WorldWideScience

Sample records for case method

  1. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  2. TEACHING ECONOMICS – THE CASE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA POPESCU

    2014-01-01

    One of the most efficient approaches in teaching Economics is the Case Method. The Case Method combines two elements: the case itself and the discussion of that case. A teaching case is a rich narrative in which individuals or groups of individuals have to make a decision or solve a problem. A teaching case is not a case study of the type used in academic research, as it provides information, but neither analysis nor conclusions. During the classroom discussions, the students perf...

  3. Media Management Education and the Case Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Anne; Brickley, Dale J.; Cawley, Joanne M.

    2001-01-01

    Traces the development and pedagogical theory of the case study method. Offers an overview of current discourse on its effectiveness. Presents results from a quasi-experiment. Finds that students exposed to the case method improved their problem solving skills measurably and significantly over a 15-week semester, outperforming the control group…

  4. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. A business case method for business models

    OpenAIRE

    Meertens, L.O.; Starreveld, E.; Iacob, M.E.; Nieuwenhuis, L.J.M.; Shishkov, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Intuitively, business cases and business models are closely connected. However, a thorough literature review revealed no research on the combination of them. Besides that, little is written on the evaluation of business models at all. This makes it difficult to compare different business model alternatives and choose the best one. In this article, we develop a business case method to objectively compare business models. It is an eight-step method, starting with business drivers and ending wit...

  6. Case studies: Soil mapping using multiple methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hauke; Wunderlich, Tina; Hagrey, Said A. Al; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Stümpel, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Soil is a non-renewable resource with fundamental functions like filtering (e.g. water), storing (e.g. carbon), transforming (e.g. nutrients) and buffering (e.g. contamination). Degradation of soils is meanwhile not only to scientists a well known fact, also decision makers in politics have accepted this as a serious problem for several environmental aspects. National and international authorities have already worked out preservation and restoration strategies for soil degradation, though it is still work of active research how to put these strategies into real practice. But common to all strategies the description of soil state and dynamics is required as a base step. This includes collecting information from soils with methods ranging from direct soil sampling to remote applications. In an intermediate scale mobile geophysical methods are applied with the advantage of fast working progress but disadvantage of site specific calibration and interpretation issues. In the framework of the iSOIL project we present here some case studies for soil mapping performed using multiple geophysical methods. We will present examples of combined field measurements with EMI-, GPR-, magnetic and gammaspectrometric techniques carried out with the mobile multi-sensor-system of Kiel University (GER). Depending on soil type and actual environmental conditions, different methods show a different quality of information. With application of diverse methods we want to figure out, which methods or combination of methods will give the most reliable information concerning soil state and properties. To investigate the influence of varying material we performed mapping campaigns on field sites with sandy, loamy and loessy soils. Classification of measured or derived attributes show not only the lateral variability but also gives hints to a variation in the vertical distribution of soil material. For all soils of course soil water content can be a critical factor concerning a succesful

  7. A Mixed Methods Sampling Methodology for a Multisite Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Julia L.; Mobley, Catherine; Hammond, Cathy; Withington, Cairen; Drew, Sam; Stringfield, Sam; Stipanovic, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The flexibility of mixed methods research strategies makes such approaches especially suitable for multisite case studies. Yet the utilization of mixed methods to select sites for these studies is rarely reported. The authors describe their pragmatic mixed methods approach to select a sample for their multisite mixed methods case study of a…

  8. A business case method for business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, L.O.; Starreveld, E.; Iacob, M.E.; Nieuwenhuis, L.J.M.; Shishkov, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Intuitively, business cases and business models are closely connected. However, a thorough literature review revealed no research on the combination of them. Besides that, little is written on the evaluation of business models at all. This makes it difficult to compare different business model alter

  9. Environmental reference materials methods and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm-Nielsen, Karina Edith

    1998-01-01

    . The methods have been evaluated with regard to their robustness towards variations in the chemical analytical method and with regard to the number of times a significant out of control situation is indicated. The second study regards the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous in autoclaved seawater samples....... This study lasted 22 months as well. The samples were produced and stored according to a 2³ factorial design. The influences of storage temperature, UV radiation and ultra-filtration on the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous have been investigated. A Youden plot method is suggested for the graphical...

  10. An Efficient Reduction Method for Test Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly Raamesh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Testing activity is performed to provide confidence that changes do not harm the existing behaviour of the software. Test suites tend to grow in size as software evolves, often making it too costly to execute entire test suites. The test suite reduction techniques significantly reduce the size of the test suites. But an important issue deals with how well these reduced suites can be compared with their corresponding un-reduced suites using other criteria rather than the suite size criterion. Since the purpose of test case execution is to detect faults in the software, one measure of thesuite quality is its fault detection capability.

  11. Case Method in the Teaching of Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Alfredo; Fortunato, Maria S.; Rossi, Susana L.; Korol, Sonia E.; Moretton, Juan A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental aims of education is the integration of theory and practice. The case method is a teaching strategy in which students must apply their knowledge to solve real-life situations. They have to analyze the case described and propose the best possible solution. Although the case may be written, the use of new information and…

  12. The Case Method: Using Case Based Instruction To Increase Ethical Understanding In Engineering Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Brock; Yadav, Aman

    2007-01-01

    The case method: Using case-based instruction to increase ethical understanding in engineering courses Introduction The paper presents a discussion of how case-based instruction is performed and the perceived benefits of its application. We begin with a brief discussion of the historical background of case- based instruction and then discuss the use of case methodologies within various educational contexts. Connections are then made to its use in general ethics instruction, as well as spec...

  13. A Business Case Method for IT Investments in Danish Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2012-01-01

    Effective management of information technology (IT) investments is increasingly important for Danish municipalities. This is why they along with other both public and private sector organizations increasingly are using IT business cases. The business case is a document specifying the main rationale...... behind the expected value and cost of an IT investment for the adopting organization. However, experiences from Danish municipalities reveal difficulties in developing effective IT business cases for purposes beyond simple cost savings. Based on collaborative action research with Danish municipalities......, we present insights on the challenges in contemporary IT business case practices. We applied these insights in conjunction with contemporary literature on business cases to develop a business case method for Danish municipalities. Based on the municipalities’ evaluation of the method we summarize its...

  14. Using the Decision Case Method to Teach Legislative Policy Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, Terry A.; Gray, Karen A.

    2007-01-01

    Social work educators have long struggled with making policy practice real "more", especially to micro-oriented students (Sundet & Kelly, 2002). The decision case method can generate excitement about social policy advocacy while educating students about current advocacy work, particularly if the case involves state or local efforts to influence…

  15. CHARACTERISTICS AND EVALUATION METHODS OF THE CASE TOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Iacob

    2009-01-01

    The acronym CASE – Computer Assisted Software Engineering – is the term used to indicate a collection of methods, tools and processes used in the development of software products with the assistance of the computer.

  16. Case Retrieval Method of Multi-parameter for Customized Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Junjian; TAN Shili; SONG Xiaofeng; WANG Meiting

    2006-01-01

    The CBR(Case-Based Reasoning) usually is been used to accomplish customized products by variant design or reusable design. In the CBR, retrieve is very important. A simple case retrieval method is been brought forward to retrieve a optimal prototype based on using inputted multi-parameters, it can be programmed easily. An example has been proved this method can find optimal prototype for new design task efficiently.

  17. Using the case-study method in teaching college physics

    OpenAIRE

    Burko, Lior M.

    2016-01-01

    The case-study teaching method has a long history (starting at least with Socrates), and wide current use in business schools, medical schools, law schools, and a variety of other disciplines. However, relatively little use is made of it in the physical sciences, specifically in physics or astronomy. The case-study method should be considered by physics faculty as part of the effort to transition the teaching of college physics from the traditional frontal-lecture format to other formats that...

  18. Using the case-study method in teaching college physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burko, Lior M

    2016-01-01

    The case-study teaching method has a long history (starting at least with Socrates), and wide current use in business schools, medical schools, law schools, and a variety of other disciplines. However, relatively little use is made of it in the physical sciences, specifically in physics or astronomy. The case-study method should be considered by physics faculty as part of the effort to transition the teaching of college physics from the traditional frontal-lecture format to other formats that enhance active student participation. In this paper we endeavor to interest physics instructors in the case-study method, and hope that it would also serve as a call for more instructors to produce cases that they use in their own classes and that can also be adopted by other instructors.

