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Sample records for case northeastern medellin

  1. [Marking bourdaries as a strategy of social control: the case of homicidal violence in Medellin, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, María Victoria; Pastor-Durango, María del Pilar; Giraldo-Giraldo, Carlos Alberto; García-García, Héctor Iván

    2014-12-01

    As part of a research study undertaken in the period 2003-2011 to understand situations of homicidal violence based in perceptions regarding the act of violence and the surrounding context, we reflect on the meaning of "invisible bourdaries" in the neighborhoods of Medellin (Colombia). Using a qualitative approach that combines documentary sources and interviews, the experiences of 8 participants are analyzed. In the primary results we can see how control over neighborhoods is exercised by different actors through bourdaries not visible to ordinary people. Nevertheless, around these lines people are recruited and controlled and strategies to illegally generate economic resources and to regulate the cultural and social activities of inhabitants are consolidated, thus affecting the social dynamics and imaginary of the neighborhood. In this way, the territories, friendships, and affects of young victims – who are not linked to illegal groups and/or do not have "information" – and of defenseless older adults are controlled.

  2. Deviant behaviors associated with aggressors and resilient subjects. A case-control study in Medellin, Colombia. 2003–2005

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    Luis F. Duque

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent risky or deviant behaviors of serious offenders, resilient men and community controls were estimated through a case-control study carried out in Medellin, Colombia between 2003 and 2005. Methodology: Cases: serious offenders (n=62, men involved in violent quarrels or brawls (n=81, and members of Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia –Colombian paramilitary army– (AUC, also known as paramilitaries (n=72 were compared to resilient men (n=59 and community controls (n=103. All were interviewed face to face in their communities. Cases were interviewed at the site, day and hour agreed with the group leader. Controls and resilient men were referred by respected and trusted persons of the community and interviewed in their own communities in a place chosen by them. Results: Antecedents of overt and covert aggression, deviant behaviors and oppositional behaviors, and substance abuse was higher among AUC members (paramilitaries, serious offenders and men involved in quarrels than among community controls and resilient men. Resilient men report a smaller number of concurrent deviant and risky behaviors compared to community controls. AUC members (paramilitaries are not different from serious offenders in their reports of concurrent risky and deviant behaviors.

  3. Modeling platform for integrated assessment of intervention propolsals in localities : case study, Medellin Metropolitan Area (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a comprehensive framework for conceptual, methodological and instrumental contribution to urban intervention planning and public policy design. For a Latin American case study, a prospective multi-methodology modeling platform was developed to support the novel proposed approaches for intervention assessment, as well as to establish a knowledge building dynamic for planners using multidisciplinary discussion and, most importantly, paradigm confrontation and change. ...

  4. Does “Greening” of Neotropical Cities Considerably Mitigate Carbon Dioxide Emissions? The Case of Medellin, Colombia

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    Carley C. Reynolds

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cities throughout the world are advocating highly promoted tree plantings as a climate change mitigation measure. Assessing the carbon offsets associated with urban trees relative to other climate change policies is vital for sustainable development, planning, and solving environmental and socio-economic problems, but is difficult in developing countries. We estimated and assessed carbon dioxide (CO2 storage, sequestration, and emission offsets by public trees in the Medellin Metropolitan Area, Colombia, as a viable Nature-Based Solution for the Neotropics. While previous studies have discussed nature-based solutions and explored urban tree carbon dynamics in high income countries, few have been conducted in tropical cities in low-middle income countries, particularly within South America. We used a public tree inventory for the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley and an available urban forest functional model, i-Tree Streets, calibrated for Colombia’s context. We found that CO2 offsets from public trees were not as effective as cable cars or landfills. However, if available planting spaces are considered, carbon offsets become more competitive with cable cars and other air quality and socio-economic co-benefits are also provided. The use of carbon estimation models and the development of relevant carbon accounting protocols in Neotropical cities are also discussed. Our nature-based solution approach can be used to better guide management of urban forests to mitigate climate change and carbon offset accounting in tropical cities lacking available information.

  5. Identifying Information Behavior in Information Search and Retrieval through Learning Activities Using an E-learning Platform Case: Interamerican School of Library and Information Science at the University of Antioquia (Medellin-Colombia)

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    Tirado, Alejandro Uribe; Munoz, Wilson Castano

    2011-01-01

    This text presents the future of librarian education as exemplified by the Interamerican School of Library and Information Science at the University of Antioquia (Medellin-Colombia), using an online learning platform-LMS (Moodle) and through different personalized and collaborative learning activities and tools that help students identify their…

  6. Livelihood assessment in district 1 of Medellin – Colombia

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    Mendoza Ciro Alfonso Serna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The livelihood approach aims at the analysis, understanding and restrictions that the poorest people have to face in order to recover from difficult situations. The Department for International Development model is applied to an urban zone with the purpose of making an assessment of the livelihood of the district ’la Comuna 1’ in Medellin, Colombia, which has been recognised as the poorest and one of the most dangerous districts of the city. The case study presents both a quantitative analysis (macro and qualitative (micro analysis, as a mixed method that allows a more complete analysis and understanding of livelihood, and providing a deeper understanding of the district from the livelihood approach. The results indicate a stable growth of livelihood during the period of analysis.

  7. Medellin. Hillside screams, resist and build

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Zibechi

    2016-01-01

    Successive displacements motivated by violence due to the imposition of outsiders, hydroelectric, gangsters, mining projects, among others, the conditions were so that they were populating the slopes of Medellin, where the displaced population was coming, abandoned to their fate. Four out of ten people arrived displaced by the conflict. Social classes are defined by geography. The poorest live in remote districts from the center. Those closest to the summits were the last to arrive. That’s...

  8. Servicios públicos domiciliarios: ¿derechos humanos o productos para la venta? caso Medellín (home utilities: are they human rights or products for sale? the medellin case

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    Fabián Alirio Mazo Elorza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo presenta los resultado de investigación encaminada a demostrar y visibilizar, en la ciudad de Medellín, las múltiples afectaciones a personas por la ausencia de servicios públicos domiciliarios en sus viviendas, aún y la capacidad técnica, operativa y financiera de la empresa prestadora de servicios en la ciudad: Empresa Públicas de Medellín (Epm E.S.P, lo que supone una inadecuada lectura de la realidad de la ciudad, principalmente en las zonas periféricas y zonas de alto riesgo. Esta situación lleva a que los ciudadanos recurran a las vías judiciales o a las vías de hecho para proveerse del servicio y en cualquiera de las dos vías se termina por generarle una serie de dificultades de orden jurídico, social y económico al Municipio que es, según la Ley 142 de 1994, el responsable de garantizar el derecho a los servicios públicos domiciliarios; situaciones que pudiesen contar con una solución más adecuada en tanto que ajustada a las realidad de la ciudad. ABSTRACT. This current paper introduces the research results aiming at demonstrating and identifying, in the city of Medellin, the multiple effects to people by the lack of home utilities, still and the technical, operational, and financial capacities of the company providing services in the city: Public Companies of Medellin (EPM -ESP, which supposes an inadequate reading of the reality of the city, mainly on the outskirts and high-risk areas. This situation makes the citizens resort to the judicial routes or assault and battery in order for them to provide with the service, and in either of the two routes, a series of legal, social, and economic difficulties are derived, which becomes a problem to the Municipality, which according to the Law 142 as of 1994, is responsible for ensuring the people the right to home utilities, situations which could have a more adequate solution to the extent that it can be adjusted to the reality of the city.

  9. CAPITAL, SUBJECT, AND CITY. READINGS OF THE CITY AND THE HUMANISTIC CRISIS: THE MEDELLIN CASE. CAPITAL, SUJETO Y CIUDAD. LECTURAS DE LA CIUDAD Y LA CRISIS HUMANISTA. EL CASO MEDELLÍN.

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    Alfonso Insuasty Rodriguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This current text presents a result of analysis of the resulting information of the First Urban Counter-Hegemonic Forum, held in the city of Medellin, as a culmination of a series of city discussions carried out during the year 2013. It deals with an input that was thought in four sections, where downtown is the relationship among city, capitalism, war, and subjects in the city of Medellin. Likewise, it emphasizes the presence of the war more explicitly and it exposes how the capitalism that enters in a forceful way, undergoes transformations linked to the model of the city marketing, the city of the services, and the strong presence of a globalizing discourse, that also has effects on the urban screen and the social classes, subjects, and / or popular sectors. The text ends up trying to characterize the subjects, that in the previous dynamics, produce as being alienated, exploited, or oppressed, but also as resistance and/or emancipation in order to close with approaches - challenges, corresponding to the social research. RESUMEN: El presente texto presenta un resultado del análisis de la información resultante del I Foro Contra-Hegemónico Urbano, realizado en la ciudad de Medellín, culmen de una serie de conversatorios de ciudad realizados durante el año 2013, se trata de un insumo que se pensó en cuatro apartes donde el centro es la relación entre ciudad, capitalismo, guerra y sujetos en la ciudad de Medellín, así mismo, se enfatiza en la presencia de la guerra de manera más explícita y se expone cómo el capitalismo que ingresa de manera contundente, sufre trasformaciones ligadas al modelo de las city marketing, la ciudad de los servicios y la fuerte presencia de un discurso globalizador, que también tiene efectos en la retícula urbana y las clases sociales, sujetos y/o sectores populares. Finaliza el texto intentando una caracterización de los sujetos que las dinámicas anteriores producen como alienados, explotados u

  10. Psychosocial intervention, as a contribution to local human development within Medellin’s public scope. Case study: project aps - “buenvivir” (good living into a family. sponsor: City hall of Medellin, Colombia

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    J. J. García

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information about a research held on the psychosocial intervention offered from social projects such as educational formative spaces. A critical analysis is made by means of a government project conducted by the local administration of the city of Medellin known as “APS Buenvivir en Familia, 2011”, compiled by the Social Welfare Town Council Office, in association with the Municipality’s Health Department. Its purpose was to examine the logic and approach of psychosocial intervention as an input to human development. It was carried out through a qualitative focusing, taking in consideration the following categories: The psychosocial intervention has a definite impact on local human development, psychosocial praxis from the point of view of a public action strategy, community involvement taken as a true political act. The results showed that the psychosocial as a public exercise makes a contribution to local human development starting from the social involvement of communities and, in its everyday doing, presents structural and formal contradictions between the way they are designed and how the projects are planned and implemented among the people. 

  11. Working with Urban Youth: Experiences from Medellin, Colombia.

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    Hearn, Lydia

    1994-01-01

    In the slums of Medellin, Colombia, a program seeks to improve children's physical health, intellectual development, and self-concept through such activities as carpentry, breadmaking, and sports and literature clubs. These activities help develop ethical and moral values, planning and organizing skills, and a future orientation. (SK)

  12. Frequency and Clinical Manifestations of Dengue in Urban Medellin, Colombia

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    Berta Nelly Restrepo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dengue fever surveillance study was conducted at three medical facilities located in the low-income district of San Javier in Medellin, Colombia. During March 2008 to 2009, 781 patients with fever regardless of chief complaint were recruited for acute dengue virus infection testing. Of the 781 tested, 73 (9.3% were positive for dengue infection. Serotypes DENV-2 (77% and -3 (23% were detected by PCR. One patient met the diagnostic criteria for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Only 3 out of 73 (4.1% febrile subjects testing positive for dengue infection were diagnosed with dengue fever by the treating physician. This study confirms dengue virus as an important cause of acute febrile illness in Medellin, Colombia, but it is difficult to diagnose without dengue diagnostic testing.

  13. Frequency and clinical manifestations of dengue in urban medellin, Colombia.

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    Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Beatty, Mark E; Goez, Yenny; Ramirez, Ruth E; Letson, G William; Diaz, Francisco J; Piedrahita, Leidy Diana; Osorio, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    A dengue fever surveillance study was conducted at three medical facilities located in the low-income district of San Javier in Medellin, Colombia. During March 2008 to 2009, 781 patients with fever regardless of chief complaint were recruited for acute dengue virus infection testing. Of the 781 tested, 73 (9.3%) were positive for dengue infection. Serotypes DENV-2 (77%) and -3 (23%) were detected by PCR. One patient met the diagnostic criteria for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Only 3 out of 73 (4.1%) febrile subjects testing positive for dengue infection were diagnosed with dengue fever by the treating physician. This study confirms dengue virus as an important cause of acute febrile illness in Medellin, Colombia, but it is difficult to diagnose without dengue diagnostic testing.

  14. HIP HOP: A CORPORAL PRACTICE (EXPRESSION) THAT TERRITORIALIZE MEDELLIN CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hincapié, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the research Appropriation of dancing urban corporal practices by young people of the city of Medellin – Commune 13 (Col.), which was developed in the master in Motricity and human development of the University of Antioquia. In this article we analyze, through an urban ethnography, how young people from the city create a cultural territory by practicing Hip-Hop. An artistic expression that develops in the middle of the tensions that takes place among young people, inst...

  15. Neurocysticercosis in Ceará State, northeastern Brazil: a review of 119 cases.

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    Sousa, A Q; Sa, H L; Queiroz, T R; Horta, W G; Pearson, R D

    1998-06-01

    Relatively little is known about the occurrence of neurocysticercosis in northeastern Brazil. There have been no published reports from the state of Ceará, but a review of the records at the Hospital São José in Fortaleza, Brazil identified 119 patients with neurocysticercosis diagnosed between January 1988 and April 1994. Patients came from 43 municipalities in Ceará. Their ages ranged from five to 74 years; the greatest number of cases were in persons 10-40 years of age; 63% were males. Seizures were the presenting complaint in 64% of the patients and headache in 22%. Two patients, each with several hundred intracranial lesions, presented with mental status changes; one was initially given the clinical diagnosis of viral meningoencephalitis. Computed tomography scans showed that 44% of the patients had five or more lesions. Cysts were found throughout the brain. The parietal lobe was the most frequent site of involvement; 85% of patients had one or more lesions there. The brain stem was involved in 8%. There was no consistent association between the severity of the clinical abnormalities and the radiologic findings. Computed tomography of the thighs was done in 10 persons; cysts were identified in nine.

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: clinical analysis of 78 cases from Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil

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    CASTRO-COSTA CARLOS M. DE

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the clinical characteristics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS in Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil. For this, we analyzed retrospectively (from 1980 to 1999 78 cases of ALS from the Service of Neurology of the University Hospital of Fortaleza diagnosed clinically and laboratorially (EMG, muscle biopsy, myelography, blood biochemistry, muscle enzymes and cranio-cervical X-ray. The results showed that they were mostly sporadic ALS (76/78, and they were divided into definite (n= 36, probable (n= 20, possible (n= 15 and suspected (n= 7, according to the level of diagnostic certainty. They were also subdivided into juvenile (n= 17, early-onset adult (n= 18, age-specific (n= 39 and late-onset (n= 4 groups. Clinically, they presented as initials symptoms, principally, asymmetrical (30/78 and symmetrical (24/78 weakness of extremities, besides bulbar signs, fasciculations, and atrophy. Curiously, pain as first symptom occurred in an expressive fashion (17/78. The predominant initial anatomic site, in this series, was the spinal cord, and mainly affecting the arms. As to the symptom accrual from region to region, this occurs more quickly in contiguous areas, and fasciculations are predominant when bulbar region was associated.

  17. Analysis of dentoalveolar trauma incidents treated in the emergency services department at a healthcare teaching institution in Medellin (Colombia) 2007-2012

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: dental trauma is considered a dental emergency and it occurs frequently, especially among young people. The aim of this research was to analyze dentoalveolar trauma incidents treated in the emergency services department of a university clinic in the city of Medellin (Colombia), between 2007 and 2012. Methods: this was a retrospective, descriptive study in which 7.555 clinical histories were revised, the final sample comprising the 549 cases that met inclusion and exclusion crite...

  18. From holy war to opium war? A case study of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan.

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    Goodhand, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper examines the recent growth of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan. A detailed analysis of one village in Badakshan Province reveals profound changes in the local economy and social institutions. The paper describes two major shifts in the local economy: first, the switch from wheat to poppy cultivation; and second, the shift from the livestock trade to the opium trade. It then examines the underlying causes and impacts of the opium economy on social relations in the village. Although a case study of a community living on the margins of the global economy, it is argued that these changes have important implications for international policymakers. The emergence of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan is symptomatic of new and expanding forms of trans-border trade associated with the restructuring of the global political economy.

  19. Case study: A severe hailstorm and strong downbursts over northeastern Slovenia on June 16th 2009

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    Korosec, M.

    2009-09-01

    Introduction A strong isolated storm complex with bow echo feature crossed northeastern Slovenia in the late afternoon hours and caused extensive damage due to severe wind gusts near 30m/s, excessive rainfalls and large hail. Synoptic situation On June 16th 2009, an upper-level ridge persists over southern Europe while a positively tilted short-wave trough, connected to a complex deep trough over northern Europe, crosses central Europe. Accompanied by this trough, a cold front is extending southwestwards towards the Alps. A relatively strong jet steak wraps around the trough axis and creates strong shear environment which overlaps with a narrow band of unstable airmass present ahead of the coming frontal boundary. Behind this trough/front over central Europe, a high pressure area is developing with stable conditions. Over Slovenia, strong surface heating was on going through the day but lack of near-surface convergence zones, limited moisture and strong capping inversion surpressed any storm initiation in the afternoon. Presentation of research This case study will go through a research of damaging bow echo which caused extensive damage due to severe winds, excessive rainfalls and large hail over much of northeastern Slovenia. Numerous trees were down or uprooted and numerous roofs were blown off or were seriously damaged due to severe wind gusts near or exceeding 30m/s. At first stages, when an isolated severe storm entered Slovenia, it had classic high precipitation supercell features while it transformed into a powerful bow echo later on. Very large hail up to 6cm in diameter was first observed in southeast Austria and near the border with Slovenia, while later on the main threat was very strong wind gusts and intense rainfalls. This research paper will show a detailed analysis of the synoptic situation including analysis of satellite, radar and surface observations. Radar imagery clearly showed isolated storm trailing along the near-surface frontal boundary as

  20. Patterns of nutrient transfer in lowland catchments : A case study from northeastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, D.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Although nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emissions from agricultural diffuse sources and point emissions decreased dramatically after the political and economic changes in northeastern Europe in the beginning of the 1990s, the reaction of stream water quality is often limited or absent. This holds i

  1. Explaining Patterns of Urban Violence in Medellin, Colombia

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    Caroline Doyle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is one of the world’s most violent regions, with 40 of the 50 most violent cities, but with only 8% of the world’s population, and a staggering 33% of global homicides. At the forefront of these high levels of violence are gangs that are more flexible and persistent than previously thought. This paper provides a discussion on gangs in one Latin American city, Medellin, Colombia, where different non-state groups have contributed to changing patterns of homicide rates. The paper presents preliminary findings to show how, despite the city experiencing a 90% reduction in homicide rates in less than 25 years, violent non-state groups have become embedded as part and product of their environment, acting as coherent, logical and functional players, linked to the structural inequalities and institutional fragility of the larger society.

  2. Development of regional growth centres and impact on regional growth: A case study of Thailand’s Northeastern region

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    Nattapon Sang-arun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the spatial economic structure and inequality in Thailand at the national and regional levels, with a particular focus on the Northeastern region in the period from 1987 to 2007. The study has three main points: 1 examination of the economic structure and inequality at the national level and in the Northeastern region according to the Theil index, 2 determination of regional growth centres and satellite towns by using growth pole theory as a conceptual framework and incorporating spatial interaction analysis and 3 analysis of the relationship between regional growth centres and satellite towns with regard to the impact on growth and inequality. The results show that the Northeastern region is definitely the lagging region in the nation, by both gross domestic product (GDP and gross regional product (GRP per capita. It was therefore selected for a case study. Spatial analysis identified Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, Udon Thani and Ubon Ratchathani as regional growth centres. Each of them has its own sphere of influence (or satellite towns, and the total area of regional growth centres and satellite towns are classified as sub-regions. The development of regional growth centres has a direct impact on sub-regional economic growth through economic and social relationships: urbanisation, industrial development, per capita growth, the number of higher educational institutes and so on. However, such growth negatively correlates with economic equality among the provinces in a sub-region. The inequality trend is obviously on an upswing. This study suggests that industrial links between regional growth centres and their satellite towns should be improved in order for regional growth centre development to have a consistently desirable effect on both economic growth and equality. Such a strong process means that the growth of regional growth centres will spread, leading to the development of their surrounding areas.

  3. Frequency and Clinical Features of Dengue Infection in a Schoolchildren Cohort from Medellin, Colombia

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    Berta Nelly Restrepo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence of dengue infection, we established active surveillance of febrile episodes in a cohort of schoolchildren from three schools in Medellin, Colombia. We followed a cohort of 2,379 schoolchildren in 2010 and followed 1,840 of these children the following year. During the follow-up time, 264 schoolchildren displayed 297 febrile episodes; of these, 23 episodes (7.7% were caused by acute dengue infection. All four dengue serotypes were found, and all of the cases were mild. The most common symptoms in the dengue cases compared with those in other febrile illness were asthenia (96% versus 87%, anorexia (78% versus 57%, rhinorrhea (65.2% versus 58%, abdominal pain (56.5% versus 47.8%, arthralgia (43% versus 33%, and positive tourniquet test (13% versus 3%. This difference was not statistically significant. Pulse was elevated, and systolic arterial pressure was lower in dengue cases compared with other febrile illness (P<0.05. Mosquito indexes were determined in 8 children’s houses and in the schools. Aedes aegypti adults were found in both households and in schools, whereas Aedes aegypti larvae were found only in schools. These results showed an elevated dengue frequency in children, with symptoms similar to those of other febrile illness and transmission risk in households and schools.

  4. Frequency and clinical features of dengue infection in a schoolchildren cohort from medellin, Colombia.

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    Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Piedrahita, Leidy Diana; Agudelo, Ivony Yireth; Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Osorio, Jorge E

    2012-01-01

    To determine the incidence of dengue infection, we established active surveillance of febrile episodes in a cohort of schoolchildren from three schools in Medellin, Colombia. We followed a cohort of 2,379 schoolchildren in 2010 and followed 1,840 of these children the following year. During the follow-up time, 264 schoolchildren displayed 297 febrile episodes; of these, 23 episodes (7.7%) were caused by acute dengue infection. All four dengue serotypes were found, and all of the cases were mild. The most common symptoms in the dengue cases compared with those in other febrile illness were asthenia (96% versus 87%), anorexia (78% versus 57%), rhinorrhea (65.2% versus 58%), abdominal pain (56.5% versus 47.8%), arthralgia (43% versus 33%), and positive tourniquet test (13% versus 3%). This difference was not statistically significant. Pulse was elevated, and systolic arterial pressure was lower in dengue cases compared with other febrile illness (P < 0.05). Mosquito indexes were determined in 8 children's houses and in the schools. Aedes aegypti adults were found in both households and in schools, whereas Aedes aegypti larvae were found only in schools. These results showed an elevated dengue frequency in children, with symptoms similar to those of other febrile illness and transmission risk in households and schools.

  5. Role the Local Population in Ecotourism Development – Attitudes of Citizens Northeastern Montenegro: a Case Study

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    Goran Rajović

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary trends in world tourism seek spaces of the original or at least altered the environment and the chance of northeastern Montenegro, in the example of municipalities Berane, Petnjica, Andrijevica, Plav and Gusinje the choosy market may to be a destination with undisturbed ambient wholes. This paper explores the role of local people in the development of eco-tourism, and analyzed the results of surveys of environmental awareness. The survey showed the population desire for the development of eco-tourism and that they look forward to that notion. In achieving a better and higher quality of eco-tourism destination in just planning must be integrated with the local population because what is tourist’s product that is offered to the tourist market, it is the local population living space in which takes place an everyday life.

  6. Severe coinfection of melioidosis and dengue fever in northeastern Brazil: first case report

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    Rafael Nogueira Macedo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This report focuses on a fatality involving severe dengue fever and melioidosis in a 28-year-old truck driver residing in Pacoti in northeastern Brazil. He exhibited long-term respiratory symptoms (48 days and went through a wide-ranging clinical investigation at three hospitals, after initial clinical diagnoses of pneumonia, visceral leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, and fungal sepsis. After death, Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated in a culture of ascitic fluid. Dengue virus type 1 was detected by polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; this infection was the cause of death. This description reinforces the need to consider melioidosis among the reported differential diagnoses of community-acquired infections where both melioidosis and dengue fever are endemic.

  7. Study and clinical management of child household contacts of tuberculosis patients, Medellin 2010-2011

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    Benjumea Bedoya, Dione

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment for latent tuberculosis decreases the risk of this infection in children who are household contacts of patients with such disease. Objective: To describe the study and clinical management of children under 5 years of age who were household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Medellin, Colombia during the period 2010-2011. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study. The relationship between socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and the management of children and index cases was explored. Results: 28.6% were studied with at least chest X rays and tuberculin skin test. Of those who attended clinical evaluation, 7.9% had active tuberculosis; out of the remaining, 19.4% received treatment for latent tuberculosis. The probability of being studied was higher if the household contact had contributory or subsidized health coverage (adjusted OR: 6.7; 95% CI: 1.5-30.5. The opportunity to receive treatment for latent tuberculosis was related to the tuberculin skin test (adjusted OR: 40.2; 95% CI: 2.59-623.6. Conclusion: The household contacts had not been adequately studied, and did not receive the right treatment, so the prevalence of active tuberculosis among them did not decrease. It is necessary to establish a standardized protocol for the management of children living under similar conditions, and to monitor its implementation.

  8. Comparison of quality of life of the elderly. Medellin, 2008

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    Doris Cardona A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: compare the quality of life of older adults in Medellin with two groups. Methodology: comparative descriptive study of secondary information source, using the 82,601 records in the Quality of Life Survey of 2008, distributed into three groups: youth, adults and seniors. The analysis was univariate and bivariate, the demographic, economic, social and health security, together with statistical tests of association. Results: older adults account for 9.2%, with female advantage, marital status was married, with a marked difference in the condition of widowhood and 39% did not record any education. Economically it was found that 34.7% engaged in the home, 34.1% are retired and 9.5% continues to work with an average income of a minimum wage. The 71.4% is affiliated to the contributive regime, preventive medical consultations take place at higher rates than young and 31.3% do not. Only 7.3% fell ill last month and his sufferings were hypertension, stress and depression. Conclusions: the older adult with no differences against the other two groups, but age makes it more vulnerable in economic and health conditions have limited the access to opportunities, by not acceding to the demands that the means of production and society require, forgetting their experience and wisdom gained in the course of his life.

  9. Biological risk factors in informal recyclers of Medellin city, 2005

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    Viviana L. Ballesteros

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The informal recyclers constitute a vulnerable population to problems of health by their constant exhibition to biological, chemical, physical and social risks, without protection. Objective: this work identify the biological risk facts to which the informal recyclers of the Bazaar of the Bridges of Medellin city. Methods: it was performed a Cross-sectional study. The sample was no probabilistic with 88 recyclers and the analysis unit was the informal recycler. It was applied a survey, a guide of observation of the activity of the recycler and were studied variables of person, place, time, type of biological risk facts, frequency of exhibition, felt morbidity and measures of protection. The analysis was statistical descriptive. Results: it was identified biological risk facts related to the contact with material in decomposition (96.6%, contaminated material (96.6%, animals (62.5% and arthropoda (79.5%. The se The se--curity measures to protect them from biological risk facts are used in less than 52% of recyclers; in addition, only 13.6% of the population were vaccinated, which increases the probability of becoming ill in this population. Conclusions: that the informal recyclers are exposed to different biological risk facts with little prevention, causing that population be vulnerable for the acquisition of infectious diseases.

  10. MEDELLIN: “EL HUECO” AS A PUBLIC SPACE

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    LOPEZ MARCELA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Significant deterioration of public space in contemporary Latin American cities raises a question about reasons of massive social polarization and segregation. Apart from constant desire from the Municipal level to improve and enlarge public domain, quality of regulative- planned spaces did not manage to assemble all social actors. At the same time, as a product of structural changes in economy, self- generated and spontaneous public spaces appear at unusual locations, being not recognized as a collectively accessible sphere. This paper tries to see “El Hueco”, bazaar- like space in the centre of Medellin, /Colombia, as an interesting public arena and naturally formed public space where commercial activities represent a background for vibrant exchange interface for all urban inhabitants. By using the methodology of Milton Santos, urban space of “El Hueco” is analyzed as a complex process. Then, a set of interventions is proposed, the so- called “software” solutions, in order to preserve “El Hueco” as an authentic generic space. In addition, this paper concludes by asking for moderation processes between City Authorities, local entrepreneurs, informal sector and customers, so that innovation- based development and cost- reduction infrastructure are stimulated.

  11. [Deaths by homicide in Medellin, 1980-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Saúl; Mercedes, Clara; Rozo, Patricia; Gracia, Gloria Milena; Gallo, Gloria Patricia; Vera, Claudia Yaneth; García, Héctor Iván

    2012-12-01

    The Colombian city of Medellin has faced a severe problem of violence and homicide. The goal of this retrospective, descriptive-analytical study was to assess the magnitude, distribution, most salient characteristics and possible explanations for the problem between 1980 and 2007. Data were obtained from official databases, hospital records and the available literature, and a focus group was set up. There was a dramatic rise in homicides in the city in the time interval studied, with a total of 84,863 documented murders. Ninety-three percent of the victims were male. The 20 to 29 year-old age group was the most affected. Males in this age group, during the worst year of the period (1991), registered an astounding murder rate of 1,709 per 100,000. Even males in the 15 to 19 year age group and the older brackets saw high murder rates. The most common victims were from the lower and lower-middle socioeconomic strata, as has been observed elsewhere in the region. Serious problems were identified in information and in the provision of services. The impact of homicide on the delivery of healthcare services is discussed and a series of tasks for the healthcare sector in the control of this type of violence is proposed.

  12. The dump, common grave urban world’s largest (Medellin-Colombia

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    Javier Giraldo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This reflects on the possible events that occurred in the commune thirteen of Medellin and that led to a series of disappearances that are presumed to have been killed and hidden in said tank debris. Homily in Act Memory of mothers and families of the disappeared from the Comuna 13 of Medellin, at the beginning of the excavations in the Dump, where many victims lie buried under tons of rubble

  13. Multiple Scedosporium apiospermum abscesses in a woman survivor of a tsunami in northeastern Japan: a case report

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    Nakamura Yutaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Scedosporium apiospermum is increasingly recognized as a cause of localized and disseminated mycotic infections in near-drowning victims. Case presentation We report the case of a 59-year-old Japanese woman who was a survivor of a tsunami in northeastern Japan and who had lung and brain abscesses caused by S. apiospermum. Initially, an aspergillus infection was suspected, so she was treated with micafungin. However, computed tomography scans of her chest revealed lung abscesses, and magnetic resonance images demonstrated multiple abscesses in her brain. S. apiospermum was cultured from her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and antimycotic therapy with voriconazole was initiated. Since she developed an increase in the frequency of premature ventricular contractions, an adverse drug reaction to the voriconazole was suspected. She was started on a treatment of a combination of low-dose voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B. After combination therapy, further computed tomography scans of the chest and magnetic resonance images of her brain showed a demarcation of abscesses. Conclusions Voriconazole appeared to have a successful record in treating scedosporiosis after a near drowning but, owing to several adverse effects, may possibly not be recommended. Thus, a combination treatment of low-dose voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B may be a safe and effective treatment for an S. apiospermum infection. Even though a diagnosis of scedosporiosis may be difficult, a fast and correct etiological diagnosis could improve the patient's chance of recovery in any case.

  14. Relations between rainfall and triggering of debris-flow: case study of Cancia (Dolomites, Northeastern Italy

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    M. Bacchini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Debris-flows occurring in the area of Cancia (Dolomites, Northeastern Italy in recent years have exposed the population to serious risk. In response to the recurring hazard, an alarm and monitoring system was installed to provide a sufficient level of safeguard for inhabitants and infrastructures. The data recorded at three rain gauges during debris-flow events has been analysed, taking into consideration the different elevation of the gauges to delineate the storm rainfall distributions. Rainfall data is compared with the occurrence of debris-flows to examine relations between debris-flow initiation and rainfall. In addition, the data is compared with that recorded during debris-flows which occurred under similar or different geological settings in the Eastern Italian Alps, in order to define triggering thresholds. A threshold for debris-flow activity in terms of mean intensity, duration and mean annual precipitation (M.A.P. is defined for the study area The normalised rainfall and the normalised intensity are expressed as a per cent with respect to M.A.P. This threshold is compared with thresholds proposed by other authors, and the comparison shows that a lower value is obtained, indicating the debris-flow susceptibility of the area. The threshold equations are:  R/M.A.P. = - 1.36 · ln(I + 3.93  where I > 2 mm/h  I /M.A.P. = 0.74 · D-0.56.  The determination of a debris-flow threshold is linked to the necessity of a fast decisional phase in a warning system for debris-flow protection. This threshold cannot be used as a predictive tool, but rather as a warning signal for technicians who manage the monitoring/warning system.

  15. Spatial Profile of Poverty.Case Study:The North-Eastern Development Region in Romania

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    Andrei SCHVAB

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the authors try to em-phasize the interdependent relations that are established between space and poverty, as well as the modalities through which poverty policies can be optimized and implemented at the territo-rial systems level in accordance to the polycen-tric development model.The f rst goal of the study is to understand the way in which the complexity of the territory, in its structure and relations, inf uences in un-equal ways the territorial pattern of poverty and development. The concept of territorial poverty that we use in the present study transcends the usual connotation of poverty as a simple lack of different kind of resources towards the incapacity of the system to offer a wide range of impulses and solutions to the encountered problems and thus induce a state of underdevelopment.The second goal is to understand in which ways the polycentric development theory can play a role in reducing poverty. In this sense the authors created a poverty index, and based on this index a polycentric development model was created for the North-Eastern region. This poly-centric development model has direct implica-tions for policy makers, as it highlights the areas that require the most attention and the develop-ment pole that should inf uence its development. By taking into consideration the results of this study, the next logical step for policy makers is to implement the necessary measures by consider-ing the relations between the development pole and the underdeveloped area that is under its in-f uence area. In this respect tailor-f t policies and measures can be applied in the effort to reduce poverty levels.

  16. Driver Sleepiness and Risk of Car Crashes in Shenyang, a Chinese Northeastern City: Population-based Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAI-FEN LIU; SONG HAN; DUO-HONG LIANG; FENG-ZHI WANG; XIN-ZHU SHI; JIAN YU; ZHENG-LAI WU

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the association of driver sleepiness with the risk of car crashes.Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shenyang, a northeastern city in China, between November 2001 and July 2002. The case group comprised 406 car drivers involved in crashes, and 438 car drivers recruited at randomly selected sites, and on the day of week, and the time of day when they were driving on highways in the study region during the study period were used as control groups. Face-to-face interviews with drivers were conducted according to a well-structured questionnaire covering the circumstances of their current trip and their background information.Stanford sleepiness scale and Epworth sleepiness scale were used to quantify acute sleepiness and chronic sleepiness respectively. Results There was a strong association between chronic sleepiness and the risk of car crash. Significantly increased risk of crash was associated with drivers who identified themselves as sleepy (Epworth sleepiness score ≥ 10 vs <10; adjusted odds ratio 2.07, 95%confidence interval 1.30 to 3.29), but no increased risk was associated with measures of acute sleepiness. Conclusions Chronic sleepiness in car drivers significantly increases the risk of car crash. Reductions in road traffic injuries may be achieved if fewer people drive when they are sleepy.

  17. Influenza-like illness sentinel surveillance in one hospital in Medellin, Colombia. 2007–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Ana Eugenia; Jaramillo, Sergio; Perez, Juan; Ampuero, Julia S; Espinal, David; Donado, Jorge; Felices, Vidal; Garcia, Josefina; Laguna-Torres, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background The city of Medellin in Colombia has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections (ARIs). As part of an ongoing collaboration, we conducted an epidemiologic surveillance for influenza and other respiratory viruses. It described the influenza strains that were circulating in the region along with their distribution over time, and performing molecular characterization to some of those strains. This will contribute to the knowledge of local and national epidemiology. Objectives To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one General hospital in Medelllin, Colombia. Results From January 2007 to December 2012, a total of 2039 participants were enrolled. Among them, 1120 (54·9%) were male and 1364 (69%) were under the age of five. Only 124 (6%) were older than the age of 15. From all 2039 participants, 1040 samples were diagnosed by either isolation or RT-PCR. One or more respiratory viruses were found in 737 (36%) participants. Of those, 426 (57·8%) got influenza A or B. Adenoviral and parainfluenza infections represented 19·1% and 14·9% of viral infections, respectively. Influenza A was detected almost throughout the whole year except for the first quarter of 2010, right after the 2009 influenza A pandemic. Influenza B was detected in 2008, 2010, and 2012 with no pattern detected. During 2008 and 2010, both types circulated in about the same proportion. Unusually, in many months of 2012, the proportion of influenza B infections was higher than influenza A (ranging between 30% and 42%). The higher proportion of adenovirus was mainly detected in the last quarter of years 2007 and 2010. Adenoviral cases are more frequent in participants under the age of four. Conclusions The phylogenetic analysis of influenza viruses shows that only in the case of influenza A/H1N1, the circulating strains totally coincide with the vaccine strains each year. PMID:25100179

  18. Construction of a development index for young people aged 14-26 in Medellin, Colombia/Construccion de un indice de desarrollo para jovenes de 14 a 26 anos, Medellin, Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romero, Hugo Grisales; Marquez, Fulvia; Rojas, Juan Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Metodos. Se desarrollo un estudio transversal en una muestra aleatoria y representativa de 8 001 jovenes de la ciudad de Medellin, Colombia, a quienes se les aplico un instrumento validado cuyas dimensiones...

  19. Water supply management using an extended group fuzzy decision-making method: a case study in north-eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatour, Yasser; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zarghami, Mahdi; Bakhshi, Maryam Ali

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a group fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method to be applied in rating problems associated with water resources management. Thus, here Chen's group fuzzy TOPSIS method extended by a difference technique to handle uncertainties of applying a group decision making. Then, the extended group fuzzy TOPSIS method combined with a consistency check. In the presented method, initially linguistic judgments are being surveyed via a consistency checking process, and afterward these judgments are being used in the extended Chen's fuzzy TOPSIS method. Here, each expert's opinion is turned to accurate mathematical numbers and, then, to apply uncertainties, the opinions of group are turned to fuzzy numbers using three mathematical operators. The proposed method is applied to select the optimal strategy for the rural water supply of Nohoor village in north-eastern Iran, as a case study and illustrated example. Sensitivity analyses test over results and comparing results with project reality showed that proposed method offered good results for water resources projects.

  20. Finanzas y gestion publica local en Colombia: el caso de la Hacienda en el municipio de Medellin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobon, Alexander; Lopez, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Jenifer

    2012-01-01

    ... y evaluacion permanente de la administracion. Este articulo presenta un analisis de las finanzas publicas de Medellin realizado a traves de algunos indicadores fiscales agregados y de la estimacion de dos modelos econometricos de sensibilidad...

  1. Disposicion a pagar de los individuos expuestos a la contaminacion del aire en el centro de Medellin, Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaviria, Carlos; Martinez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    En Colombia, Medellin ostenta el titulo de ser la segunda ciudad con la peor calidad de aire, y dentro de la ciudad el centro es considerado una de las zonas con mayor emision de contaminacion por fuentes moviles...

  2. Bacillary angiomatosis in HIV-positive patient from Northeastern Brazil: a case report

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    Renata Félix da Justa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a report of disseminated bacillary angiomatosis (BA in a 23-year-old female patient, who is HIV-positive and with fever, weight loss, hepatomegaly, ascites, and papular-nodular skin lesions. The clinical and diagnostic aspects involved in the case were discussed. Bacillary angiomatosis must always be considered in the diagnosis of febrile cutaneous manifestations in AIDS.

  3. EL ENFOQUE DE LO POPULAR Y LA CONSOLIDACIÓN DE EXPERIENCIAS FORMATIVAS EN CONTEXTOS DE CONFLICTIVIDAD URBANA: EL CASO MEDELLÍN.(THE APPROACH TO THE POPULAR AND THE CONSOLIDATION OF FORMATIVE EXPERIENCES IN CONTEXTS OF URBAN CONFLICT: THE MEDELLIN CASE

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    Edison Villa Holguín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente texto se hace un ejercicio analítico descriptivo del proceso de construcción de una propuesta de formación popular. Acercamiento reflexivo posibilitado por la perspectiva de sistematización de experiencias desarrollada desde la afinidad con algunas corrientes Latinoamericanistas (Castro Gómez & Mendieta, 1998, buscando describir las intenciones, incertidumbres, retos, cuestionamientos y hallazgos que han emergido en el trayecto de acompañamiento formativo a grupos comunitarios situados en el contexto urbano-popular de la ciudad de Medellín Colombia, donde se lleva a cabo una estrategia de articulación organizativa constituida como “Nodo de formación popular” (NFP.AbstractIn this current text, a descriptive-analytical exercise in the construction process of a popular training proposal is addressed. It is a thoughtful approach enabled by the perspective of systematization of experiences developed from the affinity with some Latin American currents (Castro Gómez Mendieta, 1998, seeking to describe intentions, uncertainties, challenges, questions, and findings which have emerged along the way of a formative accompaniment to community groups located in the urban-popular context in the city of Medellin, Colombia, where an organizational articulation strategy known as a "Popular Training Node" (PTN is carried out.

  4. Economic Efficiency and Equity in Dams Removal: Case studies in Northeastern Massachusetts Doina Oglavie, Ellen Douglas, David Terkla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglavie, D. R.; Douglas, E. M.; Terkla, D.

    2009-12-01

    According to American Rivers (www.americanrivers.org), Massachusetts has almost 3,000 dams under state regulation, 296 of which have been classified as high hazard, meaning they pose a serious threat to human life if they should fail. Most of these dams, however, are low head, “run-of-the-river” dams that no longer serve the purpose for which they were built. The presence of these dams has fragmented aquatic and riparian ecosystems, impeded fish passage and generally impacted the natural ecological and hydrological functioning of the streams in which they reside. Dam removal should be considered when a dam no longer serves its function. Although in many cases, the removal of a dam is environmentally beneficial (at least over the long term), sometimes the removal of a dam can incur environmental costs, such as release of contaminants that were sequestered behind the dam. Dam removal is a complex issue especially with respect to privately owned dams. In many cases, dam removal is less costly than dam maintenance or upgrade, hence dam removal decisions tend to be based on purely monetary considerations, and the environmental costs or benefits associated with the dam are not considered. Typically, the main objective for the dam owner is to incur the lowest possible cost (private cost), whether it be operating and maintenance or removal; external costs (environmental degradation) are rarely, if ever, considered, hence the true cost to society is not included in the economic analysis. If dam operation and removal decisions are to be economically efficient, then they have to include both the private costs as well as the external (environmental) costs. The purpose of this work is to 1) attempt to quantify the externalities associated with the maintenance and the removal of dams, 2) assess whether or not the current dam removal evaluation process maximizes social welfare (efficiency and equity) and 3) suggest ways in which this process can be improved by including the

  5. Land Suitability Modeling using a Geographic Socio-Environmental Niche-Based Approach: A Case Study from Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, Benjamin W; Walsh, Stephen J; Verdery, Ashton M; McDaniel, Phillip M; Rindfuss, Ronald R

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the pattern-process relations of land use/land cover change is an important area of research that provides key insights into human-environment interactions. The suitability or likelihood of occurrence of land use such as agricultural crop types across a human-managed landscape is a central consideration. Recent advances in niche-based, geographic species distribution modeling (SDM) offer a novel approach to understanding land suitability and land use decisions. SDM links species presence-location data with geospatial information and uses machine learning algorithms to develop non-linear and discontinuous species-environment relationships. Here, we apply the MaxEnt (Maximum Entropy) model for land suitability modeling by adapting niche theory to a human-managed landscape. In this article, we use data from an agricultural district in Northeastern Thailand as a case study for examining the relationships between the natural, built, and social environments and the likelihood of crop choice for the commonly grown crops that occur in the Nang Rong District - cassava, heavy rice, and jasmine rice, as well as an emerging crop, fruit trees. Our results indicate that while the natural environment (e.g., elevation and soils) is often the dominant factor in crop likelihood, the likelihood is also influenced by household characteristics, such as household assets and conditions of the neighborhood or built environment. Furthermore, the shape of the land use-environment curves illustrates the non-continuous and non-linear nature of these relationships. This approach demonstrates a novel method of understanding non-linear relationships between land and people. The article concludes with a proposed method for integrating the niche-based rules of land use allocation into a dynamic land use model that can address both allocation and quantity of agricultural crops.

  6. Cases of violence involving transvestites and transsexuals in a northeastern Brazilian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Glauber Weder Dos Santos; Souza, Emanoel Fhilipe Leite; Sena, Romeika Carla Ferreira de; Moura, Izabella Bezerra de Lima; Sobreira, Maura Vanessa Silva; Miranda, Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de

    2016-06-01

    Objective To analyze cases of violence against transvestites and transsexuals based on their sociodemographic profile. Method Cross-sectional, descriptive research performed in Cajazeiras / Paraíba, consisting of 16 transvestites and transsexuals. Data collection took place in April 2014 and was analyzed descriptively. Results The typology of violence that victimized transvestites and transsexuals were: verbal (91.96%), psychological (58.33%) and physical (33.33%), often between 24 hours and six months preceding the survey. Regarding the spatiality: the street, school and health services were all scenarios of aggression. With respect to the offending agent, the findings point towards neighbors, family members and health professionals. All forms of violence happened between agents and spaces of aggression. Conclusions Violence among this population, silence around the situations of abuse became more pronounced as did its invisibility in the social and institutional context, reflecting the inhibition of human rights and concealment of reality.

  7. Determination of effective dose in pediatric radiodiagnostic in Medellin-Colombia; Determinacion de la dosis efectiva en radiodiagnostico pediatrico en Medellin-Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, William J., E-mail: wjaramig@gmail.com [Instituto Tecnologico Metropolitano (ITM), Medellin (Colombia); Aramburo, Javier M.; Jimenez, Angelmiro A.; Ortiz, Anselmo P., E-mail: jmorales@unal.edu.co, E-mail: aarrieta@unal.edu.co, E-mail: japuerta@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL), Medellin (Colombia)

    2013-10-01

    In order to know the effective dose in pediatric X-ray exams of chest, entrance surface dose measurements were performed for ages 1,5 and 10 years in the largest pediatric hospital in the city of Medellin, Colombia. The effective dose was obtained from applying the conversion coefficients to measures of the entrance surface dose (ESD) in 306 radiographic studies in AP and LAT I projections. The results were validated with PCXMC 2.0 computer program and other work reported in the literature. (author)

  8. Curve control, development and phenotypic bad formations in poodle the city of Medellin

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    José Ortiz Á

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Quantifying phenotypic malformations and make a curve control and development of the breed Poodle puppies in the city of Medellin. Materials and methods. We analyzed 60 individuals, 30 females and 30 males were measured and weighed from 2 to 12 months of age with these data, build a table and a control growth curve and after about 12 months of age there were the Phenotypic malformations, which are considered by the American Kennel Club (AKC and Cynological International (FCI. Results. Of the specimens analyzed, 10% had bone spurs, cryptorchidism 20%, 5% had polidoncia a year old, with teeth retained teeth more often. Conclusions. In an effort to find examples of smaller faults have been committed at the time of mating, resulting in increased phenotypic malformations found in the study, this work also provide veterinarians, another tool for assessing pediatric puppies Poodle race in the city of Medellin.

  9. Proposal for an index to classify irrigation water quality: a case study in northeastern Brazil

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    Celsemy Eleutério Maia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One way of classifying water quality is by means of indices, in which a series of parameters analyzed are joined a single value, facilitating the interpretation of extensive lists of variables or indicators, underlying the classification of water quality. The objective of this study was to develop a statistically based index to classify water according to the Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI, to evaluate the ionic composition of water for use in irrigation and classify it by its source. For this purpose, the database generated during the Technology Generation and Adaptation (GAT program was used, in which, as of 1988, water samples were collected monthly from water sources in the states of Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará. To evaluate water quality, the electrical conductivity (EC of irrigation water was taken as a reference, with values corresponding to 0.7 dS m-1. The chemical variables used in this study were: pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, HCO3, CO3, and SO4. The data of all characteristics evaluated were standardized and data normality was confirmed by Lilliefors test. Then the irrigation water quality index was determined by an equation that relates the standardized value of the variable with the number of characteristics evaluated. Thus, the IWQI was classified based on indices, considering normal distribution. Finally, these indices were subjected to regression analysis. The method proposed for the IWQI allowed a satisfactory classification of the irrigation water quality, being able to estimate it as a function of EC for the three water sources. Variation in the ionic composition was observed among the three sources and within a single source. Although the water quality differed, it was good in most cases, with the classification IWQI II.

  10. Characterization of West Nile Viruses Isolated from Captive American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge E Osorio; Ciuoderis, Karl A; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; Levasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequen...

  11. Epidemiological Profile of static Occlusion and Oral Habits in a Group of schoolchildren in Medellin, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses Gómez, Edwin J.; Annie M. Vivares-Builes; Rodríguez, Myriam Janeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: certain occlusal characteristics may be associated to disorders at temporomandibular joint level, esthetical alterations and functions of the stomatognathic system. They may appear at any stage of dental development and are related to several factors that include heredity, environmental issues and habits. Objective: describe the epi-demiological profile of static dental occlusion and oral habits in a group of schoolchildren in Medellin. Materials and method: descriptive transver...

  12. Processing and sociocultural issues in the School Restaurants Program in Medellin from 1961 to 2010

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    Luz Marina Arboleda Montoya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diet is a complex sociocultural act providing biological, nutritional, political and social dimensions. Interlocking them creates inequalities such as food shortages and access to food through social programs. The aim of this study is to identify the changes in the program of school restaurants in Medellin (Colombia, and to interpret the perception of the program’s beneficiaries. Material and Methods: Qualitative and historical perspectives; ethnography and history of the present time. Ethnography was conducted with school beneficiaries and their parents, councilors, program coordinators, food handlers and nutritionists. Historical Archives of Medellin and Minutes Archive Medellin Municipal Council were reviewed to collect the historical information, reports and correspondence. Results: The program has different models of service provision and different coverage; it has retained the sympathy of the mayors and officials of the various secretariats. This was set up at the beginning, in 1935, from a perspective of charity school by elite women, and then it had a hygienist and nutritional vision of right to food; and finally, a food and nutrition safety vision. In the supplied speeches and preparations, the absence of cultural references is identified. Conclusions: School Restaurants programs help to reduce the suffering caused by hunger, but they are not always designed thinking about the cultural aspects that involves food.

  13. Depression and neighborhood violence among children and early adolescents in Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Gomez, Paulina; Restrepo-Ochoa, Diego Alveiro; Berbesi-Fernandez, Dedsy; Trejos-Castillo, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Violence is considered one of the most important public health problems among Latino countries. In Colombia, approximately 41% of Medellin's inhabitants have witnessed a homicide, 75% have witnessed an aggressive incident, and 40% have been victims of other types of violent incidents. Despite increased national/international attention paid to the effects of neighborhood violence exposure on childhood depression, little is still known about this phenomenon in non-clinical samples. This study examined neighborhood violence exposure and depression (negative mood, interpersonal problems, ineffectiveness, anhedonia, and negative self-esteem) among N = 320 8-12 years old youth. Data were collected from public schools in Medellin during 2009. Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory was used to assess depression; neighborhood violence exposure was measured using Medellin's Human Rights report on high-low violence rates neighborhoods where participants lived and/or attended school. Results show that 26 children reported depressive symptoms (a prevalence of 8.9 % in the total sample). Among early adolescents (boys and girls), exposure to higher levels of violence was associated with greater ineffectiveness. Gender did not moderate the relationship between violence exposure and depression subscales. Results raise awareness about the importance to further exploring other factors related to neighborhood violence exposure and depression (e.g., developmental stage, gender).

  14. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a case-control study of oral squamous cell carcinoma and its increasing trend in northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phusingha, Pensiri; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Loyha, Kulchaya; Promthet, Supannee; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Patarapadungkit, Natcha; Chuerduangphui, Jureeporn; Pientong, Chamsai

    2016-12-09

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an independent risk factor for development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study aimed to investigate the role of HPV infection and the trend in percentage of HPV-associated OSCC over a 5-year period in northeastern Thailand. In this case-control study, 91 exfoliated oral cell samples and 80 lesion cell samples from OSCC cases and exfoliated oral cells from 100 age/gender-matched controls were collected. HPV infection was investigated by PCR using GP5+/GP6+ primers followed by HPV genotyping using reverse line blot hybridization. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate HPV oncogene transcription. Temporal trends of HPV infection were evaluated in archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) OSCC tissues using in situ hybridization. HPV DNA was found in 17.5% (14/80) of lesion samples from OSCC cases and 29.7% (27/91) of exfoliated oral cell samples from the same cases. These values were significantly higher than in exfoliated oral cell samples from controls (13%, 13/100). HPV-16 was the genotype most frequently found in OSCC cases (92.8%, 13/14 infected cases). Interestingly, HPV oncogene mRNA expression was detected and correlated with OSCC cases (P HPV DNA and 64 (43.8%) cases were positive for HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression. There was a trend of increasing percentage of HPV-associated OSCC from 2005 to 2010. This was especially so for females with well-differentiated tumors in specific tongue sub-sites. We suggest that HPV infection plays an important role in oral carcinogenesis in northeastern Thailand.

  15. Biochemical, immunological and toxicological characteristics of the crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin

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    Sergio Orduz

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the insecticidal and hemolytic activity of solubilized crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt subsp. medellin (Btmed was performed and compared to solubilized crystal proteins of isolates 1884 of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti and isolate PG-14 of B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni (Btm. In general, at acid pH values solubilization of the Bt crystalline parasporal inclusions (CPI was lower than at alkaline pH. The larvicidal activity demonstrated by the CPI of Btmed indicated that optimal solubilization of CPI takes place at a pH value of 11.3, in Bti at pH values from 5.03 to 11.3 and in Btm at pH values from 9.05 to 11.3. Hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells was mainly found following extraction at pH 11.3 in all Bt strains tested. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions revealed that optimal solubilization of the CPI in all Bt strains takes place at the alkaline pH values from 9.05 to 11.3. An enriched preparation of Btmed crystals was obtained, solubilized and crystal proteins were separated on a size exclusion column (Sephacryl S-200. Three main protein peaks were observed on the chromatogram. The first peak had two main proteins that migrate between 90 to 100 kDa. These proteins are apparently not common to other Bt strains isolated to date. The second and third peaks obtained from the size exclusion column yielded polypeptides of 68 and 28-30 kDa, respectively. Each peak independently, showed toxicity against 1st instar Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Interestingly, combinations of the fractions corresponding to the 68 and 30 kDa protein showed an increased toxicity. These results suggest that the 94 kDa protein is an important component of the Btmed toxins with the highest potency to kill mosquito larvae. When crystal proteins of Bti were probed with antisera raised independently against the three main protein fractions of Btmed, the only crystal protein that showed

  16. [Fertility in Bogota, Medellin, Cali, and Barranquilla. National Household Survey: stage 15].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico De Alonso, A

    1978-01-01

    This document presents the results of the household survey conducted in 1977 in Bogota, Medellin, Cali, and Barranquilla in Colombia. Main objective of the survey was to gather reliable indicators of fertility rate. The survey included 6084 households and a total of 9561 women aged 15-49. Fertility rate decreased in 3 cities between 1973 and 1977; from 87 to 84/1000 in Bogota, from 77 to 70/1000 in Medellin, from 94 to 90/1000 in Cali, and it increased from 93 to 106/1000 in Barranquilla; consequently family size decreased during the same period. Several reasons can explain this decrease in the fertility rate: 1) a decrease in the percentage of legally or consensually married women, 2) an increase of 0.19 to 1.21 years in the age at marriage, and 3) an increase in the age at first delivery. A direct and inverse correlation was found between the educational level of the mother and parity, and between the marital status of the mother and parity, married women having more children and earlier in life than either unmarried women or women living in consensual unions. In all cities surveyed women holding a job outside of the home had fewer children than housewives, 3.1 versus 3.5 in Bogota, 3.3 versus 4.6 in Medellin, 3.1 versus 3.5 in Cali, and 3.3 versus 3.9 in Barranquilla. It must be remembered that the percentage of women in the labor force has increased from 35%, 31%, 29%, and 29% in 1964, to 38%, 39%, 39%, and 36% in 1977 in the 4 cities considered. Women coming from rural areas and living in the city for less than 1 year have the highest fertility rate, in all age groups. Registration of births is not always accurate; married women tend to register the birth of their children more than unmarried, separated, or widowed mothers. The percentage of births outside the hospital was, in 1977, 15% in Bogota, 13% in Medellin, 22% in Cali, and 26% in Barranquilla. The higher socioeconomic classes tend to go to the hospital for delivery more than the lower classes

  17. [The decade of action for road safety in Medellin, Colombia, to 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Arana, Gustavo; Velásquez-Osorio, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Road safety (RS) is key in the study and intervention of human mobility. It is a determining priority in international public health and in the development of communities and nations. The declaration of a global RS crisis in the 1990s by the United Nations urged the social, political and technical processes to propose the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2010-2020 (DARS). The DARS has a global action plan structured around five pillars; the first refers to institutional management. The article describes the background, framework, evidence, and effects of poor management during first half of the DARS in Medellin, Colombia up to 2015.

  18. LA CIUDAD COMO ESPACIO FORMATIVO: MEDELLÍN Y SU ARTE NO VISTO. THE CITY AS A FORMATIVE SPACE: MEDELLIN AND ITS UNSEEN ART.

