research reactors, 36 critical assemblies and 15 subcritical assemblies, we have now 7 facilities under decommissioning. The situation is inevitably changing over the time. In the end of 2003 the decision was made to permanently shutdown two RR: AM, graphite type with channels, 15 MBt; BR-10, LMFR type, 10 MBt, and to start preparatory work for their future decommissioning, starting from 2005. It needs to be mentioned that from this list we have 6 reactors with which we face many difficulties in developing decommissioning technologies, namely: for TVR reactor: handling of heavy water and high radiation field in the core; for MR reactor: very complex reactor with many former radioactive spills, which is required a careful and expensive D and D work; AM: graphite utilization problem; BR-10: a problem of coolant poisoned with other heavy metals (like lead, bismuth); IBR-30: the fuel cannot be removed from the core prior the D and D project starts; RG-1M: location is above Arctic Circle, problem of transfer of irradiated parts of the reactor. The decision was made to bury then on the site thus creating a shallow-land radwaste storage facility. The established D

  10. Generation of database for future decommissioning of CIRUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safe decommissioning of a research reactor in a planned manner is inevitable at the end of its useful life even after refurbishment and life extension. This involves advance planning, adopting state of the art technology, development of required new technology, a well thought out plan for nuclear waste management and necessary research and development in the areas of decontamination to recycle and reuse most of the metallic materials. The 40 MW thermal research reactor CIRUS at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India is being refurbished after 37 years of operation. Several part-decommissioning activities were carried out during the refurbishment. This was also the right time and state of the reactor to generate the necessary data and document the experience gained and lessons learned to aid in the planning for future decommissioning of CIRUS. This report presents the details of radiological mapping and characterization studies carried out, experience gained in cleaning/decontamination, dismantlement works carried out for repairs/replacement of structures, systems and components and development of new devices/techniques. It is expected that this work would considerably aid in working out an appropriate strategy of decommissioning of CIRUS when needed in the future. (author)

  11. Experience Review on Dismantling Procedure for American Decommissioned NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to IAEA, the number of shutdown NPPs is totally 150 globally. In Korea, there are 23 operating NPPs and 5 NPPs under construction. But Korea has no shutdown NPP and has no experience on decommissioning commercial reactor so far except for decommissioning research reactor, TRIGA MARK-3. Based on the NPP lifetime as a 45 years, it is expected that 440 NPPs in the world and 16 NPPs in Korea will come to an end of their lifetime until 2060. In this study, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) procedure of shutdown NPPs in US concentrated on dismantling of reactor vessel and its internals is investigated. Detailed activation analysis on primary system should be followed for safe D and D activities. However many US decommissioning projects encountered that collection and removal of irradiated small and scattered debris from segmentation were challenging issues. That's why cutting enclosure was implemented to restrict the spread of debris to other area of refueling cavity. Furthermore lifting of total weight (apx. 1,000,000 kg) on primary system including RPV, RVI and interior low-density concrete was extremely heavy

  12. Potential of the non-waste concept under NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three principal ways to approaching the non-waste nuclear cycle: radical reduction of the long-lived radioactivity generation; creation of the effective reuse procedure and, at last, radioactive waste transmutation. Unlike nuclear fuel cycle, the drastic reduction of the waste arising from the design materials cycle can be reached without need to address the technologies of burning or transmutation of the long-lived radioactive nuclei. The study shows the great potential of the nuclear technology in respect of the cardinal solution of the NPP decommissioning problem and decreasing of decommissioning cost. The key issue of the solution is a radical reduction of the radioactive waste arising from the decommissioning procedure. Generalizing, one may come to conclusion that approaching the non-waste nuclear technology consists in the further developing of the nuclear power infrastructure to a self-contained system including: innovated NPPs (more safe and generating less amount of decommissioning waste), plants for reprocessing fuel and exposed design materials, storage facilities. The paper contribute to the notion that such activity is economically and ecologically expedient. (author)

  13. Experience Review on Dismantling Procedure for American Decommissioned NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyosub; Son, Daesun; Lee, Jaeyong; Kim, Kyungmin; Kim, Yong-soo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    According to IAEA, the number of shutdown NPPs is totally 150 globally. In Korea, there are 23 operating NPPs and 5 NPPs under construction. But Korea has no shutdown NPP and has no experience on decommissioning commercial reactor so far except for decommissioning research reactor, TRIGA MARK-3. Based on the NPP lifetime as a 45 years, it is expected that 440 NPPs in the world and 16 NPPs in Korea will come to an end of their lifetime until 2060. In this study, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) procedure of shutdown NPPs in US concentrated on dismantling of reactor vessel and its internals is investigated. Detailed activation analysis on primary system should be followed for safe D and D activities. However many US decommissioning projects encountered that collection and removal of irradiated small and scattered debris from segmentation were challenging issues. That's why cutting enclosure was implemented to restrict the spread of debris to other area of refueling cavity. Furthermore lifting of total weight (apx. 1,000,000 kg) on primary system including RPV, RVI and interior low-density concrete was extremely heavy.