  19. A Guideline of Using Case Method in Software Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Dzulaiha Aryanee Putri; Razali, Rozilawati; Shukur, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Software Engineering (SE) education has been reported to fall short in producing high quality software engineers. In seeking alternative solutions, Case Method (CM) is regarded as having potential to solve the issue. CM is a teaching and learning (T&L) method that has been found to be effective in Social Science education. In principle,…

  20. Case Study Method in Business Education in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velushchak Maryna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Education is dynamic in nature and needs diverse information to deal with different business problems. To understand the peculiar situations and to manage them effectively, case studies are widely used. Researchers in education have already demonstrated that students' active participation in the educational process increases their learning outcomes. Methods of small group activities, case studies and cooperative student projects give the opportunity to participate actively in the learning process by talking, reading, writing and reflecting. Case-based learning is an essential part of business education as it enables students to discover and develop their unique framework for dealing with business problems. The important peculiarity of the business case study is that it introduces a slice of realism into the learning experience. The case study method helps the students in developing wisdom and gives lot of scope for knowledge application. Nowadays, business education should be much more practically oriented and has to consider the main features of a modern competitive global economy. Lectures and discussions are not any more the most effective teaching methods. As research results show, the case method is the most effective teaching technique of future career preparations and practical application skills in today's business environment as it enables students examining different business situations in various cultural and economic perspectives, opening up their minds by solving the problems of the real business situations.

  1. Case Study Method in Business Education in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Velushchak Maryna

    2014-01-01

    Business Education is dynamic in nature and needs diverse information to deal with different business problems. To understand the peculiar situations and to manage them effectively, case studies are widely used. Researchers in education have already demonstrated that students' active participation in the educational process increases their learning outcomes. Methods of small group activities, case studies and cooperative student projects give the opportunity to participate actively in the lea...

  2. Teaching based on the case method of building collective protection

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Garcia, Nieves; Cobo Escamilla, Alfonso; Moreno Fernandez, Maria Esther

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental aspects in the adaptation of the teaching to the European higher education is changing based models of teacher education to models based on student learning. In this work we present an educational experience developed with the teaching method based on the case method, with a clearly multidisciplinary. The experience has been developed in the teaching of analysis and verification of safety rails. This is a multidisciplinary field that presents great difficulties during t...

  3. Metamorphic computer virus detection by Case- Based Reasoning (CBR) methods

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellatif Berkat

    2011-01-01

    Metamorphic virus employs code obfuscation techniques to mutate itself. It absconds from signaturebaseddetection system by modifying internal structure without compromising original functionality.In this paper, we propose a new method, for detecting metamorphic computer viruses, that is based on thetechnique of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). In this method:-Can detect similar viruses with high probability.- The updating of the virus database is done automatically without connecting to the Intern...

  4. Case study on the use of PSA methods: Backfitting decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study illustrates the process of using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) method to evaluate proposed backfits of nuclear power plants (NPP), which are intended to enhance the plant safety by improving equipment operability. Some examples of situations in which PRA techniques have been used to address backfit issues at operating NPPs are summarized. 2 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Well casing-based geophysical sensor apparatus, system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, William D.

    2010-03-09

    A geophysical sensor apparatus, system, and method for use in, for example, oil well operations, and in particular using a network of sensors emplaced along and outside oil well casings to monitor critical parameters in an oil reservoir and provide geophysical data remote from the wells. Centralizers are affixed to the well casings and the sensors are located in the protective spheres afforded by the centralizers to keep from being damaged during casing emplacement. In this manner, geophysical data may be detected of a sub-surface volume, e.g. an oil reservoir, and transmitted for analysis. Preferably, data from multiple sensor types, such as ERT and seismic data are combined to provide real time knowledge of the reservoir and processes such as primary and secondary oil recovery.

  6. The Case Method: "I’m not sure ..." Faci ng Barriers to Implementi ng the Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Dias Campos

    2014-03-01

    extension courses for teachers. It presents the dilemma experienced by Cosmo, a young professor recently hired by the iesg (Institute of Higher Education in Management, who wishes to adopt the case method as a teaching practice within an institutional setting and with distinct and heterogeneous didactic experiences. It also presents the views of different stakeholders in the institution, discussing the challenge to accommodate its teaching strategy with its professionals’ individual and cultural daily practice. The case intends to foster reflection on the barriers and actions required for institutional case method adoption, seen from three of the organization’s levels: the faculty, the student body and the institutional structure as a whole.

  7. Evaluation of the case method in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Susanne; Christensen, Tanja; Hedemalm, Azar

    2014-03-01

    The case based learning (CBL) is a problem-based learning which engaging students and presenting them with learning-related and cognitive challenges. The purpose of the study was to elucidate nursing students experiences of the CBL as an educational tool in order to find out if it supports their learning. Qualitative content analysis was used and performed on the statements from nursing students' course evaluations. Students perceived the CBL as an approach combining theory with practice which provides an overview of upcoming profession. Students gain adequate knowledge about patient care in reality and thereby enabling them to obtain a holistic understanding of patients health problems. Reflections related to case seminars widen students perspectives, improve their capacity for cooperation and help them to achieve long-lasting knowledge. This learning method offers nursing students an opportunity to enhance their judgement and critical thinking skills by applying theory in practice. Students gain adequate knowledge about patient care which may benefit patient care due to students acting professionally in their future role. PMID:24041633

  8. Real-Time Case Method: Analysis of a Second Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theroux, James M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, M. Hopkins and J. Theroux implemented the second example of an experimental case study, at 11 business schools in the United States and Canada. The new type of case study, named the "real-time case (RTC) study," uses the Internet to bring business reality to business courses and to facilitate communication among faculty, students, and the…

  9. Creative Interactive Teaching: Case Method & Other Techniques. Selected Papers of the International Conference on Case Methods Research & Application (16th, Caceres, Spain, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hans E., Ed.

    This book presents a selection of papers from the international, interdisciplinary conference of the World Association for Case Method Research & Application. Papers are categorized into seven areas: (1) "International Case Studies" (e.g., event-based entrepreneurship, case studies on consumer complaints, and strategic quality management in an…

  10. Complicated distal femoral epiphyseolysis treated by Ilizarov method: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Injuries of the distal femur are rare in children; however, they are frequently associated with complications. They are almost always physeal, most frequently Salter-Harris type II epiphyseolysis. The treatment of such injuries is similar in all physeal injuries. It is intended to provide growth plate recovery by gentle reduction and stable fixation thus preventing secondary complications, and also to provide decompression of the segment to solve the compartment syndrome and recover the neurovascular structures. Case Outline A seven-year old boy presented with a right knee injury while sleigh riding. He was admitted three weeks following the injury with distal femoral epiphysiolysis associated with peroneal palsy. A day after admission to our Institute the reduction was performed using the Ilizarov device. Physical therapy was started immediately after surgery, as well as walking with weight bearing on the operated leg. Five months after surgery the patient was anatomically and functionally recovered. Conclusion The presented method is recommended in the treatment of such injuries because of several reasons; reposition is simple and complete, there is no need to open the fracture site, fixation is stable, the growth plate is preserved, there is no need for additional external immobilisation, and physical therapy involving walking with weight bearing on the operated leg may be started immediately after surgery. .

  11. Methods of Teaching Reading to EFL Learners: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dedi Sanjaya; S Rahmah; Johan Sinulingga; Azhar Aziz Lubis; Muhammad Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Methods of teaching reading skill are not the same in different countries. It depends on the condition and situation of the learners. Observing the method of teaching in Malaysia was the purpose of this study and the result of the study shows that there are 5 methods that are applied in classroom activities namely Grammar Translation Method (GTM), Direct Method (DM), Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), Audio Lingual Method (ALM) and Silent Way (SW). Through these methods, the students and ...