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    Pablo Echeverri Rendón.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta publicación, resultado de investigación, se presenta los hallazgos del rastreo del patrimonio artístico y cultural visible en la ciudad de Medellín, específicamente referido a la gran riqueza escultórica y pictórica, que se encuentra en sus calles, carreras parques plazoletas, para identificarlas y redimensionarlas en nuestro caso, como espacio formativo para la enseñanza y formación en principio de los y las estudiantes en de la Universidad de San Buenaventura Medellín en la materia de Arte y cultura, pero también de los habitantes de la ciudad, generando un material útil para la sensibilización de cualquier ciudadano, se trata del arte expresado en la Ciudad pero que ha sido invisibilizado por múltiples razones algunas de las cuales se expondrán también en el presente artículo. Abstract This publication, a result of research, presents the findings of the tracing of the visible artistic and cultural heritage in the city of Medellin, specifically referred to the great sculptural and pictorial richness, which is found in the streets, parks, and plazas, in order to identify them and to resize them in our case, as a training area for teaching and formation, in the first place, of the students at Saint Bonaventure University, Medellin branch, in the field of art and culture, but also of the inhabitants of the city, generating a useful material for the awareness of any citizen. It is about the art expressed in the city, but which has been made invisible for many reasons, some of which will also be addressed in this article.

  19. Prevalence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and its virulence-related genes in a case-control study among children from north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ila Fernanda Nunes; Boisen, Nadia; Quetz, Josiane da Silva; Havt, Alexandre; de Carvalho, Eunice Bobo; Soares, Alberto Melo; Lima, Noélia Leal; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Nataro, James P; Guerrant, Richard Littleton; Lima, Aldo Ângelo Moreira

    2013-05-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important agent that causes endemic and epidemic diarrhoeal diseases worldwide. Several EAEC virulence-related genes (VRGs) have been described but their role in the clinical outcome of infection is not completely defined. This study investigated the prevalence of EAEC and potential associations of its VRGs with risk of or protection from diarrhoeal diseases in children from urban communities in north-eastern Brazil. The case-control study included 166 children, who had their stools evaluated for the EAEC diagnostic genes (aaiC and aatA) using PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by multiplex PCR and identified 18 VRGs. EAEC was found in the same proportion in both groups (41%). The plasmid-borne gene encoding a hexosyltransferase homologue (capU) was the most frequently detected (89.6%), followed by dispersin protein (aap, 58.2%) and EAEC HilA homologue (eilA, 57.8%). The AAF/III fimbrial subunit (agg3A) gene was observed at lower frequency (1.5%). Plasmid-encoded toxin (pet) or AAF/II fimbrial subunit (aafA) was associated significantly with disease. AAF/IV fimbrial subunit (agg4A) or hypothetical plasmid-encoded haemolysin (orf61) was detected significantly more in controls than in children with diarrhoea. In addition, one set of genes in combination, aaiC and agg3/4C but lacking agg4A and orf61, was associated with diarrhoea cases; and another one, orf61 in the absence of pet and aafA, was correlated with control children. These data confirm a high prevalence, endemicity and heterogeneity of EAEC strains in the developing urban areas of north-eastern Brazil. Statistical correlation between cases and controls was seen with either isolated or combined sets of genes, suggesting that the pathophysiology of EAEC infection involves a complex and dynamic modulation of several VRGs.

  20. Seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to Culex vectors and West Nile virus in relation to human disease cases in northeastern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Bethany G; Barker, Christopher M; Moore, Chester G; Pape, W John; Eisen, Lars

    2009-11-01

    We examined seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to Culex vectors and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in relation to human WNV disease cases in a five-county area of northeastern Colorado during 2006-2007. Studies along habitat/elevation gradients in 2006 showed that the seasonal activity period is shortened and peak numbers occur later in the summer for Culex tarsalis Coquillett females in foothills-montane areas >1600 m compared with plains areas Studies in the plains of northeastern Colorado in 2007 showed that seasonal patterns of abundance for Cx. tarsalis and Culex pipiens L. females differed in that Cx. tarsalis reached peak abundance in early July (mean of 328.9 females per trap night for 18 plains sites), whereas the peak for Cx. pipiens did not occur until late August (mean of 16.4 females per trap night). During June-September in 2007, which was a year of intense WNV activity in Colorado with 578 reported WNV disease cases, we recorded WNV-infected Cx. tarsalis females from 16 of 18 sites in the plains. WNV infection rates in Cx. tarsalis females increased gradually from late June to peak in mid-August (overall maximum likelihood estimate for WNV infection rate of 8.29 per 1000 females for the plains sites in mid-August). No WNV-infected Culex mosquitoes were recorded from sites >1600 m. The vector index for abundance of WNV-infected Cx. tarsalis females for the plains sites combined exceeded 0.50 from mid-July to mid-August, with at least one site exceeding 1.00 from early July to late August. Finally, we found that abundance of Cx. tarsalis females and the vector index for infected females were strongly associated with weekly numbers of WNV disease cases with onset 4-7 wk later (female abundance) or 1-2 wk later (vector index).

  1. Evaluation on Soil Heavy Metal Pollution around Tailing Areas: A Case Study of Ag-Sb Deposit in Northeastern Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deliang; LIU; Kaifeng; WANG; Qihe; YANG; Qin; Zhu

    2015-01-01

    In October 2012,an evaluation using potential ecological hazard risk index was carried out on soil heavy metal pollution around AgSb deposit tailing areas in northeastern Guangdong. Results indicate that( i) soil heavy metal pollution is mainly Cd-Ni compound pollution,including Cd content 0. 31- 2. 66 mg / kg( average content is 1. 11 mg / kg),the situation of exceeding standard is serious( the rate of exceeding standard is 100%); the total potential ecological hazard risk index( RI) is between 50 and 300,and it is moderate pollution;( ii) in soil heavy metal content,only Ni and Cu are positively correlated. Since there is certain degree of Ni pollution in this deposit,the synergetic effect of Cu and Ni may deteriorate Ni pollution.

  2. Urban Conflict Vs. Urban “War:” Another “Key” to Read the Conflict in Medellin

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    Ana María Muñoz Guzmán

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The urban conflict in Medellin between 1995 and 2002 has been described, fundamentally, as an urban war that can be explained based on the armed political conflict that took place on a national level. The presence of armed actors linked to the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC – essentially the “cacique nutibara” block – and the guerilla groups Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia FARC and Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional ELN, allowed many analysts to explain the conflict in Medellin as a “local expression” of the conflict that took place on the national stage. This article questions this thesis. Instead it suggests that more than an urban “war,” explainable from the national situation and under a conception of state and instrumental/rational politics and power, Medellin has been living inserted into a multiplicity of conflicts that articulate in specific ways, and which involve much more subjective aspects that can be seen in pre-existing neighborhood dynamics from before the “war,” which because of these circumstances we prefer to call urban conflict instead. On the basis on what we found during the investigation and centered on systematic and extensive fieldwork (workshops, interviews, walkthroughs, images, photographs etc. that took four months to complete, we suggest to the experts on urban violence some new “keys” to interpret the conflict in Medellin. One of those is tied to subjective aspects or dimensions of neighborhood life that intervene significantly in conflict dynamics, including political conflicts

  3. Evaluation of Commercially Available Assays for Diagnosis of Acute Dengue in Schoolchildren During an Epidemic Period in Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita, Leidy D; Agudelo, Ivony Y; Trujillo, Andrea I; Ramírez, Ruth E; Osorio, Jorge E; Restrepo, Berta N

    2016-08-03

    During an active surveillance study in school children in Medellin, we assessed the performance of two diagnostic strategies for dengue virus. A total of 41 patients with suspected dengue acute infection were evaluated. Diagnostic strategies consisted of one combining Panbio(®) Dengue virus IgM and IgG Capture ELISAs (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and another using a commercial rapid SD Bioline Dengue Duo (IgG/IgM + NS1 Ag) test. These two strategies were compared with the enzyme-linked immunospot microneutralization test (ELISPOT-MNT). The sensitivity and specificity were 53.9% and 80.0% for the combination of Panbio(®) ELISAs and RT-PCR tests, and 30.8% and 73.3% for the SD Bioline Duo test, respectively. ELISPOT-MNT detected 16.4% additional cases and revealed the presence of neutralizing antibodies in all the acute samples, evidencing that they were all secondary infections. In contrast, Panbio(®) and SD Dengue Duo rapid tests only classified 23.0% and 26.9% of the cases as secondary dengue infections, respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficient and McNemar's association tests demonstrated a significant disagreement between the two diagnostic strategies and ELISPOT-MNT. Overall, these results evidence the relatively poor performances of commercial assays for the diagnosis of acute and secondary dengue infections, compared with ELISPOT-MNT, and raise concern about the accuracy of these assays for the diagnostic of dengue in endemic areas.

  4. [Drug use and sexual practices of teenagers in the city of Medellin (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño Pérez, Guillermo A; Arango Tobon, Eduardo; Morales Mesa, Santiago; Rodríguez Bustamante, Alexander; Montoya Montoya, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to study the relationship between drug consumption and sexual practices in teenagers in the city of Medellin, Colombia. A transversal studied was designed in order to identify the variables related to having had sexual intercourse under the effects of drugs or alcohol. The sample was made up of 955 teenagers between 14 and 17, who were in 9th, 10th and 11th grades in public and private schools in the city of Medellin. The results show that the prevalence of drug and alcohol influence in sexual intercourse is 43,67%. The most common drugs used for sexual practices are alcohol, marihuana, popper, cocaine and ecstasy. Consuming alcohol or drugs and having sexual practices shows an associated meaningful statistic (p= .001). The more common sexual practices under psychoactive substances are the exploratory ones (caresses and touching) (71%), vaginal penetration (63.67%), oral sex (45.30%) and masturbation (19.59%). Regarding the protection methods during sexual intercourse under drug or alcohol influence 55,9% always use a condom, 37,3% sometimes use it, and 6,8% never do it. This study proves what had been previously established by other research projects that show a high statistic association between drug consumption and sexual practices, but realizes that there is no statistically significant association between sexual practices under the influence of alcohol or drugs and the use or non-use of protective methods, which is the most important finding.

  5. LA DINÁMICA DE LA ALTERNANCIA ENTRE TÚ, VOS Y USTED EN MEDELLÍN (COLOMBIA DESDE LA TEORÍA DE LA ACOMODACIÓN COMUNICATIVA THE DYNAMICS OF ALTERNATION BETWEEN TÚ, VOS Y USTED IN MEDELLIN (COLOMBIA FROM THE COMMUNICATION ACCOMMODATION THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Son Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se presentan algunos casos en los que se observa la alternancia pronominal en los hablantes de la ciudad de Medellín, con base en la teoría de la acomodación lingüística y especialmente relacionado con la noción de convergencia. Los hablantes de la comunidad de Medellín realizan la estrategia de la convergencia a través del ajustamiento al tratamiento pronominal que es empleado por su interlocutor cuando interactúan con: 1 los extranjeros no hispanohablantes; 2 los españoles que no son voseantes; 3 los colombianos no voseantes; 4 los habitantes de otras zonas de Antioquia y 5 las personas que pertenecen a un diferente estrato socio-económico de Medellín.In this article, we present some cases in which we observe the pronominal alternation on the Medellin speakers, based on the Communication Accommodation Theory and specially related to the notion of convergence. The speakers of the Medellin community practice the convergence strategy throught the ajustement to the pronominal treatment used by their speaker when they interact with: 1 the foreigners not spanish speakers; 2 the spanish speakers not using "vos"; 3 the colombians not using "vos"; 4 the inhabitants coming from another Antioquia zone and 5 the persons from Medellin belonging to a different socio-economical status.

  6. Applications of low altitude remote sensing in agriculture upon farmers' requests--a case study in northeastern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Walters, Dan; Kovacs, John M

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of the low altitude remote sensing (LARS) industry in recent years, their practical application in precision agriculture seems all the more possible. However, only a few scientists have reported using LARS to monitor crop conditions. Moreover, there have been concerns regarding the feasibility of such systems for producers given the issues related to the post-processing of images, technical expertise, and timely delivery of information. The purpose of this study is to showcase actual requests by farmers to monitor crop conditions in their fields using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Working in collaboration with farmers in northeastern Ontario, we use optical and near-infrared imagery to monitor fertilizer trials, conduct crop scouting and map field tile drainage. We demonstrate that LARS imagery has many practical applications. However, several obstacles remain, including the costs associated with both the LARS system and the image processing software, the extent of professional training required to operate the LARS and to process the imagery, and the influence from local weather conditions (e.g. clouds, wind) on image acquisition all need to be considered. Consequently, at present a feasible solution for producers might be the use of LARS service provided by private consultants or in collaboration with LARS scientific research teams.

  7. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Suicides Committed in Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Paula Andrea; Manrique, Ruben Darío; Tovilla Zarate, Carlos Alfonso; López Jaramillo, Carlos; Cuartas, Jorge Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of individuals who committed suicide in Medellín between 2008 and 2010, and to identify variables related to the type of events. A retrospective and descriptive analysis was conducted on data provided by the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences. In addition, a univariate and bivariate analysis was used to identify the sociodemographic and medical-legal characteristics of the deceased. Multiple correspondence analysis was also used in order to establish typologies. The information was analyzed using STATA 11.0. Of the 389 cases occurring between 2008 and 2010, 84.6% (n=329) were men. The male to female ratio was 5:1; 64% of the cases occurred in people aged 18-45 years; 6.7% occurred in children under 18, with hanging being the method most chosen by the victims (48.3%). Exploratory analysis was used to identify a possible association between the use of violent methods and events occurring in the housing and social strata 1, 2 and 3. Some factors could be associated with suicide, providing data that could consolidate health intervention strategies in our population. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Dimensioning of Photovoltaic Generation Systems Located in Medellin City

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    Laura Herrera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic systems are one of the most efficient solutions to the energy crisis of the last decades. The implementation of these systems will be economically feasible in most cases, due to extensive number of advantages that they exhibit. However, for the sake of better economic performance, it is important to generate different strategies for their management. This paper presents an optimization strategy based on the redistribution of power generated, which seeks to stop spending as it is produced to take advantage of those times when energy rates are higher, making use of a storage system. The steps for the photovoltaic system design with these criteria and economic analysis will be presented.

  9. Status and ethno-medicinal usage of invasive plants in traditional health care practices: a case study from northeastern Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin Khan; Fahmida Sultana; Md. Habibur Rahman; Bishwajit Roy; Sawon Istiak Anik

    2011-01-01

    Species diversity and ethno-medicinal usage of 39 species of invasive plants were explored in and around two protected areas,Khadinmagar National Park (KNP) and Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary (RKWS),of northeastern Bangladesh,.Status of invasive plants were investigated in 60 sample plots with 5 different habitat types,including forest,roadside,homestead,fallow land and others (ponds,canals,water logged areas,agricultural land,etc.).Data about the usage of invasive plants in traditional health care were collected through interviewing 110 households.Among the five habitat types,fallow land (28 species) possessed the highest number of species,followed by roadside (25 species),forest (23 species),homestead (22 species) and others (13 species).Based on the survey,invasive plants of study areas were also categorized into five degrees of invasiveness e.g.,naturalized,introduced,possibly invasive,moderately invasive and highly invasive.Additionally,there is the linear trend between degrees of invasiveness and use percentage of invasive plants.Total 39 species of invasive plants belonging to 29 families were recorded,which are generally used to treat 37 diseases,ranging from simple headache to highly complicated eye and heart diseases.The majority of the species used by the local inhabitants were herbs (16 species),followed by some shrubs (11 species),climbers (5 species),trees (5 species) and grasses (2 species).The use percentage of aboveground plant parts were higher (70.58%) than that of underground plant parts (16.18%).

  10. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Bustins, J. A.; Pla, E.; Nadal, M.; Herralde, F. de; Save, R.

    2014-06-01

    Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on eco physiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO) (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain). We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years), which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume) is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change. (Author)

  11. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Albert Lopez-Bustins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on ecophysiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain. We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years, which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change.

  12. Characterization of West Nile viruses isolated from captive American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Jorge E; Ciuoderis, Karl A; Lopera, Juan G; Piedrahita, Leidy D; Murphy, Darby; Levasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C; Hofmeister, Erik

    2012-09-01

    Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.

  13. Characterization of West Nile viruses isolated form captive American flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.

  14. Prevalence of Leptospira spp. in urban rodents from a groceries trade center of Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Londoño, Andrés F; Quiroz, Víctor H; Angel, Juan C; Moreno, Natalí; Loaiza, Erica T; Muñoz, Luis F; Rodas, Juan D

    2009-11-01

    Leptospirosis is a widely distributed zoonosis, and rats are its most common source of infection. Our goal was to determine the frequency for Leptospira infection in rodents in a farmers market in the city of Medellin. We performed a descriptive transversal study sampling 254 rodents. Rodents were bled and killed, and kidneys samples were taken. Supernatants of macerated kidneys were cultured on Fletcher medium. Microagglutination tests (MATs) with 11 serovars were also carried out in rat serum, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for pathogenic species was used to test each bacterial culture. All animals were identified as Rattus norvegicus; 25% and 20% were positive by MAT and culture, respectively. PCR tests of 12 isolates were positive for pathogenic serovars, and 4 of them were confirmed as L. interrogans by sequencing. These data show the role of this natural carrier and shedder of pathogenic leptospires in the epidemiology of urban leptospirosis in Colombia.

  15. Food advertisement as a feeding practices change factor in Medellin city between 1950 and 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Aidé Rodríguez Cossio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the way in which food industry positioned its products using advertising, in Medellin city between 1950 and 1960. For this, the arguments and topics employed in the advertisements of those decades will be discussed. The compilation of the food advertisements published specifically in El Colombiano Journal and Cromos Magazine allowed building the information base to analyze the way in which the food industry promoted the new food offer. The ongoing reiteration of health arguments found in the ads was the reason to integrate it as a main proposition of this analysis. Another argument used in this research was the claim of comfort or assistance; in that the quickness and easiness to prepare the food were important for the housewives.

  16. Role Differentiation in an Adolescent Victim-Offender Typology: Results From Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Holli; Dizgun, John; Keeling, David

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluates adolescent victimization and offending using cross-sectional survey data from 1,475 adolescents living in a disadvantaged Comuna in Medellin, Colombia, while paying particular attention to the ways in which both victimization and violent offending are operationalized. We find that 37% of respondents experienced no lifetime victimization, while 60% experienced vicarious, and 4% personal victimization. When restricting violent offending to behavior involving a weapon, the majority of offenders (81%) also experienced victimization while only 33% of victims were also weapons offenders. Our final analysis seeks to identify theoretical conditions which differentiate roles in a victim-offender typology, a result we determine varies significantly depending on how "violent offending" is measured. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of violence, while data on

  18. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Alexandra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of

  19. [Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in Adults With Social Phobia in Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Salas, Gabriel Felipe; Bareño, José; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira; Gaviria, Silvia L

    2014-01-01

    Having a social phobia may lead to consuming alcohol for greater social assertiveness, running the risk of leading to an abuse disorder or alcohol dependence. The aim of the study was to estimate prevalence of pathological comorbidity between social phobia and alcohol consumption in adults of the city of Medellin, and the behavior of comorbidity by gender, age, presence of a father figure in childhood, and education. Secondary analysis of the database of the first Mental Health Population Survey conducted in the city of Medellin in 2011 and 2012 based on the methodology of the World Mental Health Survey guidelines and coordinated by WHO-HARVARD. The lifetime prevalence of abuse and dependence in people with social phobia was 24.1% and 11.2%, respectively. For people with social phobia the prevalence was 13% for abuse and 4.4% for dependence (OR=2.11 for abuse, OR=2.46 for dependence). Annual prevalence of people with social phobia who abused or were dependent on alcohol was 7.8% and 5.9%, respectively, compared to those who do not suffer from this disorder, with a prevalence of 3.4% and 1.7%, respectively (OR=2.39 for abuse and OR=3.57 for dependence). There was significant correlation in the annual and lifetime prevalence between social phobia and the pathological consumption of alcohol. Statistically significant relationships were found for the variables associated with social phobia, however, more work is needed to confirm or refute these associations. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Relación entre las partículas finas (PM 2.5 y respirables PM 10 en la ciudad de Medellín Relation between fine particles (PM 2.5 and breathable particles (PM 10 in Medellin city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Echeverri Londoño

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta parte de los resultados del proyecto 'Patologías respiratorias en niños preescolares y su relación con la contaminación atmosférica de Medellín', realizado por la Universidad de Medellín y la Universidad CES para la Secretaria de Salud de Medellín dentro del contrato 4700026668 de 2006. Se realizaron mediciones simultáneas de partículas finas (PM2.5 y respirables (PM10 durante el período de febrero a octubre de 2007 en varios sitios de la ciudad de Medellín, capital del departamento de Antioquia, habitada aproximadamente por 2’250.000 personas. Los resultados del análisis muestran, en la mayoría de los casos, una correlación positiva y lineal entre los dos parámetros. La relación (PM2.5/PM10 promedio para los sitios o zonas bajo consideración en este estudio fue de aproximadamente 0.67, valor bastante considerable que hace pensar que probablemente se puede cumplir con la norma anual para PM10, pero no para PM2.5. Los resultados obtenidos identifican las partículas finas como uno de los principales problemas de contaminación en la ciudad de Medellín.This article shows part of the results from the project called: 'Respiratory pathologies in pre-school children and their relation to atmospheric contamination in Medellin,' carried out by Universidad de Medellin and Universidad CES for Medellin Health Secretariat according to contract No. 4700026668, year 2006. Simultaneous measurements of fine particles (PM2.5 and breathable particles (PM10 were made from February to October, 2007 in several sites of Medellin, the capital city of Antioquia State, where about 2,250,000 inhabitants live. In almost all cases, analysis results show a positive and linear correlation between both parameters. Average ratio (PM2.5/PM10 for sites and zones tested in this study was 0.67 approximately, which is a very meaningful value, what makes us think that annual norm for PM10 can probably be accomplished, but not the one

  1. Modeling/GIS, Risk Assessment, Economic Impact: Seasonal Patterns for Entomological Measures of Risk for Exposure to Culex Vectors and West Nile Virus in Relation to Human Disease Cases in Northeastern Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Bolling, Bethany G.; Barker, Christopher M.; Moore, Chester G.; Pape, W. John; Eisen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    We examined seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to Culex vectors and West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in relation to human WNV disease cases in a five-county area of northeastern Colorado during 2006–2007. Studies along habitat/elevation gradients in 2006 showed that the seasonal activity period is shortened and peak numbers occur later in the summer for Culex tarsalis Coquillett females in foothills-montane areas >1,600 m compared wit...

  2. Motor neuron diseases in the university hospital of Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil): a clinico-demographic analysis of 87 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Costa, C M; Oriá, R B; Vale, O C; Arruda, J A; Horta, W G; D'Almeida, J A; Santos, T J; Ramos, R S; Gifoni, M A

    2000-12-01

    In this retrospective (1980-1998) study, we have analyzed clinico-demographically, from the records of the University Hospital of Fortaleza (Brazil), a group of 87 patients showing signs and symptoms of motor neuron diseases (MNDs). Their diagnosis was determined clinically and laboratorially. The WFN criteria were used for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diagnosis. The clinico-demographic analysis of the 87 cases of MNDs showed that 4 were diagnosed as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), 5 cases as ALS subsets: 2 as progressive bulbar paralysis (PBP), 2 as progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) and 1 as monomelic amyotrophy (MA), and 78 cases of ALS. The latter comprised 51 males and 27 females, with a mean age of 42.02 years. They were sub-divided into 4 groups according to age: from 15 to 29 years (n= 17), 30 to 39 years (n= 18), 40 to 69 years (n= 39) and 70 to 78 years (n= 4). From the 78 ALS patients, 76 were of the classic sporadic form whilst only 2 were of the familial form. The analysis of the 87 patients with MNDs from the University Hospital of Fortaleza showed a predominance of ALS patients, with a high number of cases of juvenile and early onset adult sporadic ALS.

  3. An eight-year review of blood culture and susceptibility among sepsis cases in an emergency department in Northeastern Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashairi, F; Hasan, H; Azlan, K; Deris, Z Z

    2011-12-01

    An understanding of common pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns is critical for proper management of sepsis in Emergency Department (ED). The goal of the study was to identify common organisms isolated from blood cultures of patients attended to ED and their antimicrobial susceptibility. Beginning from 2002, all cases of positive blood culture collected by the ED, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) were recorded and analysed. Over the period of eight years, we documented 995 cases of positive blood cultures. Of these samples, 549 (55.2%) were Gram-negative bacteria; 419 (42.1%) were Gram-positive bacteria; 10 (1.0%) were anaerobic organisms; 10 (1.0%) were fungus; and 7 (0.7%) cases were mixed organisms. Gram-negative bacteria were observed to develop more resistance to antimicrobial agents, especially those commonly used in an outpatient setting with less than 80% sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin. By contrast, there has been no marked change in the sensitivity trends of Gram-positive bacteria over the same period. In conclusion, ED physicians are more equipped to initiate empirical antimicrobial therapy especially when dealing with possibility of Gram-negative sepsis.

  4. [Suicidal Behavior and Attention Decifit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents of Medellin (Colombia), 2011-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Bernal, Diana; Bonfante-Olivares, Laura; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Berbesi-Fernández, Dedsy; Sierra-Hincapié, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a public health problem. In Colombia, teenagers are considered a group at high risk for suicidal behavior. To explore the possible association between suicidal behavior and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents of Medellin. Observational, cross-sectional, analytical study. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied to a total of 447 adolescents and the sociodemographic, clinical, familiar, and life event variables of interest were analyzed. The descriptive analysis of qualitative variables are presented as absolute values and frequencies, and the age was described with median [interquartile range]. A logistic regression model was constructed with explanatory variables that showed statistical association. Data were analyzed with SPSS® software version 21.0. Of the total, 59.1% were female, and the median age was 16 [14-18] years. Suicidal behavior was presented in 31% of females and 23% of males. Attention deficit was present in 6.3% of adolescents. The logistic regression analysis showed that the variables that best explained the suicidal behavior of adolescents were: female sex, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and cocaine use. The diagnosis and early intervention of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children may be a useful strategy in the prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. [Factors associated with maternal body mass index in a group of pregnant teenagers, Medellin, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-López, Natalia; Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucía

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic risk factors, food security, health, and key anthropometric measures on body mass index (BMI) in a group of teenagers from Medellin, Colombia, in the third trimester of pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 294 pregnant teenagers. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Pregnant teenagers whose families earned less than one minimum wage were more likely to have low weight (OR = 5.8; 95%CI: 1.97-16.8). Age under 15 years was associated with a fourfold increase in low gestational weight. Arm and calf circumference greater than 24cm and 32cm, respectively, were associated with a 94% reduction in low gestational weight (arm circumference: OR = 0.1; 95%CI: 0.0-0.2) (calf circumference: OR = 0.1; 95%CI: 0.0-0.2). In conclusion, low income and young age were associated with low gestational weight. Arm and calf circumference correlated with maternal weight.

  6. [Sociodemographic characteristics and mental disorders in children and adolescents psychiatric outpatient clinic children of Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo-Ramírez, Carmenza; Álvarez-Gómez, Matilde; Rodríguez-Gázquez, María de los Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders in the world affecting 15% to 30% in children and adolescents, altering its function and emotional, cognitive and social. Affect interpersonal relationships, school performance and increased substance use and the risk of suicide. describe the social-demographic characteristics and mental disorders of children and adolescents of psychiatric consultation. Retrospective descriptive study that analyzed all the histories of children and adolescents of both sexes from 5 to 16 years who attended for the first time outpatient psychiatry university clinic of Medellin, from July 2010 to July 2012. We studied 197 patients, the average age was 11±3.5 years, male sex was the most common 69%, 46.2% belonged to nuclear family. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were 44.2% ADHD, depressive disorders 9.1% and 8.1% TOC. 61% had psychiatric comorbidity, the most frequent was oppositional defiant disorder with ADHD 35.6%. The frequency of mental disorders and comorbidities found in this study were similar to those reported by other researchers. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Analyzing historical land use changes using a Historical Land Use Reconstruction Model: a case study in Zhenlai County, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuwen; Liu, Yansui; Xing, Xiaoshi; de Sherbinin, Alex

    2017-01-30

    Historical land use information is essential to understanding the impact of anthropogenic modification of land use/cover on the temporal dynamics of environmental and ecological issues. However, due to a lack of spatial explicitness, complete thematic details and the conversion types for historical land use changes, the majority of historical land use reconstructions do not sufficiently meet the requirements for an adequate model. Considering these shortcomings, we explored the possibility of constructing a spatially-explicit modeling framework (HLURM: Historical Land Use Reconstruction Model). Then a three-map comparison method was adopted to validate the projected reconstruction map. The reconstruction suggested that the HLURM model performed well in the spatial reconstruction of various land-use categories, and had a higher figure of merit (48.19%) than models used in other case studies. The largest land use/cover type in the study area was determined to be grassland, followed by arable land and wetland. Using the three-map comparison, we noticed that the major discrepancies in land use changes among the three maps were as a result of inconsistencies in the classification of land-use categories during the study period, rather than as a result of the simulation model.

  8. Ecological risk assessment for small omnivorous mammals exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a case study in northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Serrano, Rosa María; Iturbe-Argüelles, Rosario; Pérez-Casimiro, Guillermina; Ramírez-González, Adriana; Flores-Guido, José Salvador; Kantún-Balam, Jesús Martín

    2014-04-01

    An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was performed using the hazard quotient (HQ) method to evaluate the risks of oral exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for medium sized omnivorous mammals. This is the first in a series of three papers. In Mexico there is little experience in performing this kind of assessment for the terrestrial compartment, in particular for birds and mammals exposed to hydrocarbons. The purpose of this paper is to perform an ERA and to establish if the omnivorous mammalian species living in the area are at risk of adverse effects. The studied site is a land that in past years had been used for the disposition of petroleum tank bottom sludges, and scrap metals. Soil and water samples were collected and analyzed, and we obtained a list of the site's wildlife species as well as samples of the specimens, which were analyzed also. HQs were calculated for the hydrocarbons identified as chemicals of potential ecological concern (COPECs) and the omnivorous mammals of the site were evaluated. Toxicity reference values (TRVs) were taken from the appropriate literature, and the doses of exposure were estimated considering the ingestion of water, soil, and diet. Results indicated that potential risks associated to the oral exposure route were less than benchmarks for effects (in all cases HQMexico. This should be primarily aimed at obtaining TRVs for mammals, and consider test species with body weights more similar to those found in the local fauna. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Household adoption behaviour and agricultural sustainability in the northeastern mountains of Tanzania : the case of soil conservation in the North Pare and West Usambara Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semgalawe, Z.M.

    1998-01-01

    The northeastern mountains make up the major part of agricultural land in Tanzania. These areas have been experiencing rapid population growth, leading to increased demand for food, fuelwood and agricultural land. Most parts of the slopes have been experiencing declining soil fertility and severe so

  10. The north-eastern aeolian 'European Sand Belt' as potential record of environmental changes: A case study from Eastern Latvia and Southern Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Maris

    2016-01-01

    The Latvian and Estonian inland dunes belong to the north-eastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). These dunes are widely distributed over broad glaciolacustrine plains and Late Glacial alluvial deltas, considered to be potential sources for the aeolian material. Little is known about...

  11. Household adoption behaviour and agricultural sustainability in the Northeastern Mountains of Tanzania : the case of soil conservation in the North Pare and West Usambara Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zainab Mbaga Semgalawe,

    1998-01-01

    The northeastern mountains make up the major part of agricultural land in Tanzania. These areas have been experiencing rapid population growth, leading to increased demand for food, fuelwood and agricultural land. Most parts of the slopes have been experiencing declining soil fertility and

  12. The beginning of explosive eruptions on a location lacking volcanoes: A case study on the Hijiori volcano, Northeastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, I.

    2006-12-01

    The volcanic activity of Hijiori volcano (N38 36°f 35°f°f, E140 9°f 20°f°f, WGS84) is reported in detail as a case study to understand how a new felsic volcano commences the activity. Hijiori volcano, a small caldera with approximately 2 km in diameter, is one of the 108 active volcanoes in Japan, which erupted at about 12,000 years ago (in Calendar age) on the location where no volcanic body existed before the activity. From the field survey, it turns out that the suite of activities initiated by the major eruption that deposited a valley filling non-welded pumice flows. Finally the pumice flows covered the range 5 km to the southward and 9 km to the northward with total maximum thickness of about 150 m. The accompanying pumice fall and ash fall extends 60 km to the eastward. Although span of the activity is as short as the resolving power of radiocarbon dating, there recognized a quiescence for three times. After the every quiescence, phreatic (or phreatomagmatic) activities deposited lapilli falls and flows in the proximity. Total volume of the valley filling pyroclastic flows and the air falls are estimated to be 1.4 and 0.6 cubic km, respectively. All the pumices from the three major eruptions are similar in their phenocryst content (50- vol. percent), phenocryst assemblages (Pl, Qz, OPx, Hb, and Mt), bulk chemistry (c.a. 64 wt. percent SiO2), and in isotopic (Sr, Nd) compositions. Mt phenocrysts have no zoning profiles and their chemical compositions (Al2O3, Mg/Mn) are mostly unique through the eruptive sequences, suggesting that the physicochemical conditions of the magma were the same just before the each eruption. On the contrary Pl, Qz, OPx and Hb phenocrysts showed distinct zoning, suggesting that the magma chamber of Hijiori volcano had been disturbed repeatedly by such as magma mixing that continued intermittently before and during the eruptive activities. The observed difference between Mt and the other phenocrysts implies that there were

  13. The contribute of DInSAR techniques to landslide hazard evaluation in mountain and hilly regions: a case study from Agno Valley (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Agostini, A.; Floris, M.; Pasquali, P.; Barbieri, M.; Cantone, A.; Riccardi, P.; Stevan, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-04-01

    In the last twenty years, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques have been widely used to investigate geological processes, such as subsidence, earthquakes and landslides, through the evaluation of earth surface displacements caused by these processes. In the study of mass movements, contribution of interferometry can be limited due to the acquisition geometry of RADAR images and the rough morphology of mountain and hilly regions which represent typical landslide-prone areas. In this study, the advanced DInSAR techniques (i.e. Small Baseline Subset and Persistent Scatterers techniques), available in SARscape software, are used. These methods involve the use of multiple acquisitions stacks (large SAR temporal series) allowing improvements and refinements in landslide identification, characterization and hazard evaluation at the basin scale. Potential and limits of above mentioned techniques are outlined and discussed. The study area is the Agno Valley, located in the North-Eastern sector of Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto Region, Italy). This area and the entire Vicenza Province were hit by an exceptional rainfall event on November 2010 that triggered more than 500 slope instabilities. The main aim of the work is to verify if spatial information available before the rainfall event, including ERS and ENVISAT RADAR data from 1992 to 2010, were able to predict the landslides occurred in the study area, in order to implement an effectiveness forecasting model. In the first step of the work a susceptibility analysis is carried out using landslide dataset from the IFFI project (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Landslide Italian Inventory) and related predisposing factors, which consist of morphometric (elevation, slope, aspect and curvature) and non-morphometric (land use, distance of roads and distance of river) factors available from the Veneto Region spatial database. Then, to test the prediction, the

  14. [Epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures due to traffic accidents in Medellin (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Duque-Serna, Francisco Levi; Restrepo-Molina, Lucas; Martínez-Herrera, Eliana

    2015-09-01

    To characterize maxillofacial fractures due to traffic accidents in patients attending the Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación (Medellin-Colombia) from 1998 to 2010. A descriptive study (n =1609) was carried out with information from the medical records of patients meeting the inclusion criteria established by the general objective of the study. The variables consisted of sex, age, year, type and number of fractures, and type of vehicle. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed and the frequency of fractures due to traffic accidents was calculated according to year and sex. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated to establish associations among age, type of vehicle, and the presence of two or more fractures with stratification by sex. The frequency of maxillofacial fractures due to traffic accidents increased in 2007 (men: n=198, women: n=35) and decreased from 2008 to 2010 in both sexes. Fractures were more frequent in persons aged <35 years (80%) and in men (82%). The highest frequency of fractures was observed in motorists. Male users of motorcycles (aOR=1.41; confidence interval 95% [95%CI]: 1.02- 1.94) and bicycles (aOR=1.61; 95%CI: 1.01- 2.56) were more likely to report two or more fractures compared with pedestrians, after adjustment for other variables. Most maxillofacial fractures occurred in men and in motorists. Future studies should analyze other determinants affecting the epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures. Strategies should be designed to improve the use of protective elements and drivers' knowledge and practices. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. VICTIMS IN MEDELLIN: A DAY OF ATTENTION TO THE VICTIMS IN THE CONFLICT – MEDELLIN – 2009. Victimas en Medellín. Jornada de atención a víctimas del conflicto Medellín - 2009 .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Insuasty Rodriguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a characterization from the specific case of the file applied by the Forging Futures Foundation and the Assembly of Cooperation for Peace in Spain, Social Action, the Prosecutor and the Ombudsman, Saint Bonaventure University, People's Training Institute is made, within the framework of the 9 district days to the attention to the victims of the armed conflict in the city of Medellin and the Metropolitan Area since May 2009.RESUMEN:En el presente trabajo se realiza una caracterización desde el caso concreto de la ficha aplicada por la Fundación Forjando Futuros y la Asamblea de Cooperación por la Paz de España, Acción Social, la Fiscalía y la Defensoría del Pueblo, Universidad de San Buenaventura, Instituto Popular de Capacitación, dentro del marco de las 9 jornadas barriales de atención a víctimas del conflicto armado en la ciudad de Medellín y el Área Metropolitana desde el mes de mayo de 2009.

  16. A case of leucism in House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 in an island of São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barros Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Leucism in birds is a genetic disorder characterized by the total absence of melanin in some or all feathers, but unlike albinism, the other body parts, such as eyes, beak, and tarsi remain with the typical color of the species. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus is a bird native from Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has been introduced in North America, South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Currently, it is the bird species with the largest geographical range. Here, we report the record of a leucistic specimen of Passer domesticus from Rodeadouro island, São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil.

  17. Migratory flows and foraging habitat selection by shorebirds along the northeastern coast of Brazil: The case of Baía de Todos os Santos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Vitor O.; Macedo, Regina H.; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2012-01-01

    Large numbers of Nearctic shorebirds migrate and winter along the coast of northeastern Brazil, but there is little information on their migratory flows, foraging ecology, and on the structure of the species assemblages that they form with resident shorebirds. We studied these issues on intertidal flats of Baía de Todos os Santos (Bahia), the second largest bay in Brazil. During a full year cycle we carried out weekly bird counts in an intertidal area of 280 ha divided in sectors, where we also measured environmental parameters. The analyses of weekly counts resulted in a detailed phenology of use of the area by shorebirds. Five species were resident and ten were Nearctic migrants. Several of the latter had clear peaks in numbers in March and October, revealing the use of the bay as a stopover during both the north-bound and south-bound migration flows. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relationship between environmental parameters and bird numbers indicated that the foraging bird assemblage could be divided into five main groups, occupying distinct ecological gradients in the study area. The most important factors driving this structure were invertebrate prey abundance, percentage of fine sediments, area of mangrove cover and distance to channels. Our findings imply that maintenance of the diversity of intertidal habitats in this bay is crucial to satisfy the particular habitat requirements of resident and migrant shorebirds using the northeastern coastal regions of Brazil.

  18. Aggressors and resilient youths in Medellin, Colombia: the need for a paradigm shift in order to overcome violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Duque

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the ratio of resilient youth and compare this to youth with aggressive behavior, and to youth who also exhibit sexually risky behavior and drug use. A cross-section study of a representative sample of people between aged between 12 and 60 who are residents of Medellin, Colombia, and its metropolitan area (N = 4,654 was employed using probabilistic multi-stage sampling. Youth between 14 and 26 years old were selected for the present analysis (n = 1,780. The proportion of resilient youth is 22.9%, of aggressors is 11.3%, and that of youth with other risky conduct is 65.8%. The high ratio of resilient youth calls for a reorientation of public policy toward prevention and control of violence, prioritizing the promotion of resilient behavior instead of continuing with tertiary prevention actions.

  19. A theoretical model of the tridimensional structure of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin Cry 11Bb toxin deduced by homology modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Pablo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cry11Bb is an insecticidal crystal protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin during its stationary phase; this ¶-endotoxin is active against dipteran insects and has great potential for mosquito borne disease control. Here, we report the first theoretical model of the tridimensional structure of a Cry11 toxin. The tridimensional structure of the Cry11Bb toxin was obtained by homology modelling on the structures of the Cry1Aa and Cry3Aa toxins. In this work we give a brief description of our model and hypothesize the residues of the Cry11Bb toxin that could be important in receptor recognition and pore formation. This model will serve as a starting point for the design of mutagenesis experiments aimed to the improvement of toxicity, and to provide a new tool for the elucidation of the mechanism of action of these mosquitocidal proteins.

  20. Aggressors and resilient youths in Medellin, Colombia: the need for a paradigm shift in order to overcome violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Luis F; Montoya, Nilton E; Restrepo, Alexandra

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the ratio of resilient youth and compare this to youth with aggressive behavior, and to youth who also exhibit sexually risky behavior and drug use. A cross-section study of a representative sample of people between aged between 12 and 60 who are residents of Medellin, Colombia, and its metropolitan area (N = 4,654) was employed using probabilistic multi-stage sampling. Youth between 14 and 26 years old were selected for the present analysis (n = 1,780). The proportion of resilient youth is 22.9%, of aggressors is 11.3%, and that of youth with other risky conduct is 65.8%. The high ratio of resilient youth calls for a reorientation of public policy toward prevention and control of violence, prioritizing the promotion of resilient behavior instead of continuing with tertiary prevention actions.

  1. Socio-demographic patterns of posttraumatic stress disorder in Medellin, Colombia and the context of lifetime trauma exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, Silvia Lucia; Espinola, Maria; Restrepo, Diana; Lotero, Juliana; Berbesi, Dedsy Y.; Sierra, Gloria Maria; Chaskel, Roberto; Espinel, Zelde; Shultz, James M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Colombia, South America is currently transitioning to post-conflict status following 6 decades of armed conflict. The population has experienced extensive exposures to potentially traumatic events throughout the lifespan. Sources of trauma exposure include the prolonged armed insurgency, narco-trafficking violence, urban gang violence, violent actions of criminal bands, intra-familial violence, gender-based violence, and sex trafficking. Exposure to potentially traumatic events is related to a variety of psychiatric outcomes, in particular, posttraumatic stress disorder. Given this context of lifetime trauma exposure, socio-demographic patterns of posttraumatic stress disorder were explored in a sample of residents of Medellin, Colombia, the nation's second largest city and a nexus for multiple types of trauma exposure. PMID:28265488

  2. [Men caretakers of life: Training in gender-sensitive masculinities for the prevention of violence towards women in Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Sosa, Gladys Rocío; Gaviria, Silvia L; Geldres-García, Denis A; Vargas-Romero, Rosamarina

    2015-01-01

    The training strategies targeted at men so as to reflect on the cultural patterns of patriarchy are an alternative in the promotion of human rights, the prevention of violence towards women and the mainstreaming of gender equality in public policies. With a socio-critical pedagogical approach, we conducted a Training Certification Program in gender equality and gender-sensitive masculinities, for a group of 76 male civil servants and civic leaders in the Colombian city of Medellin, for the purpose of questioning their gender socialization in the patriarchal model, directed towards the development and execution of social, educational or communications projects. The projects proposed by the participants criticize the andro-centric, sexist and discriminatory discourses regarding women that circulate in a manner predominant in their academic, workplace and family ambits, with a gender political commitment and respect for diversity.

  3. Leptospirosis in Northeastern Malaysia: Misdiagnosed or Coinfection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Noor Rafizah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the past decade leptospirosis has been re-emerging as an important disease and can be a serious public health issue in a humid tropical and subtropical country such as Malaysia. Leptospirosis also known as “the Great Mimicker” and may be overlooked and under diagnosed due to its varied clinical presentations. Objective: Since leptospirosis is a significant cause of undifferentiated fever and frequently not recognized, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of this disease among febrile patients in northeastern Malaysia hospitals. Design: A hospital-based cross sectional study was conducted among 999 of febrile patients admitted in 10 hospitals in northeastern Malaysia. Materials and methods: An interviewer-guided proforma sheet on sociodemographic and final hospital diagnosis data was distributed to all adult patients with fever on admission. Serum sample for leptospirosis was screened by IgM Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay test (IgM ELISA and confirmed by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT. The cut-off point for positive MAT was ≥1:400 titre in single acute specimen. Results: The seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.8, 10.3 (n=84 by MAT. In our study, only 31.0% of the confirmed leptospirosis cases by MAT in northeastern Malaysia hospitals were diagnosed as leptospirosis for the final diagnosis on discharge. About 38.1%, 14.3% and 7.1% of the confirmed leptospirosis cases by MAT were diagnosed as dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever, pneumonia and typhoid fever respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of leptospirosis is probably high among febrile patients in northeastern Malaysia hospitals. Awareness and knowledge regarding this disease should be strengthened, especially among public and health care personnel due to the clinical symptoms of leptospirosis mimicking other tropical diseases.

  4. perceptions declared by the students and teachers on the experiences of the mission and vision of the usb-medellin experiences.

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyave Giraldo, Dora Inés; Universidad de San Buenaventura, Medellín; Moreno López, Verónica; Universidad de San Buenaventura, Medellín; Sánchez Sánchez, Luis Fernando; Universidad de San Buenaventura, Medellín

    2016-01-01

    The following text presents the results on the study, around perceptions declared by the students and professors about the ways of life and experiences of the mission and vision of Saint Bonaventure University, Medellin branch, Colombia. It used a mixed methodology. The sample was random, stratified. The technique used was the survey, which was structured with 20 items, distributed into three categories of analysis (Mission, Vision, and Dimensions of the Franciscan pedagogy). El siguiente ...

  5. [Prevalence of Variants in the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) Gene in a General Population of Adults from an Urban Area of Medellin (Antioquia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango Viana, Juan Carlos; Valencia, Ana Victoria; Páez, Ana Lucía; Montoya Gómez, Nilton; Palacio, Carlos; Arbeláez, María Patricia; Bedoya Berrío, Gabriel; García Valencia, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    To determine the allelic and genotype frequencies of apolipoproteine E (APOE) gene in a representative sample of the adult population of Medellin in 2010. A representative sample of the adult population of Medellin, was obtained by means of a multi-stage, stratified, conglomerate based sampling method. APOE genotyping was carried out on each of the participants. The sampling design was taken into consideration for the frequencies and association analysis. The frequencies of the APOE alleles E2, E3 and E4 were 3.9, 92.0 and 4.1%, respectively. The frequencies of the different APOE genotypes were as follows: 2/2, 0.2%; 2/3, 6.8%; 2/4, 0.6%; 3/3, 85.0%; 3/4, 7.2%, and 4/4, 0.3%. The allelic and genotype frequencies of APOE in an adult population of Medellin did not differ substantially from other series reported in South America. These data are important to determine the real impact of APOE on the population risk of several psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulation of the hydrogeologic effects of oil-shale mining on the neighbouring wetland water balance: case study in north-eastern Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, Andres; Karro, Enn; Polikarpus, Maile; Jõeleht, Argo; Kohv, Marko; Hang, Tiit; Hiiemaa, Helen

    2013-11-01

    The water balance of wetlands plays an integral role in their function. Developments adjacent to wetlands can affect their water balance through impacts on groundwater flow and increased discharge in the area, and they can cause lowering of the wetland water table. A 430 km2 area was selected for groundwater modelling to asses the effect of underground mining on the water balance of wetlands in north-eastern Estonia. A nature conservation area (encompassing Selisoo bog) is within 3 km of an underground oil-shale mine. Two future mining scenarios with different areal extents of mining were modeled and compared to the present situation. Results show that the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the subsurface is of critical importance to potential wetland dewatering as a result of mining. Significant impact on the Selisoo bog water balance will be caused by the approaching mine but there will be only minor additional impacts from mining directly below the bog. The major impact will arise before that stage, when the underground mine extension reaches the border of the nature conservation area; since the restriction of activities in this area relates to the ground surface, the conservation area’s border is not sufficiently protective in relation to underground development.

  7. Analysis of river pollution data from low-flow period by means of multivariate techniques: a case study from the oil-shale industry region, northeastern Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truu, Jaak; Heinaru, Eeva; Talpsep, Ene; Heinaru, Ain

    2002-01-01

    The oil-shale industry has created serious pollution problems in northeastern Estonia. Untreated, phenol-rich leachate from semi-coke mounds formed as a by-product of oil-shale processing is discharged into the Baltic Sea via channels and rivers. An exploratory analysis of water chemical and microbiological data sets from the low-flow period was carried out using different multivariate analysis techniques. Principal component analysis allowed us to distinguish different locations in the river system. The riverine microbial community response to water chemical parameters was assessed by co-inertia analysis. Water pH, COD and total nitrogen were negatively related to the number of biodegradative bacteria, while oxygen concentration promoted the abundance of these bacteria. The results demonstrate the utility of multivariate statistical techniques as tools for estimating the magnitude and extent of pollution based on river water chemical and microbiological parameters. An evaluation of river chemical and microbiological data suggests that the ambient natural attenuation mechanisms only partly eliminate pollutants from river water, and that a sufficient reduction of more recalcitrant compounds could be achieved through the reduction of wastewater discharge from the oil-shale chemical industry into the rivers.

  8. The north-eastern aeolian 'European Sand Belt' as potential record of environmental changes: A case study from Eastern Latvia and Southern Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Māris; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.

    2016-09-01

    The Latvian and Estonian inland dunes belong to the north-eastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). These dunes are widely distributed over broad glaciolacustrine plains and Late Glacial alluvial deltas, considered to be potential sources for the aeolian material. Little is known about these aeolian sediments and their substratum; here we present a detailed sedimentary structural and textural characterisation together with a luminescence-based chronology. Through a comparison between grain-size, rounding of quartz grains and surface characteristics in medium/coarse (0.5-0.8 mm) sand, and the light mineral content, we found an alternation of aeolian and periglacial components. Further, short-lasting aeolian abrasion and/or transportation periods, and a significant contribution of a nearby sediment source are suggested. Luminescence dating points to aeolian sand accumulation and dune formation between ∼16 ka and ∼9 ka. However, we also observed some presumably watertable controlled environmental conditions at ∼13 ka; this corresponds with the occurrence of an ice-dammed/proglacial lake.

  9. The inversion of average vegetation height using ICESat GLAS and MODIS data: a case study of three provinces in Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Xiaoguang

    2010-09-01

    The average vegetation height can be accurately extracted from ICESat GLAS data, however, a certain spatial interval exist in laser strips and dots reduces the mapping accuracy of average canopy height after the interpolation of the GLAS data. The MODIS-BRDF/albedo data consist of canopy structural data, such as LAI, canopy height etc. So the combination of ICESat GLAS and MODIS data can be obtained more accurate distribution of average canopy height and achieve the distribution of continuous canopy height. In this paper, the GLAS / MODIS data were collected in forest-rich three provinces in northeastern China. We firstly filtered GLAS waveform data and get the average vegetation height, and then selected the optional MODIS-BRDF / albedo bands to retrieve the average vegetation height. An artificial neural networks model was esTablelished by training the MODIS BRDF data, and finally obtained the average vegetation height over the whole three provinces. The fusion method between GLAS data and optical remote sensing image was proposed to make up for their shortages and obtained a continuous distribution of average vegetation height. It increases the analysis dimensions of forest ecosystem and produces more accurate data for forest biomass and carbon storage estimates.

  10. Long-term remote sensing monitoring coal mining activity in resource-based cities: a case study of Qitaihe City, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Zhou, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Mining activity has strongly impacted the sustainable socioeconomic development of resource-based cities. The systematic monitoring of the change in mining activity can provide evidence for the transition and future development of resource-based cities. This paper chose Qitaihe, one of the four coal mining cities in northeastern China as the study area. Remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technique, as well as methods on landscape pattern analysis were used to study the evolution of mining activity from 4 different periods over 58 years’ time. Results showed that the area of land used in mining increased by about six times during the study period with cultivated land the main type that contributed to this increase. Mining activity showed an eastward trend, developing from one concentration circle to four circles, from a disordered system to a relatively integrated system. It was also suggested that differentiated policies should be adopted in different mining circles. This study also provides a framework for future city planning and sustainable development.

  11. The spatial multiscale variability of heavy metals based on factorial kriging analysis:A case study in the northeastern Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianru; CHU Fengyou; JIN Xianglong; WU Qingsong; YANG Kehong; GE Qian; JIN Lu

    2015-01-01

    Factorial kriging analysis is applied to the research on the spatial multiscale variability of heavy metals in submarine. It is used to analyze the multiscale spatial structures of seven heavy metals, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, As and Cd in the surface sediment from the northeastern of Beibu Gulf, identify and separate spatial variations at different scales of heavy metals, and discuss the provenance of heavy metals and the influencing factors. The results show that the existence of three-scale spatial variations those consist of nugget effect, a spherical structure with range of 30 km (short-range scale) and a spherical structure with range of 140 km (long-range scale) in the linear model of coregionalization fitted. The spatial distribution features of seven heavy metals at short-range scale reflect “spot-like” or “stripe-like” local-scale spatial variations; the spatial distribution features of the seven heavy metals at long-range scale represent “slice-like” regional-scale spatial variations. At local scale, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd are derived primarily from parent materials of Hainan Island, Leizhou Peninsula and Guangxi land, whose spatial distribution characteristics are controlled by granularity of sediments, while As is influenced dominantly by human pollution components from Hainan Island and Leizhou Peninsula. At regional scale, Zn, Cr, Ni and Cu originate primarily from parent rock materials of Leizhou Peninsula and Hainan Island, secondly from Guangxi land; As originated primarily from parent rock materials from Hainan Island, secondly from Leizhou Peninsula and Guangxi land. These metals are transported and migrated with sediments dominated by the anticlockwise circulation of Beibu Gulf year-round, deposited in “convergence center”, forming the whole sedimentary pattern in direction of NWW-NNW at regional scale. The difference in distribution type between As and other metals at regional scale is mainly due to their different geochemical

  12. Can We Use Tree Rings of Black Alder to Reconstruct Lake Levels? A Case Study for the Mecklenburg Lake District, Northeastern Germany.

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    Ernst van der Maaten

    Full Text Available In this study, we explore the potential to reconstruct lake-level (and groundwater fluctuations from tree-ring chronologies of black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. for three study lakes in the Mecklenburg Lake District, northeastern Germany. As gauging records for lakes in this region are generally short, long-term reconstructions of lake-level fluctuations could provide valuable information on past hydrological conditions, which, in turn, are useful to assess dynamics of climate and landscape evolution. We selected black alder as our study species as alder typically thrives as riparian vegetation along lakeshores. For the study lakes, we tested whether a regional signal in lake-level fluctuations and in the growth of alder exists that could be used for long-term regional hydrological reconstructions, but found that local (i.e. site-specific signals in lake level and tree-ring chronologies prevailed. Hence, we built lake/groundwater-level reconstruction models for the three study lakes individually. Two sets of models were considered based on (1 local tree-ring series of black alder, and (2 site-specific Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Indices (SPEI. Although the SPEI-based models performed statistically well, we critically reflect on the reliability of these reconstructions, as SPEI cannot account for human influence. Tree-ring based reconstruction models, on the other hand, performed poor. Combined, our results suggest that, for our study area, long-term regional reconstructions of lake-level fluctuations that consider both recent and ancient (e.g., archaeological wood of black alder seem extremely challenging, if not impossible.

  13. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  14. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT FOR STAFF INVOLVED IN INSTITUTIONS FROM TERTIARY HEALTH CARE: HEALTH SERVICES AND LABOR WELFARE MEDELLIN, COLOMBIA, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Irene, Arboleda Posada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the conditions of human development according to labor welfare and satisfaction with healthcare services from staff employed with an indefinite term contract before January 1997 in health institutions of tertiary care in the city of Medellin (Colombia. It was performed a cross-sectional study designed to measure these components of human development through surveys applied on the staff with the described conditions, without any difference of academic, socioeconomic status or type of position. It was included a population of 1622 persons from five institutions, with a final sample of 242.Among the key findings is highlighted the high degree of staff satisfaction related to received in healthcare services for both, the worker and their beneficiaries; as well as the supply of medicines and diagnostic aids; besides the satisfaction with the work performed in the company and the feeling of being useful and important to it, they find out it is difficult to have promotions by merit and recognition for their work. As factors to strengthen in these institutions are the establishing clear policies for promotion and recognition.

