WorldWideScience

Sample records for case petroleum engineering

  1. Engineering Students' Views of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study from Petroleum Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica M; McClelland, Carrie J; Smith, Nicole M

    2017-12-01

    The mining and energy industries present unique challenges to engineers, who must navigate sometimes competing responsibilities and codes of conduct, such as personal senses of right and wrong, professional ethics codes, and their employers' corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the current dominant framework used by industry to conceptualize firms' responsibilities to their stakeholders, yet has it plays a relatively minor role in engineering ethics education. In this article, we report on an interdisciplinary pedagogical intervention in a petroleum engineering seminar that sought to better prepare engineering undergraduate students to critically appraise the strengths and limitations of CSR as an approach to reconciling the interests of industry and communities. We find that as a result of the curricular interventions, engineering students were able to expand their knowledge of the social, rather than simply environmental and economic dimensions of CSR. They remained hesitant, however, in identifying the links between those social aspects of CSR and their actual engineering work. The study suggests that CSR may be a fruitful arena from which to illustrate the profoundly sociotechnical dimensions of the engineering challenges relevant to students' future careers.

  2. Job Prospects for Petroleum Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Describes petroleum engineering as one area in industry where job opportunities are few but where the worst of the declines has been seen. Discusses the causes of the decline. Lists several areas where petroleum engineers have found alternatives including environmental projects, water supply projects, and computer applications. (CW)

  3. Application of Advanced Materials in Petroleum Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gufan; Di, Weina; Wang, Minsheng

    With the background of increasing requirements on the petroleum engineering technology from more high demanding exploration targets, global oil companies and oil service companies are making more efforts on both R&D and application of new petroleum engineering technology. Advanced materials always have a decisive role in the functionality of a new product. Technology transplantation has become the important means of innovation in oil and gas industry. Here, we mainly discuss the properties and scope of application of several advanced materials. Based on the material requirements in petroleum engineering, we provide several candidates for downhole electronics protection, drilling fluid additives, downhole tools, etc. Based on the analysis of petroleum engineering technology characteristics, this paper made analysis and research on such advanced materials as new insulation materials, functional gradient materials, self-healing polymers, and introduced their application prospect in petroleum engineering in terms of specific characteristics.

  4. Offshore petroleum engineering task force report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelokke, M.

    1999-05-01

    The Offshore Petroleum Engineering Task Force was established in July 1998 in response to concerns about Newfoundland and Labrador's share of offshore petroleum engineering activity, with the aim of determining the current capability of the local sector, the demand for such companies and individuals until the year 2010, their capability to grow over that time-frame, and requirements in order to achieve that growth. The report summarizes the analysis undertaken by the Task Force as well as the conclusions it reached and associated recommendations. Section two provides an overview of the offshore engineering activity, including its origins, structure, and key success factors, and its also provides a profile of the industry, internationally, in Canada and in Newfoundland. Section three presents an analysis of the future demand for offshore engineering in Newfoundland until 2010, based on three development scenarios. Section four based on a Consulting Engineers of Newfoundland and Labrador (CENL) survey, establishes the present offshore engineering capacity and capabilities within the province. Section five examines current education and training programs and their ability to respond to future demands. Section six summarizes the conclusions of the analysis and presents recommendations designed to facilitate and promote the development of the local offshore engineering industry. 6 figs

  5. A research agenda for academic petroleum engineering programs. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calhoun, J.C. Jr.

    1990-03-31

    The development of a research agenda should be a direct way of portraying the scope of petroleum engineering, of identifying the critical technological issues faced by the profession,of elucidating the gaps between the existing research resources and the needs. and of outlining a program of research through which the petroleum engineering departments can be collectively of maximum service. Such an agenda would be of value to the profession of petroleum engineering, to industry and to government agencies, as well as to the faculty and students of the petroleum engineering departments. The purposes of the activity that led to this report, therefore, were to develop a statement to serve as a beginning research agenda for the petroleum engineering academic community; to bring together representatives of the petroleum engineering academic community to recognize the importance of developing a consensus posture with respect to research; and to provide a document that will assist in portraying to industry, government agencies and others the problems and needs of the petroleum engineering departments for conducting research. Contents of this report include; introduction; the background; the scope of petroleum engineering research; priority research topics and technological issues; non-technological research issues; and conclusions and recommendations.

  6. A research agenda for academic petroleum engineering programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calhoun, J.C. Jr.

    1990-03-31

    The development of a research agenda should be a direct way of portraying the scope of petroleum engineering, of identifying the critical technological issues faced by the profession,of elucidating the gaps between the existing research resources and the needs. and of outlining a program of research through which the petroleum engineering departments can be collectively of maximum service. Such an agenda would be of value to the profession of petroleum engineering, to industry and to government agencies, as well as to the faculty and students of the petroleum engineering departments. The purposes of the activity that led to this report, therefore, were to develop a statement to serve as a beginning research agenda for the petroleum engineering academic community; to bring together representatives of the petroleum engineering academic community to recognize the importance of developing a consensus posture with respect to research; and to provide a document that will assist in portraying to industry, government agencies and others the problems and needs of the petroleum engineering departments for conducting research. Contents of this report include; introduction; the background; the scope of petroleum engineering research; priority research topics and technological issues; non-technological research issues; and conclusions and recommendations.

  7. Statistics for Petroleum Engineers and Geoscientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.L.; Lake, L.W.; Corbett, P.W.M.; Goggin, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Geostatistics is a common tool in reservoir characterisation. Several texts discuss the subject, however this book differs in its approach and audience from currently available material. Written from the basics of statistics it covers only those topics that are needed for the two goals of the text: to exhibit the diagnostic potential of statistics and to introduce the important features of statistical modeling. This revised edition contains expanded discussions of some materials, in particular conditional probabilities, Bayes Theorem, correlation, and Kriging. The coverage of estimation, variability, and modeling applications have been updated. Seventy examples illustrate concepts and show the role of geology for providing important information for data analysis and model building. Four reservoir case studies conclude the presentation, illustrating the application and importance of the earlier material. This book can help petroleum professionals develop more accurate models, leading to lower sampling costs

  8. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering: 1859-1959.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a description of the course "From Petroleum to Penicillin" which examines chemical engineering and the chemical industry from a scientific, social and symbolic view. Explains the goals, organization, and requirements of the course. Lists case study and lecture topics. (ML)

  9. Petroleum Diesel Fuel and Linseed Oil Mixtures as Engine Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The actual problem is the use of alternative biofuels in automotive diesel engines. Insufficiently studied are the indicators of toxicity of exhaust gases of these engines operating on biofuel. The aim of the study is to identify indicators of the toxicity of exhaust gases when using of petroleum diesel fuel and linseed oil mixtures as a fuel for automotive diesel engines. Physical and chemical properties of linseed oil and its mixtures with petroleum diesel fuel are considered. Experimental researches of D-245.12C diesel are carried out on mixtures of diesel fuel and corn oil with a different composition. An opportunity of exhaust toxicity indexes improvement using these mixtures as a fuel for automobiles engine is shown.

  10. The world economy of petroleum products and the strategy of a petroleum company from exporting country: Cases of SONATRACH (Algeria), KPC (Kuwait), PEMEX (Mexico), PDVSA (Venezuela). Second volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preure, M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis contains 2 volumes. In this second volume, the author describes the industrial and technological developments and the strategy of petroleum companies in exporting countries. The main industrial strategies studied are national integration strategy in a planned economy (case of Algeria) or in a controlled-liberal economy (case of Mexico) and international integration strategies to the lower part of petroleum industry and external growth (cases of Kuwait and Venezuela). Technological strategies studied are development of a national engineering, information, research programs/ development and innovation. The last chapter takes stock of research and development programs for petroleum products (case of Mexico) . 258 refs., 103 tabs

  11. Department of Petroleum Engineering and Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering annual report, 1990--1991 academic year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin is one of more than 20 such departments in the United States and more than 40 worldwide. The department has more than 20 faculty members and, as of the fall of 1990, 146 undergraduate and 156 graduate students. During the 1990--91 academic year, undergraduate enrollment is up slightly from the several downturns that began in 1986; graduate enrollment continues to increase, significantly in the number of Ph.D. candidates enrolled. The 1990--91 academic year was one of consolidation of gains. A remote teaching program in the Midland-Odessa area was initiated. During 1991, the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (CPGE) continued its large, diversified research activities related to oil, gas and geopressured/geothermal energy production, energy and mineral resources analysis, and added new research projects in other areas such as groundwater remediation. Many of these research projects included interdisciplinary efforts involving faculty, research scientists and graduate students in chemistry, mathematics, geology, geophysics, engineering mechanics, chemical engineering, microbiology and other disciplines. Several projects were undertaken in cooperation with either the Bureau of Economic Geology or the Institute for Geophysics at The University of Texas at Austin. Collaborative research projects with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rice University, and Sandia National Laboratory were also initiated. About 43 companies from seven countries around the world continued to provide the largest portion of research funding to CPGE.

  12. Department of Petroleum Engineering and Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering annual report, 1990--1991 academic year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The Department of Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin is one of more than 20 such departments in the United States and more than 40 worldwide. The department has more than 20 faculty members and, as of the fall of 1990, 146 undergraduate and 156 graduate students. During the 1990--91 academic year, undergraduate enrollment is up slightly from the several downturns that began in 1986; graduate enrollment continues to increase, significantly in the number of Ph.D. candidates enrolled. The 1990--91 academic year was one of consolidation of gains. A remote teaching program in the Midland-Odessa area was initiated. During 1991, the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (CPGE) continued its large, diversified research activities related to oil, gas and geopressured/geothermal energy production, energy and mineral resources analysis, and added new research projects in other areas such as groundwater remediation. Many of these research projects included interdisciplinary efforts involving faculty, research scientists and graduate students in chemistry, mathematics, geology, geophysics, engineering mechanics, chemical engineering, microbiology and other disciplines. Several projects were undertaken in cooperation with either the Bureau of Economic Geology or the Institute for Geophysics at The University of Texas at Austin. Collaborative research projects with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rice University, and Sandia National Laboratory were also initiated. About 43 companies from seven countries around the world continued to provide the largest portion of research funding to CPGE.

  13. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250 kW...

  14. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  15. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. 86.1309-90 Section 86.1309-90 Protection of Environment...-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines. (a)(1) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in... gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled, liquefied petroleum gas-fueled or methanol-fueled engines. In the CVS...

  16. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum extraction and reservoir engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Back, L. H.; Berdahl, C. M.; Collins, E. E., Jr.; Gordon, P. G.; Houseman, J.; Humphrey, M. F.; Hsu, G. C.; Ham, J. D.; Marte, J. E.; hide

    1977-01-01

    Through contacts with the petroleum industry, the petroleum service industry, universities and government agencies, important petroleum extraction problems were identified. For each problem, areas of aerospace technology that might aid in its solution were also identified, where possible. Some of the problems were selected for further consideration. Work on these problems led to the formulation of specific concepts as candidate for development. Each concept is addressed to the solution of specific extraction problems and makes use of specific areas of aerospace technology.

  17. Engineering geology studies in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Crory, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Engineering geology studies were conducted in direct support of the exploration program in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska. The studies included laboratory and field tests and observations to address design and construction problems of airfields, roads, drill pads and foundations, and to evaluate their actual performance. Permafrost containing large amounts of near surface ground ice as wedges, masses, and intergranular ice, required that all construction activity not disturb the thermal regime of the ground surface, which could lead to thaw of permafrost and ground subsidence. Summer activity, therefore was not allowable, yet the winter climate was so harsh that winter work was slow and inefficient. To allow summer operations at well sites planned for all year activity, it was necessary to adapt existing techniques for arctic construction and to devise new ones. The design and construction of facilities at the deep exploration wells at Inigok, Tunalik, and Lisburne posed the greatest challenge. These sites, requiring a year or more to drill, could only be attempted if continuous access to drilling and logistic supplies could be assured throughout the year, including the possibility of bringing in another drill rig, in the event of a blowout. Thus all-seasons airstrips were required at these wells. Sufficient quantities of local gravel were not readily available at the Inigok and Tunalik sites to construct the airstrips with the required 6 feet or more of gravel to prevent the underlying permafrost from thawing. Therefore, insulation was used to maintain the subbase of local sands in a continuously frozen state, which in turn was overlain by 15 inches of gravel or sandy gravel. Tests at the U.S. Army Waterways Experimental Station defined the minimum thickness of gravel required above the insulation to provide the desired bearing capacity for the C-130 type aircraft without crushing the insulation. Field testing also included the evaluation of another design

  18. Monitoring of surface deformation via InSAR imaging for petroleum engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.; Zhang, X. [National Key Lab of LIESMARS, (China)

    2004-07-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar imaging (InSAR) is emerging as a method of monitoring minute deformations of the ground surface. Inversion of the surface deformation is also being developed to understand the casual effect underground. These techniques therefore have potential applications in petroleum engineering, in such fields as reservoir management, monitoring of subsurface waste re-injection, subsidence monitoring and overburden/casing integrity assessment. In-situ bitumen recovery from Canadian oil sands reservoirs, including cyclic steam stimulation or the SAGD process, is one area that could potentially utilize the new technology. InSAR yields an area view of the deformation in contrast to discrete point-based measurements provided by existing methods. Resolution down to the centimeter or sub-centimeter level is possible. This paper discusses these two new techniques along with typical examples.

  19. The internal combustion engine; a simple solution for pollution from petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The internal combustion (IC) engine is an indirect cause of groundwater and soil contamination from petroleum hydrocarbons. Leaking underground storage tank systems that are used to store and distribute fuel for automobiles are a major cause of environmental degradation. That same IC engine which has indirectly caused the pollution is an excellent tool for cleaning up environmental contamination from petroleum releases. An extremely flexible clean-up system using an IC engine was designed, constructed and operated to recover free product, treat contaminated soil and remediate groundwater pollution. The treatment system uses the IC engine for vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, spray aeration and incineration. The IC engine is an excellent incinerator. The petroleum vapors are burned in the IC engine with a supplemental propane fuel. The engine drives a power-takeoff unit and provides energy for an air compressor, water pump, electrical generation and other accessories. Using waste to energy methods multiple techniques are being used in combination with different treatment technologies to optimize the remediation. As the remediation progresses the treatment system can be modified to use additional techniques. Another benefit that is directly associated with the IC engine is the presence of excess heat which is helpful in northern climates. The excess heat has many uses including spray aeration and enhanced biological remediation. The IC engine has several limitations and requires an understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the contamination. As with all environmental remediation, a proper understanding of the Hydrogeological System is critical. When properly applied the IC engine has many advantages over other methods of remediation for petroleum hydrocarbons

  20. The Language Needs Analysis Project at the College of Petroleum and Engineering, Kuwait University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturkmen, Helen; Al-Huneidi, Amal

    A study of the English language needs and attitudes of students and faculty in Kuwait University's College of Petroleum and Engineering is reported. The objective was to create a basis for assessing the relevance of the institution's current English second language program. Data were gathered through: (1) interviews with faculty, teaching…

  1. Groundwork: An Intermediate-Level Text of ESL for Petroleum Engineers, Geologists, and Geophysicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellersberger, Gail; Rippert-Davila, Susan

    The negotiation, development, testing, and publishing of a specialized text for instructing Chinese geologists and petroleum engineers in English as a second language are chronicled. Aspects of the process discussed include the initial contact and oral agreement with the corporate representative who had requested the training materials, scheduling…

  2. Engineering and the Politics of Commensuration in the Mining and Petroleum Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica M. Smith; Nicole M. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Engineers and applied scientists form the backbone of the mining and petroleum industries, yet rarely figure in social science accounts of natural resource extraction. This article begins to fill that gap by ethnographically exploring how community conflicts have prompted engineers and applied scientists working in these industries to reconsider the relationship between the surface and subsurface dimensions of their work. To make social concerns on the surface matter to how drilling and extra...

  3. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidt, Rafael de Faria; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M A R

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers

  4. Knowledge engineering of an intelligent system for selection of remediation methods at petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, L.; Chan, C.; Chen, Z.; Huang, G.

    1999-01-01

    A rule-based expert system for the management of petroleum contaminated sites is described which was developed using a variety of methodologies such as Inferential Modelling Technique (IMT) for knowledge analysis, decision trees and object-oriented methodology for knowledge representation. To enhance the system's flexibility, a user interface and an engineer interface were constructed for capturing different types of input. The system was implemented in real time with the real time expert system G2. An important feature of the system is its capability of dealing with imprecision in the inputs on the site conditions and contamination levels. The developed system contributes to the selection task by allowing for a more comprehensive and realistic consideration of the many factors related to the remediation selection decision. The results from case studies indicate that the expert system can aid the environmental engineer identify the most optimal alternatives for site remediation and thereby help industry reduce costs of site remediation practices. The system's inputs and outputs are directly useful for further modelling studies on remediation processes and contaminant transport in soil and groundwater. 10 refs., 6 figs

  5. New engineers for the natural gas and petroleum industry; Nachwuchs fuer die Erdgas-/Erdoelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinicke, K.M.; Pusch, G. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik

    2007-09-13

    Tne natural gas and petroleum industry needs engineers. Universities are faced with the challenge of training them and ensuring their technical, communicative and personal skills. Universities are taking new strategies to do this, joining efforts with other universities and with the oil and natural gas industry. New media are employed, increasingly also for advanced training and for learning by correspondence course in order to provide students with special knowledge and facilitate career changes. The paper describes implemented and projected studies in petroleum and natural gas technology at TU Clausthal university and joint projects with partner universities and industry. (orig.)

  6. Estimating decades-long trends in petroleum field energy return on investment (EROI) with an engineering-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vinay S; Brandt, Adam R

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates changes in the energy return on investment (EROI) for five large petroleum fields over time using the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE). The modeled fields include Cantarell (Mexico), Forties (U.K.), Midway-Sunset (U.S.), Prudhoe Bay (U.S.), and Wilmington (U.S.). Data on field properties and production/processing parameters were obtained from a combination of government and technical literature sources. Key areas of uncertainty include details of the oil and gas surface processing schemes. We aim to explore how long-term trends in depletion at major petroleum fields change the effective energetic productivity of petroleum extraction. Four EROI ratios are estimated for each field as follows: The net energy ratio (NER) and external energy ratio (EER) are calculated, each using two measures of energy outputs, (1) oil-only and (2) all energy outputs. In all cases, engineering estimates of inputs are used rather than expenditure-based estimates (including off-site indirect energy use and embodied energy). All fields display significant declines in NER over the modeling period driven by a combination of (1) reduced petroleum production and (2) increased energy expenditures on recovery methods such as the injection of water, steam, or gas. The fields studied had NER reductions ranging from 46% to 88% over the modeling periods (accounting for all energy outputs). The reasons for declines in EROI differ by field. Midway-Sunset experienced a 5-fold increase in steam injected per barrel of oil produced. In contrast, Prudhoe Bay has experienced nearly a 30-fold increase in amount of gas processed and reinjected per unit of oil produced. In contrast, EER estimates are subject to greater variability and uncertainty due to the relatively small magnitude of external energy investments in most cases.

  7. Strategic petroleum reserve caverns casing damage update 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Neal, J.T. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Hanging casing strings are used for oil and brine transfer in the domal salt storage caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Damage to these casings is of concern because hanging string replacement is costly and because of implications on cavern stability. Although the causes of casing damage are not always well defined, many events leading to damage are assumed to be the result of salt falls impacting the hanging strings. However, in some cases, operational aspects may be suspected. The history of damage to hanging strings is updated in this study to include the most recent events. Potential general domal and local operational and material factors that could influence the tendency for caverns to have salt falls are examined in detail. As a result of this examination, general factors, such as salt dome anomalies and crude type, and most of the operational factors, such as geometry, location and depressurizations, are not believed to be primary causes of casing damage. Further analysis is presented of the accumulation of insolubles during cavern solutioning and accumulation of salt fall material on the cavern floor. Inaccuracies in sump geometry probably make relative cavern insolubles contents uncertain. However, determination of the salt fall accumulations, which are more accurate, suggest that the caverns with the largest salt fall accumulations show the greatest number of hanging string events. There is good correlation between the accumulation rate and the number of events when the event numbers are corrected to an equivalent number for a single hanging string in a quiescent, operating cavern. The principal factor that determines the propensity for a cavern to exhibit this behavior is thought to be the effect of impurity content on the fracture behavior of salt.

  8. The world economy of petroleum products and the strategy of a petroleum company from exporting country: Cases of SONATRACH (Algeria), KPC (Kuwait), PEMEX (Mexico), PDVSA (Venezuela). First volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preure, M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis contains 2 volumes. In this first volume, the author describes in a first part the world economy of petroleum and natural gas products: Historical aspects and relationships between the different actors; General structure of the world economy of petroleum and gas products and actual trends. In a second part, the relationships between petroleum products, national economic development and problem of technology conservation are studied. The cases of Algeria, Kuwait, Mexico and Venezuela are given. 258 refs., 103 tabs

  9. Performance of a small compression ignition engine fuelled by liquified petroleum gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, Himsar; Yohanes Setyawan, Eko; Ginting, Sibuk; Naibaho, Waldemar

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a small air cooled single cylinder of diesel engine with a rated power of 2.5 kW at 3000 rpm is tested in two different modes. In the first mode, the CI engines run on diesel fuel mode. In the second mode, the CI engine run on liquified petroleum gas (LPG) mode. In order to simulate the load, a generator is employed. The load is fixed at 800 W and engine speed varies from 2400 rpm to 3400 rpm. The out power, specific fuel consumption, and brake thermal efficiency resulted from the engine in both modes are compared. The results show that the output power of the CI engine run on LPG fuel is comparable with the engine run on diesel fuel. However, the specific fuel consumption of the CI engine with LPG fuel is higher 17.53% in average in comparison with the CI engine run on diesel fuel. The efficiency of the CI engine with LPG fuel is lower 21.43% in average in comparison with the CI engine run on diesel fuel.

  10. Thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubier, T.W.; Bilello. C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal treatment is a cost-effective treatment method for removing chemicals from contaminated soils. However, detailed applicability studies are lacking. The goals of this paper are to (1) present the results of a thermal treatment study and (2) discuss the specific elements which must be evaluated prior to determining whether thermal treatment is a feasible option for a remediation project. Results of data collected during a pilot study involving thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils at a Marine Terminal are presented. The pilot study consisted of thermally treating the C8 through C40 + (gasoline, kerosene, diesel, motor oil, bunker fuel, etc.) hydrocarbon contaminated soils at treatment temperatures ranging from 250 degrees Fahrenheit (degree F) up to 550 degrees F. The low-temperature thermal treatment unit consisted of a rotary kiln with a temperature capacity of approximately 600 degrees F, a baghouse, and a catalytic oxidizer. The soil was monitored for concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds before and after treatment. The results of the pilot study were used to determine if thermal treatment technology is a cost-efficient and effective option of remediating the estimated 300,000 tons of petroleum contaminated soil to acceptable cleanup levels. The low-temperature thermal treatment pilot study was effective in desorbing the short chain hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel) but was not effective in desorbing the long-chain petroleum hydrocarbons, such as motor oils and bunker fuels, from the soil. This was primarily due to the boiling points of motor oil and bunker fuels which were higher than the temperature capacity of the pilot study treatment equipment. Additional factors that influenced the effectiveness of the desorption process included configuration of the treatment equipment, soil moisture content, soil particle size, and type and concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons

  11. Attracting and Maintaining Demographic Diversity in Energy: Lessons from Petroleum Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaksina, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    Diversity is important for any organization, its development and growth. However, frequently we observe that, if left to their own devices, many social and professional communities become self-selective, less susceptible to change, and, thus, less diverse. For example, this phenomenon can be readily observed in the academia when a professor forms a research group that is mostly comprised of people from certain origin or personal qualities. While on an individual level, this situation can be quite convenient and even beneficial, on the large scale the lack of diversity creates severe distortions and discourages many talented individuals from joining the group, organization, or industry in general. Diversity that includes ethnic, age, and gender aspects is a serious concern in overall energy industry and academia. One of the most prominent field impacted by diversity problems is petroleum engineering which can be used as a learning opportunity for other branches of energy industry. Using petroleum engineering community, we can understand what processes have led it to become self-selective, what measures have been applied to changes the situation and introduce more diversity.

  12. Administration of high school competency requirements for chemical and petroleum engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollins, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    Increased instructional demands on engineering schools for chemical and petroleum graduates, caused by variations in energy prices, has led to efforts to better define and assess the competencies of students entering these fields. The standard of measurement of these competencies is that of freshmen grade point average (GPA). Required competencies include problem-solving ability, computer literacy, a knowledge of mathematics, and communications skills. Correlations of GPA with other readily available high school transcript data of high school rank and SAT scores is the traditional predictor of success or nonsuccess, or degree of competency, for these students. This study was concerned with different combinations of predictors than the traditional ones presently in use. Data from 307 students enrolled in chemical and petroleum engineering at Texas Tech University between 1972 and 1977 were subjected to statistical analysis using the procedure of multiple linear regression. The following variables were found to be meaningful predictors of freshman GPA: (1) SAT scores; (2) high school rank relative to class size; (3) advanced placement status; (4) grades in high school science courses; (5) grades in high school mathematics courses. From these variables, five equations were developed for use by the counselor or advisor in placing or advising entering students. These predictive equations yielded an R/sup 2/ value of approximately 0.54.

  13. In situ stress magnitudes in the Alberta Basin : regional coverage for petroleum engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.S. [Sigma H Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Bachu, S. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Reservoir engineering relies on the knowledge of stress regimes. Predicting and assessing the physical behaviour of subsurface rocks results in savings in production and drilling costs as well as enhanced reservoir performance. This paper presents stress magnitudes in Alberta and northeastern British Columbia at a regional scale. Overburden stresses and smaller horizontal principal stresses were mapped in the Viking Formation, Banff Formation and Wabamun Group. The resulting maps showed regional southwestward increases in stress magnitudes related to depth of present and past burial. Local variations such as low stress lineaments indicate potential sites of enhanced reservoir permeability. These preliminary results may be of value to petroleum engineers interested in borehole stability, reservoir development and subsurface gas injection. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Experimental analysis on a spark ignition petrol engine fuelled with LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The use of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as alternative fuel to petrol is common practise in spark ignition engines. While the main driving force to the use of LPG still remains the low cost for the end user, its favourable pollutant emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, will in the middle term probably increase interest in LPG as an IC engine fuel. In addition, there are both theoretical and technical reasons to consider LPG as an attractive fuel also in terms of engine performance. Despite the continuously increasing stock production of dual-fuel (petrol–LPG) passenger car models, doubts still exist about both real engine performance in LPG operation and the reliability of the dual-fuel feeding system. This paper deals with the theoretical advantages of using LPG as fuel for SI engines. Brake performance tests of a passenger car engine fed with petrol and LPG are analysed and compared. The stock engine has been equipped with a “third-generation” standard kit for dual-fuel operation. The performance reductions in LPG operation are discussed in both steady state and transient condition. The results of some modifications to the set-up of both the petrol and LPG metering devices, designed for a better justification of the measured performance, are also presented. -- Highlights: ► Experimental research on the actual performances of an SI engine fed with petrol and gaseous LPG. ► Theoretical advantages and drawbacks of fuelling SI ICE’s with LPG. ► Brake performance analysis shows a noticeable gap between LPG and petrol operation. ► Local measurements confirm that the thermodynamic operation of the evaporator-pressure reducer device is crucial for the engine performance. ► The performance of the up-to-date kit for petrol–LPG dual-fuel operation is greatly affected by the settings of the mechanical components of the LPG evaporator device.

  15. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  16. Engineering and the Politics of Commensuration in the Mining and Petroleum Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Smith

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers and applied scientists form the backbone of the mining and petroleum industries, yet rarely figure in social science accounts of natural resource extraction. This article begins to fill that gap by ethnographically exploring how community conflicts have prompted engineers and applied scientists working in these industries to reconsider the relationship between the surface and subsurface dimensions of their work. To make social concerns on the surface matter to how drilling and extraction would happen, they tried to make these two domains legible to one another. Using mapping and modeling, they created new techniques for making “social” concerns visible and actionable by field operators, even as they expressed reservations about unduly flattening the inherent complexity of human thought, action, and emotion in the process. While these practices opened space for other engineers and applied scientists to incorporate the concerns of nearby residents into their plans and practices, they also raised questions about the appropriateness of commensuration, or the process of translation through which things and values are made comparable.

  17. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  18. Innovation and performance: The case of the upstream petroleum sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, A. C. Jai

    This thesis investigates innovation in the upstream crude oil and natural gas sector, a strategic part of the Canadian economy and a vital industry for North American energy trade and security. Significant interest exists in understanding innovation in this sector from a private and public policy perspective. Interest in the sector has intensified recently due to concerns about world oil supply, Canada's oil sands development, and the potential that Canada may become an "energy superpower." The study examines the factors that drive companies involved in exploration, development, and production in the upstream petroleum sector to innovate and the impact of their innovation activities through major technologies on their performance. The thesis focuses on process innovation, which involves the adoption of new or significantly improved production processes, and is distinct from product innovation, which is based on the development and commercialization of a product with improved product characteristics to deliver new services to the consumer. The thesis provides a comprehensive review of the literature and develops an investigative model framework to examine the drivers of innovation and the impact of innovation on performance in the upstream petroleum sector. The research employs a survey questionnaire that was developed to obtain data and information, which was missing in the literature or not publicly available to test key relationships of innovation and performance indicators. In addition to the survey questionnaire, a number of knowledgeable experts in the industry were also interviewed. A total of 68 respondents completed the survey questionnaire, accounting for 40 percent of the firms in the industry. This percentage goes up to over 50 percent when account is taken of extremely small firms who could not fill out the survey. Further, the 68 respondents account for most of the industry revenues, production, and employment. The respondents include most of the key

  19. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Petroleum Dependency: The Case to Replace the Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    vehicles from Tesla Motors cost upwards of $100,000 and can carry you further than an ICE. Conversely, the price for traveling distance on a single...gas-fueled car takes less than 5 minutes, recharging a Tesla Model S takes 59 minutes.43 Fuel Cell In 1839, Welsh judge and physical scientist, Sir...With the likes of Kodak, Bell, Edison, and Tesla the public enjoyed the creations of camera film, telephone, record player, and conversion of

  1. Synthesis of Petroleum-Based Fuel from Waste Plastics and Performance Analysis in a CI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cleetus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves the synthesis of a petroleum-based fuel by the catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics. Catalytic pyrolysis involves the degradation of the polymeric materials by heating them in the absence of oxygen and in the presence of a catalyst. In the present study different oil samples are produced using different catalysts under different reaction conditions from waste plastics. The synthesized oil samples are subjected to a parametric study based on the oil yield, selectivity of the oil, fuel properties, and reaction temperature. Depending on the results from the above study, an optimization of the catalyst and reaction conditions was done. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the selected optimized sample was done to find out its chemical composition. Finally, performance analysis of the selected oil sample was carried out on a compression ignition (CI engine. Polythene bags are selected as the source of waste plastics. The catalysts used for the study include silica, alumina, Y zeolite, barium carbonate, zeolite, and their combinations. The pyrolysis reaction was carried at polymer to catalyst ratio of 10 : 1. The reaction temperature ranges between 400°C and 550°C. The inert atmosphere for the pyrolysis was provided by using nitrogen as a carrier gas.

  2. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and anmal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more ...

  3. Model for marketing liquefied petroleum gas in Nigeria: Warri as a case study / Nonekuone Jolomi

    OpenAIRE

    Nonekuone, Jolomi

    2008-01-01

    Despite the huge national energy resources, many Nigerians do not have access to high quality, modern energy services. For those with access, energy supply lacks reliability, especially in the case of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Hence this research considers the possibility of enhancing the household use of LPG. It analyzes the factors affecting the current demand and supply. Salient features of the LPG supply and distribution system were also discussed. On the basis of t...

  4. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine using liquefied petroleum gas-Diesel blended fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Bian, Y.ZH.; Ma, ZH.Y.; Zhang, CH.H.; Liu, SH.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection (DI) Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using LPG in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high auto-ignition temperature of LPG is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under LPG-Diesel blended fuel conditions, using LPG-Diesel blended fuels with various blended rates (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%). Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and blended fuels, revealing the effect of blended fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  5. History and Use of Engineering Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. O.