  12. A critical evaluation of worst case optimization methods for robust intensity-modulated proton therapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To critically evaluate and compare three worst case optimization methods that have been previously employed to generate intensity-modulated proton therapy treatment plans that are robust against systematic errors. The goal of the evaluation is to identify circumstances when the methods behave differently and to describe the mechanism behind the differences when they occur. Methods: The worst case methods optimize plans to perform as well as possible under the worst case scenario that can physically occur (composite worst case), the combination of the worst case scenarios for each objective constituent considered independently (objectivewise worst case), and the combination of the worst case scenarios for each voxel considered independently (voxelwise worst case). These three methods were assessed with respect to treatment planning for prostate under systematic setup uncertainty. An equivalence with probabilistic optimization was used to identify the scenarios that determine the outcome of the optimization. Results: If the conflict between target coverage and normal tissue sparing is small and no dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraints are present, then all three methods yield robust plans. Otherwise, they all have their shortcomings: Composite worst case led to unnecessarily low plan quality in boundary scenarios that were less difficult than the worst case ones. Objectivewise worst case generally led to nonrobust plans. Voxelwise worst case led to overly conservative plans with respect to DVH constraints, which resulted in excessive dose to normal tissue, and less sharp dose fall-off than the other two methods. Conclusions: The three worst case methods have clearly different behaviors. These behaviors can be understood from which scenarios that are active in the optimization. No particular method is superior to the others under all circumstances: composite worst case is suitable if the conflicts are not very severe or there are DVH constraints whereas

  13. Methods of Teaching Reading to EFL Learners: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Sanjaya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods of teaching reading skill are not the same in different countries. It depends on the condition and situation of the learners. Observing the method of teaching in Malaysia was the purpose of this study and the result of the study shows that there are 5 methods that are applied in classroom activities namely Grammar Translation Method (GTM, Direct Method (DM, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT, Audio Lingual Method (ALM and Silent Way (SW. Through these methods, the students and the teacher can reach the purpose of teaching reading. From this study, it can be concluded that combining more than one method is one of the better ways for the teaching reading skill to EFL learners. 

  14. Tunneling method for Hawking radiation in the Nariai case

    CERN Document Server

    Belgiorno, F; Piazza, F Dalla

    2016-01-01

    Particle creation associated with the Hawking effect is calculated in the case of the charged Nariai solution, for the case both of the event horizon and of the cosmological horizon. We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, and, after a revisitation in the framework of particle creation in external fields {\\sl \\`a la} Nikishov, we consider in particular the case of a charged scalar field on the given background. Due to the knowledge of the exact solutions for the Klein-Gordon equations on Nariai manifold, and to their analytic properties on the extended manifold, we can corroborate the tunneling picture also by means of a direct computation of the flux of particles leaving the horizon.

  15. The Case History Method of Testing Students in Gross Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruise, Leon J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of case histories to test a student's knowledge of the previous weeks' dissection in gross anatomy class is discussed. The test is seen as a way to integrate other basic sciences. An example of this type of test is provided. (MLW)

  16. Comparing the Principle-Based SBH Maieutic Method to Traditional Case Study Methods of Teaching Media Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study at a Northwest university compared two methods of teaching media ethics, a class taught with the principle-based SBH Maieutic Method (n = 25) and a class taught with a traditional case study method (n = 27), with a control group (n = 21) that received no ethics training. Following a 16-week intervention, a one-way…

  17. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  18. Research into Plagiarism Cases and Plagiarism Detection Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kashkur, M; Paršutins, S; Borisovs, A

    2010-01-01

    In the age of information technology intellectual property becomes especially valuable. This is one of the causes why the cases of the plagiarism appear more frequently in all vital sectors. Due to that, there is a growing need for different instruments for the protection and verification of copyright for finding plagiarism. Before checking the document for plagiarism, reviewing algorithms and approaches for searching plagiarism, you must know and understand what constitutes the plagiarism. T...

  19. Using History To Teach Scientific Method: The Case of Argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, Carmen J.

    1998-01-01

    Explains the goals of a course to teach non-science majors how scientists think. Approaches science primarily as a way of knowing rather than as a body of knowledge and conveys the scientific method as an empirical endeavor. (DDR)

  20. Scaling agile methods to regulated environments: an industry case study

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Brian; Stol, Klaas-Jan; O'Sullivan, Ryan; O'Brien, Donal

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Agile development methods are growing in popularity with a recent survey reporting that more than 80% of organizations now following an agile approach. Agile methods were seen initially as best suited to small, co-located teams developing non-critical systems. The first two constraining characteristics (small and co-located teams) have been addressed as research has emerged describing successful agile adoption involving large teams and distributed context...

  1. Practitioner versus analyst methods: a nuclear decommissioning case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Cooper, Mhairi; Thompson, Pauline; Jenkins, Dan

    2014-11-01

    A requirement arose during decommissioning work at a UK Magnox Nuclear Power Station to identify the hazards involved in removing High Dose Rate Items from a Cartridge Cooling Pond. Removing objects from the cooling pond under normal situations is a routine event with well understood risks but the situation described in this paper is not a routine event. The power station has shifted from an operational phase in its life-cycle to a decommissioning phase, and as such the risks, and procedures to deal with them, have become more novel and uncertain. This raises an important question. Are the hazard identification methods that have proven useful in one phase of the system lifecycle just as useful in another, and if not, what methods should be used? An opportunity arose at this site to put the issue to a direct test. Two methods were used, one practitioner focussed and in widespread use during the plant's operational phase (the Structured What-If method), the other was an analyst method (Cognitive Work Analysis). The former is proven on this site but might not be best suited to the novelty and uncertainty brought about by a shift in context from operations to decommissioning. The latter is not proven on this site but it is designed for novelty and uncertainty. The paper presents the outcomes of applying both methods to a real-world hazard identification task. PMID:24947001

  2. Method of Path Selection in the Graph - Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Neumann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a different perspective on the Dijkstra algorithm. In this paper algorithm will be used in the further analysis to find additional paths between nodes in the maritime sector. In many cases, the best solution for a single criterion is not sufficient. I would be the search for more effective solutions of the starting point to use for subsequent analysis or decision making by the captain of the ship. Using cutting-edge thinking mechanisms, it is possible to create a decision support system based on known Dijkstra's algorithm.

  3. THE METHODICS OF POSTTRAUMATIC SHOULDER REHABILITATION IN ATHLETES (CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balteanu Veronica

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The rehabilitation of the posttraumatic shoulder requires a complex treatment, which demands the implication of several specialists (specialized physician, radiologist, kinesiotherapist. The patient himself plays an important role: he has to be cooperative, active; he must understand the therapeutic act and respect all the indications of the specialists. The upper limb often suffers traumatisms, more serious and more frequent in certain sports branches.The functional rehabilitation – through adequate kinesiotherapeutic means and methods, methodically and systematically applied, within an optimal time frame – will recover the patient’s usual gestures for the respective segment; his social and professional reintegration will also occur as soon as possible.

  4. Child Geopolitical Agency: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Janette; Worley, Jody

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the geopolitical agency of Palestinian children. Mixed methodology was used to identify the etiologies contributing to processes of political socialization. Both qualitative and qualitative methods are equally distributed throughout this research. Focus groups and interviews with 12 Palestinian children, aged 10 to 13 years,…

  5. Using case methods to study cultural diversity within the development of telematic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Christian; Bertelsen, Pernille Scholdan; Brender, Jytte

    The report " Using case methods to study cultural diversity within the development of telematic systems" discusses a case study method which is an extension of work orginallly done in Babel, a 5th framework EU project. The report contributes to the discussion identifying operational cultural...

  6. Discounted cash flow valuation methods: Examples of perpetuities, constant growth and general case

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the discounted cash flow valuation methods. We start the paper with the simplest case: no-growth, perpetual-life companies. Then we will study the continuous growth case and, finally, the general case. The different concepts of cash flow used in company valuation are defined: equity cash flow (ECF), free cash flow (FCF), and capital cash flow (CCF). Then the appropriate discount rate is determined for each cash flow, depending on the valuation method used. Our starting poi...

  7. Scoping analytical usability evaluation methods: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Blandford, A. E.; Hyde, J K; Green, T. R. G.; Connell, I.

    2008-01-01

    Analytical usability evaluation methods (UEMs) can complement empirical evaluation of systems: for example, they can often be used earlier in design and can provide accounts of why users might experience difficulties, as well as what those difficulties are. However, their properties and value are only partially understood. One way to improve our understanding is by detailed comparisons using a single interface or system as a target for evaluation, but we need to look deeper than simple proble...

  8. Rapid methods of landslide hazard mapping : Fiji case study

    OpenAIRE

    Greenbaum, D.; Bowker, M.R.; Dau, I.; Dropsy, H.; Greally, K.B.; McDonald, A; S. H. Marsh; Northmore, K.J.; O'Connor, E.A.; S. Prasad; Tragheim, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    A landslide hazard probability map can help planners (1) prepare for, and/or mitigate against, the effects of landsliding on communities and infrastructure, and (2) avoid or minimise the risks associated with new developments. The aims of the project were to establish, by means of studies in a few test areas, a generic method by which remote sensing and data analysis using a geographic information system (GIS) could provide a provisional landslide hazard zonation map. The provi...