  14. AREVA decommissioning strategy and programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As with any industrial installation, a nuclear facility has an operating life that requires accounting for its shutdown. In compliance with its sustainable development commitments, AREVA accounts this via its own decommissioning resources to value and make sites fit for further use. These capabilities guarantee the reversibility of the nuclear industry. Thus, the nuclear site value development constitutes an important activity for AREVA, which contributes to the acceptance of nuclear in line with the AREVA continuous policy of sustainable development which is to be fully responsible from the creation, during the operation, to the dismantling of its facilities in all respects with safety, local acceptance and environment. AREVA has already performed a large variety of operation during the life-time of its installations such as heavy maintenance, equipment replacement, upgrading operation. Nowadays, a completely different dimension is emerging with industrial decommissioning operations of nuclear fuel cycle installations: enrichment gaseous diffusion plant, fuel assembly plants, recycling and reprocessing facilities. These activities constitute a major know-how for AREVA. For this reason, the group decided, beginning of 2008, to gather 4 projects in one business unit called Nuclear Site Value Development - a reprocessing plant UP2 400 on AREVA La Hague site, a reprocessing plant UP1 on AREVA Marcoule site, a MOX fuel plant on Cadarache and 2 sites (SICN Veurey and Annecy) that handled GCR fuel fabrication). The main objectives are to enhance the feed back, to contribute to performance improvements, to value professionals and to put innovation forward. The following article will describe in a first part the main decommissioning programmes managed by AREVA NC Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit. The second part will deal with strategic approaches. A more efficient organization with integration of the supply chain and innovation will be part of the main drivers

  15. STANDARD OPERATING PROTOCOLS FOR DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning projects at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites are conducted under project-specific decision documents, which involve extensive preparation time, public comment periods, and regulatory approvals. Often, the decision documents must be initiated at least one year before commencing the decommissioning project, and they are expensive and time consuming to prepare. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a former nuclear weapons production plant at which hazardous substances and wastes were released or disposed during operations. As a result of the releases, RFETS was placed on the National Priorities List in 1989, and is conducting cleanup activities under a federal facilities compliance agreement. Working closely with interested stakeholders and state and federal regulatory agencies, RFETS has developed and implemented an improved process for obtaining the approvals. The key to streamlining the approval process has been the development of sitewide decision documents called Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Standard Operating Protocols or ''RSOPs.'' RSOPs have broad applicability, and could be used instead of project-specific documents. Although no two decommissioning projects are exactly the same and they may vary widely in contamination and other hazards, the basic steps taken for cleanup are usually similar. Because of this, using RSOPs is more efficient than preparing a separate project-specific decision documents for each cleanup action. Over the Rocky Flats cleanup life cycle, using RSOPs has the potential to: (1) Save over 5 million dollars and 6 months on the site closure schedule; (2) Eliminate preparing one hundred and twenty project-specific decision documents; and (3) Eliminate writing seventy-five closure description documents for hazardous waste unit closure and corrective actions

  16. Project gnome decontamination and decommissioning plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents the operational plan for conducting the final decontamination and decommissioning work at the site of the first U.S. nuclear detonation designed specifically for peaceful purposes and the first underground event on the Plowshare Program to take place outside the Nevada Test Site. The plan includes decontamination and decommissioning procedures, radiological guidelines, and the NV concept of operations

  17. Interim Storage Facility decommissioning. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the Interim Storage Facility were completed. Activities included performing a detailed radiation survey of the facility, removing surface and imbedded contamination, excavating and removing the fuel storage cells, restoring the site to natural conditions, and shipping waste to Hanford, Washington, for burial. The project was accomplished on schedule and 30% under budget with no measurable exposure to decommissioning personnel

  18. 76 FR 3837 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... 23, 2010 (75 FR 80697) relating to deductions for contributions to trusts maintained for decommissioning nuclear power plants. DATES: This correction is effective on January 21, 2011, and is applicable... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BF08 Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction...

  19. Survey of decontamination and decommissioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports and articles on decommissioning have been reviewed to determine the current technology status and also attempt to identify potential decommissioning problem areas. It is concluded that technological road blocks, which limited decommissioning facilities in the past have been removed. In general, techniques developed by maintenance in maintaining the facility have been used to decommission facilities. Some of the more promising development underway which will further simplify decommissioning activities are: electrolytic decontamination which simplifies some decontaminating operations; arc saw and vacuum furnace which reduce the volume of metallic contaminated material by a factor of 10; remotely operated plasma torch which reduces personnel exposure; and shaped charges, water cannon and rock splitters which simplify concrete removal. Areas in which published data are limited are detailed costs identifying various components included in the total cost and also the quantity of waste generated during the decommissioning activities. With the increased awareness of decommissioning requirements as specified by licensing requirements, design criteria for new facilities are taking into consideration final decommissioning of buildings. Specific building design features will evolve as designs are evaluated and implemented

  20. Meeting the challenge of BNFL's decommissioning programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the co-ordinated and integrated programme, adopted by BNFL, in the decommissioning of its radioactive plants. It examines BNFL's approach to the challenges posed by the eventual decommissioning of its 120 plants, its overall strategies, the constraints and the progress achieved to date, drawing on real experience from the 22 completed projects and the 24 projects currently underway. (author)

  1. Training of experts on NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents difficulties and problems in training of NPP decommissioning experts in Ukraine. The scientific and technical cluster is offered to be constructed as a territorial association of enterprises and organizations related to NPP decommissioning issues and spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management. The center is to be based on scientific and educational center in Slavutych, satellite city of Chornobyl NPP.

  2. 76 FR 77431 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... that the NRC staff considers acceptable for use in complying with the NRC's Decommissioning Planning... that the NRC staff considers acceptable for use in complying with the NRC's Decommissioning Planning Rule (DPR), which will become effective on December 17, 2012 (76 FR 35511; June 17, 2011). That...