    The use of engineering cases as tools for learning engineering is stated to be about 10 years old. A brief account of the origin for years before 1950 is given. A note is made of an initial meeting held in 1962 when the potential of the case approach in teaching engineering was discussed. By 1964, case programs were in operation at three schools.…

  6. Protein Engineering: Case Studies of Commercialized Engineered Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Programs in biochemistry invariably encompass the principles of protein engineering. Students often display increased understanding and enthusiasm when theoretical concepts are underpinned by practical example. Herein are presented five case studies, each focusing upon a commercial protein product engineered to enhance its application-relevant…

  7. Measure of the volumetric efficiency and evaporator device performance for a liquefied petroleum gas spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, Massimo; Gobbato, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Measure of the effect of LPG fuel on volumetric efficiency of a SI petrol ICE. ► Steady-state and transient performance of a LPG evaporator device on a SI ICE. ► Volume displaced by LPG causes slight performance loss in SI petrol engines. ► LPG reveals peak efficiency and high-efficiency range wider than petrol in SI ICE’s. ► One-stage pressure reducer for LPG performs satisfactorily during SI ICE transients. - Abstract: The use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as fuel for spark ignition engines originally designed to be gasoline fuelled is common practice in many countries. Despite this, some questions remain still open. The present paper deals with the two main problems related to LPG port-fuel SI engines: the volumetric efficiency drop and the LPG evaporator device performance. A passengers car SI engine equipped with a “third generation” kit for the dual-fuel operation was tested using a dynamometer test rig. A single-stage pressure reducer was selected as LPG evaporator, to take advantage of an additional pre-heating of the liquid LPG that allows higher power output than a two-stage device of the same size. Engine performance, volumetric efficiency and change of LPG thermodynamic states in the evaporator were measured both in steady-state and transient operation of the engine. Steady-state measurements show the advantage of LPG in terms of engine efficiency, and quantify the drop in steady-state brake torque due to the volume swept by gaseous fuel in the fresh charge admission process. On the other hand, transient measurements show that a single-stage evaporator device is capable to match overall simplicity and satisfactory performance during strong changes in engine load.

  8. Integrated environmental risk assessment for petroleum-contaminated sites - a North American case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Huang, G.H.; Chakma, A.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, an integrated risk assessment approach is proposed for evaluating environmental risks derived from petroleum-contaminated sites. The proposed approach is composed of (i) a hydrocarbon spill screening model (HSSM) which is used for simulating immiscible flow of released hydrocarbons in vadose zone, formation of lens in capillary fringe, dissolution of pollutants at water table, and transport of the pollutants to receptors, and (ii) a fuzzy relation analysis (FRA) model which is developed for comprehensively evaluating risks caused by a number of pollutants with different impact characteristics, based on the HSSM results. This hybrid HSSM-FRA approach was applied to a case study for a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada, where soil and groundwater was contaminated by industrial wastes containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEXs). The results suggest that the HSSM-FRA can provide insight into the potential risk to the receptor of concern downward the aquifer and can serve as a basis for further remediation-related decision analysis. (author)

  9. Risk-based corrective action at petroleum sites in Oklahoma - case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Dresback, K.; Culp, R.; Fitter, P. M. Jr. [Trust Environmental Services, LLC, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Implementation in 1996 of the Oklahoma Risk-Based Corrective Action (ORBCA) procedures by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission (OCC) was described. This procedure is part of the state resources allocation process and was developed to prioritize hydrocarbon-impacted sites for treatment and to ensure that sites with the highest priority are attended to first. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate the ORBCA evaluation procedure for petroleum-impacted sites. The first of these provides guidance on how to conduct sampling to assess the possibility of natural attenuation, while the second demonstrates the importance of the sampling protocol in determining critical soil parameters such as soil moisture content when planning an ORBCA evaluation at a site. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutlu, E.; Nash, D.G.; King, C.; Krantz, T.Q.; Preston, W.T.; Kooter, I.M.; Higuchi, M.; DeMarini, D.; Linak, W.P.; Ian Gilmour, M.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and animal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more limited. To this

  11. Experiences of a Multidisciplinary Course on Geo-Signal Processing from a DSP Perspective Offered in Electrical Engineering at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the experience gained in, and the efforts made toward, introducing and implementing a new course in the challenging and important area of geophysical signal processing at the Electrical Engineering (EE) Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The new course,…

  12. Makerspaces in Engineering Education: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mougaard, Krestine

    2016-01-01

    it by opening makerspaces and adopting elements of the Maker Movement in their offerings. This paper investigates how university driven makerspaces can affect engineering design and product development education trough a case study. We provide our findings based on interviews and data collected from educators...... engineering design education....

  13. Virtualization-support Cases in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents cases of applying hardware virtualization techniques as support for education activities in two different courses and a master thesis within the degree International MSc on Telecommunication Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The triggering problem...

  14. Experimental investigation of an improved exhaust recovery system for liquid petroleum gas fueled spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Habib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the recovery of energy lost as waste heat from exhaust gas and engine coolant, using an improved thermoelectric generator (TEG in a LPG fueled SI engine. For this purpose, we have designed and manufactured a 5-layer heat exchanger from aluminum sheet. Electrical energy generated by the TEG was then used to produce hydrogen in a PEM water electrolyzer. The experiment was conducted at a stoichiometric mixture ratio, 1/2 throttle position and six different engine speeds at 1800-4000 rpm. The results of this study show that the configuration of 5-layer counterflow produce a higher TEG output power than 5-layer parallel flow and 3-layer counterflow. The TEG produced a maximum power of 63.18 W when used in a 5-layer counter flow configuration. This resulted in an improved engine performance, reduced exhaust emission as well as an increased engine speed when LPG fueled SI engine is enriched with hydrogen produced by the PEM electrolyser supported by TEG. Also, the need to use an extra evaporator for the LPG fueled SI engine is eliminated as LPG heat exchangers are added to the fuel line. It can be concluded that an improved exhaust recovery system for automobiles can be developed by incorporating a PEM electrolyser, however at the expense of increasing costs.

  15. Insecurity of petroleum supplies and external effect: the case of security storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, B.

    1997-01-01

    The public intervention in the domain of security of petroleum supplies is in general justified in the literature by the existence of external effects linked with the phenomenon of insecurity of supplies. This work proposes to analyse in detail the validity of this justification and its implication in terms of energy policy recommendations. The components of the insecurity cost is analyzed in the first part. Two components are retained: the macro-economical effects of insecurity and the monopsony cost. The study of the macro-economical component of insecurity uses a disequilibrium economy-type approach. On the basis of a modeling of the macro-economical effects of insecurity on a conventionalized economy, a relation is evidenced between rupture probability and level of usefulness. This model is applied to 4 European Union countries and the effects of supplies insecurity is measured for each of them. For the monopsony component of supplies insecurity, the additional cost generated by insecurity in relation with the monopsony situation is analyzed. A numerical analysis illustrates this analysis. Then, the relevance of the monopsony concept in the description of the situation of petroleum consuming economies is questioned. The analysis of the US case leads to reject the existence of a petroleum monopsony made of the USA alone and to favour the definition of a monopsony made of the IEA member countries. Then, the analysis of the insecurity cost is made using the external cost notion. This study allows to settle the status of the macro-economical component: there effectively exists a macro-economical cost of insecurity but this cost cannot be considered as external. This result is interesting because many analyses justify the public intervention using the external cost property of the macro-economical effects. On the contrary, the monopsony component can be unambiguously identified as being at the origin of a pecuniary external cost. The insecurity of supplies can be

  16. Petroleum investment opportunities in Manitoba: A geological, engineering and economic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.; Martinuk, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    The geology and reservoir characteristics of Manitoba's oil producing horizons are described, and exploration and development prospects are reviewed. Southwestern Manitoba occupies part of the northeastern flank of the Williston Basin. Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic rocks form a basinward thickening wedge of sedimentary strata that reach a total thickness of 2,300 m in the southwest corner of the province. To date, oil production in Manitoba is restricted to the sandstones of the Middle Jurassic, the Jurassic Amaranth Formation, the Mississippian Bakken Formation, and the carbonates of the Mississippian Lodgepole and Mission Canyon Formations. The deeper Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian formations offer oil and gas potential but remain largely undrilled. Total recoverable reserves are ca 36 million m 3 and remaining proved reserves are ca 6 million m 3 . Manitoba had a resurgence in petroleum activity in 1993; 102 wells were licensed, compared to an annual average of 61 over the past five years. More Crown land was disposed at the two lease sales in 1993 than had been leased in the previous five years. Low Crown land price is one competitive advantage available to Manitoba oil producers. Other advantages include low drilling and completion costs, low drilling density, a competitive and stable fiscal regime, drilling and exploration incentives, and unrestricted access to markets. Sample economics are included to illustrate the attractiveness of vertical and horizontal drilling opportunities in Manitoba. 8 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  17. The Study of the Performance of Engine Operating on Petroleum and Ethanol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mažeika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Test results indicate that a fully loaded engine, fed with 10 vol % ethanol and petrol blends, has power output reduced by 1.67–3.2% at 1400 and 1800 rev/min, while the specific fuel consumption can be slightly increased (up to 4% at 1400 rev/min, and slightly decreased at 1800 rev/min. Carbon monoxide CO emissions of the fully loaded engine running on biofuel blend E10 are reduced by about 0–50% compared to those observed when petrol is used. To introduce ethanol and petrol blends with higher E20 concentration as an engine fuel, special adjustment of the fuel system is needed.Article in Lithuanian

  18. From Petroleum to Penicillin. The First Hundred Years of Modern Chemical Engineering 1859-1959.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course for liberal arts students that is taught from a scientific, social, and symbolic perspective. A summary of the early days of oil refining is included as representative of one of the major content segments of the course. (ML)

  19. Assessment of cleaner process options : a case study from petroleum refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, N. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy; Chevron Ltd., Pembroke Point (United Kingdom); Clift, R.; Basson, L. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy; Pouton, A.; White, N. [Chevron Ltd., Pembroke Point (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    A case study was used to illustrate the challenge of evaluating clean technologies and making modifications to an alkylation unit at a refinery in the United Kingdom. The alkylation unit used hydrogen flouride as an alkylation catalyst and generated fluoridic wastes that required further treatment. The alkylation process is used to produce a high value petroleum blend used for transport fuels. Acidic catalysts are used to eliminate the need for high temperatures and pressures. The study identified possible alterations to enable partial recycling. Different system boundaries were identified. The study considered technological, social, environmental and economic changes associated with the implementation of the process. A life cycle inventory of various processes considered for the refinery was presented. Possible technological changes that could avoid, reduce, or enable partial recycling waste were presented. Losses to relief systems, defluorinators, potassium hydroxide (KOH) treaters, and neutralization systems were also considered. Results of the study showed that the decision-making process involved trade-offs between costs and benefits with considerable uncertainties. It was concluded that the financial scale of projects cannot be used as a guide to systematic sustainability assessment. 50 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. A case of social investment: Uere and Phillips Petroleum do Brasil Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Daniella dos Santos; Fryklund, Robert Eugene [Phillips Petroleum do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mello, Yvonne Bezerra de [Projeto Uere, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    CONOCOPHILLIPS views Social Investment as an important element of contributing to social progress and achieving its view of Sustainable Growth. According to CONOCOPHILLIPS a company's ability to grow depends not only on its business successes but also on its reputation as a corporate citizen. This reputation is built largely by responsible civic actions, social investment and environmental stewardship. The company invests in programs that provide sustainable community development, benefit the stakeholders, are aligned with its strategic business objectives, and are consistent with its core values. CONOCOPHILLIPS recognizes that the most effective corporate social investment is achieved by pro actively identifying the key community needs and by entering into strategic partnerships with agencies and organizations that serve good causes. In Rio de Janeiro, Phillips Petroleum do Brasil, a subsidiary of CONOCOPHILLIPS, has been working with Projeto Uere, a non-profit non-governmental organization (NGO) that runs an educational program for children living under social risk in Favela da Mare. Projeto Uere performs preventive work, helping children overcome their learning and social difficulties. The Projeto Uere case study results will highlight the application of some of CONOCOPHILLIPS social investment policies and strategies used to select and evaluate partnership projects in Brazil. (author)

  1. Impact of an Engineering Case Study in a High School Pre-Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Eugene; Shafer, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Students at an all-girls high school who were enrolled in an introduction to engineering course were presented an engineering case study to determine if the case study affected their attitudes toward engineering and their abilities to solve engineering problems. A case study on power plants was implemented during a unit on electrical engineering.…

  2. Global Hawk Systems Engineering. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Charles Garland, whose support was integral in guiding me throughout this case study. Bill Kinzig Global Hawk Systems Engineering Case Study...necessary to characterize the system’s utility. 3.2.3.2 First Flight AV-1 rolled out of the TRA facility on February 20, 1997. While at Lindbergh Field... Lindbergh Field, but its delivery to Edwards AFB, California, was already late. Thus, the air vehicle was disassembled and trucked to Edwards AFB on

  3. Public Health and Medicine in an Age of Energy Scarcity: The Case of Petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Hess, Jeremy; Frumkin, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum supplies have heretofore been abundant and inexpensive, but the world petroleum production peak is imminent, and we are entering an unprecedented era of petroleum scarcity. This fact has had little impact on policies related to climate, energy, the built environment, transportation, food, health care, public health, and global health. Rising prices are likely to spur research and drive efficiency improvements, but such innovations may be unable to address an increasing gap between supply and demand. The resulting implications for health and the environment are explored in the articles we have selected as additional contributions in this special issue. Uncertainty about the timing of the peak, the shape of the production curve, and decline rates should not delay action. The time for quick, decisive, comprehensive action is now. PMID:21778506

  4. Updating the U.S. Life Cycle GHG Petroleum Baseline to 2014 with Projections to 2040 Using Open-Source Engineering-Based Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Gregory; Jamieson, Matthew; Marriott, Joe; Bergerson, Joule; Brandt, Adam; Skone, Timothy J

    2017-01-17

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory produced a well-to-wheels (WTW) life cycle greenhouse gas analysis of petroleum-based fuels consumed in the U.S. in 2005, known as the NETL 2005 Petroleum Baseline. This study uses a set of engineering-based, open-source models combined with publicly available data to calculate baseline results for 2014. An increase between the 2005 baseline and the 2014 results presented here (e.g., 92.4 vs 96.2 g CO 2 e/MJ gasoline, + 4.1%) are due to changes both in modeling platform and in the U.S. petroleum sector. An updated result for 2005 was calculated to minimize the effect of the change in modeling platform, and emissions for gasoline in 2014 were about 2% lower than in 2005 (98.1 vs 96.2 g CO 2 e/MJ gasoline). The same methods were utilized to forecast emissions from fuels out to 2040, indicating maximum changes from the 2014 gasoline result between +2.1% and -1.4%. The changing baseline values lead to potential compliance challenges with frameworks such as the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) Section 526, which states that Federal agencies should not purchase alternative fuels unless their life cycle GHG emissions are less than those of conventionally produced, petroleum-derived fuels.

  5. Exposure to benzene in a pooled analysis of petroleum industry case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, D C; Schnatter, A R; Tang, G; Armstrong, T W; Rushton, L

    2017-11-01

    Cases of lymphohematopoietic cancer from three petroleum industry cohorts, matched to controls from the respective cohort, were pooled into single study. Average benzene exposure was quantitatively estimated in ppm for each job based on measured data from the relevant country, adjusted for the specific time period, site and job exposure characteristics and the certainty of the exposure estimate scored. The probability of dermal exposure and of peak exposure was also assessed. Before risk was examined, an exposure estimate comparison and rationalisation exercise was performed across the studies to ensure accuracy and consistency of approach. This article evaluates the final exposure estimates and their use in the risk assessments. Overall benzene exposure estimates were low: 90% of participants accumulated less than 20 ppm-years. Mean cumulative exposure was estimated as 5.15 ppm-years, mean duration was 22 years, and mean exposure intensity was 0.2 ppm. 46% of participants were allocated a peak exposure (>3 ppm at least weekly). 40% of participants had a high probability of dermal exposure (based on the relative probability of at least weekly exposure). There were differences in mean intensity of exposure, probability of peak, and/or dermal exposure associated with job category, job site, and decade of exposure. Terminal Operators handling benzene-containing products were the most highly exposed group, followed by Tanker Drivers carrying gasoline. Exposures were higher around 1940-1950 and lower in more recent decades. Overall confidence in the exposure estimates was highest for recently held jobs and for white-collar jobs. We used sensitivity analyses, which included and excluded case-sets on the basis of exposure certainty scores, to inform the risk assessment. The above analyses demonstrated that the different patterns of exposure across the three studies are largely attributable to differences in jobs, site types, and time frames rather than study. This

  6. Boiling liquid expanded vapor explosion (BLEVE) of petroleum storage and transportation facilities case study Khartoum State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elatabani, E. G. M.

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study includes the identification of possible causes of fires and explosions resulting from liquefied petroleum gases in Khartoum state, method of raising the awareness and knowledge of risks resulting from them, in addition to the proposal of safety precautions in the event of such incidents. The study was conducted in highly populated Khartoum state. It was in that context, the compilation and analysis of information on fire statistics was carried based on data collected through field studies and records of the civil defense - Administrative of Khartoum state, during period between (2007 - 2009). The procedure followed include statistical analysis of the collected data using program (e-views) method of estimation of least squares (LS). The obtained results of this method is negative sign and the percentage of house fires represent 98% from other type of fires (petroleum service stations - LPG tankers). These results, revealed that most of those fires were due to leakage of gas in residential houses attributed to lack of awareness of possible dangers and underestimation of safety precautions compared to those taken in to consideration in petroleum service stations and during transportation phases. The main recommendation of this study is to strengthen means of raising public awareness of dangers caused by liquefied petroleum gases fire through special media programs and training of workers in the field of civil defense and the empowerment of safety procedures. (Author)

  7. Environmental Management System of Petroleum Industries: A case study of Oil and Gas Exploration in the Zamrud Field Conservation Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onny Setiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background:The Zamrud Field is one of the oil fields managed by Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI a production sharing contractor of Pertamina. It is located in the Coastal Plain and  Pekanbaru (CPP Block. The government of Indonesia has designated Zamrud as a conservation area. The petroleum industry in Zamrud fields has received 14001 ISO Certificate on Environmental Management System. The production sharing contract between CPI and the Government of Indonesia expired in August 2002 Methods: .This case study describes how CPI managed the development  of oil and gas production and compared to  the environmental management system for  petroleum industries  that should be taken  in the Zamrud conservation areas. Results: A number of specific measures were employed by CPI  to protect this sensitive area including a green seismic project, zero-discharge drilling, water management, preservation of nature and regular monitoring and impact assessment. There are two  important points that should be in consideration  for the environmental management system by CPI in the Zamrud areas, including top soil utilization to maintain biological and nutrients quality and re-vegetation in all areas of significant disturbances. Conclusion: oil and gas  exploration and production in conservation areas has to be managed through high commitment to good environmental  and social practices. Key words     : Environmental Management System (EMS, Petroleum Industries, Zamrud Field

  8. 2005 yearly days of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant, R.; Susbielles, G.

    2005-01-01

    14 articles are gathered in this data sheet; they deal with the opening address of the 2005 petroleum days; the hydrocarbons: the evolutive resource; the para-petroleum engineers and the Europe; the speech of Mr Francois Loos; the Shell global scenarios to 2025; the evolution of the gas resource and its uses; the French para-petroleum industry; Bernard Bensaid, Corinne Sagary, Armelle Saniere, economic studies, IFP; the contribution of the innovation and of the technology in the diversification of the hydrocarbons supply; innovation and diversification of the petroleum resource: the point of view of Total; research, development and diversification of the petroleum resource; innovation in services companies; innovation in study and development and engineering; the closing address of the 2005 petroleum days. (O.M.)

  9. The role and responsibilities of top executives with regard to climate change: the British Petroleum case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corinne Gendron; Bernard Girard; Silvester Ivanaj; Vera Ivanaj; Alice Friser

    2017-01-01

    At the same time as they massively exploit conventional energy sources, the main gas and oil companies of the world claim to be involved in the fight against climate change. This article aims to explain this ambiguity by exploring the way CEOs perceive their responsibilities towards society but also towards climate change. In order to do this, parallels are drawn between British Petroleum's public image following its famous Beyond Petroleum campaign, the official speeches of the company's former CEO's before the Deepwater Horizon tragedy, and the key elements of the subsequent disaster management programme. This analysis highlights that the main obstacle to a genuine and sustained environmental commitment from these companies resides in the firm's corporate governance which ensure that the shareholder's interests remain the CEO's number one priority. This implies that convincing shareholders to fight climate change is necessary

  10. Characteristics of petroleum-contaminated groundwater during natural attenuation: a case study in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Jiali; Si, Chaoqun; Chen, Zaixing

    2018-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate a petroleum-contaminated groundwater site in northeast China. We determined the physicochemical properties of groundwater that contained total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with a view to developing a scientifically robust strategy for controlling and remediating pollution of groundwater already contaminated with petroleum. Samples were collected at regular intervals and were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), iron (Fe 3+ ), sulfate (SO 4 2- ), electrical conductivity (Eh), pH, hydrogen carbonate (HCO 3 - ), and enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (HRP), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O). We used factor analysis in SPSS to determine the main environmental characteristics of the groundwater samples. The results confirmed that the study site was slightly contaminated and that TPH levels were decreasing slightly. Some of the physicochemical variables showed regular fluctuations; DO, Fe 3+ , and SO 4 2- contents decreased gradually, while the concentrations of one of the microbial degradation products, HCO 3 - , increased. Microorganism enzyme activities decreased gradually. The microbiological community deteriorated noticeably during the natural attenuation process, so microbiological degradation of pollutants receded gradually. The HCO 3 - content increased and the pH and Eh decreased gradually. The groundwater environment tended to be reducing.

  11. An empirical analysis of lumpy investment. The case of US petroleum refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hirokatsu

    2002-01-01

    This paper employs five econometric models to examine lumpy investment and investigates the investment behavior of the US petroleum refining industry. Firms in the industry are classified into three groups by their size. All three groups show zero investment, disinvestment and investment in accordance with economic conditions. The analysis finds the minimum amount of investment and disinvestment for each group, which suggests that the size of fixed costs of investment is substantial, regardless of firm size. However, small firms adjust capital stock more slowly than medium or large firms. The analysis also suggests the existence of a convex adjustment cost

  12. A review of the data quality and comparability of case-control studies of low-level exposure to benzene in the petroleum industry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, B.G.; Fransman, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000461; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Hurley, J.F.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Fitzsimons, E.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Published case-control studies of risks of leukaemia following low exposures to benzene in the distribution of petroleum (gasoline) have not all identified the same level of risk, but the studies have had differences in cohort inclusion, case determination and availability of occupational

  13. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    The 'AFTP' conference on 'petroleum prices' organized by Total last March, tries to explain the different aspects of the crisis we undergo for July 2007 and its consequential effects on the petroleum markets (supply, demand evolvements, impacts on reserves, prices, refining...). (O.M.)

  14. Pollution prevention and control procedure case study: an application for petroleum refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Encarnación; Martínez, Jose-Luis

    2005-06-01

    There is global environmental concern about the pollution from industries and other organizations that should not only be controlled but also prevented. Many alternatives are available to those in charge of environmental protection, but they should be able to draw on a systematic procedure to help implement prevention and control measures. At present, there are three immediate tasks: defining the objective of any environmental study, identifying the potential pollution sources, and selecting alternatives to these sources. However, it is necessary to evaluate these alternatives by using as large a number of criteria as possible and making them cumulative so as to enable the classification and selection of the best available techniques for each pollution source. The petroleum refining industry plays an important role in the developed economies and also has a potential for pollution generation that must be controlled. The best solution for all (i.e., petroleum companies, the public, and the environment) is pollution prevention, because this option will protect all of them and will also reduce costs in terms of lower raw materials consumption as well as reducing potential fines. The procedure we have presented in this article has been applied successfully.

  15. Partnership in an application of RBCA: Case study for quantitative assessment of total petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K.; Shepherd, D.

    1995-01-01

    Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) was successfully applied at a site contaminated with weathered Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) from a past release of Diesel Fuel No. 2. In partnership with the state regulatory agency, an approach was developed to assess the toxicity of TPH by the evaluation of its individual classes/constituents. Historically, assessments of petroleum product releases have focused solely on TPH as an analytical parameter and not its individual fractions and/or constituents which represent the actual toxicity of the released product. Soil and groundwater TPH data by Modified California Method 8015 (GC/MS) were reviewed. Based on analytical standards, typical Diesel Fuel No. 2 carbon ranges/fractions were identified. In addition, site-specific carbon-chain lengths were identified based on the aforementioned standard. In consultation with state regulators and according to state draft RBCA guidance, site-specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three TPH carbon-range fractions were identified as constituents of concern. In order to quantify the three TPH fractions, appropriate toxicological surrogates were identified. Site-specific exposures to potential human and ecological receptors were evaluated in close consultation with the state regulators. Limited contaminant fate and transport analysis was conducted. Subsequently, complete exposure pathways were quantified

  16. Biopiles for remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils: a Polish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, T. C.; Tien, A. J.; Worsztynowicz, A.; Altman, D. J.; Ulfig, K.; Manko, T.

    2002-01-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas of Poland demonstrated bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. The waste was composed of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzo(a)pyrene and BTEX compounds were identified as the contaminants of concern. Approximately 3,300 m 3 of contaminated soil (TPH ∼ 30,000 ppm) was targeted for treatment. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application was used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern. Over the 20 month project, more than 81% (120 metric tons) of petroleum hydrocarbons were biodegraded. Despite the fact the material treated was highly weathered and very acidic, biodegradation rates of 121 mg/kg soil/day in the actively aerated side (82 mg/kg soil/day in the passive side) were achieved in this biopile. Microbial counts and dehydrogenase measurements gave the best correlation with the biodegradation rates. Costs were competitive or significantly lower when compared with other ex situ treatment processes. (author)

  17. CARBON ACCOUNTING INITIATIVES: CASE STUDY OF A PETROLEUM REFINERY IN MALAYSIA TO PREPARE FOR FUTURE CARBON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA H.L. CHEE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum refining process produces a large amount of atmospheric pollutants including greenhouse gases which are attributed to global warming. The international community inevitably addressed the global warming issue by introducing a market-based mechanism known as Emission Trading Systems (ETS under the Kyoto Protocol which imposes binding limits to developed nations using three flexibility mechanisms, including the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM. This case study was carried out in a petroleum refinery in Malaysia to explore the possibility for the refinery to participate in CDM. Information was collected through observatory field survey at the refinery and documentation review. Results show that the current monitoring tool using indirect calculation of fuel consumption provides a comprehensive coverage of emission sources but the reporting frequency should be increased for data accuracy. An accounting system was then created to predict the emissions gap of the refinery with reference to the baseline-year set by the Kyoto Protocol. It was concluded that the refinery showed promising potential to participate in CDM to benefit from technology transfer by selling their ‘credits’ to Annex I countries despite the uncertainty on the impact of the carbon market in a Non-Annex I country.

  18. THE ROLE OF TIPPING IN REDUCING LABOUR COSTS: CASE OF SECTOR RETAIL PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Raspor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to determine whether tipping could reduce labour costs in the petroleum products retail sector. The research we present was designed on the basis of survey results gathered from Slovenian petrol stations in 2009 and 2010. We have identified the following factors in the tipping process: job satisfaction, flexibility, service quality, satisfaction, motivation and the factor of receiving tips. The analysis showed correlation between methods used to increase the value of tips and better service quality, increased financial and numerical flexibility, motivation, satisfaction upon receipt of tips and the method used to increase the value of tips. In order to decrease labour costs we propose that the management take control of tipping and integrates tips into the reward system. Also, the employees should be made aware about how tipping improves service and increases their income.

  19. Case Study Research in Software Engineering Guidelines and Examples

    CERN Document Server

    Runeson, Per; Rainer, Austen; Regnell, Bjorn

    2012-01-01

    Based on their own experiences of in-depth case studies of software projects in international corporations, in this book the authors present detailed practical guidelines on the preparation, conduct, design and reporting of case studies of software engineering.  This is the first software engineering specific book on the case study research method.

  20. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A review of the data quality and comparability of case-control studies of low-level exposure to benzene in the petroleum industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, B.G.; Fransman, W.; Heederik, D.; Hurley, J.F.; Kromhout, H.; Fitzsimons, E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Published case–control studies of risks of leukaemia following low exposures to benzene in the distribution of petroleum (gasoline) have not all identiWed the same level of risk, but the studies have had diVerences in cohort inclusion, case determination and availability of occupational and

  2. Analyzing PSU’s Performance: A Case from Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The high economic growth in the past few years and increasing industrialization coupled with a burgeoning population have created a lot of concern for India’s energy scenario. India’s crude oil production has not shown significant growth in the last 10 or more years whereas its refining capacity has grown by more than 20% over the last 5 years. Oil consumption is growing at approximately 4.1% per year and natural gas consumption is growing at 68% per year. Therefore, evaluation performances and pushing energy companies to improve become important issues. The purpose of this research is of evaluation the performance of Indian energy industry under multiple different inputs and outputs criteria. The data envelopment analysis (DEA and grey theory are used to conduct this study. There are total 14 public sector undertakings (PSUs under this industry and no any private company. However, only 10 of them are mature enough to be published in India stock markets. Therefore, the realistic data of all 10 companies are used for this evaluation. The results demonstrate that Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL, Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL, and Oil India Limited (OIL are the top 3 of ranking influences. This integrated numerical study gives a better “past-present-future” insights into evaluation performance in India energy industry.

  3. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater in the vicinity of an oil refinery -- A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppaluri, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of an oil refinery in Algeria was found to be contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Free floating product, which was found after analysis to be crude oil, was noticed in some of the domestic water supply wells, and also in some irrigation wells which were situated close to the refinery. It was observed that the water in none of the shallow dug wells was contaminated. On the other hand, most of the borewells had contaminated groundwater. The studies included detailed hydrogeological investigations, verification of all the installations carrying crude oil, such as reservoirs and pipe lines. Due to the huge withdrawals from the regional water supply wells, steep hydraulic gradients were observed towards the well field. By modifying the pattern of groundwater withdrawals in the area a provisional containment of the contamination was achieved. The above ground storage tanks were found to be heavily pitted, and corroded at the bottom. Nine monitoring wells were drilled around the storage tanks. Soil and groundwater samples were analyzed from these monitoring wells. From these analyses, the contaminant plume was delineated. Tracer tests in these monitoring wells were conducted to determine the groundwater flow direction. To remediate the problems, the existing crude oil tanks were verified, cleaned and painted with non corrosive paints; the contaminated wells were pumped and the water was treated in the normal treatment system installed at the refinery. Groundwater quality was monitored over a period of six months to ensure the quality of water

  4. Urban Air pollution Evaluation by Computer Simulation: A case study of petroleum refining company Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. ABDULKAREEM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization is highly desirable for the sustenance of a nation’s economy and the enhancement of the citizenry’s well being. However the negative impact precipitated by introduction of its unwanted by – products into ecological system may be catastrophic if allowed to build up and uncontrolled. Urban Air pollution due to activities of process industries is one of the main problems faced by the industrial area of the world. Experimental analysis was carried out on gas flare to determine the extent of air pollution by the petroleum refinery industry on the concentrations of NO, CO, SO2 and total hydrocarbon. Attempt at the modeling pollutant concentration from the flare point using visual basic is hereby presented. The model equation was used to simulate the concentration of pollutants at distance of 20, 40, 60, and 80, 100, to 1000 away from the flare point. The result of the simulation of model developed from the modified principle of gaseous dispersion by Gaussian showed a good agreement with the experimental results with average correction coefficient of 0.99. Results obtained reveled that the concentration of pollutants are unacceptable compare to the Federal Environmental protection Agency set limit. The dispersion pattern of pollutants showed that the extent of spreading is dependent on nearness to the source of flare, wind speed, temperature etc.