  9. Use Case Evaluation (UCE): A Method for Early Usability Evaluation in Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Jan; Høegh, Rune Thaarup; Hornbæk, K.;

    2007-01-01

    ideas produced early in software development processes. The method proceeds by systematic inspection of use cases with reference to a set of guidelines for usable design. To validate the method, four evaluators inspected a set of use cases for a health care application.......t is often argued that usability problems should be identified as early as possible during software development, but many usability evaluation methods do not fit well in early development activities. We propose a method for usability evaluation of use cases, a widely used representation of design...

  10. Test case set generation method on MC/DC based on binary tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-jie; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Yuan

    2013-03-01

    Exploring efficient, reliable test case design methods has been tester pursuit of the goal. Along with the aerospace software logic complexity of improving and software scale enlarging, this requirement also gets more compelling. Test case design techniques suited for MC/DC improved test case design efficiency, increase the test coverage. It is suitable to test the software that logical relationship is complicated comparatively. Some software test tools provide the function to calculate the test coverage. And it can assess the test cases whether on the MC/DC or not. But the software tester needs the reverse thinking. The paper puts forward that design the test case by Unique-cause and Masking approach. And it proposes automatic generation method of test case on MC/DC. It improved the efficiency and correctness of generation the test case set on DC/DC.

  11. Seismic wave generation systems and methods for cased wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, James; Sorrells, Martin H; Owen, Thomas E.; Schroeder, Edgar C.

    2011-03-29

    A vibration source (10) includes an armature bar (12) having a major length dimension, and a driver (20A) positioned about the armature bar. The driver (20A) is movably coupled to the armature bar (12), and includes an electromagnet (40). During operation the electromagnet (40) is activated such that the driver (20A) moves with respect to the armature bar (12) and a vibratory signal is generated in the armature bar. A described method for generating a vibratory signal in an object includes positioning the vibration source (10) in an opening of the object, coupling the armature bar (12) to a surface of the object within the opening, and activating the electromagnet (40) of the driver (20A) such that the driver moves with respect to the armature bar (12) and a vibratory signal is generated in the armature bar and the object.

  12. Methods and results of radiotherapy in case of medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognosis of the medulloblastoma with its marked tendency towards early formation of metastases by way of liquor circulation can be decisively improved by post-surgical homogenous irradiation. A successful radiotherapy is only possible by means of new irradiation methods which have been developed for high-voltage units during recent years and which require great experience and skill on the part of the radiotherapeutist. At the Radiological Centre of Essen, 26 patients with medulloblastoma have been submitted to such a specially developed post-surgical radiotherapy since 1974. After a follow-up period of at most seven years, 16 patients have survived (two of them with recurrences) and 10 patients died because of a local recurrence. In dependence on the patient's state of health after surgery and before irradiation, the neurologic state and physical condition of these patients seem favorable after unique post-operative radiotherapy. New therapeutic possibilities are provided by radiosensitizing substances. The actually most effective radiosensitizer Misonidazol, however, could not respond hitherto to clinical expectances. (orig.)

  13. Bayesian network modeling method based on case reasoning for emergency decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Lei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian network has the abilities of probability expression, uncertainty management and multi-information fusion.It can support emergency decision-making, which can improve the efficiency of decision-making.Emergency decision-making is highly time sensitive, which requires shortening the Bayesian Network modeling time as far as possible.Traditional Bayesian network modeling methods are clearly unable to meet that requirement.Thus, a Bayesian network modeling method based on case reasoning for emergency decision-making is proposed.The method can obtain optional cases through case matching by the functions of similarity degree and deviation degree.Then,new Bayesian network can be built through case adjustment by case merging and pruning.An example is presented to illustrate and test the proposed method.The result shows that the method does not have a huge search space or need sample data.The only requirement is the collection of expert knowledge and historical case models.Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method can reuse historical case models, which can reduce the modeling time and improve the efficiency.

  14. Estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements: Case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Zhifeng; CUI; Baoshan; LIU; Jingling

    2005-01-01

    Supplying water to the ecological environment with certain quantity and quality is significant for the protection of diversity and the realization of sustainable development. The conception and connotation of eco-environmental water requirements, including the definition of the conception, the composition and characteristics of eco-environmental water requirements, are evaluated in this paper. The classification and estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements are then proposed. On the basis of the study on the Huang-Huai-Hai Area, the present water use, the minimum and suitable water requirement are estimated and the corresponding water shortage is also calculated. According to the interrelated programs, the eco-environmental water requirements in the coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are estimated. The result indicates that the minimum and suitable eco-environmental water requirements fluctuate with the differences of function setting and the referential standard of water resources, and so as the water shortage. Moreover, the study indicates that the minimum eco-environmental water requirement of the study area ranges from 2.84×1010m3 to 1.02×1011m3, the suitable water requirement ranges from 6.45×1010m3 to 1.78×1011m3, the water shortage ranges from 9.1×109m3 to 2.16×1010m3 under the minimum water requirement, and it is from 3.07×1010m3 to 7.53×1010m3 under the suitable water requirement. According to the different values of the water shortage, the water priority can be allocated. The ranges of the eco-environmental water requirements in the three coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are 4.49×1010m3-1.73×1011m3, 5.99×10m3?2.09×1011m3, and 7.44×1010m3-2.52×1011m3, respectively.

  15. Taking a Case Method Capstone Course Online: A Comparative Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Grandon Gill; Matthew Mullarkey

    2015-01-01

    A capstone course is normally offered at the end of a program of study with the goal of helping students synthesize what they have learned in the courses preceding it. The paper describes such a course—an undergraduate capstone course for MIS majors—that was built around case discussions and projects and originally offered in a face-to-face format. Over the course of the study, an asynchronous online version of the course was developed that was intended to be as faithful as possible to the cl...

  16. Analysis method on shoot precision of weapon in small-sample case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Jun; Song Baowei; Liang Qingwei

    2007-01-01

    Because of limits of cost, in general, the test data of weapons are shortness. It is always an important topic that to gain scientific results of weapon performance analyses in small-sample case. Based on the analysis of distribution function characteristics and grey mathematics, a weighting grey method in small-sample case is presented. According to the analysis of test data of a weapon, it is proved that the method is a good method to deal with data in the small-sample case and has a high value in the analysis of weapon performance.

  17. A Case Study of a Mixed Methods Study Engaged in Integrated Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiazza, Daniela Marie

    2013-01-01

    The nascent field of mixed methods research has yet to develop a cohesive framework of guidelines and procedures for mixed methods data analysis (Greene, 2008). To support the field's development of analytical frameworks, this case study reflects on the development and implementation of a mixed methods study engaged in integrated data analysis.…

  18. Case Study Teaching Method Improves Student Performance and Perceptions of Learning Gains

    OpenAIRE

    Bonney, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Following years of widespread use in business and medical education, the case study teaching method is becoming an increasingly common teaching strategy in science education. However, the current body of research provides limited evidence that the use of published case studies effectively promotes the fulfillment of specific learning objectives integral to many biology courses. This study tested the hypothesis that case studies are more effective than classroom discussions and textbook readin...

  19. The method for staining of anterior lens capsule in cases with small and rigid pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of proposed method for staining with trypan blue anterior lens capsule in cases with small and rigid pupils.Methods: the safety and effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated in 169 cases having small and rigid pupils of III and IV grade. Surgical steps included: irrigation of anterior chamber with small amount of air, enough to block the pupil; irrigation of posterior chamber with little amount of dye followed by aspiration of air bubble. the excess dye came out and stained the capsule in pupillary area.Results: No difficulty was encountered in irrigating the posterior chamber with dye. Uneven staining of the capsule was noticed in 16 cases (9.5%. In 3 cases (1.8% extensive staining of iris and posterior capsule was observed. Continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis was performed successfully in 97.6% cases. In 4 cases there was radial run of the rhexis extending up to posterior capsule. Postopera- tive inflammation of 1st and 2nd degree was observed in 5.9 and 23.1% cases, which was related to unavoidable trauma to iris tissue during pupil stretching.Conclusion: the proposed method of capsule staining in cases with small and rigid pupils is safe and effective.