  3. Facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on design features, special equipment, and construction methods useful in the facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors is presented. A wide range of facilitation methods - from improved documentation to special decommissioning tools and techniques - is discussed. In addition, estimates of capital costs, cost savings, and radiation dose reduction associated with these facilitation methods are given

  4. Technical studying on design and manufacturing of the container for low level radioactive solid waste from the KRR 1 and 2 decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design requirement and manufacturing criteria have been proposed on the container for the package, storage and transportation of low level radioactive solid waste from decommissioning of KRR 1 and 2. The structure analysis was carried out based on the design criteria, and the safety of the container was assessed. The container with its capacity of 4m3 was selected for the radioactive solid waste storage. The proposed container was satisfied the criteria of ISO 1496/1 and the packaging standard of Atomic Energy Act. Manufacturing and testing standards of IAEA were also applied to the container. Stress distribution and deformation were analyzed under given condition using ANSYS code, and the maximum stress was verified to be within the yield stress without any structural deformation. From the results of lifting tests which were lifting from the four top corner fittings and fork-lift pockets, it was verified that this container was safe

  5. Technical studying on design and manufacturing of the container for low level radioactive solid waste from the KRR 1 and 2 decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kook; Chung, Un Soo; Yang, Sung Hong; Lee, Dong Gyu; Jung Ki Jung

    2000-12-01

    The design requirement and manufacturing criteria have been proposed on the container for the package, storage and transportation of low level radioactive solid waste from decommissioning of KRR 1 and 2. The structure analysis was carried out based on the design criteria, and the safety of the container was assessed. The container with its capacity of 4m{sup 3} was selected for the radioactive solid waste storage. The proposed container was satisfied the criteria of ISO 1496/1 and the packaging standard of Atomic Energy Act. Manufacturing and testing standards of IAEA were also applied to the container. Stress distribution and deformation were analyzed under given condition using ANSYS code, and the maximum stress was verified to be within the yield stress without any structural deformation. From the results of lifting tests which were lifting from the four top corner fittings and fork-lift pockets, it was verified that this container was safe.

  6. Decommission of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateyama, Takeshi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    The nuclear-powered ship `MUTSU` was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  7. Decommissioning of a University Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the decommissioning of a university cyclotron, the cost estimate provided by a decommissioning company to carry out the entire project was in excess of Pounds 1million. This level of funding was not available, and a more modest budget of Pounds 125 thousand was provided (about US$ 250 000 or Euro 180 000). This made it essential that as much of the work as possible was carried out by existing staff. Whereas existing staff could be trained to draft all the required documentation, complete the characterization survey and deliver some aspects of the decontamination programme, their greatest contribution to the project was in sorting, segregation, measurement, packaging and consignment for disposal of all of the decommissioning wastes. This necessitated provision of additional training to existing operators. At an early stage it was identified that an experienced decommissioning consultant was needed to oversee the project. The Decommissioning Consultant appointed external contractors to carry out all the heavy dismantling and demolition work associated with the project. This work involved: -Assembly of a caged storage area adjacent to the cyclotron to hold the wastes from dismantling and demolition, pending characterization for segregation and disposal by existing staff at the facility; -Removal of the D's and cutting them up in situ ready for characterization for shipment to the low level waste repository; -Removal of all rotating machinery in the adjacent generator house, then dismantling the concrete block and brick wall between the inner vault and the generator house; -Removal of extra shielding supported by girder matrix to assist removal of the concrete block wall. Collect core samples of bricks and blocks for activity estimation by operators working at the facility; -Moving of the resonator into the generator house for dismantling, monitoring and characterization; -Dismantling of ancillary equipment such as beam lines, remote target handling system, vacuum

  8. Utility financial stability and the availability of funds for decommissioning: An analysis of internal and external funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    The NRC is currently developing final rules in the area of decommissioning nuclear facilities. A part of that rulemaking effort is assuring that funds will be available at the time of decommissioning of power reactors. This report provides an update by considering public comments received on the NRC's proposed rule on decommissioning (published February, 1985) and by analyzing the relative level of assurance of internal and external reserves. In its analysis, the report makes use of specific case utility financial situations. The report concludes that from a financial standpoint, with the exception of PSNH, internal reserves currently provide sufficient assurance of funds for decommissioning. The report also concludes that the NRC should recommend changes in bankruptcy laws, including decommissioning obligations in utility prospectuses, and conduct periodic financial reviews of nuclear utilities due to changing economic conditions.

  9. Utility financial stability and the availability of funds for decommissioning: An analysis of internal and external funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC is currently developing final rules in the area of decommissioning nuclear facilities. A part of that rulemaking effort is assuring that funds will be available at the time of decommissioning of power reactors. This report provides an update by considering public comments received on the NRC's proposed rule on decommissioning (published February, 1985) and by analyzing the relative level of assurance of internal and external reserves. In its analysis, the report makes use of specific case utility financial situations. The report concludes that from a financial standpoint, with the exception of PSNH, internal reserves currently provide sufficient assurance of funds for decommissioning. The report also concludes that the NRC should recommend changes in bankruptcy laws, including decommissioning obligations in utility prospectuses, and conduct periodic financial reviews of nuclear utilities due to changing economic conditions

  10. A Prediction on the Unit Cost Estimation for Decommissioning Activities Using the Experienced Data from DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kook; Park, Hee Seong; Choi, Yoon Dong; Song, Chan Ho; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the DECOMMIS (Decommissioning Information Management System) and have been applied for the decommissioning project of the KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), as the meaning of the first decommissioning project in Korea. All information and data which are from the decommissioning activities are input, saved, output and managed in the DECOMMIS. This system was consists of the web server and the database server. The users could be access through a web page, depending on the input, processing and output, and be modified the permissions to do such activities can after the decommissioning activities have created the initial system-wide data is stored. When it could be used the experienced data from DECOMMIS, the cost estimation on the new facilities for the decommissioning planning will be established with the basic frame of the WBS structures and its codes. In this paper, the prediction on the cost estimation through using the experienced data which were store in DECOMMIS was studied. For the new decommissioning project on the nuclear facilities in the future, through this paper, the cost estimation for the decommissioning using the experienced data which were WBS codes, unit-work productivity factors and annual governmental unit labor cost is proposed. These data were from the KRR and UCP decommissioning project. The differences on the WBS code sectors and facility characterization between new objected components and experienced dismantled components was reduces as scaling factors. The study on the establishment the scaling factors and cost prediction for the cost estimation is developing with the algorithms from the productivity data, now.