  15. Middle Eocene Nummulites and their offshore re-deposition: A case study from the Middle Eocene of the Venetian area, northeastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Davide; Nebelsick, James H.; Puga-Bernabéu, Ángel; Luciani, Valeria

    2013-11-01

    The Middle Eocene Calcari nummulitici formation from northeastern Italy, Venetian area, represents a shallow-marine carbonate ramp developed on the northern Tethyan margin. In the Monti Berici area, its main components are larger foraminifera and coralline red algal communities that constitute thick carbonate sedimentary successions. Middle ramp and proximal outer ramp environments are recognized using component relationships, biofacies and sedimentary features. The middle-ramp is characterized by larger flattened-lenticular Nummulites on palaeohighs between which rhodoliths formed. Larger Nummulites palaeohighs containing Nummulites millecaput, Nummulites crassus, Nummulites discorbinus and Nummulites cf. gizehensis developed more basin-wards. The following relatively quiet environments of basin-wards of the palaeohighs represent areas of maximum carbonate production. The transition between the distal middle- and the proximal outer-ramp settings is marked in the study area by a large erosional surface which is interpreted to have been formed as a result of an erosive channel body filled in by deposits re-sedimented from shallower depths. These off-shore re-sedimented channelized deposits, ascribed to the Shallow Benthic Zone SBZ 15, lying on hemipelagic marls (planktonic foraminiferal zone E9 (P11)) allow for a biostratigraphic correlation to the Late Lutetian. The studied deposits, represented by packstone to rudstones, were displaced whilst still unlithified. The Lutetian-Bartonian regression along with the local tectonic activity promoted the production of a high amount of biogenic shallow-water carbonates mainly produced in the Mossano middle-ramp settings. These prograded towards the basinal areas with high-sedimentation rate of carbonate deposits characterized by the larger Nummulites rudstones. Such high amounts of sediment led to sediment instability which potentially could be mobilized either by return currents due to occasional major storms or by

  16. Capability of a regional climate model to simulate climate variables requested for water balance computation: a case study over northeastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, Damien; Castel, Thierry; Camberlin, Pierre; Sergent, Anne-Sophie; Bréda, Nathalie; Badeau, Vincent; Rossi, Aurélien; Pohl, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    This paper documents the capability of the ARW/WRF regional climate model to regionalize near-surface atmospheric variables at high resolution (8 km) over Burgundy (northeastern France) from daily to interannual timescales. To that purpose, a 20-year continuous simulation (1989-2008) was carried out. The WRF model driven by ERA-Interim reanalyses was compared to in situ observations and a mesoscale atmospheric analyses system (SAFRAN) for five near-surface variables: precipitation, air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation, the last four variables being used for the calculation of potential evapotranspiration (ET0). Results show a significant improvement upon ERA-Interim. This is due to a good skill of the model to reproduce the spatial distribution for all weather variables, in spite of a slight over-estimation of precipitation amounts mostly during the summer convective season, and wind speed during winter. As compared to the Météo-France observations, WRF also improves upon SAFRAN analyses, which partly fail at showing realistic spatial distributions for wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation—the latter being strongly underestimated. The SAFRAN ET0 is thus highly under-estimated too. WRF ET0 is in better agreement with observations. In order to evaluate WRF's capability to simulate a reliable ET0, the water balance of thirty Douglas-fir stands was computed using a process-based model. Three soil water deficit indexes corresponding to the sum of the daily deviations between the relative extractible water and a critical value of 40 % below which the low soil water content affects tree growth, were calculated using the nearest weather station, SAFRAN analyses weather data, or by merging observation and WRF weather variables. Correlations between Douglas-fir growth and the three estimated soil water deficit indexes show similar results. These results showed through the ET0 estimation and the relation between mean annual SWDI

  17. Deployment and use of mobile phone technology for real-time reporting of fever cases and malaria treatment failure in areas of declining malaria transmission in Muheza district north-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Filbert; Ishengoma, Deus S; Mmbando, Bruno P; Rutta, Acleus S M; Malecela, Mwelecele N; Mayala, Benjamin; Lemnge, Martha M; Michael, Edwin

    2017-08-01

    Early detection of febrile illnesses at community level is essential for improved malaria case management and control. Currently, mobile phone-based technology has been commonly used to collect and transfer health information and services in different settings. This study assessed the applicability of mobile phone-based technology in real-time reporting of fever cases and management of malaria by village health workers (VHWs) in north-eastern Tanzania. The community mobile phone-based disease surveillance and treatment for malaria (ComDSTM) platform, combined with mobile phones and web applications, was developed and implemented in three villages and one dispensary in Muheza district from November 2013 to October 2014. A baseline census was conducted in May 2013. The data were uploaded on a web-based database and updated during follow-up home visits by VHWs. Active and passive case detection (ACD, PCD) of febrile cases were done by VHWs and cases found positive by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) were given the first dose of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) at the dispensary. Each patient was visited at home by VHWs daily for the first 3 days to supervise intake of anti-malarial and on day 7 to monitor the recovery process. The data were captured and transmitted to the database using mobile phones. The baseline population in the three villages was 2934 in 678 households. A total of 1907 febrile cases were recorded by VHWs and 1828 (95.9%) were captured using mobile phones. At the dispensary, 1778 (93.2%) febrile cases were registered and of these, 84.2% were captured through PCD. Positivity rates were 48.2 and 45.8% by RDT and microscopy, respectively. Nine cases had treatment failure reported on day 7 post-treatment and adherence to treatment was 98%. One patient with severe febrile illness was referred to Muheza district hospital. The study showed that mobile phone-based technology can be successfully used by VHWs in surveillance and timely reporting of fever

  18. High frequency of resistance to the drugs isoniazid and rifampicin among tuberculosis cases in the city of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, an urban area in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Baliza,Marcilio; Bach,Artur Henrique; Queiroz,Gabriel Lobo de; Melo,Inês Cardoso; Carneiro,Maria Madileuza; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão; Suffys, Philip; Rodrigues, Laura; Ximenes,Ricardo; Lucena-Silva,Norma

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the frequency and risk factors for developing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Cabo de Santo Agostinho, PE. This was a prospective study conducted from 2000 to 2003, in which suspected cases were investigated using bacilloscopy and culturing. Out of 232 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, culturing and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on 174. Thirty-five of the 174 cultures showed resistance to all drugs. The frequencies of p...

  19. High frequency of resistance to the drugs isoniazid and rifampicin among tuberculosis cases in the city of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, an urban area in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliza, Marcilio; Bach, Artur Henrique; Queiroz, Gabriel Lobo de; Melo, Inês Cardoso; Carneiro, Maria Madileuza; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de; Suffys, Philip; Rodrigues, Laura; Ximenes, Ricardo; Lucena-Silva, Norma

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the frequency and risk factors for developing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Cabo de Santo Agostinho, PE. This was a prospective study conducted from 2000 to 2003, in which suspected cases were investigated using bacilloscopy and culturing. Out of 232 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, culturing and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on 174. Thirty-five of the 174 cultures showed resistance to all drugs. The frequencies of primary and acquired resistance to any drug were 14% and 50% respectively, while the frequencies of primary and acquired multidrug resistance were 8.3% and 40%. Previous tuberculosis treatment and abandonment of treatment were risk factors for drug resistance. The high levels of primary and acquired resistance to the combination of isoniazid and rifampicin contributed towards the difficulties in controlling tuberculosis transmission in the city.

  20. Characterization of the maintenance management of biomedical equipment in emergency services in clinics and hospitals in Medellin period 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Orozco Murillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance management is a tool that supports Biomedical Engineering staff in the development, control and direction of maintenance programs for medical equipment. Objective: to characterize the maintenance management of biomedical equipment in emergency areas of medical institutions in the metropolitan area of Medellin during 2008-2009. Materials and methods: a survey was conducted with chiefs and maintenance technicians of eleven institutions classified at level 3, belonging to the health network of the municipality of Medellin. Results: among the medical institutions included in the present study, it was found that 80% of equipment failure was related with mishandling of the devices, and 70% of maintenance work developed during the period of study was carried out by qualified Biomedical Technicians/ Technologist. On the other hand, a weakness was observed in programs for medical equipment maintenance of the surveyed institutions, as it was found that most of them had only working PM schedules, and outdated record information of equipment regarding, maintenance, acquisition or decommissioning plans of equipment. Conclusion: the study shows the existence of weaknesses in certain areas of the maintenance, such also poor organization and management, and poor availability of original spare parts.

  1. Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. A case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Z. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy (Kazakstan); Gusev, B.I.; Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kimura, Akiro; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Takeichi, Nobuo

    2000-03-01

    From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population. (author)

  2. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should

  3. The synergy between structural design and fluid dynamics: the case of the cycle track of Medellin, in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Blanc, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the advantages that the performance determination of wind actions from methods based in computational fluid dynamics has in the structural design of buildings with tapered or complex geometry. The analysis of the wind flow behaviour in lighter and more ethereal architectural and structural designs by means of advanced simulation tools, that use a wide theoretical ground based in fluid dynamics and continuum, has made possible to minimise the impact of wind loads in the siz...

  4. [An innovative proposal for health insurance policies based on research results: the case of unemployed in Medellin, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Alvaro; Nieto, Emmanuel; Restrepo, Román; Sierra, Oscar; Cárdenas, Carlos Enrique; Aguirre, Felipe

    2006-01-01

    In recent decades there has been an important academic debate on how to transfer research-based knowledge to the health policy-making process. Despite an intensive controversy and various approaches to the problem, there is basic consensus concerning both the academic relevance and the usefulness of further evaluation of concrete experiences that allow conclusions and clarification of what are still confusing issues. The current article discusses a joint research experience by professors and local and regional health policy-makers. The research focused on the socioeconomic conditions, duration of the employment/unemployment cycle, and features of health insurance for workers that lost their jobs in the Greater Metropolitan "Valle de Aburrá" Area (Antioquia, Colombia) in 2005, as the basis for a proposal to guarantee the maintenance of health insurance for these workers. The potentialities and difficulties of the interactive process are analyzed. The article is also intended to elucidate how scientific outcomes influence policymaking in health, as well as the difficulties imposed by concrete reality and the political process for implementing the innovative proposal.

  5. Medellin youth experiences before, during and after belonging to an illegal armed group, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Holguín, Dora María; Alzate-Gutiérrez, Eliana María

    2016-08-01

    A better understanding of the experiences of young people before, during and after belonging to an illegal armed group (IAG) can provide information to promote their reintegration into urban settings in Colombia and to help prevent violence. A qualitative study with a hermeneutic historical approach was performed to examine these experiences from the perspective of direct or indirect participants in the armed conflict. Fifty individuals aged 14-24 years (7 women and 43 men) with low socioeconomic status from Medellín were interviewed; 26 of them had a history of direct experience with IAGs. What stands out in their stories are descriptions of obstacles to progress in their lives; lives marked by stigma, poverty, violence and inequality; the differences of opinion among these young people regarding whether to belong to these illegal groups; how becoming an active member of an IAG creates both an opportunity for the present and an additional obstacle for the future, which adds complexity to the risk behaviors they assume; and how the reintegration process offers new expectations regarding access to educational and employment opportunities and social recognition. All of these factors point to the need for not only a comprehensive reintegration process but for more inclusive and equitable social policies, in this case for children and young people.

  6. Displacement and isolation. Mental illness in the city of Medellin. 1878-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Casas Orrego, Álvaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The observation in the city of Medellín within the framework of urban history generated a surprising picture of subjects in hygiene and public health, among which we found the case of mental illness and the control systems proposed by civilian authorities and doctors. In Medellín, between 1880 and 1950, the modernization process went on, turning its pole of attraction on population displacements to the interior of the province of Antioch. As a result of Railroad I, there was a massive mobility of population from the neighboring towns, including some mentally ill people. At the end of the 19th century, the authorities created a house of asylum for these people, which became the Mental Hospital in the middle of the 20th century. The isolation of the mentally ill people reports both medical authority and the beginning of the constitution process and institutionalization of the psychopathology and medicalization of mental diseases in Antioquia at the beginning of the 20th century.

    La observación sobre la ciudad de Medellín en el contexto de la historia urbana, generó un sorprendente cuadro de temas sobre higiene y salud pública, entre los que encontramos el caso de los alienados mentales y los dispositivos de control propuestos por las autoridades civiles y los médicos. De 1880 hasta 1950 Medellín vivió el proceso de modernización, que la convirtió en polo de atracción de los desplazamientos de población al interior de la provincia de Antioquia. El Ferrocarril garantizó desde los pueblos vecinos la movilización masiva de población, entre la que llegaron no pocos alienados mentales. A finales del siglo XIX, las autoridades crearon la Casa de Alienados para dar asilo a estas personas, esta institución se convirtió a comienzos del siglo XX en Manicomio Departamental y a mediados del siglo XX en el Hospital Mental de Antioquia. El aislamiento de los locos da cuenta del comienzo del proceso de constitución e institucionalizaci

  7. Ecology and Geography of Plague Transmission Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, John; Peterson, A. Townsend; Almeida, Alzira

    2011-01-01

    Plague in Brazil is poorly known and now rarely seen, so studies of its ecology are difficult. We used ecological niche models of historical (1966-present) records of human plague cases across northeastern Brazil to assess hypotheses regarding environmental correlates of plague occurrences across the region. Results indicate that the apparently focal distribution of plague in northeastern Brazil is indeed discontinuous, and that the causes of the discontinuity are not necessarily only related to elevation—rather, a diversity of environmental dimensions correlate to presence of plague foci in the region. Perhaps most interesting is that suitable areas for plague show marked seasonal variation in photosynthetic mass, with peaks in April and May, suggesting links to particular land cover types. Next steps in this line of research will require more detailed and specific examination of reservoir ecology and natural history. PMID:21245925

  8. Human influenza A(H7N9) virus infection associated with poultry farm, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming; Huang, Biao; Wang, Ao; Deng, Liquan; Wu, Donglin; Lu, Xinrong; Zhao, Qinglong; Xu, Shuang; Havers, Fiona; Wang, Yanhui; Wu, Jing; Yin, Yuan; Sun, Bingxin; Yao, Jianyi; Xiang, Nijuan

    2014-11-01

    We report on a case of human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus in Jilin Province in northeastern China. This case was associated with a poultry farm rather than a live bird market, which may point to a new focus for public health surveillance and interventions in this evolving outbreak.

  9. A case of flying insects visiting an anatomy and embalming laboratory in Medellín, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Eduardo; Serna-Giraldo, Claudia; Antia-Montoya, German

    2016-10-01

    From July to September of 2012, the fauna of flying insects visiting the anatomy and embalming laboratory of the Tecnológico de Antioquia, Faculty of Forensic Sciences, located in the city of Medellin, Colombia, were recorded. The first checklist in the literature of incidental flying insects occurring in this type of locale is provided, and a brief discussion is given of their behavioral habits related to this uncommon case.

  10. Frequency of CCR5 Delta-32 Mutation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-seropositive and HIV-exposed Seronegative Individuals and in General Population of Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Díaz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV does not always result in seroconversion. Modifications in coreceptors for HIV entrance to target cells are one of the factors that block the infection. We studied the frequency of Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene in Medellin, Colombia. Two hundred and eighteen individuals distributed in three different groups were analyzed for Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR: 29 HIV seropositive (SP, 39 exposed seronegative (ESN and 150 individuals as a general population sample (GPS. The frequency of the Delta-32 mutant allele was 3.8% for ESN, 2.7% for GPS and 1.7% for SP. Only one homozygous mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32 was found among the ESN (2.6%. The heterozygous genotype (ccr5/Delta-32 was found in eight GPS (5.3%, in one SP (3.4% and in one ESN (2.6%. The differences in the allelic and genotypic frequencies among the three groups were not statistically significant. A comparison between the expected and the observed genotypic frequencies showed that these frequencies were significantly different for the ESN group, which indirectly suggests a protective effect of the mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32. Since this mutant genotype explained the resistance of infection in only one of our ESN persons, different mechanisms of protection must be playing a more important role in this population.

  11. In vivo binding of the Cry11Bb toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin to the midgut of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Ruiz Lina María

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin produces numerous proteins among which 94 kDa known as Cry11Bb, has mosquitocidal activity. The mode of action of the Cry11 proteins has been described as similar to those of the Cry1 toxins, nevertheless, the mechanism of action is still not clear. In this study we investigated the in vivo binding of the Cry11Bb toxin to the midgut of the insect species Anopheles albimanus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus by immunohistochemical analysis. Spodoptera frugiperda was included as negative control. The Cry11Bb protein was detected on the apical microvilli of the midgut epithelial cells, mostly on the posterior midgut and gastric caeca of the three mosquito species. Additionally, the toxin was detected in the Malpighian tubules of An. albimanus, Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and in the basal membrane of the epithelial cells of Ae. aegypti midgut. No toxin accumulation was observed in the peritrophic membrane of any of the mosquito species studied. These results confirm that the primary site of action of the Cry11 toxins is the apical membrane of the midgut epithelial cells of mosquito larvae.

  12. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  13. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  14. Diphtheria outbreak with high mortality in northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besa, N C; Coldiron, M E; Bakri, A; Raji, A; Nsuami, M J; Rousseau, C; Hurtado, N; Porten, K

    2014-04-01

    SUMMARY A diphtheria outbreak occurred from February to November 2011 in the village of Kimba and its surrounding settlements, in Borno State, northeastern Nigeria. We conducted a retrospective outbreak investigation in Kimba village and the surrounding settlements to better describe the extent and clinical characteristics of this outbreak. Ninety-eight cases met the criteria of the case definition of diphtheria, 63 (64.3%) of whom were children aged diphtheria. None of the 98 cases received diphtheria antitoxin, penicillin, or erythromycin during their illness. The overall case-fatality ratio was 21.4%, and was highest in children aged 0-4 years (42.9%). Low rates of immunization, delayed clinical recognition of diphtheria and absence of treatment with antitoxin and appropriate antibiotics contributed to this epidemic and its severity.

  15. Hand, Foot and Mouth disease in northeastern part of Romania in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD is an acute viral infection that occurs usually among children in summer. This paper reports a high incidence of HFMD in children and adults, occurred in summer-autumn 2012 in the northeastern part of Romania. We present a few cases with some atypical clinical manifestations.

  16. Algunos aspectos del estilo de vida swinger en una muestra de sujetos en la ciudad de Medellín. Some aspects of the lifestyle swinger in a sample of subjects in the city of Medellin.

    OpenAIRE

    Monsalve Cataño, Astrid Liliana; Villa Londoño, Antonio Jose; Álvarez Posada, José Luis

    2014-01-01

     Algunos  aspectos del estilo de vida swinger en una muestra de sujetos en la ciudad de Medellín.  Some aspects of the lifestyle swinger in a sample of subjects in the city of Medellin. Resumen Este articulo presenta resultados de investigación orientada a identificar cómo vivencian las parejas con una relación estable, la actividad Swinger, indagando cuáles son sus referentes de amor, fidelidad, relación de pareja e identificando como afecta a su relación los señalamientos culturales. Se uti...

  17. Significados de la salud para los niños de la calle en Medellín (Colombia The meaning of health for homeless children, Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Hurtado Gutiérrez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigación realizada con niños en situación de calle en Medellín, Colombia. Objetivo: Conocer el significado y las prácticas en relación con la salud. Metodología: estudio cualitativo, etnográfico; se realizaron 34 entrevistas; la ética fue parte integral del proceso; el análisis se hizo con los participantes para garantizar el rigor. Resultados: el significado de salud está mediado por la posibilidad de sobrevivir. El dolor es el principal indicador de la pérdida de la salud y buscan contrarrestarlo. Las prácticas para conservar la salud se basan en el autocuidado, en prevenir enfermedades que se pueden visualizar y en consumir drogas. Conservan la salud, con hábitos saludables y prevención. Al perder la salud, recurren al autocuidado, a instituciones de apoyo y hospitales. Conclusión principal: el significado de salud depende de la forma de vida que los niños llevan. Cuando pierden la salud, pierden la libertad.It was made with homeless children in Medellin, Colombia. Objective: To know the meaning and practices according to their health. Methodology: Qualitative, ethnographic research; were made 34 interviews, ethics was an integral part of the process, the analysis was made with participants to ensure rigor. Results: The meaning of health is mediated by the possibility of survives. Pain is the main indicator of losing health and they try to counteract it. Habits focused to maintaining health are based in the self-care, prevent diseases that can be identified, and consuming drugs. To maintain health, they develop healthy habits and disease prevention. Losing health they resort to self-care, to support institutions and hospitals. Conclusions: The meaning of health depends on the way of life children have. When they lost the health, lost their freedom.

  18. Unique cytokine and chemokine patterns in bronchoalveolar lavage are associated with specific causative pathogen among HIV infected patients with pneumonia, in Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynan, Yoav; Rueda, Zulma V; Aguilar, Yudy; Trajtman, Adriana; Vélez, Lázaro A

    2015-06-01

    We wanted to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine profile associated with the etiological agents identified in HIV patients. Immunosuppressed patients admitted to two hospitals in Medellin, Colombia, with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia were enrolled in the study. After consent, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was collected for bacterial, mycobacterial and fungal diagnosis. All patients were followed for a year. A stored BAL sample was used for cytokine/chemokine detection and measurement using commercial, magnetic human cytokine bead-based 19-plex assays. Statistical analysis was performed by assigning cytokine/chemokine concentrations levels into 75 percentile (higher). Principal component analysis (PCA) and Kruskal-Wallis analysis were conducted to identify the clustering of cytokines with the various infectious etiologies (fungi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis - MTB, and bacteria). Average age of patients was 35, of whom 77% were male, and the median CD4 count of 33cells/μl. Of the 57 HIV infected patients, in-hospital mortality was 12.3% and 33% died within a year of follow up. The PCA revealed increased IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, Eotaxin, GCSF, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β concentrations to be associated with MTB infection. In patients with proven fungal infection, low concentrations of IL-1RA, IL-8, TNF-α and VEGF were identified. Bacterial infections displayed a distinct cytokine pattern and were not misclassified using the MTB or fungi cytokine patterns (p-value<0.0001). Our results indicate a unique pattern of pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine, allowing differentiation between bacterial and non-bacterial pathogens. Moreover, we found distinct, if imperfectly discriminatory, cytokine/chemokine patterns associated with MTB and fungal infections.

  19. Climatic change in northeastern Brazil: paleoparasitological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araujo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichuris eggs were observed in Kerodon rupestris coprolites dated 9,000 years before present, collected in archeological sites of São Raimundo Nonato, northeastern Brazil. However, present day local rodents seem not to be infected by the parasite, suggesting its disappearence due to climatic changes.

  20. Northeastern Mathematical Journal Aims and Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Northeastern Mathematical Journal (NMJ) is a comprehensive mathematical journal carrying original papers on pure and applied mathematics. It started publication in September, 1985, and appears quarterly. The primary purpose is to present latest achievements in mathematical research and to promote national and international academic exchange, The Editorial Committee of NMJ consists of 49 members from different parts and units of China.

  1. Northeastern Mathematical Journal Aims and Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Northeastern Mathematical Journal (NMJ) is a comprehensive mathematical journal carrying original papers on pure and applied mathematics. It started publication in September, 1985, and appears quarterly. The primary purpose is to present latest achievements in mathematical research and to promote national and international academic exchange.

  2. Cysticercosis in epileptic patients of Mulungu do Morro Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOMES IRENIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the magnitude of infection by the metacestode of Taenia solium in a population of epileptic patients in the arid region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil, we examined 200 consecutive cases who attended an ambulatory clinic in the disctrict of Mulungu do Morro. Sixty-six of the patients had a diagnosis of epilepsy. From them 10 (15.2% presented antibodies against a specific fraction of antigens in Western blot, and 4 (6.0% had circulating parasite products, as tested by capture ELISA. Only 1 case was positive for antibodies and antigens. We found that the frequency of seropositivity was related to the time without epileptic seizure. We conclude that cysticercosis is endemic in the region of Mulungu do Morro and that it is related to a benign form of epilepsy.

  3. Using stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes to reveal monsoonal and related hydrological effects on meteoric water in the Western Pacific monsoon region: A case study of the Ilan region, northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tsung-Ren; Huang, Chun-Chun; Chen, Chi-Tsun; Chen, Jui-Er; Liang, Wen-Jui

    2016-10-01

    This study analyzes the isotopic compositions (δ2H and δ18O) of meteoric waters, including precipitation and stream water, to reveal what major hydrological processes affect the hydrological regime of the Ilan region, northeastern Taiwan. The isotopic results indicate monsoonal flows as the fundamental factors affecting studied precipitation and stream water. Summer precipitation sourced from southerly air mass exhibits lower δ and deuterium-excess (dE) values than winter precipitation sourced from northerly air masses. The δ18O and dE values are respectively -7.7‰ and 8‰ for summer precipitation and -3.3‰ and 24‰ for winter precipitation. Furthermore, semi-quantitative estimations using dE evidence indicate that summertime southerly air masses generally contribute more to stream water than wintertime northerly air-mass flows (approximately 54% vs. 46%). However, the contribution fractions are controlled by the orientation of catchments to the windward side of respective monsoonal flows. Northern catchments, located on the windward side of southerly air masses, receive about 60% of their water from precipitation condensed from the southerly air masses, and 40% from the northerly air masses. By comparison, southern catchments, located on the windward side of northerly air masses, receive about 59% of their water from northerly air masses and 41% from southerly air masses. Additionally, catchment effect, induced from δ value, is notable in stream basins with high elevations but this is not related to catchment sizes. Besides this, altitude effect, which is determined in terms of δ18O values, was derived using data from four precipitation stations of northern Taiwan. It ranges from -2.5 to -3.0‰ per 100 m depending on the season; moreover, based on the dE evidence, secondary evaporation effects are apparent with moisture recycling influencing inland summer precipitation and raindrop evaporation influencing inland winter precipitation.

  4. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in a basaltic aquifer based on chemical and stable isotopic data: Case study from the Northeastern portion of Serra Geral Aquifer, São Paulo state (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmans, Didier; Hutcheon, Ian; Menegário, Amauri Antônio; Chang, Hung Kiang

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater from the fractured basalt Serra Geral Aquifer (SGA) represents an important source for water supply in Northeastern São Paulo state (Brazil). Groundwater flow conditions in fractured aquifers hosted in basaltic rocks are difficult to define because flow occurs through rock discontinuities. The evaluation of hydrodynamic information associated with hydrochemical data has identified geochemical processes related to groundwater evolution, observed in regional flowpaths. SGA groundwaters are characterized by low TDS with pH varying from neutral to alkaline. Two main hydrochemical facies are recognized: Ca-Mg-HCO3, and Na-HCO3 types. Primarily, the geochemical evolution of SGA groundwater occurs under CO2 open conditions, and the continuous uptake of CO2 is responsible for mineral dissolution, producing bicarbonate as the main anion, and calcium and magnesium in groundwater. Ion exchange between smectites (Na and Ca-beidelites) seems to be responsible for the occurrence of Na-HCO3 groundwater. Toward the Rio Grande, in the northern portion of the study area, there is mixing between SGA groundwater and water from the sandstones of the Guarani Aquifer System, as evidenced by the chemical and isotopic composition of the groundwater. Inverse mass balance modeling performed using NETPATH XL produces results in agreement with the dissolution of minerals in basalt (feldspars and pyroxenes) associated with the uptake of atmospheric CO2, as well as the dissolution of clay minerals present in the soil. Kaolinite precipitation occurs due to the incongruent dissolution of feldspars, while Si remains almost constant due to the precipitation of silica. The continuous uptake of CO2 under open conditions leads to calcite precipitation, which in addition to ion exchange are responsible by Ca removal from groundwater and an increase in Na concentrations. Down the flow gradientCO2 is subject to closed conditions where the basalts are covered by the sediments of Bauru Group or

  5. [Factors Associated With the Temporary Abandonment of Treatment for Disorders Due to Substance Abuse in an Institution in Medellin, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Jenny García; Méndez Villanueva, María Paulina

    2014-03-01

    To determine the frequency and factors associated withtreatment drop-out in patients from a Substance User Treatment Center in Medellín, Colombia. A case-control study was conducted, with patients with an early treatment dropout as cases, and patients who completed the treatment as controls. Demographic data, substance use pattern, concomitant diseases, and the decision to initiate treatment were compared between cases and controls. The frequency of early drop-out was 59%, but a high proportion of this drop-out (47.5%) occurred in the transition period between the program stages. The variables associated with drop-out were: psychotic disorder (OR=0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.91), bipolar disorder (OR=0.31; 95% CI, 0.12-0.77), heroin as the principal substance compared to alcohol (OR=6.68; 95% CI, 1.52-29.4), decision to initiate the treatment by the family compared to personal decision (OR=3.02; 95% CI, 1.28-7.17), and previous treatments (OR=1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.44). The drop-out frequency is similar to those reported in other studies. Associated factors were found, which could be considered in order to plan strategies to improve the program results. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Periodontal conditions of elders in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Vieira de Lima Saintrain; Maria Daucirlene Costa Aquino

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the periodontal conditions of elderly patients assisted in a Specialized Dentistry Center in Northeastern of Brazil. Methods: Quantitative and cross-sectional study conducted with 152 elders. It was used a questionnaire to get information about socio-demographic aspects (age, sex, gender, income, and education), general healthand periodontal clinical examination based on the Communitarian Periodontal Index (CPI), an indicator recommended by the World Health Organization...

  7. Toxic plants of the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C

    2011-07-01

    This article lists commonly encountered toxic plants that affect ruminants in the Northeastern United States. Livestock are at risk for ingestion of a large variety of toxic plants. Plant poisonings are likely to be underdiagnosed because tests for most plant toxins are not routinely available at veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Prevention of access to poisonous plants is usually more effective and economical than treatment of plant poisonings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Drought, smallpox, and emergence of Leishmania braziliensis in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Anastácio Q; Pearson, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Vianna) braziliensis is a major health problem in the state of Ceará in northeastern Brazil. We propose that the disease emerged as a consequence of the displacement of persons from Ceará to the Amazon region following the Great Drought and smallpox epidemic of 1877-1879. As the economic and social situation in Ceará deteriorated, approximately 55,000 residents migrated to the Amazon region to find work, many on rubber plantations. Those that returned likely introduced L. (V.) brazilensis into Ceará, where the first cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were reported early in the 20th century. The absence of an animal reservoir in Ceará, apart from dogs, supports the hypothesis. The spread of HIV/AIDS into the region and the possibility of concurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis raise the possibility of future problems.

  9. Caracterización de la respuesta dinámica de sitio en el Gabro de Medellín Characterization of the dynamic response of site on Medellin's Gabbro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Fernando Otálvaro Calle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerca del 90% de la población colombiana ocupa la región Andina del país, zona donde se localiza casi la totalidad de la industria, que se caracteriza por una amenaza sísmica intermedia y alta, en la cual se pueden presentar aceleraciones en roca superiores a 0.25 g, de acuerdo con el estudio general de amenaza sísmica (AIS 300, 1998. Sumado a esto la ciudad de Medellín desde el punto de vista geotécnico es caracterizada por la variedad de materiales parentales y tipos de suelo originados por procesos geomorfológicos diferenciables; además es común encontrar diferentes accidentes topográficos denotados por las laderas, lomos y cerros, haciendo de Medellín un ambiente sismo-geotécnico complejo. Esta variedad genera múltiples contrastes de materiales geotécnicos y propiedades que modifican la propagación de las ondas sísmicas, generando un nivel de amenaza alto en la superficie del terreno. Este trabajo es motivado por las condiciones descritas y por el desarrollo vertiginoso de la Ciudad hacia las laderas. En este trabajo es revisada la respuesta dinámica de sitio al interior de la zona homogénea 12 de la Microzonificación Sísmica de Medellín (GSM, 1999, a partir de modelos de propagación en una dimensión.About 90% of Colombian population occupies the Andean region, where most of the country's industry is located; it is characterized by medium and high seismic hazard in which rock acceleration can occur over 0.25 g, according to the 1984 General Seismic Hazard Study (AIS 300, 1998. Additionally, Medellin city, from a geotechnical point of view, is characterized by the variety of parental materials and types of soils originated by distinctive geomorphologic processes; besides, it is common to find different topographic features in slopes, ridges, and hills, which make of Medellin a complex seismic geotechnical environment. This variety of features generates multiple contrasts of geotechnical materials which modify

  10. An epidemiologic investigation of a rubella outbreak among the Amish of northeastern Ohio.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, B M; Payton, T; van der Horst, G; Halpin, T J; Mortensen, B K

    1993-01-01

    From April 1990 to April 1991, 278 cases of rubella were reported to the Ohio Department of Health. Of these, 276 (99 percent) were among the Amish of northeastern Ohio. The outbreak involved eight counties in an area that contains large settlements of Old Order Amish. Members of this community of Amish frequently take religious exemption from recommended immunization practices and are believed to represent a high proportion of Ohio's rubella-susceptible persons. Vaccination history was known...

  11. Climate Variability and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Transmission in Northeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wen-yi; Guo, Wei-Dong; Fang, Li-Qun; Li, Chang-Ping; Bi, Peng; Gregory E Glass; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Sun, Shan-Hua; Qian, Quan; Liu, Wei; Yan, Lei; Yang, Hong; Tong, Shi-Lu; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    Background The transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is influenced by climatic variables. However, few studies have examined the quantitative relationship between climate variation and HFRS transmission. Objective We examined the potential impact of climate variability on HFRS transmission and developed climate-based forecasting models for HFRS in northeastern China. Methods We obtained data on monthly counts of reported HFRS cases in Elunchun and Molidawahaner counties...

  12. Clinical and epidemiological characterization of dengue hemorrhagic fever cases in northeastern, Brazil Caracterização clínica e epidemiológica dos casos de dengue hemorrágica no nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The dengue hemorrhagic dengue (DHF remains an important public health problem in Brazil. The objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of DHF cases during the 2003 epidemic in Ceará. METHODS: Suspected DHF cases with onset of symptoms between January and December 2003 were investigated. RESULTS: 37,964 classic dengue cases and 291 DHF cases were reported. Among the cases discarded, 75.5% were serologically positive but did not meet the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO. The DHF patients' median age was 30 years (2 - 88. Among the hemorrhagic manifestations, petechiae were the most (32.6% frequent. Cases of gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, pericardial pleural effusion, hepatomegaly, hypotension and shock showed higher risk of progression to death (p INTRODUÇÃO: A febre hemorrágica do dengue (FHD permanece como um importante problema de saúde pública no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar os aspectos epidemiológicos dos casos de dengue hemorrágico durante a epidemia de 2003, no Ceará. MÉTODOS: Foram investigados os casos suspeitos de FHD, com início de sintomas no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2003. RESULTADOS: Foram reportados 37.964 casos de dengue clássica, com 291 casos de FHD. Entre os casos descartados, 75,5% apresentaram sorologia positiva, mas não preenchem os critérios recomendados pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. A mediana de idade dos pacientes com FHD foi de 30 anos (2 - 88. Para manifestações hemorrágicas, as petéquias com 32,6% foram as mais frequentes. Os casos de hemorragia digestiva, ascite, derrame pleural e pericárdico, hepatomegalia, hipotensão e choque apresentaram maior risco de progressão para óbito (p <0,05. CONCLUSÕES: A introdução de um novo sorotipo (DENV-3 no Ceará, encontrando a população suscetível e a alta densidade do vetor podem ter sido os principais responsáveis pela magnitude da epidemia. A

  13. Parabolic dunes in north-eastern Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, O; Bezerra, L J C; Herrmann, H J; Maia, L P

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present measurements of vegetation cover over parabolic dunes with different degree of activation along the north-eastern Brazilian coast. We are able to extend the local values of the vegetation cover density to the whole dune by correlating measurements with the gray-scale levels of a high resolution satellite image of the dune field. The empirical vegetation distribution is finally used to validate the results of a recent continuous model of dune motion coupling sand erosion and vegetation growth.

  14. Tropical cyclone statistics in the Northeastern Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Vadillo, E; Zaitsev, Oleg; Morales Pérez., R

    2007-01-01

    The principal area of tropical cyclogenesis in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean is offshore in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, between 8 and 15° N, and most of these cyclones move towards the west and northwest during their initial phase. Historical analysis of tropical cyclone data in the Northeastern (NE) Pacific over the last 38 years (from 1966 to 2004) shows a mean of 16.3 tropical cyclones per year, consisting of 8.8 hurricanes and 7.4 tropical storms. The analysis shows great geographical v...

  15. Clinical and microbiological profile of children with febrile neutropenia following antineoplastic treatments in a hospital in Medellin (Colombia), 2009-2010: case series

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sánchez, Lina Maria; Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana; Palacio Mesa, María Juliana; Universidad pontificia bolivariana; Diosa Restrepo, Mariana; Universidad pontificia bolivariana; Ramírez Pulgarín, Sergio; Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana; Rodríguez Gázquez, María de los Angeles; Universidad pontificia bolivariana; Orozco Forero, Juan Pablo; Universidad pontificia bolivariana

    2015-01-01

    La neutropenia febril compromete la respuesta inmunológica, facilitando la invasión de microorganismos generando altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad. Objetivo: describir el perfil clínico y microbiológico de los niños con neutropenia febril sometidos a tratamientos antineoplásicos, en una institución hospitalaria de Medellín. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo en el que se incluyeron las historias clínicas de 34 pacientes pediátricos con tratamiento antineoplásico, neu...

  16. Características clínico-histopatológicas del carcinoma escamocelular bucal, Colombia Clinical-histopathology features of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Álvarez Martínez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma escamocelular bucal (CEB, es una neoplasia maligna frecuente en cavidad oral. Objetivo: determinar la incidencia y el comportamiento clínico e histológico de este tipo de cáncer en Antioquia, Colombia. Métodos: éste estudio provee información acerca de las características clínicas e histopatológicas del CEB, proveniente de historias clínicas de 197 personas 112 (56,9 % hombres y 85 (43,1 % mujeres atendidas en el hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl de Medellín, durante un periodo de 14 años. Resultados: 197 historias fueron estudiadas, el 61,9 % (122 de la población, era mayor de 60 años al momento del diagnóstico, 78,7 % (157 fueron procedentes de Antioquia, el 78,6 % (155, tenían antecedente tabaquismo, el 17,8 % (35 de las personas, reportaron en la historia antecedentes familiares de cáncer. La localización más frecuente del CEB, fue la lengua 45 % (90, seguido de paladar duro 17,1 % (34, paladar blando 9 % (17 y piso de boca 8,5 % (17; la mayoría de estos (74,9 %, fueron diagnosticados en estadios tardíos (III y IV, en cuanto al grado de diferenciación predominaron los carcinomas bien y moderadamente diferenciado, 45,2 % (89 y 42,6 % (84 respectivamente.Buccal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is frequent malign neoplasm in oral cavity; however, there isn't information on its incidence and clinical and histological behavior of this type of cancer in Antioquia (Colombia. Methods: Present study supply information on the clinical and histological features of SCC from medical records of 197 persons (56.9 % (112 of male sex and 85 of female sex (43.1 % seen in "San Vicente de Paúl" University Hospital of Medellin for 13 years. Results: A total of 197 medical records were studied, the 61.9 % (122 of population aged over 60 at diagnosis, 78.7 % (157 from Antioquia, and the 78.6 % (155 had smoking backgrounds, and the 17.8 % (35 of persons had a family history of cancer. More frequent location of SCC was in

  17. Medellin ja Tallinn / Jakob Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Jakob, pseud., 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Itaalia arhitektuuri- ja disainiajakirjas "Abitare" tutvustati Kolumbia narkopealinnas Medellinis tehtud uuendusi. Sotsiaalse keskkonna analüüsist. Tallinna linnaplaneerimine kui ärihuvide kaardistamine

  18. Medellin ja Tallinn / Jakob Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Jakob, pseud., 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Itaalia arhitektuuri- ja disainiajakirjas "Abitare" tutvustati Kolumbia narkopealinnas Medellinis tehtud uuendusi. Sotsiaalse keskkonna analüüsist. Tallinna linnaplaneerimine kui ärihuvide kaardistamine

  19. [Melioidosis in a Danish tourist returning from North-eastern Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leth, Steffen; Wang, Mikala; Deutch, Susanna

    2014-06-09

    Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in South East Asia and Northern Australia. It has a wide clinical diversity, spanning from asymptomatic cases to rapid septic shock and death. We present a case of pulmonary melioidosis in a Danish tourist returning from North-eastern Thailand. The patient was treated with intravenous ceftazidime followed by oral therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and subsequently switched to doxycycline due to abnormal liver function tests and eosinophilia, with no sign of relapse two months after antibiotic cessation.

  20. Cultura de la ilegalidad en Medellín y su asociación con diversas formas de violencia/ Culture of illegality in Medellin and its association with various forms of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Duque

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analizar y resumir dos publicaciones del autor sobre la magnitud de la cultura de la ilegalidad en Medellín y su área metropolitana y sobre su asociación con diferentes formas de agresión. Metodología: Encuesta domiciliaria cara a cara a una muestra representativa de la población de 12 a 60 años de Medellín y el área metropolitana, muestreo polietápico, con una respuesta de 5781 personas, equivalente a 94,6% de respuesta. Resultados: Se documenta una muy alta prevalencia de cultura de la ilegalidad (44 a 72%. La cultura de la legalidad está íntimamente asociada a las pautas de educación y crianza, especialmente a las de la madre y la cultura de la ilegalidad asociada a la percepción de iniquidad social. La anomia es, después de vivir en un barrio violento, el principal factor de riesgo para la mayoría de las agresiones estudiadas. Por el contrario la madre vigilante y con la que se puede tener una buena comunicación es el factor asociado en forma negativa a la mayoría de las formas de agresión está asociada negativamente al 80-90% de las agresiones con arma y al 50% de los robo sin arma. Conclusión: se documenta una altísima cultura de la ilegalidad en Medellín y el área metropolitana, producto de la percepción de iniquidad, y asociada a la mayoría de las agresiones estudiadas, después de la asociación con residir en un barrio violento Objective: to analyze and resume two previous author´s publications on magnitude of illegality culture in Medellin and metropolitan area, and its association with several violent aggressive forms. Methodology: Face to face household survey to a polietapic at at randon samble of 12 to 60 years of age Medellin and metropolitan area population, with a 94.6% answer proportion (n= 5781. Results: There is a very high illegality culture (44 a 72%. Illegality culture is negatively associated with children rearing practices, mainly with mother´s ones, and is very closed associate to

  1. Marine magnetic anomalies in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Scherbakov, V.S.; Lygin, V.A; Philipenko, A; Bogomyagkov, A

    Based on the analysis of some additional magnetic profiles, an updated correlation and identification of the sea-floor spreading type magnetic lineations in the northeastern Arabian Sea is presented. The anomaly 24 A-B sequence, characteris...

  2. Tall shrub layer biomass in conifer plantations in northeastern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Ohmann

    1982-01-01

    Provides estimates of biomass (pounds/acre) for tall shrub species in 53 conifer plantations in northeastern Minnesota. The estimates are analyzed by plantation age and silvicultural practices used to establish and release the plantations.

  3. Temporal and spatial patterns of malaria reinfection in northeastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, R; Grillet, M E; Rangel, Y; Berti, J; Aché, A

    1999-11-01

    We stratified the risk of malaria transmission (Plasmodium vivax) in 35 villages along a coastal range in northeastern Venezuela (51 km2) where the main vector is the mosquito Anopheles aquasalis. After 20 years without local malaria transmission, reinfection of the entire area occurred from May to December 1985 by local (continuous) and jump (discontinuous) dispersal. Epidemiologic, environmental, and vector variables were investigated with the aid of a Geographic Information System. Risk factors for malaria transmission were human population density, proximity to pre-adult mosquito habitats (< 500 m), and the number of pre-adult habitats nearby. Most inhabitants, immature mosquito habitats, and malaria cases were located at low elevations and on gentle slopes. High prevalence of malaria during the dry seasons was associated with the presence of permanent bodies of water containing An. aquasalis. Occurrence of a La Niña event in 1988 (wet and cool phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation) triggered malaria transmission to unusually high levels, consolidating infection in the area, and rendering traditional control efforts useless. We recommend tracking malaria persistence per village and associated risk factors as methods to reduce the cost of malaria control programs.

  4. Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysaccis B., Raul

    1998-12-01

    On the northeastern offshore Venezuela, the pre-Tertiary basement consists of a deeply subducted accretionary complex of a Cretaceous island arc system that formed far to the west of its present location. The internal structure of this basement consists of metamorphic nappes that involve passive margin sequences, as well as oceanic (ophiolitic) elements. The Tertiary evolution of the northeastern Venezuela offshore is dominated by Paleogene (Middle Eocene-Oligocene) extension and Neogene transtension, interrupted by Oligocene to Middle Miocene inversions. The Paleogene extension is mainly an arc-normal extension associated with a retreating subduction boundary. It is limited to the La Tortuga and the La Blanquilla Basins and the southeastern Margarita and Caracolito subbasins. All of these basins are farther north of and not directly tied to the El Pilar fault system. On a reconstruction, these Paleogene extensional systems were located to the north of the present day Maracaibo Basin. By early Miocene the leading edge of the now overall transpressional system had migrated to a position to the north of the Ensenada de Barcelona. This relative to South America eastward migration is responsible for the Margarita strike-slip fault and the major inversions that began during the Oligocene and lasted into the Middle Miocene. The Bocono-El Pilar-Casanay-Warm Springs and the La Tortuga-Coche-North Coast fault systems are exclusively Neogene with major transtension occurring during the Late Miocene to Recent and act independently from the earlier Paleogene extensional system. They are responsible for the large Neogene transtensional basins of the area: the Cariaco trough, the Northern Tuy-Cariaco and the Paria sub-basins, and the Gulf of Paria Basin. This latest phase is characterized by strain-partitioning into strike slip faults, a transtensional northern domain and a transpressional southern domain that is responsible for the decollement tectonics and/or inversions of the

  5. Boninites: Characteristics and tectonic constraints, northeastern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Jacobi, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Boninites are high Mg andesites that are thought to form in suprasubduction zone tectonic environments as primary melts from refractory mantle. Boninites provide a potential constraint on tectonic models for ancient terranes that contain boninites because the only unequivocal tectonic setting in which "modern" boninites have been recognized is a fore-arc setting. Tectonic models for "modern" boninite genesis include subduction initiation ("infant arc"), fore-arc spreading, and the forearc side of intra-arc rifting (spreading). These models can be differentiated by the relative age of the boninites and to a lesser degree, geochemistry. The distinctive geochemistry of boninites promotes their recognition in ancient terranes. As detailed in this report, several mafic terranes in the northeastern Appalachians contain boninites; these terranes were situated on both sides of Iapetus. The characteristics of these boninites can be used to constrain tectonic models of the evolution of the northeastern Appalachians. On the Laurentian side of Iapetus, "infant arc" boninites were not produced ubiquitously during the Cambrian subduction initiation, unless sampling problems or minimum age dates obscure a more widespread boninite "infant arc". The Cambrian subduction initiation on the Laurentian side was probably characterized by both "infant arc" boninitic arc construction (perhaps the >496 Ma Hawley Formation and the >488 Ma Betts Cove Ophiolite) and "normal" arc construction (Mt. Orford). This duality is consistent with the suggestion that the pre-collisional geometry of the Laurentian margin was complex. The Bay of Islands Complex and Thetford Mines ophiolite boninites are likely associated with forearc/intra-arc spreading during the protracted evolution of the Cambrian arc system. The relatively young boninites in the Bronson Hill Arc suggest that the Taconic continuous eastward subduction tectonic model is less tenable than other models. On the Gondwana side of Iapetus, the

  6. Temperature mediated moose survival in Northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, M.S.; Nelson, M.E.; Schrage, M.W.; Edwards, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The earth is in the midst of a pronounced warming trend and temperatures in Minnesota, USA, as elsewhere, are projected to increase. Northern Minnesota represents the southern edge to the circumpolar distribution of moose (Alces alces), a species intolerant of heat. Moose increase their metabolic rate to regulate their core body temperature as temperatures rise. We hypothesized that moose survival rates would be a function of the frequency and magnitude that ambient temperatures exceeded the upper critical temperature of moose. We compared annual and seasonal moose survival in northeastern Minnesota between 2002 and 2008 with a temperature metric. We found that models based on January temperatures above the critical threshold were inversely correlated with subsequent survival and explained >78 of variability in spring, fall, and annual survival. Models based on late-spring temperatures also explained a high proportion of survival during the subsequent fall. A model based on warm-season temperatures was important in explaining survival during the subsequent winter. Our analyses suggest that temperatures may have a cumulative influence on survival. We expect that continuation or acceleration of current climate trends will result in decreased survival, a decrease in moose density, and ultimately, a retreat of moose northward from their current distribution.

  7. Families in the Field: exploring northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Kelda

    2017-04-01

    Northeastern Illinois topography is dominated by evidence of the Pleistocene: glacial moraines, kettle lakes, bogs, and of course, Lake Michigan - the fifth largest freshwater lake in the world. My high school students have grown up within this landscape and their familiarity provides a springboard for us to dive deeper into their understanding of continental glaciers and Ice Ages. However, these features have merely functioned as a background to their lives. My goal is to inspire, by having them stand in the field and imagine how it all would have appeared 11,000 years ago. For the past five years, the Geology teachers at Warren Township High School have been leading voluntary weekend hikes with our students and their families. The Geology teachers guide the hike with a more technical explanation of the landscape, and our students rise to the occasion as they share what they know with their parents, siblings, and peers. This opens lines of communication, increases student motivation, enhances the course material, and allows us to see on our landscape within the context of dynamic Earth systems.

  8. Myxomycetes, state of Ceara, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty four genera and 215 species of Myxomycetes are present in northeastern Brazil, covering83 % of families, all subclasses and orders recognized for these microorganisms. Ceará, with an area of148,825,602 km2, is one of the least explored of the nine states in this region of the country, with records of 27species, distributed across 13 genera, occurring in a humid forest environment of the southern mesoregion.The dominant vegetation type is the Caatinga (dry, tree-shrub deciduous vegetation, with patches of Cerrado(savanna-like vegetation, Carrasco (montane deciduous shrub vegetation and fragments of Pluvio-nebularTropical Subperennial Forest and Pluvial Tropical Subdeciduous Forest. In order to better document thediversity of myxomycetes in that state, specimens were collected from the field between 2002-2007 in Ceará’snorthern and northwestern mesoregions. The specimens obtained were deposited at the UFP Herbarium.Eighteen species were recorded, occurring in the Caatinga vegetation and the records of Comatricha, Crateriumand Metatrichia increase the number of genera which comprise Ceará’s myxobiota to 16. Arcyria denudata,Craterium leucocephalum, Badhamia panicea, B. melanospora, Didymium intermedium, Metatrichia vesparia,Physarum rigidum and P. tenerum are new records for Ceará, increasing the number of species known to occurin the state to 37.

  9. Paleoenvironment of the Dalichai Formation, northeastern Semnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Navidi Izad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Palaeonvironment of the Dalichai Formation, northeastern Semnan, is envisaged based on 69 samples studied palynologically. Diverse and well-preserved palynofloras, viz., miospores, dinoflagellate cysts, foraminiferal test linings, acritarchs, wood debris (plant tissue and Amorphous Organic Matters (AOM occur in the material examined. The presence of relatively abundant proximate dinoflagellates and ±laevigate acritarchs in the lower part of the section studied implies sedimentation in a turbulent shallow environment. However, occurrence in the upper part of the section of abundant chorate dinoflagellates as well as notable proportion of blade-shaped to equal dimensional opaque palynomacerals seem to signify marine incursion and accumulation in an open marine setting. In most of the samples examined, prevalence of transparent AOM denotes a low oxygenated environment and slow rate of accumulation. Moreover, incidence of three palynofacies types (II, IV, VI in the pertinent material also corroborates a shallow low oxygenated environment with low sedimentation rate which gradually deepened upward in the section.

  10. Climate variability and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome transmission in Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Yi; Guo, Wei-Dong; Fang, Li-Qun; Li, Chang-Ping; Bi, Peng; Glass, Gregory E; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Sun, Shan-Hua; Qian, Quan; Liu, Wei; Yan, Lei; Yang, Hong; Tong, Shi-Lu; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2010-07-01

    The transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is influenced by climatic variables. However, few studies have examined the quantitative relationship between climate variation and HFRS transmission. We examined the potential impact of climate variability on HFRS transmission and developed climate-based forecasting models for HFRS in northeastern China. We obtained data on monthly counts of reported HFRS cases in Elunchun and Molidawahaner counties for 1997-2007 from the Inner Mongolia Center for Disease Control and Prevention and climate data from the Chinese Bureau of Meteorology. Cross-correlations assessed crude associations between climate variables, including rainfall, land surface temperature (LST), relative humidity (RH), and the multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index (MEI) and monthly HFRS cases over a range of lags. We used time-series Poisson regression models to examine the independent contribution of climatic variables to HFRS transmission. Cross-correlation analyses showed that rainfall, LST, RH, and MEI were significantly associated with monthly HFRS cases with lags of 3-5 months in both study areas. The results of Poisson regression indicated that after controlling for the autocorrelation, seasonality, and long-term trend, rainfall, LST, RH, and MEI with lags of 3-5 months were associated with HFRS in both study areas. The final model had good accuracy in forecasting the occurrence of HFRS. Climate variability plays a significant role in HFRS transmission in northeastern China. The model developed in this study has implications for HFRS control and prevention.

  11. Holocene Environmental Magnetic Studies in northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Yang, T.

    2010-12-01

    This study will present the environmental magnetic results analyzed from two lacustrine sediment cores raised from Ta-Hu Lake of Ilan County at northeastern Taiwan. The total recovered length of core DH-7A is of about 53.3 meters and that of the core DH-7B is of about 35.5 meters. Based on the C-14 dating, the former core could provide the information for the whole Holocene and the later one could support the data at least for the last 7,600 years. For those magnetic proxies representing the abundant variation of magnetic minerals, such as SIRM, bIRM, ARM, HIRM etc., show very spiky patterns. High abundant signals are usually accompanied by increasing of the fine grain signal (ARM/χ) and decreasing the S-ratio. Based on the difference between the magnetic results of the two cores and the analysis of organic matters of the core, these spikes might represent the flooding events brought the sediments from the outside drainage area into the lake due to severe heavy rainfalls in the area studied. In addition, based on the characteristic variation patterns of the used magnetic proxies several periods could be delimited. Higher sedimentation rate could be found at the two periods, 7600~5800 yrB.P. and 2000~500 yrB.P., which is of about 3-4 times of the others. Also their magnetic signals changed much frequent than the others. The results may related to the strengthen/weaken evolution of the East Asia monsoon.

  12. Denitrification in marine shales in northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Bruce, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    Parts of the South Platte River alluvial aquifer in northeastern Colorado are underlain by the Pierre Shale, a marine deposit of Late Cretaceous age that is water in the aquifer is contaminated with NO3/-, and the shale contains abundant potential electron donors for denitrification in the forms of organic carbon and sulfide minerals. Nested piezometers were sampled, pore water was squeezed from cores of shale, and an injection test was conducted to determine if denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/- and to measure denitrification rates in the shale. Measured values of NO3/-, N2, NH4/+, ??15[NO3/-], ??15N[N2], and ??15N[NH4/+] in the alluvial and shale pore water indicated that denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/-. Chemical gradients, reaction rate constants, and hydraulic head data indicated that denitrification in the shale was limited by the slow rate of NO3/- transport (possibly by diffusion) into the shale. The apparent in situ first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale based on diffusion calculations was of the order of 0.04-0.4 yr-1, whereas the potential rate constant in the shale based on injection tests was of the order of 60 yr-1. Chemical data and mass balance calculations indicate that organic carbon was the primary electron donor for denitrification in the shale during the injection test, and ferrous iron was a minor electron donor in the process. Flux calculations for the conditions encountered at the site indicate that denitrification in the shale could remove only a small fraction of the annual agricultural NO3/- input to the alluvial aquifer. However, the relatively large potential first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale indicated that the percentage of NO3/- uptake by the shale could be considerably larger in areas where NO3/- is transported more rapidly into the shale by advection.

  13. PATOLOGÍAS RESPIRATORIAS EN NIÑOS PREESCOLARES Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA CONCENTRACIÓN DE CONTAMINANTES EN EL AIRE EN LA CIUDAD DE MEDELLÍN (COLOMBIA RESPIRATORY PATHOLOGIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR ASSOCIATION TO AIR POLLUTANT CONCENTRATION IN MEDELLIN CITY (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Herrera Torres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio fue realizado por la Universidad de Medellín y la Universidad CES para la Secretaría de Salud del municipio de Medellín durante el período comprendido entre diciembre de 2006 y noviembre de 2007. El objetivo fue establecer la asociación entre la concentración de varios contaminantes atmosféricos en la ciudad de Medellín y la presencia de patologías respiratorias en niños escolarizados. Se trató de un estudio observacional, analítico, de cohorte, en una población de niños con edad igual o inferior a cinco años. En el estudio se encontró que los niños que residían en zonas de Medellín con altos niveles de PM2.5, PM10, hollín y plomo en el aire aumentan el riesgo de sufrir infecciones respiratorias o crisis asmáticas en un 49.3%.This study was conducted by Universidad de Medellín and Universidad CES for Medellin Municipality Health Secretariat from December 2006 to November 2007. The purpose of this study was to establish the association between concentration of several air pollutants in Medellin City and the presence of respiratory pathologies in school children. It was a cohort analytical observational study conducted to children of 5 years or younger. It was found that children residing in Medellin areas having PM2.5 and PM10 levels of soot and lead in air are at a higher risk (49.3% of suffering from respiratory infections or asthmatic disorders.

  14. Metabolic problems in northeastern Thailand: possible role of vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitprija, V; Tungsanga, K; Tosukhowong, P; Leelhaphunt, N; Kruerklai, D; Sriboonlue, P; Saew, O

    1993-01-01

    Common metabolic problems in northeastern Thailand include renal stone disease, distal renal tubular acidosis, hypokalemic periodic paralysis, sudden unexplained nocturnal death and malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus. There is evidence of decreased activity of Na,K-ATPase and H,K-ATPase. A preliminary study was made of the vanadium concentration in the soil and water in northeastern Thailand. The urinary and tissue vanadium concentrations were also determined in the northeastern villagers. The soil was found to have high vanadium content. The vanadium content was also high in the urine, kidneys and lungs of the villagers. It is postulated that these metabolic problems are attributed to the inhibition of Na,K-ATPase and H,K-ATPase activity by vanadium.

  15. Representaciones bibliotecarias sobre la biblioteca pública, la lectura, el lector, la promoción y la animación a la lectura en Medellín, Colombia Library representations about the Public library, reading, the reader, and promotion and encouragement to reading in Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Álvarez Zapata

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda las representaciones bibliotecarias sobre la biblioteca pública, la lectura, el lector, la promoción y la animación a la lectura que tienen los directores y promotores de lectura de las bibliotecas públicas de la ciudad de Medellín.Library representations about Public library, reading, the reader, and promotion and encouragement to reading maintained by reading directors and promoters in the public libraries of the city of Medellin, are approached.

  16. 40 CFR 81.144 - Northeastern Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.144 Northeastern Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeastern Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeastern Virginia Intrastate...

  17. Large Human Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in North-Eastern Italy in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Barzon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation.

  18. Ozone sensitivity to its precursor emissions in northeastern Mexico for a summer air pollution episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, A; Vanoye, A Y; Mendoza, A

    2013-10-01

    A summer episode was modeled to address the expected response of ambient air O3 to hypothetical emission control scenarios in northeastern Mexico, and in particular in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA). This region is of interest because the MMA holds one of the worst air quality problems in the country and levels of air pollutants in the rest of northeastern Mexico are starting to be a concern. The MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ platform was used to conduct the numerical experiments. Twenty-four control scenarios were evaluated, combining the level of emission controls of O3 precursors (NO(x) and volatile organic compounds [VOCs]) from 0% to 50%. For the MMA, VOC-only controls result in the best option to reduce O3 concentrations, though the benefit is limited to the urban core. This same strategy results in negligible benefits for the rest of northeastern Mexico. NO(x) controls result in an increase in O3 concentration within the MMA of up to 20 ppbv and a decrease at downwind locations of up to 11 ppbv, with respect to the base-case scenario. Indicator ratios were also used to probe for NO(x)-sensitive and VOC-sensitive areas. Locations with an important influence of NO(x) point sources (i.e., Monclova and Nava/Acuña) are quite sensitive to changes in NO(x) emissions. Border cities in the Rio Bravo/Grande Valley tend to be marginally NO(x)-sensitive. Overall, the MMA seems to be dominated by a VOC-sensitive regime, while the rest of the region would tend to have a NO(x)-sensitive response. The results obtained serve to expand the current knowledge on the chemical regimes that dominate this region (VOC- or NO(x)-sensitive), and thus could help guide public policies related to emission regional control strategies.