  20. Tackling the “unknown sustainability” with service design methods : two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselqvist, Hanna; Bogdan, Cristian; Jeon, Ahrum; Kankainen, Anu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we will present two explorative service design cases focusing on sustainable services in smart cities. After an introduction to our thematic area we will describe the two cases and the service design methods used. In the conclusion we will discuss the lessons learned from applying service design tools in collaboration with citizens and other stakeholders.

  1. Recursive least squares method of regression coefficients estimation as a special case of Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodachev, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    The simple derivation of recursive least squares (RLS) method equations is given as special case of Kalman filter estimation of a constant system state under changing observation conditions. A numerical example illustrates application of RLS to multicollinearity problem.

  2. Why carers use adult day respite: a mixed method case study

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, Christine M; Dwan, Corinna A; McKenzie, Angela R

    2014-01-01

    Background We need to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between family carers’ emotional relationships with care-recipients and carers use of support services. This study assessed carer’s expectations and perceptions of adult day respite services and their commitment to using services. Methods A mixed-method case study approach was used with psychological contract providing a conceptual framework. Data collection was situated within an organisational case study, and the to...

  3. CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS REGARDING THE SALES FORECASTING METHODS. CASE STUDY FOR THE SEASONAL COEFFICIENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Elena Dragomirescu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important stages in the budget drafting process is the sales forecasting. As a matter of fact, the sales affect the whole activity of a company, their variation being considered the main risk factor for the performance and the financial position of the company. Sales forecasting starts with analyzing the turnover over a longer period of time. It includes all the studies and calculations made in order to determine the potential market to which the company can get access, as well as the part of it that the company is estimated to cover. There are several methods for planning the amount of sales, each company being able to choose one or more such methods. All the sales forecasting methods have advantages and disadvantages; however, in practice it was proved that most large companies use a combination of several methods. However, when there are seasonal variations each year, the seasonal coefficient method is used in order to forecast the sales. The exemplification of this method is done on the level of an production industrial company.

  4. Making Design Decisions Visible: Applying the Case-Based Method in Designing Online Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Luo,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The instructional intervention in this design case is a self-directed online tutorial that applies the case-based method to teach educators how to design and conduct entrepreneurship programs for elementary school students. In this article, the authors describe the major decisions made in each phase of the design and development process, explicate the rationales behind them, and demonstrate their effect on the production of the tutorial. Based on such analysis, the guidelines for designing case-based online instruction are summarized for the design case.

  5. Study of component mode synthesis methods in a rotor-stator interaction case

    OpenAIRE

    Batailly, Alain; Legrand, Mathias; Cartraud, Patrice; Pierre, Christophe; Lombard, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    International audience The study of rotor-stator interactions between blade-tips and outer casings through direct contact in modern turbomachines is very time-consuming if the classical finite element method is used. In order to improve the knowledge over these interaction phenomena, faster methods have to be applied. The construction of reduced-order models using component mode synthesis methods generally allows for dramatic increase in computational efficiency. Two of these methods, name...

  6. Research on conflict resolution of collaborative design with fuzzy case-based reasoning method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jun-ming; SU Chong; LIANG Shuang; WANG Wan-shan

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative design is a new style for modern mechanical design to meet the requirement of increasing competition. Designers of different places complete the same work, but the conflict appears in the process of design which may interface the design. Case-based reasoning (CBR) method is applied to the problem of conflict resolution, which is in the artificial intelligence field. However, due to the uncertainties in knowledge representation, attribute description, and similarity measures of CBR, it is very difficult to find the similar cases from case database. A fuzzy CBR method was proposed to solve the problem of conflict resolution in collaborative design. The process of fuzzy CBR was introduced. Based on the feature attributes and their relative weights determined by a fuzzy technique, a fuzzy CBR retrieving mechanism was developed to retrieve conflict resolution cases that tend to enhance the functions of the database. By indexing, calculating the weight and defuzzicating of the cases, the case similarity can be obtained. Then the case consistency was measured to keep the right result. Finally, the fuzzy CBR method for conflict resolution was demonstrated by means of a case study. The prototype system based on web is developed to illustrate the methodology.

  7. Actors’ Competencies or Methods? A Case Study of Successful Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Hans Olav; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2009-01-01

    methods are exercised. Emphasising the intertwining of competencies and methods, we discuss the character of the intertwining process, how different actors relate to different methods, and how methods may be part of the problem rather than part of the solution to challenges in information systems...... between actors’ competencies and their deployment of methods, arguing that this relationship is described over-simplistically and needs a better explanation. Through a case study of a successful information systems development project we identify some central situations where a variety of competencies and...... development. The paper suggests elements for a new model for explaining actors’ competencies and their use of methods....

  8. A Stability Enhancement Method for Centrifugal Compressors using Active Control Casing Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Xiao, Jun; Li, Liansheng; Yang, Qichao; Liu, Guangbin; Wang, Le

    2015-08-01

    The centrifugal compressors are widely used in many fields. When the centrifugal compressors operate at the edge of the surge line, the compressor will be unstable. In addition, if the centrifugal compressor runs at this situation long time, the damage will be occurred on compressor. There are some kinds of method to improve and enlarge the range of the centrifugal compressors, such as inlet guide vane, and casing treatment. For casing treatment method, some structures have been researched, such as holed recirculation, basic slot casing treatment and groove casing treatment. All these researches are the passive methods. This paper present a new stability enhancement method based Active Control Casing Treatment (ACCT). All parts of this new method are introduced in detail. The control strategy of the system is mentioned in the paper. As a research sample, a centrifugal compressor having this system is researched using CFD method. The study focuses on the effect of the active control system on the impeller flow. The vortex in impeller is changed by the active control system. And this leads to the suppression of the extension of vortex blockage in impeller and to contribute to the enhancement of the compressor operating range.

  9. The Initial Rise Method in the case of multiple trapping levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the paper is to extent the well known Initial Rise Method (IR) to the case of multiple trapping levels. The IR method is applied to the minerals extracted from Nopal herb and Oregano spice because the thermoluminescent glow curves shape suggests a trap distribution instead of a single trapping level. (Author)

  10. The Initial Rise Method in the case of multiple trapping levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furetta, C. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, IPN, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Guzman, S.; Cruz Z, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of the paper is to extent the well known Initial Rise Method (IR) to the case of multiple trapping levels. The IR method is applied to the minerals extracted from Nopal herb and Oregano spice because the thermoluminescent glow curves shape suggests a trap distribution instead of a single trapping level. (Author)

  11. Recommendations for Using the Case Study Method in International Business Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissak, Tiia

    2010-01-01

    The case study method has not been as frequently used in international business (IB) research as quantitative methods. Moreover, it has been sometimes misused and quite often criticized. Still, it can be very useful for understanding such complex phenomena as the internationalization process or the management of multinational enterprises. Based on…

  12. Success Factors for Using Case Method in Teaching and Learning Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Rozilawati; Zainal, Dzulaiha Aryanee Putri

    2013-01-01

    The Case Method (CM) has long been used effectively in Social Science education. Its potential use in Applied Science such as Software Engineering (SE) however has yet to be further explored. SE is an engineering discipline that concerns the principles, methods and tools used throughout the software development lifecycle. In CM, subjects are…

  13. PRODUCT GENE REPRESENTATION AND ACQUISITION METHOD BASED ON POPULATION OF PRODUCT CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The representation and acquisition of a product gene is a crucial problem in product evolutionary design. A new methodology of product gene representation and acquisition from a population of product cases is proposed, and the methodology for product evolutionary design based on a population of product cases is realized. By properly classifying product cases according to its product species, the populations of product cases are divided and a model is established. Knowledge of the scheme design is extracted and formulated as the function base, principle base, and structure base, which are then combined to form a product gene. Subsequently, the product gene tree is created and represented by object-oriented method. Then combining this method with the evolutionary reasoning technology, an intelligent and automatic evolutionary scheme design of product based on the population of product cases is realized. This design method will be helpful in the processing of knowledge formulation, accumulation, and reuse, and in addressing the difficulty of acquiring design knowledge in traditional design. In addition, the disadvantages of manual case adaptation and update in case-based reasoning can be eliminated. Moreover, by optimizing the design scheme in multiple levels and aspects of product function, principle, and structure etc., the level of creativity in the scheme design can be improved.