  5. Systems metabolic engineering design: fatty acid production as an emerging case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Ting Wei; Chowdhury, Anupam; Maranas, Costas D; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2014-05-01

    Increasing demand for petroleum has stimulated industry to develop sustainable production of chemicals and biofuels using microbial cell factories. Fatty acids of chain lengths from C6 to C16 are propitious intermediates for the catalytic synthesis of industrial chemicals and diesel-like biofuels. The abundance of genetic information available for Escherichia coli and specifically, fatty acid metabolism in E. coli, supports this bacterium as a promising host for engineering a biocatalyst for the microbial production of fatty acids. Recent successes rooted in different features of systems metabolic engineering in the strain design of high-yielding medium chain fatty acid producing E. coli strains provide an emerging case study of design methods for effective strain design. Classical metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches enabled different and distinct design paths towards a high-yielding strain. Here we highlight a rational strain design process in systems biology, an integrated computational and experimental approach for carboxylic acid production, as an alternative method. Additional challenges inherent in achieving an optimal strain for commercialization of medium chain-length fatty acids will likely require a collection of strategies from systems metabolic engineering. Not only will the continued advancement in systems metabolic engineering result in these highly productive strains more quickly, this knowledge will extend more rapidly the carboxylic acid platform to the microbial production of carboxylic acids with alternate chain-lengths and functionalities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Organizational Silence, from Roots to Solutions: A Case Study in Iran Petroleum Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Afkhami Ardakani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Organizational silence is defined as the lack of effective interactions among staff and it stands opposite to the concept of organizational voice. In the present research, the purpose is to measure the silence behavior among the Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI staff before and after the implementation of a comprehensive suggestion system. A suggestion system is an internal structure easily accessed by all the staff to state their suggestions in a pre-structured format. The roots of silence behavior are studied based on a deep literature review to find out possible solutions to improve organizational voice. To conduct the research, a self-structured questionnaire has been developed and distributed among all the staff. A quasi-experimental methodology has been adopted to compare pretest and post-test results of silence status before and after implementing the suggestion system. The results show that the silence behavior has been meaningfully reduced. This is based on a simple t-test performed by SPSS software, where there is a meaningful difference between the silence status of pre-test and post-test. In other words, a suggestion system could be a communication opportunity to encourage staff to provide suggestions and to cooperate for promoting the organization, which will finally reduce the organization silence. A major gap within the studies of Iranian scholars about organizational silence is the failure to introduce effective solutions to reduce it. However, this research is innovative in the sense that it fills the mentioned gap. This research shows that large scale organizations like RIPI need to consider methods like suggestion systems to break bureaucratic obstacles so that their staff can easily find open routes to share their ideas and suggestions in a prestructured format. This cooperating will lead to mutual benefits for both parts, since suggestions could be used to enhance organizational structure and performance and

  7. Analiza primene tečnog naftnog gasa kao pogonskog energenta motora SUS / Analysis of application of liquefied petroleum gas as an IC engine fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Rakić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available U svetu su izražene tendencije razvoja motornih vozila koja koriste ekološki čista i dovoljno raspoloživa goriva. Jedan od načina rešavanja aktuelnih zadataka automobilske industrije jeste korišćenje alternativnih goriva, odnosno alternativnih energetskih potencijala. U radu je analiziran tečni naftni gas (TNG kao alternativno gorivo za pogon motornih vozila. Nakon iznošenja osnovnih fizičko -kemijskih karakteristika TNG-a i analize upotrebe gasa kao pogonskog goriva motora SUS, prikazane su i komponente sistema za pogon motora na TNG. Navedeni su i primeri razvijenih zemalja koje pokušavaju da povećaju procenat primene alternativnih goriva u drumskom saobraćaju. Analizirani su, takođe, osnovni pokazatelji motora (snaga, ekonomičnost i ekološke karakteristike pri pogonu na TNG, koji potvrđuju daje ovo gorivo ekonomičnije i ekološki čistije od benzina i dizel goriva. / Global trends in automotive industry worldwide include development of environment-friendly vehicles which use 'clean' and attainable fuels. Alternative fuels and alternative energy sources represent one solution to the problem. In this paper Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG is analyzed as an alternative fuel for motor vehicle engines. After bringing up basic physical and chemical properties of LPG and the analysis of gas usage as a fuel for internal combustion engines, the general picture of the system components for LPG engine fuels is given. The paper also presents examples of how developed countries try to increase the percentage of alternative fuel usage in the road transportation. Finally, the analysis of the main LPG-powered engine indicators (power, economical and environmental properties confirms that LPG is more economical and more environment-friendly than standard engine fuels.

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  10. Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obiageli R. Ezeigbo; C. A. Ike-Amadi; C. Ibebuike; F. U. Okike-Osissiogu; N. G. Agomoh

    2013-01-01

    A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial ...

  11. The EED [Emergencies Engineering Division] solvent extraction process for the removal of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, C.Y.

    1994-03-01

    Research was conducted to investigate the ability of hexane and natural gas condensate (NGC) to extract three different types of hydrocarbon contaminant (light crude oil, diesel fuel, and bunker C oil) from three types of soil (sand, peat, and clay). A separate but related study determined the efficiency of solvent extraction (using hexane and five other solvents but not NGC) for removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from contaminated soil. The process developed for this research includes stages of mixing, extraction, separation, and solvent recovery, for eventual implementation as a mobile solvent extraction unit. In experiments on samples created in the laboratory, extraction efficiencies of hydrocarbons often rose above 95%. On samples from a petroleum contaminated site, average extraction efficiency was ca 82%. Sandy soils contaminated in the laboratory were effectively cleaned of all hydrocarbons tested but only diesel fuel was successfully extracted from peat soils. No significant differences were observed in the effectiveness of hexane and NGC for contamination levels above 3%. Below this number, NGC seems more effective at removing oil from peat while hexane is slightly more effective on clay soils. Sand is equally cleaned by both solvents at all contamination levels. Safety considerations, odor, extra care needed to deal with light ends and aromatics, and the fact that only 26% of the solvent is actually usable make NGC an unfeasible option in spite of its significantly lower cost compared to hexane. For extracting PCBs, a hexane/acetone mixture proved to have the best removal efficiency. 14 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Enhancing Systems Engineering Education Through Case Study Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer Stenger

    2016-01-01

    Developing and refining methods for teaching systems engineering is part of Systems Engineering grand challenges and agenda for research in the SE research community. Retention of systems engineering knowledge is a growing concern in the United States as the baby boom generation continues to retire and the faster pace of technology development does not allow for younger generations to gain experiential knowledge through years of practice. Government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), develop their own curricula and SE leadership development programs to "grow their own" systems engineers. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducts its own Center-focused Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program (MSELDP), a competitive program consisting of coursework, a guest lecture series, and a rotational assignment into an unfamiliar organization engaged in systems engineering. Independently, MSFC developed two courses to address knowledge retention and sharing concerns: Real World Marshall Mission Success course and its Case Study Writers Workshop and Writers Experience. Teaching case study writing and leading students through a hands-on experience at writing a case study on an SE topic can enhance SE training and has the potential to accelerate the transfer of experiential knowledge. This paper is an overview of the pilot experiences with teaching case study writing, its application in case study-based learning, and identifies potential areas of research and application for case study writing in systems engineering education.

  13. 1992 petroleum software directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed especially for the petroleum industry. Each program listing includes a description of the function, language and memory requirements, operating systems, special accessories required, compatibles and pricing information. A separate section lists the more than 600 companies that produce and sell the programs. Companies are listed alphabetically and include address, phone, fax and telex numbers as well as contact names for each location. Many company listings also include distributors. This book includes information on Accounting/Statistics, Design/Construction/Engineering Graphics, Drilling Engineering and Equipment, Economics/Financial Analysis, Engineering, Exploration, Land and Leasing, Maintenance and Repair/Quality Control/Monitoring, Manufacturing, Maps, Marketing, Pipelines/Shipping/Storage, Production Engineering and Recovery Methods, Synthetic/Alternate Resources and Fuels

  14. A Guideline of Using Case Method in Software Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Dzulaiha Aryanee Putri; Razali, Rozilawati; Shukur, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Software Engineering (SE) education has been reported to fall short in producing high quality software engineers. In seeking alternative solutions, Case Method (CM) is regarded as having potential to solve the issue. CM is a teaching and learning (T&L) method that has been found to be effective in Social Science education. In principle,…

  15. In situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons: Three case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, R.C.; Perry, R.G.; Barber, T.

    1997-01-01

    In situ biodegradation of organic contaminants is one of the most cost-effective means of site remediation. This method has proven successful in soils, ground water, and slurries. Bacteria capable of degrading organic contaminants within an aquifer include many species from a wide spectrum of genera, e.g. Pseudomonas, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, etc. In most cases, a mixture of bacterial strains is required to completely oxidize a complex organic contaminant. Each strain of an organism may target a specific compound, working together with other organisms to ultimately degrade each intermediate until complete degradation, also known as mineralization, occurs. One or more of the following mechanisms are utilized by bacteria for organic chemical degradation: (1) aerobic, (2) anaerobic, and (3) co-metabolic. During aerobic oxidation of organic chemicals, bacteria utilize the pollutant as an electron and hydrogen source and oxygen acts as the electron and hydrogen acceptor, resulting in water. As the bacterial enzymes cleave the compound, oxidized products are produced along with energy for the reaction to proceed. This is the most rapid and widely utilized mechanism. Dehalogenation occurs under aerobic, or perhaps more often, under anoxic conditions. This process occurs in the presence of alternate electron acceptors and replaces chlorine with hydrogen. The mechanism of co-metabolism can be aerobic or anaerobic, but is more often aerobic. This process requires a separate energy source for the bacterial cell because the pollutant is not utilized as an energy source. The role of bioremediation in site remediation is demonstrated below by three case studies: (1) a refinery, (2) a municipal landfill and (3) a pesticide formulation plant

  16. Petroleum Weathering Associated with Hydrocarbon Migration and Seepage, a Case Study From the Santa Barbara Channel, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, G. D.; Nelson, R. K.; Reddy, C. M.; Valentine, D. L.

    2005-12-01

    A 2003 report by the National Research Council estimates that 50 to 70 percent of oil that is released into the sea is from natural seeps (National Research Council, 2003), indicating that catastrophic oil spills or the runoff from roads and highways are not the major sources of oil in the marine environment. For example, approximately 37 tons of petroleum is emitted daily from seeps off the coast of Santa Barbara, California (Quigley et al. 1996). The Santa Barbara seeps are some of the most active in the world and have been releasing petroleum for thousands of years. Sheens of oil on the water surface and tar patches on the beaches are ubiquitous along the coastline of Santa Barbara and are continuing reminders of this natural process. Although the geochemistry of these seeps have been studied in the past, it has been hindered by the complexity of the petroleum hydrocarbons and the inability of traditional gas chromatography to separate, identify, and quantify each component of the oil. To expand on these previous efforts, we have begun to use comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC). This new technology provides at least an order of magnitude increase in the resolution and detection of petroleum hydrocarbons compared to traditional methods. Preliminary work using GCxGC has focused on examining the chemical composition of unrefined petroleum as it migrates up from depth through natural faults to the seafloor, from the seafloor to the sea surface, and from the sea surface to local beaches. Petroleum collected from a subsurface reservoir (Platform Holly Well 2342-15) is composed of a wide range of resolved petroleum hydrocarbons including n-alkanes, branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, linear alkane benzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, steranes, hopanes, cyclic isoprenoids, and very large branched biomarkers with 38 to 40 carbons. This product is significantly different than oil emerging from the seafloor at the Jackpot seep, which we believe is

  17. Petroleum industry in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  18. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  19. Space engineering modeling and optimization with case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a selection of advanced case studies that cover a substantial range of issues and real-world challenges and applications in space engineering. Vital mathematical modeling, optimization methodologies and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in detail, with discussions of a range of advanced model development and solution techniques and tools. Space engineering challenges are discussed in the following contexts: •Advanced Space Vehicle Design •Computation of Optimal Low Thrust Transfers •Indirect Optimization of Spacecraft Trajectories •Resource-Constrained Scheduling, •Packing Problems in Space •Design of Complex Interplanetary Trajectories •Satellite Constellation Image Acquisition •Re-entry Test Vehicle Configuration Selection •Collision Risk Assessment on Perturbed Orbits •Optimal Robust Design of Hybrid Rocket Engines •Nonlinear Regression Analysis in Space Engineering< •Regression-Based Sensitivity Analysis and Robust Design ...

  20. DEPLOYMENT OF GOALS AND PROJECT PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT CASE STUDY IN THE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF PETROBRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos de Lemos Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic technology innovations and the constant changes in the world geopolitical scenarios have been creating turbulences in the majority of the environments in which the petroleum industry organizations are situated. Therefore, it is vital for the development and survival of these organizations that they establish a management and planning process capable of offering flexible answers to all challenges that arise in this business. Inside this context, this paper intends to investigate the ongoing techniques used for the deployment of goals and performance management of the employees who work for the engineering department of Petrobras, comparing the behavior of four organization structures named UIE - Unidade de Implementação de Empreendimento, considering some of their scores and the results of the existing individual management body of each of these structures. The main research instruments used in this case study were the documental analyses and semi-structured interviews with the main authors of the formulation and implementation process for the planning and management of the company, beyond the direct observation of these process. The paper accomplishes its goals and brings results and proposals that perceive a continuous development of the Performance Management system in the engineering department of Petrobras.

  1. The para-petroleum industry. International context and results of the 2005 French inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Sagary, C.; Saniere, A.

    2005-01-01

    Oil companies rarely carry out themselves the important works planned in the framework of their investments or of the exploitation of their facilities. In most cases, they act as prime contractor and generate a huge market of equipments, services and engineering needs in which many companies of various size are involved and make the overall para-petroleum industry. The French position on this market was asserted very early thanks to the continuation of ambitious R and D programs, very often carried out in the framework of the CEP and M and of the COPREP, which have permitted to build and maintain a solid technological knowledge. In this context, the lack of regular statistical data about the French para-petroleum industry has led, since 1978, the group of para-petroleum and para-gas companies, the CEP and M and the former COPREP (now the Committee of petroleum and marine studies - CEP and M), and the French institute of petroleum (IFP), to launch an annual inquiry at the national scale. This document makes a brief overview of the international context of the petroleum industry and then presents the last results of the 2004 inquiry about the French para-petroleum industry. Some data are foreseen for 2005, based on the estimations supplied by the companies themselves. (J.S.)

  2. The Business Case for Automated Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Tim; Elrawas, Oussama; Hihn, Jairus M.; Feather, Martin S.; Madachy, Ray; Boehm, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Adoption of advanced automated SE (ASE) tools would be more favored if a business case could be made that these tools are more valuable than alternate methods. In theory, software prediction models can be used to make that case. In practice, this is complicated by the 'local tuning' problem. Normally. predictors for software effort and defects and threat use local data to tune their predictions. Such local tuning data is often unavailable. This paper shows that assessing the relative merits of different SE methods need not require precise local tunings. STAR 1 is a simulated annealer plus a Bayesian post-processor that explores the space of possible local tunings within software prediction models. STAR 1 ranks project decisions by their effects on effort and defects and threats. In experiments with NASA systems. STARI found one project where ASE were essential for minimizing effort/ defect/ threats; and another project were ASE tools were merely optional.

  3. Case studies for developing globally responsible engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Global Dimension in Engineering Education

    2015-01-01

    Document realitzat amb un ajut financer de la Unió Europea. Per poder accedir al material complementari per a docents dels 28 casos estudi que formen el llibre, activeu el "Document relacionat" Col·lecció de 28 casos estudi per a professors d'enginyeria: 1. Rural development and planning in LDCs: the “Gamba Deve – Licoma axis”,district of Caia, Mozambique 2. Reducing the impact of soil erosion and reservoir siltation on agricultural production and water availability: the case stu...

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  5. Petroleum 2006. Statistical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This document gathers in 5 parts, the main existing statistical data about petroleum industry in France and in the rest of the world, together with an insight on other energy sources: 1 - petroleum in the French economy (petroleum and other energies, petroleum and transports, petroleum and energy in the industry, the residential and tertiary sectors, environment: 42 pages); 2 - the French petroleum industry (exploration, production, foreign trade, transports, refining, storage, petrochemistry: 66 pages); 3 - the French market of petroleum products (evolution of sales by product and detail by region for the past year: 38 pages); 4 - prices and taxes of petroleum products (world prices and rates for crude and refined products, evolution of fret rates, retail prices and French taxes: 28 pages); 5 - petroleum in the world (world energy production and consumption, detailed petroleum activity by main areas and for the main countries: 112 pages). (J.S.)

  6. Controlling the Didactic Relation: A Case in Process Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaako, Juha

    2014-01-01

    A case study was conducted during 1994-2013 on several groups of process engineering students to see what was needed to transform a single course from a teacher-centred to a student-centred learning environment (SCLE). Development work was done incrementally, using Herbart's didactic triangle as a theoretical framework. The effects of the…

  7. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section...

  8. The Case for Intelligent Propulsion Control for Fast Engine Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2009-01-01

    Damaged aircraft have occasionally had to rely solely on thrust to maneuver as a consequence of losing hydraulic power needed to operate flight control surfaces. The lack of successful landings in these cases inspired research into more effective methods of utilizing propulsion-only control. That research demonstrated that one of the major contributors to the difficulty in landing is the slow response of the engines as compared to using traditional flight control. To address this, research is being conducted into ways of making the engine more responsive under emergency conditions. This can be achieved by relaxing controller limits, adjusting schedules, and/or redesigning the regulators to increase bandwidth. Any of these methods can enable faster response at the potential expense of engine life and increased likelihood of stall. However, an example sensitivity analysis revealed a complex interaction of the limits and the difficulty in predicting the way to achieve the fastest response. The sensitivity analysis was performed on a realistic engine model, and demonstrated that significantly faster engine response can be achieved compared to standard Bill of Material control. However, the example indicates the need for an intelligent approach to controller limit adjustment in order for the potential to be fulfilled.

  9. Process engineering versus product engineering - A case study on volatile organic compounds removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Vilela, T.; Pereira, P.

    2005-01-01

    to the problem-need specified in the beginning of the project, but producing a novel formulation (chemical product design) represents a method that results to a completely xylene-free process which is environmentally and economically more interesting than those generated via the more traditional process......Three solutions for removing the dangerous volatile organic compound (VOC) xylene from an industrial coating process are presented and compared. Two of them are based on classical process engineering principles, i.e., development of separation-cleaning methods such as incineration and adsorption....... The last approach is somewhat different and is based on the so-called product engineering concept, i.e., in this case, a change of the formulation so that xylene is entirely eliminated from the process. It is shown that both the process and the product engineering approaches yield viable solutions...

  10. Rare and expensive petroleum: impact on careers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.; Krasowski, T.; Kerdraon, Y.; Drevet, R.; Andreis, D.; Pouille, J.P.; Villoslada Prado, P.; Sigaud, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Oil peak, reserves depletion, greenhouse effect, pollution, uncertain future and international insecurity could be negative arguments to discourage candidates to start up a career in the petroleum industry. This press kit presents testimonies of young professionals who explain their motivations for committing themselves in this way. Testimonies are chosen in various domains of the petroleum industry: geophysics, exploration, processes, refining, and engines technology. (J.S.)

  11. Energetic integration of processes: a case of practical application in the petroleum exploitation and production area in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel D, H.; Rodriguez T, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The energetic integration of processes also called Pinch technology has reached the maturity by means of its development and application in different parts of the world, producing enormous savings in energy and capital, nevertheless. In Latin America countries, particularly in Mexico, not much is done respect of its practical application, and for this reason, the majority of the industrial processes operate with high costs of energy and capital. The infrastructure of the Mexican Petroleum Industry represents a great potential to make efficient the use of materials and energetic resources. In this work, with a vision of saving energy and capital, the traditional process of crude oil dehydration is analyzed. By means of the application of Pinch technology there were proposed modifications to the existing process, intended for the saving of energy and capital and to avoid unnecessary consumption of cooling water. (Author)

  12. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  13. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  14. The petroleum industry in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  15. The world petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2005-01-01

    This study proposes a global vision of the petroleum industry, a precise and well argued state of the art of the petroleum markets. It defines the strategical challenges which the petroleum companies are exposed and allows to anticipate the sector evolutions. It details the key acts of the last three years, the financial performances of the companies. (A.L.B.)

  16. A review of the data quality and comparability of case-control studies of low-level exposure to benzene in the petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B G; Fransman, W; Heederik, D; Hurley, J F; Kromhout, H; Fitzsimons, E

    2010-01-01

    Published case-control studies of risks of leukaemia following low exposures to benzene in the distribution of petroleum (gasoline) have not all identified the same level of risk, but the studies have had differences in cohort inclusion, case determination and availability of occupational and lifestyle data. We reviewed the quality and comparability of the data from three (of four) studies. Through site visits, discussions with the investigators and reading study reports, we reviewed and audited the methods used for selecting cases and controls, for estimating individual exposures and for analysing and interpreting the data. Case-control comparisons of exposures were examined using customized graphs. We found that there were no issues of subject selection, methods or general data quality that were likely to have distorted their internal comparisons; we could not check in detail whether the metric for exposure assessments was the same across the studies; the exposure assessments for the Australian study required the least backward estimation, and the Canadian, which also had fewest cases, the most; evidence of an increased risk at higher exposures in Australia was convincing. The findings are consistent with some effect of benzene at higher lifetime exposures. A proposed pooled analysis should improve quantification of any exposure-response relationship.

  17. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  18. British Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersen, Christine Bang

    2014-01-01

    and the Mexican Gulf and pursuing an ambitious acquisition strategy soaking up significant assets and brands in North America and elsewhere. The case describes the circumstances around the incidents that triggered the executive changes and considers the economic and environmental effects of prevailing policy...

  19. Real cases study through computer applications for futures Agricultural Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratiel, R.; Durán, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    One of the huge concerns on the higher engineer education is the lag of real cases study that the future professionals need in the work and corporation market. This concern was reflected in Bologna higher education system including recommendations in this respect. The knowhow as why this or other methodology is one of the keys to resolve this problem. In the last courses given in Department of Crop Production, at the Agronomy Engineer School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UPM) we have developed more than one hundred applications in Microsoft Excel®. Our aim was to show different real scenarios which the future Agronomic Engineers can be found in their professional life and with items related to crop production field. In order to achieve our target, each application in Excel presents a file text in which is explained the theoretical concepts and the objectives, as well as some resources used from Excel syntax. In this way, the student can understand and use of such application, even they can modify and customize it for a real case presented in their context and/or master project. This electronic monograph gives an answer to the need to manage data in several real scenarios showed in lectures, calculus resolution, information analysis and manage worksheets in a professional and student level.

  20. Petroleum industry 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector's companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  1. Petroleum fiscality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    This document presents the different taxes imposed to petroleum products in France: domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP) and added value tax (TVA). A comparison is made with the fiscality into effect in other European countries for some petroleum products. Then, the fiscality is detailed for the different petroleum products and automotive fuels with its regional modulations. Finally, the fiscal measures adopted in 2007 are detailed. They concern the transposition of the European directive 2003-96/CE into French right and some fiscal regime changes given to some economical sectors particularly penalized by the rise of petroleum energy prices in 2007. (J.S.)

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  3. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  4. The Research of Petroleum Enterprise Information System Architecture Based on the G/S Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Liu; Xirong, Guo; Fang, Miao

    This paper explains the petroleum engineering technologies of petroleum enterprise supported by G/S model, which combine process of exploring, developing, and transporting of petroleum enterprise, these key technologies with spatial information technology supported by Digital Earth Platform, resulting in the improvement of the scientificity, accuracy, and rationality of the petroleum engineering technologies and the reduction of the cost and the increase of the benefits.

  5. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  6. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  7. Development Of An Optimal Planning And Maintenance System A Case Study Of Shell Petroleum Development Company Obigbo Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple Temple Amachree

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Preventive and breakdown maintenance system for a gas compressor plant were analyzed and appraised using established maintenance tools. To determine this comparative cost benefit analysis of preventive and breakdown maintenance activities on Agbada gas compressor plant of the Shell Petroleum Development Company was carried out. The cost of achieving 20000 run hours overhaul preventive maintenance with some disused repaired parts was analyzed and compared with the cost of carrying out the same activity with all new parts. Comparative studies showed that carrying out preventive maintenance with repairable parts which were recovered in the as new state is more cost effective than using all new parts. A cost saving of 14.63 was achieved. The same trend was also observed when the cost benefit analysis was carried out in breakdown maintenance option. This again gave a cost savings of 7.51 when repaired disused parts were used. The results showed that the rate of return on investment if breakdown maintenance is adopted is 24 as compared to the rate of return 01 26 that was obtained when preventive maintenance system was used. An NPV of N6703491725.00 and N5371346424.00 were obtained for preventive maintenance and breakdown maintenance respectively. It is therefore observed that preventive maintenance system strategy presented a better NPV over breakdown maintenance.

  8. An integrated approach for estimating oil volume in petroleum-contaminated sites: a North American case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Huang, G.H.; Chakma, A.

    1999-01-01

    An integrated approach for estimating the distribution of light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) such as oil spill and leakage in a porous media is proposed, based on a study at a site located in western Canada. The site has one original release source that is a flare pit, with on-site soil and groundwater seriously contaminated by petroleum products spilled over the past two decades. Results of the study show that soil properties and site characteristics have significant impact on the spreading of contaminants which affect the estimation of contaminant volume. Although the LNAPLs in the subsurface do not appear as a distinct layer, and the volume and distribution differ from site to site, the proposed method offers insight into the contamination details and is, therefore, considered to be an effective and convenient tool for obtaining a reasonable estimate of residual oil volume in the subsurface. Results could also be used in designing an enhanced recovery scheme for the site under study, as well as in designing multi-component models of the subsurface contamination for the purpose of risk assessment. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  9. British Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersen, Christine Bang

    2014-01-01

    . The company started with a venturous search for oil in Iran in the early 1900s to eventually become a multinational oil and gas conglomerate among the world’s largest energy companies. The company grew by developing oil fields around the world including demanding locations like Alaska, the North Sea...... by viewing the on-line inspection copy. Access is unlimited and you may print as many copies as you wish for use with your students. Standard pricing applies for any copies ordered from The Case Centre....

  10. Interdisciplinary case-based teaching of engineering geosciences and geotechnics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Christensen, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    experiences over four years teaching one such course, 11821 Site Investigations. The goal is to teach the students to conduct site investigations in connection with construction work in arctic areas. It covers technical skills and competences from several different branches of engineering...... and laboratory investigations as well as theoretical considerations. The interdisciplinary structure of the course combined with the real-world case and just-in- time teaching applied has resulted in more motivated and hard working students, and as teachers we receive better and more interesting reports to read...

  11. Case-based reasoning support for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Brian; Hamza, Meer; Irgens, Chris

    2000-10-01

    The potential application of case-based reasoning (CBR) in design support is illustrated through examples drawn from research at the University of Paisley, demonstrating the suitability of CBR for different aspects of design, different problem areas, and different design goals. A quality advisory system has been developed for the early stages of mechanical engineering design, the aim of which is to provide quality advice in a variant design situation. In the domain of software engineering CBR has been applied to advise on which metrics are appropriate fora assessing the quality of the software currently under design. The system integrates CBR with concepts from quality function deployment (QFD) and incorporates a case library holding past software quality histories. CBR has been applied in support of conceptual design: to capture detailed design histories by monitoring designer actions, and thereby support design reuse through the evaluation of designs, through the provision of query, browsing and replay facilities. The resulting system is aimed to support the design of safety critical systems, by assisting in the construction of safety arguments, and cooperative design.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  15. A Case Study: Problem-Based Learning for Civil Engineering Students in Transportation Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study,…

  16. Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some physical and chemical properties of samples of light, medium and heavy Nigerian crude oils and petroleum products including gasoline, kerosene and engine oil have been measured and are reported in this paper. The crude oils and petroleum products have also been characterized by fractional distillation and ...

  17. Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... potential of this estuarine environment in the event of pollution by crude oil hydrocarbons. Enumeration of viable ... aerobic heterotrophic mudflat bacteria to grow on three different refined petroleum products namely kerosine, diesel and engine .... hydrocarbon in the marine environment. In: Petroleum in the ...

  18. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of the present study describe the analysis of ground water quality as well as selected heavy metals in oily waste in some of the large-scale field case studies on bioremediation of oily waste (solid waste carried out at various oil installations in India. The results show that there was no contribution of oil and grease and selected heavy metals to the ground water in the nearby area due to adoption of this bioremediation process. The results further reveal that there were no changes in pH and EC of the groundwater due to bioremediation. In almost all cases the selected heavy metals in residual oily waste were within the permissible limits as per Schedule – II of Hazardous Waste Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement Act, Amendment 2008, (HWM Act 2008, by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF, Government of India (GoI.

  19. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  20. Petroleum and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, N.; Train, E.; Chagnoux, H.; Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Fradin, J.

    2000-01-01

    7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)

  1. Petroleum and geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaigneau, P.

    2004-01-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela

  2. Orbital compressed air and petroleum injury mimicking necrotizing fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellington, Faye E; Bacon, Annette S; Abu-Bakra, Mohammed A J; Martinez-Devesa, Pablo; Norris, Jonathan H

    2014-09-01

    Orbital injury secondary to petroleum-based products is rare. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of a combined compressed air and chemical orbital injury, which mimicked necrotizing fasciitis. A 58-year-old man was repairing his motorcycle engine when a piston inadvertently fired, discharging compressed air and petroleum-based carburetor cleaner into his left eye. He developed surgical emphysema, skin necrosis, and a chemical cellulitis, causing an orbital compartment syndrome. He was treated initially with antibiotics and subsequently with intravenous steroid and orbital decompression surgery. There was almost complete recovery by 4 weeks postsurgery. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Petroleum-based products can cause severe skin irritation and necrosis. Compressed air injury can cause surgical emphysema. When these two mechanisms of injury are combined, the resulting orbitopathy and skin necrosis can mimic necrotizing fasciitis and cause diagnostic confusion. A favorable outcome is achievable with aggressive timely management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Petroleum products in East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillaud, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a study about petroleum and natural gas reserves in East countries (former USSR, Middle Europe). Statistical data about petroleum production and petroleum products consumption are also given. 10 figs

  4. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Computer Science and Engineering Computations, Civil Engineering, Food Science and Technology, Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Energy, Geology, Industrial, Production & Manufacturing Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Physics and other related Applied Sciences and Engineering ...

  5. Petroleum systems of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Noble, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia contains many Tertiary basins, several of which have proven to be very prolific producers of oil and gas. The geology and petroleum systems of these productive basins are reviewed, summarized and updated according to the most recent developments. We have linked the recognized petroleum

  6. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  8. Mechanical Engineering Practice – using a simple Stirling engine as case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik

    2011-01-01

    The first technical course that students in mechanical engineering take at the Technical University of Denmark is called “Mechanical Engineering Practice”. We have used a simple Stirling engine as a design-implement project. Students were asked to design and build a heat engine using materials....... The Stirling engine worked well in the drawing assignments. The Stirling engine also served as illustration of coming courses in mechanical engineering. The resulting engines had large variations in their design and most groups succeeded in building a functioning engine. However, achieved efficiencies were...... obtained by their own means and were competing on achieving the highest efficiency. We added an extra dimension to the project by making detailed measurements of the pressure variation to check simple thermodynamic models of the engine. The course had integrated lessons in sketching and technical drawing...

  9. Corrosion in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products and biofuels identification, monitoring and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2014-01-01

    This book treats corrosion as it occurs and affects processes in real-world situations, and thus points the way to practical solutions. Topics described include the conditions in which petroleum products are corrosive to metals; corrosion mechanisms of petroleum products; which parts of storage tanks containing crude oils and petroleum products undergo corrosion; dependence of corrosion in tanks on type of petroleum products; aggressiveness of petroleum products to polymeric material; how microorganisms take part in corrosion of tanks and pipes containing petroleum products; which corrosion monitoring methods are used in systems for storage and transportation of petroleum products; what corrosion control measures should be chosen; how to choose coatings for inner and outer surfaces of tanks containing petroleum products; and how different additives (oxygenates, aromatic solvents) to petroleum products and biofuels influence metallic and polymeric materials. The book is of interest to corrosion engineers, mat...

  10. Impact Testing of Composites for Aircraft Engine Fan Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Revilock, Duane M.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Nie, Walter Z.; Mackenzie, S. Ben; Todd, Kevin B.

    2001-01-01

    Before composite materials can be considered for use in the fan case of a commercial jet engine, the performance of a composite structure under blade-out loads needs to be demonstrated. The objective of this program is to develop an efficient test and analysis method for evaluating potential composite case concepts. Ballistic impact tests were performed on laminated glass/epoxy composites in order to identify potential failure modes and to provide data for analysis. Flat 7x7 in. panels were impacted with cylindrical titanium projectiles, and 15 in. diameter half-rings were impacted with wedge-shaped titanium projectiles. Composite failure involved local fiber fracture as well as tearing and delamination on a larger scale. A 36 in. diameter full-ring subcomponent was proposed for larger scale testing. Explicit, transient, finite element analyses were used to evaluate impact dynamics and subsequent global deformation for the proposed full-ring subcomponent test. Analyses on half-ring and quarter ring configurations indicated that less expensive smaller scale tests could be used to screen potential composite concepts when evaluation of local impact damage is the primary concern.