  19. Outbreaks of Vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus in horses and cattle in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, Juliana F; Olinda, Roberio G; Maia, Lisanka A; de Aguiar, Gildeni M N; Neto, Eldinê G M; Simões, Sara V D; de Lima, Tatiane G; Dantas, Antônio F M; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-11-01

    The current article describes outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis (VS) in horses and cattle in Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte states, northeastern Brazil, between June and August 2013. The reported cases affected 15-20 horses and 6 cattle distributed over 6 small farms in 4 municipalities, but additional data indicated the involvement of a large number of animals on several farms. The disease was characterized by blisters; eruptive lesions in coronary bands, lips, mouth, and muzzle; salivation; claudication and loss of condition. Swollen lower limbs and lips, and ulcerated and erosive areas in the lips and muzzle were observed in some horses. A necrotizing vesiculopustular dermatitis and stomatitis was observed histologically. Vesicular stomatitis virus was isolated from the vesicular fluid of a horse lesion and shown to be serologically related to the VS Indiana serogroup (VSIV) by virus neutralization. Convalescent sera of affected horses and cattle, and from healthy contacts, harbored high levels of neutralizing antibodies against the isolated virus (named VSIV-3 2013SaoBento/ParaibaE). Genomic sequences of VSIV subtype 3 (Vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus) were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction out of clinical specimens from a cow and a horse from different farms. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the phosphoprotein gene indicated that the 2 isolates were derived from the same virus and clustered them in VSIV-3, along with VS viruses identified in southeastern and northeastern Brazil in the last decades. Thus, the present report demonstrates the circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazil and urges for more effective diagnosis and surveillance.

  20. Prevalencia y factores asociados al VIH en habitante de calle de la ciudad de Medellín Colombia / Prevalence and factors associated with hiv among the street dwellers of Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedsy Berbesí

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de VIH y explorar su relación con características sociales y demográficas de habitantes de calle de la ciudad de Medellín en el año 2014. Metodología: se realizó un estudio descriptivo-transversal para determinar la seroprevalencia de VIH y se exploraron factores sociales y demográficos asociados a la infección por VIH en habitantes de calle de la ciudad de Medellín en el año 2014. El procesamiento de datos fue realizado en el software SPSS 21.0. Los análisis incluyeron descripción univariada y bivariada, se utilizó la prueba estadística de Chi cuadrado; razón de prevalencia (RP intervalos de confianza del 95% asumiendo un nivel de significación estadística menor del 5%. Resultados: se encuestaron 184 habitantes de calle, el 80% eran hombres, con un promedio de edad de 40 (DE 11,4 años. Se identificó una prevalencia de VIH del 8,2%; para los hombres esta prevalencia fue de 6,1% y para las mujeres fue de 16,2%. Las mujeres tuvieron tres veces el riesgo de VIH comparado con los hombres y las personas casadas y en unión libre cinco veces el riesgo de tener VIH comparado con los solteros, separados y divorciados. Conclusión: la prevalencia mayor del 5% en la población habitante de calle, muestra que la infección por VIH en Colombia está concentrada en poblaciones clave (alta prevalencia y vulnerables y se requieren acciones focalizadas hacia grupos específicos. / ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIV and describe the social and demographic characteristics of street dwellers Medellin in 2014. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study where the authors determined the seroprevalence of HIV and explored the social and demographic factors associated with HIV infection among street dwellers of the city of Medellin in 2014. The data were processed using the SPSS 21.0 software. Analyses included univariate and bivariate descriptions, and the statistical Chi

  1. LUDOPATHY AND THE EMPLOYEES AT SAINT BONAVENTURE UNIVERSITY, MEDELLIN BRANCH, COLOMBIA, 2010. La ludopatá y los empleados en la Universidad de San Buenaventura seccional Medellín – 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Cano Bedoya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:El presente estudio consiste en una descripción del uso de los juegos de azar y vídeo juegos en los estudiantes, docentes y empleados de la Universidad de San Buenaventura, seccional de Medellín, y su relación con las dimensiones médica y psicológica con variables como son: dificultades de concentración, cambio del estado de ánimo, las molestias físicas, preferir el juego a las prácticas deportivas y la distensión que produce el juego; en este tercer momento se presentan los resultados con empleados. Para esto, se aplicó en un cuestionario a una muestra de 158 empleados, de una población de 250 de ellos, para el año 2010; se aplicó en el primer semestre de 2010, para un 95% de validez y un margen de error del 5%. This current article consists of a description of the use of game of chance and videogames, by the students, instructors, and employees at saint Bonaventure University, Medellin Branch and its relationship with both medical and psychological dimensions, which include variables like the following: concentration difficulties, change of mood, physical discomfort, preference of games to sports, and relaxed atmosphere as it is produced by games. In this second stage, the results with employees are shown. For such a purpose, a questionnaire, to a sample of 135 employees out of a population of 250 individuals, was given, corresponding to the year 2010. It was given during the first quarter of the same year, yielding a result of 95% validity and an error margin of 5%.

  2. 75 FR 60340 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 600 to 659, revised as of...

  3. Earthworm communities along an elevation gradient in Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Emerita Garcia; Veronica Cruz; Sonia Borges; Marcela Zalamea; Maria M. Rivera

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe earthworm communities along an elevation gradient of eight forest types in Northeastern Puerto Rico, and determine whether their abundance, biomass and/or diversity is related to climatic, soil physical/chemical and/or biotic characteristics. We found that the density, biomass, and diversity of worms varied significantly among forest types....

  4. Trends in recreational vehicle traffic in northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur Norton; Karen Noyce; Thomas J. Wood

    1980-01-01

    Many northeastern Minnesota communities depend upon outdoor recreation activities and tourism for a substantial portion of their yearly cash inflow. While the recreation and tourism industry in the region has grown steady in recent years, it may prove to be less stable in the future than other industries, for at least two basic reasons: (1) while sociologists and...

  5. Proceedings of the 2004 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, comp., ed. Bricker; ed. comp.

    2005-01-01

    Contains articles presented at the 2004 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover place attachment, diverse populations, tourism economics, visitor management, tourism development, perceptions, preferences and attitudes, trends, visitor choice and resource attributes, norms and carrying capacity, specialization and participant development, planning and...

  6. Proceedings of the 2007 northeastern recreation research symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc; Christine, comps. Vogt

    2008-01-01

    Contains articles and posters presented at the 2007 northeastern recreation research symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and gender, recreation resource allocation, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, tourism impacts, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure...

  7. Proceedings of the 2008 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Klenosky; Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; eds.

    2009-01-01

    Contains articles and posters presented at the 2008 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover tourism marketing, fish and wildlife, place meaning, leisure and gender, recreation resource allocation, nature-based tourism, methods, leisure motives, outdoor recreation management, tourism impacts, outdoor recreation among specific populations, leisure...

  8. An Examination of Current Assessment Practices in Northeastern School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaus, Joseph; Rinaldi, Claudia; Bigaj, Stephen; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the central role of assessment in special education, there is a paucity of current research on instruments and methods used in schools. Special education directors (N = 164) in five northeastern states responded to an electronic survey related to the use of assessment instruments and methods in their districts. Data are presented regarding…

  9. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Dendrobium nobile from Northeastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Sriram; Sundar, Durai

    2016-01-01

    The orchid species Dendrobium nobile belonging to the family Orchidaceae and genus Dendrobium (a vast genus that encompasses nearly 1,200 species) has an herbal medicinal history of about 2000 years in east and south Asian countries. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of D. nobile from northeastern India for the first time.

  10. Proceedings of the 1997 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans G. Vogelsong; [Editor

    1998-01-01

    Contains articles presented at the 1997 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover recreation; protected areas and social science; water based recreation management studies; forest recreation management studies; outdoor recreation management studies; estimation of economic impact of recreation and tourism; place meaning and attachment; tourism studies;...

  11. Proceedings of the 2001 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon. Comp, ed. Todd

    2002-01-01

    Contains 71 articles presented at the 2001 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium which seeks to foster quality information exchange between recreation, tourism, and resource managers and researchers throughout the Northeast. The forum provides opportunities for recreation and tourism research managers from different agencies, state, and government levels, as well...

  12. Proceedings of the 2003 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, comp., ed. Murdy; ed. comp.

    2004-01-01

    Contains articles presented at the 2003 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. Contents cover planning issues, communications and information, management presentations, service quality and outdoor recreation, recreation behavior, founders? forum, featured posters, tourism and the community, specialized recreation, recreation and the community, management issues in...

  13. Conservation Priorities for Terrestrial Birds in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth V. Rosenberg; Jeffrey V. Wells

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Partners in Flight (PIF) bird-conservation planning process, we assessed breeding land bird species according to seven categories of population vulnerability to derive a priority species pool in each of 12 physiographic areas that overlap the northeastern U.S. We then grouped species into the following habitat-species suites: (1) boreal-mountaintop...

  14. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Sipuncula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Edward B.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Key to Sipuncula (Peanut Worms); (3) Annotated Systematic List of Species;…

  15. Genetic characteristics of red foxes In northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A Green; Benjamin N Sacks; Leonard J Erickson; Keith B Aubry

    2017-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes macroura), once common in the Blue Mountains ecoregion of northeastern Oregon, was considered rare in eastern Oregon by the 1930s and thought to be extirpated by the 1960s, when putatively new Red Fox populations began to appear. Although the new foxes were long presumed to be nonnative (originating from...

  16. Tropical cyclone statistics in the Northeastern Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Vadillo, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur (UABCS), La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Zaytsev, O. [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico)]. E-mail: ozaytsev@ipn.mx; Morales-Perez, R. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua (IMTA), Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    The principal area of tropical cyclogenesis in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean is offshore in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, between 8 and 15 degrees Celsius N, and most of these cyclones move towards the west and northwest during their initial phase. Historical analysis of tropical cyclone data in the Northeastern (NE) Pacific over the last 38 years (from 1966 to 2004) shows a mean of 16.3 tropical cyclones per year, consisting of 8.8 hurricanes 198 and 7.4 tropical storms. The analysis shows great geographical variability of cyclone tracks, and that there were a considerable number of hurricane strikes along the Mexican coast. About 50% of the tropical cyclones formed turned north to northeast. It was rare that any passed further north than 30 degrees Celsius N in latitude because of the cold California Current. Hurricane tracks that affected the NE Pacific may be separated into 5 groups. We compared the historical record of the sea surface temperature (SST), related with the El Nino events with a data set of tropical cyclones, including frequency, intensity, trajectory, and duration. Although the statistical dependence between the frequencies of tropical cyclones of the most abundant categories, 1 and 2, over this region and SST data was not convincing, the percentage of high intensity hurricanes and hurricanes with a long life-time (greater than 12 days) was more during El Nino years than in non-El Nino years. [Spanish] La principal region de la formacion de ciclones en el oceano Pacifico Este es el Golfo de Tehuantepec, entre los 8 y los 15 grados Celsius N. En su fase inicial los ciclones se mueven hacia el oeste y el noroeste. El analisis historico de los ciclones que se han generado durante los ultimos 38 anos (de 1966 a 2004) muestra un promedio de 16.2 ciclones por ano, consistentes en 8.8 huracanes y 7.4 tormentas tropicales. El analisis muestra una gran variabilidad geografica en la trayectoria de los ciclones, de los cuales un gran numero impacta las

  17. Effects of climate on variability in Lyme disease incidence in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subak, Susan

    2003-03-15

    Numbers of reported Lyme disease cases have increased dramatically over the past decade in the northeastern United States, but the year-to-year variability is sizable (average standard deviation approximately 30% of the mean). An improved understanding of the causes of such variability would aid in prevention and control of the disease, which is transmitted by a spirochete carried in the "black-legged" tick, Ixodes scapularis. In this study, the variability in reported Lyme disease incidence between 1993 and 2001 in seven northeastern US states was analyzed as an outcome of weather variability. For all seven states analyzed, significant (p Hydrological Drought Index) in the region 2 years previously. The correlations may reflect enhanced nymph tick survival in wetter conditions. Few significant relations were found with same-year moisture index, which suggests that moisture has a greater effect on nymph tick survival following the insect's blood meal than before. In some states, significant correlations were observed related to warmer winter weather a year and a half prior to disease incidence, which may have been due to higher survival and activity levels of the white-footed mouse, the main host for Lyme disease-infected ticks.

  18. Archaeofaunal insights on pinniped-human interactions in the northeastern Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford-Gonzales, D; Newsome, S; Koch, P; Guilderson, T; Snodgrass, J; Burton, R

    2004-02-07

    Human exploitation of pinnipeds has considerable antiquity but shows increasing impacts on population numbers in the Holocene. Pinnipeds are a rich source of fat as well as protein. A few well-documented cases of regional extirpation of seals and sea lions by non-industrial peoples exist. The northeastern Pacific region, from southern California to Alaska, has yielded archaeological evidence for distributions and abundances of eared seals that differs markedly from historically documented biogeography. This is especially true of the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), among the most common pinnipeds in many archaeological sites from the Santa Barbara Channel area through to Kodiak Islands. This chapter reviews contemporary eared seal biogeography, evidence for the earlier timing and extent, of occurrence of northern fur seals along the northeastern Pacific coast, zooarchaeological and isotopic evidence for their foraging and probable maintenance of rookeries in lower latitudes, and for their disappearance from the southernmost part of their ancient distribution well before European contact. It also reviews ongoing debates over the behavioral ecology of ancient fur seals and over humans role in contributing to their disappearance.

  19. Frequency of intestinal parasites and evaluation of methods for their diagnosis in a marginal community of Medellin, Colombia = Frecuencia de parásitos intestinales y evaluación de métodos para su diagnóstico en una comunidad marginal de Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiberth Antonio Cardona Arias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitism is still a public health problem. It has not been thoroughly studied in Medellin, Colombia. Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in residents of a marginal community in Medellin and to evaluate the validity, efficiency and reliability of direct examination in its diagnosis. Methods: Cross-sectional study and evaluation of diagnostic tests. Data were collected from a primary information source. Proportions with their confidence intervals were calculated; non-parametric statistical tests and analysis of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, negative likelihood ratio and kappa were done. Results: Prevalence of parasites, according to the results of the concentration test, was 74.4%. Evaluation was done for intestinal parasites in general and for the following categories: protozoa, helminthes, commensals and pathogens. Sensitivity war over 68%, specificity and positive predictive value were 100%, negative predictive value was over 74%, negative likelihood ratio was less than 0.32, kappa was greater than 0.77 and efficiency was over 90%. Conclusion: Prevalence of intestinal parasitism is as high as it was three decades ago; its solution needs prompt and effective intervention of health authorities. The tests available for its study, including direct examination of stools, are of high diagnostic value.

  20. Detection of the Northeastern African Rift Valley Fever Virus Lineage During the 2015 Outbreak in Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Ndeye Sakha; Bâ, Hampâté; Fall, Gamou; Ishagh, Elkhalil; Diallo, Mamadou Y; Sow, Abdourahmane; Sembene, Pape Mbacké; Faye, Ousmane; El Kouri, Brahim; Sidi, Mohamed Lemine; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2017-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute viral anthropozoonosis that causes epizootics and epidemics among livestock population and humans. Multiple emergences and reemergences of the virus have occurred in Mauritania over the last decade. This article describes the outbreak that occurred in 2015 in Mauritania and reports the results of serological and molecular investigations of blood samples collected from suspected RVF patients. An RVF outbreak was reported from 14 September to 26 November 2015 in Mauritania. Overall, 184 suspected cases from different localities were identified by 26 health facilities. Blood samples were collected and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the Institut Pasteur de Dakar (IPD). Sequencing of partial genomes and phylogenetic analyses were performed on RT-PCR-positive samples. As part of routine surveillance at IPD, samples were also screened for dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses by ELISA and RT-PCR. Of the 184 suspected cases, there were 57 confirmed cases and 12 deaths. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences indicated an emergence of a virus that originated from Northeastern Africa. Our results show co-circulation of other arboviruses in Mauritania-dengue, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, and West Nile viruses. The Northeastern Africa lineage of RVF was responsible for the outbreak in Mauritania in 2015. Co-circulation of multiples arboviruses was detected. This calls for systematic differential diagnosis and highlights the need to strengthen arbovirus surveillance in Africa.

  1. The Adjustment of the Manufacturing Labors in the Northeastern, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlasun Thuninart

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Northeastern labors used to live in the community cultures moved to work at the garment factory. The capitalism and the national economic and social development plan of Thailand were the causes. The policy of this plan was to make Thailand modern and emphasized development of an economic power. The Northeastern labors lacked of the lands for planting and turned to be head over heels in dept. They migrated to be the labors in the industry section for themselves, their families and the rural communities can survive under the capitalism context. The purpose of the article was to study the adjustment of the manufacturing labors in the garment manufacturing in Khon Khaen province located in Northeast of Thailand. Approach: It was a qualitative research. Data collection included interviews and participant observations and document analysis. Research data was classified into groups on study topic and analyzed on the purpose of study by using descriptive analysis. Informants included 60 key informants were the labors, the owned factory and the officer. Results: The result of this research was the adjustment causes of the labors who worked at the garment factory has divided into 3 conflict levels were as follows: (1 practicing, (2 norm and (3 value and ideal. These causes made them by adjusting themselves to economy acculturation for sufficient economy, namely employees stopped working when they earned enough money and the adjustment in duration of work hours was not strict. The Northeastern labors adjusted themselves for stopped working with traditional condition that was called “Heatsipsong”. It was the cultural capital of the Northeastern labors and the adjustment from cultural integration of the labors. The Northeastern labors enjoyed working as collective work and the rule and duty in work were held to a family and kinship structure; however, the rule and duty in the scheduling and assigning of employees was up to a

  2. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Dendrobium nobile from Northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konhar, Ruchishree; Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Debnath, Manish; Parameswaran, Sriram; Sundar, Durai; Tandon, Pramod

    2016-10-06

    The orchid species Dendrobium nobile belonging to the family Orchidaceae and genus Dendrobium (a vast genus that encompasses nearly 1,200 species) has an herbal medicinal history of about 2000 years in east and south Asian countries. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of D. nobile from northeastern India for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Konhar et al.

  3. Evaluation of Methane Sources in Groundwater in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A.; Wylie, Albert S; Wagner, Tom; Farhat, Shahla K

    2013-01-01

    Testing of 1701 water wells in northeastern Pennsylvania shows that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater, with higher concentrations observed in valleys vs. upland areas and in association with calcium-sodium-bicarbonate, sodium-bicarbonate, and sodium-chloride rich waters—indicating that, on a regional scale, methane concentrations are best correlated to topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction. In addition, our assessment of isotopic and molecular analyses of...

  4. Life cycle assessment of cricket farming in north-eastern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Hanboonsong, Y; Roos, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    presents the first case of a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed on an existing production system of Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer (field cricket) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket) production in north-eastern Thailand and compares it with broiler production in the same region. The system boundaries...... of the production system considered the entire production cycle of edible crickets as well as processing. The study included two functional units (1 kg of edible mass and 1 kg of protein in edible mass). Irrespective of the functional unit, larger impacts were associated with broiler production. Major hotspots...... for cricket and broiler production were related to the production soybean meal and maize grain for feed. A scaled-up cricket farming system which was considered as a possible 'future' scenario demonstrated a reduction in overall environmental impacts when compared to current cricket production and industrial...

  5. Mastitis in lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, T; Molla, B

    2001-01-01

    Quarter milk samples (n = 543) from 152 traditionally managed lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia were examined to determine the prevalence of camel mastitis and identify its bacterial causes. Out of 152 camels examined, 19 (12.5%) were diagnosed as clinical mastitis cases based on clinical signs and bacteriological examinations. Of the 257 California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive quarter milk samples 162 (63.0%) yielded pathogenic bacteria. A positive correlation was observed between CMT positive results and presence of major pathogens in camel milk samples. The main mastitis pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, and other species of streptococci, Pasteurella haemolytica and E. coli. Results of the present study suggest that mastitis in Afar camels is prevalent, Gram-positive cocci are the major isolates from camel milk samples and the CMT can be used as a screening test for the detection of mastitis in camels.

  6. Development of temporal modeling for prediction of dengue infection in Northeastern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siriwan Wongkoon; Mullica Jaroensutasinee; Krisanadej Jaroensutasinee

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To model the monthly number of dengue fever cases in northeastern Thailand using time series analysis.Methods: Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average(ARIMA)models have been developed on the monthly data collected from January 1981to December2006 and validated using the data from January 2007to April2010.Results:TheARIMA(3,1,4) model has been found as the most suitable model with the least Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) of14.060 and Mean Absolute Percent Error (MAPE)of7.000. The model was further validated by the Portmanteau test with no significant autocorrelation between residuals at different lag times.Conclusions:Early warning based on the data in the previous months could assist in improving vector control, community intervention, and personal protection.

  7. Ruminal paramphistomosis in cattle from northeastern Algeria: prevalence, parasite burdens and species identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titi, Amal; Mekroud, Abdeslam; Chibat, Mohamed el Hadi; Boucheikhchoukh, Mehdi; Zein-Eddine, Rima; Djuikwo-Teukeng, Félicité F.; Vignoles, Philippe; Rondelaud, Daniel; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Slaughterhouse samples were analysed over a two-year period (September 2010–August 2012) in Jijel (northeastern Algeria) in order to determine seasonal variations in the prevalence and intensity of bovine paramphistomosis in a Mediterranean climate and identify paramphistome species using molecular biology. In spring and summer, significantly higher prevalences and lower parasite burdens were noted in bull calves, thus indicating an effect of season on these parameters. In contrast, the differences among seasonal prevalences or among seasonal parasite burdens were not significant in the case of old cows. Eleven adult worms from the slaughterhouses of Jijel and three neighbouring departments (Constantine, El Tarf and Setif) were analysed using molecular markers for species identification. Two different species, Calicophoron daubneyi and C. microbothrium, were found. The presence of these two paramphistomids raises the question of their respective frequency in the definitive host and local intermediate hosts. PMID:25279553

  8. Modeling the hospital burden of common infectious diseases with application to northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardkaew, Jurairat; Tongkumchum, Phattrawan

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to identify the incidence patterns of the most common infectious diseases, including acute diarrhea, pyrexia of unknown origin, hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, and pneumonia, in the 7 provinces of northeastern Thailand, based on individual hospital case records of infectious disease routinely reported from 1999 to 2004. Log-linear regression analysis with age-group, season, and district as factors was used, with data from all 4 diseases as outcomes combined into 1 model. confirmed that the highest incidence of each infectious disease occurred in children aged less than 5 years of age, with particularly high rates for diarrhea. In addition, the burden of pyrexia of unknown origin was found to be lower in districts bordering Laos, and the incidence rates were higher from April to June in 1999-2001 and 2004 and from July to September in 2002-2003. Higher incidence rates also occurred in most rural districts of Loei and Udon Thani provinces.

  9. Study of factors influencing intestinal parasitic infections in a rural community in northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwansaksri, Jamsai; Garnngarndee, Upatham; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Soogarun, Supan

    2003-01-01

    We performed a survey in a rural village, in Nam Som District, Udon Thani Province, northeastern Thailand, focusing on intestinal parasitic infections and possible related personal factors. From a survey of the 178 villagers, we found the intestinal parasitic infection rate equal to 26.4% (47 cases). Further factor analysis was performed to find whether factors were related to the intestinal parasitic infections among the subjects. Of the total 20 factors analyzed, only three factors showed significant correlations with intestinal parasitic infections. The three factors were average annual income (p = 0.007), having a toilet (p = 0.040) and eating undercooked food (p = 0.010). The factors identified are the common problem described in many studies, the poor sanitation of the villagers. The economic status of the subjects is still an important factor influencing intestinal parasites among this sample of the Thai rural population.

  10. Disease agents in Amblyomma americanum from northeastern Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, A S; Moore, V A; Little, S E

    2004-07-01

    Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) is known or suspected to vector several organisms that are implicated as human pathogens, including Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia lonestari. These three agents have also been detected in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Because northeastern Georgia has a high abundance of both lone star ticks and white-tailed deer, and one of these organisms, E. chaffeensis, is already known to be endemic in the area, we assayed individual adult A. americanum, collected during the spring of 2001, 2002, and 2003, for these three organisms. A total of 400 ticks were dissected and tissues assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Ehrlichia species-specific and Borrelia genus-wide primers. Of ticks tested, 2.0% (8/398) had evidence of E. chaffeensis, 4.8% (19/398) had evidence of E. ewingii, and 1.0% (4/398) had evidence of B. lonestari. Borrelia sp. spirochetes were also visualized by an indirect fluorescent antibody test, using an anti-flagellin monoclonal antibody (H9724), in a total of 10.7% (32/300) of ticks tested in 2003. These results reconfirm the presence of E. chaffeensis and establish evidence of E. ewingii and B. lonestari in questing adult A. americanum ticks from northeastern Georgia. Detection of at least two of the three organisms in ticks collected each year suggests that people in northeastern Georgia are at risk of infection with these organisms.

  11. Issues of Caribou Management in Northeastern British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Harrison

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou inhabit most of Northeastern British Columbia. They live across a variety of climatic and geographic gradients and in areas with as many as seven other ungulate species and seven predatory species. This apparent variability in habitat use may suggest that caribou in the Northeast are wide ranging and ecologically plastic. Conversely, caribou in Northeastern B.C. may live in discrete groups that have adapted to local conditions. There are few published data of woodland caribou in Northeastern B.C. Information is lacking on the number of caribou, their seasonal movements, their habitat requirements, and their interactions with other species. Logging, seismic activity, pipeline construction, oil and natural gas drilling, hydro-electric dams, and prescribed burning have all impacted habitat in previously undeveloped areas. The manner and rate at which these activities are changing habitats far exceeds our growth in knowledge of caribou ecology. Given this combination of few data and rapid habitat alteration, resource managers cannot know the impact of these habitat changes. We believe that this jeopardises the conservation of viable caribou populations.

  12. Lithostratigraphy of the Kalahari Group in northeastern Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Heike; Wanke, Ansgar

    2007-08-01

    The Kalahari Group in northeastern Namibia consists of terrestrial sediments deposited in a tectonically active basin that was formed by flexural uplift of the African continental margin and independent structures related to rifting. The thickness of the sequence varies from a few meters to around 400 m. Greatest thicknesses occur where the NW-SE trending Kalahari basin axis conjugates with NE-SW trending grabens. Repeated phases of flooding and desiccation dominate the depositional environments of the Kalahari Group in northeastern Namibia. Associations of lithofacies allow recognition of distinct depositional settings such as proximal debris flows, braided streams and sand fans, and pans and sandflats. The northeastern Namibian Kalahari Group rests unconformable on the pre-Kalahari surface which showed a relatively pronounced relief in the Epukiro area. The succession starts with conglomerates, breccias and pebbly sandstones, followed by carbonates, sandstones of various maturities, and silcretes. Ferruginous sandstones and ferricretes occur locally. The onset of Kalahari Group deposition was likely a basin-wide event and therefore the basal lithostratigraphic units can be correlated with confidence. Conversely, the correlation of the succeeding lithostratigraphic units remains fairly speculative.

  13. Reproducibilidad en la lectura de un set de placas de citología cérvico-uterinas en cuatro centros especializados de Medellín, Antioquia / Reproducibility of reading a set of cervical cytology smears in four specialized centers in Medellin, Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Guevara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar el grado de reproducibilidad en la lectura de placas de citología cérvico-uterina entre cuatro centros de lectura especializados de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia. Metodología: 181 placas de citología cérvico-uterina provenientes de un estudio de prevalencia de anormalidades citológicas en Pueblorrico, Antioquia, se sometieron a lectura en cuatro centros especializados de Medellín. Se le pidió a cada centro que realizara una lectura rutinaria manteniendo el estudio en ciego por medio de recodificación de las placas, evitando que se filtrara información entre centros. Se calculó la concordancia general y el índice kappa de Fleiss. Resultados: de las 181 placas, sólo en 55 placas los 4 centros concordaron en el resultado, obteniéndose un porcentaje de concordancia global del 30% y un índice kappa global de 0,31. Según la escala de Fleiss, se observó una baja reproducibilidad en la lectura de las placas citológicas entre los cuatro centros involucrados en el estudio. La concordancia por pares de centros presentó índices de kappa entre 0,3 a 0,7. Discusión: existe una alta variabilidad en la interpretación de los resultados citológicos entre los centros estudiados. Es necesario implementar procesos de entrenamiento y unificación de criterios de lecturas de la citología cervical en nuestro medio Objective: to assess the degree of reproducibility in the reading of cervical cytology smears among four specialized reading centers at Medellin, Colombia. Methodology: 181 cervical cytology smears from a study on the prevalence of cytological abnormalities in Pueblorrico, a town located in the southwestern region of the state of Antioquia in Colombia, were re-read by four specialized centers in Medellin. Each center was asked to conduct a blind routine reading of the smears to avoid disclosure of information between centers. The reproducibility was measured by percentage agreement and kappa. Results: of 181 smears

  14. Problems and countermeasures on main mineral resource sustainable supply in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang LIU; Shouyi LI; Jian GUAN; Tingting ZHANG; Ying CHU; Jing ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    northeastern China is an important old industrial base in China. Mineral resources are the foundation of industry development. However, because of long-term exploitation of mineral resources in northeastern China, the mineral resources reserves decrease gradually and some mineral resources are nearly exhausted, which restricts revitalization and sustainable development of the northeast old industrial base. On the basis of the comprehensive analysis of development and utilization status of mineral resources and supply and demand situation of main mineral resources in northeastern China, the authors put forward countermeasures on main mineral resources sustainable supply in northeastern China.

  15. Can seamounts provide a good habitat for polychaete annelids? Example of the northeastern Atlantic seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surugiu, Victor; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Gillet, Patrick; Ruellet, Thierry

    2008-11-01

    Two seamount groups in the northeastern Atlantic were investigated during the 1980s and 1990s: the first was located along the Iberian and African coasts (Galicia, to the north of Portugal; and the Ampere, Gorringe, Josephine and Seine banks near the Madeira-Canary Islands) and the second was located offshore of the southern part of the Azores Islands, included the Atlantis, Hyeres, Irving, Meteor and Plato banks. Among the invertebrates, Annelida, specifically Polychaeta, were studied as surrogates for the biogeographical relationship between coastal and mid-oceanic seamounts in the northeastern Atlantic and the fauna in these areas. The dominant families were Onuphidae (27.46%), Syllidae (18.23%), Eunicidae (15.65%), Amphinomidae (11.45%) and Nereididae (5.61%), representing 78.4% of the total fauna. Data analyses clearly distinguished two seamount groups, one for coastal seamounts and the other offshore. Although the species distinguished and the family composition at the sampled sites were different (i.e., most diversified at the Josephine site and most impoverished at the Irving site), no coastal/offshore faunal impoverishment gradient could be identified. Thus, it seems that seamount environments do not favour any relationship between planktotrophic development and the direct development of polychaetes. Though the number of apparent endemic species was low (<7%), it remained in keeping with other invertebrate groups. Still, while seamounts may well encourage oceanic biodiversity in some zoological groups, this was clearly not the case for the polychaetes. We offer two explanations for this paradox: pelagic productivity and local environmental conditions.

  16. Anthropogenic Nutrient Loading in the Northeastern US 1920-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. L.; Ng, M.; Brideau, J. M.; Hoover, J. H.; Thomas, B.

    2010-12-01

    Human activities have dramatically altered biogeochemical cycles on local to global scales. Altered fluxes of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) to freshwater systems have been driven directly by human-mediated fluxes (e.g., industrial N fixation) and indirectly due to changes in land and water systems that alter rates of biogeochemical transformations and transport vectors for nutrients. The Northeastern United States as a region underwent many biophysical and political changes over the 20th century, making it an excellent case study for understanding human-biogeochemical relationships over time. From 1920 to 2000, this region experienced significant losses of agricultural land and increases in forest and urban land cover. Furthermore, major national and state legislation, including nuisance laws and the Clean Water Act, was passed during the 20th century to control pollution problems, and major technological advances in wastewater treatment were made. Our goals were to: 1) describe quantitative changes in the spatial patterns of water quality over time, 2) understand the proximate (e.g., changes in land use, new technology) and 3) ultimate (e.g., major demographic, economic, social shifts) drivers of those patterns. Using data from the historic Census of Agriculture, the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, and primary literature, we create a comprehensive time series database of anthropogenic N and P inputs to the Northeast terrestrial system. Inputs are estimated for each county at decadal time scales. Inputs included atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, fertilizer, manure, enhanced biological nitrogen fixation, and domestic waste. We used this database, in conjunction with data on land use, reservoirs, climate, and stream nutrient loads estimated from USGS NWIS to develop a modified export coefficient model for 26 watersheds in the Northeast. We then used this model to estimate nutrient loads at the decadal scale for all HUC 8 watersheds in our study region

  17. A new species of Chiroderma (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VA. Taddei

    Full Text Available A new species of Chiroderma Peters, 1860 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from the State of Piauí in Northeastern Brazil is described based on mensural analysis, morphological data and geographical distribution. It is most similar morphologically to C. doriae Thomas, 1891 but differentiated by a smaller body size and by differences in cranial traits. In comparison to other members of the genus, the new species can be distinguished by a combination of characters, including size of the body, conspicuousness of facial and median dorsal stripes, ear length, and variation in cranial and dentition traits.

  18. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria N; Queiroz, Dulciene M M; Rodrigues, Rodrigo T; Rocha, Andreia M C; Luz, Carlos R L; Braga, Lucia L B C

    2005-10-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was assessed in a randomly selected sample of individuals from low-income community in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. Overall, 384 out of 610 participants (62.9%) were H. pylori positive. A 47.5% infection rate was found in subjects aged six months to 10 years old, increased to 73.3% in subjects aged 11-20 years and then continued to increase with age reaching up to 87% in those over 60 years old. After this age group, the prevalence decreased slightly. The prevalence of infection increased significantly with age (p<0.0001).

  19. The Bay Scallop, Argopecten irradians amplicostatus, in Northeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Wakida-Kusunoki, Armando T.

    2009-01-01

    The bay scallop, Argopecten irradians amplicostatus, has been present in the coastal lagoons of northeastern Mexico from Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas, to Tuxpan, Veracruz. But now, usually scarce in all lagoons, the scallop is harvested sporadically by fishermen who wade and collect them by hand and with tongs. Some are eaten by the fishermen and some are sold. They bring the fishermen about 60 pesos (5.88US$)/kg. Only the adductor muscles are eaten; they are prepared in cocktails and in cevic...

  20. Temporal Changes in Nitrogen Pollution in Northeastern Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Valdo Liblik

    2001-01-01

    During the last 5 decades the northeastern part of Estonia (the region where oil shale and the chemical industry are located) has been subjected to pollution with acidic compounds. In 1981–1988 the yearly mean nitrogen (N) deposition load was up to 11.1 kg ha–1. This N pollution level combined with the deposition of sulphur (S) could have seriously endangered the environment, but the simultaneous emission of strongly alkaline fly ash restrained acidification processes. After 1989–1991 the sit...

  1. 76 FR 43773 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... access general category (LAGC) fleets; open area days-at-sea (DAS) and Sea Scallop Access Area (access... Part 648 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework... 0648-BA72 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery;...

  2. 40 CFR 81.79 - Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.79 Section 81.79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.79 Northeastern Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Tulsa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Northeastern Oklahoma...

  3. 40 CFR 81.240 - Northeastern Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.240 Northeastern Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeastern Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) consists of the territorial area... Quality Control Region. 81.240 Section 81.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  4. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae and Sphyriidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ju-Shey

    This report is part of a sub-series to aid biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers, and informed laymen in the identification and study of marine flora and fauna of the Northeastern United States. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Glossary; (3) Key to the marine lernaeopodoid copepods of the Northeastern United…

  5. Mimosa tenuiflora as a cause of malformations in ruminants in the northeastern Brazilian semiarid rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, L A; Correa, F Riet; Gardner, D; Panter, K E; Dantas, A F M; Medeiros, R M T; Mota, R A; Araújo, J A S

    2007-11-01

    Craniofacial anomalies, eye malformations, and permanent flexures of the forelimbs are common malformations seen in ruminants grazing semiarid rangelands of Northeastern Brazil. To investigate the cause of these malformations, we fed 2 suspected plants, Mimosa tenuiflora or Prosopis juliflora, to groups of 4 pregnant goats each. Fresh green M. tenuiflora was collected daily and fed ad libitum to 4 goats in group 1 throughout pregnancy. This treatment group also received a supplemental feed concentrate equivalent to 1% body weight. Four goats in group 2 received a ration with 70% of P. juliflora pods and 30% hay throughout pregnancy. Four control goats were fed supplemental feed concentrate (1% body weight) and hay ad libitum throughout pregnancy. Goats treated with P. juliflora pods and the control goats delivered 9 normal kids. The four goats that were fed M. tenuiflora during pregnancy delivered 4 kids, 3 of which had abnormalities similar to those observed in field cases, including cleft lip, unilateral corneal opacity, ocular bilateral dermoids, buphthalmos with a cloudy brownish appearance of the anterior chamber due to an iridal cyst, and segmental stenosis of the colon. Malformations induced experimentally by M. tenuiflora were similar to those observed in field cases, suggesting that M. tenuiflora is a cause of the field cases observed in the Brazilian semiarid rangelands.

  6. Inherited Genetic Markers for Thrombophilia in Northeastern Iran (a Clinical-Based Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Keify

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombophilia is a main predisposition to thrombosis due to a procoagulant state. Several point mutations play key roles in blood-clotting disorders, which are grouped under the term thrombophilia. These thrombophilic mutations are methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, C677T, and A1298C, factor V Leiden (G1691A, prothrombin gene mutation (factor II, G20210A, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI. In the present study, we assessed the prevalence of the above thrombophilia markers in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss or first and second trimester abortions, infertility, and failed in vitro fertilization (IVF. Methods: This study was conducted among 457 cases those were referred to detect the inherited genetic markers for thrombophilia. Markers for MTHFR, Factor II, and Factor V were assessed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP, and PAI was assessed by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS-PCR. Results: Two hundred sixty cases (56.89% were diagnosed as having at least one thrombophilia marker, whereas 197 cases (43.11% had no thrombophilia markers and were normal. Conclusion: According to the current study, the pattern of abnormal genetic markers for thrombophilia in northeastern Iran demonstrates the importance of genetic evaluations in patients who show clinical abnormalities with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA or other serious obstetric complications.

  7. Risk factors and outcomes of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter bloodstream infection in North-eastern Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zakuan Zainy Deris; Mohd Nazri Shafei; Azian Harun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors and outcomes of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacterbaumannii (IRAB) bloodstream infection (BSI) cases, since there is very little publication on Acinetobacter baumannii infections from Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional study of 41 cases (73.2%) of imipenem-sensitive Acinetobacter baumanii (ISAB) and 15 cases (26.8%) of IRAB was conducted in a teaching hospital which was located at North-Eastern state of Malaysia. Results:There was no independent risk factor for IRAB BSI identified but IRAB BSI was significantly associated with longer bacteraemic days [OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.01, 1.50)]. Although prior use of carbepenems and cephalosporin were higher among IRAB than ISAB group, statistically they were not significant. There was no significant difference in term of outcomes between the two groups. Conclusions: Although statistically not significant, this analysis compliments previous publication highlighting the importance of appropriate empiric antibiotic usage in hospital especially carbepenems and need further evaluation with bigger subjects.

  8. Experiencia de caries en dentición primaria en niños de 5 años, Medellín, Colombia/ Caries experience in primary dentition among 5-year-olds in Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca S. Ramírez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    modified dmft were 1.9 ± 2.9 and 4.9±4.6 respectively. For children of lower classes, the classic dmft was 2.2±3.1, and 0.6±1.2 for those of higher classes. In contrast, the values of the the modified dmft were 5.4±4.7 and 1.9±2.8 respectively. Conclusion: five-year-olds of lower classes in Medellin had high levels of dental caries, which points to a need to implement health prevention and care programs in oral health from early ages.

  9. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  10. Haemodialysis services in the northeastern region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kiani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease is growing and the current estimated global prevalence exceeds 13%. As the use of haemodialysis machines for patients with end stage renal disease increases survival considerably, it is critical to plan correctly for the allocation of these machines. This study aimed to develop a geographical information systems (GIS-based approach to predict the need for this service in the northeastern region of Iran taking into account where patients live and where haemodialysis is the most needed and identifying areas with poor access to haemodialysis centres. Patients were interviewed to obtain self-reported actual travel time and the inverse distance-weighting algorithm was used to determine access in each area. The prediction is based on the domestic growth rate for haemodialysis services and the estimated active hours of machine use for the next five years. We estimate that six new haemodialysis machines are required in northeastern Iran at the present time with 50 machines required over the next five years. Ashkhane City was identified to have the least access to haemodialysis centres in the study area. Our GIS-based model can be used to investigate not only the need for new haemodialysis machines but also to examine geographic disparities in the allocation of haemodialysis centres and to identify areas most in need of this service. It is important that policymakers consider both spatial and non-spatial dimensions of access to enable better allocation of haemodialysis services ensuring they are targeted to reach those in need.

  11. REVIEW: MONASTIC AND LAY TRADITIONS IN NORTH-EASTERN TIBET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Weiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Yangdon Dhondup, Ulrich Pagel, and Geoffrey Samuel (eds. 2013. Monastic and Lay Traditions of North-Eastern Tibet. Leiden and Boston: Brill. Monastic and Lay Traditions in North-Eastern Tibet, edited by Yangdon Dhondup, Ulrich Pagel, and Geoffrey Samuel, is the product of a 2011 workshop convened at St. Michael's College, Llandaff, Cardiff. Although the conference's focus was the tantric practitioner community of the Reb kong region (Ch. Tongren, the resultant volume expands the scope of inquiry to include surrounding areas as well as monastic communities. The editors have organized the volume's nine chapters into three sections, the first on the Dge lugs pa monastic establishment, the second on Rnying ma pa and Bon tantric communities, and finally 'Ritual and Performance in Contemporary Reb kong'. While the chapters are all informative and scholarly, providing new, important empirical detail on an underresearched subject, several tend toward the descriptive. The most successful contributions, however, present their findings within larger analytical and contextual frameworks, giving their chapters explanatory weight beyond the more narrow confines of their studies.

  12. Reevaluation of the Seismicity and seismic hazards of Northeastern Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Suleman, abdunnur; Aousetta, Fawzi

    2014-05-01

    Libya, located at the northern margin of the African continent, underwent many episodes of orogenic activities. These episodes of orogenic activities affected and shaped the geological setting of the country. This study represents a detailed investigation that aims to focus on the seismicity and its implications on earthquake hazards of Northeastern Libya. At the end of year 2005 the Libyan National Seismological Network starts functioning with 15 stations. The Seismicity of the area under investigation was reevaluated using data recorded by the recently established network. The Al-Maraj earthquake occurred in May 22nd 2005was analyzed. This earthquake was located in a known seismically active area. This area was the sight of the well known 1963 earthquake that kills over 200 people. Earthquakes were plotted and resulting maps were interpreted and discussed. The level of seismic activity is higher in some areas, such as the city of Al-Maraj. The offshore areas north of Al-Maraj seem to have higher seismic activity. It is highly recommended that the recent earthquake activity is considered in the seismic hazard assessments for the northeastern part of Libya.

  13. Climate Changes in Northeastern China During Last Four Decades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The northeastern China is a sensitive region of climate change, whose detailed trend of climate changes is highly interesting. In this study, this kind of variation trend was analyzed. Potential evapotranspiration (PE) and moisture index (MI) were modeled by using Thornthwaite scheme based on the observation data of 1961-2004 from 94 meteorological stations. To describe the climate fluctuation in the northeastern China in 1961-2000, the linear regression method was used to analyze the variation trends of mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, PE and MI. Mann-Kendall method was used to test the significant difference. The results show a general increasing tendency in mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, PE and MI. However increasing tendency was more significant in mean annual temperature and PE than in mean annual precipitation and MI. Analysis of seasonal climate variation indicates that there showed positive trends in winter and in spring, while the positive trend was more significant in winter than in spring. Furthermore, the relations between climate changes and geographical factors were analyzed, the results show that both climate factors and their interannual variability were correlated to latitude, longitude and altitude,suggesting that latitude is the most climate factor affecting climate changes, followed by altitude and longitude.

  14. Epibenthic community variability in the northeastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo, Alexandra M.; Konar, Brenda; Trefry, John H.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.

    2014-04-01

    Epibenthic organisms can occur in large numbers and high biomass on the continental shelf of the northeastern Chukchi Sea. From an ecosystem perspective, epibenthic organisms are important in recycling and redistributing organic matter deposited from the pelagic zone, and they also are key members of the local food web. Data for biological (epibenthic species composition, abundance, and biomass) and environmental (bottom water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH, sediment grain size, sediment organic matter and sediment chlorophyll content, latitude, longitude, and water depth) variables were collected at 53 stations in the northeastern Chukchi Sea during the summers of 2009-2010 to characterize the epibenthos and provide a benchmark for potential future changes due to possible anthropogenic disturbances. Community biomass, abundance, species composition and taxa richness varied in patches throughout the study area, but were generally dominated by crustaceans and echinoderms. These two groups had an inverse relationship in the distribution of their dominance. Communities dominated by crustaceans had significantly higher Simpson's dominance and Pielou's evenness values compared to echinoderm-dominated communities. Correlation coefficients for six environmental variables (longitude, bottom water temperature, water depth, bottom water dissolved oxygen, sediment grain size 2 phi and total organic carbon) with epifaunal abundance and biomass were moderate (0.42 for abundance and 0.51 for biomass at a significance level of 0.1%). However, assemblages within the study area followed a distinct spatial distribution pattern that matched the path of important water masses in the region.

  15. On the potential high acid deposition in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junji; Tie, Xuexi; Dabberdt, Walter F.; Jie, Tang; Zhao, Zhuzi; An, Zhisheng; Shen, Zhenxing; Feng, Yinchang

    2013-05-01

    is an acid deposition conundrum in China: contrary to conventional wisdom, extremely high ambient sulfate concentrations in northeastern China are not always accompanied by correspondingly high acidities. To investigate this discrepancy, data from two independent sets of in situ field measurements were analyzed along with Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite observations and Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART) chemical transport model calculations. The field measurements included soluble aerosol ion concentrations and pH and particulate data from 11 cities, as well as pH measurement data from 74 sites in China. This study explores the basis for and the impacts of the large discrepancy in northeastern China between the major acidity precursors (SO2 and NOx) and measured acidity levels as indicated by pH values. There are extremely high SO2 emissions and ambient concentrations in northeastern China, while the corresponding acidity is unusually low (high pH) in this region. This is inconsistent with the usual situation where high-acidity precursor pollutants result in low pH (high acidity) values and acid rain conditions. In other regions, such as southern China and the United States, high SO2 concentrations are typically well correlated with high acidities. Using measured soluble particle measurements (including both positively and negatively charged ions), it is seen that there are high values of alkaline ions in northeastern China that play an important role in neutralizing acidity in this region. This result strongly suggests that the high alkaline concentrations, especially Ca2+, increase warm season pH values by about 0.5 in northern China, partially explaining the inconsistency between sulfate concentrations and acidity. This has a very important implication for acid rain mitigation—especially in northeastern China. However, there are additional issues pertaining to the precursor

  16. Radioactivity in wastes generated from shale gas exploration and production - North-Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodłowski, Paweł; Macuda, Jan; Nowak, Jakub; Nguyen Dinh, Chau

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, the K-40, U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Ra-228 and Th-228 activity concentrations were measured in 64 samples of wastes generated from shale gas exploration in North-Eastern Poland. The measured samples consist of drill cuttings, solid phase of waste drilling muds, fracking fluids, return fracking fluids and waste proppants. The measured activity concentrations in solid samples vary in a wide range from 116 to around 1100 Bq/kg for K-40, from 14 to 393 Bq/kg for U-238, from 15 to 415 Bq/kg for Ra-226, from 12 to 391 Bq/kg for Pb-210, from a few Bq/kg to 516 Bq/kg for Ra-228 and from a few Bq/kg to 515 Bq/kg for Th-228. Excluding the waste proppants, the measured activity concentrations in solid samples oscillate around their worldwide average values in soil. In the case of the waste proppants, the activity concentrations of radionuclides from uranium and thorium decay series are significantly elevated and equal to several hundreds of Bq/kg but it is connected with the mineralogical composition of proppants. The significant enhancement of Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations after fracking process was observed in the case of return fracking fluids, but the radium isotopes content in these fluids is comparable with that in waste waters from copper and coal mines in Poland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A study on plasma Testosterone levels in Abudefduf vaigiensis at the Northeastern Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soltanzadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although sex steroids play an important role in many physiological processes including reproduction in vertebrates there is a few information about the effects of these hormones on the reproduction of fishes, specially the coral-reef ones in literature. Evaluation of the fluctuations in these hormones is of the great importance in the reproductive studies. In the present research, we monitored monthly changes of the plasma levels of testosterone during the gonadal development for 120 Abudefduf vaigiensis specimens, collected randomly by the angling from a reef habitat at coastal waters of the eastern Qeshm Island, the northeastern Persian Gulf, through the Enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA technique. The results exhibit the significant changes in the measured values of testosterone due to the role of these hormones in gonadal development during the vitellogenesis in six months of a year (October to March 2013. Thus, the mean value of the testosterone evaluated in the case of 47 female and 34 male specimens presents a significant reduction during winter compared to that of measured in autumn. The average measured testosterone were increased during the summer and reached to its maximum value in August in the case of both sexes.

  18. Origin of the late quaternary dune fields of northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Stafford, T.W.; Cowherd, S.D.; Mahan, S.A.; Kihl, R.; Maat, P.B.; Bush, C.A.; Nehring, J.

    1996-01-01

    Stabilized eolian deposits, mostly parabolic dunes and sand sheets, cover much of the landscape of northeastern Colorado and adjacent parts of southwestern Nebraska in four geographically distinct dune fields. Stratigraphic and soil-geomorphic relations and accelerator radiocarbon dating indicate that at least three episodes of eolian sand movement occurred between 27 ka and 11 ka, possibly between 11 ka and 4 ka, and within the past 1.5 ka. Thus, eolian sand deposition took place under both glacial and interglacial climatic conditions. In the youngest episodes of eolian sand movement, Holocene parabolic dunes partially buried Pleistocene sand sheet deposits. Late Holocene sands in the Fort Morgan and Wray dune fields, to the south of the South Platte River, have trace element ratios that are indistinguishable from modern South Platte River sands, but different from Ogallala Formation bedrock, which has previously been cited as the main source of dune sand on the Great Plains. Sands in the Greeley dune field, to the north of the South Platte River, have trace element concentrations that indicate a probable Laramie Formation source. Measurements of parabolic dunes indicate paleowinds from the northwest in all dune fields, in good agreement with resultant drift directions calculated for nearby weather stations. Thus, paleowinds were probably not significantly different from present-day winds, and are consistent with a South Platte River source for the Fort Morgan and Wray dune fields, and a Laramie Formation source for the Greeley dune field. Sand accumulated downwind of the South Platte River to form the Fort Morgan dune field. In addition, sand was also transported farther downwind over the upland formed by the calcrete caprock of the Ogallala Formation, and deposited in die lee of the upland on the southeast side. Because of high wind energy, the upland itself served as a zone of sand transport, but little or no sand accumulation took place on this surface. These

  19. New species of Pseudachorutes (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Northeastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoughailech, Abdelmalek; Hamra-Kroua, Salah; Deharveng, Louis

    2016-08-31

    Three new species of Pseudachorutes are described from the Collo massif in northeastern Algeria, all three with morphological features unique or rare in the genus. P. deficiens sp. nov. lacks chaeta E on the labium, a character only retrieved in P. ouatilouensis Najt & Weiner, 1997 from New Caledonia, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and of chaeta M on tibiotarsus. P. octosensillatus sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that have 8 S-chaetae on Ant IV. P. labiatus sp. nov. has 3 x-papillae on the labium, like P. cf. indiana Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980 from Alaska, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and a lower number of vesicles in PAO (5-6 vs 10-14).

  20. Prevalence of Chagas' Disease in Mulungu do Morro Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Aras

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - The aim of this paper is to describe the prevalence of T. Cruzi infection in patients of from Mulungu do Morro, a rural tropical region of Northeastern Brazil. METHODS - A cross-sectional study was performed. After randomly selecting samples of the population, and obtaining their consents , patients completed pretested epidemiological and clinical questionnaires. Serum samples from all patients were collected and screened for the presence of T. cruzi antibodies. RESULTS - Of 694 patients examined, 174 patients (25.1% tested had a positive serology for Chagas' disease. Of the study population, 341 patients were male with 27% Chagas' disease prevalence, without a statistical difference. Illiteracy was the only variable related to T. cruzi infection in our population. CONCLUSION - In conclusion, our study points to the high prevalence of Chagas' disease among patients in Mulungu do Morro, suggesting that this region has a high frequency of infection and probably active vectorial transmission.

  1. Northeastern North American Pleistocene megafauna chronologically overlapped minimally with Paleoindians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Matthew T.; Lyman, R. Lee

    2014-02-01

    It has long been argued that specialized big-game-hunting Paleoindians were responsible for the extinction of three dozen large-bodied mammalian genera in North America. In northeastern North America, the overkill hypothesis cannot be tested on the basis of associations of Paleoindian artifacts and remains of extinct mammals because no unequivocal associations are known. The overkill hypothesis requires Paleoindians to be contemporaneous with extinct mammalian taxa and this provides a means to evaluate the hypothesis, but contemporaneity does not confirm overkill. Blitzkrieg may produce evidence of contemporaneity but it may not, rendering it difficult to test. Overkill and Blitzkrieg both require large megafaunal populations. Chronological data, Sporormiella abundance, genetics, and paleoclimatic data suggest megafauna populations declined prior to human colonization and people were only briefly contemporaneous with megafauna. Local Paleoindians may have only delivered the coup de grace to small scattered and isolated populations of megafauna.

  2. The late Cretaceous Arman flora of Magadan oblast, Northeastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, A. B.; Golovneva, L. B.; Shczepetov, S. V.; Grabovsky, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Arman flora from the volcanogenic-sedimentary beds of the Arman Formation is systematically studied using materials from the Arman River basin and the Nelkandya-Khasyn interfluve (Magadan oblast, Northeastern Russia). Seventy-three species of fossil plants belonging to 49 genera are described. They consist of liverworts, horsetails, ferns, seed ferns, cycadaleans, bennettitaleans, ginkgoaleans, czekanowskialeans, conifers, gymnosperms of uncertain systematic affinity, and angiosperms. The Arman flora shows a unique combination, with relatively ancient Early Cretaceous ferns and gymnosperms occurring alongside younger Late Cretaceous plants, primarily angiosperms. The similarity of the Arman flora to the Penzhina and Kaivayam floras of northwestern Kamchatka and the Tylpegyrgynai flora of the Pekul'nei Ridge allows the Arman flora to be dated as Turonian and Coniacian (Late Cretaceous), which is corroborated by isotopic (U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar) age determination for the plant-bearing layers.

  3. Evaluation of methane sources in groundwater in northeastern Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A; Wylie, Albert S; Wagner, Tom; Farhat, Shahla K

    2013-01-01

    Testing of 1701 water wells in northeastern Pennsylvania shows that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater, with higher concentrations observed in valleys vs. upland areas and in association with calcium-sodium-bicarbonate, sodium-bicarbonate, and sodium-chloride rich waters--indicating that, on a regional scale, methane concentrations are best correlated to topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction. In addition, our assessment of isotopic and molecular analyses of hydrocarbon gases in the Dimock Township suggest that gases present in local water wells are most consistent with Middle and Upper Devonian gases sampled in the annular spaces of local gas wells, as opposed to Marcellus Production gas. Combined, these findings suggest that the methane concentrations in Susquehanna County water wells can be explained without the migration of Marcellus shale gas through fractures, an observation that has important implications for understanding the nature of risks associated with shale-gas extraction.

  4. ESR dating of teeth from northeastern Brazilian megafauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Angela [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Universidade Sagrado Coracao, 17011-160 Bauru-SP (Brazil); Barreto, Alcina; Alves, Rosenberg [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife-PE (Brazil); Maria Figueiredo, Ana; Eduardo de Souza Sarkis, Jorge; Dias, Marcelo L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), 05422-970 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)], E-mail: baffa@ffclrp.usp.br

    2008-02-15

    Two Stegomastodon waringi teeth from Brazilian northeastern megafauna were dated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The samples were collected in Pernambuco state, Brazil. The dating of these samples will contribute to the better knowledge of megafauna presence in this region as well as to the events associated to the extinction of these species. Additive dose method was used to evaluate the archeological dose (AD) and a non-linear relation between ESR signal amplitude and dose was obtained. The AD obtained by the exponential fitting was 120{+-}1 and 112{+-}1Gy, leading to an estimation of an age of 63{+-}8 and 60{+-}9ky for radioisotope early uptake model, 64{+-}8 and 60{+-}9ky for linear uptake and 60{+-}9ky for a combination of uptake processes.