  11. A Prediction on the Unit Cost Estimation for Decommissioning Activities Using the Experienced Data from DECOMMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the DECOMMIS (Decommissioning Information Management System) and have been applied for the decommissioning project of the KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), as the meaning of the first decommissioning project in Korea. All information and data which are from the decommissioning activities are input, saved, output and managed in the DECOMMIS. This system was consists of the web server and the database server. The users could be access through a web page, depending on the input, processing and output, and be modified the permissions to do such activities can after the decommissioning activities have created the initial system-wide data is stored. When it could be used the experienced data from DECOMMIS, the cost estimation on the new facilities for the decommissioning planning will be established with the basic frame of the WBS structures and its codes. In this paper, the prediction on the cost estimation through using the experienced data which were store in DECOMMIS was studied. For the new decommissioning project on the nuclear facilities in the future, through this paper, the cost estimation for the decommissioning using the experienced data which were WBS codes, unit-work productivity factors and annual governmental unit labor cost is proposed. These data were from the KRR and UCP decommissioning project. The differences on the WBS code sectors and facility characterization between new objected components and experienced dismantled components was reduces as scaling factors. The study on the establishment the scaling factors and cost prediction for the cost estimation is developing with the algorithms from the productivity data, now

  12. Case studies in canonical stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafardi, N P; Hite, J

    1985-11-01

    In facing the challenges that confront Catholic health care today, it is important to know which civil law forms will assist in preserving the Church's ministry. The proper meshing of civil law and canon law thus provides a vehicle to strengthen the apostolate's work. The case studies presented here suggest several means of applying the principles in the new Code of Canon Law to three potentially problematic situations: the merger of a Catholic and non-Catholic hospital, the leasing of a Catholic hospital to an operating company, and the use of the multicorporate format. PMID:10274590

  13. Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this coordinated research programme (CRP) were to promote the exchange of information on the practical experience by Member States in decontamination and decommissioning. The scope of the programme included several areas of decontamination and decommissioning rather than focusing on a single aspect of it, in line with recommendation of the experts who participated in Phase 1 of the CRP. Experts felt that this format would generate better awareness of decontamination and decommissioning and would be more effective vehicle for the exchange of information by stimulating broader discussion on all aspects of decontamination and decommissioning. Special emphasis was given to the development of principles and methodologies to facilitate decommissioning and to the new methods and techniques for optimization of decontamination and disassembly of equipment. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. Decommissioning of nuclear research facilities at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), two research reactors (KRR-1 and KRR-2) and one uranium conversion plant (UCP) are being decommissioned. The main reason of the decommissioning was the diminishing utilities; the start of a new research reactor, HANARO, and the higher conversion cost than that of international market for the UCP. Another reason of the decommissioning was prevention from spreading radioactive materials due to the deterioration of the facilities. Two separate projects have already been started and are carried out as planned. The KAERI selected several strategies, considering the small scale of the projects, the internal standards in KAERI, and the future prospects of the decommissioning projects in Korea. In this paper, the current status of the decommissioning including the waste management and the technology development will be explained

  15. Decommissioning progress at Fort St Vrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station in Colorado in the United States is well along in Decommissioning for release of the site from its Nuclear Regulatory Commission license. This decommissioning is being performed under a fixed price contract between the owner, Public Service Company of Colorado and a team of Westinghouse and Morrison-Knudsen. This paper will discuss the innovative decommissioning technique of filling the gas cooled reactor with water for shielding and contamination control and the other practical and readily available technologies used. This Decommissioning is demonstrating that a full size commercial nuclear reactor can be successfully decommissioned with a reasonable schedule, cost, and radiation dose to the work force. (Author)

  16. Asbestos removal in Shippingport Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is being performed under contract to the DOE by the General Electric Company and its integrated subcontractor, MK-Ferguson Company, as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor (DOC). During the planning of this project, it was found that asbestos was the primary insulating material which was used on the nuclear steam supply system and the plant heating system. The original decommissioning plan required that each subcontractor remove the asbestos from the particular component(s) they had to remove. However, since removal of the radioactivity-contaminated asbestos would require special procedures and worker training, the original decommissioning plan was modified so that a single subcontractor removed all of the asbestos prior to other decommissioning tasks. IT Corporation was selected as the asbestos removal subcontractor. Their approach to the project is described

  17. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Reclaimed Polyurethane Panels: The Case of Diverting Decommissioned Cold Storage Panels From Landfills and Recycling Into Three Forms of Insulative Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Costanza, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term thermal performance of polyurethane insulated cold storage panels and the environmental and economic impact of recycling such panels when taken out of service in lieu of discarding them in landfills. It is estimated, as of 2015, over 180 million square feet of insulated cold storage panels are manufactured annually in the U.S. The panels are most frequently constructed of closed-cell, low density polyurethane insulation utilizing HCF 245fa and HCF 1...