  11. Genetic Engineering and Sustainable Crop Disease Management: Opportunities for Case-by-Case Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vincelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering (GE offers an expanding array of strategies for enhancing disease resistance of crop plants in sustainable ways, including the potential for reduced pesticide usage. Certain GE applications involve transgenesis, in some cases creating a metabolic pathway novel to the GE crop. In other cases, only cisgenessis is employed. In yet other cases, engineered genetic changes can be so minimal as to be indistinguishable from natural mutations. Thus, GE crops vary substantially and should be evaluated for risks, benefits, and social considerations on a case-by-case basis. Deployment of GE traits should be with an eye towards long-term sustainability; several options are discussed. Selected risks and concerns of GE are also considered, along with genome editing, a technology that greatly expands the capacity of molecular biologists to make more precise and targeted genetic edits. While GE is merely a suite of tools to supplement other breeding techniques, if wisely used, certain GE tools and applications can contribute to sustainability goals.

  12. Incorporating Gaming in Software Engineering Projects: Case of RMU Monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Acharya; David Burke

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge in engineering education is retaining student interest in the engineering discipline. Active student involvement in engineering projects is one way of retaining student interest. Such involvement can only be realized if project inception comes entirely from the student. This paper presents a software game, RMU Monopoly, developed as a project requirement for a software engineering course and describes the challenges and gains of implementing such a project. The RMU Monop...

  13. Case Study: Meeting the Demand for Skilled Precision Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Chris; Shore, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to demonstrate how science and engineering graduates can be recruited and trained to Masters level in precision engineering as an aid to reducing the skills shortage of mechanical engineers in UK industry. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes a partnership between three UK academic institutions and industry,…

  14. Robustness and Reliability of the GM Ignition Switch - A forensic Engineering case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eifler, Tobias; Lerche Olesen, Jonas; Howard, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses forensic engineering from the perspectives of Robust Design and Reliability Engineering to review one of the most infamous recalls in automotive history, that of the GM ignition switch. The design, engineering and management failures in this case ultimately resulted in a fine of $...

  15. 78 FR 37885 - Approval of American Society of Mechanical Engineers' Code Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Approval of American Society of Mechanical Engineers' Code Cases; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 [NRC-2009-0359] RIN 3150-AI72 Approval of American Society of Mechanical Engineers... Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). This proposed action would allow nuclear power plant licensees...

  16. Learning from Engineering Failures: A Case Study of the Deepwater Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary Annette; Hunt, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Natural catastrophes and engineering failures provide timely, motivating, and conceptually rich backdrops for learning. Engineering educators have long embraced case studies of engineering failures as a sound pedagogical strategy for meeting several learning standards, such as "design within realistic constraints", and teaching failure…

  17. Ensuring comparability of benzene exposure estimates across three nested case-control studies in the petroleum industry in support of a pooled epidemiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, D C; Armstrong, T W; Pearlman, E D; Verma, D K; Schnatter, A R; Rushton, L

    2010-03-19

    Three case-control studies each nested within a cohort of petroleum workers assessed exposure to benzene in relation to risk of haematopoietic cancers. These studies have each been updated and the cases will be pooled to derive a more powerful study. The benzene exposure of new leukemia cases and controls was estimated in accordance with each respective study's original methods. An essential component of the process of pooling the data was comparison and rationalisation of the exposure estimates to ensure accuracy and consistency of approach. This paper describes this process and presents comparative estimates before and after appropriate revision took place. The original petroleum industry studies, in Canada, the UK and Australia, were conducted at different points in time by different study teams, but the industry used similar technology in similar eras in each of these countries. A job history for each subject giving job title, dates of starting and leaving the job and location of work, was assembled. For each job or task, the average benzene exposure (Base Estimate (BE) in ppm) was derived from measurements collected at applicable worksites. Estimates of exposure intensity (workplace exposure estimates (WE)) were then calculated for each line of work history by adjusting the BEs for site- and era-specific exposure-related variables such as loading technology and percentage benzene in the product. To ensure that the exposure estimates were comparable among the studies, the WEs were allocated to generic Job Categories, e.g. Tanker Driver (by technology used e.g. bottom loading), Motor Mechanic. The WEs were stratified into eras, reflecting technological changes in the industry. The arithmetic mean (AM), geometric mean (GM) and range of the stratified WEs were calculated, by study, for each generic Job Category. These were then compared. The AMs of the WEs were regarded as substantially similar if they were within 20% in all three studies in one era or for at

  18. Particular bi-fuel application of spark ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raţiu, S.; Alexa, V.; Kiss, I.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative test concerning the operation of a spark-ignition engine, make: Dacia 1300, model: 810.99, fuelled alternatively with gasoline and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas). The tests carried out show, on the one hand, the maintenance of power and torque performances in both engine fuelling cases, for all the engine operation regimes, and, on the other hand, a considerable decrease in CO and HC emissions when using poor mixtures related to LPG fuelling.

  19. The role of Project Finance in the viability of infrastructure projects: case of the petroleum and natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Viviana Cardoso de Sa e; Rodrigues, Adriano Pires

    2000-01-01

    Project finance represents neither recent news nor a panacea in the fields of long term financing. It is not able to solve the chronicle scarcity of resources applied in big projects financing in developing countries. In fact, underdeveloped markets as the Brazilian one offer, at the beginning, almost no chances to the project finance solution. In this case a path full of barriers overcome the solutions that project finance may offer. The process to adapt this instrument to the Brazilian reality presents the following hindrances: a different law framework, capital market underdevelopment; economical instability; political and regulating risks; incapability of the national insurance companies to insure big projects; cultural differences and lack of know-how in this area, and lastly, the out of date tax system. (author)

  20. Petroleum investment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1994-01-01

    There is no specific petroleum legislation as such in place in Kazakhstan and tax legislation is unsophisticated. Regulation of operations is subject to generally applicable legislation. A brief account of the difficulties which exist for both sides in renegotiating a contract is given. Since the competence to enter into contracts with foreign companies has not been fully defined, the first problem when applying for petroleum rights is the identification of a negotiating partner. A summary of terms and conditions and a list of the main laws applicable to petroleum operations are included. (UK)

  1. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  2. Petroleum marketing annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. (VC)

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  7. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  8. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  9. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  10. Petroleum marketing annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  11. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  12. Substitution of petroleum liquefied gas for natural gas in a metallurgical industry: a case study; Substituicao de gas liquefeito de petroleo por gas natural em uma siderurgica: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Isac Quintao; Miranda, Luciano Lellis; Fullin Junior, Benjamin; Rodrigues, Henrique de Castro; Manella, Roberto [Aperam South America, Timoteo, MG (Brazil). Utilidades e Eficiencia Energetica; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2011-12-21

    Minas Gerais is a State where there is no production of natural gas. Aiming to increase the consumption of natural gas in Minas Gerais, PETROBRAS increase the network of gas natural distribution in the State of Minas Gerais and the State concessionaire (GASMIG) installed the Project of Natural Gas Valley. The case study is associated to an enterprise that firmed contract for supplying of natural gas. The fuel to be substituted is the Liquefied Petroleum Gas and the results of the substitution were shown. The advantages of the substitution were related to costs, and environmental aspects with the reduction of CO{sub 2} production. The natural gas contains a lower content of impurities and is operated with higher safety than the petroleum liquefied gas. (author)

  13. REACH. Analytical characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R.; Forbes, S.; Gennart, J.P.; Gimeno Cortes, M.J.; Hovius, H.; King, D.; Kleise, H.; Martinez Martin, C.; Montanari, L.; Pinzuti, M.; Pollack, H.; Ruggieri, P.; Thomas, M.; Walton, A.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to summarise the findings of the scientific and technical work undertaken by CONCAWE to assess the feasibility and potential benefit of characterising petroleum UVCB substances (Substances of Unknown or Variable Composition, Complex reaction products or Biological Materials) beyond the recommendations issued by CONCAWE for the substance identification of petroleum substances under REACH. REACH is the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006). It deals with the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances. The report is based on Member Company experience of the chemical analysis of petroleum UVCB substances, including analysis in support of REACH registrations undertaken in 2010. This report is structured into four main sections, namely: Section 1 which provides an introduction to the subject of petroleum UVCB substance identification including the purpose of the report, regulatory requirements, the nature of petroleum UVCB substances, and CONCAWE's guidance to Member Companies and other potential registrants. Section 2 provides a description of the capabilities of each of the analytical techniques described in the REACH Regulation. This section also includes details on the type of analytical information obtained by each technique and an evaluation of what each technique can provide for the characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances. Section 3 provides a series of case studies for six petroleum substance categories (low boiling point naphthas, kerosene, heavy fuel oils, other lubricant base oils, residual aromatic extracts and bitumens) to illustrate the value of the information derived from each analytical procedure, and provide an explanation for why some techniques are not scientifically necessary. Section 4 provides a summary of the conclusions reached from the technical investigations undertaken by CONCAWE Member Companies, and summarising the

  14. Photolysis of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.

    1992-05-01

    A study was conducted to examine the chemical and physical changes that occur in oils as a result of photooxidation. A literature review of recent studies in petroleum photochemistry revealed reported effects of photo-induced reactions in petroleum, including changes in color, polymerization, solidification, increases in solubility and toxicity, and changes in interfacial properties. A list of products reported as a result of photolysis of petroleum is presented, including such compounds as aldehydes, ketones, esters, and lactones. The photoreactivity of various petroleum components is discussed and mechanisms of photooxidation of petroleum are suggested. In the experimental portion of the study, a variety of crude oils and petroleum products were used to determine how different oils are affected by photolysis, and to examine the importance of photolysis as a weathering process. Photooxidation products from several oils were isolated and identified, including aliphatic and aromatic acids, alcohols, and phenols. Some physical manifestations attributed to photolysis included yellowing, formation of precipitates or crusts, increases in density and viscosity with time, increases of asphaltene content in some oils, changes in pH of the surrounding water, and emulsification. 51 refs., 38 figs., 18 tabs

  15. The Recent Developments in Biobased Polymers toward General and Engineering Applications : Polymers that Are Upgraded from Biodegradable Polymers, Analogous to Petroleum-Derived Polymers, and Newly Developed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Hajime; Dijkstra, Peter; Loos, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The main motivation for development of biobased polymers was their biodegradability, which is becoming important due to strong public concern about waste. Reflecting recent changes in the polymer industry, the sustainability of biobased polymers allows them to be used for general and engineering

  16. Ethical Considerations in Tissue Engineering Research: Case Studies in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Hannah B.; McQuilling, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of “modest translational distance” and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. PMID:26282436

  17. associated petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals of an oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    were analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals, which may have been introduced to the soil as a result of the oil spillage that was ..... Attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons by weathering: A case study. Chem. and Biodiv., 3: 422 - 433. Short, R.C. and Stouble, A.J. 1967. Outline of Geology of the Niger - Delta.

  18. The Comparison of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils With Respect to Petroleum Derived Fuels and the Effects of Transient Plasma Ignition in a Compression-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    dioxide (CO2), which is a “ greenhouse gas.” Hydro-treated Renewable Diesel (HRD) fuels are a newer addition to the world of alternative Diesel fuels...radical. High temperature cylinder gasses in the Diesel Cycle initiate H* production. After exothermic breakdown at the initiation point(s) of combustion...of gasses in the cylinder, the compressed gasses are hotter than the cylinder wall and heat is transferred to the engine block. As such, PP occurs

  19. The Recent Developments in Biobased Polymers toward General and Engineering Applications: Polymers that Are Upgraded from Biodegradable Polymers, Analogous to Petroleum-Derived Polymers, and Newly Developed

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Hajime; Dijkstra, Peter; Loos, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The main motivation for development of biobased polymers was their biodegradability, which is becoming important due to strong public concern about waste. Reflecting recent changes in the polymer industry, the sustainability of biobased polymers allows them to be used for general and engineering applications. This expansion is driven by the remarkable progress in the processes for refining biomass feedstocks to produce biobased building blocks that allow biobased polymers to have more versati...

  20. You and Technology, A High School Case Study Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaskos, Nickander J., Ed.; Smyth, Michael P., Ed.

    This second draft of a manuscript for a high school engineering and technology course uses case studies as its format. The principles associated with various engineering problems are presented along with their effects on daily life. Topics include the computer, the automotive power system, satellite communications, the petroleum industry, water…

  1. An Industrial Case Study: Identification of Competencies of Design Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the findings from an empirical study carried out with engineers in senior roles within a large company manufacturing complex products. This research aimed to identify the types of knowledge that are important for design engineers. Twenty-four knowledge categories were...... identified and the importance of these for design engineers in industry was investigated. In addition, the number of years of relevant experience required to become an expert in these types of knowledge was investigated. Knowledge related to the process was perceived as more important to those related...... to the product. However, the number of years to become an expert in process knowledge was found to be lower than for product knowledge, despite process knowledge being perceived as more important. The findings of this research contribute to the education and training of design engineers....

  2. "Genetic Engineering" Gains Momentum (Science/Society Case Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.; Moore, Elizabeth A., Eds.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the benefits and hazards of genetic engineering, or "recombinant-DNA" research. Recent federal safety rules issued by NIH which ease the strict prohibitions on recombinant-DNA research are explained. (CS)

  3. Incorporating Gaming in Software Engineering Projects: Case of RMU Monopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Acharya

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in engineering education is retaining student interest in the engineering discipline. Active student involvement in engineering projects is one way of retaining student interest. Such involvement can only be realized if project inception comes entirely from the student. This paper presents a software game, RMU Monopoly, developed as a project requirement for a software engineering course and describes the challenges and gains of implementing such a project. The RMU Monopoly was proposed by three junior software engineering students. The game is a multi-platform software program that allows up to eight players and implements the rules of the Monopoly board game. To ensure agility the game was developed using the spiral software development model. The Software Requirements Specification (SRS document was finalized through an iterative procedure. Standard Unified Modeling Language (UML diagrams were used for product design. A Risk Mitigation, Monitoring, and Management Plan (RMMM was developed to ensure proactive risk management. Gantt chart, weekly progress meetings and weekly scrum meetings were used to track project progress. C# and Sub- Version were used in a client-server architecture to develop the software. The project was successful in retaining student interest in the software engineering discipline

  4. The Case for Distributed Engine Control in Turbo-Shaft Engine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Paluszewski, Paul J.; Storey, William; Smith, Bert J.

    2009-01-01

    The turbo-shaft engine is an important propulsion system used to power vehicles on land, sea, and in the air. As the power plant for many high performance helicopters, the characteristics of the engine and control are critical to proper vehicle operation as well as being the main determinant to overall vehicle performance. When applied to vertical flight, important distinctions exist in the turbo-shaft engine control system due to the high degree of dynamic coupling between the engine and airframe and the affect on vehicle handling characteristics. In this study, the impact of engine control system architecture is explored relative to engine performance, weight, reliability, safety, and overall cost. Comparison of the impact of architecture on these metrics is investigated as the control system is modified from a legacy centralized structure to a more distributed configuration. A composite strawman system which is typical of turbo-shaft engines in the 1000 to 2000 hp class is described and used for comparison. The overall benefits of these changes to control system architecture are assessed. The availability of supporting technologies to achieve this evolution is also discussed.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  6. Petroleum software and the road ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heggelund, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    Regardless of what software vendors want to do, in the end, it is the user, through his/her choices of software products, who will decide what the software of the petroleum-engineering industry will look like. In this article, the author has looked at several items that will impact the future of petroleum-engineering software. Out of these, two will stand out: (1) the adoption of a single integrated dynamic reservoir model and (2) the move to a client/server architecture. However, the biggest challenge for both vendors and users will be to manage change. This will require users to participate more actively in the development of new technology and to be willing to pay for it, and it will require vendors to adopt standards more readily

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1999, with data for May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The Detail Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  8. Development of generalized dynamic model of oscillations of cylinder case of diesel engine of locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina YUTKINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An engineering method of design, worked out by the authors, is considered in the paper. It allows to carry out design of amplitude-frequency specter and vibration loading of cylinder cases of the diesel engine of locomotive with account of cavitation-erosion damage. Offered method of design of parameters of cavitation-erosion damage may be used in design of new structures of diesel engines of locomotives and systems of cooling.

  9. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  10. Petroleum marketing annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This publication contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  11. Teaching sustainability in engineering solutions with Campus Service as case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; McAloone, Tim C.; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2014-01-01

    -offs exist within and between them Illustrate how companies can work towards the development of sustainable solutions Know and use various simplified tools for use in sustainability assessment Be able to relate critically to the results of various tools Master the analysis of solutions using life cycle check......Engineers potentially influence the sustainability of technological solutions significantly. At DTU Management Engineering we aim to address sustainability to all engineering students at DTU. One of the means to address students throughout DTU is the establishment of a course aimed at bachelor...... students on all study lines. The objectives of the course is for the participants to acquire an understanding of the basic concept of sustainability and its three dimensions as well as getting an overview of a number of tools for analysis and synthesis of solutions that are sustainable throughout...

  12. Vermiremediation of Soils Contaminated with Mixture of Petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    order to clean-up soil contaminated with gasoline, diesel and spent engine oil using an ... microbes, fungi, algae, plants and earthworms have ... The gasoline, diesel and spent engine oil were mixed in equal (1:1:1) proportion to obtain a homogeneous petroleum product mixture. Experimental design: One hundred grams of ...

  13. Systems Engineering Education Development(SEED)Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Thomas C., III; Brumfield, Mark D.; Jamison, Donald E.; Granata, Raymond L.; Casey, Carolyn A.

    2003-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Development Program (SEED) was initiated to help Goddard resolve a Systems Engineering skill shortage. The chronology of events and the experiences of the pilot program are outlined to describe the development of the present program. The program goals are included in order to give a focus on what the developers saw as the program drivers. Lessons learned from a pilot program were incorporated into the present program. This program is constantly learning from its past efforts and looks for continuous improvement. We list several future ideas for improvement and change.

  14. The business of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Business of Petroleum Exploration. The following topics are included: Petroleum business; Economic aspects of the business; Managing business; and Legal, Political, Ethical and environment aspects of the business

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. The petroleum taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. The Effect of Case Teaching on Meaningful and Retentive Learning When Studying Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güccük, Ahmet; Köksal, Mustafa Serdar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of case teaching on how students learn about genetic engineering, in terms of meaningful learning and retention of learning. The study was designed as quasi-experimental research including 63 8th graders (28 boys and 35 girls). To collect data, genetic engineering achievement tests were…

  1. Computer Science and Engineering Students Addressing Critical Issues Regarding Gender Differences in Computing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagala, Evrikleia; Kordaki, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on how Computer Science and Engineering Students (CSESs) of both genders address certain critical issues for gender differences in the field of Computer Science and Engineering (CSE). This case study is based on research conducted on a sample of 99 Greek CSESs, 43 of which were women. More specifically, these students were asked…

  2. Success Factors for Using Case Method in Teaching and Learning Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Rozilawati; Zainal, Dzulaiha Aryanee Putri

    2013-01-01

    The Case Method (CM) has long been used effectively in Social Science education. Its potential use in Applied Science such as Software Engineering (SE) however has yet to be further explored. SE is an engineering discipline that concerns the principles, methods and tools used throughout the software development lifecycle. In CM, subjects are…

  3. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal; Atanu Jana; Abhijit Datta; Priyangshu M. Sarma; Banwari Lal; Jayati Datta

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste) and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of th...

  4. Case-Based Instruction: Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding through Cases in a Mechanical Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Aman; Vinh, Megan; Shaver, Gregory M.; Meckl, Peter; Firebaugh, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a push within engineering curricula to adopt more learner-centered pedagogies, such as case-based instruction. Case-based instruction has been hypothesized to make the curriculum more relevant and motivating for students by pushing them to integrate the concepts they have learned with other experiences. The current study…

  5. Taxation of petroleum companies possessing private information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1995-01-01

    For countries having petroleum resources, a common objective of the Ministry of Energy is to maximise the net total government take from the petroleum industry. Most models of petroleum taxation, assuming symmetric information, recommended neutral taxation. A royalty is not optimal in this case as it gives disincentives for extraction, causing too much of the reservoir to remain unexploited. Through the operating activities, however, the companies obtain private information about the costs. A low cost company may conceal its information by imitating a high cost company, and must therefore be given an economic compensation (information rent) to be induced to reveal its true costs. An optimal regulatory response to asymmetric information may involve royalties, as these enable the government to capture a larger fraction of the economic rent. 17 refs., 2 figs

  6. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  7. American chestnut: A test case for genetic engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leila. Pinchot

    2014-01-01

    The thought of genetically engineered (GE) trees might conjure images of mutant trees with unnatural and invasive tendencies, but there is much more to the story. GE trees are a new reality that, like it or not, will probably be part of the future of forestry. The basic inclination of most Forest Guild stewards is to reject GE trees as violating our principle to...

  8. Initiatives to Foster Engineering Student Motivation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Encarnación; Enfedaque, Alejandro; Gálvez, Jaime C.

    2017-01-01

    There is little doubt that student motivation is essential in providing a beneficial learning experience. One way to produce such motivation is to stimulate it through suitable assessment methods. This paper shares the experience acquired by the authors, who are university lecturers in Civil Engineering at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid,…

  9. Integrating standardization into engineering education: the case of forerunner Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G. Choi (Dong Geun); H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe Republic of Korea is a forerunner in integrating the topic of standardization into engineering education at the academic level. This study investigates developments and evolutions in the planning and operating of the University Education Promotion on Standardization (UEPS) in Korea.

  10. Mobile APP for Motivation to Learning: An Engineering Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Min; Lin, Yen-Ting; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of Materials is regarded as an important core subject in engineering education. However, many concepts and knowledge in the material synthesis can be rather abstract and difficult to understand by the student learners. Experiments are limited in scope due to lack of equipment, control of toxic materials, and risks of chemical reactions,…

  11. Integrating Standardization into Engineering Education: The Case of Forerunner Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Geun; de Vries, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Korea is a forerunner in integrating the topic of standardization into engineering education at the academic level. This study investigates developments and evolutions in the planning and operating of the University Education Promotion on Standardization (UEPS) in Korea. This paper examines why the Korean government initiated the…

  12. Re-Engineering Graduate Skills--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Chenicheri Sid; Patil, Arun; Mertova, Patricie

    2009-01-01

    Research on student-learning outcomes indicates that university graduates do not possess important skills required by employers, such as communication, decision-making, problem-solving, leadership, emotional intelligence, social ethics skills as well as the ability to work with people of different backgrounds. Today, engineering graduates are…

  13. The para-petroleum industry. International context and results of the 2005 French inquiry; L'industrie parapetroliere. Contexte international et resultats de l'enquete francaise 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B.; Sagary, C.; Saniere, A

    2005-07-01

    Oil companies rarely carry out themselves the important works planned in the framework of their investments or of the exploitation of their facilities. In most cases, they act as prime contractor and generate a huge market of equipments, services and engineering needs in which many companies of various size are involved and make the overall para-petroleum industry. The French position on this market was asserted very early thanks to the continuation of ambitious R and D programs, very often carried out in the framework of the CEP and M and of the COPREP, which have permitted to build and maintain a solid technological knowledge. In this context, the lack of regular statistical data about the French para-petroleum industry has led, since 1978, the group of para-petroleum and para-gas companies, the CEP and M and the former COPREP (now the Committee of petroleum and marine studies - CEP and M), and the French institute of petroleum (IFP), to launch an annual inquiry at the national scale. This document makes a brief overview of the international context of the petroleum industry and then presents the last results of the 2004 inquiry about the French para-petroleum industry. Some data are foreseen for 2005, based on the estimations supplied by the companies themselves. (J.S.)

  14. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in early December 2013,combined with the historical development andthe latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOT- analysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factorssuch as the political environment and the marketsupply and demand, conducted a comprehensiveand profound analysis.

  15. Petroleum: Price trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC), some political leaders and financiers have mainly attributed the price spike of oil in 2008 - followed by a just as spectacular drop in prices - to the speculative moves made by financial investors on the futures market instead of to market fundamentals

  16. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  17. Associated petroleum gas in Russia: reasons for non-utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeland, Tonje Hulbak

    2010-10-22

    This report studies the factors hindering increased utilization of associated petroleum gas (APG) in Russia. The issue of flaring versus utilization is studied from a Technology Innovation System (TIS) perspective, seeing the non-utilization issue as a problem of technology diffusion. There are many technological options available for APG utilization, but a main blocking mechanism in the Russian case is the Gazprom monopoly on gas transportation via their pipelines. A commonly discussed solution is policy to ensure third party access, but this study finds that this solution holds little potential, as its ramifications are too extensive and unacceptable to the key actor Gazprom. More promising solutions may be found in small, emerging engineering companies. (Author)

  18. A case study: Problem-based learning for civil engineering students in transportation courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, A. A.

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study, the paper describes how PBL was introduced, the impacts of its introduction and the feedback received by students regarding PBL. PBL was introduced in these years to help students to become deep and active learners and to help them in the transition from passive note taker to researcher and lifelong learner.

  19. A case study of technology transfer: Rehabilitative engineering at Rancho Los Amigos Hospital. [prosthetic devices engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildred, W.

    1973-01-01

    The transfer of NASA technolgy to rehabilitative applications of artificial limbs is studied. Human factors engineering activities range from orthotic manipulators to tiny dc motors and transducers to detect and transmit voluntary control signals. It is found that bicarbon implant devices are suitable for medical equipment and artificial limbs because of their biological compatibility with human body fluids and tissues.

  20. Case Study of Engineering Risk in Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Dan Mihai

    2018-03-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to show where the engineering of risk management is placed and how its implementation has been tried in multinational companies in automotive industry from Romania. A large number of companies don't use a strategy to avoid the engineering risk in their design products. The main reason is not because these companies haven't heard about standards for risk management such as ISO 31000; the problem is that the business units which were summed up, have just set up a risk list at the beginning of the project, without any follow up. The purpose of this article is to create an implementation risk tracking in automotive industry companies in Romania, due to a change request from customers according to supply companies within the quality process, in the research and development phase.

  1. Field Engineers' Scheduling at Oil Rigs: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Usmani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil exploration and production operations face a number of challenges. Professional planners have to design solutions for various practical problems or issues. However, the time consumed is often very extensive because of the large number of possible solutions. Further, the matter of choosing the best solution remains. The present paper investigates a problem related to leading companies in the energy and chemical manufacturing sector of the oil and gas industry. Each company’s field engineers are expensive and valuable assets. Therefore, an optimized roster is rather important. In the present paper, the objective is to design a field engineers’ schedule which would be both feasible and satisfying towards the various demands of rigs, with minimum operational cost to the company. An efficient and quick optimization technique is presented to schedule the shifts of field engineers.

  2. Introducing future engineers to sustainable ecology problems: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and industrial design. The energy, which they consume, is increasing the greenhouse effect and the waste poisons the environment. So far, most courses on ecology are offered to specialists in environmental engineering. These courses are filled with many details. The Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration teaches students in the direction of management and production engineering. Upon completion, the students receive the degree of 'engineer'. Their future work will mainly concern management of different types of industrial enterprises and they will be responsible for organising it in such a way as to avoid a dangerous contribution to environmental pollution and climate change. This is why it was decided to introduce a new course entitled 'Principles of Ecology and Environmental Management'. This course is quite broad, concerning almost all technical, law and organisational aspects of the problem. The presentation is made in a spectacular way, aiming to convince students that their future activity must be environmentally friendly. It contains information about international activities in ecology, legal aspects concerning pollution, technical and information methods of monitoring and, finally, the description of 'green' solutions. Altogether, 27 hours of lectures and 15 hours of discussions and students' presentations complete the course. Details of this course are described in this paper.

  3. Software Engineers' Attitudes Towards Organizational Change - an Industrial Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lenberg, Per; Wallgren, Lars Göran; Feldt, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In order to cope with a complex and changing environment, industries seek to find new and more efficient ways to conduct their business. According to previous research, many of these change efforts fail to achieve their intended aims. Researchers have therefore sought to identify factors that increase the likelihood of success and found that employees' attitude towards change is one of the most critical. The ability to manage change is especially important in software engineering organization...

  4. A Case Study: Data Management in Biomedical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R. Gaudette

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a biomedical engineering lab at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, co-author Dr. Glenn R. Gaudette and his research team are investigating the effects of stem cell therapy on the regeneration of function in damaged cardiac tissue in laboratory rats. Each instance of stem cell experimentation on a rat yields hundreds of data sets that must be carefully captured, documented and securely stored so that the data will be easily accessed and retrieved for papers, reports, further research, and validation of findings, while meeting NIH guidelines for data sharing. After a brief introduction to the bioengineering field and stem cell research, this paper focuses on the experimental workflow and the data generated in one instance of stem cell experimentation; the lab’s data management practices; and how Dr. Gaudette teaches data management to the lab’s incoming graduate students each semester. The co-authors discuss the haphazard manner by which engineering and science students typically learn data management practices, and advocate for the integration of formal data management instruction in higher education STEM curricula. The paper concludes with a discussion of the Frameworks for a Data Management Curriculum developed collaboratively by the co-authors’ institutions -- the University of Massachusetts Medical School and Worcester Polytechnic Institute -- to teach data management best practices to students in the sciences, health sciences, and engineering.

  5. Guidelines for conducting and reporting case study research in software engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Runeson, Per; Höst, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Case study is a suitable research methodology for software engineering research since it studies contemporary phenomena in its natural context. However, the understanding of what constitutes a case study varies, and hence the quality of the resulting studies. This paper aims at providing an introduction to case study methodology and guidelines for researchers conducting case studies and readers studying reports of such studies. The content is based on the authors’ own experience from condu...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710 Petroleum...

  7. Engineering Smart Grids: Applying Model-Driven Development from Use Case Design to Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Pröstl Andrén

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The rollout of smart grid solutions has already started and new methods are deployed to the power systems of today. However, complexity is still increasing as focus is moving from a single system, to a system of systems perspective. The results are increasing engineering efforts and escalating costs. For this reason, new and automated engineering methods are necessary. This paper addresses these needs with a rapid engineering methodology that covers the overall engineering process for smart grid applications—from use case design to deployment. Based on a model-driven development approach, the methodology consists of three main parts: use case modeling, code generation, and deployment. A domain-specific language is introduced supporting the use case design according to the Smart Grid Architecture Model. It is combined with the IEC 61499 distributed control model to improve the function layer design. After a completed use case design, executable code and communication configurations (e.g., IEC 61850 are generated and deployed onto compatible field devices. This paper covers the proposed rapid engineering methodology and a corresponding prototypical implementation which is validated in a laboratory experiment. Compared to other methods the proposed methodology decreases the number of engineering steps and reduces the use case design and implementation complexity.

  8. The evaporation of crude oil and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M. F.

    1996-01-01

    The physics of oil and petroleum evaporation was studied by means of an experimental apparatus. The evaporation was determined by weight loss and recorded on a computer. Examination of the data showed that most oil and petroleum products (those with seven to ten components) evaporate at a logarithmic rate with respect to time, while other petroleum products (those with fewer chemical components) evaporate at a rate which is square root with respect to time. Evaporation of oil and petroleum was not strictly boundary-layer regulated because the typical oil evaporation rate rates do not exceed that of molecular diffusion and thus turbulent diffusion does not increase the evaporation rates. Overall, boundary layer regulation can be ignored in the prediction of oil and petroleum evaporation. The simple equation relating only the logarithm of time (or the square root of time in the case of narrow-cut products) and temperature are sufficient to accurately describe oil evaporation. refs., figs

  9. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  17. Yugoslavian Petroleum Refinery development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocic, Ozren

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the analysis of the world petroleum industry development, being an important factor in planning the development of the Yugoslav petroleum industry and Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, as well. Then Yugoslav petroleum industry development is analysed, including the appropriate balances of crude oil production and crude oil products consumption. The way of realizing the basic targets are also proposed. Likewise, the analysis of the condition within West European refineries has been conducted, from the aspects of technology, energy consumption and environmental protection and the same analysis for Pancevo Petroleum Refinery has been presented, too. The analysis of the condition within the refineries in the European Union countries and comparing it with the condition within Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, makes it mainly possible to recognize the development programmes which should be realized in order that Pancevo Petroleum Refinery could reach the refining level of the EU countries. (Original)

  18. Signal Analysis of Automotive Engine Spark Ignition System using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Case-based Maintenance (CBM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Vong, C. M.; Wong, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    With the development of modern technology, modern vehicles adopt electronic control system for injection and ignition. In traditional way, whenever there is any malfunctioning in an automotive engine, an automotive mechanic usually performs a diagnosis in the ignition system of the engine to check any exceptional symptoms. In this paper, we present a case-based reasoning (CBR) approach to help solve human diagnosis problem. Nevertheless, one drawback of CBR system is that the case library will be expanded gradually after repeatedly running the system, which may cause inaccuracy and longer time for the CBR retrieval. To tackle this problem, case-based maintenance (CBM) framework is employed so that the case library of the CBR system will be compressed by clustering to produce a set of representative cases. As a result, the performance (in retrieval accuracy and time) of the whole CBR system can be improved.