  5. New species of Histiotus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Anderson; Da Rocha, Patrício Adriano; Althoff, Sergio Luiz

    2015-11-26

    Histiotus are vespertilionid bats endemic to South America, easily recognized by its very long ears. During a twelve-month bat inventory in northeastern Brazil, eleven specimens of Histiotus were collected with a unique combination of characters that did not match those of any known species. In this paper, we describe these specimens as a new species. Histiotus sp. nov is distinguished from its congeners by its pale transparent wings and translucent ears, a triangular-shaped ear with a prominent lobe in the inner border connected by a band (~4 mm) across the forehead; its general golden-brownish body color and well-marked bicolor dorsal hairs. Its geographic distribution is unique among vespertilionids, arranged in a northeast-southwest diagonal across South America, includes the Caatinga and Cerrado of Brazil and Chaco of Bolivia. The available data suggest a seasonal reproductive pattern, with births occurring in the mid to late rainy season.

  6. Postnatal depression and its associated factors among Northeastern Nigerian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Sulyman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postnatal depression is a serious psychiatric condition that occurs in puerperium. It is associated with increased morbidity and can overwhelm new mothers and interfere with the care of their babies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of postnatal depression and assess factors that are associated with its development among northeastern Nigerian women. Materials and Methods: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS questionnaire was administered to four hundred and eighty-three women who delivered at the maternity unit of a tertiary health institution in northeastern Nigeria. Their sociodemographic and clinical variables were also obtained using pro forma questionnaire designed by the researchers. Results: One hundred and eight respondents scored 13 or more points on EPNDS, making the prevalence rate of postnatal depression 22.4%. Factors that are associated with the development of postnatal depression are unemployment [odds ratio (OR = 0.49, 95% (CI = 0.27-0.86, P value = 0.018, lack of support from the husband (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.19-0.60, P value = 0.000, and primiparity (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.88, P value = 0.013; others are unplanned pregnancy (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.88, P value = 0.013 and physical illness in the mother (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.77-2.79, P value = 0.007. Conclusion: The study showed that a significant proportion of new mothers have postnatal depression. This may negatively affect their parenting skills and may have adverse effects on them and their children. Early detection and effective management, together with an efficient collaboration among psychiatrists, obstetricians, and other health workers who are involved in the care of new mothers, will go a long way in reducing the negative consequences that may result from this condition.

  7. Temporal Changes in Nitrogen Pollution in Northeastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdo Liblik

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 5 decades the northeastern part of Estonia (the region where oil shale and the chemical industry are located has been subjected to pollution with acidic compounds. In 1981–1988 the yearly mean nitrogen (N deposition load was up to 11.1 kg ha–1. This N pollution level combined with the deposition of sulphur (S could have seriously endangered the environment, but the simultaneous emission of strongly alkaline fly ash restrained acidification processes. After 1989–1991 the situation changed, and in 1994–1996 the N deposition load in northeastern Estonia remained within the range of 2.6 to 6.6 kg ha–1 year–1 and that of S within 2 to 50 kg ha–1 year–1. Because the fly ash deposition is permanently decreasing, more sensitive lichens and mosses can be subjected to critical N+S loads in the future. The proportion of oil shale industry in total emission of NOx in Estonia from stationary sources equals approximately 65 to 75%. During 1996–2000 the yearly mean concentration of NO2 in the air of towns increased from 9 to 12 to 16 to 29 μg m–3. The emission of N compounds was mainly caused by N oxides in flue gases from power plants, as well as ammonia and carbamide discharges from chemical plants. In 1988–1990 the estimated yearly total emission of NOx (as NO2 equivalent was about 18 to 18.6 thousand t and in 1994–2000, 9.9 to 11.8 thousand t.

  8. Temporal changes in nitrogen pollution in northeastern Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liblik, V

    2001-11-21

    During the last 5 decades the northeastern part of Estonia (the region where oil shale and the chemical industry are located) has been subjected to pollution with acidic compounds. In 1981-1988 the yearly mean nitrogen (N) deposition load was up to 11.1 kg ha(-1). This N pollution level combined with the deposition of sulphur (S) could have seriously endangered the environment, but the simultaneous emission of strongly alkaline fly ash restrained acidification processes. After 1989-1991 the situation changed, and in 1994-1996 the N deposition load in northeastern Estonia remained within the range of 2.6 to 6.6 kg ha(-1) year(-1) and that of S within 2 to 50 kg ha(-1) year(-1). Because the fly ash deposition is permanently decreasing, more sensitive lichens and mosses can be subjected to critical N+S loads in the future. The proportion of oil shale industry in total emission of NOx in Estonia from stationary sources equals approximately 65 to 75%. During 1996-2000 the yearly mean concentration of NO2 in the air of towns increased from 9 to 12 to 16 to 29 g m(-3). The emission of N compounds was mainly caused by N oxides in flue gases from power plants, as well as ammonia and carbamide discharges from chemical plants. In 1988-1990 the estimated yearly total emission of NOx (as NO2 equivalent) was about 18 to 18.6 thousand t and in 1994-2000, 9.9 to 11.8 thousand t.

  9. Sustainability Investigation of Resource-Based Cities in Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Improving the sustainability of traditional resource-based cities in China has been a core issue and policy-priority for Chinese government to establish long-term ecological civilization, particularly for northeastern China which is recognized as a typical agglomeration area of resources cities. In this study, we establish a three-layer index system consisting of a comprehensive layer, systemic layer, and variable layer, and including 22 indicators which are grouped into economic, social and environmental subsystems. After that, the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution method was applied to measure and rank the sustainability of the selected 15 typical resource-based cities in northeast China, and then a GIS (Geographical Information System technique based on the software of SuperMap was applied to map the sustainability in terms of the spatial effects among these cities. The results reveal that a unilateral improvement of a subsystem did not mean an improvement or contribution to whole system. In detail, during the past 15 years from 2000 to 2015, the comprehensive sustainability of resource-based cities in Northeastern China shows a declining trend in the mass, and the sustainability of the economic subsystem shows increase; the sustainability of the social system remains stable, while the environmental subsystem shows decrease. These situations might result from policy interventions during the past 15 years, therefore, promoting the sustainability of resource-based cities needs a historical approach, which should focus on the coordinated development of its economic, social, and environmental subsystems.

  10. Physically Compromised and Physically Talented Children in Northeastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planinšec Jurij

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to determine the share of physically compromised and physically talented children in northeastern Slovenia. The sample comprised 621 children aged nine to eleven years, among which there were 316 girls (M=10; SD=0.8 and 305 boys (M=10; SD=0.81. In order to assess their motor skills, seven different tests were used, mostly from Eurofit test battery, which covered explosive power, repetitive power balance, eye–hand coordination, speed of simple movements, whole body coordination, and endurance. The assessment was made for each physical fitness test separately. The cut-off points for determination of physically compromised and physically talented children were set at -1SD and +1SD, respectively. The results of all physical fitness tests showed that the share of physically compromised children exceeded ten percent for both genders. The largest number of boys and girls were physically compromised with regard to endurance and balance, respectively. On the other hand, boys proved to be most physically talented with regard to endurance, and girls with regard to explosive power. Gender differences were most obvious with regard to general endurance, as 21 per cent of the boys were physically compromised as opposed to 13 per cent of the girls. As for physical talent, we observed less gender-related differences. The results indicate increasing differences in physical fitness among children from northeastern Slovenia. The implementation of curricular and extracurricular sports activities should aim at reducing the number of physically compromised children. On the other hand, it would make sense to encourage physically talented children to get involved in organized forms of exercise.

  11. Conservação dos recursos hídricos em brejos de altitude: o caso de Brejo dos Cavalos, Caruaru, PE Conservation of water resources in humid areas in Northeastern Brazil: a case study of "Brejo dos Cavalos", Caruaru, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. P. Braga

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Brejos de altitude são formações vegetais disjuntas da Mata Atlântica, que ocorrem no Agreste de Pernambuco e Paraíba, como ilhas de umidade no ambiente semi-árido da Caatinga. O Parque Vasconcelos Sobrinho, situado na Serra dos Cavalos, em Caruaru, PE, é um exemplo do pouco que resta desses brejos na região. Com 359 ha, abriga uma floresta exuberante e diversos corpos d'água, porém vem sofrendo intenso processo de degradação, em decorrência da agricultura irrigada em seu interior e da exploração de argila no entorno. Para uma caracterização dos recursos hídricos foram obtidos, no período de 1998 a 2000, dados de chuva, de vazão nos riachos do Chuchu e Capoeirão, e de qualidade da água, nos dois cursos d'água e nos três maiores reservatórios existentes no Parque. No estudo de demandas pelo uso da água, ênfase maior foi dada aos conflitos da atividade de irrigação em relação ao uso da água para abastecimento público e à preservação dos ecossistemas locais. Neste trabalho, conclui-se que em Brejo dos Cavalos a precipitação pluviométrica é superior a do seu entorno, devido a razões orográficas e à própria existência da floresta remanescente, mas o desmatamento progressivo tende a alterar as condições microclimáticas locais. Neste contexto, o cultivo do chuchu é o principal consumidor de água no Parque, gerando perda de vazão dos cursos d'água e menor aporte para os reservatórios, os quais já começaram a sofrer assoreamento, devido a processos erosivos gerados sobretudo pelos desmontes na exploração da argila. Tais constatações exigem ação imediata do poder público, principalmente a implantação de um Plano de Manejo para o Parque.Humid areas at high altitude are found in semi-arid region of Pernambuco and Paraíba in Northeastern Brazil. Although the vegetation in the surrounding area is the semi-arid 'caatinga', in these high altitude areas, natural vegetation is similar to that of the

  12. Precipitation Frequency for Northeastern states, USA - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Northeastern states based on precipitation data collected between 1816-2014. This atlas...

  13. Tradeoffs Between Aesthetics and the Attenuation of Reactive Nitrogen in Northeastern Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, lakes have played a major role in the industrial, agricultural, and urban development of the northeastern United States though the provisioning of fresh water and hydropower. Although lakes continue to be important sources of freshwater, technological changes have r...

  14. Key Lab.of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials,Ministry of Education,Northeastern University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Key Lab.of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education,Northeastern University (Lab.of EPM)is established on the base of United Researching Centre of Shanghai Baosteel Group Corporation (Baosteel)-Northeasten University.

  15. 78 FR 45896 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trimester Closure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC782 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trimester Closure for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  16. 76 FR 39313 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA523 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  17. 78 FR 51131 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 697 RIN 0648-BD45 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  18. 78 FR 76759 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trimester Closure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XD024 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trimester Closure for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  19. 77 FR 58969 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC235 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist,...

  20. 76 FR 74009 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA825 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist, (978) 281-9224. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  1. Genetic data for groundfish - Genetics and genomics of northeastern Pacific groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct genetic analyses of groundfish in the northeastern Pacific, with a focus on population genetics and genomics of rockfishes and sablefish. Genetic data for...

  2. Relevance of rangeland degradation in semiarid Northeastern South Africa to the nonequilibrium theory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the nonequilibrium theory, livestock grazing has a limited effect on long-term vegetation productivity of semiarid rangelands, which is largely determined by rainfall. The communal lands in northeastern South Africa contain extensive...

  3. Geophysical and geological surveys along the northeastern flank of Mount error, Northwestern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Rajendraprasad, B.; Hansen, R.D.

    Bathymetry, multichannel continuous seismic reflection, magnetic and gravity surveys and sampling were carried out over Mount Error in the northwestern Indian Ocean and along the northeastern flank of the seamount, to study the nature of its...

  4. 1992: Northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  5. An unusual new species of Micraspis Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorani, J

    2014-01-01

    Micraspispusillus sp. n. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is described and illustrated from the northeastern region of India. It is unusual in possessing very large eye canthus and is the smallest species of the genus known from India so far.

  6. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  7. Cave-dwelling cyclopoids (Crustacea, Copepoda) from Venezia Giulia (northeastern Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoch, Fabio

    1987-01-01

    Description of some troglobiont cyclopids from cave waters of Venezia Giulia (northeastern Italy). Acanthocyclops gordani Petkovski, Acanthocyclops venustus stammen (Kiefer), Acanthocyclops troglophilus (Kiefer), Diacyclops charon (Kiefer) and Diacyclops tantalus (Kiefer), are recorded for the first

  8. 1995: Northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  9. Direct-current resistivity data from 94 sites in northeastern Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cathleen J.

    1988-01-01

    Direct-current resistivity data were collected from 94 vertical electric sounding profiles in northeastern Palm Beach County, Florida. Direct-current resistivity data, which may be used to determine the location and thicknesses of shallow, semipermeable marls or locate zones of high chloride concentration, are presented in this report. The resistivity data consist of field data, smoothed data, layer resistivity from smoothed data, and Cartesian graphs of resistivity in relation to depth for 94 sites located in northeastern Palm Beach County. (USGS)

  10. Effects of social change on wildlife consumption taboos in northeastern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Golden

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Madagascar, the constellation of taboos serves as a form of informal regulatory institution and is foundational to Malagasy culture, regardless of class, ethnic group affiliation, and educational background. Many researchers have credited rapid social change as a crucial mechanism for disturbing taboos. Others suggest that taboos are innately historical. However, very little empirical research has assessed the effects of social change on taboos or quantified the stability of taboo systems over time. Here, we use a case study of the ensemble of taboos in northeastern Madagascar, still a critical aspect of social life there, as a lens through which we investigate its degree of stability over time. Our aim was: (1 to describe the food taboos of local Malagasy living in northeastern Madagascar, and (2 to quantitatively assess the stability of these taboos to address certain claims regarding cultural erosion using an empirical, hypothesis-driven approach with rich ethnographic material to aid in interpretation. We investigated the temporal stability of taboos and local adherence to the moral framework, finding that approximately 3.0% of 4857 taboos were not adhered to at least once during the course of a 7-yr follow-up study. Additionally, we quantitatively explored the mediating effects of migration, modernization, and the spread of Western religion on number of taboos and level of adherence. We found that the presence of extra-local groups and migration did not decrease the number of taboos abided by locally, but did increase rates of nonadherence. Modernization accompanied by generational shifts tended to increase rather than erode the number of taboos, and younger individuals adhered to taboos to the same degree as older individuals. The effect of Western religion depended on the denomination, but generally reduced the number of taboos, although it did not affect adherence. The ways in which social change affects the stability of taboos are

  11. Moho Depth Variations in the Northeastern North China Craton Revealed by Receiver Function Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Chen, L.; Yao, H.; Fang, L.

    2016-12-01

    The North China Craton (NCC), one of the oldest cratons in the world, has attracted wide attention in Earth Science for decades because of the unusual Mesozoic destruction of its cratonic lithosphere. Understanding the deep processes and mechanism of this craton destruction demands detailed knowledge about the deep structure of the region. In this study, we used two-year teleseismic receiver function data from the North China Seismic Array consisting of 200 broadband stations deployed in the northeastern NCC to image the Moho undulation of the region. A 2-D wave equation-based poststack depth migration method was employed to construct the structural images along 19 profiles, and a pseudo 3D crustal velocity model of the region based on previous ambient noise tomography and receiver function study was adopted in the migration. We considered both the Ps and PpPs phases, but in some cases we also conducted PpSs+PsPs migration using different back azimuth ranges of the data, and calculated the travel times of all the considered phases to constrain the Moho depths. By combining the structure images along the 19 profiles, we got a high-resolution Moho depth map beneath the northeastern NCC. Our results broadly consist with the results of previous active source studies [http://www.craton.cn/data], and show a good correlation of the Moho depths with geological and tectonic features. Generally, the Moho depths are distinctly different on the opposite sides of the North-South Gravity Lineament. The Moho in the west are deeper than 40 km and shows a rapid uplift from 40 km to 30 km beneath the Taihang Mountain Range in the middle. To the east in the Bohai Bay Basin, the Moho further shallows to 30-26 km depth and undulates by 3 km, coinciding well with the depressions and uplifts inside the basin. The Moho depth beneath the Yin-Yan Mountains in the north gradually decreases from 42 km in the west to 25 km in the east, varying much smoother than that to the south.

  12. Spatial Characteristics of Edible Wild Fern Harvesting in Mountainous Villages in Northeastern Japan Using GPS Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Matsuura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild plants in forests provide valuable living resources for rural communities. The location where local people harvest various species is important to the wise use of forest ecosystem services. Using global positioning system (GPS tracking of harvesters’ activities as well as geographic information system (GIS and a generalized linear model (GLM, this study analyzed the spatial differences among harvesting sites of three popular edible ferns, i.e., ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris, bracken (Pteridium aquilinum, and royal fern (Osmunda japonica, in mountainous villages of Northeastern Japan. The explanatory variables used were vegetation classes, terrain features, and proximity to roadways. The GLM yielded clear differences in harvesting sites among species that were affected by both the species’ ecological characteristics and human behavior. Ostrich fern was harvested mainly in canopy openings along valley floors, whereas royal fern harvest sites were frequently located in snow avalanche scrublands. Bracken was mainly harvested in deforested areas or young conifer plantations. Whereas ostrich fern and bracken harvest sites were restricted by the accessibility from roadways, this was not the case for royal fern. Potential harvest sites of ferns were estimated with the highest value for bracken. Our results suggest that local harvesters seriously consider various natural and anthropogenic factors to maintain effective and sustainable harvesting.

  13. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region's net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region's energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  14. Daily rainfall variability over northeastern Argentina in the La Plata River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Norberto O; Pedraza, Raúl A

    2008-12-01

    We did a brief description of the climatic behavior and after this we analyzed the temporal variation in the total number of days a year with rainfall and the number of days a year with rainfall above the 100 mm threshold at the rain gauging stations in northeastern Argentina south of the La Plata River basin. The results show an increase both in the frequency of daily rainfall, especially during the winter season, and the frequency of days with heavy rainfall starting in the early 1970s. The increase in frequency of occurrence is more significant in the case of heavy rainfall. The annual maximum rainfall was calculated for periods of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 consecutive days at regional rain gauging stations for the respective historical periods, and the rain intensity-duration-return period curves (IDT) were determined on a frequency analysis. The IDT curves were compared with rainfall intensity-duration data of critical storms occurring in the last decades. We noticed that the rain intensities of critical storms (mostly convective) widely exceeded the intensities given by the 100-year IDT curves, particularly for short durations. The increase in both the frequency of heavy rainfall occurrence and rain intensity from the 1970s onward shows an increase in frequency and intensity of the meso-scale convective systems in the region resulting from climatic change. These systems tend to produce rainfall of very high intensity that is spatially concentrated and which generally produces significant floods in the local rivers.

  15. Resistance and Contingent Contestations to Large-Scale Land Concessions in Southern Laos and Northeastern Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Baird

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there have been considerable concerns raised regarding the social and environmental impacts of large-scale land concessions for plantation development in various parts of the world, especially in the tropics, including in Laos and Cambodia. However, there is still much to learn about the various connections and interactions associated with reactions to what are often referred to as “land grabs”, and the ways they are associated or not associated with broader social movements and networks opposed to land grabbing. There is also the need to develop language for discussing these circumstances, something I aim to contribute to in this article. Here, I present four different cases of types of resistance, or what I refer to as contingent contestations, to land concessions in southern Laos and northeastern Cambodia (two from each country, focusing on the perspectives and associated strategies of smallholder farmers, but without ignoring broader issues. I consider the roles of locals in these contestations, through emphasizing the importance of histories, identities/ethnicities, politics, and geography in determining the types of responses to these land deals that emerge, and the strategies that are adopted for contesting these developments.

  16. Ecosystem effects of a tropical cyclone on a network of lakes in northeastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Jennifer L; Richardson, David C; Ewing, Holly A; Hargreaves, Bruce R; Samal, Nihar R; Vachon, Dominic; Pierson, Donald C; Lindsey, Amanda M; O'Donnell, David M; Effler, Steven W; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2012-11-06

    Here we document the regional effects of Tropical Cyclone Irene on thermal structure and ecosystem metabolism in nine lakes and reservoirs in northeastern North America using a network of high-frequency, in situ, automated sensors. Thermal stability declined within hours in all systems following passage of Irene, and the magnitude of change was related to the volume of water falling on the lake and catchment relative to lake volume. Across systems, temperature change predicted the change in primary production, but changes in mixed-layer thickness did not affect metabolism. Instead, respiration became a driver of ecosystem metabolism that was decoupled from in-lake primary production, likely due to addition of terrestrially derived carbon. Regionally, energetic disturbance of thermal structure was shorter-lived than disturbance from inflows of terrestrial materials. Given predicted regional increases in intense rain events with climate change, the magnitude and longevity of ecological impacts of these storms will be greater in systems with large catchments relative to lake volume, particularly when significant material is available for transport from the catchment. This case illustrates the power of automated sensor networks and associated human networks in assessing both system response and the characteristics that mediate physical and ecological responses to extreme events.

  17. Caracterización de prácticas con TIC por actores diferenciados en cuatro comunas de la ciudad de Medellín Identification of ICT practices over different actors in four districts of the city of Medellin: an approach to the recognition of the technological appropiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patiño Lemos María Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, cuyo origen ha sido un proyecto de investigación con objetivos de largo alcance como el diseño, pilotaje e implementación de una propuesta comunicativo-pedagógica de formación en usos de las TIC (Tecnologías de comunicación e información, presenta los resultados del análisis cuantitativo concerniente a la caracterización de la población estudiada en términos de usos y prácticas cotidianas con las TIC digitales. Dicha población, abordada en las comunas 1, 7, 8 y 13 de la ciudad de Medellín, se agrupó por actores (estudiantes, docentes, emprendedores y empresarios con el ánimo de dar cuenta, en este aparte de la investigación, del impacto de las estrategias del programa de Medellín digital y de las transformaciones que, según las prácticas cotidianas diferenciadas por la actividad propia de la naturaleza del actor, pudieran reconocerse desde su relación con las TIC y desde éstas identificar características básicas de la apropiación. This article, which started as a research project with a long term goals scope, including the design and implementation of a communicative – pedagogical educational pilot program on the uses of the ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies, depicts the statistical analysis characterization of the population understudy about their ICT everyday utilization and practices. The sample, taken from 1, 7, 8, and 13 districts “comunas” of Medellin (low income neighborhoods was classified according to category (students, teachers, business people, and entrepreneurs, with the intention of illustrating the impact of the Medellin Digital program strategies in transforming the everyday life of each and every person according to their roles and practices, as well as identifying their relation to the ICT and their own appropriation needs.

  18. The Tianjin geothermal field (north-eastern China): Water chemistry and possible reservoir permeability reduction phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, Angelo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Orlando, Andrea [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Borrini, Daniele; Tassi, Franco [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Vaselli, Orlando [Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy); Huertas, Antonio Delgado [Estacion Experimental de Zaidin (CSIC), Prof. Albareda 1, 18008 Granada (Spain); Yang, Jincheng; Cheng, Wanquing [Aode Renewable Energy Research Institute, 90 Weijin South Road, Nankai District, 300381 Tianjin (China); Tedesco, Dario [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); Institute of Environmental Geology and Geo Engineering (CNR), Piazzale A. Moro 5, Roma 00100 (Italy); Poreda, Robert [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Rochester, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Injection of spent (cooled) thermal fluids began in the Tianjin geothermal district, north-eastern China, at the end of the 1990s. Well injectivities declined after 3-4 years because of self-sealing processes that reduced reservoir permeability. The study focuses on the factors that may have caused the observed decrease in permeability, using chemical and isotopic data on fluids (water and gas) and mineral phases collected from production and injection wells. The results of data processing and interpretation indicate that (1) it is very unlikely that calcite and silica precipitation is taking place in the reservoir; (2) the Fe- and Zn-rich mineral phases (e.g. sulfides, hydroxides and silicates) show positive saturation indexes; (3) SEM and XRD analyses of filtered material reveal that the latter mineral phases are common; (4) visual observation of casings and surface installations, and of corrosion products, suggests that a poor quality steel was used in their manufacture; (5) significant quantities of solids (e.g. quartz and feldspar crystals) are carried by the geothermal fluid; (6) seasonal changes in fluid composition lead to a reduction in casing corrosion during the summer. It was concluded that the decrease in injectivity in the Tianjin wells is caused only in part by the oxidation of casings, downhole pumps, and surface installations, triggered by free oxygen in the injected fluids; the utilization of better quality steels should drastically reduce this type of corrosion. Self-sealing of pores and fractures by reservoir formation solids and by the Fe-corrosion products suspended in the injected fluids seems to be a more important phenomenon, whose effect could be greatly reduced by installing filtering devices at all sites. (author)

  19. MICROCREDIT, MICROENTERPRISES AND SOCIAL WELFARE OF THE RURAL POOR IN NORTH-EASTERN TRINIDAD: AN EVALUATION OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Esnard-Flavius

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship between microcredit, microenterprises, and the social welfare of the rural poor in north-eastern Trinidad. Guided by the main propositions of social capital theory, the researchers held 45 semi-structured interviews with active participants/clients within a case study research design. The data showed that access to microcredit through Helping Others Prosper Economically (HOPE positively affected their microenterprises and social welfare, though marginally. Findings also revealed that fragmented social relations within the network, conflict, distrust, and the loose structure of the program limited the impact of their access to microcredit on social welfare as well as the financial potential of the lending organisation, that is, HOPE. It is the contention of this paper, therefore, that such questionable social relations dynamics 'hijack' the promise of collective social networks as exercised through goodwill and resource building. Implications of this study and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Deep geodynamics of far field intercontinental back-arc extension:Formation of Cenozoic volcanoes in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石耀霖; 张健

    2004-01-01

    There are three cases of variation of trench location possible to occur during subduction: trench fixed, trench advancing, and trench retreating. Retreat of trench may lead to back-arc extension. The Pacific plate subducts at low angle beneath the Eurasia plate, tomographic results indicate that the subducted Pacific slab does not penetrate the 670 km discontinuity, instead, it is lying flat above the interface. The flattening occurred about 28 Ma ago. Geodynamic computation suggests: when the frontier of the subducted slab reaches the phase boundary of lower and upper mantle, it may be hindered and turn flat lying above the boundary, facilitates the retreat of trench and back-arc extension. Volcanism in northeastern China is likely a product of such retreat of subduction, far field back-arc extension, and melting due to reduce of pressure while mantle upwelling.

  1. Platynosomum fastosum (Digenea: Dicrocoeliidae infection in a domestic cat in northeastern Brazil: high fluke burden and associated lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta da Rocha Braga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Platynosomum fastosum is a dicrocoeliid fluke that infects birds and mammals, especially wild and domestic cats. Case report: A middle-aged male domestic cat was euthanized and examined. Its clinical features had included apathy, emaciation, hepatomegaly and mild jaundice on the mucosae. At necropsy, we noticed enlarged liver and dilated gallbladder. After opening the gallbladder lengthwise, multiple whitish flattened ellipsoidal structures were observed and identified as P. fastosum. The larger parasites were found in gallbladder, with significant different size from cystic duct and intrahepatic biliary ducts (p<0.05. Histopathological analysis revealed fluke-induced suppurative cholecystitis and chronic cholangitis. Precursor lesions of cholangiocarcinoma were reported. Conclusion: This report was part of the first prevalence survey of P.fastosum in municipality of Maracanaú, state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil.

  2. The relationship between three X-linked genes and the risk for hypertension among northeastern Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxin; Feng, Min; Wang, Yanli; Li, Yaodong; Zhang, Yanyi; Li, Lei; Xiong, Jian; Lu, Changzhu; Wang, Bin; Cheng, Zuheng; Tang, Baopeng; Niu, Wenquan

    2015-12-01

    Incidences of hypertension are increasing and this condition is more common in men than in women. We selected six well-characterized polymorphisms from three X-linked genes (ACE2, AGTR2, apelin) aiming to investigate their interactive association with hypertension among northeastern Han Chinese. This was a case-control study involving 1009 hypertensive patients and 756 normotensive controls. All polymorphisms except rs3761581 in the apelin gene satisfied the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in females. The genotype and allele distributions of rs1403543 in the AGTR2 gene and rs56204867 in the apelin gene differed significantly between patients and controls for both genders, even after the Bonferroni correction (Pgenes by themselves may play an independent leading role in determining susceptibility to hypertension in both genders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Mass, nutrient and oxygen budgets for the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Maze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The northeast Atlantic is a key horizontal and vertical crossroads region for the meridional overturning circulation, but basic nutrient and oxygen fluxes are still poorly constrained by observations in the region. A surface to bottom northeast Atlantic Ocean budget for mass, nutrients (nitrate and phosphate and oxygen is determined using an optimization method based on three surveys of the OVIDE transect (from Greenland to Portugal completed with the World Ocean Atlas 2009. Budgets are derived for two communicating boxes representing the northeastern European basin (NEEB and the Irminger Sea.

    For the NEEB (Irminger box, it is found that 30% of the mass import (export across the OVIDE section reach (originate from the Nordic Seas, while 70% are redistributed between both boxes through the Reykjanes Ridge (9.3 ± 0.7 × 109 kg s−1.

    Net biological source/sink terms of nitrate point to both the Irminger and NEEB boxes as net organic matter production sites (consuming nitrate at a rate of –7.8 ± 6.5 kmol s−1 and –8.4 ± 6.6 kmol s−1, respectively. Using a standard Redfield ratio of C : N = 106 : 16, nitrate consumption rates indicate that about 40 TgC yr−1 of carbon is fixed by organic matter production between the OVIDE transect and the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. Nutrient fluxes also induce a net biological production of oxygen of 73 ± 60 kmol s−1 and 79 ± 62 kmol s−1 in the Irminger and NEEB boxes, which points to the region as being autotrophic.

    The abiotic air–sea oxygen flux leads to an oceanic oxygen uptake in the two regions (264 ± 66 kmol s−1 in the north and 443 ± 70 kmol s−1 in the south. The abiotic flux is partitioned into a mixing and a thermal component. It is found that the Irminger Sea oceanic oxygen uptake is driven by an air–sea heat flux cooling increasing the ocean surface

  4. Preliminary analysis of legal obstacles and incentives to the development of low-head hydroelectric power in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary analysis of the legal obstacles and incentives to the development of the low-head hydroelectric potential of the 19 northeastern US (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and West Virginia) is presented. The statutes and case laws of the 19 states and the Federal government which affect developers of small dams are stressed. The legal uncertainty which confronts the developer of small dams and the regulatory burden to which the developer may be subjected once the uncertainty is resolved are emphasized.

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of Paragonimus westermani in northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, K Rekha; Narain, Kanwar; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Blair, David; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Wickramasinghe, S; Yatawara, L; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2010-10-01

    Evidence for the presence of lung flukes of the Paragonimus westermani in India remains scant. In particular, evidence based on morphology of adult worms is lacking. Metacercariae of the genus Paragonimus, recovered from crabs in two regions of northeastern India, were raised to adulthood in laboratory rats. Morphologically, these worms appear to be P. westermani. DNA sequences from the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and a portion of the ribosomal large subunit gene (28S) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene repeat, as well as fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes, all supported this identification. Molecular phylogenetic methods were used for studying the relatedness of these Indian flukes with counterparts from southeast and far-east Asia. Molecular data showed that Indian representatives of the P. westermani complex represent a distinct lineage. It is unclear whether the Indian form can cause disease in humans as some members of the complex do elsewhere.

  6. Metazoan parasites of cetaceans off the northeastern coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; Mathews-Cascon, Helena; Ribeiro, Felipe Bezerra; Pessoa, Lourdes Marina Bezerra; de Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Marigo, Juliana; Soares, Laiza; de Lima Silva, Flávio José

    2010-10-11

    This study represents the first survey of the parasitic fauna of cetaceans off the northeastern coast of Brazil. Parasites were collected from 82 animals rescued from the states of Ceará to Bahia, including the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha. A total of 14 species of cetaceans were evaluated: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella sp., Stenella clymene, Stenella longirostris, Stenella coeruleoalba, Stenella frontalis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Peponocephala electra, Steno bredanensis, Kogia breviceps, Kogia sima, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Tursiops truncatus, Physeter macrocephalus and Lagenodelphis hosei. The parasites were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol or alcohol-formalin-acetic acid solution (AFA), clarified in phenol and mounted on slides for morphological identification. In total, 11 species and 8 genera of endo- and ectoparasites were identified: Halocercus brasiliensis, Halocercus kleinenbergi, Stenurus globicephalae, Halocercus sp., Anisakis sp., Crassicauda sp. (Nematoda), Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldii, Scolex pleuronectis, Strobicephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Tetrabothrius sp., Trigonocotyle sp., Diphyllobothrium sp. (Cestoda), Campula sp. (Trematoda), Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala), Cyamus boopis, Syncyamus pseudorcae and Xenobalanus globicipitis (Crustacea). The identification of some species represented novel records for the country and increased the occurrence of some parasites to new hosts. The use of standardized methodologies for collecting and evaluating a larger number of animals is essential for a better understanding of host-parasite relationships in cetaceans and their use as biological indicators in the region.

  7. Age and body size of Rana amurensis from northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHEN; Xin LU

    2011-01-01

    Age and body size are two important demographic traits that determine the life history strategies of populations and species.We measured these two parameters of Rana amurensis,at a 900 m and a 500 m altitude site in northeastern China.At the two sites,age at first reproduction was 2 years for males and 3 years for females.The maximum age of males and females at the high-altitude site was 6 and 7 years,and 5 and 7 years at the low-altitude population,respectively.Females were significantly larger than males in both populations,due to greater age in both the high- and low-altitude sites.Body size of either males or females did not differ significantly between populations; only males showed increased body size at the high-altitude site when age effect was statistically controlled for.The increased cline of male body size may be attributable to delayed maturation of the sex due to a shorter growing season at high altitudes [Current Zoology 57 (6):781-784,2011].

  8. Polyphasic analysis of Acidovorax citrulli strains from northeastern Brazil

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    Kirley Michele Marques Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB of cucurbit plants is caused by Acidovorax citrulli and represents a serious concern to melon (Cucumis melo L. growers worldwide, including those in Brazil. Thirty-four A. citrulli strains from different melon production areas of northeastern Brazil were characterized for their virulence on melon fruits and their substrate utilization and molecular profiles. Based on the analysis of BFB severity on melon fruits, the A. citrulli strains were divided into three groups, classified as mildly, moderately or highly virulent. Although host-related groups were not observed, the watermelon and ‘melão-pepino’ strains exhibited only low or moderate virulence on melon fruit. Substrate utilization profiles revealed that 94 % of the 95 tested compounds were used by A. citrulli strains as a carbon source. Overall, based on substrate utilization, low variability was observed with no relationship to host of origin. The formation of one group of A. citrulli strains based on Repetitive Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR analysis confirmed the low variability observed in the substrate utilization analyses. Bayesian inference based on the analysis of 23S rDNA partial sequence data resulted in one well-supported clade and clustered the strains with the A. citrulli-type species with high posterior probability support. Based on the markers used, the Brazilian A. citrulli strains belong to a single group, which corresponds to the previously described Group I for this bacterium in the United States.

  9. Uranium distribution in the Variscan Basement of Northeastern Sardinia

    CERN Document Server

    Kaçeli, Xhixha M; Baldoncini, M; Bezzon, G P; Buso, G P; Callegari, I; Casini, L; Cuccuru, S; Fiorentini, G; Guastaldi, E; Mantovani, F; Mou, L; Oggiano, G; Puccini, A; Alvarez, C Rossi; Strati, V; Xhixha, G; Zanon, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed map of the uranium distribution and its uncertainties in the Variscan Basement of Northeastern Sardinia (VBNS) at a scale 1:100,000. An area of 2100 km2 was investigated by means of 535 data points obtained from laboratory and in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. These data volume corresponds to the highest sampling density of the European Variscides, aimed at studying the genetic processes of the upper crust potentially triggered by an enrichment of radiogenic heat-producing elements. For the first time the Kriging with Variance of Measurement Error method was used to assign weights to the input data which are based on the degree of confidence associated to the measurements obtained with different gamma-ray spectrometry techniques. A detailed tuning of the model parameters for the adopted Experimental Semi-Variogram led to identify a maximum distance of spatial variability coherent to the observed tendency of the experimental data. We demonstrate that the obtained uranium distri...

  10. The arboreal component of a dry forest in Northeastern Brazil

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    M. J. N. Rodal

    Full Text Available The dry forests of northeastern Brazil are found near the coastal zone and on low, isolated mountains inland amid semi-arid vegetation. The floristic composition of these dry montane forests, as well as their relationship to humid forests (Atlantic forest sensu stricto and to the deciduous thorn woodlands (Caatinga sensu stricto of the Brazilian northeast are not yet well known. This paper sought to determine if the arboreal plants in a dry forest growing on a low mountain in the semi-arid inland region (Serra Negra, 8° 35’ - 8° 38’ S and 38° 02’ - 38° 04’ W between the municipalities of Floresta and Inajá, state of Pernambuco have the same floristic composition and structure as that seen in other regional forests. In fifty 10 x 20 m plots all live and standing dead trees with trunk measuring > 5 cm diameter at breast height were measured. Floristic similarities between the forest studied and other regional forests were assessed using multivariate analysis. The results demonstrate that the dry forest studied can be classified into two groups that represent two major vegetational transitions: (1 a humid forest/dry forest transition; and (2 a deciduous thorn-woodland/ dry forest transition.

  11. Remagnetization of Lower Carboniferous Carbonates, Northeastern Ireland: Preliminary Paleomagnetic Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannalal, S. J.; Symons, D. T.; Stanley, G.; Sangster, D. F.

    2004-12-01

    Conodont color alteration index (CAI) values provide indirect paleotemperature estimates for rocks that have been subjected to a thermal event either by burial metamorphism or by hot hydrothermal fluids. Extensive CAI studies have been conducted on the Lower Carboniferous carbonates of Ireland that are host to the major sedimentary lead and zinc deposits in the Irish ore field. The CAI values show that these rocks have been affected by a regional thermal event with a decreasing trend from south (CAI=7.0) to north Ireland (CAI=1). In addition, the relative timing of the regional metamorphic event and ore mineralization in the Irish ore field, critical to the much debated genetic theories for ore genesis, has remained elusive. A paleomagnetic study, that includes thermal and alternating-field demagnetization and isothermal remanence procedures, has been conducted on 235 specimens representing 18 sites from Lower Carboniferous carbonates (CAI age than the A component and may indicate a secondary magnetization, likely the result of weathering of the carbonates by oxidizing fluids. In addition, this regional hydrothermal event may also be related to the observed CAI values in Lower Carboniferous carbonates of northeastern Ireland.

  12. Four Centuries of Change in Northeastern United States Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jonathan R.; Carpenter, Dunbar N.; Cogbill, Charles V.; Foster, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The northeastern United States is a predominately-forested region that, like most of the eastern U.S., has undergone a 400-year history of intense logging, land clearance for agriculture, and natural reforestation. This setting affords the opportunity to address a major ecological question: How similar are today's forests to those existing prior to European colonization? Working throughout a nine-state region spanning Maine to Pennsylvania, we assembled a comprehensive database of archival land-survey records describing the forests at the time of European colonization. We compared these records to modern forest inventory data and described: (1) the magnitude and attributes of forest compositional change, (2) the geography of change, and (3) the relationships between change and environmental factors and historical land use. We found that with few exceptions, notably the American chestnut, the same taxa that made up the pre-colonial forest still comprise the forest today, despite ample opportunities for species invasion and loss. Nonetheless, there have been dramatic shifts in the relative abundance of forest taxa. The magnitude of change is spatially clustered at local scales (maple and poplar. Additionally, the modern forest composition is more homogeneous and less coupled to local climatic controls. PMID:24023749

  13. Chironomid (Diptera, Chironomidae species assemblages in northeastern Algerian hydrosystems

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    N. Chaib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae, and determine their substrate preferences, from two hydrosystems located in northeastern Algeria: the Kebir-East and the Seybouse wadis. Sixty-five species were recorded in 49 sampling sites distributed along the main courses of the two hydrographic nets and their tributaries. The majority of taxa comprised cosmopolitan species widely distributed along these two hydrosystems. Cricotopus (Cricotopus bicinctus showed the highest abundance and frequency of occurrence (29.52% and was widespread in almost all the sampling sites. Species richness ranged from 4 to 23, Shannon diversity between 0.15 and 0.90, Evenness from 0.23 to 1. A cluster analysis was carried out to represent the different groups of sites sharing similar species composition. Agglomerative cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into four clusters according to the community data. An Indval analysis was then carried out to detect indicator species for each group of the sampling sites. Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris was indicator of the first group of the sampling sites. Orthocladius pedestris, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus and C. bicinctus were indicators of the second group, and Polypedilum cultellatum of the third group. The fourth group was not characterized by any species. Indval analysis allowed also to determine species preferences for substrate size: Corynoneura scutellata and Dicrotendipes nervosus emphasized a preference to fine gravel, and Glyptotendipes pallens to fine sand.

  14. Annelid from the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation in Northeastern Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yue; WANG Xunlian

    2008-01-01

    Wenghuiia jiangkouensis gen. et sp. nov., characterized by modem annelid taxonomy in morphology and functional biology, is found in black carbonaceous shale from the Neoproterozoic Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation (about 555 Ma) near Wenghui, Jiangkou, northeastern Guizhou Province. The elongate, cylindrical body is composed of many homologous metameres with a true coelom and coelomic pouches. The mouth is at the front of the first segment and the anus at the end of body. A long 11th or 12th segment is probably functionally for procreation, being a clitellum. There are parapodia on the venter of the segments from the rear of the second segment to the front of the clitellum. The setae on all metameres, on the parapodia, and around the anus, differ. In the centre of body, a line probably represents the alimentary canal passing through the body from mouth to anus. A closed vascular system consists of a dorsal vessel at least. W. jiankouensis might represent the oldest discovered 'modem' annelid but it is not a primitive type. It lived on the depositional surface of a shallow sea with an environment of calm-water and abundant light.

  15. Palynology of the Kashafrud Formation, Koppeh Dagh basin, Northeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, H.; Sajjadi, F.; Dehbozorgi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Diverse and moderately well-preserved palynofloras occur in Middle Jurassic sediments of the Kashafrud Formation at the Senjedak section, southeast of Mashhad, northeastern Iran. Trilete and monolete spores and pollen dominate the assemblages, whereas dinoflagellate cysts, foraminiferal test linings, and fungal spores are minor components. Forty-seven species of spores (30 genera) and 15 species of pollen (eight genera) are identified. Representatives of Dictyophyllidites and Klukisporites are particularly abundant. Based on the stratigraphic distribution of miospores, three distinctive stratigraphically successive palynofloras informally termed in ascending order, Assemblages A, B, and C are identified within the Kashafrud Formation. These are compared with palynozones known from Iran and elsewhere. Based on the presence of certain miospore species, the Kashafrud palynofloras are collectively dated as Middle Jurassic (Bajocian-Bathonian), thus corroborating the faunal (ammonoid) evidence. The appearance of a key miospore species, Contignisporites burgeri, within the succession has been used to attribute a late Bajocian age and early Bathonian age to the lower and upper parts of the studied interval, respectively. Inferred natural relationships of the miospores imply derivation from a diverse parental flora of Pterophyta and gymnosperms, such as Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, and Ginkgophyta, growing under warm, humid conditions during the Bajocian-Bathonian. The associated marine fauna (ammonites), marine palynomorphs (proximate dinoflagellate cysts, and acritarchs such as Micrhystridium), and foraminiferal test linings, along with terrestrial palynomorphs (spores and pollen) collectively indicate an open marine, nearshore depositional setting for the Kashafrud Formation at the section studied.

  16. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  17. Potential oilseed crops from the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, R S; Oliveira, A F M; Silva, S I

    2009-12-01

    The caatinga semi-arid ecosystem of northeastern Brazil is characterized by a dry, spiny and predominantly deciduous shrub/forest vegetation, and many species there are potential sources of renewable resources for the oleochemical industry. The present research determined the oil content and fatty acid profiles of seeds from eight caatinga species. Seed oils were extracted in a Soxhlet system, and their fatty acid content identified by GC-MS. Oil content varied between 20.2% in Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae) and 46.4% in Barnebya harleyi (W.R. Anderson & B. Gates) Malpighiaceae. Anemopaegma laeve DC. (Bignoniaceae) had the highest oleic acid content (63.4%), while high levels of linoleic acid were found in Banisteriopsis pubipetala (Juss.) Cuatrec. (42.8%) and B. harleyi (31.9%) (both Malpighiaceae). Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid (50%) in Hippocratea volubilis (L.) (Celastraceae). High levels of linoleic and linolenic acids were found in Croton adamantinus Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), averaging 44.2% and 45.2% respectively. Gadoleic acid in was the most abundant fatty acid in the oil produced by Serjania lethalis A. St. Hill. (Sapindaceae), averaging 69.6%. B. pubipetala, B. harleyi, C. adamantinus, and H. volubilis were identified as promising species for cultivation.

  18. Acritarchs of the Ediacaran Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, Northeastern Brazil

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    Leticia Chiglino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report for the first time the occurrence of organic-walled microfossils in Ediacaran limestones and marls of the Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, and the first Precambrian acritarchs so far reported for northeastern Brazil. The assemblage of the Frecheirinha Formation represents a low-diversity microflora comprising Leiosphaeridia, Lophosphaeridium and subordinated Bavlinella (=Sphaerocongregus. Their thermal alteration index (TAI between 4+ and 5, suggests metamorphic temperatures exceeding 200-250°C. Higher temperatures are probably related to intruding granitic plutons (Meruoca, Mucambo. Reported δ13C values of carbonates of -3.5 ‰ VPDB (Vienna-Peedee Belemnite at the base, passing up section into a positive plateau of up to +3.7 ‰, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.7075 and 0.7080 suggest an Ediacaran age. The acritarch assemblage is comparable to the Late Ediacaran Leiosphere Palynoflora (LELP or Kotlin-Rovno assemblage, in broad agreement with chemostratigraphic data. Macrofossils belonging to the Ediacara fauna were reported from the overlying Jaibaras Group, which would constrain even further the depositional age of the Frecheirinha Formation to within ca. 575-555 Ma. A more comprehensive palynological study of the Frecheirinha Formation is necessary to confirm this age assignment.

  19. Acritarchs of the Ediacaran Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiglino, Leticia; Gaucher, Claudio; Sial, Alcides N; Ferreira, Valderez P

    2015-01-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of organic-walled microfossils in Ediacaran limestones and marls of the Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, and the first Precambrian acritarchs so far reported for northeastern Brazil. The assemblage of the Frecheirinha Formation represents a low-diversity microflora comprising Leiosphaeridia, Lophosphaeridium and subordinated Bavlinella (=Sphaerocongregus). Their thermal alteration index (TAI) between 4+ and 5, suggests metamorphic temperatures exceeding 200-250°C. Higher temperatures are probably related to intruding granitic plutons (Meruoca, Mucambo). Reported δ13C values of carbonates of -3.5 ‰ VPDB (Vienna-Peedee Belemnite) at the base, passing up section into a positive plateau of up to +3.7 ‰, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.7075 and 0.7080 suggest an Ediacaran age. The acritarch assemblage is comparable to the Late Ediacaran Leiosphere Palynoflora (LELP) or Kotlin-Rovno assemblage, in broad agreement with chemostratigraphic data. Macrofossils belonging to the Ediacara fauna were reported from the overlying Jaibaras Group, which would constrain even further the depositional age of the Frecheirinha Formation to within ca. 575-555 Ma. A more comprehensive palynological study of the Frecheirinha Formation is necessary to confirm this age assignment.

  20. Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling

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    S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by phytoplankton is an important aspect of the nitrogen cycle of oceans. Here, we present nitrate (NO3- and ammonium (NH4+ uptake rates in the northeastern Arabian Sea using 15N tracer technique. In this relatively underexplored region, productivity is high during winter due to supply of nutrients by convective mixing caused by the cooling of the surface by the northeast monsoon winds. Studies done during different months (January and late February-early March of the northeast monsoon 2003 revealed a fivefold increase in the average euphotic zone integrated NO3- uptake from January (2.3 mmolN m−2d−1 to late February-early March (12.7 mmolN m−2d−1. The f-ratio during January appeared to be affected by the winter cooling effect and increased by more than 50% from the southernmost station to the northern open ocean stations, indicating hydrographic and meteorological control. Estimates of NO3- residence time suggested that NO3- entrained in the water column during January contributed to the development of blooms during late February-early March.

  1. The Maastrichtian flora of the Amaam Lagoon area (Northeastern Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseeva, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Maastrichtian Koryak flora from the Amaam Lagoon area is comprehensively studied with reference to available data on the stratigraphy of the study area and age assessment of the flora-bearing deposits. In the Koryak flora 32 species of plant fossils are identified and systematically described in the work. The established traits of the Koryak floristic assemblage are used to correlate it with the other assemblages close in age from different localities of Northeastern RNortheastern Russiaussia and Alaska. The results of correlation and taxonomic revision of plant fossils from the upper part of the Prince Creek Formation, Northern Alaska show that in the Anadyr-Koryak and Northern Alaska circum-Pacific regions the Koryak stage of flora development and the respective phytostratigraphic horizon (upper Maastrichtian-Selandian), of key significance for interregional correlation of continental deposits, are distinguishable. Floristic changes recorded in the northern circum-Pacific regions across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary suggest that the evolution of vegetation was gradual, controlled by climatic change, evolutionary factors and plant migration. These results are inconsistent with the postulated global significance of the ecological crisis at that time.

  2. Modeling of coastal water contamination in Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S P; Rosman, P C C; Alvarez, C; Schetini, C A F; Souza, R O; Vieira, R H S F

    2015-01-01

    An important tool in environmental management projects and studies due to the complexity of environmental systems, environmental modeling makes it possible to integrate many variables and processes, thereby providing a dynamic view of systems. In this study the bacteriological quality of the coastal waters of Fortaleza (a state capital in Northeastern Brazil) was modeled considering multiple contamination sources. Using the software SisBaHiA, the dispersion of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli from three sources of contamination (local rivers, storm drains and submarine outfall) was analyzed. The models took into account variations in bacterial decay due to solar radiation and other environmental factors. Fecal pollution discharged from rivers and storm drains is transported westward by coastal currents, contaminating strips of beach water to the left of each storm drain or river. Exception to this condition only occurs on beaches protected by the breakwater of the harbor, where counterclockwise vortexes reverse this behavior. The results of the models were consistent with field measurements taken during the dry and the rainy season. Our results show that the submarine outfall plume was over 2 km from the nearest beach. The storm drains and the Maceió stream are the main factors responsible for the poor water quality on the waterfront of Fortaleza. The depollution of these sources would generate considerable social, health and economic gains for the region.

  3. Management of immigration and pregnancy screening in northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaro, Giorgio; Parco, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of immigration in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region of northeastern Italy, on the epidemiological features of hemoglobin patterns and on prothrombotic and trisomy risk in pregnancy for patients of non-Italian origin. This study follows a series of studies on the incidence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies with reduced globin chain synthesis, that were performed during the postwar (1939-45) period in Friuli Venezia Giulia following immigration into the region from Istria and Sardinia (regions of northern and central Italy). Current data show that today's constantly growing immigration into the region differs from previous decades, in terms of origin and quantity of migrants, who mainly come from third world countries. This has a significant impact on health care issues, and more specifically on prospective health screening for foreigners. The authors conclude that scholastic education and hospital services, either public or private, and voluntary associations, may contribute to solving the problem, but only in terms of training and organization, for non-European Union citizens arriving in northern Italy and neighboring areas, especially those from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and eastern Europe.

  4. Management of immigration and pregnancy screening in northeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Tamaro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio Tamaro, Sergio ParcoDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital, Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, ItalyAbstract: This study assesses the impact of immigration in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region of northeastern Italy, on the epidemiological features of hemoglobin patterns and on prothrombotic and trisomy risk in pregnancy for patients of non-Italian origin. This study follows a series of studies on the incidence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies with reduced globin chain synthesis, that were performed during the postwar (1939–45 period in Friuli Venezia Giulia following immigration into the region from Istria and Sardinia (regions of northern and central Italy. Current data show that today’s constantly growing immigration into the region differs from previous decades, in terms of origin and quantity of migrants, who mainly come from third world countries. This has a significant impact on health care issues, and more specifically on prospective health screening for foreigners. The authors conclude that scholastic education and hospital services, either public or private, and voluntary associations, may contribute to solving the problem, but only in terms of training and organization, for non-European Union citizens arriving in northern Italy and neighboring areas, especially those from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and eastern Europe.Keywords: immigration, hemoglobinopathy, pregnancy, trisomy, thalassemia trait, Italy

  5. Fatal outbreak from consuming Xanthium strumarium seedlings during time of food scarcity in northeastern Bangladesh.

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    Emily S Gurley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An outbreak characterized by vomiting and rapid progression to unconsciousness and death was reported in Sylhet Distrct in northeastern Bangladesh following destructive monsoon floods in November 2007. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified cases presenting to local hospitals and described their clinical signs and symptoms. We interviewed patients and their families to collect illness histories and generate hypotheses about exposures associated with disease. An epidemiological study was conducted in two outbreak villages to investigate risk factors for developing illness. 76 patients were identified from 9 villages; 25% (19/76 died. Common presenting symptoms included vomiting, elevated liver enzymes, and altered mental status. In-depth interviews with 33 cases revealed that 31 (94% had consumed ghagra shak, an uncultivated plant, in the hours before illness onset. Ghagra shak was consumed as a main meal by villagers due to inaccessibility of other foods following destructive monsoon flooding and rises in global food prices. Persons who ate this plant were 34.2 times more likely (95% CI 10.2 to 115.8, p-value<0.000 than others to develop vomiting and unconsciousness during the outbreak in our multivariate model. Ghagra shak is the local name for Xanthium strumarium, or common cocklebur. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of Xanthium strumarium seedlings in large quantities, due to inaccessibility of other foods, caused this outbreak. The toxic chemical in the plant, carboxyatratyloside, has been previously described and eating X. strumarium seeds and seedlings has been associated with fatalities in humans and livestock. Unless people are able to meet their nutritional requirements with safe foods, they will continue to be at risk for poor health outcomes beyond undernutrition.

  6. Fatal Outbreak from Consuming Xanthium strumarium Seedlings during Time of Food Scarcity in Northeastern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Emily S.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Nahar, Nazmun; Faiz, M. Abul; Islam, Nazrul; Sultana, Rebeca; Khatun, Selina; Uddin, Mohammad Zashim; Haider, M. Sabbir; Islam, M. Saiful; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Rahman, Muhammad Waliur; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Luby, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Background An outbreak characterized by vomiting and rapid progression to unconsciousness and death was reported in Sylhet Distrct in northeastern Bangladesh following destructive monsoon floods in November 2007. Methods and Findings We identified cases presenting to local hospitals and described their clinical signs and symptoms. We interviewed patients and their families to collect illness histories and generate hypotheses about exposures associated with disease. An epidemiological study was conducted in two outbreak villages to investigate risk factors for developing illness. 76 patients were identified from 9 villages; 25% (19/76) died. Common presenting symptoms included vomiting, elevated liver enzymes, and altered mental status. In-depth interviews with 33 cases revealed that 31 (94%) had consumed ghagra shak, an uncultivated plant, in the hours before illness onset. Ghagra shak was consumed as a main meal by villagers due to inaccessibility of other foods following destructive monsoon flooding and rises in global food prices. Persons who ate this plant were 34.2 times more likely (95% CI 10.2 to 115.8, p-value<0.000) than others to develop vomiting and unconsciousness during the outbreak in our multivariate model. Ghagra shak is the local name for Xanthium strumarium, or common cocklebur. Conclusions The consumption of Xanthium strumarium seedlings in large quantities, due to inaccessibility of other foods, caused this outbreak. The toxic chemical in the plant, carboxyatratyloside, has been previously described and eating X. strumarium seeds and seedlings has been associated with fatalities in humans and livestock. Unless people are able to meet their nutritional requirements with safe foods, they will continue to be at risk for poor health outcomes beyond undernutrition. PMID:20305785

  7. Características cognitivas, emocionales y conductuales de niños preescolares del programa buen comienzo en el noroccidente de medellín (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics of preschoolers of the good start program in the northwestern area in medellin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Andrés Montoya Arenas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el presente artículo derivado de investigación, se describen las características cognitivas, emocionales y conductuales de una muestra de 20 niños preescolares, que oscilan entren los 3 y 5 años de edad, de estrato socioeconómico bajo y que han sido beneficiados del programa estratégico de la Alcaldía de Medellín (Colombia, perteneciente a la Secretaría de Educación, denominado Buen Comienzo. El programa Buen Comienzo tiene como propósito la promoción del desarrollo integral, diverso e incluyente de niñas y niñas, desde en una perspectiva interdisciplinaria del ciclo vital, protección de los derechos y articulación interinstitucional. ABSTRACT: In this current article, derived from a piece of research, the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics, of a sample of 20 preschoolers, are described and whose ages range between 3 and 5 years. They belong to a low socio-economic level and they have benefited from the strategic program at the Mayor’s Office in Medellin (Colombia, belonging to the Secretariat of Education program called the Good Start. Such a program aims the promotion of comprehensive, diverse, and inclusive development of children, from an interdisciplinary perspective of the life cycle, the protection of rights and the inter-institutional coordination.