  18. Decommissioning of a Neutron Generator in Pirna, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron generator facility was built in the late 1960s for the Department of Physics of the University of Applied Science (Technical University). It was situated in the second floor of an old industrial building in Pirna. The laboratory contained a very big generator room with accelerator, energy suppliers, a glove box for 3H target removal, experimental instruments and a small workshop. Besides, there were rooms for controlling the generator, storage for radioactive substances and experimental equipment. All these rooms were signed as controlled area. The generator was mainly used for experiments with neutron activation and for educational studies. The research results were used in the former German Democratic Republic nuclear research and industrial development. The facility was closed a few years after Germany's reunification because the permission to operate the generator had expired. The decision to decommission the facility was made in 2005. At this time only two employees of the generator facility were at work. One of them was close to retirement. Time was running out to get at least a minimum of information about the generator. So Dresden University decided to issue a tender for decommissioning including: -Dismount the generator; -Separate decommissioning generated materials into free release, restricted release and radioactive waste categories; -Condition radioactive waste; -Decontaminate the surfaces of the laboratory. The aim was the complete release of the facility out of the atomic law. The project was managed by two companies. One was responsible for decommissioning, radio protection and radioactive waste management. The other was responsible for the analytics and sample taking and the release of the laboratory rooms. Because 3H was as main nuclide the analytics were complicated and time consuming. So the decommissioning was planned not as in one continuous phase but step by step. The whole decommissioning process including waste management lasted

  19. Decommissioning of the BR3 reactor: status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR3 plant at Mol in Belgium built at the end of the fifties was the first PWR plant built outside the USA. The reactor had a small net power output (10 MWe) but comprised all the loops and features of a commercial PWR plant. The BR3 plant was operated with the main objective of testing advanced PWR fuels under irradiation conditions similar to those encountered in large commercial PWR plants. The reactor was started in 1962 and shut down in 1987 after 25 years of continuous operation. Since 1989, SCK.CEN is decommissioning the BR3 PWR research reactor. The dismantling of the metallic components including reactor pressure vessel and internals is completed and extensively reported in the literature. The dismantling of auxiliary components and the decontamination of parts of the infrastructure are now going on. The decommissioning progress is continuously monitored and costs and strategy are regularly reassessed. The first part of the paper describes the main results and lessons learned from the reassessment exercises performed in 1994, 1999, 2004 and 2007. Impacts of changes in legal framework on the decommissioning costs will be addressed. These changes concern e.g. licensing aspects, clearance levels, waste management... The middle part of the paper discusses the management of activated and/or contaminated concrete. The costing exercise performed in 1995 highlighted that the management of activated and contaminated concrete is the second main cost item after the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel and internals. Different possible solutions were studied. These are evacuation as radioactive waste with or without supercompaction, recycling this 'radioactive' grout or concrete for conditioning of radioactive waste e.g. conditioning of metallic waste. The paper will give the results of the cost-benefit analysis made to select the solution retained. The last part of the paper will discuss the end goal of the decommissioning of the BR3. In the final

  20. A parathyroid scintigraphy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, Desiree [UCD School of Diagnostic Imaging, St Anthony' s Campus, Herbert Avenue, Dublin 4 (Ireland)]. E-mail: desiree.oleary@ucd.ie

    2005-05-01

    Background: There has been much debate concerning the most suitable protocol for parathyroid scintigraphy; the merits of various radiopharmaceuticals versus the correct imaging protocol to visualise both ectopic and anatomically placed adenomas against the various equipment choices have been debated. Aim: To demonstrate, through the use of a case study, the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion. Method: Use is made of Tc99mMIBI, full field chest scintigraphy, a clearly defined imaging protocol and SPECT imaging to locate ectopic parathyroid tissue in a female patient with significant symptoms of parathyroid hyperfunction. Results: A single hyperfunctioning adenoma is located in the pre-carinal area of the mediastinum. Using a radioguided surgical technique the hyperfunctioning tissue is excised and confirmed by histopathology. Conclusion: Whilst a dramatic reduction in patient symptoms was not seen immediately in this patient, the symptoms of the illness have been subsiding since January 2003. This case study demonstrates the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion.

  1. Radiation protection aspects of dismantling and decommissioning of Uranium Mining of Andujar (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzes the radiation protection aspects during the decommissioning and dismantling of uranium mining in Andujar (Spain). The application during dismantling's mining, the transfer factor of natural radioactive isotopes and the application during the sterile movements are presented

  2. Decommissioning of nuclear electric's gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Electric (NE) is the nuclear successor to the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) of the United Kingdom. The Reference Case Decommissioning Strategy inherited by NE from the CEGB shows that decommissioning was technically possible, safe and added little to the unit cost of nuclear generation. Nevertheless, the total discounted liability amounted to 3,500 million pounds at 1991 money values. A complete strategy re-evaluation is discussed, resulting in the selection of a proposed new strategy, Deferred Safestore, which can reduce this liability to 2,100 million pounds. Proposals for the adoption of this strategy have been made to the Government and the UK regulatory authorities. (author) 3 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  3. National Strategies for Waste Management and Decommissioning and Regulatory Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are critical issues for public perception of any nuclear development project. There are already some successful cases of completed decommissioning projects as well as up to date disposal facilities for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW); however, for obvious reasons, we still could not refer to any disposal site released after a successful administrative control period. With respect to high level radioactive waste (HLW), including spent fuel or vitrified reprocessing waste, no deep underground repository is even at the construction stage. Thus, there are still many open issues creating serious regulatory challenges. Many international activities are focused on these challenges, including relevant networking and joint research projects. The Joint Convention review process could provide an effective tool to monitor achievements and avoid dead ends. (author)