  14. Ethical case deliberation on the ward. A comparison of four methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, Norbert; Gordijn, Bert

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse and compare four methods of ethical case deliberation. These include Clinical Pragmatism, The Nijmegen Method of ethical case deliberation, Hermeneutic dialogue, and Socratic dialogue. The origin of each method will be briefly sketched. Furthermore, the methods as well as the related protocols will be presented. Each method will then be evaluated against the background of those situations in which it is being used. The article aims to show that there is not one ideal method of ethical case deliberation, which fits to all possible kinds of moral problems. Rather, as each of the methods highlights a limited number of morally relevant aspects, each method has its strengths and weaknesses as well. These strengths and weaknesses should be evaluated in relation to different types of situations, for instance moral problems in treatment decisions, moral uneasiness and residue, and the like. The suggestion arrived at on the basis of the findings of this paper is a reasonable methodological plurality. This means that a method can be chosen depending on the type of moral problem to be deliberated upon. At the same time it means, that by means of a method, deliberation should be facilitated. PMID:14620460

  15. Mathematical properties of a semi-classical signal analysis method: Noisy signal case

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Dayan

    2012-08-01

    Recently, a new signal analysis method based on a semi-classical approach has been proposed [1]. The main idea in this method is to interpret a signal as a potential of a Schrodinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum of this operator to analyze the signal. In this paper, we are interested in a mathematical analysis of this method in discrete case considering noisy signals. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. A Design Method of Automotive Driving Axle Casing under the Random Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yanping

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite life design of automobile components is an important method for lightening the automotive structure and improving vehicle performances. During driving the most typical vibration is the random vibration caused by the road roughness. In this study, by combining mechanical probabilistic fatigue analytical theory with random vibration theory and using CAD/CAE method, the correct finite element vibration analytical model of automotive driving axle casing was established. Based on the fatigue analysis model, a method of finite life design for the driving axle casing was proposed. According to ISO/TC108/SC2N67 the D grade road surface was taken as an example road in this study. The random dynamic load caused by road roughness and the static load of fully loaded vehicle was taken as the analytical load. Combining the Steinberg three-interval method of finite element analysis with Miner linear cumulative damage rule the fatigue life of driving axle casing was estimated. According tothe compulsive end-of-life standard for motor vehicles in China the finite life of driving axle casing can be designed on account of the vehicle end-of-life mileage which is six hundred thousand kilometers. Study results show that the proposed method is feasible and which will provide references for the finite life design of automotive driving axle casing under the random load from actual road surface.

  17. Heart Rate Variability based Classification of Normal and Hypertension Cases by Linear-nonlinear Method

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. Poddar; Vinod Kumar; Yash Paul Sharma

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse and compare the heart rate variability (HRV) of normal and hypertension cases using time domain, frequency domain, and nonlinear methods. For short term HRV analysis, a five-minute electrocardiogram (ECG) of 57 normal and 56 hypertension subjects were recorded with prior verification of their clinical status by a cardiologist. Most time domain features of hypertension cases have clearly reduced values over normal subjects, frequency domain features, like po...

  18. Method of measuring horizontal fluid flow in cased off subsurface formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved method is described for determining the flow rate of earth formation liquids moving horizontally past a steel casing in a well borehole, by neutron irradiation and subsequent decay measurements of the 24Na produced by thermal neutron capture. The system described compensates for spurious gamma radiation such as that from 56Mn, produced by neutron irradiation of 55Mn in the steel casing, by taking measurements for at least three separate measured time intervals in an iterative procedure. (U.K.)

  19. Effects of Using Case-Study Method in Social Studies on Students' Attitudes Towards Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza Akengin; Gökhan Aydemir

    2012-01-01

    his study has aimed to inquired whether there was a significant difference between academic achievement and attitudes of 6th grade students who learned “The Resources of Our Country” unit of social studies through case studies and students who learned this unit with teaching based on existing unit. Besides it was aimed to present thoughts and feelings of the students about the case study method aided learning- teaching process. Pretest-posttest control group design was used in this study and...

  20. Case study teaching method improves student performance and perceptions of learning gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Kevin M

    2015-05-01

    Following years of widespread use in business and medical education, the case study teaching method is becoming an increasingly common teaching strategy in science education. However, the current body of research provides limited evidence that the use of published case studies effectively promotes the fulfillment of specific learning objectives integral to many biology courses. This study tested the hypothesis that case studies are more effective than classroom discussions and textbook reading at promoting learning of key biological concepts, development of written and oral communication skills, and comprehension of the relevance of biological concepts to everyday life. This study also tested the hypothesis that case studies produced by the instructor of a course are more effective at promoting learning than those produced by unaffiliated instructors. Additionally, performance on quantitative learning assessments and student perceptions of learning gains were analyzed to determine whether reported perceptions of learning gains accurately reflect academic performance. The results reported here suggest that case studies, regardless of the source, are significantly more effective than other methods of content delivery at increasing performance on examination questions related to chemical bonds, osmosis and diffusion, mitosis and meiosis, and DNA structure and replication. This finding was positively correlated to increased student perceptions of learning gains associated with oral and written communication skills and the ability to recognize connections between biological concepts and other aspects of life. Based on these findings, case studies should be considered as a preferred method for teaching about a variety of concepts in science courses. PMID:25949753

  1. Case Study Teaching Method Improves Student Performance and Perceptions of Learning Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Bonney

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Following years of widespread use in business and medical education, the case study teaching method is becoming an increasingly common teaching strategy in science education. However, the current body of research provides limited evidence that the use of published case studies effectively promotes the fulfillment of specific learning objectives integral to many biology courses. This study tested the hypothesis that case studies are more effective than classroom discussions and textbook reading at promoting learning of key biological concepts, development of written and oral communication skills, and comprehension of the relevance of biological concepts to everyday life. This study also tested the hypothesis that case studies produced by the instructor of a course are more effective at promoting learning than those produced by unaffiliated instructors. Additionally, performance on quantitative learning assessments and student perceptions of learning gains were analyzed to determine whether reported perceptions of learning gains accurately reflect academic performance. The results reported here suggest that case studies, regardless of the source, are significantly more effective than other methods of content delivery at increasing performance on examination questions related to chemical bonds, osmosis and diffusion, mitosis and meiosis, and DNA structure and replication. This finding was positively correlated to increased student perceptions of learning gains associated with oral and written communication skills and the ability to recognize connections between biological concepts and other aspects of life. Based on these findings, case studies should be considered as a preferred method for teaching about a variety of concepts in science courses.

  2. Treatment of uncertainty through the interval smart/swing weighting method: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Flávio Autran Monteiro Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasingly competitive market means that many decisions must be taken, quickly and with precision, in complex, high risk scenarios. This combination of factors makes it necessary to use decision aiding methods which provide a means of dealing with uncertainty in the judgement of the alternatives. This work presents the use of the MAUT method, combined with the INTERVAL SMART/SWING WEIGHTING method. Although multicriteria decision aiding was not conceived specifically for tackling uncertainty, the combined use of MAUT and the INTERVAL SMART/SWING WEIGHTING method allows approaching decision problems under uncertainty. The main concepts which are involved in these two methods are described and their joint application to the case study concerning the selection of a printing service supplier is presented. The case study makes use of the WINPRE software as a support tool for the calculation of dominance. It is then concluded that the proposed approach can be applied to decision making problems under uncertainty.