  19. Privatization impact on the competition strategies of the petroleum companies: a case study; Impactos da privatizacao sobre as estrategias competitivas de empresas de petroleo: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Jorge Manoel T.; Cavalcanti, Maria Alice F. Deschamps [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Jorge Ferreira da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Administracao de Empresas

    1998-07-01

    In many countries the deregulation of the petroleum industry has eventually led to the privatization of the national oil companies. As a result of deregulation, the business environment becomes more hostile. The change in the competitive environment, together with the modification in companies ownership, have rise to significant changes in the competitive strategies employed by the companies. When they were State-run, oil companies would show little consistency in the their strategies. However, as private concerns, they have come to present patterns of differentiation strategies coupled with a search for cost parity in the industry. (author)

  20. Petroleum supply monthly: April 1996, with data from February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the report present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD districts, and 12 Refining Districts. A future article gives a summer 1996 gasoline assessment. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  1. 7th international conference on case histories in geotechnical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Funding used to enhance objectives of conference and to present successful case histories of varied project, orally, in posters and in : proceedings. This will become a storehouse of knowledge for future reference.

  2. Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership: APPEL Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Case studies illustrate the kinds of decisions and dilemmas managers face every day, and as such provide an effective learning tool for project management. Due to...

  3. Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership: Interactive Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Case studies illustrate the kinds of decisions and dilemmas managers face every day, and as such provide an effective learning tool for project management. Due to...

  4. Incorporating a Real World Case Study into a Senior Construction Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Eli H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of bringing real world case studies on college students' self efficacy, their confidence, and their motivation toward an engineering field. It was found that working with real cases increases student's motivation and maximizes their learning by becoming personally committed to course and program goals. As a…

  5. Support Process Re-Engineering : Case Support Services Group Ltd.,UK

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhlstedt, Satu

    2010-01-01

    The background of this functional thesis was in the case company’s dysfunctional human resource ‎management processes and in the problems caused by them. The main objective was to re-‎engineer the case company’s recruitment and induction processes in order to support recent and ‎future growth and to mend the problems caused by the company’s poor human resource ‎management. The thesis focuses on examining the re-engineering of recruitment and induction ‎processes in the case company. by analys...

  6. Assess/Mitigate Risk through the Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to perform an independent assessment of the mitigation of the Constellation Program (CxP) Risk 4421 through the use of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools. With the cancellation of the CxP, the assessment goals were modified to capture lessons learned and best practices in the use of CASE tools. The assessment goal was to prepare the next program for the use of these CASE tools. The outcome of the assessment is contained in this document.

  7. China's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  8. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  9. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  10. The case study of management of solid wastes in a petroleum industry; O estudo de caso do gerenciamento de residuos solidos em uma refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Lizabela Souza de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica]. E-mail: lizabela@eq.ufrj.br; Nicolaiewsky, Elioni [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: elioni@eq.ufrj.br; Freire, Denize D.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica]. E-mail: denize@eq.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    Crude oil refining is an industrial activity known as very pollutant, as all other activities of the petroleum industry, regarding either the volume or the concentration of the resides involved, thus generating emissions, effluents and solid wastes. The aim of the present work is to study solid waste management of a certain petroleum refinery, located in Rio de Janeiro. On the solid wastes management of that refinery, the following aspects were considered: origin and period of generation, conditioning, storage, transportation, treatment and final disposal. After listing all the resides and through analysis of the industrial wastes (norms, terms, inventory), the industrial process and office routines were then analyzed. The solid wastes were divided in two categories: industrial and administrative wastes. As far as destination is concerned, resides classified as Class I are either co-processed or incinerated, while Class II and Class III wastes, when not recycled, are sent to industrial or sanitary landfill. Finally, after analyzing the wastes management of the refinery, it has been proposed a plan of achievements in order to enhance the environmental goal of the refinery. (author)

  11. The use of rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus as a sentinel species to assess petroleum hydrocarbons pollution: A case study in Quanzhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Jun; Zheng, Ronghui; Kuang, Weiming; Hong, Fukun; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Yusheng

    2017-11-30

    To monitor the biological effects of marine pollution, choosing a native fish species and establishing suitable biomarkers are required. In this study, the full-length cDNA of cyp1a1 was cloned from Sebastiscus marmoratus (SM-CYP1A1). Then the dose-response and time-course induction of hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA by the crude oil water-soluble fraction (WSF) were determined. Subsequently, SM-CYP1A1 mRNA was applied to investigate the biological effect of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in Quanzhou Bay, China. The transcription levels of hepatic CYP1A1 were significantly elevated in fish caged in the polluted sites for 2weeks compared with those of the reference site, which were correlated with the concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in the surface seawaters. The results suggest that S. marmoratus is a potential sentinel organism to monitor marine pollutants and the hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA can serve as a sensitive biomarker to organic xenobiotics in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Process Re-engineering Framework for Reverse Logistics based on a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Kai Chan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Reverse logistics has gained increasing attention in recent years as a channel for companies to achieve operational excellence. The process involves manipulation of returned materials, or even products, which forms a pivotal role in sustainable development throughout the whole supply chains. To make reverse logistics possible, process re-engineering may need to be carried out. However, the processes involved in reengineering are practically complicated. Objectives, benefits, and applicability of any process re-engineering require a careful and detailed strategic planning. This paper aims to propose an easy-to-follow step-by-step framework for practitioners to perform process re-engineering, to learn and identify the critical issues in each step, and to be successful in applying process re-engineering in order to enhance reverse logistics performance. A learner-centred approach is adopted based on a case study of process re-engineering, which is demonstrated in the paper for explanation.

  13. Computer Science and Engineering Students Addressing Critical Issues Regarding Gender Differences in Computing: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Evrikleia Tsagala; Maria Kordaki

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on how Computer Science and Engineering Students (CSESs) of both genders address certain critical issues for gender differences in the field of Computer Science and Engineering (CSE). This case study is based on research conducted on a sample of 99 Greek CSESs, 43 of which were women. More specifically, these students were asked to respond to a specially designed questionnaire addressing the following issues: a) essential motives in selecting CSE as a subject of study, thei...

  14. Integrating ergonomics in design processes: a case study within an engineering consultancy firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study within an engineering consultancy firm, where engineering designers and ergonomists were working together on the design of a new hospital sterile processing plant. The objective of the paper is to gain a better understanding of the premises for integrating...... ergonomics into engineering design processes and how different factors either promote or limit the integration. Based on a grounded theory approach a model illustrating these factors is developed and different hypotheses about how these factors either promote and/or limit the integration of ergonomics...

  15. Accreditation of Spanish engineering programs, first experiences. The case of the Terrassa School of Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Dolores Álvarez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the European Space for Higher Education has entailed new requirements for Spanish Higher Education Programs. Regulations (RD 1393, 2007 stablish that university programs, in order to have official validity, must be submitted to an external evaluation process before their official implementation, denominated Validation, and to an ex-post process or Accreditation. Terrassa School of Engineering (EET was one of the first schools in Spain to adapt to the European Space for Higher Education, in the academic period 2009-10 and then, one of the first university institutions submitted to an accreditation process. In this communication, the important role of the Internal Quality Assurance System in the assessment of the school’s programs is exposed as well as the approach followed in the key steps of the process: Accreditation

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  18. 46 CFR 105.45-1 - Loading or dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Loading or dispensing petroleum products. (a) A commercial fishing vessel must have aboard a letter of... letter while dispensing petroleum products. This letter of compliance issued to a vessel will state— (1... authorizing service as master, mate, pilot, or engineer. [CGD 79-116, 60 FR 17157, Apr. 4, 1995, as amended by...

  19. Rhenium concentration during petroleum deasphalting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troshkina, I.D.; Bel'kova, M.N.

    1994-01-01

    Rhenium distribution and concentration during fractional distillation of certain types of petroleum and natural bitumens from Tatarstan are studied. Rhenium concentration in the process of oil deasphalting is examined for petroleum produced by different techniques, as well as for heavy residues from petroleum distillation. Optimum conditions for the process are revealed fractions of resinous-asphaltene substances concentrating rhenium compounds are found. 5 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Basic petroleum research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesjoe, Bjarne; Stiksrud, Helge

    2004-01-01

    An overview of projects in the field of basic petroleum research (PetroForsk) is presented. A brief presentation of some of the projects is included, as well as political comments on the value of these projects. The research program Basic Petroleum Research (PetroForsk) was established in 1998 and ended in 2004. The program has been part of the Research Council of Norway's long-term effort in petroleum research (ml)

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  2. Using Student Video Cases to Assess Pre-service Elementary Teachers' Engineering Teaching Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Tejaswini; Wendell, Kristen

    2017-10-01

    Our study addresses the need for new approaches to prepare novice elementary teachers to teach both science and engineering, and for new tools to measure how well those approaches are working. This in particular would inform the teacher educators of the extent to which novice teachers are developing expertise in facilitating their students' engineering design work. One important dimension to measure is novice teachers' abilities to notice the substance of student thinking and to respond in productive ways. This teacher noticing is particularly important in science and engineering education, where students' initial, idiosyncratic ideas and practices influence the likelihood that particular instructional strategies will help them learn. This paper describes evidence of validity and reliability for the Video Case Diagnosis (VCD) task, a new instrument for measuring pre-service elementary teachers' engineering teaching responsiveness. To complete the VCD, participants view a 6-min video episode of children solving an engineering design problem, describe in writing what they notice about the students' science ideas and engineering practices, and propose how a teacher could productively respond to the students. The rubric for scoring VCD responses allowed two independent scorers to achieve inter-rater reliability. Content analysis of the video episode, systematic review of literature on science and engineering practices, and solicitation of external expert educator responses establish content validity for VCD. Field test results with three different participant groups who have different levels of engineering education experience offer evidence of construct validity.

  3. Indicators on the world petroleum markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents tendencies of the petroleum industry market. It analyses the petroleum demand and supply, the prices elaboration, the petroleum market and the OPEC objective, the third petroleum crisis of the year 2000 and gives some data concerning the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  4. Transport engineering and reduction in crime: the Medellin case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomer Bea, D.

    2016-07-01

    This study analyses the impact of the aerial cable car public transport system, locally known as Metrocable, in Medellín (Colombia), on the reduction in crime. As part of the municipal policies of social urbanism, Metrocable has contributed to the social integration of the population in the outlying neighbourhoods, which has increased safety in Medellín. This case is clearly of great interest from the point of view of Criminal Sciences, demonstrating how crime can be combated by using tools beyond ius puniendi. (Author)

  5. Reference data about petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  6. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  7. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  8. Petroleum abundance until when

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum demand goes on to increase. In front of this demand the non Opec supply increases because of new positive explorations, new technologies and a reduction of exploration-production prices. With 10% of worldwide reserves, OECD insures 30% of worldwide production. With 18% of reserves, the non-Opec world insures 48% of worldwide needs. But a return on Middle East where are 65% of reserves is inescapable but it can be all the more brutal since non Opec world consumes its own resources more quickly. 7 figs

  9. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  10. Industry offers objections to France's draft petroleum law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that France's petroleum industry is protesting parts of a government draft oil law expected to go into effect in January. The law is to be submitted to Parliament this fall and will replace a law that has governed Franc's oil industry operations for most of the century. And while the new law loosens and in some cases scraps controls, officials see costs that will affect the petroleum industry's competitiveness in Europe

  11. Energy markets and petroleum geo-policy, 1990-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, P.; Noel, P.

    1998-09-01

    The first part of this analyze deals with a presentation of the main energy equilibrium evolution still 2030 with a special interest for the emerging economies in the increase of the world energy demand. The increase of the world energy exchanges and the process of relative concentration of the petroleum offer on the Middle East are also presented. The second part specifies the petroleum case. (A.L.B.)

  12. Optimization of water network in petroleum refinery; Otimizacao de redes de agua em refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Debora C.; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de; Souza, Antonio A. Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The petroleum refineries have shown high water's consuming that creates high costs and damages the hydric resources. However, the industrial sector, especially the petroleum industry, has been looking for alternatives that minimizing the impact caused by to use these natural resources. Currently, methodologies of controlling the pollution on the source have been appearing how a strong tendency and the reuse and/or recycle of wastewater can be emphasized. The optimization by mathematical programming, together with engineering know-how, is one of the great tendency in process integration technology developed. The present work presents one optimization mathematical model that objectifies to reduce the water's consuming and/or operational costs. The model is based in chemical species and mass conservation equation. This work presents the solution of one case found in literature that broach one petroleum refinery's network of water. This network is composed of six operations and three regenerative processes, and there are four keys contaminants. The water's consuming was minimized first and next the minimum cost in the minimum consume was broached. The results found were enough satisfactory and presented reductions up to 76% in the water consume and approximately 65% in the operational costs. (author)

  13. Multi-model approach to petroleum resource appraisal using analytic methodologies for probabilistic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic appraisal model that is selected for a petroleum resource assessment depends upon purpose of the assessment, basic geologic assumptions of the area, type of available data, time available before deadlines, available human and financial resources, available computer facilities, and, most importantly, the available quantitative methodology with corresponding computer software and any new quantitative methodology that would have to be developed. Therefore, different resource assessment projects usually require different geologic models. Also, more than one geologic model might be needed in a single project for assessing different regions of the study or for cross-checking resource estimates of the area. Some geologic analyses used in the past for petroleum resource appraisal involved play analysis. The corresponding quantitative methodologies of these analyses usually consisted of Monte Carlo simulation techniques. A probabilistic system of petroleum resource appraisal for play analysis has been designed to meet the following requirements: (1) includes a variety of geologic models, (2) uses an analytic methodology instead of Monte Carlo simulation, (3) possesses the capacity to aggregate estimates from many areas that have been assessed by different geologic models, and (4) runs quickly on a microcomputer. Geologic models consist of four basic types: reservoir engineering, volumetric yield, field size, and direct assessment. Several case histories and present studies by the U.S. Geological Survey are discussed. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  14. Knowledge management through the e-learning approach - a case study of online engineering courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichouni, Mohamed; Benchicou, Soraya; Nehari, Dris

    2013-06-01

    Though it is universally accepted that the face-to-face approach is the best way for education and training, however, with the advent of the information and communication technologies (mainly the World Wide Web) it became possible to enhance further the methods we are using to teach our students and to share the teaching material within a broaden engineering, technical and business communities. This paper is dedicated to making a review of the basic concepts of knowledge management and e-learning and to show how these two modern concepts can be integrated into engineering education to produce knowledge, disseminate it and share it within virtual interest groups and networks of engineering students, academic teachers and industrial engineers and technicians and business managers. A practical case study will be presented and discussed.

  15. Risk behavior in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author uses the term risk aversion, which weighs the magnitude of investment against four factors: size of available budget, potential gain, potential loss, and probabilities of each outcome. Modern petroleum exploration consists of a series of investment decisions on whether to acquire additional technical data (geological, geophysical, engineering, drilling, or economic) and/or additional mineral interests. Each decision should allow a progressively clearer perception of project risk versus reward and should support timely management action concerning the inferred accumulation. Companies searching for oil and natural gas make hundreds of such exploration decisions each year. So the problem in serial exploration decision making is twofold: to be consistent in the way we deal with risk and uncertainty and to perceive risk and uncertainty accurately and reduce them where possible. Risk aversion is not just a hypothetical nuisance. It causes explorationists to make inconsistent investment decisions, and it costs exploration companies millions of dollars annually in lost opportunities, bad choices, and wasted investment dollars

  16. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin: Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable environment without particular tectonic event. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II): The Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and micropores can act as a tight gas reservoir. (author). 56 refs., 24 tabs., 68 figs.

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  18. Robustness and Reliability of the GM Ignition Switch - A forensic Engineering case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eifler, Tobias; Lerche Olesen, Jonas; Howard, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses forensic engineering from the perspectives of Robust Design and Reliability Engineering to review one of the most infamous recalls in automotive history, that of the GM ignition switch. The design, engineering and management failures in this case ultimately resulted in a fine of $35...... million, the recall of 2.6 million vehicles and the death of at least 13 people. In a systematic approach, design clarity, tolerance stack-ups, sensitivity analysis, etc. are used to analyse the ignition switch itself and to extend the usual consideration of reliability issues to the impact of variation...... on the design. In addition to this quantitative analysis, the legal case files have been examined revealing multiple misjudgments and errors throughout the product development process. The analysis revealed a lack of overview regarding to interrelated functionality, a lack of respect for the requirement...

  19. Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) Special Case Study Report: Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Paul J.; Hayes, Jane; Zelinski, Lillian

    2000-01-01

    This special case study report presents the Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) team's findings for exploring the correlation between the underlying models of Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) relative to how it identifies, estimates, and integrates Independent Verification & Validation (IV&V) activities. The special case study was conducted under the provisions of SETA Contract Task Order (CTO) 15 and the approved technical approach documented in the CTO-15 Modification #1 Task Project Plan.

  20. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  1. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  2. Vermiremediation of soils contaminated with mixture of petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, vermiremediation, a biological technique was utilized in order to clean-up soil contaminated with gasoline, diesel and spent engine oil using an earthworm - Eisenia fetida. The contaminated soils were analyzed for the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) level every 24 hours over a period of 120 hours using ...

  3. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. The para-petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The para-petroleum industry includes societies that realize studies and installations for the deposits exploitation. This document presents the situation of the para-petroleum industry in 2001, the world investment growth of the activity, the french societies financial results and an inventory of the main operations in the amalgamation domain. (A.L.B.)

  5. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas

  6. Application of a Novel Collaboration Engineering Method for Learning Design: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xusen; Li, Yuanyuan; Sun, Jianshan; Huang, Jianqing

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative case studies and computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) play an important role in the modern education environment. A number of researchers have given significant attention to learning design in order to improve the satisfaction of collaborative learning. Although collaboration engineering (CE) is a mature method widely…

  7. Design Fixation and Cooperative Learning in Elementary Engineering Design Project: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case study examining 3rd, 4th and 5th graders' design fixation and cooperative learning in an engineering design project. A mixed methods instrument, the Cooperative Learning Observation Protocol (CLOP), was adapted to record frequency and class observation on cooperative learning engagement through detailed field notes.…

  8. Insuring Consistent Synthetic Enviromental Representation Across an Engineering Federation -- A First User Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Insuring Consistent Synthetic Enviromental Representation Across an Engineering Federation -A First User Case 5a...realized that these documents were not intended to capture the issues we addressed in developing the consistent environment representation for the ISD

  9. Using Peer Reviews to Examine Micropolitics and Disciplinary Development of Engineering Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the peer review process for a feminist article submitted to an engineering education journal. It demonstrates how an examination of peer review can be a useful approach to further understanding the development of feminist thought in education fields. Rather than opposition to feminist thought per se, my…

  10. 75 FR 13422 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-015, Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...-AL26 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-015, Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer..., Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts, currently requires contracting officers to... judgment regarding the amount of payment withheld to apply under fixed-price architect-engineer (A-E...

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  12. The new challenges of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernelle, E.

    2006-02-01

    Petroleum in in the center of our civilization: abundant, easy to use and energy powerful, it is used almost everywhere: transports, lighting, space heating, plastics, fertilizers, cloth industry etc. The 'black-gold' is the object of all stakes, from richness to power. However, petroleum is also at the origin of many evils: pollution, corruption, violence. Today, petroleum is a source of worries: how long will it last? How long will we be able to stand its impacts on environment? This book shades light on all these questions and supplies some concrete elements about this energy source. Content: technological challenges of petroleum; producers: powers and risks; consumers' dependence; to learn more about petroleum. (J.S.)

  13. Human Rights Due Diligence (HRDD and Human Rights Impact Assessment (HRIA Best Practices to Corporate Shared Value (CSV: A Case of British Petroleum Tangguh Project In Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tangguh Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG Project is a planned natural gas development project located in the remote area of Berau-Bintuni Bay in Papua Province, Indonesia. British Petroleum (BP Tangguh project aims tobe the pioneer in producing natural gas. It can be concluded that BP contributes an innovative approach, bearing in mind to sustainable development, cultural preservation and biodiversity conservation. Therefore, in each of its corporate actions, BP always integrates the value of community, partnership, consultation and corporate responsibility. It is mentioned that through experience and observation, BP as an extractive company, haveestimated the costs of not finding a better mechanism to adjust to social challenges can be higher than the costs of the uncertainties inherent in the trial of new ideas. However, according to international Non-GovernmentalOrganization (NGO, Down to Earth, BP has conducted a series of human rights violations by exploiting natural resources in Papua and restricting Papuans in enjoying their fundamental human rights. If only the BP keeps this Tangguh project in line with its aim to accommodate concerns from the affected surroundings, thus, will surely bring positive changes in BP’s corporate shared value.

  14. International petroleum exploration and exploitation agreements: a comprehensive environmental appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiguo Gao

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the environmental aspects of international petroleum exploration and exploitation is outlined. Four case studies of modern petroleum contracts from four developing countries are presented. These are Thailand's modern concession contract, Indonesia's production sharing contract, Brazil's risk service contract and China's hybrid contract. The failure of these four countries to provide adequate environmental regulation through their petroleum contracts is typical of many countries in the developing world. An urgent need exists to recognise that important environmental and resource consequences are associated with the developments authorised by petroleum contracts and that appropriate legal changes must be made to take them into account. Environmental sustainability should be an explicit part of all investment arrangements. (UK)

  15. Guide about petroleum strategic stockpiles in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    The strategic character of petroleum products has been perceived since the first world war. It has led France to impose the petroleum operators to make stockpiles to provide against the consequences of a serious disruption of supplies. As a difference with some other industrialized countries like the USA or Japan, French stockpiles are made of finite products. A balanced geographical distribution of these stocks over the whole national territory increases their efficiency. Stockpiles of IEA member states must represent 90 days of net imports while those of European Union member states must represent 90 days of average domestic consumption. In France, each chartered operator contributes to the strategic storage and the stored volumes are defined by the law no 92-1443 from December 31, 1992. These stocks are permanently controlled and financial sanctions are applied in case of infraction. Particular dispositions are applied in overseas departments which are summarized in this paper. (J.S.)

  16. Risk analysis associated with petroleum hydrocarbons: is everything running smoothly?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum products represent one of the main sources of environmental contamination, and these products are complex, composed of several hundred individual hydrocarbons. The evaluation of the risks associated with petroleum products is often limited by certain specific parameters such as benzene. The petroleum hydrocarbons running from C(10) to C(50) are not often integrated in an analysis of the toxological risks since the toxological characterization of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons is difficult to carry out. There exist in the United States two approaches that were developed recently that allow the integration of various hydrocarbons comprising a mixture. In this presentation, two of these approaches are described and compared. An overview of these approaches related to Canadian regulatory bodies is included, and a case study completes the account. The two approaches that are most well known in this area are: 1) that of the Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Protection, and 2) that of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group. The integration of petroleum hydrocarbons in a quantitative evaluation of their toxological risk is possible by present methods. This integration allows a reduction in the uncertainty associated with the use of an integrating parameter in the case of these petroleum hydrocarbons in the C(10) to the C(50) range

  17. Case-based Reasoning for Automotive Engine Performance Tune-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vong, C. M.; Huang, H.; Wong, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    The automotive engine performance tune-up is greatly affected by the calibration of its electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU calibration is traditionally done by trial-and-error method. This traditional method consumes a large amount of time and money because of a large number of dynamometer tests. To resolve this problem, case based reasoning (CBR) is employed, so that an existing and effective ECU setup can be adapted to fit another similar class of engines. The adaptation procedure is done through a more sophisticated step called case-based adaptation (CBA)[1, 2]. CBA is an effective knowledge management tool, which can interactively learn the expert adaptation knowledge. The paper briefly reviews the methodologies of CBR and CBA. Then the application to ECU calibration is described via a case study. With CBR and CBA, the efficiency of calibrating an ECU can be enhanced. A prototype system has also been developed to verify the usefulness of CBR in ECU calibration.

  18. Computer aided system engineering and analysis (CASE/A) modeling package for ECLS systems - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalee, Robert C.; Bacskay, Allen S.; Knox, James C.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the CASE/A-ECLSS series modeling package is presented. CASE/A is an analytical tool that has supplied engineering productivity accomplishments during ECLSS design activities. A components verification program was performed to assure component modeling validity based on test data from the Phase II comparative test program completed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. An integrated plotting feature has been added to the program which allows the operator to analyze on-screen data trends or get hard copy plots from within the CASE/A operating environment. New command features in the areas of schematic, output, and model management, and component data editing have been incorporated to enhance the engineer's productivity during a modeling program.

  19. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublin-Green, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  20. Multiple case study analysis of young women's experiences in high school engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Meagan C.

    richly describe the diversity of experiences. A multiple case study analysis, this study answers the question: How do gender, class, race, and other components of intersectionality, influence high school females' experiences in engineering? Nine young women taking a high school engineering course in a suburban high school in Central Texas during the school year 2011-2012 volunteered to participate. The students were observed in their engineering classes for half of the spring 2012 semester, with bi-weekly interviews with the students, monthly interviews with the teacher, and a single interview with a parent of each volunteer. The nine rich case studies provide us with new stories that help prevent us from narrowing the experiences of women to a single incomplete stereotype, because these young women vary across race, socioeconomic backgrounds, and sexual orientation. Although each story is unique, there are commonalities among their experiences, including family, influence, classroom environment, biases, and beliefs. By drawing from their collective experiences in high school engineering, the findings direct us toward recommendations for educators, parents, engineering curriculum developers, designers of teacher professional development, and future research to improve equity and access for every student in engineering.

  1. Multiple myeloma and engine exhausts, fresh wood, and creosote: a case-referent study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flodin, U.; Fredriksson, M.; Persson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of potential risk factors for multiple myeloma was evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 131 cases and 431 randomized referents, all alive. Information on exposure was obtained with questionnaires mailed to the subjects. An analysis of the material by means of the Miettinen confounder score technique resulted in a few rate ratios significantly exceeding unity--namely, occupational exposure to engine exhausts, creosote, and fresh wood. In view of other studies that suggest ionizing radiation as a risk factor, it was somewhat surprising that low-level gamma radiation from background exposure was less common among the cases than the referents

  2. Engineered barrier systems (EBS) in the context of the entire safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A joint NEA-EC workshop entitled 'Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Context of the Entire Safety Case' was organised in Oxford on 25-27 September 2002 and hosted by United Kingdom Nirex Limited. The main objectives of the workshop were to provide a status report on engineered barrier systems in various national radioactive waste management programmes considering deep geological disposal; to establish the value to member countries of a project on EBS; and to define such a project's scope, timetable and modus operandi. This report presents the outcomes of this workshop. (author)

  3. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    and gas endowment estimates. Whereas petroleum resources in the world appear to be significant, certain countries such as the United States may run into import deficits, particularly oil imports from Mexico and natural gas from both Canada and Mexico. The new assessment has been used as the reference supply case in energy supply models by the International Energy Agency and the Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy. Climate energy modeling groups such as those at Stanford University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and others have also used USGS estimates in global climate models. Many of these models using the USGS estimates converge on potential oil shortfalls in 2036-2040. However, recent articles using the USGS (2000) estimates suggest peaking of oil in 2020-2035 and peaking of non-OPEC (Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries) oil in 2015-2020. Such a short time framework places greater emphasis on a transition to increased use of natural gas; i.e., a methane economy. Natural gas in turn may experience similar supply concerns in the 2050-2060 time frame according to some authors. Coal resources are considerable and provide significant petroleum potential either by extracting natural gas from them, by directly converting them into petroleum products, or by utilizing them to generate electricity, thereby reducing natural gas and oil requirements by fuel substitution. Non-conventional oil and gas are quite common in petroleum provinces of the world and represent a significant resources yet to be fully studied and developed. Seventeen non-conventional AU including coal-bed methane, basin-center gas, continuous oil, and gas hydrate occurrences have been preliminarily identified for future assessment. Initial efforts to assess heavy oil deposits and other non-conventional oil and gas deposits also are under way.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-14

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  14. Effectiveness and Utility of a Case-Based Model for Delivering Engineering Ethics Professional Development Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Ann Hahn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an action research project conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL to resolve a problem with the ability of licensed and/or certified engineers to obtain the ethics-related professional development units or hours (PDUs or PDHs needed to maintain their credentials. Because of the recurring requirement and the static nature of the information, an initial, in-depth training followed by annually updated refresher training was proposed. A case model approach, with online delivery, was selected as the optimal pedagogical model for the refresher training. In the first two years, the only data that was collected was throughput and information retention. Response rates indicated that the approach was effective in helping licensed professional engineers obtain the needed PDUs. The rates of correct responses suggested that knowledge transfer regarding ethical reasoning had occurred in the initial training and had been retained in the refresher. In FY13, after completing the refresher, learners received a survey asking their opinion of the effectiveness and utility of the course, as well as their impressions of the case study format vs. the typical presentation format. Results indicate that the courses have been favorably received and that the case study method supports most of the pedagogical needs of adult learners as well as, if not better than, presentation-based instruction. Future plans for improvement are focused on identifying and evaluating methods for enriching online delivery of the engineering ethics cases.

  15. Effectiveness and Utility of a Case-Based Model for Delivering Engineering Ethics Professional Development Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Ann Hahn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an action research project conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL to resolve a problem with the ability of licensed and/or certified engineers to obtain the ethics-related professional development units or hours (PDUs or PDHs needed to maintain their credentials. Because of the recurring requirement and the static nature of the information, an initial, in-depth training followed by annually updated refresher training was proposed. A case model approach, with online delivery, was selected as the optimal pedagogical model for the refresher training. In the first two years, the only data that was collected was throughput and information retention. Response rates indicated that the approach was effective in helping licensed professional engineers obtain the needed PDUs. The rates of correct responses suggested that knowledge transfer regarding ethical reasoning had occurred in the initial training and had been retained in the refresher. In FY13, after completing the refresher, learners received a survey asking their opinion of the effectiveness and utility of the course, as well as their impressions of the case study format vs. the typical presentation format. Results indicate that the courses have been favorably received and that the case study method supports most of the pedagogical needs of adult learners as well as, if not better than, presentation-based instruction. Future plans for improvement are focused on identifying and evaluating methods for enriching online delivery of the engineering ethics cases.

  16. Challenges and Difficulties to Teaching Engineering to Generation Z: a case research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suamit Correia Barreiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many people from generation Z are at the beginning of their academic activities. This generation has peculiar characteristics that might be a challenge in the labor market. Thus, instructors have a great role in their preparation. However, professors might face difficulties dealing with their specific characteristics. The research aims to carry out a general survey to enable an understanding of the greater challenges and difficulties in teaching the subject of engineering to the students of Generation Z. The research method used was a case study at a University with 20 instructors from the Faculty of Engineering. The analysis revealed a great challenge in relating theoretical concepts with practical concepts. The research also showed a probable tendency of using more exhibition methods, and the low knowledge about generation Z by most instructors. This study seeks to contribute to the teaching-learning process of engineering.

  17. Information About Cost of Goods Produced and its Usefulness for Production Engineers - A Case of SME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruszewska, Ewa Wanda; Strojek-Filus, Marzena; Drábková, Zita

    2017-12-01

    The article stresses the consequences of simplifications implemented in the measurement process of goods produced that are of crucial importance to production engineers in SME. The authors show the variety of possibilities that might be used by financial employees together with probable outputs in terms of valuation distortions. Using the case study the authors emphasis the importance of close cooperation of production engineers with finance professionals as out-puts of finance departments consist an important input for decision-making process of production managers. Further-more, demonstrated deficiencies in terms of methods applicable in financial reporting for measurement of the value of goods produced indicate the need for incorporation more financial and non-financial data in the process of judgments about the final cost of goods produced as simplifications applied in SME distort financial information provided to production engineers.

  18. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  19. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a...