  4. The decommissioning NPP A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project of decommissioning NPP A-1 is split into 4 main groups of tasks. Tasks in group 1 are focused on the solution of selected problems that have immediate impact on the environment. It is mainly the solution of problems in the building of cleaning station of wastage water and in the building with underground storage tanks for wastage water and solid radwaste, including the prevention of wash-out and penetration of contaminated soil from these buildings into surface and underground waters. A part of addressing these tasks is a controlled of generated radwaste-predominatly sludge with various physical and chemical properties. Tasks in group 2- following the removal of spent fuel-are focused on the management of all radwaste in the long-term storage facility, in the short-term storage facility, equipment of transport and technology part, equipment in hot cells. Tasks in group 3 are focused on development of technology procedures for treatment and conditioning of sludge, contaminated soils and concrete crush, saturated ionexes and ash from incineration facility of the Bohunice radwaste treatment and conditioning complex. Tasks in group 4 are focused on the methodology. And technical support for particular activities applicable during decommissioning NPP

  5. Uranium hexafluoride production plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research - IPEN is a research and development institution, located in a densely populated area, in the city of Sao Paulo. The nuclear fuel cycle was developed from the Yellow Cake to the enrichment and reconversion at IPEN. After this phase, all the technology was transferred to private enterprises and to the Brazilian Navy (CTM/SP). Some plants of the fuel cycle were at semi-industrial level, with a production over 20 kg/h. As a research institute, IPEN accomplished its function of the fuel cycle, developing and transferring technology. With the necessity of space for the implementation of new projects, the uranium hexafluoride (UF6) production plant was chosen, since it had been idle for many years and presented potential leaking risks, which could cause environmental aggression and serious accidents. This plant decommission required accurate planning, as this work had not been carried out in Brazil before, for this type of facility, and there were major risks involving gaseous hydrogen fluoride aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF) both highly corrosive. Evaluations were performed and special equipment was developed, aiming to prevent leaking and avoid accidents. During the decommissioning work, the CNEN safety standards were obeyed for the whole operation. The environmental impact was calculated, showing to be not relevant.The radiation doses, after the work, were within the limits for the public and the area was released for new projects. (author)

  6. Decommissioning of U.S. uranium production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1980 to 1993, the domestic production of uranium declined from almost 44 million pounds U3O8 to about 3 million pounds. This retrenchment of the U.S. uranium industry resulted in the permanent closing of many uranium-producing facilities. Current low uranium prices, excess world supply, and low expectations for future uranium demand indicate that it is unlikely existing plants will be reopened. Because of this situation, these facilities eventually will have to be decommissioned. The Uranium Mill Tailings and Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) vests the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with overall responsibility for establishing environmental standards for decommissioning of uranium production facilities. UMTRCA also gave the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) the responsibility for licensing and regulating uranium production and related activities, including decommissioning. Because there are many issues associated with decommissioning-environmental, political, and financial-this report will concentrate on the answers to three questions: (1) What is required? (2) How is the process implemented? (3) What are the costs? Regulatory control is exercised principally through the NRC licensing process. Before receiving a license to construct and operate an uranium producing facility, the applicant is required to present a decommissioning plan to the NRC. Once the plan is approved, the licensee must post a surety to guarantee that funds will be available to execute the plan and reclaim the site. This report by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) represents the most comprehensive study on this topic by analyzing data on 33 (out of 43) uranium production facilities located in Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Washington

  7. Decommissioning of U.S. uranium production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    From 1980 to 1993, the domestic production of uranium declined from almost 44 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} to about 3 million pounds. This retrenchment of the U.S. uranium industry resulted in the permanent closing of many uranium-producing facilities. Current low uranium prices, excess world supply, and low expectations for future uranium demand indicate that it is unlikely existing plants will be reopened. Because of this situation, these facilities eventually will have to be decommissioned. The Uranium Mill Tailings and Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) vests the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with overall responsibility for establishing environmental standards for decommissioning of uranium production facilities. UMTRCA also gave the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) the responsibility for licensing and regulating uranium production and related activities, including decommissioning. Because there are many issues associated with decommissioning-environmental, political, and financial-this report will concentrate on the answers to three questions: (1) What is required? (2) How is the process implemented? (3) What are the costs? Regulatory control is exercised principally through the NRC licensing process. Before receiving a license to construct and operate an uranium producing facility, the applicant is required to present a decommissioning plan to the NRC. Once the plan is approved, the licensee must post a surety to guarantee that funds will be available to execute the plan and reclaim the site. This report by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) represents the most comprehensive study on this topic by analyzing data on 33 (out of 43) uranium production facilities located in Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

  8. Preparing for future decommissioning of NPPs in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden foresees phasing out nuclear power when the existing reactors reach the end of their technical lifetime. Construction of new reactors is not intended. In this paper today's activities and preparation for future decommissioning of commercial power reactors are discussed. As well as the life extension, an early stop of a reactor has to be considered also. In Sweden, one reactor at Barsebaeck has already been stopped, due to political reasons. At some stage the economy of operating a commercial facility will be such that a decision is likely to be taken to stop production and eventually the facility will have to be decommissioned. In the planning of future activities in waste management and decommissioning a life time of approximately 40 years is assumed. The commercial reactors in Sweden were put into operation between 1972 and 1985. This means that the first reactor will reach the age of 40 years in the year 2012. When the fuel has been removed from the site dismantling activities may start. Before any major dismantling work starts a repository for radioactive, short-lived, waste has to be available. The long-lived waste (core components and control rods) is planned to be stored before disposal until the last reactor has been dismantled. A major task today is to make sure that there is enough money available for all decommissioning activities, including the management of waste. The utilities have to set aside money in a separate fund. The paper discusses policies and strategies for the decommissioning e.g. early or deferred dismantling, techniques to be used and categorisation of waste. The division of responsibilities between SKB and the utilities are discussed; SKB is responsible for generic technical and economical studies and for the disposal of waste while the utilities will be responsible for the actual dismantling, including necessary permissions. (author)