  3. A numerical investigation on explosive fragmentation of metal casing using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A numerical method is used to investigate the fragmentation process of cylindrical metal case with flat ends. • The numerical simulations include the propagation of detonation wave, the large deformation and eventual rupture of the metal casing at high strain rates and the highly pressurized detonation products escaping from the gap of the failing casing. • The characteristics of the fragment mass distribution and the initial fragment velocity, along with the spatial and shape distributions of fragments of the metal casing are studied. • The comparative analysis between the numerical results and the experimental data are made to validate the applicability of the numerical method in modeling the fragmentation of metal casing. - Abstract: Explosively driven fragmentation of ductile metals is a highly complex phenomenon. It is an important issue in a variety of circumstances like structure protection, weapon effectiveness and safety distance. Simulations of the fragmentation of metal casing are characterized by a number of interesting and challenging behaviors. These include the volume expansion of the solid charge and its transformation into highly pressurized products. This rapid pressurization of the metal case leads to large deformations at high strain rates and eventual casing rupture. Once the metal casing breaks apart, the highly pressurized product escapes from the gap of the failing casing and generates a shock wave. In addition, the fragments from the metal casing scatter with high velocities in set directions. In the conditions of near field explosion, the spatial distribution of fragments with powerful penetrability has considerable influence on the failure pattern of the target. In the present study, the finite difference engineering package AUTODYN combined with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is used to investigate numerically the fragmentation process of a cylindrical metal casing with ends. After applying the

  4. The MIND method: A decision support for optimization of industrial energy systems - Principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in complex industrial energy systems require adequate tools to be evaluated satisfactorily. The MIND method (Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems) is a flexible method constructed as decision support for different types of analyses of industrial energy systems. It is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and developed at Linkoeping University in Sweden. Several industries, ranging from the food industry to the pulp and paper industry, have hitherto been modelled and analyzed using the MIND method. In this paper the principles regarding the use of the method and the creation of constraints of the modelled system are presented. Two case studies are also included, a dairy and a pulp and paper mill, that focus some measures that can be evaluated using the MIND method, e.g. load shaping, fuel conversion and introduction of energy efficiency measures. The case studies illustrate the use of the method and its strengths and weaknesses. The results from the case studies are related to the main issues stated by the European Commission, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, improvements regarding security of supply and increased use of renewable energy, and show great potential as regards both cost reductions and possible load shifting.

  5. Investigation of effective forensic cleaning methods for bullet and cartridge case samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuherk, Cassie Marie

    Bullet and cartridge case evidence may potentially link weapons and crimes through the comparison of toolmark patterns. This analysis relies on the clarity of the toolmarks and the ability of the examiner to identify patterns on the evidence. These patterns may be distorted by debris such as soil, blood, cyanoacrylate, and construction materials. Despite the potential importance of bullet and cartridge case evidence, few investigations of proper cleaning methods have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the effects of various cleaning solutions and application methods on copper and brass bullets and cartridge cases. Additionally, this research investigated the efficacy of these cleaning protocols on the common evidence contaminants blood and cyanoacrylate. No cleaning method was found to be universally effective on both contaminant types and nondestructive to the metal surface. Ultrasonication was the most efficient application method employed when used in conjunction with an appropriate cleaning solution. Acetone proved to be safe and successful at removing heavy cyanoacrylate deposits from brass cartridge cases without damaging the metal. Although sulfuric acid removed most of the cyanoacrylate from the brass cartridge case, ultrasonication of the fumed cartridge cases in sulfuric acid caused the nickel-plated primer caps to turn black. Additionally, etching occurred when sulfuric acid was allowed to dry on the cartridge case surface. Citric acid, salt-flour-vinegar paste, TergazymeRTM, and water did not effectively remove the cyanoacrylate from the cartridge cases, but the solutions were safe to use on the brass and sometimes resulted in a shinier surface. Regardless of the cleaning method employed, the bloodstained bullets retained most or all of the underlying brown tarnish. Ultrasonication with sulfuric acid was successful at removing some blood-initiated tarnishing; however, the removal of residues was not complete, making it difficult

  6. The CRF-method for semiconductors' intravalley collision kernels: II – The 3D case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Barone

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available If the collisions are redefined as a flux a kinetic conservation law can be written in divergence form. This can be handled numerically, in the framework of Finite Particle Approximation, using the CRF-method. In this paper we use the CRF-method for semiconductors' intravalley collision kernels. We extend the results obtained in a previous paper to the case of a 3D momentum space.

  7. Feature Selection and Case Selection Methods Based on Mutual Information in Software Cost Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Shihai

    2014-01-01

    Software cost estimation is one of the most crucial processes in software development management because it involves many management activities such as project planning, resource  allocation and risk assessment. Accurate software cost estimation not only does help to make investment and bid plan but also enable the project to be completed in the limited cost and time. The research interest of this master thesis will focus on feature selection method and case selection method and the goal is t...

  8. VROOM & cC: a Method to Build Safety Cases for ISO 26262-compliant Product Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Gallina, Barbara; Gallucci, Antonio; Lundqvist, Kristina; Nyberg, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    ISO 26262 is a functional safety standard that targets the automotive domain. This standard focuses on single system certification 1 and does not contain guidelines to certify product lines. Thus, to be ISO 26262-compliant, for each product of a product line, a company must provide almost from scratch all the work products required by the standard, including a safety case. Current product lines engineering methods represent an effective solution to systematize reuse. These methods, however, a...

  9. A Design Method of Automotive Driving Axle Casing under the Random Load

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Yanping; He Zhengang; Xu Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    Finite life design of automobile components is an important method for lightening the automotive structure and improving vehicle performances. During driving the most typical vibration is the random vibration caused by the road roughness. In this study, by combining mechanical probabilistic fatigue analytical theory with random vibration theory and using CAD/CAE method, the correct finite element vibration analytical model of automotive driving axle casing ...

  10. Comparison of forest machine cost calculation methods on the case of a cableway

    OpenAIRE

    Klun, Jaka; Košir, Boštjan; Krč, Janez; Medved, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents results of a comparison of seven different machine cost calculation methods presently used mainly in forest operations cost calculations. The compared methods have a common basis structure, but differ in methodology and item consideration. From the premise of equal inputs and byconsidering yearly productive time on the case of a cableway, the comparisonshows differences in machine costs and thus lesser comparability of machine economy per product unit. Input data for the co...

  11. The method of fundamental solutions for transient heat conduction in functionally graded materials: some special cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nili Ahmadabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Method of Fundamental Solutions (MFS is extended to solve some special cases of the problem of transient heat conduction in functionally graded mate- rials. First, the problem is transformed to a heat equation with constant coecients using a suitable new transformation and then the MFS together with the Tikhonov regularization method is used to solve the resulting equation

  12. Retrospective Study of Postmortem Cases of ‘Hanging – A Method Of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ziyauddin G Saiyed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective: Hanging is a form of violent asphyxial death. It produces painless death for the victims so that it is a widely accepted method of suicide. The rate of suicidal hanging cases is increasing day by day. The Objective of study is to find out demography of hanging, its distribution according to age group, sex, most common ligature material used by victim and observed post-mortem findings and in this way try to identify the causative factors and developing the preventive measures that are essential to reduce death due to hanging.Material and Methods: A retrospective study of hanging cases reported to mortuary of Vadilal Sarabhai General Hospital, Ahmedabad during a period of 2 years, (from November 2009 to October 2011 is carried out.Results: Out of total 2244 cases of post-mortem during 2 years, 74 (3.29% were hanging cases. Maximum cases 34 (45.94% of death due to hanging seen in age group 21-30 years. Majority of cases 46 (62.16% were observed in Males. Majority of victims have used Dupatta, 40 (54.05% as a ligature material. Manner of death is suicide in all cases. Cyanosis, salivary marks and petechial hemorrhage in brain observed in variable number of cases. Conclusion: Suicide by Hanging has become very common now a days. A well designed and comprehensive programme is needed to identify the causative factor and prevention of suicidal hanging. Appropriate education, reducing unemployment, improving the quality of self esteem and involvement of young generation in encouraging activities may reduce rate of death due to hanging

  13. Constructive method for solving a nonlinear singularly perturbed system of differential equations in critical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Slavova

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A singularly, perturbed system of differential equations with degenerate matrix at the derivative is considered. The existence and construction of the periodic solutions are investigated in critical case. For the analysis of these algorithms the apparatus of Lyapunov's finite majorizing equations is used. An implementation of this method is given in two examples.

  14. Using the Case Study Method to Enhance the Learning Skills of Supply Chain Management Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, M.; Derera, E.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions need to align themselves more closely with the needs of businesses and equip students with the skills and experience necessary to make them more successful and value-adding employees. This paper explores undergraduate student perceptions of the effectiveness of the case study teaching and learning method in the…

  15. Mixed Methods Case Study of Generational Patterns in Responses to Shame and Guilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Moral socialization and moral learning are antecedents of moral motivation. As many as 4 generations interact in workplace and education settings; hence, a deeper understanding of the moral motivation of members of those generations is needed. The purpose of this convergent mixed methods case study was to understand the moral motivation of 5…

  16. Integrating Zooarchaeology and Paleoethnobotany: A Consideration of Issues, Methods, and Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Virginia L.