  20. Ex-USSR: petroleum activities in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on economy and petroleum industry in ex-USSR: Primary energy production and consumption (coal, petroleum, natural gas, primary power), petroleum and natural gas reserves, drilling activity, exports and imports of petroleum products, refining capacity. 2 figs., 14 tabs

  1. Future demand of petroleum products in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sajal

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run equilibrium relationship between total petroleum products consumption and economic growth in India for the period 1970-1971 to 2001-2002 using cointegration and error-correction modeling approach. Augmented Dickey-Fuller tests reveal that both the series, after logarithmic transformation, are non-stationary and individually integrated of order one. The empirical results suggest that the series are cointegrated. The 'long-term demand elasticity for petroleum products' has been estimated. Furthermore, as a special case, similar sort of exercise between the consumption of middle-distillates and economic growth in India using annual data for the time span 1974-1975 to 2001-2002 has been carried out, which also confirms the existence of cointegration. In-sample forecasts fitted well against actual numbers. Finally, the paper forecasts total petroleum products and middle-distillates demands till 2011-2012 and provide an idea about the investment required in refinery sector in India till 2011-2012. (author)

  2. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  3. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  4. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Schreck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  5. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  6. Food Engineering at Multiple Scales: Case Studies, Challenges and the Future—A European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Y.; Fryer, P.J.; Knorr, D.; Schuchmann, H.P.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Trystram, G.; Windhab, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    A selection of Food Engineering research including food structure engineering, novel emulsification processes, liquid and dry fractionation, Food Engineering challenges and research with comments on European Food Engineering education is covered. Food structure engineering is discussed by using

  7. Problems of radiation safety of petroleum and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Oil and gas production is the basis of economy of the Azerbaijan Republic and its cause in ecological and radioecology problems. One form this problem is the pollution by radionuclides of environment at the time of gas and petroleum production. At the time of petroleum and gas production the three-phase radionuclides are emitted in atmosphere: Emissions consisted from solid U-238, Ra-226, Th-232, K-40 discharged to atmosphere at the time of production, exploring and exploitation of petroleum and gas. They are presented in compounds of sand, clay, and petroleum residues; During the drilling and production the gross quantities of water flows out and collects. These water areas consist of radium, uranium, Th and K-40 dissolved in water salts; There are the radionuclides being in 902 condition emitted in atmosphere at the places of petroleum and gas production. The radon and its isotopes are emitted at this time; At the places of petroleum and gas production it is observed at local pollution areas polluted by solid emissions that at this territories the doze of exposition power variable 100 - 1000 micro/hour. The radioactivity at this system according to 2-1000 year/k consists from Ra, K-40, and U. At this areas the value of total background changes 5 - 1000 micro R/hour. The total radioactivity of water polls formed at the places of petroleum and gas production consisted 50 -150 Bq/L. In the case of gas the separated radionuclides are mainly consisted from Radon and its isotopes. In the compound of produced gas the concentration of radon varied 20 - 1700 Bq/m 3 . Thus, at the places of petroleum and gas production radioactive pollutants emitted to atmosphere, forms the polluted environment for working and living people at the same territory. This problem's status haven't been investigated thoroughly, the sources of pollution hasn't been uncovered concretely, the cleaning technology for polluted areas is unknown

  8. Association models for petroleum applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics plays an important role in many applications in the petroleum industry, both upstream and downstream, ranging from flow assurance, (enhanced) oil recovery and control of chemicals to meet production and environmental regulations. There are many different applications in the oil & gas industry, thus thermodynamic data (phase behavior, densities, speed of sound, etc) are needed to study a very diverse range of compounds in addition to the petroleum ones (CO2,H2S, water, alcohol...

  9. SELENE Translunar Trajectory Reconfiguration Plan Provided for the Case of Main Engine Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the reconfiguration of translunar trajectory in case of main engine anomaly is investigated. The objectives of the trajectory design are to reduce the excessive velocity at the Lunar encounter as well as to reduce the total required Delta-v to complete the sequence. 3-impulse Hohmann transfer based trajectory is adopted and possible trajectories are categorized under 2-body approximation. The solutions obtained are applied to more sophisticated models (3-body approximation and 4-body) and yields feasible trajectory.

  10. Characterization of crude oils and petroleum products: (I) Elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products

    OpenAIRE

    E.O. Odebunmi; E.A. Ogunsakin; P.E.P. Ilukhor

    2002-01-01

    Some physical and chemical properties of samples of light, medium and heavy Nigerian crude oils and petroleum products including gasoline, kerosene and engine oil have been measured and are reported in this paper. The crude oils and petroleum products have also been characterized by fractional distillation and elution liquid chromatography. The fractions obtained from elution liquid chromatography were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC). The GC fractions were identified by comparing the r...

  11. Canadian retail petroleum markets study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1998-02-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada and to set a foundation for effective policy development. The downstream petroleum industry, which includes the petroleum refining and marketing sectors, faces a poor public image, competitive pressures from U.S. and offshore refiners, and a broad range of environmental challenges. In this study, 19 markets representing a wide range of conditions were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. A market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators was made in order to identify market and regional competitive differences as potential issues or opportunities within the industry. The study also included a pump price/margin model and provided a general overview of the retail gasoline sub-sector in terms of infrastructure. A review of prices, margins and demand patterns over the past several years was also undertaken to show the relationship between consumer demand patterns and pump price fluctuations. The study presented 22 findings which led to several conclusions and recommendations regarding the competitiveness of Canada's petroleum marketing sector. Two of the key conclusions were that taxation is a significant factor in the price of retail gasoline (about 50 per cent) and that government intervention into petroleum marketing is likely to be a poor alternative to market-based regulation. 18 tabs., 37 figs

  12. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  14. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  15. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  16. Application of 2D electrical resistivity tomography to engineering projects: Three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungroj Arjwech

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT is a non-invasive geophysical method of primary interest for addressing subsurface engineering problems. The method is based on the assumption that subsurface geological materials have significant resistivity contrasts that can be identified based on measurements on the surface. This paper presents three different case studies that have been carried out at different sites. The first case study visualizes the contrast between high resistivity zones of hard bedrocks and low resistivity zones of weathered rocks. Similar to the first case study, the second case study shows high resistivity contrasts that clearly distinguishes the shape of a footing located within the surrounding materials. The third case study shows no clear low resistivity zone that can be identified as a leaking zone. The 2D ERT survey method used in these three investigations has been shown to be useful as a cost-effective and rapid method to obtain wide area subsurface information that is relevant for subsurface engineering problems.

  17. Re-Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of petroleum sourced from a Type I lacustrine kerogen: insights from the natural Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin and hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.; Lewan, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronology of marine petroleum systems has allowed the determination of the depositional age of source rocks as well as the timing of petroleum generation. In addition, Os isotopes have been applied as a fingerprinting tool to correlate oil to its source unit. To date, only classic marine petroleum systems have been studied. Here we present Re–Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of different petroleum phases (oils, tar sands and gilsonite) derived from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin, USA. In addition we use an experimental approach, hydrous pyrolysis experiments, to compare to the Re–Os data of naturally generated petroleum in order to further understand the mechanisms of Re and Os transfer to petroleum. The Re–Os geochronology of petroleum from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system (19 ± 14 Ma – all petroleum phases) broadly agrees with previous petroleum generation basin models (∼25 Ma) suggesting that Re–Os geochronology of variable petroleum phases derived from lacustrine Type I kerogen has similar systematics to Type II kerogen (e.g., Selby and Creaser, 2005a, Selby and Creaser, 2005b and Finlay et al., 2010). However, the large uncertainties (over 100% in some cases) produced for the petroleum Re–Os geochronology are a result of multiple generation events occurring through a ∼3000-m thick source unit that creates a mixture of initial Os isotope compositions in the produced petroleum phases. The 187Os/188Os values for the petroleum and source rocks at the time of oil generation vary from 1.4 to 1.9, with the mode at ∼1.6. Oil-to-source correlation using Os isotopes is consistent with previous correlation studies in the Green River petroleum system, and illustrates the potential utility of Os isotopes to characterize the spatial variations within a petroleum system. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments on the Green River Formation source rocks show that Re and Os transfer

  18. Applied Geophysics Opportunities in the Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgaard, D. L.; Tikku, A.; Roberts, J. C.; Martinez, A.

    2012-12-01

    Meeting the increasing global demand for energy over the next several decades presents daunting challenges to engineers and scientists, including geoscientists of all disciplines. Many opportunities exist for geophysicists to find and produce oil and gas in a safe, environmentally responsible and affordable manner. Successful oil and gas exploration involves a 'Plates to Pores' approach that integrates multi-scale data from satellites, marine and land seismic and non-seismic field surveys, lab experiments, and even electron microscopy. The petroleum industry is at the forefront of using high performance computing to develop innovative methods to process and analyze large volumes of seismic data and perform realistic numerical modeling, such as finite element fluid flow and rock deformation simulations. Challenging and rewarding jobs in exploration, production and research exist for students with BS/BA, MS and PhD degrees. Geophysics students interested in careers in the petroleum industry should have a broad foundation in science, math and fundamental geosciences at the BS/BA level, as well as mastery of the scientific method, usually gained through thesis work at MS and PhD levels. Field geology or geophysics experience is also valuable. Other personal attributes typical for geoscientists to be successful in industry include a passion for solving complex geoscience problems, the flexibility to work on a variety of assignments throughout a career and skills such as teamwork, communication, integration and leadership. In this presentation we will give examples of research, exploration and production opportunities for geophysicists in petroleum companies and compare and contrast careers in academia vs. industry.

  19. effect of petroleum waste water on new calabar river and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    Petroleum waste water is the water produced from oil during or after drilling. During drilling the ensuing fluid is a water-oil-gas mixture since oil and gas reservoirs have a natural water layer which is petroleum waste water, which lies under the hydrocarbons. In some cases, additional water is usually injected into the.

  20. Employee motivation of senior engineers in aerospace companies in southern California: A qualitative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banh, My-Le

    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to explore the lack of motivation of engineers with more than 15 years of experience working in aerospace companies in southern California. The sample size for this study consisted of 18 senior engineers. These participants held either a bachelor's or master's degree in engineering fields. Participants were recruited through networking with colleagues and snowball sampling. The data was collected through face-to-face and phone interviews. Participants also had the opportunity to review their responses after the interview. The data analysis resulted in 12 themes regarding the participants' perception of motivation. The top six predominant themes were (1) challenging and new assignments, (2) commitment, (3) opportunity, (4) supporting from managers, (5) team spirit, and (6) open communication. The study resulted in an in-depth understanding of how important motivation is to senior engineers. Based on the findings, leaders should create opportunities for senior employees to work on challenging assignments, acquire autonomy, and obtain more responsibilities. Providing such opportunities may motivate employees to perform well and committee with the organizations.

  1. The Analysis of an Internal Combustion Engine Breakdown-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agape, I.; Gaiginschi, L.; Ianuş, G.; Cimpoeşu, N.

    2017-06-01

    The paper concerns with the general assembly conditions and circumstances that could cause fatal damage to an internal combustion engine during operation. In the first part, the focus is on identifying the majority of dysfunctions that may result in the connecting rod destruction. Possible causes of the connecting rod destruction that led to engine failure are presented sequentially, starting with those of conceptual nature (the right choice of material, constructive solution and cross-sectional design from a geometric-dimensional point of view), then passing through issues related to operation (the severity of thermal and mechanical operation - and lubrication regimes) and last but not least, the effects of accumulated fatigue and potential structural defects of the material. This review of possible causes takes into account the particularities induced by the ignition engines and by the type of equipped machinery. The synthesis contains a case study on a 6-L medium displacement diesel engine in which the damage cause is accurately identified and which has been investigated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  2. Improving the Teaching of ICT Engineering using Flipped Learning: a personalized model and a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhak Aqqal

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, Flipped Classroom started to be used as an effective way of teaching Engineering among various strategies in higher education. However, enabling and using the flipped learning is a complicated task, not a straightforward goal that can be simply achieved through a combination of face-to-face and online activities. It requires a more sophisticated understanding of effective teaching methods to manage the shift from the traditional to the flipped learning and the optimum adaptation of technology as part of this change. Given this challenge, this research work provides a personalized model of the flipped classroom and investigates through a case study in an Engineering School how our approach can be used to improve teaching of Information and Communication Technology (ICT Engineering. It assesses by using empirically data related to the interaction of the various actors at different levels of abstraction, particularly from a gender perspective, the relevance and the impact of the flipped classroom on student learning and achievement in ICT Engineering Education.

  3. Petroleum service projects in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken-Worgu, Kenneth Chukwumeka

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this record of study is to examine the major facets involved in managing several petroleum service projects located in three different countries in the Gulf of Guinea simultaneously, while effectively engaging in business development activities for the Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS). This work also furnishes adequate background on related subject matters to enable understanding of the projects presented. The petroleum services sector is the back bone of the oil and gas industry. Services companies are vital to the success of all petroleum and energy producers in the USA, the Gulf of Guinea and the world. There is a need and demand for these service companies because they play various roles such as logistics, drilling, construction, dredging, pipe laying, procurement, food supply, human resource supply, etc. The Gulf of Guinea comprises of countries from west and central Africa. This project was limited to Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon. This area holds the largest petroleum reserves in Africa and plays a vital role in the global supply of petroleum. The Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS), plans to establish herself as one of the leading petroleum service companies in this gulf. To manage this expansion, I have taken the role of Gulf of Guinea manager to apply my background as a petroleum engineer as well as my business skills to build a successful division of the company. This work provides a record of study of the management of services, projects and contracts carried out by the OIS group in the gulf of Guinea. The following are the specific projects in the Gulf of Guinea that I participated in: Managing delivering, maintenance and marketing of offshore vessels, Offshore pipe laying project, Integrated pipeline maintenance project, Development a petroleum technical training facilities, Agbami pipe insulation project, Engineering lift project and Capital budgeting analysis for potential investments. The details of the specific

  4. Registry of Mineral and Petroleum Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maclellan, I. M.; Kaizer, J. L.; McCulloch, P. D.; Ratcliffe, R.; Wenning, A. S. [Nova Scotia Dept. of Natural Resources, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Activities of the Nova Scotia Registry of Mineral and Petroleum Titles are described, including statistical information about staking and mining activity in the province during 1999. In terms of activities, the Registry receives applications and issues licenses and leases for mineral and petroleum rights, receives statements of exploration expenditures and assessment reports that pertain to renewal of licenses and leases, maintains maps showing the disposition of lands under license or lease, and maintains a system of prospector registration. In addition, the Registry processes applications for underground gas storage rights and treasure trove rights and maintains a database of information concerning production and employment in Nova Scotia mines and quarries. At the end 1999 there were 230,660 hectares under exploration licence. Exploration expenditures, including engineering, economic and feasibility studies during 1999 totalled $4.2 million, mostly by junior mining companies searching for industrial mineral commodities. Mining activity during 1999 generated revenues of $340 million. Coal production dropped by 25 per cent, due mainly to the closure of the Phalen Mine. Gypsum production was up to 7.9 million tonnes; shipments of cement, barite and clay products also increased during 1999; salt production remained unchanged from 1998 with 842,000 tonnes. Production of construction aggregates totalled 10.6 million tonnes, down slightly from the year before. Mineral industry employment was roughly 2,500 persons, down by 24 per cent from 1998 levels, due primarily to the closure of the Phalen Mine.

  5. Strategic patent analysis in plant biotechnology: terpenoid indole alkaloid metabolic engineering as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralpeix, Bruna; Sabalza, Maite; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2014-02-01

    The do-it-yourself patent search is a useful alternative to professional patent analysis particularly in the context of publicly funded projects where funds for IP activities may be limited. As a case study, we analysed patents related to the engineering of terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) metabolism in plants. We developed a focused search strategy to remove redundancy and reduce the workload without missing important and relevant patents. This resulted in the identification of approximately 50 key patents associated with TIA metabolic engineering in plants, which could form the basis of a more detailed freedom-to-operate analysis. The structural elements of this search strategy could easily be transferred to other contexts, making it a useful generic model for publicly funded research projects. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Exploring the Relevance of Search Engines: An Overview of Google as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Beltrán-Alfonso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of data on the Internet and the diverse list of strategies used to try to link this information with relevant searches through Linked Data have generated a revolution in data treatment and its representation. Nevertheless, the conventional search engines like Google are kept as strategies with good reception to do search processes. The following article presents a study of the development and evolution of search engines, more specifically, to analyze the relevance of findings based on the number of results displayed in paging systems with Google as a case study. Finally, it is intended to contribute to indexing criteria in search results, based on an approach to Semantic Web as a stage in the evolution of the Web.

  7. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m 3 /d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m 3 . Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m 3 /d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m 3 to 7,700 m 3 /d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m 3 /d, compared to 18,400 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m 3 . 24 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Exports of petroleum products, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m 3 /d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Service engineers in change: count your words : A case study into professional discourse and culture within three Dutch organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs Jos Pieterse

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral thesis describes three case studies of service engineers participating in organizational change, interacting with managers and consultants. The study investigates the role of differences in professional discourse and culture when these three professional groups interact in

  11. Petroleum and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Peter H.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    1995-01-01

    Crude petroleum, refined-petroleum products, and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained within petroleum are found throughout the world. their presence has been detected in living and nonliving components of ecosystems. Petroleum can be an environmental hazard for wild animals and plants. Individual PAHs are also hazardous to wildlife, but they are most commonly associated with human illnesses. Because petroleum is a major environmental source of these PAHs, petroleum and PAHs are jointly presented in this chapter. Composition, sources, environmental fate, and toxic effects on all living components of aquatic and terrestrial environments are addessed.

  12. The hidden face of the petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, E.

    2006-02-01

    For the first time, a book reveals what that was hidden to the public opinions: why the petroleum crisis of 1973 what only a manipulation, an arrangement between the OPEC and the petroleum companies, why the data concerning the petroleum reserves are wrong and increased by the producers countries, how Washington used the Saudi petroleum weapon to create the Soviet Union fall, and why from march 2001 maps of the Iraq (where were drawn the future petroleum explorations) were working documents for the vice President Cheney and petroleum managers for the ''secret society''. (A.L.B.)

  13. Case Studies of Fatigue Life Improvement Using Low Plasticity Burnishing in Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevey, Paul S.; Shepard, Michael; Ravindranath, Ravi A.; Gabb, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Surface enhancement technologies such as shot peening, laser shock peening (LSP), and low plasticity burnishing (LPB) can provide substantial fatigue life improvement. However, to be effective, the compressive residual stresses that increase fatigue strength must be retained in service. For successful integration into turbine design, the process must be affordable and compatible with the manufacturing environment. LPB provides thermally stable compression of comparable magnitude and even greater depth than other methods, and can be performed in conventional machine shop environments on CNC machine tools. LPB provides a means to extend the fatigue lives of both new and legacy aircraft engines and ground-based turbines. Improving fatigue performance by introducing deep stable layers of compressive residual stress avoids the generally cost prohibitive alternative of modifying either material or design. The X-ray diffraction based background studies of thermal and mechanical stability of surface enhancement techniques are briefly reviewed, demonstrating the importance of minimizing cold work. The LPB process, tooling, and control systems are described. An overview of current research programs conducted for engine OEMs and the military to apply LPB to a variety of engine and aging aircraft components are presented. Fatigue performance and residual stress data developed to date for several case studies are presented including: * The effect of LPB on the fatigue performance of the nickel based super alloy IN718, showing fatigue benefit of thermal stability at engine temperatures. * An order of magnitude improvement in damage tolerance of LPB processed Ti-6-4 fan blade leading edges. * Elimination of the fretting fatigue debit for Ti-6-4 with prior LPB. * Corrosion fatigue mitigation with LPB in Carpenter 450 steel. *Damage tolerance improvement in 17-4PH steel. Where appropriate, the performance of LPB is compared to conventional shot peening after exposure to engine

  14. Biocommodity Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  15. Impact Testing and Analysis of Composites for Aircraft Engine Fan Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Revilock, Duane M.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Nie, Walter Z.; Mackenzie, S. Ben; Todd, Kevin B.

    2002-01-01

    The fan case in a jet engine is a heavy structure because of its size and because of the requirement that it contain a blade released during engine operation. Composite materials offer the potential for reducing the weight of the case. Efficient design, test, and analysis methods are needed to efficiently evaluate the large number of potential composite materials and design concepts. The type of damage expected in a composite case under blade-out conditions was evaluated using a subscale test in which a glass/epoxy composite half-ring target was impacted with a wedge-shaped titanium projectile. Fiber shearing occurred near points of contact between the projectile and target. Delamination and tearing occurred on a larger scale. These damage modes were reproduced in a simpler test in which flat glass/epoxy composites were impacted with a blunt cylindrical projectile. A surface layer of ceramic eliminated fiber shear fracture but did not reduce delamination. Tests on 3D woven carbon/epoxy composites indicated that transverse reinforcement is effective in reducing delamination. A 91 cm (36 in.) diameter full-ring sub-component was proposed for larger scale testing of these and other composite concepts. Explicit, transient, finite element analyses indicated that a full-ring test is needed to simulate complete impact dynamics, but simpler tests using smaller ring sections are adequate when evaluation of initial impact damage is the primary concern.

  16. Two-dimensional modeling of an aircraft engine structural bladed disk-casing modal interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Mathias; Pierre, Christophe; Cartraud, Patrice; Lombard, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In modern turbo machines such as aircraft jet engines, structural contacts between the casing and bladed disk may occur through a variety of mechanisms: coincidence of vibration modes, thermal deformation of the casing, rotor imbalance due to design uncertainties to name a few. These nonlinear interactions may result in severe damage to both structures and it is important to understand the physical circumstances under which they occur. In this study, we focus on a modal coincidence during which the vibrations of each structure take the form of a k-nodal diameter traveling wave characteristic of axi-symmetric geometries. A realistic two-dimensional model of the casing and bladed disk is introduced in order to predict the occurrence of this very specific interaction phenomenon versus the rotation speed of the engine. The equations of motion are solved using an explicit time integration scheme in conjunction with the Lagrange multiplier method where friction is accounted for. This model is validated from the comparison with an analytical solution. The numerical results show that the structures may experience different kinds of behaviors (namely damped, sustained and divergent motions) mainly depending on the rotational velocity of the bladed disk.

  17. Ambient noise as the new source for urban engineering seismology and earthquake engineering: a case study from Beijing metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chen, Qi-fu; Wang, Weijun; Rohrbach, Eric

    2014-02-01

    In highly populated urban centers, traditional seismic survey sources can no longer be properly applied due to restrictions in modern civilian life styles. The ambient vibration noise, including both microseisms and microtremor, though are generally weak but available anywhere and anytime, can be an ideal supplementary source for conducting seismic surveys for engineering seismology and earthquake engineering. This is fundamentally supported by advanced digital signal processing techniques for effectively extracting the useful information out from the noise. Thus, it can be essentially regarded as a passive seismic method. In this paper we first make a brief survey of the ambient vibration noise, followed by a quick summary of digital signal processing for passive seismic surveys. Then the applications of ambient noise in engineering seismology and earthquake engineering for urban settings are illustrated with examples from Beijing metropolitan area. For engineering seismology the example is the assessment of site effect in a large area via microtremor observations. For earthquake engineering the example is for structural characterization of a typical reinforced concrete high-rise building using background vibration noise. By showing these examples we argue that the ambient noise can be treated as a new source that is economical, practical, and particularly valuable to engineering seismology and earthquake engineering projects for seismic hazard mitigation in urban areas.

  18. Association models for petroleum applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics plays an important role in many applications in the petroleum industry, both upstream and downstream, ranging from flow assurance, (enhanced) oil recovery and control of chemicals to meet production and environmental regulations. There are many different applications in the oil & gas...... industry, thus thermodynamic data (phase behaviour, densities, speed of sound, etc) are needed to study a very diverse range of compounds in addition to the petroleum ones (CO2, H2S, water, alcohols, glycols, mercaptans, mercury, asphaltenes, waxes, polymers, electrolytes, biofuels, etc) within a very...... extensive range of conditions, up to very high pressures. Actually, the petroleum industry was one of the first industrial sectors which used extensively thermodynamic models and even contributed to the development of several of the most popular and still widely used approaches. While traditional...

  19. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  20. Overview of soil and groundwater research activities of the American Petroleum Institute (API)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, B.

    1992-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) is a trade association for the domestic petroleum industry in the USA, with over 2000 corporate and 5000 individual members. Subsurface research activities are managed by the API soil/groundwater technical task force, a committee made up of over 25 member company engineers, hydrologists, soil scientists, and chemists representing both the research and operations sectors of the petroleum industry. The research areas of the group have been divided into five principle areas: biodegradation processes, fate and transport, remediation, decision making tools for remediation, and detection/analytical methods. A summary of each of the current projects in these subject areas is presented

  1. Forging Strategic Business Partnerships to Develop the 21st Century Workforce: A Case Study of the University of Houston's Undergraduate Petroleum Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business-Higher Education Forum, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF) is committed to aligning education and the workforce to create the talent and capacity for innovation necessary to keep regions, states, and the nation economically competitive. As part of that work, BHEF strives to analyze the factors that contribute to effective business and higher education…

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-14

    This document designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and for the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  4. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  5. Rare and expensive petroleum: impact on careers; Du petrole rare et cher: consequences sur les carrieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, E.; Krasowski, T.; Kerdraon, Y.; Drevet, R.; Andreis, D.; Pouille, J.P.; Villoslada Prado, P.; Sigaud, J.B

    2006-07-15

    Oil peak, reserves depletion, greenhouse effect, pollution, uncertain future and international insecurity could be negative arguments to discourage candidates to start up a career in the petroleum industry. This press kit presents testimonies of young professionals who explain their motivations for committing themselves in this way. Testimonies are chosen in various domains of the petroleum industry: geophysics, exploration, processes, refining, and engines technology. (J.S.)

  6. Associated petroleum gas utilization in Tomsk Oblast: energy efficiency and tax advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazim, A.; Romanyuk, V.; Ahmadeev, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    This article deals with oil production companies activities in increasing the utilization volume of associated petroleum gas (APG) in Tomsk Oblast. Cost-effectiveness analysis of associated petroleum gas utilization was carried out using the example of gas engine power station AGP-350 implementation at Yuzhno-Cheremshanskoye field, Tomsk Oblast. Authors calculated the effectiveness taking into account the tax advantages of 2012. The implementation of this facility shows high profitability, the payback period being less than 2 years.

  7. Fire and explosion safety in the petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 13 presentations in topics on LNG projects nationally and internationally, simulations of gas dispersion due to LNG discharges, transports of pressurized natural gas, technological aspects of fire protection and combat equipment, safety aspects of offshore installations and transportation systems, offshore platform and transportation systems design and various examples of safety design and management. Some experiences within safety engineering in the petroleum exploitation are included.

  8. Petroleum Resins: Separation, Character, and Role in Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Speight, James

    2001-01-01

    In petroleum science, the term resin generally implies material that has been eluted from various solid adsorbents, whereas the term maltenes (or petrolenes) indicates a mixture of the resins and oils obtained as filtrates from the asphaltene precipitation. Thus, after the asphaltenes are precipi......In petroleum science, the term resin generally implies material that has been eluted from various solid adsorbents, whereas the term maltenes (or petrolenes) indicates a mixture of the resins and oils obtained as filtrates from the asphaltene precipitation. Thus, after the asphaltenes...... are precipitated, adsorbents are added to the n-pentane solutions of the resins and oils, by which process the resins are adsorbed and subsequently recovered by the use of a more polar solvent, and the oils remain in solution. The resin fraction plays an important role in the stability of petroleum and prevents...... of the fact that the resin fraction is extremely important to the stability of petroleum, there is surprisingly little work reported on the characteristics of the resins. This article summarizes the work that has been carried out in determining the character and properties of the resin constituents...

  9. 2015 Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven R.; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa L. (FFPO); Wynn, Karen (FFPO); Checkai, Dean (FFPO); Osborne, Gerad (FFPO); Moore, Darryl (FFPO)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 31 wells at the West Hackberry site, with each well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill and Bryan Mound Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sites.

  10. 2015 Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bayou Choctaw Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Park, Byoung; Rudeen, D.K.; Eldredge, L.L.; Wynn, K.; Checkai, D.; Osborne, G.; Moore, D.

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 15 wells at the Bayou Choctaw site, with each active well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sites.

  11. 2014 Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven R.; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa L. (FFPO); Wynn, Karen (FFPO); Checkai, Dean (FFPO); Osborne, Gerad (FFPO); Moore, Darryl (FFPO)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Bryan Mound Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 47 wells at the Bryan Mound site, with each well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site.

  12. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa; Wynn, Karen; Checkai, Dean; Perry, James Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  13. Proceedings of the Canadian International Petroleum Conference 2005 and the 56. Annual Technical Meeting of the Petroleum Society of CIM : Because Technology Changes Everything. CD ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference and trade show outlined the latest technologies associated with hydrocarbon exploration, petroleum geology, resource development, and enhanced recovery. It was attended by local and international participants in the petroleum sector. The 31 sessions highlighted the challenges facing the petroleum industry in terms of maturing basins and focused on issues such as business development and risk management; cold production of heavy oil; health, safety and regulatory issues; and environmental concerns regarding oil and gas development. The presentations were targeted for managers, engineers, technologists, geologists, and other petroleum industry specialists dealing with topical issues such as: well completion; well stimulation; well test analysis; thermal recovery; reservoir characterization; fluid characterization; numerical simulation; computerized simulation; emerging technology; thermal field projects; production operations; business development; and refining facilities. A total of 122 papers have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. (author)

  14. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  15. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  16. Primer for evaluating ecological risk at petroleum release sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claff, R

    1999-02-01

    Increasingly, risk-based approaches are being used to guide decision making at sites such as service stations and petroleum product terminals, where petroleum products have been inadvertently released to the soil. For example, the API Decision Support System software, DSS, evaluates site human health risk along six different routes of exposure. The American Society for Testing and Materials' Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) standard, ASTM 1739, establishes a tiered framework for evaluating petroleum release sites on the basis of human health risk. Though much of the risk assessment focus has been on human health risk, regulatory agencies recognize that protection of human health may not fully protect the environment; and EPA has developed guidance on identifying ecological resources to be protected through risk-based decision making. Not every service station or petroleum product terminal site warrants a detailed ecological risk assessment. In some cases, a simple preliminary assessment will provide sufficient information for decision making. Accordingly, the American Petroleum Institute (API) is developing a primer for site managers, to assist them in conducting this preliminary assessment, and in deciding whether more detailed ecological risk assessments are warranted. The primer assists the site manager in identifying relevant ecological receptors and habitats, in identifying chemicals and exposure pathways of concern, in developing a conceptual model of the site to guide subsequent actions, and in identifying conditions that may warrant immediate response.

  17. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  18. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a laboratory aquifer column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billowits, M.; Whyte, L.; Greer, C.; Ramsay, J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the primary mechanisms for eliminating hydrocarbon pollutants from the environment is degradation of hydrocarbons by indigenous microorganisms. This report describes a study in which samples from a petroleum polluted shallow aquifer in the Yukon were used which contained a hundred times greater concentration of psychrotropic bacteria than mesophilic bacteria. Results showed a maximum degradation of 47 per cent of the total petroleum hydrocarbon in columns which simulated the aquifer conditions and to which nutrients were added. It was concluded that although in this case bioaugmentation of the columns with a psychrotropic hydrocarbon-degrading consortium increased microbial numbers, total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation was not much greater than could be achieved by remediation with nutrients alone

  19. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and...

  20. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. The United States facing their petroleum dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of ''the energy crisis of 2000-2001'', the Cheney report and the petroleum dependence, this study presents a critical examination of the United States petroleum situation, its perception in the american political milieu and the public policies implementing during the last ten years. The first section is devoted to the petroleum supply. In the second section, the american petroleum policy and the energy safety are studied. (A.L.B.)

  2. Case studies of occupational health management in the engineering construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyi, D E; Haslam, R A; Gibb, A G

    1998-05-01

    Construction workers are exposed to considerable hazards carrying a health risk, e.g., dusts, fumes, noise and manual handling, yet there is often poor occupational health service provision particularly for subcontracted labourers. This paper presents seven case studies from large, engineering construction organizations, concerning current practice in occupational health management. The results supported the fact that data and records regarding health-related absence were limited and inconsistent, and that little existed in terms of medicals and health surveillance, particularly in the case of subcontracted workers. The main difficulties envisaged were reported to be the sizeable costs involved; the temporary and mobile work force; demonstrating cost-benefits to top management and a lack of interest amongst workers, perhaps exacerbated by the threat of lost livelihood. Managers also admitted limited health expertise and knowledge of the wider role health professionals could play in health management. Training and further research in this area are indicated.