  9. Simulation of Groundwater Contaminant Transport at a Decommissioned Landfill Site—A Case Study, Tainan City, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Shi; Tu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Shih-Jen; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Contaminant transport in subsurface water is the major pathway for contamination spread from contaminated sites to groundwater supplies, to remediate a contaminated site. The aim of this paper was to set up the groundwater contaminant transport model for the Wang-Tien landfill site, in southwestern Taiwan, which exhibits high contamination of soil and groundwater and therefore represents a potential threat for the adjacent Hsu-Hsian Creek. Groundwater Modeling System software, which is the most sophisticated groundwater modeling tool available today, was used to numerically model groundwater flow and contaminant transport. In the simulation, the total mass of pollutants in the aquifer increased by an average of 72% (65% for ammonium nitrogen and 79% for chloride) after 10 years. The simulation produced a plume of contaminated groundwater that extends 80 m in length and 20 m in depth northeastward from the landfill site. Although the results show that the concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and chlorides in most parts are low, they are 3.84 and 467 mg/L, respectively, in the adjacent Hsu-Hsian Creek. PMID:27153078

  10. Planning of the BN-350 reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental and commercial BN-350 NPP equipped with a fast neutron sodium cooled reactor is located in Kazakhstan near the Aktau city on the Caspian Sea coast. It was commissioned in 1973 and intended for weapon-grade plutonium production and as stream supply to a water desalination facility and the turbines of the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex. Taking into account technical, financial and political issues, the Government of Kazakhstan enacted the Decree no. 456 'On Decommissioning of the Reactor BN-350 in the Aktau City of the Mangystau Region'. Because the decision on reactor decommissioning was adopted before the end of scheduled operation (2003), the plan to decommission the BN-350 reactor has not yet been developed. To determine the activities required for ensuring reactor safety and in preparation for decommission in the period prior, the development and ensuring approval by the Republic of Kazakhstan Government of the decommissioning plan, a 'Plan of Priority Actions for BN-350 Reactor Decommissioning' was developed and approved. Actions provided for in the plan include the following: Development of BN-350 Reactor Decommissioning Plan; Accident prevention during the period of transition; Unloading nuclear fuel from reactor and draining the coolant from the heat exchange circuits. Decommission is defined as a complex of administrative and technical actions taken to allow the removal of some or all of regulatory controls over a nuclear facility. These actions involve decontamination, dismantling and removal of radioactive materials, waste, components and structures. They are carried out to achieve a progressive and systematic reduction in radiological hazards and are undertaken on the basis of planning and assessment in order to ensure safety decommissioning operations. In accordance with the decision of Kazakhstan Government, three basic stages for BN-350 reactor decommissioning are envisaged: First stage - Placement of BN-350 into long-term storage

  11. Government Assigns New Supervisory Task. Safe Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Government decided to shutdown one of the two Barsebaeck reactors in February of 1998, it presented SKI with a task that came much earlier than expected; the supervision of the decommissioning of a reactor. As a result of proposals presented in Parliament, SKI began the formulation of a long-term strategy in 1997 for the inspection of a nuclear plant during the decommissioning process. As a preliminary task, SKI started a research programme dealing with the potential risks associated with the transition from normal operations through shutdown to final deconstruction of the power plant. Emphasis was laid on safety culture issues and on questions of organization, as opposed to an earlier stress on the purely technical aspects of decommissioning. After a long period of uncertainty, following much discussion, in July 1998 a Government decision was finally reached to shutdown the first reactor at Barsebaeck. This was carried out in November 1999. It is still uncertain as to when the other reactor will be decommissioned; a decision is expected at the earliest in 2004. This uncertainty, resulting from the prolonged decision making process, could be detrimental to the safety culture on the site; motivation could diminish, and key personnel could be lost. Decommissioning is a new phase in the life cycle of a plant, giving rise to new inspection issues of supervision. During the period of uncertainty, while awaiting SKI has identified ten key areas, dealing with the safety culture of the organization, in connection with the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1. 1. Obtaining and retaining staff competence during decommissioning; 2. Sustaining organizational memory; 3. Identifying key organizational functions and management skills that are critical during the transition from operations to decommissioning. 4. Sustaining organizational viability and accountability for decommissioning; 5. Sustaining motivation and trust in management of dismantlement; 6. Overseeing

  12. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form

  13. The DR-2 decommissioning project, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DR-2 reactor of the Risoe National Laboratory was closed down in 1975, the fuel removed, the circuits drained and the reactor sealed. In 1997 the DR-2 Study Project was initiated to determine the remaining radioactivity in the reactor and to plan the final decommissioning. So far all movable components have been removed from the reactor tank, measured and stored. The same is true, with two exceptions, for the hold-up tank room and work is under way on the components of the igloo at the thermal column. Later the thermal column, beam tubes and the interior of the primary circuit will be examined and holes will be drilled through the concrete shield. The lessons learned during the project are discussed. (author)