  8. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  9. Consideration of the influence of place on access to employment for persons with serious mental illness in northeastern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeiro Gruhl, K L; Kauppi, C; Montgomery, P; James, S

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing attention to employment within the mental health sector, reports indicate that people with serious mental illness (SMI) continue to experience limited employment success in the province of Ontario, Canada. Research specifies that people with SMI who live in rural places are less likely than those living in urban centers to have access to satisfactory employment services or to become gainfully employed. The objective of this study was to examine access to employment from the perspectives of people with SMI, mental health and vocational service providers, and decision-makers, and to explore whether place influenced their access to work in northeastern Ontario. A qualitative case study using community-based participatory research methods was chosen to examine the experience of access to competitive employment in two northeastern Ontario communities. The cases selected for study were two geographic areas in northeastern Ontario which provided best-practice, mental health services to persons with SMI. Community-based site partners advertised and recruited participants, and a consumer advisory provided input on key stakeholders, questions, findings and the study action plan. The study findings were informed by individual and group interviews conducted with 46 individuals who resided in both rural and urban settings in the case communities, and feedback from 49 participants who attended town hall forums for presentation of study findings and development of an action plan. The qualitative data was supported by a secondary data source reporting on the employment outcomes of 4112 people with SMI who received disability income support and who resided in the case communities. Qualitative data were analyzed inductively, and categories and themes were developed. Findings were member checked with all informants and town hall participants in each case community. This article draws on the findings of a larger study and reports on the influence of place to the low

  10. Ecology and geography of avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 transmission in the Middle East and northeastern Africa

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    Peterson A Townsend

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emerging highly pathogenic avian influenza strain H5N1 ("HPAI-H5N1" has spread broadly in the past decade, and is now the focus of considerable concern. We tested the hypothesis that spatial distributions of HPAI-H5N1 cases are related consistently and predictably to coarse-scale environmental features in the Middle East and northeastern Africa. We used ecological niche models to relate virus occurrences to 8 km resolution digital data layers summarizing parameters of monthly surface reflectance and landform. Predictive challenges included a variety of spatial stratification schemes in which models were challenged to predict case distributions in broadly unsampled areas. Results In almost all tests, HPAI-H5N1 cases were indeed occurring under predictable sets of environmental conditions, generally predicted absent from areas with low NDVI values and minimal seasonal variation, and present in areas with a broad range of and appreciable seasonal variation in NDVI values. Although we documented significant predictive ability of our models, even between our study region and West Africa, case occurrences in the Arabian Peninsula appear to follow a distinct environmental regime. Conclusion Overall, we documented a variable environmental "fingerprint" for areas suitable for HPAI-H5N1 transmission.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF CHANGES IN TELECONNECTION PATTERN TRENDS ON TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION TRENDS IN NORTHEASTERN ROMANIA

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    A. PITICAR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of changes in teleconnection pattern trends on temperature and precipitation trends in northeastern Romania. Influence of changes in teleconnection patterns on temperature and precipitation have been identified in many studies performed at local, regional, or global scales. The research on this issue was poorly approached in Romania. In this paper, the northeastern Romania area was considered. This work is focused on analyzing trends in the time series of air temperature and precipitation at ten stations located in northeastern Romania across 50 years (1961-2010. Using the conditional Mann-Kendall test, these trends are compared with trends in Northern Hemisphere teleconnection indices. The main goal was to estimate the influence of trends in five teleconnection indices on changes in temperature and precipitation in northeastern Romania. The main results suggest that the highest increase in air temperature is typical for summer, followed by an increase in winter time series. The trends in precipitation are both positive and negative in the area, but most of them are statistically insignificant. However a significant increase has been observed in October at the most locations, and a significant decrease in time series of a high altitude station (Ceahlău. Significant changes have occurred in Northern Hemisphere teleconnection indices during 1961-2010. The results of the conditional Mann-Kendall test indicate that the changes in the teleconnection patterns are significantly related to changes in temperature and precipitation in northeastern Romania.

  12. Seasonal Mass Changes and Crustal Vertical Deformations Constrained by GPS and GRACE in Northeastern Tibet

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    Yuanjin Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface vertical deformation includes the Earth’s elastic response to mass loading on or near the surface. Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS stations record such deformations to estimate seasonal and secular mass changes. We used 41 CGPS stations to construct a time series of coordinate changes, which are decomposed by empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs, in northeastern Tibet. The first common mode shows clear seasonal changes, indicating seasonal surface mass re-distribution around northeastern Tibet. The GPS-derived result is then assessed in terms of the mass changes observed in northeastern Tibet. The GPS-derived common mode vertical change and the stacked Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mass change are consistent, suggesting that the seasonal surface mass variation is caused by changes in the hydrological, atmospheric and non-tidal ocean loads. The annual peak-to-peak surface mass changes derived from GPS and GRACE results show seasonal oscillations in mass loads, and the corresponding amplitudes are between 3 and 35 mm/year. There is an apparent gradually increasing gravity between 0.1 and 0.9 μGal/year in northeast Tibet. Crustal vertical deformation is determined after eliminating the surface load effects from GRACE, without considering Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA contribution. It reveals crustal uplift around northeastern Tibet from the corrected GPS vertical velocity. The unusual uplift of the Longmen Shan fault indicates tectonically sophisticated processes in northeastern Tibet.

  13. Motor neuron diseases in the University Hospital of Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil: a clinico-demographic analysis of 87 cases Doenças do neurônio motor no Hospital Universitário de Fortaleza (Nordeste do Brasil: análise clínico-demográfica de 87 casos

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    CARLOS M. DE CASTRO-COSTA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective (1980-1998 study, we have analyzed clinico-demographically, from the records of the University Hospital of Fortaleza (Brazil, a group of 87 patients showing signs and symptoms of motor neuron diseases (MNDs. Their diagnosis was determined clinically and laboratorially. The WFN criteria were used for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS diagnosis. The clinico-demographic analysis of the 87 cases of MNDs showed that 4 were diagnosed as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, 5 cases as ALS subsets: 2 as progressive bulbar paralysis (PBP, 2 as progressive muscular atrophy (PMA and 1 as monomelic amyotrophy (MA, and 78 cases of ALS. The latter comprised 51 males and 27 females, with a mean age of 42.02 years. They were sub-divided into 4 groups according to age: from 15 to 29 years (n= 17, 30 to 39 years (n= 18, 40 to 69 years (n= 39 and 70 to 78 years (n= 4. From the 78 ALS patients, 76 were of the classic sporadic form whilst only 2 were of the familial form. The analysis of the 87 patients with MNDs from the University Hospital of Fortaleza showed a predominance of ALS patients, with a high number of cases of juvenile and early onset adult sporadic ALS.Neste estudo retrospectivo (1980-1998, analisamos clínico-demograficamente, a partir dos prontuários do Hospital Universitário de Fortaleza (Brasil, um grupo de 87 pacientes que apresentavam sinais e sintomas de doenças do neurônio motor (DNMs. Eles foram diagnosticados clinicamente, e através de exames complementares. Para o diagnóstico da esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA, usamos os critérios da Federação Mundial de Neurologia. A análise clínico-demográfica dos 87 casos de DNMs evidenciou a existência de 4 casos de atrofia muscular espinhal (AME, 5 casos de variantes da ELA: 2 de paralisia bulbar progressiva (PBP, 2 de atrofia muscular progressiva (AMP e 1 de amiotrofia monomélica (AM, e 78 casos de ELA. Esses últimos eram constituídos de 51 homens e 27 mulheres, com

  14. High frequency of resistance to the drugs isoniazid and rifampicin among tuberculosis cases in the city of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, an urban area in Northeastern Brazil Alta freqüência de resistência às drogas isoniazida e rifampicina em tuberculose na Cidade do Cabo de Santo Agostinho, uma área urbana do nordeste do Brasil

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    Marcilio Baliza

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the frequency and risk factors for developing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Cabo de Santo Agostinho, PE. This was a prospective study conducted from 2000 to 2003, in which suspected cases were investigated using bacilloscopy and culturing. Out of 232 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, culturing and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on 174. Thirty-five of the 174 cultures showed resistance to all drugs. The frequencies of primary and acquired resistance to any drug were 14% and 50% respectively, while the frequencies of primary and acquired multidrug resistance were 8.3% and 40%. Previous tuberculosis treatment and abandonment of treatment were risk factors for drug resistance. The high levels of primary and acquired resistance to the combination of isoniazid and rifampicin contributed towards the difficulties in controlling tuberculosis transmission in the city.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a freqüência e fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de tuberculose multidroga resistente, na Cidade do Cabo de Santo Agostinho, PE. Este é um estudo prospectivo realizado entre 2000-2003 onde casos suspeitos foram investigados por baciloscopia e cultura. De 232 casos de tuberculose confirmados, 174 tiveram cultura e antibiograma realizados. Trinta e cinco das 174 culturas mostraram resistência a qualquer uma das drogas. A freqüência de resistência primária e adquirida a qualquer droga foi 14% e 50% respectivamente enquanto a freqüência primária e adquirida para multidroga resistência foi 8,3% e 40%. Tratamento prévio para tuberculose ou abandono de tratamento consistiu em fatores de risco para resistência a drogas. Os altos níveis de resistência primária e adquirida a combinação isoniazida e rifampicina contribuem para as dificuldades no controle da transmissão da tuberculose no Cabo.

  15. There is no evidence for a temporal link between pathogen arrival and frog extinctions in north-eastern Australia.

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    Ben L Phillips

    Full Text Available Pathogen spread can cause population declines and even species extinctions. Nonetheless, in the absence of tailored monitoring schemes, documenting pathogen spread can be difficult. In the case of worldwide amphibian declines the best present understanding is that the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd has recently spread, causing amphibian declines and extinction in the process. However, good evidence demonstrating pathogen arrival followed by amphibian decline is rare, and analysis of putative evidence is often inadequate. Here we attempt to examine the relationship between Bd arrival and amphibian decline across north-eastern Australia, using sites where a wave-like pattern of amphibian decline was first noticed and at which intensive research has since been conducted. We develop an analytical framework that allows rigorous estimation of pathogen arrival date, which can then be used to test for a correlation between the time of pathogen arrival and amphibian decline across sites. Our results show that, with the current dataset, the earliest possible arrival date of Bd in north-eastern Australia is completely unresolved; Bd could have arrived immediately before sampling commenced or may have arrived thousands of years earlier, the present data simply cannot say. The currently available data are thus insufficient to assess the link between timing of pathogen arrival and population decline in this part of the world. This data insufficiency is surprising given that there have been decades of research on chytridiomycosis in Australia and that there is a general belief that the link between Bd arrival and population decline is well resolved in this region. The lack of data on Bd arrival currently acts as a major impediment to determining the role of environmental factors in driving the global amphibian declines, and should be a major focus of future research.

  16. Research on the Balanced Development of China’s Urbanization and Industrialization in Eastern,Central,Western and Northeastern Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the relationship between urbanization development and industrialization development since the opening up and reform of China,the quantitative analysis of I/U and N/U is conducted.The results show that the overall level of China’s urbanization lags behind that of the industrialization,and this phenomenon of lag tends to dwindle.In 2003,the relationship between China’s urbanization and industrialization was most balanced,but after 2003,the phenomenon of urbanization lagging behind industrialization tends to distend gradually again;being that the development of urbanization is influenced by natural basis and policy,different regions have different cases.In the eastern and central region,the urbanization lags behind industrialization;in the northeastern region,the urbanization preponderate over industrialization;in the western region,the level of urbanization is not high,but it develops along with the industrialization in tandem.The regional difference of urbanization and industrialization requires that different should implement different policies.The eastern region still has great developmental space,and it should implement the strategy of urbanization as soon as possible;on the basis of expanding the current urban scale and improving quality,the central region should quicken the development of central cities;the western region should choose the path of concentrated-type urbanization;the three northeastern provinces should give priority to improving the quality of local industrialization vigorously and promoting the rapid upgrade of industrial structure,so as to propel the balanced development of urbanization and industrialization.

  17. Biology, distribution and control of Anopheles (Cellia) minimus in the context of malaria transmission in northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Vas; Manguin, Sylvie

    2016-11-15

    Among six dominant mosquito vector species involved in malaria transmission in India, Anopheles minimus is a major species in northeast India and held responsible for focal disease outbreaks characterized by high-rise of Plasmodium falciparum infections and attributable death cases. It has been now genetically characterized that among the three-member species of the Minimus Complex spread in Asia, An. minimus (former species A) is prevalent in India including northeastern states and east-central state of Odisha. It is recorded in all seasons and accounts for perennial transmission evidenced by records of sporozoite infections. This species is highly anthropophilic, and largely endophilic and endophagic, recorded breeding throughout the year in slow flowing seepage water streams. The populations of An. minimus in India are reported to be highly diverse indicating population expansion with obvious implications for judicious application of vector control interventions. Given the rapid ecological changes due to deforestation, population migration and expansion and developmental activities, there is scope for further research on the existence of potential additional sibling species within the An. minimus complex and bionomics studies on a large geographical scale for species sanitation. For control of vector populations, DDT continues to be applied on account of retaining susceptibility status even after decades of residual spraying. Anopheles minimus is a highly adaptive species and requires continuous and sustained efforts for its effective control to check transmission and spread of drug-resistant malaria. Anopheles minimus populations are reportedly diminishing in northeastern India whereas it has staged comeback in east-central State of Odisha after decades of disappearance with its eco-biological characteristics intact. It is the high time to siege the opportunity for strengthening interventions against this species for its population diminution to sub

  18. Group a rotavirus and norovirus genotypes circulating in the northeastern Brazil in the post-monovalent vaccination era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Ana Caroline C; Gómez, Mariela M; Lima, Ila Fernanda N; Quetz, Josiane S; Havt, Alexandre; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Lima, Aldo A; Leite, José Paulo G

    2015-09-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) and noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Childhood diarrhea deaths and hospital admissions have declined since the introduction of the monovalent (G1P[8]) vaccine (Rotarix(®) [RV1]) in the National Immunization Program in Brazil in 2006. This study aims to investigate the epidemiological profile of NoV and RVA infections from children with AGE in the Northeastern region of Brazil in the post vaccine season. Two-hundred fecal samples collected from children up to 10 years old in Fortaleza, Ceará between 2008-2009 were screened for the presence of RVA and NoV. Positive samples were genotyped and sequenced. The RVA screening revealed 12% prevalence and all RVA strains belonged to G2P[4] genotype. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 11 RVA genome segments sequenced from eight samples revealed a DS-1-like genotype constellation: I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. For NoV screening, the prevalence observed was 17% and the following genotypes were detected: GII.4 (59%), GII.12 (17%), GII.6 (9%), GII.3 (6%), and GII.? (9%). At least four different NoVs genotypes and two RVA G2P[4] variants were identified circulating in the Northeastern region of Brazil. RVA phylogenetic analysis suggests that the RVA G2P[4] strains might have originated from intragenogroup reassortment events. Whether the genetic modifications observed in these contemporary G2P[4] RVA strains may impact the long-term effectiveness of the current vaccination programs remains to be explored. These data reinforce the importance of surveillance for monitoring the emergence of new strains of RVA and NoV and their impact on cases of acute gastroenteritis.

  19. Bivergent thrust wedges surrounding oceanic island arcs: Insight from observations and sandbox models of the northeastern caribbean plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, U.S.; Marshak, S.; Granja, Bruna J. L.

    2009-01-01

    At several localities around the world, thrust belts have developed on both sides of oceanic island arcs (e.g., Java-Timor, Panama, Vanuatu, and the northeastern Caribbean). In these localities, the overall vergence of the backarc thrust belt is opposite to that of the forearc thrust belt. For example, in the northeastern Caribbean, a north-verging accretionary prism lies to the north of the Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico), whereas a south-verging thrust belt called the Muertos thrust belt lies to the south. Researchers have attributed such bivergent geometry to several processes, including: reversal of subduction polarity; subduction-driven mantle flow; stress transmission across the arc; gravitational spreading of the arc; and magmatic inflation within the arc. New observations of deformational features in the Muertos thrust belt and of fault geometries produced in sandbox kinematic models, along with examination of published studies of island arcs, lead to the conclusion that the bivergence of thrusting in island arcs can develop without reversal of subduction polarity, without subarc mantle flow, and without magmatic inflation. We suggest that the Eastern Greater Antilles arc and comparable arcs are simply crustalscale bivergent (or "doubly vergent") thrust wedges formed during unidirectional subduction. Sandbox kinematic modeling suggests, in addition, that a broad retrowedge containing an imbricate fan of thrusts develops only where the arc behaves relatively rigidly. In such cases, the arc acts as a backstop that transmits compressive stress into the backarc region. Further, modeling shows that when arcs behave as rigid blocks, the strike-slip component of oblique convergence is accommodated entirely within the prowedge and the arc-the retrowedge hosts only dip-slip faulting ("frontal thrusting"). The existence of large retrowedges and the distribution of faulting in an island arc may, therefore, be evidence that the arc is

  20. Camels on the Northeastern Frontier of the Roman Empire

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    Weronika Tomczyk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ample iconographic, written, and osteological evidence for the occurrence of both dromedary ('Camelus dromedarius' and Bactrian camels ('Camelus bactrianus' is known from many Roman provinces. In contrast to the western provinces, osteological material from the northeastern frontier of the Empire has not yet been discussed collectively. There is a lack of information in the literature concerning which species of camel was widely spread, for what purposes they were used, and whether the camel, as an animal introduced artificially by humans, was treated in a unique way. Camel bones have been found at Ajdovščina – Casta (Slovenia, Hrusica – Ad Pirum (Slovenia, Viminacium (Serbia, Vranj (Serbia, Novae (Bulgaria and Tanais (Russia. The earliest (1st century AD and the largest assemblages of bones derive from the easternmost sites of Tanais and Novae. Identification of species was possible at 4 out of the 6 sites. In all assemblages, the majority of the bones belonged to Bactrian camels. It is noteworthy that the dromedary species occurred only in the west of the study region; this indicates a gradual increase in the importance of Bactrian camels in the next eastern provinces. This is supported by the work of other researchers (Pigiére and Henrotay 2012. None of the bones in this study were isolated or intentionally buried. The incomplete dataset collected from these different sites did not confirm whether camels were bred there. It can be generally assumed that camels were used mainly as pack animals, probably in the army, and that they were rarely consumed.

  1. Late Holocene eolian fossilization of Podzols in Northeastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas; Schneider, Anna; Wechler, Klaus-Peter

    2016-04-01

    The North European lowland has been formed by glacial and periglacial processes in the Late Pleistocene. Multiple reshaping since the Late Glacial considerably changed the landscape up to and including especially historic times. Sediment sequences and (fossilized) soils can improve our understanding of Late Quaternary landscape development, but mapping of buried soils and surfaces is often limited to single outcrops. Ongoing archaeological rescue excavations in the pre-field of the open-cast mine Cottbus-Nord (northeastern Germany) with dense excavation trenches in an about 10 ha dune and drift sand area reveal multilayered sediment sequences with fossilized soils and sediments from the Late Pleistocene to the Late Holocene. Archaeological findings ranging from Mesolithic flint stones to an about 200 year old ceramics in eolian sediments covering plow horizons and wheel tracks suggest that eolian relocation of sandy material was intensive about 200 years ago. Still unpublished OSL dating underline the intense eolian activity. Recent studies showed that between the 15Th to the 19Th century an iron smelter 5 km to the west of our study site was supplied with charcoal, which was produced in a forest 5 km east to our study site. Our current findings about Late Holocene eolian activity raise the question if this eolian reshaping of the landscape is connected with the operation of the iron smelter either directly by transport or bog iron ore winning or indirectly by population pressure caused by the prospering iron smelter. Our ongoing research indicates, that already for historic land-use off-site effects causing further landscape changes have to be considered.

  2. Four centuries of change in northeastern United States forests.

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    Jonathan R Thompson

    Full Text Available The northeastern United States is a predominately-forested region that, like most of the eastern U.S., has undergone a 400-year history of intense logging, land clearance for agriculture, and natural reforestation. This setting affords the opportunity to address a major ecological question: How similar are today's forests to those existing prior to European colonization? Working throughout a nine-state region spanning Maine to Pennsylvania, we assembled a comprehensive database of archival land-survey records describing the forests at the time of European colonization. We compared these records to modern forest inventory data and described: (1 the magnitude and attributes of forest compositional change, (2 the geography of change, and (3 the relationships between change and environmental factors and historical land use. We found that with few exceptions, notably the American chestnut, the same taxa that made up the pre-colonial forest still comprise the forest today, despite ample opportunities for species invasion and loss. Nonetheless, there have been dramatic shifts in the relative abundance of forest taxa. The magnitude of change is spatially clustered at local scales (<125 km but exhibits little evidence of regional-scale gradients. Compositional change is most strongly associated with the historical extent of agricultural clearing. Throughout the region, there has been a broad ecological shift away from late successional taxa, such as beech and hemlock, in favor of early- and mid-successional taxa, such as red maple and poplar. Additionally, the modern forest composition is more homogeneous and less coupled to local climatic controls.

  3. Tectonothermal evolution of the northeastern Cantabrian zone (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Sanz-López, Javier; García-López, Susana; Bastida, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    A tectonothermal study of the northeastern sector of the Cantabrian zone (Ponga-Cuera and Picos de Europa units) using the conodont color alteration index (CAI) and Kübler index (KI) methods shows a variation from diagenetic to anchizonal conditions. The latter are illustrated in geological maps and cross sections. The greater part of the studied area has CAI values lower than 2, caused by two long periods of burial separated by a compressive interval (corresponding to the Variscan deformation), in which thrusts were the dominant structures. Tectonic superimposition was balanced by intense and fast erosion and had little effect on the CAI values. In contrast, a high thermal gradient was produced in the southern outcrops that led to recognize the transition between diagenetic and anchizonal conditions through CAI values near the basal thrust of the Picos de Europa unit. The diagenesis/anchizone boundary appears a little further south through the determination of the Kübler index in phyllosilicate minerals (KI = 0.42). CAI isograds cut the Variscan structures as a consequence of a thermal episode that occurred near the Carboniferous-Permian boundary at the beginning of an extensional regime. The thermal source was located further south, in the adjacent Pisuerga-Carrión unit. Alterations in the CAI values, as well as dolomitization and ore deposits, locally resulted from Permian-Mesozoic hydrothermal activity. Microtextural analysis of the conodonts allowed us to relate several types of apatite overgrowth to diagenetic conditions and recrystallization to anchizonal ones, whereas dissolution was common during hydrothermalism. Alpine deformation hardly produced any changes in the previous thermal pattern, but was responsible of the northwards tilting of the structure and CAI isograds.

  4. Chlorophyll a and primary production in the northeastern Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEN Xingqun; LIN Rongeheng

    2008-01-01

    The primary production and chlorophyll a concentration of picoplankton (0.2~2μm),nanoplankton (2~20 μm) and micro- plankton (20~200 μm) are described in the northeastern Pacific Ocean near the Hawaii Islands during the six survey cruises from 1996 to 2003:DY85-4,DY95-7,DY95-8,DY95-10,DY105-11 and DY105-12.14.The primary production of carbon was in range from 76.8 to 191.9 mg/(m2·d) with an average of 116.1 mg/( m2·d) in the east region,and from 73.1 to 222.5 mg/(m2·d) with an average of 127.1 mg/( m2·d) in the west region,similar to the other oligotrophic regions of the Pacific Ocean investigated.The chlorophyll a concentration was about 0.1 mg/m3 from the surface to the 50 m depth,about 0.2-0.4 mg/m3from 50 to 100 m,and gradually decreased below the 100 m depth.The picoplankton accounted for more than 70% of the total chlorophyll a in the upper layer (surface to 125 m),but it decreased to less than 50% in depth below 125 m.The na- noplankton and microplankton combined only accounted for less than 30% of the total chlorophyll a in the upper layer,but showed a more even vertical distribution.

  5. Stress and Kinematic Evolution of the Hoping Area, northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, E. C.; Lin, C. Y.; Li, W. C.; Huang, S. Y.; Wang, T. T.; Lin, W.; Lin, C. K.

    2016-12-01

    Taiwan is an active mountain belt located at the conjunction between the Eurasian Plate and Philippine Sea Plate. Due to the subduction flip and the southwestward propagation of Okinawa Trough, the northeastern Taiwan is also influenced by the back-arc extension. Therefore, the study at NE Taiwan provides insights into understanding the stress, kinematics and structural evolution of mountain building processes. Based on fault slip inversion and cross-cutting relationship from 600m core examination of metagranite and field observation, the sequence of structure development associated with stress variation in Hoping region is identified as: (1) regional foliation and early quartz veins in reverse faulting stress regime with SE-NW compression; (2) pseudotachylyte in normal faulting stress regime; (3) kink in strike-slip faulting stress regime with N-S compression; (4) fault slip in strike-slip faulting stress regime with SE-NW compression; (5) open-filling fluid conduits and calcite veins in normal faulting stress regime with NE-SW extension. Synthesizing the structure characteristics associated with stress field, tectonic meanings of each structure in terms of structural evolution in the Hoping region can be interpreted. The stress field of regional foliation is reflective of oblique compression between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea Plates. Pseudotachylite may represent evidence of extension collapse of Northern Taiwan Mountain Belt. SE-NW compression inferred from kink bands may correspond to the compression of southwestern propagation of Philippine Sea Plate. NE-SW extensional environment of normal faulting stress regime is appeared as back-arc extension, consistent with in-situ stress assessment. The findings of kinematic and stress evolution of structural development compatible with focal mechanism results from local seismic network shed lights on evaluating the stress evolution with time.

  6. Weak positive cloud-to-ground flashes in Northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Raul E.; Maier, Michael W.; Garcia-Miguel, Juan A.; Holle, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    The frequency distributions of the peak magnetic field associated with the first detected return stroke of positive and negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes were studied using lightning data from northeastern Colorado. These data were obtained during 1985 with a medium-to-high gain network of three direction finders (DF's). The median signal strength of positive flashes was almost two times that of the negatives for flashes within 300 km of the DF's, which have an inherent detection-threshold bias that tends to discriminate against weak signals. This bias increases with range, and affects the detection of positive and negative flashes in different ways, because of the differing character of their distributions. Positive flashes appear to have a large percentage of signals clustered around very weak values that are lost to the medium-to-high gain Colorado Detection System very quickly with increasing range. The resulting median for positive signals could thus appear to be much larger than the median for negative signals, which are more clustered around intermediate values. When only flashes very close to the DF's are considered, however, the two distributions have almost identical medians. The large percentage of weak positive signals detected close to the DF's has not been explored previously. They have been suggested to come from intracloud discharges and thus are improperly classified as CG flashes. Evidence in hand, points to their being real positive, albeit weak CG flashes. Whether or not they are real positive ground flashes, it is important to be aware of their presence in data from magnetic DF networks.

  7. Occurrence and distribution of the Ceratiomyxales (Myxomycetes in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Order Ceratiomyxales, which belongs to subclass Ceratiomyxomycetidae, includes the exospore bearing Myxomycetes, solely comprising family Ceratiomyxaceae and genus Ceratiomyxa, with four species. Based on the literature, on herbarium collections, and on recent surveys carried out by the authors in different states and ecosystems, it was possible to determine the occurrence and distribution of C. fruticulosa (cosmopolitan,C. morchella and C. sphaerosperma (predominantly tropical or subtropical in northeastern Brazil. Species descriptions and illustrations are presented, as well as a map of their geographical distribution in eight of the nine states of Northeast Brazil. This order is being recorded for the first time for the state of Sergipe. Ceratiomyxa morchella and C. sphaerosperma are being cited for the first time for the state of Paraíba.A ordem Ceratiomyxales, pertencente à subclasse Ceratiomyxomycetidae, reúne os representantes exosporados dos Myxomycetes, compreendendo apenas a família Ceratiomyxaceae e o gênero Ceratiomyxa, com quatro espécies. Com base na literatura, coleções de herbário e coletas recentes realizadas pelos autores em diferentes estados e ecossistemas, foi possível estabelecer a ocorrência e distribuição na região Nordeste do Brasil de C. fruticulosa, cosmopolita, C. morchella e C. sphaerosperma, predominantemente tropicais ou subtropicais. São apresentadas descrições e ilustrações das espécies, bem como mapa de distribuição geográfica em oito dos nove estados situados no Nordeste do país. A ordem está sendo referida pela primeira vez para o estado de Sergipe. C. morchella e C. sphaerosperma constituem primeira referência para o estado da Paraíba.

  8. Diagenesis of the Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.C.; Goldstein, R.H.; Enos, P. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Petrographic cathodoluminescence studies of the cement stratigraphy of the Lisburne Group yield insights on its diagenetic history. Crosscutting relationships between features of subaerial exposure and calcite cements show that early generations of nonferroan, nonluminescent and multibanded-luminescent calcites are synchronous with or postdated by subaerial exposure surfaces within the Lisburne. Surfaces of subaerial exposure occur at 18 horizons within the Lisburne and are distinguished by features as laminated crusts, rhizoliths, autoclastic breccia, fissure fills, mud cracks, and erosional surfaces. Crosscutting relationships also occur between calcite cements and clasts in karst breccias and conglomerates that formed along the sub-Permian unconformity at the top of the Lisburne. The sub-Permian unconformity postdates later generations of calcite cement. These cements formed in the following sequence: nonferroan to low-ferroan, dully luminescent calcite; ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite; and second generation of nonferroan, multibanded calcite. The crosscutting relationships not only constrain the timing of cement precipitation, but also suggest that the cements probably were precipitated from meteoric groundwaters introduced during subaerial exposure of the Lisburne platform. Late cements in the Lisburne postdate the Permian Echooka Formation. These cements are low-ferroan, moderately-bright to dully luminescent calcite, followed by a second generation of ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. Features of compaction and pressure solution are coincident with the precipitation of the late ferroan calcite and further constrain its timing to deep burial of the Lisburne. The youngest phase of calcite cement precipitated in the Lisburne Group is nonferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. It commonly fills tectonically-induced shear fractures, indicating precipitation after the onset of Cretaceous (and/or Cenozoic) tectonism in the northeastern Brooks Range.

  9. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  10. Epidemiological analysis of human fascioliasis in northeastern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asma W; Tanveer, Akhtar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    A coprological study was performed to assess human fascioliasis in 7200 subjects inhabiting rural communities of localities close to the capital city of Lahore in the northeastern part of the very highly populated Punjab province, Pakistan, a country where human infection had never been reported before 2005. The analysis of 1200 subjects including 50 subjects/month throughout a two-year study in each of six localities surveyed provided an overall prevalence of 1.18%, with a range between 0.67% and 1.75% according to localities. Infection rates did not differ according to gender, excepting a higher rate in females (1.13% vs 0.77%) in one locality. Prevalences according to age groups proved to be higher in 11-20 years with 1.57%, followed by 1.18% in 0-10 years and 0.47% in 21-30 years, while no infection above 30 years. Seasonal prevalences proved to be significantly different when comparing summer and autumn with winter and spring. Monthly prevalences showed two peaks, the highest in August (4.67%) and another in January (2.17%). Correlation studies of monthly prevalences with temperature, humidity, rainfall, and pan evaporation showed significant results only with humidity. Despite prevalences being low, the very high number of inhabitants and population densities of the areas surveyed suggest a wide public health problem potentially infecting up to 150,000 rural people, children included, only in the respective districts. Additionally, the situation becomes of more concern when considering the present climate change trend affecting the Punjab, which indicates a progressively increasing fascioliasis transmission risk in that animal endemic area in the near future.

  11. Late Pleistocene glaciation of the Changbai Mountains in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; NIU YunBo; YAN Ling; CUI ZhiJiu; LI ChuanChuan; MU KeHua

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountains (2749 m a.s.l.) in northeastern China are one of the typical mountain regions with glaciation since late Pleistocene as evidenced by well-preserved erosive and accumulative land-forms at elevations above 2000 m a.s.l. Formed by glaciers around the crater lake, Tianchi Lake. Cirque glaciers developed on both the inner and outer sides of the volcanic cone. Well-preserved cirques, glacial trough valleys, glacial threholds, polished surfaces of the glacial erratics and the moraine ridges indicate that several glaciation processes took place during the last glacial period in this region. Re-sults of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on the moraine sediments, and the K/Ar, ther-mal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), electronic spinning resonance (ESR) dating on the volcanic rocks suggest two periods of glacier advances. One is named the Black Wind Mouth glacier advance taking place on the west and north slopes of the volcanic cone at an elevation of 2000-2100 m a.s.l.,which is dated to about 20 ka, being the result of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The other is named the Meteorological Station glacier advance at the elevation of 2400--2600 m a.s.l., dated to 11 ka during the late glacial period, and is tentatively correlated to the Younger Dryas stage. The scope of the former glacier advance is larger than that of the latter. Regional comparisons showed that the glacial se-quences in the Changbai Mountains are similar to other glaciated areas in eastern Asia during the later part of the last glacial cycle.

  12. Barrier layer in the northeastern South China Sea and its formation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Robust evidence for the barrier layer (BL) in the northeastern South China Sea (SCS) (16°-25°N, 112°-124°E) is presented. The occurrence rate of the BL peaks in the autumn (45.7%) and then the summer (31.1%) and the spring (23.3%), sequently. It is estimated that the annual occurrence rate of the BL reaches about 40.0% in the central northeastern SCS (18°-22°N, 112°-120°E) and the Luzon Strait. Stratification-formed (Rain-formed) mechanism is the major factor responsible for the occurrence of the BL in the northeastern SCS in the spring (the summer and autumn), respectively. The rainfall observation from TRMM provides reliable evidence for the latter.

  13. Habitabilidad de la vivienda de interés social prioritaria en el marco de la cultura. Reasentamiento de comunidades negras de Vallejuelos a Mirador de Calasanz en Medellín, Colombia. Habitability of the priority-affordable housing within the framework of culture. Resettlement of black communities from Vallejuelos to Mirador de Calasanz in Medellin, Colombia. Habitabilidade na habitação social prioritário no quadro da cultura. Reassentamento de comunidades pretas de Vallejuelos em Mirador de Calasanz em Medellín, Colômbia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia Marina Mena Romaña

    2011-07-01

    solutions built by the municipal administration in the context of public housing policy in Medellin. Methodologically, Mirador de Calazans was taken as a case study that characterizes the vast majority of the projects developed since 2001 to date, especially those built in the Pajarito Macroproject (northwest of Medellin. The method is qualitative and part of an ethnographic approach, which was conducted from life stories and general comments. The interest of this article explains the pervasiveness of this type of construction, lack of social responsibility when running housing, restrictive living conditions in the population and loss of identity that is generated in the different social groups. A moradia é habitada por diferentes pessoas e culturas que elas próprias implantam, pois a cultura é parte das suas vidas, fornecem identidade para os moradores e mesmo são transmitidas às moradias. Portanto, o modelo estandardizado implementado nas moradias chamadas de interesse prioritário (VIP, especificamente aquele desenhado para reassentamento de população, é uma limitante física que choca nos padrões culturais da população e gera conflitos associados à convivência. Neste artigo, indaga-se pela complexidade de morar em soluções habitacionais construídas pela administração municipal no marco da política pública de habitação de Medellín. Metodologicamente, o caso de estudo foi o Mirador de Calasanz, por caracterizar a maior parte dos projetos desenvolvidos desde 2001 até hoje, especialmente aqueles construídos no Macroprojeto de Pajarito (zona noroeste de Medellín. O método for qualitativo e parte duma perspectiva etnográfica, no qual foram realizadas entrevistas abertas, historias de vida e observação geral. O interesse deste artigo é explicado na propagação massiva deste tipo de edificações, falta de responsabilidade social na hora de construir moradias, condições restritivas em que as pessoas moram e a perda de identidade gerada nas

  14. 78 FR 65701 - Notice of Availability of the Nevada and Northeastern California Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Nevada and Northeastern California Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan... Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan (LUP) Amendments and Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Northeastern California Sub-region Greater Sage-Grouse Draft LUP Amendments/Draft EIS by any of the...

  15. Chagas disease: morbidity profile in an endemic area of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléber de Mesquita Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION : This study evaluated the clinical forms and manifestation severities of Chagas disease among serologically reactive individuals from Western Rio Grande do Norte (Northeastern Brazil. METHODS : This cross-sectional study included 186 adults who were evaluated using electrocardiography, echocardiography, chest radiography, and contrast radiography of the esophagus and colon. A clinical-epidemiological questionnaire was also used. RESULTS : The indeterminate, cardiac, digestive, and cardiodigestive clinical forms of Chagas disease were diagnosed in 51.6% (96/186, 32.2% (60/186, 8.1% (15/186 and 8.1% (15/186 of the participants, respectively. Heart failure (functional classes I-IV was detected in 7.5% (14/186 of the participants, and 36.4% (24/66, 30.3% (20/66, 15.2% (10/66, 13.6% (9/66, and 4.5% (3/66 of the patients were at stage A, B1, B2, C, and D, respectively. Dilated cardiomyopathy and electrocardiographic changes were detected in 10.2% (19/186 and 48.1% (91/186 of the participants, respectively. Apical aneurysm was diagnosed in 10.8% (20/186 of the participants, and other changes in the segmental myocardial contractility of the left ventricle were diagnosed in 33.9% (63/186 of the participants. Megaesophagus (groups I-IV was observed in 7% (13/186 of the participants, megacolon (grades 1-3 was detected in12.9% (24/186 of the participants, and both organs were affected in 29.2% (7/24 of the megacolon cases. CONCLUSIONS : We detected various clinical forms of Chagas disease (including the digestive form. Our findings indicate that clinical symptoms alone may not be sufficient to exclude or confirm cardiac and/or digestive damage, and the number of patients with symptomatic clinical forms may be underestimated.

  16. Spectral-induced polarization characteristics of rocks from Shinyemi deposit in Northeastern South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Samgyu; Shin, Seung Wook; Son, Jeong-Sul; Kim, Changryol

    2016-04-01

    Contact metasomatism between carbonate and igneous rocks leads to the formation of skarn deposits, and ore minerals are abundant. Geophysical methods that visualize the distributions of physical properties have been utilized to determine lithological boundaries in ore deposits. In particular, spectral-induced polarization (SIP) is the most effective of those methods for mineral exploration because it can obtain not only the boundaries but also the abundance and grain size of ore minerals. It is crucial to characterize the SIP responses of in situ rocks for a more realistic interpretation. Thus, typical rocks composed of igneous rock, skarn rock, skarn ore, and carbonate rock were sampled from drilling cores in the Shinyemi deposit, which is one of the well-known skarn deposits in Northeastern South Korea. The purpose of this study was to characterize the SIP responses of rocks by laboratory measurements. The characterization was performed by evaluating spectra and IP parameters. The IP properties were acquired from equivalent circuit analysis using a circuit model based on the electrochemical theory, and the analysis results of this circuit model were relatively well fit compared with those of the traditional Dias and Cole-Cole models. The frequency responses below 100 Hz in the spectra and the chargeability values of the skarn rocks and ores containing magnetite were relatively strong and high, respectively, compared with those of non-mineralized igneous and carbonate rocks. Therefore, it is considered that these characteristics are dependent on the abundance of magnetite. In case of the skarn ores with high magnetite content, the resistivity values were significantly low and the relaxation time values were influenced by the grain size of magnetite. On the other hand, it is considered that the DC resistivity and the relaxation time values of the igneous and carbonate rocks are slightly related to the porosity and the grade of hydrothermal alteration, respectively.

  17. Ecology of rare water plant communities in lakes of north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jabłońska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Habitat studies were conducted on three rare plant communities dominated by Nuphar pumila, Nymphaea candida and Hydrilla verticillata in lakes of north-eastern Poland. The comparison of habitat properties of these three types of phytocoenoses with those of Nuphar lutea common in the area under study was also performed. It was demonstrated that the plant communities studied were ecologically distinct. The habitats of the phytocoenoses of N. pumila differed most significantly from those of the other phytocoenoses. They often inhabited softer waters poor in Mg2+, dissolved SiO2, but rich in total Fe, PO43−, NO3−, and were associated with acidic substrates containing lower levels of Ca2+ and Na+, but greater amounts of total Fe and NO3−. The differences in the habitats of H. verticillata and N. candida phytocoenoses were most pronounced in the case of four properties of water: Na+, K+, Cl−, and Mg+. Their values were lower in waters of the H. verticillata phytocoenoses. The habitats of all the three types of rare phytocoenoses differed considerably from those of N. lutea. The most significant differences were found between the N. lutea and N. pumila phytocoenoses and the smallest differences were between the patches of N. lutea and N. candida. The properties of water were more important in differentiating the habitats of the phytocoenoses studied than the substrate properties. Due to alkalization and increase in water hardness in the lakes studied the stands of N. pumila are among the most threatened. The patches of N. candida and H. verticillata, which occur in waters with a wider range of hardness and tolerating a slight increase in trophy, can still continue to persist in the lakes for a long time.

  18. Sensitivity of WRF precipitation field to assimilation sources in northeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzana, Jesús; Merino, Andrés; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Fernández-González, Sergio; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; López, Laura; Marcos, José Luis

    2015-04-01

    Numerical weather prediction (NWP) of precipitation is a challenge. Models predict precipitation after solving many physical processes. In particular, mesoscale NWP models have different parameterizations, such as microphysics, cumulus or radiation schemes. These facilitate, according to required spatial and temporal resolutions, precipitation fields with increasing reliability. Nevertheless, large uncertainties are inherent to precipitation forecasting. Consequently, assimilation methods are very important. The Atmospheric Physics Group at the University of León in Spain and the Castile and León Supercomputing Center carry out daily weather prediction based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, covering the entire Iberian Peninsula. Forecasts of severe precipitation affecting the Ebro Valley, in the southern Pyrenees range of northeastern Spain, are crucial in the decision-making process for managing reservoirs or initializing runoff models. These actions can avert floods and ensure uninterrupted economic activity in the area. We investigated a set of cases corresponding to intense or severe precipitation patterns, using a rain gauge network. Simulations were performed with a dual objective, i.e., to analyze forecast improvement using a specific assimilation method, and to study the sensitivity of model outputs to different types of assimilation data. A WRF forecast model initialized by an NCEP SST analysis was used as the control run. The assimilation was based on the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS) developed by NOAA. The MADIS data used were METAR, maritime, ACARS, radiosonde, and satellite products. The results show forecast improvement using the suggested assimilation method, and differences in the accuracy of forecast precipitation patterns varied with the assimilation data source.

  19. Modeling four occurred debris flow events in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreggio, Mauro; Gregoretti, Carlo; Degetto, Massimo; Bernard, Martino

    2016-04-01

    Four occurred debris flows in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps) are modeled by back-analysis. The four debris flows events are those occurred at Rio Lazer (Trento) on the 4th of November 1966, at Fiames (Belluno) on the 5th of July 2006, at Rovina di Cancia (Belluno) on the 18th of July 2009 and at Rio Val Molinara (Trento) on the 15th of August 2010. In all the events, runoff entrained sediments present on natural channels and formed a solid-liquid wave that routed downstream. The first event concerns the routing of debris flow on an inhabited fan. The second event the deviation of debris flow from the usual path due to an obstruction with the excavation of a channel in the scree and the downstream spreading in a wood. The third event concerns the routing of debris flow in a channel with an ending the reservoir, its overtopping and final spreading in the inhabited area. The fourth event concerns the routing of debris flow along the main channel downstream the initiation area until spreading just upstream a village. All the four occurred debris flows are simulated by modeling runoff that entrained debris flow for determining the solid-liquid hydrograph. The routing of the solid-liquid hydrograph is simulated by a bi-phase cell model based on the kinematic approach. The comparison between simulated and measured erosion and deposition depths is satisfactory. Nearly the same parameters for computing erosion and deposition were used for all the four occurred events. The maps of erosion and deposition depths are obtained by comparing the results of post-event surveys with the pre-event DEM. The post-event surveys were conducted by using different instruments (LiDAR and GPS) or the combination photos-single points depth measurements (in this last case it is possible obtaining the deposition/erosion depths by means of stereoscopy techniques).

  20. Epidemiological characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease in North-Eastern Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alicja Wiercinska-Drapalo; Jerzy Jaroszewicz; Robert Flisiak; Danuta Prokopowicz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To provide the clinical and epidemiological data of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients of NorthEastern Poland.METHODS: A total of 248 IBD patients diagnosed and hospitalized in the Department of Infectious Diseases in Bialystok between 1990 and 2003 were included in the study. We analyzed age, sex, education, characteristics of job, type of the environment, discontinuation of employment due to IBD, colitis extent, need of surgical treatment, and coexistence of other diseases.RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-three IBD patients (94%) were diagnosed as ulcerative colitis (UC), and only 15 (6%) were diagnosed as Crohn's disease (CD). Patients with CD were significantly younger at the time of diagnosis and male predominance was observed. The mean age of the patients at the time UC diagnosis was 44.9±1.1 years. Histogram of the age of patients showed the characteristic biphasic distribution with two peaks between 20 and 40 years and between 60 and 70 years. The predominant form of UC was left sided colitis, which affected almost 80% of the studied population. The most extensive form - pancolitis was present in 34 patients (15%). Only 6% of UC patients required surgery, whereas 36% of CD patients underwent surgery (P<0.005). Among coexisting disorders, cholelithiasis was the most prevalent and demonstrated in 35 patients (14%), pulmonary disorders were diagnosed in 2%, and psoriasis in 1.4%.Since 1998, the number of admitted IBD patients has slightly increased.CONCLUSION: Occurrence of UC in Poland is much higher than that of CD. The majority of UC cases are diagnosed in young people (20-40 years) with the predominance of male patients. The most common clinical form of UC is left sided colitis.

  1. Rotating shift work associated with obesity in men from northeastern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Grundy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While some studies have suggested associations between shift work and obesity, few have been population-based or considered multiple shift schedules. Since obesity is linked with several chronic health conditions, understanding which types of shift work influence obesity is important and additional work with more detailed exposure assessment of shift work is warranted. Methods: Using multivariate polytomous logistic regression, we investigated the associations between shift work (evening/night, rotating and other shift schedules and overweight and obesity as measured by body mass index cross-sectionally among 1561 men. These men had previously participated as population controls in a prostate cancer case-control study conducted in northeastern Ontario from 1995 to 1999. We obtained information on work history (including shift work, height and weight from the existing self-reported questionnaire data. Results: We observed an association for ever (vs. never having been employed in rotating shift work for both the overweight (OR [odds ratio] = 1.34; 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.05–1.73 and obese (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.12–2.21 groups. We also observed nonsignificant associations for ever (vs. never having been employed in permanent evening/night shifts. In addition, we found a significant trend of increased risk for both overweight and obesity with increasing duration of rotating shift work. Conclusion: Both the positive association between rotating shift work and obesity and the suggested positive association for permanent evening/night shift work in this study are consistent with previous findings. Future population-based research that is able to build on our results while examining additional shift work characteristics will further clarify whether some shift patterns have a greater impact on obesity than others.

  2. Large bio-geographical shifts in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Payne, Mark; Beaugrand, G.

    2009-01-01

    and persistent bottom-up bio-physical link is demonstrated using a numerical ocean general circulation model and data on four trophically connected levels in the food chain – phytoplankton, zooplankton, blue whiting, and pilot whales. The plankton data give a unique basin-scale depiction of these changes...... water masses in the north-eastern North Atlantic Ocean, associated with changes in the strength and extent of the subpolar gyre. These exchanges lead to variations in the influence exerted by the subarctic or Lusitanian biomes on the intermediate faunistic zone in the north-eastern Atlantic. This strong...

  3. Prevalence of infectious agents in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Antonio; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; Mosqueda, Juan; Garcia-Vazquez, Zeferino; Henke, Scott E; George, John E

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Mexico. Deer (n=521) were captured from helicopter using a netgun on 15 ranches covering 62,114 ha in the states of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas during spring 2004. The prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, BVDV, and brucellosis were 5.6, 41.1, 63.5, and 0%, respectively, indicating that white-tailed deer and cattle may share disease agents when cohabiting in northeastern Mexico.

  4. Prevalence of dengue and chikungunya virus infections in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajeguka, Debora C; Kaaya, Robert D; Mwakalinga, Steven;

    2016-01-01

    and chikungunya virus among participants presenting with malaria-like symptoms (fever, headache, rash, vomit, and joint pain) in three communities with distinct ecologies of north-eastern Tanzania. METHODS: Cross sectional studies were conducted among 1100 participants (aged 2-70 years) presenting with malaria....... Further analyses revealed that headache and joint pain were significantly associated with chikungunya IgM seropositivity. CONCLUSION: In north-eastern Tanzania, mainly chikungunya virus appears to be actively circulating in the population. Continuous surveillance is needed to determine the contribution...

  5. Gravity evolution and earthquake activities of the northeastern edge of Qinghai-Xizang block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝意青; 李辉; 朱桂芝; 徐云马

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between temporal-spatial evolution of gravity and earthquake activity during 1992~2001 has beenanalyzed systematically byintegrally adjusting the gravity observation data of the northeastern edge of Qinghai-Xizang (Qingzang) block. The result shows that the gravity observation data of the northeastern edge of Qingzangblock obtained by using the uniform starting datum can completely reflect the precursory gravity informationappearing during the seismogenic process. In the genesis stage of an earthquake, regional gravity anomaly appearsin a large area, resulting in related local gravity anomaly. The dynamic image of gravity field can clearly reflect theorderly evolution and earthquake activity.

  6. Diversity of gall-inducing insects in the high altitude wetland forests in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Santos

    Full Text Available We report on the richness of galling insects in the altitudinal wetland forests of Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. We found 80 distinct types of insect galls on 49 species of host plants belonging to 28 families and 35 genera. Most of the galled plant species belong to Nyctaginaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Sapindaceae and Myrtaceae. The most common gall were spheroid and globoid; most galls were glabrous, predominantly green and with one chamber, and on the leaves. Most galls were induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The results of this study contribute to existing knowledge richness of galling insects and host-plant diversity in the altitudinal wetland forests of Northeastern Brazil.

  7. The playful as a psycho-pedagogic method: one experience in preventing youth drug dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Tobón Marulanda, Flor Ángela; Gaviria García, Nelson Alveiro; Ramírez Villegas, John Fernando

    2012-01-01

    This participatory action research was based on a experience of educational intervention on La Cruz and Bello Oriente (Manrique-Medellin), a marginal zone in the northeastern part of the Commune 3 in Medellin,. Colombia. In this marginal sector, psychosocial problems seem to be associated to limited educational and employment opportunities, domestic violence, illegal armed forces, sexual abuse, social discrimination, and lack of adequate public services, among others.  All these are also cons...

  8. Report of Common Aeroallergens among Allergic Patients in Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoub Mahboubi Oskouei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The prevalence of atopic diseases has increased in recent decades dramatically. The most common aeroallergens in Northeastern Iran have not been fully defined. Define the most common aeroallergens in allergic patients based on the skin prick test (SPT was aimed in this investigation.Materials and Methods:This cross-sectional study enrolled 1,006 allergic patients (aged 1–86 years from October 2010 to February 2014 referred to the Allergy clinics of Mashhad University of Medical Science. After completing a checklists including demographic information, the SPT was performed according to the patients’ history of aeroallergen sensitivity.Results:Patients with symptoms of asthma allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria were enrolled . 97% of patients had a positive skin test to at least one aeroallergen. The most prevalent allergens were Russian thistle (Salsola kali (50.2%, ash (Fraxinus excelsior (36.7%, grass mix (29.1%, tree mix (21.6%, and pigweed mix (19.5%. Common allergens in patients with different symptoms of allergic disorders were as follows: asthma (Russian thistle, grass mix, ash, tree mix, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; allergic rhinitis (Russian thistle,ash, grass mix, tree mix, and pigweed mix; urticaria (Russian thistle, ash, grass mix, pigweed mix, and tree mix and atopic dermatitis (Russian thistle, grass mix, ash, tree mix, and pigweed mix. In the spring, the most prevalent allergens were Russian thistle, ash, grass mix, tree mix, and pigweed mix. In the summer, Russian thistle, ash, grass mix, tree mix, and pigweed mix accounted for the most prevalent allergens. During the autumn, Russian thistle, ash, grass mix, pigweed mix and lamb’s quarter were the most common aeroallergens, while in the winter, Russian thistle, ash, grass mix, pigweed mix, and tree mix were shown to be the most common aeroallergens.Conclusion:Determination of the most common aeroallergens in this area is unavoidable in the

  9. Anatomy of a founder effect: myotonic dystrophy in Northeastern Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotova, Vania; Labuda, Damian; Zietkiewicz, Ewa; Gehl, Dominik; Lovell, Alan; Lefebvre, Jean-François; Bourgeois, Stéphane; Lemieux-Blanchard, Emilie; Labuda, Marcin; Vézina, Hélène; Houde, Louis; Tremblay, Marc; Toupance, Bruno; Heyer, Evelyne; Hudson, Thomas J; Laberge, Claude

    2005-07-01

    Founder effects are largely responsible for changes in frequency profiles of genetic variants in local populations or isolates. They are often recognized by elevated incidence of certain hereditary disorders as observed in regions of Charlevoix and Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ) in Northeastern Quebec. Dominantly transmitted myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is highly prevalent in SLSJ where its carrier rate reaches 1/550, compared with 1/5,000 to 1/50,000 elsewhere. To shed light on the origin of DM1 in this region, we have screened 50 nuclear DM1 families from SLSJ and studied the genetic variation in a 2.05 Mb (2.9 cM) segment spanning the site of the expansion mutation. The markers analyzed included 22 biallelic SNPs and two microsatellites. Among 50 independent DM1 chromosomes, we distinguished ten DM1-associated haplotypes and grouped them into three haplotype families, A, B and C, based on the relevant extent of allele sharing between them. To test whether the data were consistent with a single entry of the mutation into SLSJ, we evaluated the age of the founder effect from the proportion of recombinant haplotypes. Taking the prevalent haplotype A1_21 (58%) as ancestral to all the disease-associated haplotypes in this study, the estimated age of the founder effect was 19 generations, long predating the colonization of Nouvelle-France. In contrast, considering A1_21 as ancestral to the haplotype family A only, yielded the estimated founder age of nine generations, consistent with the settlement of Charlevoix at the turn of 17th century and subsequent colonization of SLSJ. We conclude that it was the carrier of haplotype A (present day carrier rate of 1/730) that was a "driver" of the founder effect, while minor haplotypes B and C, with corresponding carrier rates of 1/3,000 and 1/10,000, respectively, contribute DM1 to the incidence level known in other populations. Other studies confirm that this might be a general scenario in which a major "driver" mutation

  10. Health and sanitary status in 1970 of Tubu nomads dwelling in Northeastern Niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Franois Magnaval; Christian Oosterbosch; Michel Mandl; MABN group

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Tubu are nomadic people who live in remote parts of the central Sahara, primarily in the Tibesti massif (Chad), and in both Northeastern Niger and Southern Libya. All of these areas are close to become conflict zones. However, no data about the Tubu’s health and sanitary status are currently available, which would be of major concern if humanitarian interventions would become required. Methods: In 1970, the “Mission Anthropologique Belge au Niger” (MABN) investigated a Tubu tribe named Broaya that lived at Seguedine and Djado on the northeastern rim of the Tenere desert. One hundred fifty-one adult volunteers answered an oral questionnaire and underwent a medical examination, followed by the collection of blood thin films and samples of urine and stool. The environmental fauna of medical importance was also studied. Results: Albeit 43 year-old, these results have not been previously published. The estimated age of death for fathers was approximately 56 years, and that for mothers was 60 years. On average, each married woman had had 4.7 children. The overall perinatal mortality rate was 232 ‰, the overall infant mortality rate was 153 ‰, and the overall child mortality rate was 99 ‰. The mean height was 164.1 cm and 157.4 cm, the mean weight was 50.1 kg and 47.9kg, and the mean blood pressure was 131/78 mmHg and 127/75 mmHg for males and females, respectively. The physical examination found 6 cases of blindness (4.0%). Five subjects presented with an elevated blood pressure (3.3%), and 5 (3.3%) displayed an abnormal thoracic auscultation evocative of tuberculosis or of an acute lung infection. The abdominal examination and renal palpation found 5 large masses (3.3%), and 2 subjects had a palpable enlarged spleen (1.3%). The blood thin films were fixed in methanol and subsequently examined in Toulouse. The search for blood parasites was negative. The urine samples were centrifuged and then microscopically examined in the field. No blood

  11. Geomorphological map of a coastal stretch of north-eastern Gozo (Maltese archipelago, Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Mauro; Micallef, Anton; Biolchi, Sara; Chelli, Alessandro; Cuoghi, Alessandro; Devoto, Stefano; Gauci, Christopher; Graff, Kevin; Lolli, Federico; Mantovani, Matteo; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Pisani, Luca; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Restall, Brian; Roulland, Thomas; Saliba, Michael; Selmi, Lidia; Vandelli, Vittoria

    2017-04-01

    structural, gravitational, coastal, alluvial and karst processes were mapped. Particular attention was devoted to the recognition and classification of landslides of different type (in particular block slides and earth flows/slides) which affect large sectors of the north-eastern coast of Gozo. In most cases, landslide accumulations reach the coastline and cover shore platforms. In addition, wide portions of the plateau areas are affected by rock spreading related to the presence of limestones overlying clayey terrains. The climatic conditions, the dense joint systems and the karstification of limestone determine a temporary superficial drainage pattern. Temporary streambeds (wieden in Maltese) were identified in correspondence of V-shaped valleys once occupied by permanent water courses. Karst processes widely affect the Upper Coralline Limestone Formation resulting in caves, diffuse solution pools, grooves and furrows. The geomorphological map output represents a baseline document on which to undertake, first the landslide susceptibility mapping, subsequently the hazard mapping and finally the risk mapping, a critical part of the wider-scoped risk management process of this and similar coastal areas.

  12. ¿Qué hacer cuando estoy enferma? La búsqueda de alternativas para el bienestar en mujeres desplazadas, Medellín 2013-2014/ What to do when I am sick? Women displaced by violence and their search for well-being alternatives in Medellin 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C.Posada-Zapata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: reconocer los diferentes significados de las experiencias de las mujeres desplazadas en relación con la percepción de su estado de salud y cómo este influye en la búsqueda y el uso de servicios de salud o medicina tradicional, para los años 2013-2014. Metodología: se realizó una investigación cualitativa utilizando el método conocido como Teoría Fundada; se tuvieron dos tipos de fuentes: primarias, constituidas por los discursos recogidos en entrevistas aplicadas personalmente a 49 mujeres que han sido desplazadas y que para el momento de la investigación residían en tres asentamientos de la ciudad de Medellín y cuyas características se definieron por la diversidad cultural, étnica e idiosincrasia; y las fuentes secundarias, compuestas por la revisión de documentos oficiales, literatura, otras investigaciones y demás material que tratara a cerca de este tema; las herramientas de recolección fueron entrevista semiestructurada, grupos focales y entrevistas a profundidad. Resultados y discusión: se encuentra que las mujeres desplazadas al percibirse enfermas hacen uso de la medicina tradicional y otras alternativas importantes como los servicios asistenciales para satisfacer sus necesidades en salud. En el caso de percibirse sanas, las mujeres buscan mantener una interacción con estas alternativas para asegurar que su estado de salud actual no varíe. Conclusión: se concluye que las percepciones de salud o enfermedad que tienen las mujeres en condición de desplazamiento, hacen que ellas interactúen con diferentes alternativas para la preservación o recuperación de su estado de salud. /Abstract Objective: to recognize the experiences derived from the search for healthcare alternatives performed by women who have been displaced by violence and currently live in three settlements in Medellin, Colombia, during 2013-2014. Methodology: a qualitative research was conducted using grounded theory. Two types of

  13. Haematologic complications from human babesiosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Forrester

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Formerly known as Nantucket fever, babesiosis is increasing in incidence across the Northeastern United States. Because of its emerging health risk globally, it is important to be aware of its various presenting manifestations. We present the case of a middle-aged man with haemolytic anaemia from Babesia microti infection.