  3. Engineering Design Tools for Shape Memory Alloy Actuators: CASMART Collaborative Best Practices and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert W.; Benafan, Othmane; Gao, Xiujie; Calkins, Frederick T; Ghanbari, Zahra; Hommer, Garrison; Lagoudas, Dimitris; Petersen, Andrew; Pless, Jennifer M.; Stebner, Aaron P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the Consortium for the Advancement of Shape Memory Alloy Research and Technology (CASMART) is to enable the design of revolutionary applications based on shape memory alloy (SMA) technology. In order to help realize this goal and reduce the development time and required experience for the fabrication of SMA actuation systems, several modeling tools have been developed for common actuator types and are discussed herein along with case studies, which highlight the capabilities and limitations of these tools. Due to their ability to sustain high stresses and recover large deformations, SMAs have many potential applications as reliable, lightweight, solid-state actuators. Their advantage over classical actuators can also be further improved when the actuator geometry is modified to fit the specific application. In this paper, three common actuator designs are studied: wires, which are lightweight, low-profile, and easily implemented; springs, which offer actuation strokes upwards of 200 at reduced mechanical loads; and torque tubes, which can provide large actuation forces in small volumes and develop a repeatable zero-load actuation response (known as the two-way shape memory effect). The modeling frameworks, which have been implemented in the design tools, are developed for each of these frequently used SMA actuator types. In order to demonstrate the versatility and flexibility of the presented design tools, as well as validate their modeling framework, several design challenges were completed. These case studies include the design and development of an active hinge for the deployment of a solar array or foldable space structure, an adaptive solar array deployment and positioning system, a passive air temperature controller for regulation flow temperatures inside of a jet engine, and a redesign of the Corvette active hatch, which allows for pressure equalization of the car interior. For each of the presented case studies, a prototype or proof

  4. Geochemical Investigation of Vertical Migration of Petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon shows and seeps are frequently associated with petroleum migration through caprocks. However, leakage of petroleum from reservoirs does not necessarily result in surface seeps, nor do all occurrences of surface petroleum result from trap leakage. Cretaceous Shetland Group mudrocks which serves as ...

  5. 77 FR 42297 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. ] SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal... Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation: The meeting is open to the...

  6. 76 FR 53889 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... National, Petroleum Council, Adjournment. Public Participation: The meeting is open to the public. The...

  7. 78 FR 40131 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation: The...

  8. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  9. Engineering the evolution of self-organizing behaviors in swarm robotics: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianni, Vito; Nolfi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary robotics (ER) is a powerful approach for the automatic synthesis of robot controllers, as it requires little a priori knowledge about the problem to be solved in order to obtain good solutions. This is particularly true for collective and swarm robotics, in which the desired behavior of the group is an indirect result of the control and communication rules followed by each individual. However, the experimenter must make several arbitrary choices in setting up the evolutionary process, in order to define the correct selective pressures that can lead to the desired results. In some cases, only a deep understanding of the obtained results can point to the critical aspects that constrain the system, which can be later modified in order to re-engineer the evolutionary process towards better solutions. In this article, we discuss the problem of engineering the evolutionary machinery that can lead to the desired result in the swarm robotics context. We also present a case study about self-organizing synchronization in a swarm of robots, in which some arbitrarily chosen properties of the communication system hinder the scalability of the behavior to large groups. We show that by modifying the communication system, artificial evolution can synthesize behaviors that scale properly with the group size.

  10. Collagen-chitosan scaffold - Lauric acid plasticizer for skin tissue engineering on burn cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyanti, Prihartini; Setyadi, Ewing Dian; Rudyardjo, Djony Izak

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of burns in the world is more than 800 cases per one million people each year and this is the second highest cause of death due to trauma after traffic accident. Many studies are turning to skin substitute methods of tissue engineering. The purpose of this study is to determine the composition of the collagen, chitosan, and lauric acid scaffold, as well as knowing the results of the characterization of the scaffold. The synthesis of chitosan collagen lauric acid scaffold as a skin tissue was engineered using freeze dried method. Results from making of collagen chitosan lauric acid scaffold was characterized physically, biologically and mechanically by SEM, cytotoxicity, biodegradation, and tensile strength. From the morphology test, the result obtained is that pore diameter size ranges from 94.11 to 140.1 µm for samples A,B,C,D, which are in the range of normal pore size 63-150 µm, while sample E has value below the standard which is about 37.87 to 47.36 µm. From cytotoxicity assay, the result obtained is the percentage value of living cells between 20.11 to 21.51%. This value is below 50% the standard value of living cells. Incompatibility is made possible because of human error mainly the replication of washing process over the standard. Degradation testing obtained values of 19.44% - 40% by weight which are degraded during the 7 days of observation. Tensile test results obtained a range of values of 0.192 - 3.53 MPa. Only sample A (3.53 MPa) and B (1.935 MPa) meet the standard values of skin tissue scaffold that is 1-24 MPa. Based on the results of the characteristics of this study, composite chitosan collagen scaffold with lauric acid plasticizer has a potential candidate for skin tissue engineering for skin burns cases.

  11. Volatility Spillovers Across Petroleum Markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 309-329 ISSN 0195-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-24129S Keywords : Volatility spillovers * Asymmetry * Petroleum markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0438407.pdf

  12. Association models for petroleum applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics plays an important role in many applications in the petroleum industry, both upstream and downstream, ranging from flow assurance, (enhanced) oil recovery and control of chemicals to meet production and environmental regulations. There are many different applications in the oil & gas...

  13. Panorama of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2002: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. A second part is devoted to the fuel quality and air quality: the constant improvement of the fuels and the investments refining/distribution. (A.L.B.)

  14. Exploring Young Children's Understanding about the Concept of Volume through Engineering Design in a STEM Activity: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Yong; Park, Mi-Hwa; Bates, Alan B.

    2018-01-01

    This case study explores young children's understanding and application of the concept of volume through the practices of engineering design in a STEM activity. STEM stands for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. However, engineering stands out as a challenging area to implement. In addition, most early engineering education…

  15. 77 FR 3073 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ...-AI35 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases... addenda to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, and the ASME Code for Operation and... on their use) ASME B&PV Code Cases N-722-1 and N-770-1. This document is necessary to correct...

  16. An intelligent decision support system for management of petroleum-contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquang Geng; Chan, C.W.; Zhi Chen; Huang, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater and soil contamination resulted from LNAPLs (light nonaqueous phase liquids) spills and leakage in petroleum industry is currently one of the major environmental concerns in North America. Numerous site remediation technologies have been developed and implemented in the last two decades. They are classified as ex-situ and in-situ remediation techniques. One of the problems associated with ex-situ remediation is the cost of operation. In recent years, in-situ techniques have acquired popularity. However, the selection of the optimal techniques is difficult and insufficient expertise in the process may result in large inflation of expenses. This study presents an expert system (ES) for the management of petroleum contaminated sites in which a variety of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques were used to construct a support tool for site remediation decision-making. This paper presents the knowledge engineering processes of knowledge acquisition, conceptual design, and system implementation. The results from some case studies indicate that the expert system can generate cost-effective remediation alternatives to assist decision-makers. (Author)

  17. Creating a strategic plan for configuration management using computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Sarfaty, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides guidance in the definition, documentation, measurement, enhancement of processes, and validation of a strategic plan for configuration management (CM). The approach and methodology used in establishing a strategic plan is the same for any enterprise, including the Department of Energy (DOE), commercial nuclear plants, the Department of Defense (DOD), or large industrial complexes. The principles and techniques presented are used world wide by some of the largest corporations. The authors used industry knowledge and the areas of their current employment to illustrate and provide examples. Developing a strategic configuration and information management plan for DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) facilities is discussed in this paper. A good knowledge of CM principles is the key to successful strategic planning. This paper will describe and define CM elements, and discuss how CM integrates the facility's physical configuration, design basis, and documentation. The strategic plan does not need the support of a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. However, the use of the CASE tool provides a methodology for consistency in approach, graphics, and database capability combined to form an encyclopedia and a method of presentation that is easily understood and aids the process of reengineering. CASE tools have much more capability than those stated above. Some examples are supporting a joint application development group (JAD) to prepare a software functional specification document and, if necessary, provide the capability to automatically generate software application code. This paper briefly discusses characteristics and capabilities of two CASE tools that use different methodologies to generate similar deliverables

  18. Computer-Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Programmer's Manual, Version 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    The Computer Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Version 5.0 Programmer's Manual provides the programmer and user with information regarding the internal structure of the CASE/A 5.0 software system. CASE/A 5.0 is a trade study tool that provides modeling/simulation capabilities for analyzing environmental control and life support systems and active thermal control systems. CASE/A has been successfully used in studies such as the evaluation of carbon dioxide removal in the space station. CASE/A modeling provides a graphical and command-driven interface for the user. This interface allows the user to construct a model by placing equipment components in a graphical layout of the system hardware, then connect the components via flow streams and define their operating parameters. Once the equipment is placed, the simulation time and other control parameters can be set to run the simulation based on the model constructed. After completion of the simulation, graphical plots or text files can be obtained for evaluation of the simulation results over time. Additionally, users have the capability to control the simulation and extract information at various times in the simulation (e.g., control equipment operating parameters over the simulation time or extract plot data) by using "User Operations (OPS) Code." This OPS code is written in FORTRAN with a canned set of utility subroutines for performing common tasks. CASE/A version 5.0 software runs under the VAX VMS(Trademark) environment. It utilizes the Tektronics 4014(Trademark) graphics display system and the VTIOO(Trademark) text manipulation/display system.

  19. Project-based learning in a high school engineering program: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Todd

    Generating greater student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been a major topic of discussion among educators, policymakers, and researchers in recent years, as increasing the number of graduates in these fields is widely considered a necessary step for sustaining the progress of today's society. Fostering this interest must occur before students reach college, and substantial efforts have been made to engage students at K-12 levels in STEM-focused learning. Attempts to involve students in engineering, a vital and growing profession, yet one in which students often have little experience, have frequently emphasized the design and construction of physical products, a practice supported by project-based learning. This thesis examines the environment of an engineering high school course that employed the project-based model. The course is part of a dedicated curricular program which aims to provide students with positive experiences in engineering-related activities while also preparing them for the rigors of college. A case study was conducted to provide insight into the benefits and drawbacks of the learning model. The study's outcomes are intended to provide guidance to educators participating in the design and/or facilitation of project-based activities, particularly those involved with engineering education. The research was performed using a qualitative approach. Long-term engagement with course participants was deemed critical to gaining a comprehensive understanding of the interactions and events that transpired on a daily basis. Nine educators involved with the program were interviewed, as were nineteen of the course's thirty-nine students. A wealth of other relevant data -- including surveys, field notes, and evaluations of student work -- was compiled for analysis as well. The study findings suggest that experiences in problem solving and teamwork were the central benefits of the course. Limitations existed due to a

  20. Native title: Its effects on petroleum exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickery, E. [Minter Ellison Baker O`Loughlin, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The existence of native title in Australia was recognised by the High Court in its historic Mabo No.2 judgement on 3 June 1992. Native title is a shorthand expression used to describe those activities pursued by native peoples in connection with their traditional lands, in accordance with traditional law and custom. It could be extinguished in many ways, and once extinguished cannot be revived. Following an intense public debate, the Commonwealth enacted the Native Title Act (NTA) which, for most purposes, commenced on 1 January 1994. The NTA recognizes and protects native title, enabling its future extinguishment in only limited cases, principally by government acquisition for public purposes which are actually fulfilled. This paper discusses the meaning and application of the NTA and the Racial Discrimination Act, 1975 (RDA) together with their impact on onshore and offshore petroleum activities. It concludes that access to land and security of title are important to petroleum exploration and that exploration companies need to be aware of the conflicts between statutory exploration rights and the rights of native title holders as owners of the land. 1 photo.

  1. Modeling and forecasting petroleum futures volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2006-01-01

    Forecasts of oil price volatility are important inputs into macroeconometric models, financial market risk assessment calculations like value at risk, and option pricing formulas for futures contracts. This paper uses several different univariate and multivariate statistical models to estimate forecasts of daily volatility in petroleum futures price returns. The out-of-sample forecasts are evaluated using forecast accuracy tests and market timing tests. The TGARCH model fits well for heating oil and natural gas volatility and the GARCH model fits well for crude oil and unleaded gasoline volatility. Simple moving average models seem to fit well in some cases provided the correct order is chosen. Despite the increased complexity, models like state space, vector autoregression and bivariate GARCH do not perform as well as the single equation GARCH model. Most models out perform a random walk and there is evidence of market timing. Parametric and non-parametric value at risk measures are calculated and compared. Non-parametric models outperform the parametric models in terms of number of exceedences in backtests. These results are useful for anyone needing forecasts of petroleum futures volatility. (author)

  2. Ecological status of soils in petroleum mining regions of North-Eastern area of Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenzhegaliev, A.K.; Asanbaev, I.K.; Auehzova, O.N.; Akasova, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Comprehensive monitoring of environment (air, water, soil) in populated area adjoining to the Kulsaryneft' deposit is carried out. Purposes of observations are warning and liquidation of petroleum leakages and emission of polluted substances in the case of maximum permissible concentration exceeding. Effectiveness of microbiological methods for liquidation of soils petroleum pollution is emphasized. Active carbon-hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms for 14 deposits are separated, petroleum in these deposits has distinguished by its content. Researched cultures have tendency to gradual growth of petroleum utilization rate during from 1 up to 7 days. Qualitative changes of petroleum under action of these micro-organisms are determined by method of infrared spectroscopy. There are most typically figures: increase of oxygen containing structures of both the acid and the ether types, and sharp decrease of long-chain paraffins

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P. (eds.)

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  6. Women in engineering: A case study in preparation, persistence, and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Colin Kim

    This qualitative case study examined women students' perceptions of major influences on their successful completion of a Bachelor of Science degree in nine different disciplines of engineering. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 female engineering students at an Institute of Technology over the period of a school year. The conceptual framework of analysis linked theoretical principles to categories of analysis that were correlated to three outcomes: preparation, persistence, and response. Emergent properties generated from in-depth interviews were then linked to the categories of preparation, interest-congruence, gender identity, social acceptance, campus culture, learning styles, classroom and faculty relations, sense of accomplishment, tokenism, career expectations, and family planning. Data collection was triangulated through individual interviews and a focus group with the 13 respondents and comparisons to quantitative research outcomes concerning self-confidence, persistence, satisfaction, and career expectations. The findings generally support the theories and propositions outlined in the conceptual framework constructed for this study. The most important of these findings include the impact of social conditioning on gender and academic preparation, the correlation of peer group relations to persistence, and the future expectations female students derive from their experiences over their 4 years of study. The data strongly suggest that traditional gender roles are a social conditioning process that can be overcome, permitting women to succeed in nontraditional academic career fields. Further research could build on these findings to explore social changes in attitudes about women engineers in the workplace, comparisons between men and women's persistence styles, and the importance of science and mathematics intervention programs for girls.

  7. Using ERP Systems to Transform Business Processes: A Case Study at a Precession Engineering Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K.M.Lee

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises nowadays strive to keep transforming their business processes in accordance with the fastchanging customer demands so as to survive the intense global competition. In an attempt to provide practitioners with an insight into ERP implementation and the resulting business performances, this paper investigate how a successful ERP implementation can help transform enterprises processes. Case based research which is based on an in-depth observation under managerial and practitioner situation. A case study at a precession engineering company is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed strategic enterprise information model. This paper focuses on the implementation of Sales & Marketing and Warehouse modules of an ERP system. The key performance indicators are used to evaluate how the ERP implementation can improve the business processes. It is found that ERP helps to improve data visibility and improve on-time delivery but less effective on improving employee productivity. This research proposes an enterprise information model to exploit what strategy should be formulate and how ERP tactic can be implemented in company to enhance enterprise competitive advantages. The strategic enterprise information model is formulated based on our in-depth case study and ERP consultant's experience.

  8. Certain Type Turbofan Engine Whole Vibration Model with Support Looseness Fault and Casing Response Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Support looseness fault is a type of common fault in aeroengine. Serious looseness fault would emerge under larger unbalanced force, which would cause excessive vibration and even lead to rubbing fault, so it is important to analyze and recognize looseness fault effectively. In this paper, based on certain type turbofan engine structural features, a rotor-support-casing whole model for certain type turbofan aeroengine is established. The rotor and casing systems are modeled by means of the finite element beam method; the support systems are modeled by lumped-mass model; the support looseness fault model is also introduced. The coupled system response is obtained by numerical integral method. In this paper, based on the casing acceleration signals, the impact characteristics of symmetrical stiffness and asymmetric stiffness models are analyzed, finding that the looseness fault would lead to the longitudinal asymmetrical characteristics of acceleration time domain wave and the multiple frequency characteristics, which is consistent with the real trial running vibration signals. Asymmetric stiffness looseness model is verified to be fit for aeroengine looseness fault model.

  9. First-Hand Experience with Engineering Design and Career Interest in Engineering: An Informal STEM Education Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayar, Mehmet C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present students' experiences, interest in engineering, and personal narratives while participating in a robotics summer camp in a metropolitan city in Turkey. In this study, I used qualitative data collection methods such as interviews, field notes, and observations. I used the four principles of Engle and Conant…

  10. Generic Competencies in the Education of Engineers: The Case of Engineering Program in a Public University in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Alejandra García; Vega, José Luis Arcos; García, Juan José Sevilla; Ruiz, María Amparo Oliveros

    2018-01-01

    We present an analysis regarding generic skills on engineering program offered in a public state university in Mexico (UABC). The university implemented a new educational model changing rigid programs to flexible programs based on competencies. The goal is to determine generic skills related to the four pillars of learning: learning to do,…

  11. Providing Co-Curricular Support: A Multi-Case Study of Engineering Student Support Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Walter C., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the student retention and diversity issues that have been persistent in undergraduate engineering education, many colleges have developed Engineering Student Support Centers (ESSCs) such as Minority Engineering Programs (MEPs) and Women in Engineering Programs (WEPs). ESSCs provide underrepresented students with co-curricular…

  12. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE. THE CASE OF BIOLIQ® – FUEL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin GRUNWALD

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a brief overview of the basic motivations and objectives of TA, followed by a description of the three main operating fields of TA: providing scientific advice for decision‐making in the political system, contributing to public debate, and enriching technology development and engineering practice. These issues will then be considered in more detail by referring to various approaches to the relationship between TA and technology development and by presenting a specific case study of an accompanying TA process over various development stages of the bioliq® process for converting dry biomass into fuel (Biomass to Liquid and chemicals. The accompanying TA work on the bioliq® process can, as a result of more than ten years of experience, be considered a successful technology assessment as it has opened up a new research field with a highly precautionary aspect on the one hand, and helped to win over technology‐oriented research institutes to reorienting their research work, on the other. The results of the TA studies allowed to assess e.g. the competitiveness of the bioliq® process at a very early stage. The mutual trust built up in the course of the historical development between the parties involved has always been essential for this ongoing accompanying TA process. TA has been proven, in this way, a useful tool to uncover new chances for engineering research and development, and to accompany the research process.

  13. Solving Some Special Cases of Monomial Ratio Equations Appearing Frequently in Physical and Engineering Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We first show that monomial ratio equations are not only very common in Physics and Engineering, but the natural type of equations in many practical problems. More precisely, in the case of models involving scale variables if the used formulas are not of this type they are not physically valid. The consequence is that when estimating the model parameters we are faced with systems of monomial ratio equations that are nonlinear and difficult to solve. In this paper, we provide an original algorithm to obtain the unique solutions of systems of equations made of linear combinations of monomial ratios whose coefficient matrix has a proper null space with low dimension that permits solving the problem in a simple way. Finally, we illustrate the proposed methods by their application to two practical problems from the hydraulic and structural fields.

  14. Determinants of Dividend Payout Policy: A Case of Pakistan Engineering Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Imran

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The return on investment can be divided in capital gain and dividend payouts. It is a difficult task for management to allocate a sufficient amount in both segments, especially to prevent from agency problems. The firms pay dividends only when enough amounts have after meeting their requirements and short term needs. The purpose of the present study is to empirically investigate the factors determine the dividend payout decisions in the case of Pakistan’s engineeringsector by using the data of thirty-six firms listed on Karachi Stock Exchange from the period 1996 to 2008. By employing various panel data techniques like fixed and random effects, the results suggest that the previous dividend per share, earnings per share, profitability, cash flow, sales growth, and size of the firm are the most critical factors determining dividend policy in the engineering sector of Pakistan.

  15. CONTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERING INFORMATION IN VISUAL MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY ON LARGE COMPANY FROM CURITIBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Mercado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Information systems in organizations are becoming an essential element. This fact contributes to the increased value added, competitiveness, and innovation with regard to management. The sophisticated technology industries invest in their plant floor operations. For example, extensive training where sometimes strategic use is not implemented in the best way. The aim of this paper is to present a tool called Visual Management Lean Manufacturing. For thus contribute to better results in the management of information on the factory floor, was applied in a manufacturing company. A case study conducted in a multinational company located in Curitiba / Paraná appears. Therefore, the work encourages further research with respect to lean manufacturing in conjunction with the Information Engineering in organizations for the contribution of knowledge and improvements in their processes.

  16. Petroleum Characterisation and Reservoir Dynamics - The Froey Field and the Rind Discovery, Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhullar, Abid G.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this thesis is to apply the fundamental principles of petroleum geochemistry integrated with petroleum/reservoir engineering and geological concepts to the dynamics and characterisation of petroleum reservoirs. The study is based on 600 core samples and 9 DST oils from 11 wells in the Froey Field and the Rind Discovery. The work is presented in five papers. Paper 1 is a detailed characterisation of the reservoirs using a petroleum geochemical approach. Paper 2 describes the application of a single reservoir geochemical screening technique to exploration, appraisal and production geology and reservoir/petroleum engineering. Paper 3 compares the Iatroscan TLC-FID screening technique and the extraction efficiency of micro-extraction used in this work with the well-established Rock-Eval geochemical screening method and with the Soxtec extraction method. Paper 4 refines the migration and filling models of Paper 1, and Paper 5 presents a comparison of models of petroleum generation, migration and accumulation based on geochemical data with 1D burial history, a ''pseudo well'' based on actual well data and regional seismic analysis representing the hydrocarbon generative basin conditions.

  17. Types of international petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on history and development of International Petroleum Contracts. The emphasis in petroleum exploration has steadily shifted away from the domestic oil patch and toward the international arena. Today an estimated 577.3 billion bbl, or approximately 83% of the world's proven oil reserves, lie outside the western hemisphere. The distribution of these proven oil reserves can be broken down into three major socioeconomic categories - developed market economies, centrally planned economies, and developing countries - indicating that fully 76.7% of the world's proven oil reserves occur in developing countries. As multinational oil companies come into contact with the various host countries around the world, their course of action, and the course of the host country's reaction to them, are unfortunately colored by events that proceeded the initial contact

  18. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products.

  19. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country's petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government's own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country's assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government's strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed

  20. Global Journal of Engineering Research: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Engineering Research. ... Global Journal of Engineering Research: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Global Journal of Engineering Research: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text ... Mailing Address. Department of Petroleum Engineering University of Harcourt NIGERIA ...

  1. Norwegian Petroleum Policy; Norsk petroleumspolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeiland, Ranveig

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the environment, the petroleum fortune and future generations, licence policy, and regional issues. A principal aim for the Norwegian government is to combine the role as a major energy producer with the desire to be a leading country in environmental issues. Norway is now a major oil and gas producer that produces effectively, profitably and more environmentally friendly than other petroleum countries. The MILJOESOK process was started to strengthen the cooperation between Norwegian authorities and the industry in the environmental sector. The emissions of greenhouse gases per unit produced have been reduced. The emissions to sea of oil and chemicals are also being reduced. Another principle aim is that the oil and gas resources should give the highest possible value creation and secure welfare and employment. With the present production level the reserves of oil will last for 15 years and the reserves of gas for 110 years. The state income generated by the petroleum production is expected to peak around the turn of the millennium, then to decline gradually toward 2050. The petroleum fund is established to be a buffer till long into the future. In 2010, the yield from this fund is expected to be twice the amount of oil money used over the state budget today. Compared with the UK, Norway has chosen to exploit the resources in a step by step fashion at a moderate rate. This policy can be seen in the granting of concession. New concessions will be granted at a rate suitable for smoothing out the activity level and strengthening onshore employment. The North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea are quite different as to mapping and maturity and hence require different concession policies. The new deep-sea fields in the Norwegian Sea offer technological challenges and it is important that offshore activities in this area create opportunities for regional development on land

  2. Petroleum tax and financial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.

    1993-03-01

    The work presented in this report focuses on tax motivated financial incentives in the Norwegian petroleum tax system. Of particular concern is the effects of the reserve fund requirement in the Joint Stock Companies Act. Our prime concern is the Norwegian petroleum tax system as applicable from January 1992, but for the sake of comparison, we have also examined the ''old'' Norwegian petroleum tax system. The findings presented in this report can be divided in two parts. Based on an overview over the development in debt and equity for the major part of companies operating on the Norwegian continental shelf it seems reasonable to divide the companies in three groups. The first group is companies which is not in a tax paying position, both ''foreign'' and domestic. These companies seem to use debt as their most important capital source. The second group is Norwegian companies in a tax paying position. These companies also seem to use debt as the most important capital source. The last group is ''foreign'' companies in a tax paying position. This is a group of companies that mainly use equity to finance their investments in the offshore sector. The second part of the report tries to explain these observations. In the report we compare the incentive effects in the new petroleum tax system to the old tax system. The incentives to finance investments with debt is stronger in the new tax system. Several explanations emerge. Firstly, in the old tax system the investor got an effective tax deduction of 12.8% for dividends. This is removed in the new system. Secondly, in the new system 78% tax is included in the financial statements after tax profit calculation and the maximum dividend calculation, while in the old tax system the withholding tax was excluded. 31 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

  3. CASE/A - COMPUTER AIDED SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS, ECLSS/ATCS SERIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacskay, A.

    1994-01-01

    Design and analysis of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) for spacecraft missions requires powerful software that is flexible and responsive to the demands of particular projects. CASE/A is an interactive trade study and analysis tool designed to increase productivity during all phases of systems engineering. The graphics-based command-driven package provides a user-friendly environment in which the engineer can analyze the performance and interface characteristics of an ECLS/ATC system. The package is useful during all phases of a spacecraft design program, from initial conceptual design trade studies to the actual flight, including pre-flight prediction and in-flight anomaly analysis. The CASE/A program consists of three fundamental parts: 1) the schematic management system, 2) the database management system, and 3) the simulation control and execution system. The schematic management system allows the user to graphically construct a system model by arranging icons representing system components and connecting the components with physical fluid streams. Version 4.1 contains 51 fully coded and documented default component routines. New components can be added by the user through the "blackbox" component option. The database management system supports the storage and manipulation of component data, output data, and solution control data through interactive edit screens. The simulation control and execution system initiates and controls the iterative solution process, displaying time status and any necessary diagnostic messages. In addition to these primary functions, the program provides three other important functional areas: 1) model output management, 2) system utility commands, and 3) user operations logic capacity. The model output management system provides tabular and graphical output capability. Complete fluid constituent mass fraction and properties data (mass flow, pressure, temperature

  4. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating Internet into Engineering Education: A Case Study of Students' Usage and Attitudes in Faculty of Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O. Anafi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The attitude of students towards the integration of the internet as a study tool and communication channel in teaching and learning in engineering has been investigated. A study was carried out in the Faculty of Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria, aimed at investigating the effect of certain variables such as gender, course of study, computer experience, and the percentage of internet usage on teaching and learning processes. A well-structured questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected five hundred (500 male and female students across the seven (7 departments of the faculty and about 85% were filled and returned. The study also examines the university management's perspectives and strategies to incorporate internet usage in teaching and learning processes especially in engineering. Amazingly, responses received showed that experience in the use of the computer in surfing the internet for problem based activities mainly affects the level of internet usage across the faculty. This factor makes some students to misplace their priority in internet usage emphasizing on e-mail correspondence and social networking rather than sourcing for information and solving problems as it is done by a few students. Furthermore, findings support that internet cannot entirely substitute for traditional teaching and learning processes like text reading but can serve as a reasonable alternative when the latter is unavailable

  6. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  7. Association of engineering geologists 32nd annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Association of Engineering Geologists. Included are the following articles: Engineering geology---a tool in petroleum exploration ventures font, The soil headspace survey method as an indicator of soil and groundwater contamination by petroleum products, Determination of compressive strength of coal for pillar design hirt

  8. Educating Future Energy Engineers for Sustainability: Case Study in Energy Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şiir Kilkiş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the case study of an interdisciplinary course in Energy Economy that was developed at the Energy Engineering Graduate Program at Başkent University. The course integrated several unique pedagogical features to satisfy the aim of developing a working knowledge in energy economy with an energy systems perspective. The novel aspects of the course thematically led to a capstone research project where 5 teams of 17 course participants analyzed their prioritized solutions towards improving the energy self-sufficiency of the campus based on the practice of energy economy. The results of the teams’ solutions towards a net-zero energy/exergy campus included electric buses for city-campus transport, poly-generation for the new Arts Center, LED/OLED lighting for campus lighting, dynamo driven/piezoelectric sports center, biofuels from the university-owned dairy products farm, and an energy efficient technology incubation center. This unique course with participatory learning is compared with others before concluding that the case study is a useful international example for energy economy.

  9. The cleanroom case study in the Software Engineering Laboratory: Project description and early analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Scott; Kouchakdjian, Ara; Basili, Victor; Weidow, David

    1990-01-01

    This case study analyzes the application of the cleanroom software development methodology to the development of production software at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The cleanroom methodology emphasizes human discipline in program verification to produce reliable software products that are right the first time. Preliminary analysis of the cleanroom case study shows that the method can be applied successfully in the FDD environment and may increase staff productivity and product quality. Compared to typical Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) activities, there is evidence of lower failure rates, a more complete and consistent set of inline code documentation, a different distribution of phase effort activity, and a different growth profile in terms of lines of code developed. The major goals of the study were to: (1) assess the process used in the SEL cleanroom model with respect to team structure, team activities, and effort distribution; (2) analyze the products of the SEL cleanroom model and determine the impact on measures of interest, including reliability, productivity, overall life-cycle cost, and software quality; and (3) analyze the residual products in the application of the SEL cleanroom model, such as fault distribution, error characteristics, system growth, and computer usage.

  10. Forecasting about petroleum exploration in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacoccoli, G.

    1987-01-01

    Scenarios with increasing petroleum demand in the next decade lead to an expectation of increasing consumption per capita in Brazil, but still lower than in developed countries. Without additional discoveries, the nation would reach the mid nineties with the necessity of importing one million barrels of petroleum/day, which would cost nearly thirty dollars a barrel, according to forecasts. Even with an assumed growth, the nation's economy hardly would resist an annual expenditure over ten billion dollars with petroleum imports. If the petroleum resources of the aggregate Albacora/Marlim fields is added to both the resources to be discovered by 1995 and the petroleum resources to be incorporated to the reserves by improving recovery factors of known fields, it is anticipated that dependency on imports could be reduced by 50%, or even eliminated. Therefore, it is mandatory to maintain the rhythm of investment in exploration and production of Brazilian petroleum. (author)

  11. STS-114: Engine Cut-Off Sensors Are a No-Go: Teaching Notes for NASA Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    This case study format is intended to simulate the experience of facing the same difficult challenges and making the same critical decisions as managers, engineers, and scientists in the Space Shuttle Program. It has been designed for use in the classroom setting to help students develop skills related to decision-making. Students will read about the engine cut-off sensor anomaly which created challenges during the STS-114 mission and have the opportunity to make decisions as lead NASA engineers and Mission Management Team members. Included within this document are three case study presentation options - class discussion, group activity, and open-ended research. Please read the full case prior to in-class presentation to allow ample time for students' analysis and reflection, as well as to prepare additional questions. activities or exercises, material selection, etc. Depending upon the setting of your presentation and the number of participants, please choose at least one presentation format beforehand and plan accordingly. You may expect the following learning objectives by using the proposed formats. Learning Objectives: To enable students to experience the responsibilities of NASA management, engineers, and analysis; to discover possible procedures for investigating system anomalies; to become familiar with the liquid hydrogen low level engine cut-off sensor, including its function, connecting components, and location within the Space Shuttle; and to encourage critical analysis and stimulating discussion of Space Shuttle mission challenges.