  14. Large packages for reactor decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out jointly by the Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith (now called the Winfrith Technology Centre), Windscale Laboratory and Ove Arup and Partners. The work involved the investigation of the design of large transport containers for intermediate level reactor decommissioning waste, ie waste which requires shielding, and is aimed at European requirements (ie for both LWR and gas cooled reactors). It proposes a design methodology for such containers covering the whole lifetime of a waste disposal package. The design methodology presented takes account of various relevant constraints. Both large self shielded and returnable shielded concepts were developed. The work was generic, rather than specific; the results obtained, and the lessons learned, remain to be applied in practice

  15. Decommissioning of units 1 - 4 at Kozloduy nuclear power plant in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safety and security are absolute priorities for the European Union countries and this applies not only to nuclear power plants in operation but also to decommissioning. In terms of my technical background and my working experience in the field of licensing and environmental impact assessment during the decommissioning of Units 1 to 4 at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) in Bulgaria, I decided to present the strategy for decommissioning of Units 1 to 4 at KNPP which was selected and followed to achieve safe and effective decommissioning process. The selected strategy in each case must meet the legislative framework, to ensure safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, to provide adequate funding and to lead to positive socio-economic impact. The activities during the decommissioning generate large volume of waste. In order to minimize their costs and environmental impact it should be given a serious consideration to the choice, the development and the implementation of the most adequate process for treatment and the most appropriate measurement techniques. The licensing process of the decommissioning activities is extremely important and need to cope with all safety concerns and ensure optimal waste management. (authors)

  16. The decommissioning plan of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, M.; Matsuo, R.; Fujikawa, S.; Nomura, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the review about the decommissioning plan and present state of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu. The decommissioning of the Mutsu is carried out by Removal and Isolation method. The procedure of the decommissioning works is presented in this paper. The decommissioning works started in April, 1992 and it takes about four years after her last experimental voyage. (author).

  17. The decommissioning plan of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the review about the decommissioning plan and present state of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu. The decommissioning of the Mutsu is carried out by Removal and Isolation method. The procedure of the decommissioning works is presented in this paper. The decommissioning works started in April, 1992 and it takes about four years after her last experimental voyage. (author)

  18. Social aspects of nuclear power plant decommissioning at the Greifswald site in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normal situation in Germany is that private electricity companies, such as E.ON, RWE, Bayernwerke and EnBW, are responsible for the costs and implementation of decommissioning of the NPPs that they own. The private companies have their own decommissioning approach and financing tools. This situation applies, for example, to the Wuergassen plant In addition, there are some Government owned organizations that are responsible for nuclear decommissioning sites. The largest one is Energiewerke Nord (EWN), which covers the large Greifswald site, the AVR research reactor and, since February 2006, the reprocessing plant (WAK) at the Karlsruhe site. EWN is owned by the Federal Republic of Germany (Ministry of Finance). The Federal Ministry of Finance provides EWN with the funds necessary to deliver the decommissioning programme and the tasks in that programme. The shareholder structure of EWN can be seen (drawn prior to the takeover of WAK). The German Federal Ministry of the Environment is in charge of all licensing aspects, to ensure realization of the decommissioning in a safe and secure way. The responsible authorities are the Ministries of Environment in the 16 German states. In the case of EWN, this is Mecklenburg/Western- Pommerania. In the context of EWN's special licensing approach, as described in the next section, there is a close and practical cooperation between EWN as decommissioning operator and the above mentioned authorities. In this context, EWN sought to establish a decommissioning strategy that recognized the socioeconomic effects of plant shutdown and make decommissioning friendly as described in the next section

  19. Liabilities identification and long-term management decommissioning of nuclear installations in Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    operator to complete the radwaste and spent fuel management. All these facts resulted to general acceleration of decommissioning activities and decommissioning planing. As a consequence of historical approach, various technical objections and also for collocation of decommissioned facilities with operating ones, the preferred decommissioning option is deferred dismantling. The reduction of range and duration of safe enclosure from confinement to core structures and from 70 to 30 years was the result of changing radwaste management strategy. Currently preliminary decommissioning studies for WWERs are being updated including the optimisation of the safe enclosure /differed dismantling duration, in accordance with the full set of parameters

  20. Compilation and analysis of national and international OPEX or safe enclosure prior to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around the world, a large number of aging nuclear plants are approaching final shutdown. While this is largely driven by plants reaching the end of their design life, economic factors such as low gas prices (in North America) and the smaller unit size of early commercial reactors are important contributors to this trend. In several instances, economic pressures have resulted in a need for a more rapid transition to Safe Enclosure than originally anticipated. Thus plans for this transition taking into account experience with Safe Enclosure periods of varying lengths are being actively prepared in many jurisdictions. The IAEA as well as other national and international authorities have long recognized the importance of the topic of Safe Enclosure and provided guidance [1-7], and the IAEA has recently undertaken a study of 'Lessons Learned from Deferred Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities' [8]. Beginning with preliminary experience from Canadian CANDU reactors in extended shutdown or safe enclosure, this paper aims to compare this experience with the larger pool of experience from the international community to: - classify the main issues or themes, - examine means to mitigate these, and - formulate general measures of 'good practice'. Compilation of this experience represents the first steps towards a comprehensive, searchable database potentially of use to many in the decommissioning community. Tabulation and analysis of the complete list (comprising approximately 70 cases) has provided the 'short list' of issues presented. Examples of the most important listed issues are discussed. The authors' objective is to stimulate interest in extending this compilation. In this way it will continue to grow and benefit all those preparing for transition to decommissioning. (authors)