  14. Unique challenges and opportunities for Northeastern U.S. crop production in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change may both exacerbate the vulnerabilities and open up new opportunities for farming in the Northeastern United States. Among the opportunities are double-cropping and new crop options that may come with warmer temperatures and a longer frost-free period. However, prolonged periods of sp...

  15. Water scarcity under scenarios for global climate change and regional development in semiarid Northeastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Araújo, José Carlos; Döll, Petra; Güntner, Andreas; Krol, Martinus S.; Rodrigues Abreu, Cláudia Beghini; Hauschild, Maike; Mendiondo, Eduardo Mario

    2004-01-01

    The State of Ceará, located in semiarid Northeastern Brazil, suffers under irregularly recurring droughts that go along with water scarcity. Structural policies to control and reduce water scarcity, as water supply and demand management, should be seen as long-term planning, and thus have to

  16. Spatial patterns of soil nitrification and nitrate export from forested headwaters in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald S. Ross; James B. Shanley; John L. Campbell; Gregory B. Lawrence; Scott W. Bailey; Gene E. Likens; Beverley C. Wemple; I.F. Creed; F. Courchesne

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen export from small forested watersheds is known to be affected by N deposition but with high regional variability. We studied 10 headwater catchments in the northeastern United States across a gradient of N deposition (5.4 − 9.4 kg ha−1 yr−1) to determine if soil nitrification rates...

  17. Tulipa albanica (Liliaceae), a new species from northeastern Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, Lulëzim; Tan, Kit; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Tulipa albanica (Liliaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species from a serpentine area in Kukësi district, northeastern Albania. It is compared with T. scardica from the western Balkans (Macedonia and Kosovo) and with T. schrenkii from the Ukraine, Caucasus, Central and Southwest Asia...

  18. Water scarcity under scenarios for global climate change and reginoal development in semiarid Northeastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araújo, de José Carlos; Döll, Petra; Güntner, Andreas; Krol, Maarten; Rodrigues Abreu, Cláudia Beghini; Hauschild, Maike; Mendiondo, Eduardo Mario

    2004-01-01

    The State of Ceará, located in semiarid Northeastern Brazil, suffers under irregularly recurring droughts that go along with water scarcity. Structural policies to control and reduce water scarcity, as water supply and demand management, should be seen as long-term planning, and thus have to conside

  19. Mithun : The pride animal of north-eastern hilly region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Shisode

    Full Text Available Mithun, the pride animal called as ‘Cattle of Hilly Region’ of north-eastern hilly region of India and tropical rain forest of China. The animal plays an important role in the day to day socio-economic life of the local tribal population. Mithun (Bos frontalis is a rear species of livestock and is found in the north-eastern region of our country like Arunachal Pradesh (75 per cent of the total population, Nagaland (60 per cent, Manipur (0.8 per cent andMizoram (0.1 per cent having total population 0.25 million according to census 2003 and also very meager in Myanmar, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. The animal has got good potential for production of quality meat, milk and leather. Mithun is the ‘Cattle of Hilly Region’ and is one of the domesticated animals from the North-eastern hilly region and mainly found in tropical rain forest of North-eastern hilly region. Very meager population is found inMyanmar, Bhutan and China. There are four defined mithun strains depending up on the geographical areas namely Arunachal, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram strains, respectively. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 480-481

  20. Study of Core Competency Elements and Factors Affecting Performance Efficiency of Government Teachers in Northeastern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the core competency elements and the factors affecting the performance efficiency of the civil service teachers in the northeastern region, Thailand. The research procedure consisted of two steps. In the first step, the data were collected using a questionnaire with the reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of 0.90. The…

  1. 77 FR 38738 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-BB35 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for the Southern New England Skate Bait Trawl Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  2. 78 FR 54399 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC815 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... December 31, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist,...

  3. 78 FR 64182 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XC921 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist, 978-281-9224....

  4. 77 FR 25117 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-BB35 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for the Southern New England Skate Bait Trawl Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  5. 77 FR 64305 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-BC50 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for the Cape Cod Spiny Dogfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  6. 75 FR 74005 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Monkfish Fishery; Scoping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BA50 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Monkfish Fishery; Scoping Process AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... statement (EIS) and scoping meetings; request for comments. SUMMARY: The New England Fishery...

  7. 76 FR 53832 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Decrease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-XA652 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Decrease for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  8. 77 FR 76424 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 648 [Docket No. 120201086-2418-02] RIN 0648-XC394 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Bluefish Fishery; Quota Transfer AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carly Bari, Fishery Management Specialist, 978-281-9224....

  9. 75 FR 57249 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast (NE) Multispecies Fishery; Charter/Party...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-BA09 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast (NE) Multispecies Fishery; Charter/Party Fishery Control Date AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  10. 75 FR 48874 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-AY14 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Herring Fishery; Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... announces final specifications for the 2010-2012 fishing years for the Atlantic herring (herring)...

  11. 77 FR 22678 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648- XB145 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Trimester 1 Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  12. The Cold Vortex Circulation over Northeastern China and Regional Rainstorm Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this study,regional rainstorm events (RREs) in northeastern China associated with the activity of the Northeastern China Cold Vortex (NCCV) were investigated on a medium-range time scale.The RREs occurring in northeastern China could be categorized into three groups according to the distribution of heavy rainfall.The largest cluster is characterized by the rainstorm events that occur on the northwestern side of the Changbai Mountains along a southwest-northeast axis.These events occur most frequently during the post-meiyu period.The authors place particular emphasis on the RREs that belong to the largest cluster and are closely associated with the activity of the NCCV.These RREs were preconditioned by the transportation of substantial amounts of water vapor to which the anomalous western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) contributed.The attendant anomalous WPSH was primarily driven by the anomalous transient eddy feedback forcing the nearby East Asian jet.The development of the NCCV circulation was concurrent with the RREs and acted as their primary causative factor.A perspective based on low-frequency dynamics indicates that Rossby wave packets emanated from the blocking-type circulation over northeastern Asia led to the development of the NCCV activity.

  13. Floods, Habitat Hydraulics and Upstream Migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JUAN F. BLANCO; FREDERICK N. SCATENA

    2005-01-01

    Massive upstream migrations of neritid snails (Neritidae: Gastropoda) occur in tropical and subtropical streams worldwide, but their seasonality and proximate causes are unknown. We monitored massive upstream migrations of Neritina virginea for 99 weeks, and conducted a detailed study of snail density, size, and hydraulic descriptors in lower Río Mameyes, northeastern...

  14. The anamorphic state of Leveillula taurica recorded on Cleome spinosa in north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos AC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The anamorphic state of Leveillula taurica was found causing a powdery mildew disease on Cleome spinosa in north-eastern Brazil. Its chasmothecial state was not observed on the collected samples. The fungus is illustrated and described. This report represents the first record of this fungus on Cleome spinosa in Brazil.

  15. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1:20 as cut-off for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%...

  16. Pollinators of the invasive plant, yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), in north-eastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James McIver; Robbin Thorp; Karen Erickson

    2009-01-01

    The potential pollinators of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) were surveyed at six sites in north-eastern Oregon, USA, between May and September from 2000 to 2002. The objective of the study was to determine the species composition and relative abundance of the insects that visited yellow starthistle throughout the flowering season and...

  17. Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Falk; Wareth, Gamal; El-Adawy, Hosny; Henning, Klaus; Pletz, Mathias W.; Heller, Regine; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    During 2014–2015, patients in northeastern Kenya were assessed for brucellosis and characteristics that might help clinicians identify brucellosis. Among 146 confirmed brucellosis patients, 29 (20%) had negative serologic tests. No clinical feature was a good indicator of infection, which was associated with animal contact and drinking raw milk. PMID:27662463

  18. Marine Group II Dominates Planktonic Archaea in Water Column of the Northeastern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haodong Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, nutrients, and salinity are among the important factors constraining the distribution and abundance of microorganisms in the ocean. Marine Group II (MGII belonging to Euryarchaeota commonly dominates the planktonic archaeal community in shallow water and Marine Group I (MGI, now is called Thaumarchaeota in deeper water in global oceans. Results of quantitative PCR (qPCR and 454 sequencing in our study, however, showed the dominance of MGII in planktonic archaea throughout the water column of the northeastern South China Sea (SCS that is characterized by strong water mixing. The abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA representing the main group of Thaumarchaeota in deeper water in the northeastern SCS was significantly lower than in other oceanic regions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the top operational taxonomic units (OTUs of the MGII occurring predominantly below 200 m depth may be unique in the northeastern SCS based on the observation that they are distantly related to known sequences (identity ranging from 90–94%. The abundance of MGII was also significantly correlated with total bacteria in the whole column, which may indicate that MGII and bacteria may have similar physiological or biochemical properties or responses to environmental variation. This study provides valuable information about the dominance of MGII over AOA in both shallow and deep water in the northeastern SCS and highlights the need for comprehensive studies integrating physical, chemical, and microbial oceanography.

  19. Soil moisture depletion in three lodgepole pine stands in northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel M. Bishop

    1961-01-01

    A 1-year study in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon indicates that substantial amounts of soil moisture are consumed during the growing season in lodgepole pine stands. Dual purposes of the study were to estimate the quantities of water that can be stored in basalt-pumice soils typical of the Blue Mountains, and to determine the rate and amount of moisture...

  20. Mimosa tenuiflora as a Cause of Malformations in Ruminants in the Northeastern Brazilian Semiarid Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniofacial anomalies, eye malformations, and permanent flexures of the forelimbs are common malformations seen in ruminants grazing semiarid rangelands of Northeastern Brazil. To investigate the cause of these malformations, we fed 2 suspected plants, Mimosa tenuiflora or Prosopis juliflora, to gr...

  1. 75 FR 18113 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Restrictions of the DAS Leasing Program While Amendment 16 exempts sector vessels from the requirement to use... requested an exemption from the DAS Leasing Program length and horsepower restrictions, arguing that sector... Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; 2010...

  2. 77 FR 64185 - BNSF Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption-- Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: The.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), a Class I rail carrier, to acquire and operate a 120.4- mile...

  3. Functional diversity in summer annual grass and legume intercrops in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A warm-season annual intercropping experiment was conducted across the Northeastern United States with four trials in 2013 and five trials in 2014 with four crop species selected based on differences in stature and nitrogen acquisition traits: 1) pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.); 2) sorghum suda...

  4. Topographic variables improve climate models of forage species abundance in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species distribution modeling has most commonly been applied to presence-only data and to woody species, but detailed predicted abundance maps for forage species would be of great value for agricultural management and land use planning. We used field data from 107 farms across the northeastern Unite...

  5. Site records of softshell turtles (Chelonia: Trionychidae from Barak Valley, Assam, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Das

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report for the first time the occurrence of four species of Trionychid turtles Nilssonia gangetica, N. hurum, Chitra indica and Lissemys punctata andersonii from 57 sites in the Barak Valley region of Assam, northeastern India. Sites of occurrence include rivers, small streams, floodplain lakes and ox-bows.

  6. Data on the macromycetes flora of the North-Eastern Ploand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longin Olesiński

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The list of 352 macromycetes (Asco- and Basidiomycetes collected in the North-Eastern Poland is given. It is the first part of mycofloristic investigation in this region conducted in the years 1964-1997 by latter author, and 1981-1982, by former autor.;

  7. New deep-sea Paratanaoidea (Crustacea: Peracarida: Tanaidacea) from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumm, David T; Bird, Graham J

    2016-08-23

    One new genus is erected and four new species of paratanaoidean tanaidaceans are described from deep waters in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico: one in each of the genera Collettea, Tanaella, and Pseudomacrinella, and one as a new genus in the family Anarthruridae. Keys to species in the genera Collettea, Tanaella, and the genera of the Anarthruridae are provided.

  8. A hidden early source of information on north-eastern Brazilian zoology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Attention is drawn to some hitherto overlooked paragraphs on the north-eastern Brazilian fauna hid- den in a historiographic account of Count Johan Maurits' govenorship (1637-1644), published by Caspar van Baerle (Barlaeus) in 1647, a year before the publication of Marcgrave & Piso's famous Historia

  9. Maloprim malaria prophylaxis in children living in a holoendemic village in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Msangeni, H A; Rønn, A M;

    1997-01-01

    A randomized, double-'blind', placebo-controlled trial of weekly Maloprim (dapsone-pyrimethamine, D-P) for malaria prophylaxis was conducted at Magoda village in north-eastern Tanzania. The effect of D-P on the incidence of clinical malaria, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and density, splenomeg...

  10. 2 Roads to Restructuring: Northeastern U. Cuts Itself Down to Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1994-01-01

    Northeastern University (Massachusetts) has reduced its size by one-fifth, cut $60-million from its budget, eliminated 700 jobs, dropped or merged several programs, frozen salaries, and cut other costs in a successful retrenchment effort. Many agree the "rightsizing" was handled in a fair, humane way; others are angered. (MSE)

  11. Two new species of the family Niphatidae van Soest, 1980 from Northeastern Brazil (Haplosclerida: Demospongiae: Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, George Garcia; Docio, Loyana; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2014-03-06

    This paper deals with niphatid sponges from the coast of the Bahia State, northeastern coast of the Brazilian shelf (southwestern Atlantic). Two new species are described, Amphimedon estelae sp. nov. and Niphates luizae sp. nov. A taxonomic study of those samples is given, including description and illustrations. Both species were compared with their congeners present in the Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Alpheus rudolphi spec. nov., a new snapping shrimp from northeastern Brazil (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, A.O.; Anker, A.

    2011-01-01

    A new snapping shrimp of the Alpheus armatus Rathbun, 1901 species complex, Alpheus rudolphi spec. nov., is described based on a single female holotype collected off Alagoas, northeastern Brazil (09°55.11’S 35°32.73’W). The new species differs from all other species of the A. armatus complex by the

  13. Microstructure measurements along a quasi-meridional transect in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurado, E.; van der Woerd, H.J.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents vertical profiles of turbulence parameters obtained in the upper 100 m of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean along a transect from tropical permanently stratified waters to subpolar seasonally stratified waters in July–August 2009. The focus is to fully characterize the vertical mix

  14. The Genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean (Oregonian and Californian Provinces)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eernisse, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The systematics of the northeastern Pacific Lepidochitona from the Californian and Oregonian Provinces (western continental United States) is presented and discussed. Three new species are described: L. caverna spec. nov. and L. berryana spec. nov. from California, and L. fernaldi spec. nov. from Wa

  15. An exploration of attitudes on sexuality at a northeastern urban university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, J; Donnelly, M; Kittleson, M J; Fogarty, K J; Procaccino, A T; Duncan, D F

    1997-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of scores on homophobia among 104 college students at a northeastern urban university. Participants reported their attitudes regarding homosexuals and homosexual behavior on Hudson and Rickett's Index of Homophobia. The 33 men indicated more negative attitudes about homosexuals and homosexual situations than the 71 women.

  16. 78 FR 65888 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery... Handgear A, Handgear B, and Small Vessel Category permits be adjusted relative to the cod trip limits for DAS vessels, and these adjustments are specified in Table 3. These trip limit adjustments for all...

  17. 78 FR 10556 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery... fishing year. This rule also decreases the trip limits for white hake and pollock. This is intended to...) established the current trip limits for the common pool vessels fishing under a Category A day-at-sea (DAS...

  18. 76 FR 18661 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery... Southern New England (SNE)/Mid-Atlantic (MA) yellowtail flounder, and reduces the trip limit GOM cod and... additional overharvest of these stocks relative to the pertinent common pool sub-ACLs. DATES: The trip limit...

  19. 76 FR 30035 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Increase...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Increase for the Common Pool Fishery...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; inseason adjustment of trip limit. SUMMARY: NMFS increases the trip limit... Regional Administrator (RA) to adjust the trip limits for common pool vessels in order to optimize the...

  20. 78 FR 54194 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery... percent of its Gulf of Maine (GOM) haddock allocation of 2 mt. Despite a trip limit reduction for SNE/MA... overharvest, the trip limit for SNE/MA winter flounder is reduced to 300 lb (136.1 kg) per trip, and the GOM...

  1. 78 FR 42478 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustment for the Common Pool Fishery... winter flounder and GOM haddock. DATES: The trip limit decrease for SNE/MA winter flounder is effective... of 136 mt (299,829 lb). The current trip limit for SNE/MA winter flounder is 5,000 lb (2,268 kg) per...

  2. Environmental impact of manufacturing softwood lumber in northeastern and north central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    Finding the environmental impact of building materials is becoming increasingly more important because of public environmental awareness. Accurate and precise life-cycle inventory data on wood products are needed to meet this demand. This study examined softwood lumber manufacturing in the northeastern and north central US using life-cycle inventory methods. Material...

  3. A case of Spinocerebellar Ataxia from ethnic tribe of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayal Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the case of a 17-year-old girl belonging to an ethnic tribe (Bodo tribe of Assam, presenting with bilateral cerebellar signs and with history suggestive of an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, who was found to have spinocerebellar ataxia 7 on genetic testing. This case throws light on the probability of more such cases in the multi-ethnic society of the North-Eastern Indian states, which are not studied or reported till date.

  4. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Iran: a GIS-based spatio-temporal multi-criteria decision-making approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollalo, A; Khodabandehloo, E

    2016-07-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) constitutes a serious public health problem in many parts of the world including Iran. This study was carried out to assess the risk of the disease in an endemic province by developing spatial environmentally based models in yearly intervals. To fill the gap of underestimated true burden of ZCL and short study period, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy AHP decision-making methods were used to determine the ZCL risk zones in a Geographic Information System platform. Generated risk maps showed that high-risk areas were predominantly located at the northern and northeastern parts in each of the three study years. Comparison of the generated risk maps with geocoded ZCL cases at the village level demonstrated that in both methods more than 90%, 70% and 80% of the cases occurred in high and very high risk areas for the years 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. Moreover, comparison of the risk categories with spatially averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images and a digital elevation model of the study region indicated persistent strong negative relationships between these environmental variables and ZCL risk degrees. These findings identified more susceptible areas of ZCL and will help the monitoring of this zoonosis to be more targeted.

  5. Diffuse and enteroaggregative patterns of adherence of Escherichia coli isolated from stools of children in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaletsky Isabel Cristina Affonso

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood diarrheal diseases remain highly endemic in northeastern Brazil. The attributable fraction of all diarrheal diseases among children less than 2 years of age due to Escherichia coli was examined in a 2-year prospective study in two large urban centers of Brazil. Between May 1997 and June 1999, fecal E. coli isolates from 237 children with diarrhea (217 acute and 20 persistent cases and 231 children without diarrhea (controls attending two hospitals in Northeast Brazil were tested for their pattern of adherence to HEp-2 cells and for colony hybridization with DNA probes specific for the six pathotypes of diarrheagenic E. coli. Enteroinvasive E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli were not isolated from any children. Diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC were the most frequent isolates with similar frequencies from children with or without diarrhea. Atypical EPEC (EAF-negative strains were isolated with similiar frequency from both cases (5.5% and controls (5.6%. Enteropathogenic E. coli (typical EPEC strains, characterized by localized adherence pattern of adherence, hybridization with the EAF probe, and belonging to the classical O serogroups, were significantly associated with diarrhea (P = 0.03. These E. coli strains associated with diarrhea accounted for 9% of all children with diarrhea. Collectively, in Northeast Brazil, E. coli strains comprise a small proportion of severe diarrhea prevalence in children.

  6. Geochemistry of marine sediments of the Brazilian Northeastern continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Souza do Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine sediment samples collected from the northeastern Brazilian continental shelf, at water depths between 20 and 80 m, consisted mainly of sands with an almost total absence of gravel and granules. Medium, coarse and very coarse sand grains are mostly composed of halimeda, lithothamnium, rodoliths and bioclastic sands with a carbonate content varying between 77 and 96 %. The chemistry in general shows a decreasing content of Ca (86.1 % >Si (6 % > Cl (3.6 % > Sr (0.8 % > K (0.66 % > S (0.62 % > Al (0.6 % > Na (0.55% > Mg (0.43 % > Fe (0.4 % > P (0.2 % > Br (0.04 % in the samples. There was no correlation between CaCO3 and chemical contents and grain size with depth and bio-components. With the exception of Sr of marine origin, all other elements (P, S, Br, Cl, Fe are of continental origin. The lithothamnium of some offshore samples shows higher CaCO3 content, while Mg and Na are present only in halimedas. Bioclastic sands contain no Br, and silt and clay fractions are rare and characterize samples closer to the coast. These marine bioclastic granulates are of very pure biogenic calcium carbonates and are thus highly to be recommended for economic purposes.Os granulados marinhos, da Plataforma Continental do nordeste brasileiro, coletados de profundidades entre 20 e 80 m, são predominantemente areias cascalhosas constituídas de halimedas, litotames, rodolitos e areias bioclásticas, cujos teores de carbonatos variam de 77 a 96 %. A concentração média geral de elementos químicos na ordem decrescente é Ca (86.1 % > Si (6 % > Cl (3.6 % > Sr (0.8 % > K (0.66 % > S (0.62 % > Al (0.6 % > Na (0.55 % > Mg (0.43 % > Fe (0.4 % > P (0.2 % > Br (0,04 %, independentemente da profundidade e tipo de bio-componente. Com exceção do Sr, que é de origem marinha, os demais elementos (P, S, Br, Cl, Fe são de origem continental. Elementos como Mg e Na foram restritos às halimedas em apenas duas amostras, enquanto Br não foi detectado nas areias

  7. Sediment budget for Rediu reservoir catchment, North-Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todosi, Cristian; Niculita, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Sediment budgets are a useful tool for geomorphologic analysis, catchment management and environmental assessment, despite the uncertainties related to their assessment. We present the sediment budget construction and validation for a small catchment of 9.5319 kmp (953.19 ha) situated in the North-Eastern part of Romania. The Rediu reservoir was built between 1986 and 1988, on Rediu valley, a left tributary of Bahlui river, north-west from Iasi city. The catchment of the reservoir has 6.5 km in length and 2.5 km in maximum width, the altitudes decreasing from 170 m in the northern part, to 52 m in the southern part. The valley is symmetric, the altitude of the hillslopes going between 200 m to 75 m in one km length, in the transversal section with the maximum width. The floodplain is narrow having between 20 m to 210 m (in the area of confluence with Breazu tributary). The mean slope of the catchment is 6.4 degree, the maximum slope being 24.6 degrees. The length of channels which show banks of up to 2 m is 19.98 km. The land is used predominantly as crops (58.1 %), 16.7 % being covered by pastures (from which over half are eroded), 11.5 % percent of the catchment being covered by planted forests, 9.2 % by rural constructions and roads, 2.9 % by hayfields, 1.5 % by lakes and 0.1 % by orchards. Beside the Rediu reservoir, there are three ponds (15 771, 1761 and 751 sqm) in the catchment. We considered the trap efficiency for the reservoir and the ponds to be 95%. Aerial images from 1963, 1978 , 1984, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 were used to assess the state of geomorphological processes before and after the reservoir construction. After 1970 a gully system situated in Breazu tributary sub-catchment and several active landslides along the main valley left side were forested. Beside these processes, soil erosion and human impact by constructions are the main processes generating sediment in the study area. The sediment yields were quantified by estimating the

  8. Dissolved Zn and its speciation in the northeastern Indian Ocean and the Andaman Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taejin eKim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Total dissolved Zn and Zn speciation were investigated by cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV in the northeastern Indian Ocean and the Andaman Sea. Vertical distributions of total dissolved Zn concentration (CZn in the northeastern Indian Ocean and the Andaman Sea reflect that the deep water from the Andaman Sea was rapidly replaced by incoming waters from the northeastern Indian Ocean across the sills and was homogenized by vertical mixing. In the Andaman Sea, CZn at the near surface, < 50 m in depth, ranged from 0.33 nM to 1.14 nM at the southernmost station, which is an order of magnitude higher than those at the northernmost station, 0.03–0.22 nM, where is in close proximity to the estuaries of the Irrawaddy and Salween rivers. However, the Si concentration in the near surface water, 16.3 μM, was highest at the northernmost station of the Andaman Sea. In the northeastern Indian Ocean, only one sample was applied to estimate total ligand concentrations (CL and conditional stability constants (〖K^'〗_(ZnL,Zn^(2+ for organic complexation of Zn. The CL and 〖K^'〗_(ZnL,Zn^(2+ in the northeastern Indian Ocean were 0.5 nM and 10.0, whereas those of the Andaman Sea were 0.4 nM–0.9 nM and 9.6–11.4, respectively. We observed no clear relationship between chlorophyll a (Chl a and CL in the Andaman Sea. Various sources of Zn complexing ligands might be derived in the Andaman Sea, not only from bacteria and phytoplankton, but also from the Irrawaddy–Salween rivers.

  9. Investigation of the geochemical evolution of groundwater under agricultural land: A case study in northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Ruiz, Rogelio; Pastén-Zapata, Ernesto; Parra, Roberto; Harter, Thomas; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    Zona Citrícola is an important area for Mexico due to its citriculture activity. Situated in a sub-humid to humid climate adjacent to the Sierra Madre Oriental, this valley hosts an aquifer system that represents sequences of shales, marls, conglomerates, and alluvial deposits. Groundwater flows from mountainous recharge areas to the basin-fill deposits and provides base flows to supply drinking water to the adjacent metropolitan area of Monterrey. Recent studies examining the groundwater quality of the study area urge the mitigation of groundwater pollution. The objective of this study was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of the groundwater and to assess the processes controlling the groundwater's chemistry. Correlation was used to identify associations among various geochemical constituents. Factor analysis was applied to identify the water's chemical characteristics that were responsible for generating most of the variability within the dataset. Hierarchical cluster analysis was employed in combination with a post-hoc analysis of variance to partition the water samples into hydrochemical water groups: recharge waters (Ca-HCO3), transition zone waters (Ca-HCO3-SO4 to Ca-SO4-HCO3) and discharge waters (Ca-SO4). Inverse geochemical models of these groups were developed and constrained using PHREEQC to elucidate the chemical reactions controlling the water's chemistry between an initial (recharge) and final water. The primary reactions contributing to salinity were the following: (1) water-rock interactions, including the weathering of evaporitic rocks and dedolomitization; (2) dissolution of soil gas carbon dioxide; and (3) input from animal/human wastewater and manure in combination with by denitrification processes. Contributions from silicate weathering to salinity ranged from less important to insignificant. The findings suggest that it may not be cost-effective to regulate manure application to mitigate groundwater pollution.

  10. Contribution of Nutrient Pollution to Water Scarcity in the Water-Rich Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. L.; Lopez, C.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of water stress focus on water-scarce regions such as drylands. Yet, even water-rich regions can be water stressed due to local water withdrawals that exceed supply or due to water pollution that makes water unusable. The northeastern United States (NE) is a water-rich region relative to the rest of the country, as it concentrates about 50% of total renewable water of the country. Yes the NE features relatively high water withdrawals, ~50 km3/yr, for thermo-power generation, agriculture, and industry, as well as to support a human population of about 70 million. At the same time, rivers and streams in the NE suffer from nutrient pollution, largely from agricultural and urban land uses. We asked: to what extent is the NE water stressed, and how do water withdrawals and water quality each contribute to water scarcity across the NE? We used information on county-level water withdrawals and runoff to calculate a water scarcity index (WSI) for 200 hydrologic units across the NE from 1987 to 2002. We used data on surface water concentrations of nitrogen to calculate the additional water necessary to dilute surface water pollution to weak, moderate, and strong water quality standards derived from the literature. Only considering withdrawals, we found that approximately 10% of the NE was water stressed. Incorporating a moderate water quality standard, 25% of the NE was water stressed. We calculated a dilution burden by sectors of water users and found that public utilities faced 41% of the total dilution burden for the region, followed by irrigation users at 21%. Our results illustrate that even water rich regions can experience water stress and even scarcity, where withdrawals exceed surface water supplies. Water quality contributes to water stress and can change the spatial patterns of water stress across a region. The common approach to address scarcity has required the use of inter-basin water transfers, or in the case of water quality-caused scarcity

  11. Underwater Acoustic Localization and Tracking of Pacific Walruses in the Northeastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Brendan Pearce

    This thesis develops and demonstrates an approach for estimating the three-dimensional (3D) location of a vocalizing underwater marine mammal using acoustic arrival time measurements at three spatially separated receivers while providing rigorous location uncertainties. To properly account for uncertainty in the measurements of receiver parameters (e.g., 3D receiver locations and synchronization times) and environmental parameters (water depth and sound speed correction), these quantities are treated as unknowns constrained with prior estimates and prior uncertainties. While previous localization algorithms have solved for an unknown scaling factor on the prior uncertainties as part of the inversion, in this work unknown scaling factors on both the prior and arrival time uncertainties are estimated. Maximum a posteriori estimates for sound source locations and times, receiver parameters, and environmental parameters are calculated simultaneously. Posterior uncertainties for all unknowns are calculated and incorporate both arrival time and prior uncertainties. Simulation results demonstrated that, for the case considered here, linearization errors are generally small and that the lack of an accurate sound speed profile does not necessarily cause large uncertainties or biases in the estimated positions. The primary motivation for this work was to develop an algorithm for locating underwater Pacific walruses in the coastal waters around Alaska. In 2009, an array of approximately 40 underwater acoustic receivers was deployed in the northeastern Chukchi Sea (northwest of Alaska) from August to October to record the vocalizations of marine mammals including Pacific walruses and bowhead whales. Three of these receivers were placed in a triangular arrangement approximately 400 m apart near the Hanna Shoal (northwest of Wainwright, Alaska). A sequence of walrus knock vocalizations from this data set was processed using the localization algorithm developed in this thesis

  12. Landslides and fortified settlements as valuable geoheritage sites in the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculita, Mihai; Bucci, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are widespread natural phenomena that shape the earth surface. As such, they are part of the environment where people live, playing an important role as natural hazard, but also making a place peculiar for its specific morphology. Nowadays, like in the past, people living in hilly to mountainous areas have always had to face landslides. In the Eastern Carpathians lowlands, landslides have carved a landscape with inaccessible escarpments tens of meters high, providing old populations with panoramic and naturally defensive places to build their settlements. This interaction produced an association of landslide morphologies and archaeological remains that is unique in Romaina. In this study, we present the case of chalcolitic and thraco-getic (6.5 ka BP to 500 BP) fortified settlements, for which landslides provided a favorable place for their construction on one hand, and acted as a natural hazard on the other hand. In the Moldavian Plateau, North-Eastern Romania, more than 50 sites were identified on structural plateaus bounded by wide scarps of Pleistocene landslides, on cuesta ridges bounded by scarps of Holocene landslides, or situated on hillslopes, on erosional remnants of landslide bodies. For nine out of the 50 sites, we produced accurate geomorphological landslide inventories, mapping more than 500 landslides starting from high resolution LiDAR DEM derived images. Such inventories provide information on landslide type and relative ages (very old, old, recent landslides) based on the morphological appearance of each slope failure. Analysis of the relations between the sites hosting the fortified settlements, their archaeological remains and very old landslides distribution, provides evidences that landslide scarps and their deposits were used by these populations as defensive sites. In particular, the scarps were used as natural walls, allowing to save material and manpower required to erect walls on the gentle and open parts of the sites. Besides

  13. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1971 - December 31, 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year....

  14. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, *Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, *Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1968 - December 31, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year....

  15. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1972 - December 31, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report...

  16. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, *Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, *Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1969 - December 31, 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year....

  17. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: July 1, 1973 - June 30, 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1974 fiscal year. The report...

  18. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1970 - December 31, 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year....

  19. Influence of Habitat Types on Prairie Nesting Waterfowl Nest Density and Nest Success in Northeastern North Dakota, 2010 – 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nest density and nest success of ducks in native and non-native grasslands within the Devils Lake WMD, Northeastern North Dakota. Waterfowl representing 8 species of...

  20. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: July 1, 1974 - June 30, 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report...

  1. Reconstruction of the coastal morphodynamics of the Fulong-beach dune field in north-eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörschner, Nina; Böse, Margot; Frechen, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The Fulong-beach dune field is located at the north-eastern coast of Taiwan. Built up of medium and fine grained quartz rich sand, it represents a unique feature of only few kilometres along the east coast of Taiwan. This unique sedimentological regime makes the area most perfectly suitable for age estimations by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The dune field is crossed by the Shuangsi-river, which flows into the Pacific Ocean. The coastal area is subjected to very dynamic conditions in the transition zone between land and sea. Due to the constant force of marine and aeolian processes from tides, weather and sediment accumulation by rivers, it is a continuously changing area. Taiwan is located in a very active tectonic zone with high elevation rates, which reach from 4 mm per year at the east coast up to 7 mm per year in the southern parts of the island. Furthermore Taiwan is affected by medial 3.8 typhoons per year and minor earthquakes nearly occur every day (LIN ET AL. 2006). The consequences are high rates of erosion and sediment transport during very short time periods. The Fulong-beach coastal area is densely populated and proud for being a tourism destination. At the northern end of the dune field the Lungmen nuclear power plant is currently under construction. Four separate dune ridges could be identified from a digital elevation model and from field mapping. During the field campaign in October and November 2009 17 samples were taken for OSL-dating (MURRAY ET AL. 1995) out of the four dune ridges as well as out of a more than 30 m high elevated outcrop cut by the Shuangsi-river. The measurement and the evaluation of the OSL-samples will provide us an insight into the duration and intensity of the processes affecting the coastal area of Taiwan during the Holocene. We will give an outline during the poster presentation of the methodical approach and the morphodynamical processes affecting the Fulong-beach dune field in north-eastern Taiwan

  2. Deposition times in the northeastern United States during the Holocene: establishing valid priors for Bayesian age models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S.; Williams, J. W.; Blois, J. L.; Jackson, S. T.; Paciorek, C. J.; Booth, R. K.; Marlon, J. R.; Blaauw, M.; Christen, J. A.

    2012-08-01

    Age-depth relationships in sedimentary archives such as lakes, wetlands and bogs are non-linear with irregular probability distributions associated with calibrated radiocarbon dates. Bayesian approaches are thus well-suited to understanding relationships between age and depth for use in paleoecological studies. Bayesian models for the accumulation of sediment and organic matter within basins combine dated material from one or more records with prior information about the behavior of deposition times (yr/cm) based on expert knowledge. Well-informed priors are essential to good modeling of the age-depth relationship, but are particularly important in cases where data may be sparse (e.g., few radiocarbon dates), or unclear (e.g., age-reversals, coincident dates, age offsets, outliers and dates within a radiocarbon plateau). Here we assessed Holocene deposition times using 204 age-depth models obtained from the Neotoma Paleoecology Database (www.neotomadb.org) for both lacustrine and palustrine environments across the northeastern United States. These age-depth models were augmented using biostratigraphic events identifiable within pollen records from the northeastern United States during the Holocene and late-Pleistocene. Deposition times are significantly related to depositional environment (palustrine and lacustrine), sediment age, and sediment depth. Spatial variables had non-significant relationships with deposition time when site effects were considered. The best-fit model was a generalized additive mixed model that relates deposition time to age, stratified by depositional environment with site as a random factor. The best-fit model accounts for 63.3% of the total deviance in deposition times. The strongly increasing accumulation rates of the last 500-1000 years indicate that gamma distributions describing lacustrine deposition times (α = 1.08, β = 18.28) and palustrine deposition times (α = 1.23, β = 22.32) for the entire Holocene may be insufficient for

  3. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region`s net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region`s energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  4. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohebali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serologically using direct agglutination test (DAT. Microscopically examinations were performed in all the seropositive wild canines for the presence of the amastigote form of Leishmania spp. Some Leishmania sp. which had been isolated from the spleens of wild canines, were examined analyzed by conventional PCR and sequencing techniques using α-tubulin and GAPDH genes.Results: Altogether, 84 wild canines including foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=21, Jackals (Canis aureus, n=60 and wolves (Canis lupus, n=3 were collected. Four foxes and seven jackals showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of 1:320–1:20480 in DAT. Furthermore, one fox and one jackal were parasitologically (microscopy and culture positive and L. infantum was confirmed by sequence analysis.Conclusion: The present study showed that sylvatic cycle of L. infantum had been established in the studied endemic areas of VL in northeastern Iran.

  5. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Soledad Fernandez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic. These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis.

  6. Re-Examination of Opisthorchis viverrini in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand, Indicates Continued Needs for Health Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Loyd, Ryan A; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kompor, Porntip; Norkaew, Jun; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Kujapan, Jirawoot; Polphimai, Sukanya; Phatisena, Tanida; Eaksunti, Thawatchai; Polsripradist, Poowadol; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma particularly in the cases of chronic or re-infection. This presents a serious health problem in northeastern and northern Thailand. A community base approach is required for surveillance. Therefore, in a pilot project, re-examination of O. viverrini infection was conducted in the 3 districts of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand, during June and October 2015. A total of 355 participants from a 194,152 population, was selected through multi-stage sampling. O. viverrini infection was determined using modified Kato Katz thick smear technique. Participants were 229 males and 126 females, and aged ≥30 years old. Prevalence of O. viverrini infection was 2.25% (8/355 participants). O. viverrini infection was slightly higher in females (3.17%), and age group between 41-50 years (4.49%). Mueang Yang district had a highest of O. viverrini infection rate (2.82%), and followed by Bua Yai (2.48%), and Chum Phuang (1.84%), respectively. O. viverrini infection rate was increased from year 2012 to 2015 particularly in Bua Yai and Mueang Yang. These re-examinion results indicate that opisthorchiasis is still problem in community of Nakhon Ratchasima province, therefore, the provincial-wide scale is need required. Furthermore health education is need intervened in the infected group, and screening of cholangiocarcinoma is urgently concerned.

  7. Illness-related practices for the management of childhood malaria among the Bwatiye people of north-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kauna K

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of childhood illnesses are accompanied by fever,, including malaria. Child mortality due to malaria has been attributed to poor health service delivery system and ignorance. An assessment of a mother's ability to recognize malaria in children under-five was carried out among the Bwatiye, a poorly-served minority ethnic group in north-eastern Nigeria. Methods A three-stage research design involving interviews, participatory observation and laboratory tests was used to seek information from 186 Bwatiye mothers about their illness-related experiences with childhood fevers. Results Mothers classified malaria into male (fever that persists for longer than three days and female (fever that goes away within three days and had a system of determining when febrile illness would not be regarded as malaria. Most often, malaria would be ignored in the first 2 days before seeking active treatment. Self-medication was the preferred option. Treatment practices and sources of help were influenced by local beliefs, the parity of the mother and previous experience with child mortality. Conclusion The need to educate mothers to suspect malaria in every case of febrile illness and take appropriate action in order to expose the underlying "evil" will be more acceptable than an insistence on replacing local knowledge with biological epidemiology of malaria. The challenge facing health workers is to identify and exploit local beliefs about aetiology in effecting management procedures among culturally different peoples, who may not accept the concept of biological epidemiology.

  8. Spatial and temporal changes in Lutzomyia longipalpis abundance, a Leishmania infantum vector in an urban area in northeastern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María Soledad; Santini, María Soledad; Cavia, Regino; Sandoval, Adolfo Enrique; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Acardi, Soraya; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse changes in the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Posadas, an urban area located in northeastern Argentina. Data were obtained during the summer of 2007 and 2009 through two entomological surveys of peridomiciles distributed around the city. The abundance distribution pattern for 2009 was computed and compared with the previous pattern obtained in 2007, when the first human visceral leishmaniasis cases were reported in the city. Vector abundance was also examined in relation to micro and macrohabitat characteristics. In 2007 and 2009, Lu. longipalpis was distributed among 41.5% and 31% of the households in the study area, respectively. In both years, the abundance rates at most of the trapping sites were below 30 Lu. longipalpis per trap per night; however, for areas exhibiting 30-60 Lu. longipalpis and more than 60 Lu. longipalpis, the areas increased in both size and number from 2007-2009. Lu. longipalpis was more abundant in areas with a higher tree and bush cover (a macrohabitat characteristic) and in peridomiciles with accumulated unused material (a microhabitat characteristic). These results will help to prioritise and focus control efforts by defining which peridomiciles display a potentially high abundance of Lu. longipalpis. PMID:24271040

  9. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F; Gardner, D R; Medeiros, R M T; Barros, S S; Anjos, B L; Lucena, R B

    2007-01-01

    A disease of the central nervous system in goats was observed in the municipalities of Juazeiro, Casa Nova and Curaça, state of Bahia, and Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The disease was produced experimentally in two goats by the administration of dry Turbina cordata mixed with grain. Clinical signs were observed after the ingestion of 62 and 106 g/kg body weight in 28 and 54 days, respectively. The concentration of swainsonine in the plant varied from less than 0.001% to 0.14% (dry weight). Clinical signs of natural and experimental cases included difficulties in standing, ataxia, hypermetria, wide-based stance, intention tremors, spastic paresis mainly in the hind legs, nystagmus, abnormal postural reactions, head tilting, and falling. Diffuse vacuolation of neurons, epithelial cells of pancreas, thyroids, and renal tubules were observed on the histology. From the electron microscopy of Purkinje cells the vacuoles represented dilated lysosomes. These findings demonstrated that T. cordata causes an acquired glycoprotein lysosomal storage disease. The intoxication occurs at least in an area of 27,000 km2 causing severe losses in goats, and some farmers report the disease also in cattle.

  10. Simulation of the water balance of boreal watersheds of northeastern British Columbia, Canada using MIKE SHE, an integrated hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadzadesahraei, S.; Déry, S.; Rex, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Northeastern British Columbia (BC) is undergoing rapid development for oil and gas extraction, largely depending on subsurface hydraulic fracturing (fracking), which relies on available freshwater. Even though this industrial activity has made substantial contributions to regional and provincial economies, it is important to ensure that sufficient and sustainable water supplies are available for all those dependent on the resource, including ecological systems. Further, BC statistics predict that the northeastern region's population will increase by 30% over the next 25 years, thereby amplifying the demands of domestic and industrial water usage. Hence, given the increasing demands for surface water in the complex wetlands of northeastern BC, obtaining accurate long-term water balance information is of vital importance. Thus, this study aims to simulate the 1979-2014 water balance at two boreal watersheds using the MIKE SHE model. More specifically, this research intends to quantify the historical, and regional, water budgets and their associated hydrological processes at two boreal watersheds—the Coles Lake and Tsea Lake watersheds—in northeastern BC. The development of coupled groundwater and surface water model of these watersheds are discussed. The model setup, calibration process, and results are presented, focusing on the water balance of boreal watersheds. Hydrological components within these watersheds are quantified through a combination of intensive fieldwork, observational data, analysis and numerical modeling. The output from the model provides important information for decision makers to manage water resources in northeastern BC. Keywords: Northeastern BC; boreal watershed; water balance; MIKE SHE hydrological model.

  11. Characteristics of Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) oviposition sites in northeastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, C.A.; Adams, M.J.; Wente, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Several western ranid frogs possess a unique strategy of breeding communally over a short temporal window and reusing oviposition sites between years. However, little is published on the characteristics of oviposition sites selected by these explosive breeders. The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) is native to northwestern North America and is of conservation concern in the southern portions of its range. As part of a study examining relationships between livestock grazing and R. luteiventris habitat, we assessed characteristics of the species' oviposition sites in 25 fishless ponds in northeastern Oregon. Oviposition sites were generally in shallow water (<25 cm) close to shore and tended to be in the northeastern portion of ponds. Oviposition sites were found more frequently over heavily vegetated substrates and in areas of less substrate slope and shade than random points in littoral zones. We did not quantify temperature differences within ponds, but the patterns we documented are consistent with preferential use of warmer microhabitats for oviposition.

  12. Potentiometric surfaces in the Cockfield and Wilcox aquifers of southern and northeastern Arkansas, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of water-level measurements made at wells in the Cockfield Formation and Wilcox Group of southern and northeastern Arkansas during 2003, and the water levels are displayed in potentiometric-surface maps and hydrographs. During March and April 2003, the water level was measured at 55 wells completed in the Cockfield aquifer, 13 wells completed in the Wilcox aquifer of southern Arkansas, and 43 wells completed in the Wilcox aquifer of northeastern Arkansas. The Cockfield Formation generally consists of discontinuous sand units interbedded with silt, clay, and lignite in southeastern Arkansas. Sand beds near the base of the Cockfield Formation constitute most of the Cockfield aquifer. Withdrawals from the Cockfield aquifer in the study area during 2000 totaled about 9 million gallons per day. The potentiometric surface of the Cockfield aquifer constructed from the 2003 water levels shows that regional direction of ground-water flow generally is towards the east and southeast, away from the outcrop, except in areas of intense ground-water withdrawals. Some local ground-water flow in the outcrop area is toward rivers that have eroded into the Cockfield Formation and deposited alluvium in south Bradley and Calhoun Counties (Ouachita River), and in north Dallas County (Saline River). An evaluation of 20 wells with water-level data from 1983 to 2003 shows that water levels in 15 wells have declined at a rate of -0.04 to -0.97 feet per year, and water levels in 5 wells have risen at a rate of 0.07 to 0.32 feet per year. An evaluation of the same 20 wells from 2000 to 2003 shows that water levels have declined in only 8 wells, and water levels have risen in 12 wells. The Wilcox Group is distributed throughout most of southern and eastern Arkansas. There are two study areas in southern and northeastern Arkansas. The Wilcox Group of the southern study area consists of interbedded clay, sandy clay, sand, and lignite. Thin discontinuous sand

  13. Northeastern North America as a potential refugium for boreal forests in a warming climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orangeville, L; Duchesne, L; Houle, D; Kneeshaw, D; Côté, B; Pederson, N

    2016-06-17

    High precipitation in boreal northeastern North America could help forests withstand the expected temperature-driven increase in evaporative demand, but definitive evidence is lacking. Using a network of tree-ring collections from 16,450 stands across 583,000 km(2) of boreal forests in Québec, Canada, we observe a latitudinal shift in the correlation of black spruce growth with temperature and reduced precipitation, from negative south of 49°N to largely positive to the north of that latitude. Our results suggest that the positive effect of a warmer climate on growth rates and growing season length north of 49°N outweighs the potential negative effect of lower water availability. Unlike the central and western portions of the continent's boreal forest, northeastern North America may act as a climatic refugium in a warmer climate. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. First Data on Lake Level Changes in Northeastern Siberia during the Postglacial Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilo, N A; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Lozhkin, A V; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2005-05-18

    Moraines of the Tyellakh Group [1] (QIII{sub 2-4}) preserved in river valleys of the northeastern Kolyma River basin indicate development of cirque-valley glaciers originating in the Kilgan Mountains located at the northeastern periphery of the Kolyma Ridge that separates drainage basins of the Sea of Okhotsk and Kolyma River. Moraines host lakes with a length of up to 1-5 km and a relatively small width depending on the valley bottom dimension. The study of lacustrine sediments, their bed-by-bed palynological analysis, and radiocarbon dating provided the first information on lake levels during the final glacial stage of the Late Pleistocene, as well as the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary and Holocene, for the upper reaches of the Kolyma River.

  15. Orthobunyavirus Antibodies Among Humans in Selected Parts of the Rift Valley and Northeastern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Collins; Venter, Marietjie; Swanepoel, Robert; Sang, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Ngari, Bunyamwera, Ilesha, and Germiston viruses are among the mosquito-borne human pathogens in the Orthobunyavirus genus, family Bunyaviridae, associated with febrile illness. Although the four orthobunyaviruses have been isolated from mosquito and/or tick vectors sampled from different geographic regions in Kenya, little is known of human exposure in such areas. We conducted a serologic investigation to determine whether orthobunyaviruses commonly infect humans in Kenya. Orthobunyavirus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization tests in 89 (25.8%) of 345 persons tested. Multivariable analysis revealed age and residence in northeastern Kenya as risk factors. Implementation of acute febrile illness surveillance in northeastern Kenya will help to detect such infections. PMID:25988444

  16. Edge effect on vascular epiphytic composition in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolpho Gonçalves Dias-Terceiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes are common in the canopy of temperate and tropical forests, where they substantially contribute to species diversity and to key ecosystem processes. However, little is known about the effects caused by deforestation on this group of species, especially in northeastern Brazil, an area experiencing intense anthropogenic pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of environmental variables on the structure of assemblies of vascular epiphytes in a fragment of open ombrophilous forest, Areia, northeastern Brazil. Sixty 10 × 10 m sampling plots were installed to cover different environments within the fragment. The relationship between environmental variables and species composition was evaluated by means of a generalized linear mixed model. The composition of assemblies of epiphytes differed with respect to distance from the edge and luminosity. In the study area, deforestation led to a change in the composition of epiphytic species both at the edge and the interior of the fragment.

  17. Biodiversity and bionomics of the black flies (Diptera: simuliidae) of northeastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherairia, Mouna; Adler, Peter H; Samraoui, Boudjéma

    2014-05-16

    Black flies in the Seybouse River Basin in northeastern Algeria were sampled at 31 sites along the main river and its tributaries across all seasons from 2011 to 2013. Eight nominal species and species complexes in three genera were identified among more than 31,000 specimens. Urosimulium faurei (Bernard, Grenier & Bailly-Choumara), Simulium (Eusimulium) mellah Giudicelli & Bouzidi, and Simulium (Nevermania) lundstromi (Enderlein) were recorded for the first time in northeastern Algeria. Three cytoforms of the Simulium (Eusimulium) velutinum complex and two morphoforms of Simulium (Nevermannia) ruficorne Macquart were found. The most abundant and ubiquitous taxon, Simulium (Wilhelmia) pseudequinum Segúy, representing nearly 80% of collected specimens, occupied the widest range of habitats, including those with anthropogenic influences.

  18. Study on specifications of farmland shelterbelt net in Northeastern Plain of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The farmland shelterbelts in Northeastern Plain of China have formedrelatively completenet system. The functions of shelterbeltnet in omnibearing wind check and prevention of frostbite as well as the field of integrated clima te effect within shelterbelt net were analyzed, through located observation of m eteorological factors. Within the shelterbeltnet, the area with more than 10% e fficiency of omnibearing wind check was determined as benefited area. The analys is of yield and quality of crops indicated that the sheltering range of shelterb elt net was 25 times tree height. The mature heights of the various varieties of poplar composed the shelterbelts were determined according to their height growth. Based on the comprehensive analysis above, the suitable size of farmland she lterbelt net in Northeastern Plain of China was decided to be 400 m×400 m.

  19. Radon concentrations in buildings in the north-eastern region of Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalewski, M.; Karpinska, M.; Mnich, Z.; Kapala, J. [Medical School, Department of Biophysics, Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2a st., PL.-15-230 Bialystok (Poland)

    1988-08-01

    The paper presents the results of radon concentration measurements in dwelling houses in Poland's northeastern region. The investigations were carried out using PICO-RAD carbon detectors. The results from 412 measurements ranged from 4 to 1300 Bq m{sup -3}. In the inhabited parts of houses the respective values were: arithmetical mean =25 Bq m{sup -3}, geometrical mean =17 Bq m{sup -3} and median =16 Bq m{sup -3}. In the basements these values were 76, 36 and 32 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. By taking into account the population density and the mean radon concentration in the inhabited part of the houses, the mean annual dose equivalent from radon was estimated to be 0{center_dot}63 mSv for the northeastern region of Poland. (Copyright (c) 1988 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Fathers in hot water: rising sea temperatures and a Northeastern Atlantic pipefish baby boom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Richard R; Johns, David G; Lindley, John A

    2006-12-22

    We report unprecedented numbers of juvenile snake pipefish, Entelurus aequoreus, in continuous plankton records of the Northeastern Atlantic since 2002. Increased sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Northern Hemisphere, linked to global warming, are a likely cause. Analysis of a long-term time-series of SST data in the Northeastern Atlantic shows a rise in winter, spring and summer sea temperatures (January-September), when the eggs of E. aqueoreus, which are brooded by the male, are developing and the larvae are growing in plankton. From what is known of the reproductive biology of closely related species, we suggest that the increased abundance of larval and juvenile E. aequoreus in the plankton as far west as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge may reflect the impact of temperature on abundance, through its effects on the operational sex ratio and potential reproductive rate, the onset of the breeding season and juvenile survival in this sex role reversed fish.

  1. Trends in anuran occupancy from northeastern states of the North American Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Linda; Fiske, Ian J.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We present the first multi-year occupancy trends from North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) data in 10 northeastern states using seven years of data (2001-2007). NAAMP uses a calling survey technique where observers listen for anuran vocalizations along assigned random roadside routes. We were able to assess occupancy trends in 10 northeastern states for 16 species and one species complex, for 94 species/state combinations. We found no significant trends for 64 species/state combinations. For the remaining 30 species/state combinations with significant trends, these split between declining and increasing trends. On a species-by-species basis, two species had declining trends, with significant trends in six states for Pseudacris crucifer and four states for Bufo americanus. The trends of Rana catesbeiana significantly increased in four states, but had no trend in the remaining states.

  2. Late Ordovician-Early Silurian chitinozoans from north-eastern and western Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, A.; Mikulic, Donald G.; Kluessendorf, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Samples of uppermost Ordovician and Silurian strata from two cores from north-eastern and western Illinois were processed for chitinozoans. Due to apparent sea-floor oxidation or palaeoenvironmental constraints, very few samples yielded specimens, but those that did allow tentative correlation with established biostratigraphical zonations for the Chitinozoa. Samples from the Wilhelmi Formation of core DH76-21 in north-eastern Illinois yielded Spinachitina fragilis, a typically earliest Silurian taxon. A sample from the Maquoketa Group strata of core Principia #4, western Illinois, yielded a monospecific assemblage of Conochitina elegans, which is suggestive of a late Ordovician age. Higher in this core, a sample from the upper strata of the Bowling Green Dolomite yielded an assemblage indicating a late Rhuddanian to Aeronian age, including Angochitina hansonica, previously only described from strata in Nevada, and one new species, Fungochitina illinoisensis. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Climate-based models for West Nile Culex mosquito vectors in the Northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hongfei; Degaetano, Arthur T.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2011-05-01

    Climate-based models simulating Culex mosquito population abundance in the Northeastern US were developed. Two West Nile vector species, Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were included in model simulations. The model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. Mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. The results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population increases (as early warning of West Nile virus risk) and decreases in late summer. Simulated abundance was highly correlated with actual mosquito capture in New Jersey light traps and validated with field data. This climate-based model simulates the population dynamics of both the adult and immature mosquito life stage of Culex arbovirus vectors in the Northeastern US. It is expected to have direct and practical application for mosquito control and West Nile prevention programs.

  4. Holocene moisture and East Asian summer monsoon evolution in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau recorded by Lake Qinghai and its environs: A review of conflicting proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fahu; Wu, Duo; Chen, Jianhui; Zhou, Aifeng; Yu, Junqing; Shen, Ji; Wang, Sumin; Huang, Xiaozhong

    2016-12-01

    ostracod δ18O record, which is widely used as a proxy of effective moisture and summer monsoon intensity in lake sediments, at least in Lake Qinghai, and which exhibits light values in the early Holocene and heavier values thereafter, cannot be used to reflect the strength of the EASM or the intensity of monsoon precipitation - as is also the case for leaf wax δ2H records. Rather, we argue that as is the case of the Chinese speleothem δ18O record, which also is often interpreted as an EASM proxy, it reflects variation in the δ18O of precipitation. Overall, we suggest that the EASM significantly affected precipitation in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau during the Holocene; and that it increased in strength during the early Holocene, reached a maximum during the middle Holocene and decreased during the late Holocene.

  5. Trypanocidal activity of a new pterocarpan and other secondary metabolites of plants from Northeastern Brazil flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Nashira Campos; Espíndola, Laila Salmen; Santana, Jaime Martins; Veras, Maria Leopoldina; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Pinheiro, Sávio Moita; de Araújo, Renata Mendonça; Lima, Mary Anne Sousa; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha

    2008-02-15

    Two hundred fifteen compounds isolated from plants of Northeastern Brazil flora have been assayed against epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, using the tetrazolium salt MTT as an alternative method. Eight compounds belonging to four different species: Harpalyce brasiliana (Fabaceae), Acnistus arborescens and Physalis angulata (Solanaceae), and Cordia globosa (Boraginaceae) showed significant activity. Among them, a novel and a known pterocarpan, a chalcone, four withasteroids, and a meroterpene benzoquinone were the represented chemical classes.

  6. Health assessment of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão,Rosana Pinho; Boehs,Guisla; Silva,Patrícia Mirella da

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the health of natural stocks of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia in northeastern Brazil, during summer and winter 2010, at three localities (sampling points) in the estuaries of the Maraú (Camamu Bay) and Graciosa rivers. A total of 180 oysters (30/sampling point/season) were examined macroscopically for the presence of pathogens and anatomical changes. The specimens were subsequently fixed in Davidson solution, processed for paraf...

  7. Etiology of Acute, Non-Malaria, Febrile Illnesses in Jayapura, Northeastern Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    the towns of Abepura (population = 46,000) and Sentani (population = 30,000), and the surrounding countryside, including the palm oil ...Hygiene INTRODUCTION Throughout Papua, Indonesia , malaria has been an impor- tant disease for many years, accounting for 16% of all hospital...Ministry of Health, the Etiology of Acute, Non-Malaria, Febrile Illnesses in Jayapura, Northeastern Papua, Indonesia Narain H. Punjabi ,* Walter R. J

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NIR sources in the northeastern part of LMC (Kim+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Jeong, W.-S.; Pak, S.; Park, W.-K.; Tamura, M.

    2016-02-01

    We observed the northeastern regions of the LMC using the infrared camera SIRIUS and the polarimeter SIRPOL at the Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF) 1.4m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) on 2008 December 25-30 and 2011 December 2-11; in the J (1.25um), H (1.63um), and Ks (2.14um) bands. (1 data file).