  12. Governing and Managing Customer-initiated Engineering Change – An in-depth case study of a global industrial supplier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2013-01-01

    Engineering change management is managing an alteration made to the technical system and/or its related value chain processes and documentation that has already been released during the product and process design process. The change can either emerge during the process or be initiated internally....... Through an in-depth case study, this paper investigates which process and what governance setup is appropriate to manage customer initiated engineering changes, referred to as request management. The paper includes a proposal for a request management framework and a task-based iterative process model...... or externally by for instance customers. Managing initiated engineering changes is a vital source for improving product performance and radically reducing change costs. Customer-initiated engineering change is an area growing in importance decreasing product life cycles and increasing demand for customisation...

  13. Neutron activation analysis for the determination of arsenic and mercury in petroleum and petroleum distillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnizky, Sara M.

    1999-01-01

    A radiochemical separation procedure to determine As and Hg in petroleum and petroleum distillates is described. The procedure uses the formation of HgS to co-precipitate the As and Hg activities produced during the irradiation. (author)

  14. Abundant and cheap petroleum until what date?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Here is an economic analysis about the petroleum market. With the increasing demand in petroleum and the limited possibilities of supply, it should be obvious to increase the petroleum prices and to make investments in research and development to find new reserves or to increase the production capacities, without these options the demand could exceed the supply and strong tensions could appear in some years. (N.C.)

  15. The three R's of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Petroleum exploration comprises a many-faceted activity. It is a complex mix of science and technology, operating in a complex economic and political matrix. In this paper, the authors will review some of the basic aspects of petroleum geology, economics and politics which influence this world-wide activity. The authors hope that such a review may be of some value to some of you, especially in viewing exploration in the context of changing world supplies and demands for petroleum

  16. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  17. Petroleum and ethics; Petrole et ethique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, N. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Train, E.; Chagnoux, H. [TotalFina-Elf, 92 - La Defense (France); Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M. [Esso SAF, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Bret-Rouzaut, N. [Ecole Nationale Superieure du Petrole et des Moteurs (ENSPM), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Fradin, J. [Institut de Medecine Environnement, IME (France)

    2000-04-01

    7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)

  18. Coral reefs for coastal protection: A new methodological approach and engineering case study in Grenada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero, Borja G; Beck, Michael W; Agostini, Vera N; Kramer, Philip; Hancock, Boze

    2018-03-15

    implementation criteria. Four pilot units were implemented in 2015 and are currently being field-tested. This paper presents one of the few existing examples available to date of a reef restoration project designed and engineered to deliver risk reduction benefits. The case study shows how engineering and ecology can work together in community-based adaptation. Our findings are particularly important for Small Island States on the front lines of climate change, who have the most to gain from protecting and managing coral reefs as coastal infrastructure. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Some Trends in the Engineering Education in Nigeria: A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The training of manpower in Engineering and allied professions in Nigeria has suffered a consistent decay over the years thereby undermining the country's ability to develop technologically. This paper looks at some key educational trends at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Benin. Journal of Civil Engineering ...

  20. Concrete release protocol case studies for decommissioning work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamboj, S.; Arnish, J.; Chen, S-Y; Parker, F. L.; Phillips, A. M.; Tripp, J. L.; Meservey, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' contains provisions pertinent to releasing potentially radioactive materials from DOE facilities for reuse or recycle. A process of authorized release for materials recovered from radiation areas is permitted under Order 5400.5 and the proposed rule in Title 10, Part 834, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 834). A generic disposition protocol to facilitate release of concrete under these provisions has been developed. This report analyzes the application of that generic protocol to site-specific cases at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The potential radiological doses and costs for several concrete disposition alternatives for the sewage treatment plant (STP) at the Central Facilities Area (CFA) of INEEL were evaluated in this analysis. Five disposition alternatives were analyzed for the concrete: (A) decontaminate, crush, and reuse; (B) crush and reuse without decontamination; (C) decontaminate, demolish, and dispose of at a nonradiological landfill; (D) demolish and dispose of at a nonradiological landfill without decontamination; and (E) demolish and dispose of at a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) facility. The analysis was performed for disposition of concrete from four INEEL structures: (1) trickle filter, (2) primary clarifier, (3) secondary clarifier, and (4) CFA-691 pumphouse for a generic case (based on default parameters from the disposition protocol) and an INEEL-specific case (based on INEEL-specific parameters). The results of the analysis indicated that Alternatives B and D would incur the lowest cost and result in a dose less than 1 mrem/yr (except for the trickle filter, the dose for which was estimated at 1.9 mrem/yr) for nonradiological workers. The analysis indicated that the main contributor to the radiological dose would be cobalt-60 contamination in the concrete. A characterization conducted

  1. Effects of the petroleum tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.; Tennfjord, B.S.

    1992-04-01

    The report evaluates the effects of the petroleum taxation in Norway. In connection with the general reform of the Norwegian industry taxation, changes are proposed in the petroleum tax law. The report gives a survey of the development in the Norwegian petroleum taxation, and analyses the effects of changing the tax revenue both for the Government and for the companies concerned. The effects of incentives caused by changing the taxation are looked upon. In the appendix the depreciation rules in connection with petroleum taxation are discussed. 18 refs., 17 figs

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  3. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  5. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA

  6. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs

  7. Petroleum supply annual 1992: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them

  8. Petroleum as a Strategic Center of Gravity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malapit, John E

    2006-01-01

    .... But according to policymakers the increasing worldwide competition for this commodity by countries with emerging economies and the nation's increasing dependence on foreign petroleum imports threaten national security...

  9. Classifying web genres in context: a case study documenting the web genres used by a software engineer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesi, M.; Navarrete, T.

    2008-01-01

    This case study analyzes the Internet-based resources that a software engineer uses in his daily work. Methodologically, we studied the web browser history of the participant, classifying all the web pages he had seen over a period of 12 days into web genres. We interviewed him before and after the

  10. The Application of an Engineering Design and Information Systems Case Study in a Senior Level Product Data Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of an engineering design and information systems case study over a three week period in a senior level class covering the topics of product data management (PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM). Students that have taken the course in the past have struggled with the sometimes nebulous and difficult to…

  11. Collaborative Model-based Systems Engineering for Cyber-Physical Systems, with a Building Automation Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzgerald, John; Gamble, Carl; Payne, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We describe an approach to the model-based engineering of cyber-physical systems that permits the coupling of diverse discrete-event and continuous-time models and their simulators. A case study in the building automation domain demonstrates how such co-models and co-simulation can promote early...

  12. LPG as a Fuel for Diesel Engines-Experimental Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Nutu, Nikolaos; Pana, Constantin; Negurescu, Niculae; Cernat, Alexandru; Mirica, Ionel

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to reduce the pollutant emissions of a compression ignition engine, fuelling the engine with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), aiming to maintain the energetic performances of the engine. To optimise the engine operation a corelation between the substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG and the adjustments for the investigated regimens must be made in order to limit the maximum pressure and smoke level, knock and rough engine functioning, fuel consumption and the level of the pollutant emissions. The test bed situated in the Thermotechnics, Engines, Thermal Equipments and Refrigeration Instalations Department was adapted to be fuelled with liquefied petroleum gas. A conventional LPG fuelling instalation was adopted, consisting of a LPG tank, a vaporiser, conections between the tank and the vaporiser and a valve to adjust the gaseous fuel flow. Using the diesel-gas methode, in the intake manifold of the engine is injected LPG in gaseous aggregation state and the airr-LPG homogeneous mixture is ignited from the flame appeared in the diesel fuel sprays. To maintain the engine power at the same level like in the standard case of fuelling only with diesel fuel, for each investigated operate regimen the diesel fuel dose was reduced, being energetically substituted with LPG. The engine used for experimental investigations is a turbocharged truck diesel engine with a 10.34 dm3 displacement. The investigated working regimen was 40% load and 1750 rpm and the energetic substitute ratios of the diesel fuel with LPG was situated between [0-25%].

  13. Environmental impact of petroleum products in the soil. Part II: Petroleum products composition and key properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlia, T.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil depends on the chemical-physic properties of each hydrocarbon, as well as on the soil characteristics. The mean composition of various petroleum products, the key chemical compounds and their characteristics are focused in order to outline the environmental behaviour of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil [it

  14. Energy use in petroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, V.O.

    1976-09-01

    Refining petroleum accounts for about 4 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States and about 15 percent of all industrial consumption. The kinds of energy used and the manner in which energy is used are discussed on a process-by-process basis. Emphasis is placed on existing processes to identify and quantify process and equipment substitutions which might significantly conserve energy. General industry and process information is given and estimates of potential savings are made. A few research and development opportunities are identified and nontechnical factors are discussed. Nearly one-half the energy consumed by refineries is obtained from by-product refinery gas and coke, and about one-third is supplied by natural gas. On a regional basis, refineries were found to vary by a factor of two in the amount of energy used to refine a unit of crude oil. Refineries in regions traditionally abundant in inexpensive natural gas were found to use relatively more natural gas and energy. About 36 percent of the energy used by petroleum refineries is consumed in the distillation units to separate the refinery streams into their basic components. Including energy for manufacturing hydrogen, about 24 percent of the total is used for cracking of the heavier components. Most of the remainder is used for reforming, hydrogen treating, and alkylation, distributed about 11, 17, and 6 percent respectively. Potential energy savings discussed in this report total 61 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/yr based on 1974 capacities, a figure which represents about 20 percent of the energy consumed to refine petroleum.

  15. Petroleum fingerprinting with organic markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostettler, Frances D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Petroleum fingerprinting is an invaluable tool in forensic geochemistry. This article summarizes applications of fingerprinting in several oil spills and natural oil seepages that we have studied during the last 25 years. It shows how each unique chemical fingerprint can be used to correlate or differentiate oils. Fingerprints can provide information about processes in the environment that impact oils such as weathering and microbial degradation. They can be used to evaluate organic matter that contributed to oils, and classify oils with regard to the geological framework of their source, such as evaluating geological facies, age, lithology, and depositional environment.

  16. The challenge of finding substitutes for 'classical' petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, Claude; )

    2011-01-01

    What are petroleum products used for? Mainly for transportation - 53% of worldwide consumption in 2009 according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) - but also, significantly, as raw products for the petrochemical industry and, to a lesser degree, for the production of heat and electricity. There is practically no substitute that can compete with petroleum on a wide scale for the purpose of transportation; but several substitutes are possible in the two other cases. This analysis focuses on transportation

  17. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, Kim; Cofgrove, R.

    1991-01-01

    Oil prices are forecast to average US$18 a barrel in 1991-1992. Australian crude oil production is expected to peaks in 1991-1992 because of the contribution from new offshore fields. However, exports are forecasted to fall by 34% with the assumed easing of world economic growth, crude oil prices and domestic production levels. 1 tab

  18. Student involvement as a vehicle for empowerment: a case study of the student platform for engineering education development

    KAUST Repository

    Delaine, David A.

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the mission, structure and outputs of one organisation, the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development (SPEED), as a case study for how student-led organisations can use student involvement to promote and sustain student self-efficacy in an academic field. SPEED attracts young people to engineering through student participation in engineering education (EE). SPEED is a global, non-profit student organisation that functions as an interdisciplinary network to diversify dialogue, stimulate change and impact the development of EE and its effect on society. SPEED is directly attracting young people to engineering in various ways: the organisation of its keynote event, the Global Student Forum; facilitating interactions between globally minded, socially inclined engineers with aspirations to change the world; and through the global dissemination of SPEED\\'s work and practices through broad and relevant channels. Short-term outcomes are highlighted here. This case study can serve as a model for student engagement and involvement in other disciplines. © 2010 SEFI.

  19. A case study for evaluating ecological risks at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.; Brewer, R.; Morris, R.; VanHorn, R.

    1994-01-01

    A case study was conducted as a component of the development of guidance for ecological risk assessment at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a large facility in southeastern Idaho, encompassing expanses of sagebrush-steppe that harbor numerous wildlife species. Nuclear research and waste disposal activities have resulted in releases of radionuclides at various sites. Due to the size and number of potentially contaminated areas, a cost-effective method was needed to evaluate ecological risks and to identify data needs for remedial investigations. Screening-level assessment approaches were developed to evaluate data collected from previous site investigations. Above-background concentrations of radionuclides and other contaminants in media were compared to risk-based criteria, which were derived from sources such as recent publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). Site-specific risks to plants and wildlife were estimated for contaminants exceeding criteria. Dose rates derived using various estimation methods were compared to reference doses for wildlife obtained from IAEA, NCRP, and other publications

  20. A Case of Engineering Quality for Mobile Healthcare Applications Using Augmented Personal Software Process Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Ahmed Khan Ghayyur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile healthcare systems are currently considered as key research areas in the domain of software engineering. The adoption of modern technologies, for mobile healthcare systems, is a quick option for industry professionals. Software architecture is a key feature that contributes towards a software product, solution, or services. Software architecture helps in better communication, documentation of design decisions, risks identification, basis for reusability, scalability, scheduling, and reduced maintenance cost and lastly it helps to avoid software failures. Hence, in order to solve the abovementioned issues in mobile healthcare, the software architecture is integrated with personal software process. Personal software process has been applied successfully but it is unable to address the issues related to architectural design and evaluation capabilities. Hence, a new technique architecture augmented personal process is presented in order to enhance the quality of the mobile healthcare systems through the use of architectural design with integration of personal software process. The proposed process was validated by case studies. It was found that the proposed process helped in reducing the overall costs and effort. Moreover, an improved architectural design helped in development of high quality mobile healthcare system.

  1. Biocatalytic desulfurization of petroleum and middle distillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticello, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Biocatalytic Desulfurization (BDS) represents an alternative approach to the reduction of sulfur in fossil fuels. The objective is to use bacteria to selectively remove sulfur from petroleum and middle distillate fractions, without the concomitant release of carbon. Recently, bacteria have been developed which have the ability to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and other organosulfur molecules. These bacteria are being developed for use in a biocatalyst-based desulfurization process. Analysis of preliminary conceptual engineering designs has shown that this process has the potential to complement conventional technology as a method to temper the sulfur levels in crude oil, or remove the recalcitrant sulfur in middle distillates to achieve the deep desulfurization mandated by State and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of initial feasibility studies, sensitivity analyses and conceptual design work. Feasibility studies with various crude oils and middle distillates achieved unoptimized desulfurization levels of 40-80%. Sensitivity analyses indicate that total desulfurization costs of about $3.00 per barrel for crude oil and less than $2.00 per barrel for diesel are possible. Key criteria for commercial success of the process include the cost and half-life of the biocatalyst, residence time in the reactor, oil/water ratios required to extract the sulfur and the disposition of the separated sulfur products. 9 refs., 3 figs

  2. India's petroleum privatization gathering speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration

  3. Exports of petroleum products, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1990 calendar year. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 34,000 m 3 /d in 1990, up 12% from 1989 levels. The increase reflects increased output from the Come By Chance refinery in Newfoundland. Motor gasoline exports increased 35% to 10,500 m 3 /d, reflecting refinery upgrading in eastern Canada. Export prices were generally in line with spot product prices in the USA. Spot prices rose sharply following the Kuwait crisis in August 1990 but fell again in November. The spot price for jet fuel rose more dramatically in that period than for other products, reflecting increased military demand. In winter 1989/90 and during the Kuwait conflict, the export price of heating oil tended to track the USA spot price. Petroleum products imports in 1990 were 18,500 m 3 /d, compared to 21,900 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports were lower partially as a result of higher crude runs in Quebec and a Quebec refinery expansion. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada continued to be strong in comparison to the mid-1980s. The top single exporter in 1990, as in 1989, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 4,506,400 m 3 . 13 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Investigation of Lubrication Properties of Petroleum Fuel and Biohydrocarbon Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers issues regarding lubricity of petroleum fuels used in piston and turbine engines, containing hydrocarbon biocomponents. Basing on available literature it can be said that the most prospective fuel components are biohydrocarbons. The paper describes effect of biohydrocarbons included in aviation fuel and diesel fuel on lubricity of such blends. The analysis covers two processes for obtaining biohydrocarbons, the HVO and the Fischer-Tropsch process. Due to problems with actual products acquiring, biohydrocarbons models representing chemically the actual ones from specific process. Lubricity testing was carried out according to standard test methods.

  5. Maximizing value through mergers and acquisitions in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    An 'Insight' conference was held in February 1996 to help understand the economics of mergers and acquisitions in the petroleum industry. Speaking notes, overhead projection slides and full text of the presentations (where available) from seven contributors at the conference were combined in this volume of proceedings. Specific topics of discussion included a review of the current scene in mergers and acquisitions, assessing management and employees, optimizing tax advantages, looking for synergies, the value of human perspective in mergers and acquisitions, tips on analyzing the engineering report, and the market's perception of merger and acquisition reporting. tabs., figs

  6. Plant Engineering and Construction System with Knowledge Management: A Case Study in NPP Construction in Hitachi-GE NE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochida, T.; Hamamoto, M.; Nakamitsu, N.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. (HGNE) has more than 40 years BWR plants construction experience. The company continues to develop plant engineering system and plant construction systems based on the experience and the lessons learned. Currently, these systems are integrated in a variety of knowledge bases using the latest information technology (IT). Their performance is continuously validated in the recent NPP constructions. Typical examples are shown as case studies for knowledge management. These plant engineering and construction management systems are essential to achieve the on-time and on-budget-goals in NPP construction projects. (author

  7. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2011 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  8. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2010 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  9. Theoretical Background for Predicting the Properties of Petroleum Fluids via Group Contribution Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bogdanić, Grozdana; Pavlíček, Jan; Wichterle, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, SI (2012), s. 1873-1878 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2012 and 15th Conference PRES 2012 /20./. Prague, 25.08.2012-29.08.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : petroleum fluids * prediction * physico-chemical properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  10. Framework for Small-Scale Experiments in Software Engineering: Guidance and Control Software Project: Software Engineering Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1998-01-01

    Software is becoming increasingly significant in today's critical avionics systems. To achieve safe, reliable software, government regulatory agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Defense mandate the use of certain software development methods. However, little scientific evidence exists to show a correlation between software development methods and product quality. Given this lack of evidence, a series of experiments has been conducted to understand why and how software fails. The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project is the latest in this series. The GCS project is a case study of the Requirements and Technical Concepts for Aviation RTCA/DO-178B guidelines, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification. All civil transport airframe and equipment vendors are expected to comply with these guidelines in building systems to be certified by the FAA for use in commercial aircraft. For the case study, two implementations of a guidance and control application were developed to comply with the DO-178B guidelines for Level A (critical) software. The development included the requirements, design, coding, verification, configuration management, and quality assurance processes. This paper discusses the details of the GCS project and presents the results of the case study.

  11. Fractals in petroleum geology and earth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christopher C.; La Pointe, Paul R.

    1995-01-01

    In this unique volume, renowned experts discuss the applications of fractals in petroleum research-offering an excellent introduction to the subject. Contributions cover a broad spectrum of applications from petroleum exploration to production. Papers also illustrate how fractal geometry can quantify the spatial heterogeneity of different aspects of geology and how this information can be used to improve exploration and production results.

  12. Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-02-01

    The petroleum refining industry defined a detailed R&D roadmap, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, to identify high-priority areas for technology R&D. Those priorities helped ITP target cost-shared solicitations and guide development of a balanced R&D portfolio to yield useful results in the near, mid, and long-term.

  13. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  14. 77 FR 2714 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Renewal... that the National Petroleum Council has been renewed for a two-year period, beginning January 12, 2012...

  15. Cardiotoxicity induced by inhalation of petroleum products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-17

    Jul 17, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. Exposure to petroleum products has been associated with high blood pressure. This study was designed to investigate the effect of petroleum products on cardiac tissue architecture and creatine kinase (CK- MB). Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to diesel, kerosene and petrol by ...

  16. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  17. French petroleum demand stable since thirteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvot, M.

    2005-01-01

    The French union of petroleum industries (Ufip) has presented a globally satisfactory status of the French petroleum situation. However, the refining capacities are not always well adapted to the evolution of the demand and the production of diesel fuels remains insufficient while France exports gasoline. Short paper. (J.S.)

  18. Mycoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted soil by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set of control treatment was used where different concentrations of the petroleum hydrocarbon were added to all soils but no inoculation with the fungus. The results showed that the initial organic matter content of the soil increased with increase in the concentration of petroleum mixture added to the soil. The highest ...

  19. Toward Mass Customization in the Age of Information: The Case for Open Engineering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Timothy W.; Lautenschlager, Uwe; Mistree, Farrokh

    1997-01-01

    In the Industrial Era, manufacturers used "dedicated" engineering systems to mass produce their products. In today's increasingly competitive markets, the trend is toward mass customization, something that becomes increasingly feasible when modern information technologies are used to create open engineering systems. Our focus is on how designers can provide enhanced product flexibility and variety (if not fully customized products) through the development of open engineering systems. After presenting several industrial examples, we anchor our new systems philosophy with two real engineering applications. We believe that manufacturers who adopt open systems will achieve competitive advantage in the Information Age.

  20. Microbial dynamics in petroleum oilfields and their relationship with physiological properties of petroleum oil reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2017-12-01

    Petroleum is produced by thermal decay of buried organic material over millions of years. Petroleum oilfield ecosystems represent resource of reduced carbon which favours microbial growth. Therefore, it is obvious that many microorganisms have adapted to harsh environmental conditions of these ecosystems specifically temperature, oxygen availability and pressure. Knowledge of microorganisms present in ecosystems of petroleum oil reservoirs; their physiological and biological properties help in successful exploration of petroleum. Understanding microbiology of petroleum oilfield(s) can be used to enhance oil recovery, as microorganisms in oil reservoirs produce various metabolites viz. gases, acids, solvents, biopolymers and biosurfactants. The aim of this review is to discuss characteristics of petroleum oil reservoirs. This review also provides an updated literature on microbial ecology of these extreme ecosystems including microbial origin as well as various types of microorganisms such as methanogens; iron, nitrate and sulphate reducing bacteria, and fermentative microbes present in petroleum oilfield ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating air emissions from a remediation of a petroleum sump using direct measurement and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    A technical approach was developed for the remediation of a petroleum sump near a residential neighborhood. The approach evolved around sludge handling/in-situ solidification and on-site disposal. As part of the development of the engineering approach, a field investigation and modeling program was conducted to predict air emissions from the proposed remediation. Field measurements using the EPA recommended surface isolation flux chamber were conducted to represent each major activity or air exposure involving waste at the site. Air emissions from freshly disturbed petroleum waste, along with engineering estimates were used to predict emissions from each phase of the engineering approach. This paper presents the remedial approach and the measurement/modeling technologies used to predict air toxic emissions from the remediation. Emphasis will be placed on the measurement approaches used in obtaining the emission rate data and the assumptions used in the modeling to estimate emissions from engineering scenarios

  2. Desulfurization of petroleum by Co-60 gamma irradiation and analysis of products using GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathuthu, M.; Tshivhase, V.M.; Olobatoke, R.Y.; Gaxela, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur is an undesirable hetero-atom that has negative on motor engines if present in quantities between 50 and 180.000 ppm. Research has shown that sour petroleum can be 'sweetened' by gamma irradiation to de-sulfurize the crude oil. In this research we will report experimental results of desulfurizing petroleum locally procured. The objective is to improve the quality of product delivered to the motor market and also reduce the environmental pollution due to SO 2 emissions from engines. The gamma irradiated (de-sulfurized petroleum was chemically analyzed using GC-MS. The preliminary results show that the petroleum is polymerized by gamma radiation to higher molecular mass. The un-irradiated petroleum had a sulfur concentration of 3.24% and 0.020% wt after gamma irradiation. The sulfur content was reduced by a factor of about 160 when dose was increased from zero to 50 kGys. GC-MS Chromatographs are presented for the identified hydrocarbons after gamma irradiation. (authors)

  3. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  4. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  5. Changing demographics and shrinking engineering enrollments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that changing U.S. population demographics, poor academic preparation, and a decreasing interest in engineering among college student indicate possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. If we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S., the engineering talent pool must be enlarged to include women and minority men

  6. Embedding Academic Literacy Support within the Electrical Engineering Curriculum: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, I.; Mort, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the integration of supplementary training in academic literacy, for those without the assumed entry standard, into a standard electrical engineering program without compromising any other educational objectives. All students who commenced an engineering degree were tested as part of their first session's assessment activities.…

  7. Changing the Teaching/Learning Procedures in Physics for Agricultural Engineering. A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero, Angel; Parra, M. Isabel; Cachadina, Isidro

    2012-01-01

    The subject "Physical Fundamentals of Engineering" for agricultural engineers in the University of Extremadura has long had high rates of students not attending classes, not presenting for examinations and, finally, failing the subject. During the 2007 and 2008 courses, the teaching/learning procedures were strongly modified. Analysis of the…

  8. Shaping Software Engineering Curricula Using Open Source Communities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, James; Burke, Quinn

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents four years of a novel approach to teaching a two-course sequence in software engineering as part of the ABET-accredited computer science curriculum at the College of Charleston. This approach is team-based and centers on learning software engineering in the context of open source software projects. In the first course, teams…

  9. A Case for the Need of Using Scaffolding Methods in Teaching Introductory, Fundamental Engineering Mechanics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan-Ashraf, Peggy C.; Freeman, Steven A.; Shelley, Mack C.

    2015-01-01

    In the past ten years, engineering classrooms have seen an exponential growth in the use of technology, more than during any other previous decade. Unprecedented advancements, such as the advent of innovative gadgets and fundamental instructional alterations in engineering classrooms, have introduced changes in both teaching and learning. Student…

  10. Teaching Sustainable Entrepreneurship to Engineering Students: The Case of Delft University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Hans; Quist, Jaco; Hoogwater, Daan; Spaans, Johan; Wehrmann, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability, enhancement of personal skills, social aspects of technology, management and entrepreneurship are of increasing concern for engineers and therefore for engineering education. In 1996 at Delft University of Technology this led to the introduction of a subject on sustainable entrepreneurship and technology in the course programmes of…

  11. Engineering estimates versus impact evaluation of energy efficiency projects: Regression discontinuity evidence from a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Corey; Siler, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades have been gaining widespread attention across global channels as a cost-effective approach to addressing energy challenges. The cost-effectiveness of these projects is generally predicted using engineering estimates pre-implementation, often with little ex post analysis of project success. In this paper, for a suite of energy efficiency projects, we directly compare ex ante engineering estimates of energy savings to ex post econometric estimates that use 15-min interval, building-level energy consumption data. In contrast to most prior literature, our econometric results confirm the engineering estimates, even suggesting the engineering estimates were too modest. Further, we find heterogeneous efficiency impacts by time of day, suggesting select efficiency projects can be useful in reducing peak load. - Highlights: • Regression discontinuity used to estimate energy savings from efficiency projects. • Ex post econometric estimates validate ex ante engineering estimates of energy savings. • Select efficiency projects shown to reduce peak load

  12. Systems engineering, systems thinking, and learning a case study in space industry

    CERN Document Server

    Moser, Hubert Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on systems engineering, systems thinking, and how that thinking can be learned in practice. It describes a novel analytical framework based on activity theory for understanding how systems thinking evolves and how it can be improved to support multidisciplinary teamwork in the context of system development and systems engineering. This method, developed using data collected over four years from three different small space systems engineering organizations, can be applied in a wide variety of work activities in the context of engineering design and beyond in order to monitor and analyze multidisciplinary interactions in working teams over time. In addition, the book presents a practical strategy called WAVES (Work Activity for a Evolution of Systems engineering and thinking), which fosters the practical learning of systems thinking with the aim of improving process development in different industries. The book offers an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners interested in system...

  13. The integrated network model of pipeline, sea and road distribution of petroleum product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Öztürkoğlu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria ranks high among the community of oil producers both in the world. It is, therefore, paradoxical that Nigeria, with such profile in Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC statistics finds it difficult to optimize its supply distribution while spending so much money on transportation and distribution. This paper thus reviews the petroleum product supply and distribution systems in the country. Thus, we develop a single period, single product deterministic mathematical model to effectively distribute the product to the end user through the most effective channel to the interest of the economy of the country. In our model, we first consider a perfect condition in the petroleum industry irrespective of the production crises and conflicts like pipeline vandalism, communal instability. We then consider different scnearios that presumes several breakdown cases in pipeline connection to anaylze the survivability of the network of petroleum distribution.

  14. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 3; Validation and Test Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the third volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by validation studies that were done on three fan rigs. It concludes with recommended improvements and additional studies for BFaNS.

  15. Sense and Sensibility: The Case for the Nationwide Inclusion of Engineering in the K-12 Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Robert E.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Batterson, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The competitive status of the United States is inextricably linked to innovation just as innovation is inseparable from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. To stay competitive in innovation requires that the United States produce a 21st century workforce complete with requisite education, training, skills, and motivation. If we accept a priori that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education are crucial to competitiveness and innovation and that, in terms of innovation, mathematics, science, and engineering are interdependent, why are mathematics and science uniformly ubiquitous in the K-12 curriculum while engineering is conspicuously absent? We are passionate in our belief that the uniform addition of engineering to the K-12 curriculum will help ensure that the nation has "the right" 21st Century workforce. Furthermore, we believe that a nationwide effort, led by a coalition of engineering academics, practitioners, and societies is required to turn this goal into reality. However, accomplishing this goal necessitates, as we are reminded by the title of Jane Austen's timeless novel, "Sense and Sensibility", a workable solution that seeks the "middle ground" between passion and reason. We begin our paper by making two essential points: Engineers are not scientists. Engineering exists separate from science, has its own specialized knowledge community apart from science, and it is largely responsible for many of the most significant advancements and improvements in the quality of our life. Our workable solution requires that K-12 education, nationwide, accommodate the inclusion of engineering as a stand alone curriculum and we offer three reasons to support our position: (1) workforce development, (2) stimulating interest in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) courses and careers, and (3) creating a technologically literate society. We conclude with some thoughts on how this important goal can be accomplished.

  16. The southern cone petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisani, W.

    1992-01-01

    The Argentine oil sector has been moving strongly toward complete deregulation since 1989. Price controls on byproducts has been lifted, old petroleum contracts became into concessions, and the state oil company, YPF, is under process of privatization. In this context, the international companies scouting for opportunities can find an important menu of potential investments But here remain some problems connected with this deregulation, too. The lack of a reference crude and product market price is one of them. This paper focuses how to overcome this trouble with the establishment of an institutional market for crude and products, not only for Argentina but also for the entire Southern Cone Region (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay), inquiring into the benefits of its creation

  17. Phillips Petroleum -- Capitalizing on technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Phillips Petroleum Co., one of the largest international oil companies and the largest producer of natural gas liquids in the US, recently reported that first half 1996 net income was $916 million, up from $224 million for the same period the year before. During the past 5 years, reserves have increased 11% and production by 8%. Exploration expenses are down 32% and production costs per boe are down 24%. Compared to other majors involved in worldwide E and P, Phillips has the second highest 5-year percentage of reserves replacement--117%--and the second lowest finding and development cost/boe--$3.46--in the industry. How did the company do this while decreasing headcount by 5,300? The paper discusses focused growth, paring down assets, E and P projects, research and development, and electronic document management

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data on the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-16

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption.

  20. Genetic Engineering Strategies for Enhanced Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Krishnamoorthy; Chandra, Niharika; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Veeranki, Venkata Dasu

    2015-07-01

    The focus on biodiesel research has shown a tremendous growth over the last few years. Several microbial and plant sources are being explored for the sustainable biodiesel production to replace the petroleum diesel. Conventional methods of biodiesel production have several limitations related to yield and quality, which led to development of new engineering strategies to improve the biodiesel production in plants, and microorganisms. Substantial progress in utilizing algae, yeast, and Escherichia coli for the renewable production of biodiesel feedstock via genetic engineering of fatty acid metabolic pathways has been reported in the past few years. However, in most of the cases, the successful commercialization of such engineering strategies for sustainable biodiesel production is yet to be seen. This paper systematically presents the drawbacks in the conventional methods for biodiesel production and an exhaustive review on the present status of research in genetic engineering strategies for production of biodiesel in plants, and microorganisms. Further, we summarize the technical challenges need to be tackled to make genetic engineering technology economically sustainable. Finally, the need and prospects of genetic engineering technology for the sustainable biodiesel production and the recommendations for the future research are discussed.