  9. A pastoral landscape for millennia: Investigating pastoral mobility in northeastern Jordan using quantitative spatial analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Julia; Knitter, Daniel; Krause, Jan; Müller-Neuhof, Bernd; Schütt, Brigitta

    2017-04-01

    Northeastern Jordan is one of the few remaining regions in the Middle East where pastoral nomadism is still practiced. In this desert region, pastoral mobility is an adapted land use—able to cope with low rainfall rates, great seasonal and annual rainfall variations and thus heterogeneous vegetation and water availability. During winter, herders and their livestock move into the desert; in summer they move to the desert margins to places with perennial water supply. The system of mobile pastoralism was introduced during the Early Late Neolithic. Within the basaltic region of northeastern Jordan, there is a dense distribution of archeological remains; some of them can be linked to pastoral groups due to the herders' ancient practice of building agglomerations of sub-circular enclosures ('clustered enclosures') made of basalt boulders for corralling their flocks and domestic activities. The resulting features provide an excellent opportunity to investigate a pastoral landscape that has been frequently used by herders during the last eight to nine millennia. In this study, 9118 clustered enclosures in the northeastern Jordanian basalt desert have been systematically recorded using satellite imagery. In order to investigate potential migration or communication routes, grazing lands and social interactions of former pastoralists, we examine their first- and second-order characteristics using distance and density based approaches of point pattern analyses by integrating geomorphometric and geomorphological site properties. The results of this spatial analysis are combined with available archaeological data and a review on traditional herding practices in northeastern Jordan. Overall, the results demonstrate that the observed spatial distribution of clustered enclosures is influenced locally by natural characteristics but regionally by cultural practices.

  10. [GIS-based analysis of the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-xia; Li, Wei; Han, Wei; Yang, Ming; Dong, Yun-she; Lin, Chun-ye; Zhang, Feng-song; Xiong, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    As an important industrial and grain production base of China, livestock and poultry industry have been rapidly developed in the northeastern provinces. With the rapid increasing amount of animal production, how to handle the huge amount of animal manure has become a critical issue for local government. A quantitative analysis based on geographic information system (GIS) combining the biophysical, environmental, social and economic factors was applied to determine the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces. The results show that a farmland area of 211942.7 km2, accounting for 78.9% of the cultivated land in three northeastern provinces, is estimated to be suitable for manure application. The suitable farmlands are mostly distributed in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces. Proximity to residential area, water body and roads are identified as the primary factors influencing the manure application, while rainfall is the main factor to generate discrepancies in different areas. Furthermore, the future potential capacity for animal production in three provinces was forecasted based on the areas of suitable land and the population of existing livestock production. Among 36 cities of three provinces, the big variation is observed, Siping City is overproducing 1.813 million heads of pig unit at present, but Qiqihaer City still has the potential to rear 11.203 million heads of pig unit. Overall, eastern region of the study area holds the high potential for animal production with a surplus capacity of 2.842 million heads of pig unit, the potential of the typical mountain and forest areas is only 10% of eastern region, however. In contrast, in half of western region (central Liaoning province and central Jilin Province), their animal populations have exceeded the land carrying capacity. Therefore, we strongly suggest a site-specific animal production and manure application guide to achieve a sustainable development of livestock production in the

  11. Lagged response of summer precipitation to insolation forcing on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Jin, Liya; Chen, Jie; Lu, Huayu; Chen, Fahu

    2017-07-01

    The precipitation changes on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau during the Holocene remain unclear due to discrepancies among different proxy records. We compared proxy records with the results from a transient simulation performed using the Kiel Climate Model forced by orbital variations, to analyse summer precipitation changes in this area during the Holocene (9.5-0 ka BP). The model results suggested increasing amounts of summer precipitation from 9.5 to 6.2 ka BP and a persistent decline thereafter, which matched well with pollen records but was inconsistent with ostracod δ18O records. The Holocene climatic optimum lagged the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation maximum by 3.5 ka, caused by the interplay between the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulation and the mid-latitude westerlies. The ostracod δ18O values reflected the strength of the EASM circulation. A strong EASM circulation increased the transport of water vapour towards the northeastern Tibetan Plateau from the northwestern Pacific. Weakened mid-latitude westerlies increased the incursion of cold air masses into the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. During the early Holocene, relatively strong mid-latitude westerlies, resulting from an enhanced Arctic Oscillation, reduced summer precipitation on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, in spite of a strong insolation-driven EASM circulation. The weakening EASM circulation and the strengthening westerlies together induced the decreasing trend of summer precipitation from the middle to late Holocene. In addition, summer precipitation variations were further modulated by sea-surface temperatures in the northwestern Pacific, through weakening the strength of the EASM.

  12. A Decline in Benthic Foraminifera following the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick T Schwing; Isabel C. Romero; Brooks, Gregg R.; Hastings, David W.; Rebekka A Larson; Hollander, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from three sites (1000-1200 m water depth) in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico from December 2010 to June 2011 to assess changes in benthic foraminiferal density related to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event (April-July 2010, 1500 m water depth). Short-lived radioisotope geochronologies (²¹⁰Pb, ²³⁴Th), organic geochemical assessments, and redox metal concentrations were determined to relate changes in sediment accumulation rate, contamination, and redox conditions ...

  13. Mesoscale eddies in the northeastern Pacific tropical-subtropical transition zone : statistical characterization from satellite altimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kurczyn, J. A.; Beier, Emilio; Lavín, Miguel,; Chaigneau, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies in the northeastern Pacific tropical-subtropical transition zone (16 degrees N-30 degrees N; 130 degrees W-102 degrees W) are analyzed using nearly 18 years of satellite altimetry and an automated eddy-identification algorithm. Eddies that lasted more than 10 weeks are described based on the analysis of 465 anticyclonic and 529 cyclonic eddy trajectories. We found three near-coastal eddy-prolific areas: (1) Punta Eugenia, (2) Cabo San Lucas, and (3) Cabo Corrientes. These thr...

  14. Malocclusion and deleterious oral habits among adolescents in a developing area in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz; Maria Cristina Teixeira Cangussu; Ana Marlúcia Oliveira Assis

    2013-01-01

    Although malocclusions represent a serious public health issue, there is insufficient information about this problem in adolescents in Brazil, especially in poorer areas. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of facial alterations, dental malocclusions, and deleterious oral habits (DOH) among adolescents in a developing area in northeastern Brazil and to test the hypothesis that the occurrence of DOH in infancy is associated with DOH during adolescence. The ...

  15. Linx individual B132 from north-eastern Switzerland sighted in Trentino (northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A subadult lynx was caught in February 2008 in the Swiss National Park, fitted with a Gps-Gsm radio-collar and later genetically identified as B132 - i.e., a male born in 2006 in North-Eastern Switzerland -. B132 is at present located in the western Trentino region, more than 200 km away from his mother's home range. This is the furthest dispersal ever documented outside of Scandinavia for a Eurasian lynx.

  16. Geological settings of the protected Selisoo mire (northeastern Estonia) threatened by oil shale mining

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Hiiemaa; Mario Mustasaar; Marko Kohv; Tiit Hang; Argo Jõeleht; Katrin Lasberg; Volli Kalm

    2014-01-01

    The protected Selisoo mire in northeastern Estonia is located above valuable oil shale resources, partly in the permitted mining area. We describe in detail the geomorphology and geological setting of the mire to understand the natural preconditions for its formation, development and preservation. We used the LiDAR-based digital elevation model for relief analysis, mapped the peat thickness with ground-penetrating radar and described the Quaternary cover through corings. Ridges, oriented perp...

  17. Palynological evidence for late Miocene stepwise aridification on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Ji Jun; Song, Chun Hui; Yu, Hao; Jiang Peng, Ting; Chuang Hui, Zheng; Ye, Xi Yan

    2016-07-01

    Holding a climatically and geologically key position both regionally and globally, the northeastern Tibetan Plateau provides a natural laboratory for illustrating the interactions between tectonic activity and the evolution of the Asian interior aridification. Determining when and how the late Miocene climate evolved on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau may help us better understand the relationships among tectonic uplift, global cooling and ecosystem evolution. Previous paleoenvironmental research has focused on the western Longzhong Basin. Late Miocene aridification data derived from pollen now require corroborative evidence from the eastern Longzhong Basin. Here, we present a late Miocene pollen record from the Tianshui Basin in the eastern Longzhong Basin. Our results show that a general trend toward dry climate was superimposed by stepwise aridification: a temperate forest with a rather humid climate existed in the basin between 11.4 and 10.1 Ma, followed by a temperate open forest environment with a less humid climate between 10.1 and 7.4 Ma, then giving way to an open temperate forest-steppe environment with a relatively arid climate between 7.4 and 6.4 Ma. The vegetation succession demonstrates that the aridification of the Asian interior occurred after ˜ 7-8 Ma, which is confirmed by other evidence from Asia. Furthermore, the aridification trend on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau parallels the global cooling of the late Miocene; the stepwise vegetation succession is consistent with the major uplift of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau during this time. These integrated environmental proxies indicate that the long-term global cooling and the Tibetan Plateau uplift caused the late Miocene aridification of the Asian interior.

  18. Wood Volume Production and Use of 10 Woody Species in Semiarid Zones of Northeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Foroughbakhch; Artemio Carrillo Parra; Jorge Luis Hernández Piñero; Marco Antonio Alvarado Vázquez; Alejandra Rocha Estrada; Ma Luisa Cardenas

    2012-01-01

    A research strategy was established to analyze the structure of timber trees in terms of forest productivity (volume and wood density) of 10 species. The native species Acacia farnesiana, Acacia schaffneri, Bumelia celastrina, Cercidium macrun, Condalia hookeri, Ebenopsis ebano, Helietta parvifolia, and Prosopis laevigata and the exotic species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Leucaena leucocephala were chosen due to their ecological and economic importance to the rural villages of northeastern M...

  19. PetroChina, Sinopec Invest for Development Northeastern Sichuan Gas Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jun

    2003-01-01

    @@ PetroChina and Sinopec Corp, China's two oil giants, have planned to invest 10 billion yuan for development of the large gas field in the northeastern part of Sichuan Basin where the natural gas reserves are estimated to exceeded 1.6 trillion cubic meters. With the unique geographic advantages, the gas field is located on the borders of Sichuan Province, Chongqing Municipality and Shaanxi Province.

  20. Using online databases for landslide susceptibility assessment: an example from the Veneto Region (northeastern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, spatial data available in the Italian portals was used to evaluate the landslide susceptibility of the Euganean Hills Regional Park, located SW of Padua (northeastern Italy). Quality, applicability and possible analysis scales of the online data were investigated.

    After a brief overview on the WebGIS portals around the world, their contents and tools for natural risk analyses, a susceptibility analysis of the study area was carried out using a simple probab...

  1. Two new cleistocheliferous species of Clathria of sciophilous habitats from Northeastern Brazil (Poecilosclerida: Demospongiae: Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, George Garcia; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2014-12-19

    We describe two new species of Clathria (Microciona) Bowerbank, 1862: C. (M.) crassitoxa sp. nov. and C. (M.) trairae sp. nov. from Paraíba State (Northeastern Brazil). All are sciophilous species and are represented by small fragments removed from the substrate. Both new species have cleistochelae, and are compared with their cleistocheliferous congeners, differing from all of them by the possession of different combinations of other megascleres and microscleres.

  2. Spatial and temporal distribution in two anuran communities in the Chapada do Araripe, Northeastern Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira-Silva,Cristiana; Oliveira,Deivid Batista de; Oliveira,Herivelto Faustino de; Ávila, Robson Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the temporal occurrence and habitat and microhabitat use by anurans in two areas located in one highland marsh (brejo-de-altitude) in northeastern Brazil. Fieldwork was carried out between September 2011 and September 2012. The recorded anurans belong to 14 species distributed in five families: Hylidae (six), Leptodactylidae (five), Bufonidae, Odontophrynidae and Pipidae (one each). Vocalization activity was seasonal and concentrated in the wetter and warmer months, b...

  3. 77 FR 14697 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery... GB cod is 205,030 lb (93 mt). The initial FY 2011 trip limit for GB cod was 2,000 lb (907.2 kg) per day-at-sea (DAS), up to 20,000 lb (9,071.8 kg) per trip, for Category A DAS vessels. However, the...

  4. Características clínicas e histopatológicas del carcinoma escamocelular bucal en el periodo 1990-2004 en Medellín, Colombia Clinical and histopathological features of oral squamocellular carcinoma during 1990-2004 in Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Álvarez Martínez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma escamocelular bucal es una neoplasia maligna frecuente en la cavidad bucal, sin embargo, no existe información sobre la incidencia y el comportamiento clínico e histológico de este tipo de cáncer en Antioquia, Colombia. Este estudio proveyó información acerca de las características clínicas e histopatológicas del carcinoma escamocelular bucal, proveniente de historias clínicas de 197 pacientes, con un total de 112 hombres (56,9 % y 85 mujeres (43,1 %, atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, en Medellín, Colombia, durante un periodo de 14 años. La localización más frecuente del carcinoma escamocelular bucal fue la lengua (45,0 %, seguido del paladar duro (17,1 %, luego le siguió el paladar blando con el 9,0 % y por último el piso de la boca con el 8,5 %. La mayoría de estos carcinomas fueron diagnosticados en estadios tardíos III y IV (74,9 %. En cuanto al grado de diferenciación predominaron los carcinomas bien y moderadamente diferenciados.The oral scamocellular carcinoma is a frequent malignant neoplasia located in the oral cavity; however, there is not information on the incidence and clinical behavior of this type of cancer in Antioquia, Colombia. Present study provides information on the clinical and histopathological features of the oral scamocellular carcinoma collected from the medical records of 197 persons, 112 men (56.9 % and 85 females (43.1 % seen in the "San Vicente de Paúl" University Hospital of Medellin for 14 years. The more frequent location of the oral scamocellular carcinoma was the tongue (45.0 %, followed by the hard palate (17.1 %, soft palate 9.0 % and mouth floor (45 %; most of these ones were diagnosed in late stages (III and IV (74,9 %, as regards the differentiation degree there was predominance of well and moderately differentiated carcinomas.

  5. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade

  6. Isolation and identification of naegleria species from environmental water in changchun, northeastern china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Naegleria is a free-living amoeba, and pathogenic Naegleria may pose a health risk to people exposed to recreational water. Our objective in this study was to determine if there are pathogenic amoebae in environmental water samples from Changchun, Northeastern China.During July to September 2012, a total of 70 water samples were collected from Changchun, Northeastern China, and Naegleria was enriched by in vitro culture and detected by PCR using Naegleria genus-specific primers. Resulting PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to identify Naegleria species.Naegleria was detected in 65 (92.9% of 70 water samples. DNA sequence and phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA sequences revealed four Naegleria species, including N. pagei (n = 24 and N. Australiensis (n = 18, N. clarki (n = 13 and N. gruberi (n = 10, in which N. australiensis is pathogenic to mice. But the pathogenic species N. fowleri was not detected.This is the first report on Naegleria species in Northeastern China, showing that almost all environmental water samples were contaminated with Naegleria, including N. pagei, N. Australiensis, N. clarki and N. gruberi, which should be considered a potential public health threat.

  7. Incidence of Clavicular Rhomboid Fossa in Northeastern Thais: An Anthropological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampannang, Apichakan; Tuamsuk, Panya; Kanpittaya, Jaturat

    2016-01-01

    The rhomboid fossa of clavicle is used to determine the age and sex in anthropology and forensic sciences. The variant types of rhomboid fossa on inferior surface have been reported in many races except in Thais. This study therefore was aimed at classifying the types of the rhomboid fossa in Northeastern Thais. The identified 476 Northeastern Thais dried clavicles (270 males and 206 females) were observed and recorded for the types of rhomboid fossa. The results showed that Thai-rhomboid fossa could be classified into 4 types: Type 1: smooth; Type 2: flat; Type 3: elevated; and Type 4: depressed, respectively. The incidences of rhomboid fossa were as follows: Type 1: 0.21%; Type 2: 19.75%; Type 3: 76.26%; and Type 4: 3.78%, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the percentage of Type 4 (11.84%) was much greater than that of female (1.94%) compared to other types. This incidence of rhomboid fossa types especially Type 4 may be a basic knowledge to be used in sex identification. The high incidence of rhomboid fossa in both sexes of Northeastern Thai clavicles was Type 3 (elevated type). PMID:27648305

  8. Educational Marginalization: Examining Challenges and Possibilities for Improving Educational Outcomes in Northeastern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathern S. A. Okilwa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a developing country in sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya has fared comparatively well in educating its young people. The new constitution of Kenya and various acts of parliament identify education as a fundamental human right and mandates the government to provide basic education for all. Consistent with the government’s Vision 2030, most political, religious, and civil society leaders recognize education as critical to individuals attaining full potential and then contributing to nation building. However, educational access and equity remain quite elusive in rural and less economically viable areas, such as northeastern. The region and its people have been marginalized for many years, dating back to the colonial era and still remain very undeveloped, under-resourced, and impoverished. Given the endemic discrimination and marginalization of the nomadic people of northeastern Kenya, harsh geographic conditions, constant migration of the people, and heightened insecurity in the region, there is limited data, information, and understanding of these people’s life experiences. The purpose of this article is to highlight these challenges that minimize educational opportunities for young people in northeastern Kenya by reviewing the historic political isolation and marginalization, sociocultural practices (e.g., nomadic lifestyle, female genital mutilation, resource deprivation and poverty, harsh geographic conditions, and poor infrastructure. Additionally, the article examines emerging efforts and opportunities (e.g., government and non-government organizations to improve educational opportunities in the region through the devolution framework in the new Constitution of Kenya, constituency development funds (CDF, mobile schools, and boarding schools.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Na

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, investigations of Toxoplasma gondii infection in poultry (chickens, ducks, and geese have been reported worldwide, including China. However, little is known about the prevalence of T. gondii infection in poultry in northeastern China. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China. Methods In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in 502 adult chickens, 268 adult ducks, and 128 adult geese was surveyed using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results The seroprevalences of T. gondii were 5.8%, 7.8%, and 4.7% in chickens, ducks, and geese, respectively. Prevalence was higher in free-range groups (11.2%, 12.3%, and 8.9% than caged groups (4.7%, 7.5%, and 6.0%, and there was a statistically significant difference only between free-range chickens and caged chickens, but no significant difference was found between free-range ducks, geese and caged ducks, geese. Conclusions The present study shows the prescence of T. gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China, which suggests that consumption of poultry meat in Shenyang may pose a potential threat to human health and should be given attention.

  10. Geography has more influence than language on maternal genetic structure of various northeastern Thai ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Ghirotto, Silvia; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Srithawong, Suparat; Srithongdaeng, Kanokpohn; Pontham, Nattapon; Kangwanpong, Daoroong

    2014-09-01

    Several literatures have shown the influence of geographic and linguistic factors in shaping genetic variation patterns, but their relative impact, if any, in the very heterogeneous northeastern region of Thailand has not yet been studied. This area, called Isan, is geographically structured in two wide basins, the Sakon Nakorn Basin and the Korat Basin, serving today as home to diverse ethnicities encompassing two different linguistic families, that is, the Austro-Asiatic; Suay (Kui), Mon, Chaobon (Nyahkur), So and Khmer, and the Tai-Kadai; Saek, Nyaw, Phu Tai, Kaleung and Lao Isan. In this study, we evaluated the relative role of geographic distance and barriers as well as linguistic differences as possible causes affecting the maternal genetic distances among northeastern Thai ethnicities. A 596-bp segment of the hypervariable region I mitochondrial DNA was utilized to elucidate the genetic structure and biological affinity from 433 individuals. Different statistical analyses agreed in suggesting that most ethnic groups in the Sakon Nakorn Basin are closely related. Mantel test revealed that genetic distances were highly associated to geographic (r = 0.445, P0.01) distances. Three evolutionary models were compared by Approximate Bayesian Computation. The posterior probability of the scenario, which assumed an initial population divergence possibly related to reduced gene flow among basins, was equal or higher than 0.87. All analyses exhibited concordant results supporting that geography was the most relevant factor in determining the maternal genetic structure of northeastern Thai populations.

  11. Tropical forcing of the recent rapid Arctic warming in northeastern Canada and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qinghua; Wallace, John M; Battisti, David S; Steig, Eric J; Gallant, Ailie J E; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Geng, Lei

    2014-05-08

    Rapid Arctic warming and sea-ice reduction in the Arctic Ocean are widely attributed to anthropogenic climate change. The Arctic warming exceeds the global average warming because of feedbacks that include sea-ice reduction and other dynamical and radiative feedbacks. We find that the most prominent annual mean surface and tropospheric warming in the Arctic since 1979 has occurred in northeastern Canada and Greenland. In this region, much of the year-to-year temperature variability is associated with the leading mode of large-scale circulation variability in the North Atlantic, namely, the North Atlantic Oscillation. Here we show that the recent warming in this region is strongly associated with a negative trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation, which is a response to anomalous Rossby wave-train activity originating in the tropical Pacific. Atmospheric model experiments forced by prescribed tropical sea surface temperatures simulate the observed circulation changes and associated tropospheric and surface warming over northeastern Canada and Greenland. Experiments from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (ref. 16) models with prescribed anthropogenic forcing show no similar circulation changes related to the North Atlantic Oscillation or associated tropospheric warming. This suggests that a substantial portion of recent warming in the northeastern Canada and Greenland sector of the Arctic arises from unforced natural variability.

  12. Phylogeography of Labrus bergylta (Pisces: Labridae in the north-eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Almada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta (Labridae, is a protogynous hermaphrodite fish common in the north-eastern Atlantic from Norway to Morocco. It is a commercially important resource for local fisheries and is currently being used as cleaner fish to control sea lice in salmon farms in northern Europe. We analysed the phylogeographic patterns of this species using mitochondrial (control region and nuclear (I intron of the S7 gene markers in populations throughout its distributional range. The results revealed a marked genetic structure of L. bergylta along the sampled area, with a major separation found between the Archipelago of the Azores and all remaining locations and also a clear separation between the north-eastern Atlantic and Scandinavian locations. Similarly to other temperate species the genetic diversity decreased from north-eastern Atlantic to Scandinavian populations. Haplotype networks confirm the distinctiveness of the population from the Azores and show that Scandinavian populations also present some distinct haplotypes. The phylogeographic pattern and diversity indices found for the ballan wrasse are discussed and compared with others found for different labrid species. The recognition of different populations of L. bergylta may be an in important result for fisheries management and also for future regulation of capture and translocation of specimens to be used as cleaners in aquaculture facilities.

  13. Occupational sensitization to epoxy resins in Northeastern Italy (1996-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodi, Andrea; Rui, Francesca; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2015-01-01

    One of the main health concerns of epoxy resins is their role as skin sensitizer. This sensitization is not uncommon, because the prevalence ranges around 1-12% of the general population. Perform a cross sectional study in a patch test population from Northeastern Italy to investigate the prevalence of epoxy resins sensitization among patients with suspected contact dermatitis. Subsequently, relate findings to patients' occupation and evaluate time trend of prevalence. The final study database included 19 088 consecutive patients, tested from 1996 to 2010 in Northeastern Italy. The overall prevalence of epoxy resins sensitization was 0·89%. Dermatitis most frequently involved hands (40·25%). In both sexes, we find a significant correlation in mechanics, woodworkers, and chemical industry workers; and in males only, among farmers and fishers, construction workers, and unemployed. We found significant increase of sensitization in construction workers in the analyzed period. The overall prevalence of sensitization to epoxy resins in Northeastern Italy is in line with other European countries, but we found an increased risk of sensitization in some professions and an increasing trend of prevalence in construction workers. Better preventive actions are strongly advised in higher risk professions, with particular attentions towards building sector.

  14. Occupational sensitization to epoxy resins in Northeastern Italy (1996–2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodi, Andrea; Rui, Francesca; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the main health concerns of epoxy resins is their role as skin sensitizer. This sensitization is not uncommon, because the prevalence ranges around 1–12% of the general population. Objectives: Perform a cross sectional study in a patch test population from Northeastern Italy to investigate the prevalence of epoxy resins sensitization among patients with suspected contact dermatitis. Subsequently, relate findings to patients’ occupation and evaluate time trend of prevalence. Methods: The final study database included 19 088 consecutive patients, tested from 1996 to 2010 in Northeastern Italy. Results: The overall prevalence of epoxy resins sensitization was 0·89%. Dermatitis most frequently involved hands (40·25%). In both sexes, we find a significant correlation in mechanics, woodworkers, and chemical industry workers; and in males only, among farmers and fishers, construction workers, and unemployed. We found significant increase of sensitization in construction workers in the analyzed period. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of sensitization to epoxy resins in Northeastern Italy is in line with other European countries, but we found an increased risk of sensitization in some professions and an increasing trend of prevalence in construction workers. Better preventive actions are strongly advised in higher risk professions, with particular attentions towards building sector. PMID:25633931

  15. Prevalence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and its virulence-related genes in a case–control study among children from north-eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisen, Nadia; Quetz, Josiane da Silva; Havt, Alexandre; de Carvalho, Eunice Bobo; Soares, Alberto Melo; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Nataro, James P.; Guerrant, Richard Littleton

    2013-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important agent that causes endemic and epidemic diarrhoeal diseases worldwide. Several EAEC virulence-related genes (VRGs) have been described but their role in the clinical outcome of infection is not completely defined. This study investigated the prevalence of EAEC and potential associations of its VRGs with risk of or protection from diarrhoeal diseases in children from urban communities in north-eastern Brazil. The case–control study included 166 children, who had their stools evaluated for the EAEC diagnostic genes (aaiC and aatA) using PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by multiplex PCR and identified 18 VRGs. EAEC was found in the same proportion in both groups (41 %). The plasmid-borne gene encoding a hexosyltransferase homologue (capU) was the most frequently detected (89.6 %), followed by dispersin protein (aap, 58.2 %) and EAEC HilA homologue (eilA, 57.8 %). The AAF/III fimbrial subunit (agg3A) gene was observed at lower frequency (1.5 %). Plasmid-encoded toxin (pet) or AAF/II fimbrial subunit (aafA) was associated significantly with disease. AAF/IV fimbrial subunit (agg4A) or hypothetical plasmid-encoded haemolysin (orf61) was detected significantly more in controls than in children with diarrhoea. In addition, one set of genes in combination, aaiC and agg3/4C but lacking agg4A and orf61, was associated with diarrhoea cases; and another one, orf61 in the absence of pet and aafA, was correlated with control children. These data confirm a high prevalence, endemicity and heterogeneity of EAEC strains in the developing urban areas of north-eastern Brazil. Statistical correlation between cases and controls was seen with either isolated or combined sets of genes, suggesting that the pathophysiology of EAEC infection involves a complex and dynamic modulation of several VRGs. PMID:23429698

  16. Towards leprosy elimination by 2020: forecasts of epidemiological indicators of leprosy in Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina that is a pioneer in leprosy elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odriozola, Elisa Petri de; Quintana, Ana María; González, Victor; Pasetto, Roque Antonio; Utgés, María Eugenia; Bruzzone, Octavio Augusto; Arnaiz, María Rosa

    2017-06-01

    Corrientes, a province of northeastern Argentina with endemic leprosy, has improved its epidemiological indicators, however, a study of the dynamics over time is lacking. We analysed data of 1308 leprosy patients between 1991 to 2014, and the forecast for 2020. Descriptive statistics and stepwise Bayesian model selection were performed. Forecasts were made using the median of 100,000 projections using the parameters calculated via Monte Carlo methods. We found a decreasing number of new leprosy cases (-2.04 cases/year); this decrease is expected to continue by an estimated 20.28 +/- 10.00 cases by 2020, evidenced by a sustained decline in detection rate (from 11 to 2.9/100,000 inhabitants). Age groups that were most affected were 15-44 (40.13%) and 45-64 (38.83%) year olds. Multibacillary forms (MB) predominated (70.35%) and while gradually declining, between 10 and 30% developed disability grade 2 (DG2) (0.175 (0.110 - 0.337) DG2/MB cases), with a time delay between 0 to 15 years (median = 0). The proportion of MB clinic forms and DG2 increased and will continuously increase in the short term (0.036 +/- 0.018 logit (MB/total of cases). Corrientes is on the way to eliminating leprosy by 2020, however the increased proportion of MB clinical forms and DG2 signals a warning for disease control efforts.

  17. Cervical cancer in north-eastern Libya: 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khaial, F; Bodalal, Z; Elramli, A; Elkhwsky, F; Eltaguri, A; Bendardaf, R

    2014-08-01

    Libya is a country with a low population, listed under the EMRO. Using registers and patient records from a major primary oncology clinic, data was gathered from Libyan cervical cancer patients and various parameters were studied across 9 years. Out of 4,090 female cancer cases during the study period, 1.8% were cervical cancer (n = 74). The average age of presentation was 53 years, with most of the cases (60%, n = 44) being premenopausal. Approximately 65% (n = 48) of cervical cancer patients are diagnosed at later stages (i.e. stages III and IV). The majority of these cases are squamous cell carcinoma (83.8%, n = 62), while 16.2% (n = 12) were found to be adenocarcinoma. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma presented at later stages more often than those with adenocarcinoma. Human papilloma virus was strongly implicated in cervical cancer, with 94% (n = 63) of those who were tested being positive for HPV-16 (82.5%, n = 52) and HPV-18 (12.7%, n = 8). Diagnosis was most frequently made through biopsy (97.3%, n = 72) as opposed to Pap smears (2.7%, n = 2). Most Libyan patients were put through chemotherapy (75%, n = 55) and triple therapy (surgery with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy) was the most common (38%, n = 28) modality of treatment. Comparisons were made between Libya and other nations, either in the developed world or neighbouring countries. The major problem of cervical cancer in Libya is delayed presentation and hence, all the recommendations focus on increased awareness for the populace, implementation of a national cancer control plan and a national screening programme.

  18. The Development of Community Crime Preventing Network Model in Northeastern Thailand

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    Cheuchai Po-Klin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Crime is the thing deteriorating social security. The objectives of this research were to study: (1 the historical background for preventing crime in northeastern region, (2 current situation and problem of community network for preventing crime in northeastern region and (3 develop the model of community network for preventing crime in northeastern region. Approach: The research area included Mahasarakam, Ubonrachatani and Amnaj-Jaroen Provinces. The population samples providing information were selected by Purposive Sampling, including: 36 experts, 30 key informants, 18 general villagers, total of 83 persons. The instruments using for collecting data, included: (1 the interview form, (2 the observation form, (3 focus group discussion and (4 Workshop. Data were analyzed based on specified goal. The research findings were presented by analytic descriptive. Results: (1 For historical background of crime in northeastern region, prevention and problem solving, were not prominent. It might be because the people had the King as their reverend, leader and protector. They also had the religious holding their mind, traditional frame controlling people in society. Besides, they had simple life and were generous mind, supported with each other. So, the crime didn’t occur; (2 the cause of crime in general, often occurred by various factors including the economic, social and cultural, the lack of education of people as well as the influence of environment as major causes. The type of crime in recent time were changed in more complex forms including increased crime types, from one person to group of the crime organization or international network. As a result, it caused more problems in the region and it’s nearby; (3 the pattern of community network for preventing crime in northeastern region by managing model in which the member and organization in community, agreed to cooperate and connect with each other as community network for

  19. Farm Crops Depredation by European Bison ( Bison bonasus) in the Vicinity of Forest Habitats in Northeastern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman-Kamińska, Emilia; Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2012-10-01

    European bison, the largest mammal in Europe, after being exterminated in the wild and then restored during the 20th century is still listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) as a species vulnerable to extinction. However, the increasing number of European bison, through creation of new and expansion of existing populations strongly increases the risk of human-bison conflict in the near future. We analyzed the depredation of farm crops by bison and the factors influencing the level of damage in the vicinity of two forest areas inhabited by bison in northeastern Poland. Between 2000 and 2010, the total cost of compensation was € 196,200. The level of damage and amount of compensation was increasing from year to year in both forests and correlated with the number of bison. The majority of damage (57 % of cases) was recorded in winter (December-March). Snow depth and temperature did not influence the frequency of damage. The incidences of damage increased with decreasing distance from the woodland patches, therefore, 69 % of cases in Białowieża Forest, and 80 % in Knyszyn Forest were recorded closer than 0.5 km from nearest woodland patch. The majority of the crops damaged by bison were cereals (61 %) but also hay (20 %) and rape (13 %). When compared to the availability of crops, bison strongly selected rape and rye in both regions. This study is the first addressing the increasing problem of human-bison conflict in re-introduced populations and analyzing long-term data on crop depredation. Such situations probably occur in the majority of growing and expanding bison populations, however, it has not yet to be monitored and is rather neglected in post-Soviet countries.

  20. Occult HBV infection status among chronic hepatitis C and hemodialysis patients in Northeastern Egypt: regional and national overview

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    Mohamed Mandour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI is considered to be one of the major risks for patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD on regular hemodialysis (HD and patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. This study compared the prevalence of OBI among these two high-risk groups in the Suez Canal region, Northeastern Egypt, to obtain a better national overview of the magnitude of OBI in this region. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 165 HD patients and 210 chronic HCV-infected patients. Anti-HCV antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, total hepatitis B core (anti-HBc antibody, and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. HCV RNA was detected using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, and HBV was detected using a nested PCR. RESULTS: All patients were negative for HBsAg. A total of 49.1% and 25.2% of the patients in the HD and HCV groups, respectively, were anti-HBc-positive. In addition, more anti-HBs-positive patients were detected in the HD group compared to the HCV group (52.1% and 11.4%, respectively. Three cases were positive for HBV DNA in the HD group, while eighteen positive cases were detected in the HCV group. Both study groups showed significant differences in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST level as well as anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBV-DNA positivity. CONCLUSIONS: OBI was more prevalent among chronic HCV patients than HD patients in the Suez Canal region, Egypt, with rates of 8.5% and 1.8%, respectively. However, more precise assessment of this infection requires regular patient follow-up using HBV DNA detection methods.

  1. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

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    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683 predominated over females (n = 11,923. Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691 and April 2013 (n = 3,324. Lutzomyia choti (72.9% was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%, Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%, representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  2. Histological classification and stage of newly diagnosed bladder cancer in a population-based study from the Northeastern United States*

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHNED, ALAN R.; ANDREW, ANGELINE S.; MARSIT, CARMEN J.; KELSEY, KARL T.; ZENS, MICHAEL S.; KARAGAS, MARGARET R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective There are limited data on the distribution of bladder cancers in the general population, classified by World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) criteria. This study evaluated the classification and stage of bladder cancers as part of a population-based epidemiological study of bladder cancer in the Northeastern United States. Material and methods All New Hampshire residents with bladder cancer newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2000 were identified through the state cancer registry. All slides were reviewed by a single pathologist. Tumors were classified by two sets of standard criteria. Results The retrieval rate for cases was over 90%. Of 342 cases reviewed, 15 were excluded for technical reasons or because malignancy was not definitively diagnosed. According to WHO/ISUP criteria, 25.7% of tumors were papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), 34.3% low-grade papillary carcinomas, 22.6% high-grade papillary carcinomas, 10.1% non-papillary urothelial carcinomas and 5.5% carcinoma in situ. By WHO (1973) criteria, 52.5% of tumors were grade 1, 21.4% grade 2 and 26.1% grade 3. Two-thirds of all tumors were stage Ta, 20.8% stage T1 and 7.6% stage ≥T2. 100% of PUNLMPs were non-invasive, 6.3% of low-grade carcinomas were invasive and 64.9% of high-grade carcinomas were invasive. Conclusions Compared to clinic or hospital referral-based series, this study documents a higher percentage of non-invasive tumors and a lower percentage of muscle-invasive tumors. There was also a higher percentage of PUNLMP tumors and fewer high-grade papillary carcinomas than in other series. These results may more accurately reflect prevalence data for bladder cancer grade and stage, although geographic variability may exist. PMID:18432530

  3. Evaluating spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China based on improved FORCCHN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhao

    Full Text Available An improved individual-based forest ecosystem carbon budget model for China (FORCCHN was applied to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China. In this study, the forests of northeastern China were categorized into four ecological types according to their habitats and generic characteristics (evergreen broadleaf forest, deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The results showed that distribution and change of forest NPP in northeastern China were related to the different forest types. From 1981 to 2002, among the forest types in northeastern China, per unit area NPP and total NPP of deciduous broadleaf forest were the highest, with the values of 729.4 gC/(m(2•yr and 106.0 TgC/yr, respectively, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest, deciduous needleleaf forest and evergreen needleleaf forest. From 1981 to 2002, per unit area NPP and total NPP of different forest types in northeastern China exhibited significant trends of interannual increase, and rapid increase was found between the 1980s and 1990s. The contribution of the different forest type's NPP to total NPP in northeastern China was clearly different. The greatest was deciduous broadleaf forest, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The smallest was evergreen needleleaf forest. Spatial difference in NPP between different forest types was remarkable. High NPP values of deciduous needleleaf forest, mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest were found in the Daxing'anling region, the southeastern of Xiaoxing'anling and Jilin province, and the Changbai Mountain, respectively. However, no regional differences were found for evergreen needleleaf NPP. This study provided not only an estimation NPP of different forest types in northeastern China but also a useful methodology for estimating forest

  4. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  5. The Rock Engineering System (RES) applied to landslide susceptibility zonation of the northeastern flank of Etna: methodological approach and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuani, Tiziana; Corazzato, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Ground deformations in the northeastern flank of Etna are well known. Despite only a few landslide events have been documented, these have significantly involved and damaged lifelines and buildings. These events are mainly related to the activity of the volcano-tectonic structures and associated seismicity, as in the case of the 2002 reactivation of the Presa landslide during an increased activity of the Pernicana fault system. In order to highlight the areal distribution of potentially unstable slopes based on a detailed, site-specific study of the factors responsible for landslide, and to ultimately contribute to risk management, a landslide susceptibility analysis of the northeastern flank of Etna in the Pernicana area was carried out, and a susceptibility map at 1:10.000 scale was produced, extending over an area of 168 km2. Different methods are proposed in the literature to obtain the regional distribution of potentially unstable slopes, depending on the problem scale, the slope dynamic evolution in the geological context, and the availability of data. Among semi-quantitative approaches, the present research combines the Rock Engineering System (RES) methodology with parameter zonation mapping in a GIS environment. The RES method represents a structured approach to manage a high number of interacting factors involved in the instability problem. A numerically coded, site-specific interaction matrix (IM) analyzes the cause-effect relationship in these factors, and calculates the degree of interactivity of each parameter, normalized by the overall interactivity of the system (weight factor). In the specific Etna case, the considered parameters are: slope attitude, lithotechnical properties (lithology, structural complexity, soil and rock mass quality), land use, tectonic structures, seismic activity (horizontal acceleration) and hydrogeological conditions (groundwater and drainage). Thematic maps are prepared at 1:10.000 scale for each of these parameters, and

  6. Tectonic origin of Crowley's Ridge, northeastern Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanArsdale, R.B. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Geology Dept.); Williams, R.A.; Shedlock, K.M.; King, K.W.; Odum, J.K. (Geological survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center); Schweig, E.S. III; Kanter, L.R. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Crowley's Ridge is a 320 km long topographic ridge that extends from Thebes, Illinois to Helena, Arkansas. The ridge has been interpreted as an erosional remnant formed during Quaternary incision of the ancestral Mississippi and Ohio rivers; however, the Reelfoot Rift COCORP line identified a down-to-the-west fault bounding the western margin of Crowley's Ridge south of Jonesboro, Arkansas. Subsequent Mini-Sosie seismic reflection profiles confirmed the COCORP data and identified additional faults beneath other margins of the ridge. In each case the faults lie beneath the base of the ridge scarp. The Mini-Sosie data did not resolve the uppermost 150 m and so it was not possible to determine if the faults displace the near-surface Claiborne Group (middle Eocene). A shotgun source seismic reflection survey was subsequently conducted to image the uppermost 250 m across the faulted margins. The shotgun survey across the western margin of the ridge south of Jonesboro reveals displaced reflectors as shallow as 30 m depth. Claiborne Group strata are displaced approximately 6 m and it appears that some of the topographic relief of Crowley's Ridge at this location is due to post middle Eocene fault displacement. Based on the reflection data, the authors suggest that Crowley's Ridge is tectonic in origin.

  7. The Dynamics of an Extreme Precipitation Event in Northeastern Vietnam in 2015 and its Predictability in the ECMWF Ensemble Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Roderick; Fink, Andreas H.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Phan-Van, Tan

    2017-04-01

    A record-breaking rainfall event occurred in northeastern Vietnam in late July-early August 2015. The coastal region in the Quang Ninh province was severely hit, with station rainfall sums in the range of 1000 to 1500 mm. The heavy rainfall led to flooding and landslides, which resulted in an estimated economic loss of 108 million USD and 32 fatalities. Using a multitude of data sources and ECMWF ensemble forecasts, the synoptic-dynamic development and practical predictability of the event is investigated in detail for the four-day period 1200 UTC 25 July 2015 to 1200 UTC 29 July 2015 during which the major portion of the rainfall was observed. A slowly moving upper-level subtropical trough and the associated surface low in the northern Gulf of Tonkin promoted sustained moisture convergence and convection over northeastern Vietnam. The humidity was advected in a moisture transport band lying across the Indochina Peninsula and emanating from a tropical storm over the Bay of Bengal. Analyses of the ECMWF ensemble forecasts clearly showed a sudden emergence of predictability of the extreme event at lead times of three days that was associated with the correct forecasts of the intensity and location of the subtropical trough in the 51 ensemble members. Thus, the Quang Ninh event is a good example in which the otherwise poor predictability of tropical convective rainfall is temporarily enhanced due to large-scale synoptic forcing; in the present case it was due to a tropical-extratropical interaction that has not been documented before for the region and season. As a consequence, the present study is a suitable contribution to the recently launched WMO HIWeather initiative under the research theme "Predictability and Processes" that aims at understanding regime-dependent changes in the forecast skill of high-impact weather events.

  8. Land-use, climate and floods dynamics in Northeastern Italy (Veneto)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, Giulia; Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The Veneto Region in North-eastern Italy is today one of the most extensive inhabited and economically competitive urban landscapes in Europe, where infrastructure transformations have been recently accompanied by a number of serious hydraulic dysfunctions. Major concerns arise for frequent rainfall events which can couple with land-use changes with consequences on flooding (Sofia et al. 2014). The aim of this work is to propose a preliminary long-term, region-scale analysis of land-use, rainfall regime and flood dynamics in the region. To investigate the changes in floods, we considered the events registered in Veneto starting from the ~1900 to the year 2000 (Guzzetti and Tonelli, 2004). For this time frame, we analyzed trends in the number of flooded locations, flood events, as well as trends in the number of flooding days. We then investigated the accumulated percentages of flooded sites contributed by the accumulated percentage of flooding days in each year. The idea is to investigate, for the given period, the presence of drastic changes in the curve steepness (knickpoints), implying that less days of flood contribute to a notable increase in the percentage of the flooded locations. For the land-use dynamics we considered the urban area extent for three timeframes in the last century (60s, 90s, 2000s). From these, we created area cartograms in which the sizes of each drainage catchment in Veneto was deformed in proportion to the urban areas in each municipality, as well as in proportion to changes in soil sealing, and we related these maps to the number of flooded locations. For the climatic characterization, we considered a measure of the aggressivity and irregularity of the rainfall regime, to quantify the incidence of intense rainfall events on the yearly amount of precipitation. In spite of the limitations due to the different awareness of the impact of floods on the territory during the years, the floods analysis shows some recent knickpoints, indicating

  9. Community College Students' Experiences with Financial Aid Policies and Practices: A Critical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes community college students' experiences with governmental financial aid policies and institutional financial aid processes at an urban community college campus in the Northeastern United States. Drawing from theories of social justice, conceptions of social capital, and institutionalist analyses of the community college…

  10. Spatial distribution of enhanced atrazine degradation across northeastern Colorado cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Dale; Stromberger, Mary; Khosla, Raj; Helm, Alan; Bosley, Bruce; Hansen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Reports of enhanced atrazine degradation and reduced residual weed control have increased in recent years, sparking interest in identifying factors contributing to enhanced atrazine degradation. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess the spatial distribution of enhanced atrazine degradation in 45 commercial farm fields in northeastern Colorado (Kit Carson, Larimer, Logan, Morgan, Phillips, and Yuma counties) where selected cultural management practices and soil bio-chemo-physical properties were quantified; (ii) utilize Classification and Regression Tree (CART) Analysis to identify cultural management practices and (or) soil bio-chemophysical attributes that are associated with enhanced atrazine degradation; and (iii) translate our CART Analysis into a model that predicts relative atrazine degradation rate (rapid, moderate, or slow) as a function of known management practices and (or) soil properties. Enhanced atrazine degradation was widespread within a 300-km radius across northeastern Colorado, with approximately 44% of the fields demonstrating rapid atrazine degradation activity (laboratory-based dissipation time halflife [DT50] degradation rates occurred in fields that received the most frequent atrazine applications. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis resulted in a prediction model that correctly classified soils with rapid atrazine DT50 80% of the time and soils with slow degradation (DT50 > 8 d) 62.5% of the time. Significant factors were recent atrazine use history, soil pH, and organic matter content. The presence/absence of atzC polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was not a significant predictor variable for atrazine DT50. In conclusion, enhanced atrazine degradation is widespread in northeastern Colorado. If producers know their atrazine use history, soil pH, and OM content, they should be able to identify fields exhibiting enhanced atrazine degradation using our CART Model.

  11. Aerosol chemistry over a high altitude station at northeastern Himalayas, India.

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    Abhijit Chatterjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for an improved understanding of the sources, distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosol in order to control the atmospheric pollution over northeastern Himalayas where rising anthropogenic interferences from rapid urbanization and development is becoming an increasing concern. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An extensive aerosol sampling program was conducted in Darjeeling (altitude approximately 2200 meter above sea level (masl, latitude 27 degrees 01'N and longitude 88 degrees 15'E, a high altitude station in northeastern Himalayas, during January-December 2005. Samples were collected using a respirable dust sampler and a fine dust sampler simultaneously. Ion chromatograph was used to analyze the water soluble ionic species of aerosol. The average concentrations of fine and coarse mode aerosol were found to be 29.5+/-20.8 microg m(-3 and 19.6+/-11.1 microg m(-3 respectively. Fine mode aerosol dominated during dry seasons and coarse mode aerosol dominated during monsoon. Nitrate existed as NH(4NO(3 in fine mode aerosol during winter and as NaNO(3 in coarse mode aerosol during monsoon. Gas phase photochemical oxidation of SO(2 during premonsoon and aqueous phase oxidation during winter and postmonsoon were the major pathways for the formation of SO(4(2- in the atmosphere. Long range transport of dust aerosol from arid regions of western India was observed during premonsoon. The acidity of fine mode aerosol was higher in dry seasons compared to monsoon whereas the coarse mode acidity was higher in monsoon compared to dry seasons. Biomass burning, vehicular emissions and dust particles were the major types of aerosol from local and continental regions whereas sea salt particles were the major types of aerosol from marine source regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The year-long data presented in this paper provide substantial improvements to the heretofore poor knowledge regarding aerosol chemistry over

  12. Lateral variation of H2O contents in Quaternary Magma of central Northeastern Japan arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, I.; Matsu'ura, T.; Itoh, J.; Morishita, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Water plays a key role in the genesis and eruptive mechanisms of subduction zone volcanoes. We estimated bulk rock water content of both frontal and back arc volcanoes from Northeastern Japan arc in order to understand the lateral variation of magmatic H2O contents in the island arc magma. Our analytical targets are the Adachi volcano located near the volcanic front and the Hijiori volcano located on back arc side. In this study, the bulk magmatic H2O content is estimated by a simple mass balance calculation of the chemistry of bulk rock and melt inclusions in phenocrysts; the melt H2O contents of melt inclusions analyzed by SIMS or EPMA are corrected according to the difference in K2O content between melt inclusions and bulk rock. The bulk magmatic H2O we obtained is 8 wt. % or even more for Adachi and is 2-3 wt. % for Hijiori. Thus, the frontal volcano has higher H2O than the back arc volcano. Although our data are opposed to the previous estimation on the lateral variation of H2O contents in Quaternary volcanoes of Northeastern Japan arc (e.g., Sakuyama, 1979), thermodynamic computations using MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995) suggest that the amount of bulk magmatic H2O we estimated is consistent with petrographical observations. Our data imply a regional characteristics in the type of eruption that the H2O rich frontal volcanoes will erupt explosively and those H2O poor back arc ones will be effusive, which implication is consistent with actual geological observations that volcanoes located on back arc side of the Northeastern Japan arc generally comprise lava flow (e.g., Iwaki, Kanpu, Chokai, Gassan), in contrast to the frontal ones that produced voluminous tephra (e.g., Osorezan, Towada, Narugo, Adachi). This research project has been conducted under the research contract with Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA).

  13. Spectral reflectance characteristics of soils in northeastern Brazil as influenced by salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Luiz Guilherme Medeiros; Freire, Maria Betânia Galvão Dos Santos; Wilcox, Bradford Paul; Green, Colleen Heather Machado; De Araújo, Rômulo José Tolêdo; De Araújo Filho, José Coelho

    2016-11-01

    In northeastern Brazil, large swaths of once-productive soils have been severely degraded by soil salinization, but the true extent of the damage has not been assessed. Emerging remote sensing technology based on hyperspectral analysis offers one possibility for large-scale assessment, but it has been unclear to what extent the spectral properties of soils are related to salinity characteristics. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spectral properties of degraded (saline) and non-degraded agricultural soils in northeastern Brazil and determine the extent to which these properties correspond to soil salinity. We took soil samples from 78 locations within a 45,000-km(2) site in Pernambuco State. We used cluster analysis to group the soil samples on the basis of similarities in salinity and sodicity levels, and then obtained spectral data for each group. The physical properties analysis indicated a predominance of the coarse sand fraction in almost all the soil groups, and total porosity was similar for all the groups. The chemical analysis revealed different levels of degradation among the groups, ranging from non-degraded to strongly degraded conditions, as defined by the degree of salinity and sodicity. The soil properties showing the highest correlation with spectral reflectance were the exchangeable sodium percentage followed by fine sand. Differences in the reflectance curves for the various soil groups were relatively small and were not significant. These results suggest that, where soil crusts are not present, significant challenges remain for using hyperspectral remote sensing to assess soil salinity in northeastern Brazil.

  14. Modeled ecohydrological responses to climate change at seven small watersheds in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmokhtarian, Afshin; Driscoll, Charles T; Campbell, John L; Hayhoe, Katharine; Stoner, Anne M K; Adams, Mary Beth; Burns, Douglas; Fernandez, Ivan; Mitchell, Myron J; Shanley, James B

    2017-02-01

    A cross-site analysis was conducted on seven diverse, forested watersheds in the northeastern United States to evaluate hydrological responses (evapotranspiration, soil moisture, seasonal and annual streamflow, and water stress) to projections of future climate. We used output from four atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs; CCSM4, HadGEM2-CC, MIROC5, and MRI-CGCM3) included in Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, coupled with two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 8.5 and 4.5). The coarse resolution AOGCMs outputs were statistically downscaled using an asynchronous regional regression model to provide finer resolution future climate projections as inputs to the deterministic dynamic ecosystem model PnET-BGC. Simulation results indicated that projected warmer temperatures and longer growing seasons in the northeastern United States are anticipated to increase evapotranspiration across all sites, although invoking CO2 effects on vegetation (growth enhancement and increases in water use efficiency (WUE)) diminish this response. The model showed enhanced evapotranspiration resulted in drier growing season conditions across all sites and all scenarios in the future. Spruce-fir conifer forests have a lower optimum temperature for photosynthesis, making them more susceptible to temperature stress than more tolerant hardwood species, potentially giving hardwoods a competitive advantage in the future. However, some hardwood forests are projected to experience seasonal water stress, despite anticipated increases in precipitation, due to the higher temperatures, earlier loss of snow packs, longer growing seasons, and associated water deficits. Considering future CO2 effects on WUE in the model alleviated water stress across all sites. Modeled streamflow responses were highly variable, with some sites showing significant increases in annual water yield, while others showed decreases. This variability in streamflow responses poses a

  15. Tracking the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone in the northeastern Great Basin, Nevada and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, B.D.; Williams, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important to know whether major mining districts in north-central Nevada are underlain by crust of the Archean Wyoming craton, known to contain major orogenic gold deposits or, alternatively, by accreted crust of the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. Determining the location and orientation of the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone between these provinces is also important because it may influence subsequent patterns of sedimentation, deformation, magmatism, and hydrothermal activity. The suture zone is exposed in northeastern Utah and south-western Wyoming and exhibits a southwest strike. In the Great Basin, the suture zone strike is poorly constrained because it is largely concealed below a Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic miogeocline and Cenozoic basin fill. Two-dimensional resistivity modeling of three regional north-south magnetotelluric sounding profiles in western Utah, north-central Nevada, and northeastern Nevada, and one east-west profile in northeastern Nevada, reveals a deeply penetrating (>10 km depth), broad (tens of kilometers) conductor (1-20 ohm-meters) that may be the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone, which formed during Early Proterozoic rifting of the continent and subsequent Proterozoic accretion. This major crustal conductor changes strike direction from southwest in Utah to northwest in eastern Nevada, where it broadens to ???100 km width that correlates with early Paleozoic rifting of the continent. Our results suggest that the major gold belts may be over-isolated blocks of Archean crust, so Phanerozoic mineral deposits in this region may be produced, at least in part, from recycled Archean gold. Future mineral exploration to the east may yield large gold tonnages. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  16. Assessment of Occupational Harzads and Health Problems among Female Farmers in North-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Amodu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Farming is the main occupation of the rural people in Northeastern region of Nigeria. It constitutes 60-75% of the population of the area and involves both male and female alike. However, a postharvest aspect of production is mostly handled by women. Thus the female farmers are more exposed to farming occupational hazards than their male counterparts. The aim of the study was to identify the occupational hazard problems encountered by female farmers in Northeastern region of Nigeria. Specifically, to (i determine the prevalence of injuries and diseases of women farmers; (ii assess types of treatments available to women farmers; and (iii assess the protective measures employed in preventing injuries and diseases. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to collect data. Eight hundred questionnaires were administered. Multistage sample method was used to select the respondents. The results showed that 662 (82.8% of the female farmers interviewed complained of back pains. Six hundred and twenty-four or (78.0% of the respondents suffered lacerations from the usage of farm implements such as hoes, axes, sickles, cutlass, and also from grasses and thorns. Insect stings were the third most prevalent diseases and constitute 59.5% of the respondents. Other diseases prevalence were: sunburns, snake bites, fractures, and injuries from falling trees and branches, which constitute 20.6% of the farmers. The respondents got treatments at homes, traditional healers, and hospitals. The use of chemicals was not popular among the respondents, herbicides, (9.8%, pesticides, (13.1% and insecticides (21.4%. Accordingly, the awareness of the harmful effects of these chemicals was low. Farming activities of the women farmers in northeastern, Nigeria was found to be their means of livelihoods. There is a need to increase agricultural mechanization in order to reduce injuries and pains associated with crude farm tools. Female

  17. Risk factors for obstetric fistulae in north-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melah, G S; Massa, A A; Yahaya, U R; Bukar, M; Kizaya, D D; El-Nafaty, A U

    2007-11-01

    This prospective comparative study of obstetric fistulae (OF) was aimed at identifying risk factors. A total of 80 obstetric fistulae treated at the gynaecological unit of the FMCG, and 80 inpatients without fistulae recruited randomly as controls formed the basis of this study. Through interview and case record review, information on age, parity and marital status was collected. Other features were educational status, occupation and booking status of the pregnancy that might have led to this condition. The duration of labour, place of birth and mode of delivery, including its outcome were also collected. The data were analysed using the Epi Info. The majority of the patients were Hausa/Fulani 87.5%, Muslims 91.2%, with large vesicovaginal fistulae (average size 5.0 cm) mainly resulting from obstructed labour (93.7%). Major risk factors included early age at first marriage (average 14 years), short stature (average height 146.2 cm) and illiteracy (96.3%). Also low social class and lack of gainful employment were factors. Failure to book for antenatal care (93.7%), and rural place of residence (95%) were also factors associated with acquiring the fistulae. Living far away (>3 km) from a health facility also contributed or predisposed to the development of an obstetric fistula. Social violence and stigma associated with the fistulae included divorce, being ostracised as a social outcast, and lack of assistance from relations in terms of finding and funding treatment. This study supports improved access to basic essential obstetric care, family planning services, and timely referral when and where necessary. Universal education will provide a long-term solution by improving the standard of living and quality of life. Especially important are media- and community-based programmes on the ills of teenage marriage and child pregnancy using cultural and religiously-based values to give sound advice. In a male dominated society, reaching out to men with traditionally

  18. Space use and territoriality in swift foxes (Vulpes velox) in northeastern Colorado

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebsock, Amariah A.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Darden, Safi K.;

    2012-01-01

    space use of swift foxes on shortgrass prairie in northeastern Colorado. Our first objective was to evaluate sizes of seasonal and annual home ranges and core areas of 13 radio-collared swift foxes monitored continuously for 2 years. Our second objective was to compare home-range and core-area overlap......Space use is a fundamental characteristic that informs our knowledge of social relationships and the degree to which individuals are territorial. Until recently, relatively little was known about the spatial ecology and social organization of swift foxes (Vulpes velox (Say, 1823)). We investigated...

  19. Espeletia praesidentis, a new species of Espeletiinae (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from northeastern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A new species of Espeletia from the Páramo de Presidente in northeastern Colombia is described. The species is named Espeletia praesidentis after the name of the páramo, and it is dedicated to the President Juan Manuel Santos, for his persistent efforts in working for peace for Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletia dugandii, but differs in the shape and colour of the leaves and arrangements of the capitulescences. A large population was found, but its total extension is yet to be determine.

  20. Espeletia praesidentis, a new species of Espeletiinae (Millerieae, Asteraceae from northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Diazgranados

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Espeletia from the Páramo de Presidente in northeastern Colombia is described. The species is named Espeletia praesidentis after the name of the páramo, and it is dedicated to the President Juan Manuel Santos, for his persistent efforts in working for peace for Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletia dugandii, but differs in the shape and colour of the leaves and arrangements of the capitulescences. A large population was found, but its total extension is yet to be determine.