    2010-01-01

    Review of Integrating Zooarchaeology and Paleoethnobotany: A Consideration of Issues, Methods, and Cases. Amber M. VanDerwarker and Tanya M. Peres, eds. 2010. Springer, New York. Pp. 317, 13 color illustrations, 13 black-and-white illustrations. $129.00 (hardback). ISBN 9781441909343.

  17. Treatment of 56 Cases of Women with Post-adolescent Acne by Auricular Point Sticking Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Min; JIANG Ya-qiu; CUI Xue-jun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Acne is a common disorder in adolescence. However, more and more patients are over 25 years old. This type of acne is recurrent, so it is called post-adolescence acne. The author treated 56 cases of women with post-adolescence acne by auricular point sticking method, and obtained excellent results. It is reported as follows.

  18. The Effect of Case Methods on Preservice Physical Education Teachers' Value Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timken, Gay L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background: Preservice teachers' beliefs and values develop during their K-12 "apprenticeship of observation" and filter both compatible and incompatible ideas about teaching and learning. Preservice teacher education has been suggested as a critical period for examining beliefs about teaching and learning. Case methods may be one curricular tool…

  19. Treatment of 24 Cases of Knee Joint Osteoarthritis by the Method of Selecting Points in Same-name Meridians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Cai-yun; WU Xue-fei

    2003-01-01

    Method of selecting points in foot-hand same-name meridians was used to treat 24 cases of Osteoarthritis of knee joint, and the therapeutic results showed 15 cases were cured, 4 cases got significant effect and 4 cases got improvement.

  20. EXPLORATION BY MEANS OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS OF GEOTHERMAL FIELDS AND CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züheyr KAMACI

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy which is one of the reuseable energy resources, can save as much as 77 million barrels of petroleum equivalent annually when used in the production of electricity and heating-environment. Geophysical exploration methods plays in important role in the fields of geothermal exploration, development and observational studies. Thermal and geoelectrical methods are the most effective methods which shows the temperature variation anomalies and mechanical drilling places. But, when the other methods of gravity, magnetic, radiometric, well geophysics and well logs can be used in conjunction with seismic tomography, apart from the mentioned geophysical exploration method, better results could be obtained. From the above mentioned facts various case history reports are given from our country and worldwide to determine geothermal energy resources by using geophysical exploration technique application. From these results of studies a 55 °C hot water artessian aquifer is found in the Uşak-Banaz geothermal field by applying geoelectrical methods.

  1. Tuberculosis case finding: evaluation of a paper slip method to trace contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mwansa-Kambafwile

    Full Text Available SETTING: South Africa has the third highest tuberculosis (TB burden in the world. Intensified case finding, recommended by WHO, is one way to control TB. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a paper slip method for TB contact tracing. METHOD: TB patients were offered paper slips to give to their contacts, inviting them for TB screening. The number of contacts screened and the proportion diagnosed with TB was calculated. Contacts that returned to the clinic after receiving the slips were interviewed. A focus group discussion (FGD with TB patients was held to determine their acceptability. RESULTS: From 718 paper slips issued, a 26% TB contact tracing rate was found, with a 12% case detection rate. The majority (68% of contacts were screened within 2 weeks of receiving the slip. Age and gender were not significantly associated with time to screening. 16% of the contacts screened did not reside with the TB patients. 98% of the contacts said the method was acceptable. FGD findings show that this method is acceptable and may prevent stigma associated with TB/HIV. CONCLUSION: This simple, inexpensive method yields high contact tracing and case detection rates and potentially would yield additional benefits outside households.

  2. A Method of Case Retrieval for Web-based Remote Customization Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuai Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A web-based remote customization platform is developed for hardware product in this paper. To realize the rapid product customization, a case-based reasoning approach based on fuzzy set is put forward. To retrieve the most similar case from the case base, a parabola membership function is constructed based on the fuzzy set, and synthesis weights are introduced by combining subjective weights with objective weights which are calculated based on the deviation information of similarity. Then the model for solving cases' global similarity is set up based on synthesis weights. To improve the accuracy of the similarity measurement, center distance revision method based on area is presented for the Bi-interval type which is one of fuzzy numeric attribute. Implementation example applying above methods is given in the area of electric drill customization. Results show that the presented approach helps to improve the accuracy of the similarity of the case product, and reduce the time and cost of product design process

  3. Verification of statistical method CORN for modeling of microfuel in the case of high grain concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukbar, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    Two methods of modeling a double-heterogeneity fuel are studied: the deterministic positioning and the statistical method CORN of the MCU software package. The effect of distribution of microfuel in a pebble bed on the calculation results is studied. The results of verification of the statistical method CORN for the cases of the microfuel concentration up to 170 cm-3 in a pebble bed are presented. The admissibility of homogenization of the microfuel coating with the graphite matrix is studied. The dependence of the reactivity on the relative location of fuel and graphite spheres in a pebble bed is found.

  4. Verification of statistical method CORN for modeling of microfuel in the case of high grain concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods of modeling a double-heterogeneity fuel are studied: the deterministic positioning and the statistical method CORN of the MCU software package. The effect of distribution of microfuel in a pebble bed on the calculation results is studied. The results of verification of the statistical method CORN for the cases of the microfuel concentration up to 170 cm–3 in a pebble bed are presented. The admissibility of homogenization of the microfuel coating with the graphite matrix is studied. The dependence of the reactivity on the relative location of fuel and graphite spheres in a pebble bed is found

  5. Application of Participatory Learning and Action Methods in Educational Technology Research A Rural Bangladeshi Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research...... and stakeholders in and around the school to pave the way for change by building awareness of both educational technology and the complexity of barriers. In this case study, school stakeholders are involved in the research and awareness-building process through three different data-production methods...

  6. Verification of statistical method CORN for modeling of microfuel in the case of high grain concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukbar, B. K., E-mail: bchukbar@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Two methods of modeling a double-heterogeneity fuel are studied: the deterministic positioning and the statistical method CORN of the MCU software package. The effect of distribution of microfuel in a pebble bed on the calculation results is studied. The results of verification of the statistical method CORN for the cases of the microfuel concentration up to 170 cm{sup –3} in a pebble bed are presented. The admissibility of homogenization of the microfuel coating with the graphite matrix is studied. The dependence of the reactivity on the relative location of fuel and graphite spheres in a pebble bed is found.

  7. The use of the case study method in radiation worker continuing training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical methods of continuing training are often viewed by employees as boring, redundant and unnecessary. It is hoped that the operating experience lesson in the required course, Radiation Worker Requalification, will be well received by employees because actual RFP events will be presented as case studies. The interactive learning atmosphere created by the case study method stimulates discussion, develops analytical abilities, and motivates employees to use lessons learned in the workplace. This problem solving approach to continuing training incorporates cause and effect analysis, a technique which is also used at RFP to investigate events. A method of designing the operating experience lesson in the Radiation Worker Requalification course is described in this paper. 7 refs., 2 figs

  8. Heart Rate Variability based Classification of Normal and Hypertension Cases by Linear-nonlinear Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Poddar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse and compare the heart rate variability (HRV of normal and hypertension cases using time domain, frequency domain, and nonlinear methods. For short term HRV analysis, a five-minute electrocardiogram (ECG of 57 normal and 56 hypertension subjects were recorded with prior verification of their clinical status by a cardiologist. Most time domain features of hypertension cases have clearly reduced values over normal subjects, frequency domain features, like power in different spectral bands, also have the distinguishable decreased values, whereas sympathovagal balance has clear edge over hypertension cases than normal cases. Nonlinear parameters of Poincare plot, approximate entropy and sample entropy, have higher values in normal cases when compared with hypertension cases. Support vector machine-based binary system classifies these two classes with 100 per cent accuracy and 100 per cent sensitivity when all time domain, frequency domain, and nonlinear features were used. It may work as a better predictor for in patients with hypertension.Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 6, November 2014, pp.542-548, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.7867

  9. Optical Operator Method in Two-Mode Case and Entangled Fresnel Operator's Decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the entangled Fresnel operator (EFO) proposed in [Commun. Theor. Phys. 46 (2006) 559], the optical operator method studied by the IWOP technique (Ma et al., Commun. Theor. Phys. 49 (2008) 1295) is extended to the two-mode case, which gives the decomposition of the entangled Fresnel operator, corresponding to the decomposition of ray transfer matrix [A, B, C, D]. The EFO can unify those optical operators in two-mode case. Various decompositions of EFO into the exponential canonical operators are obtained. The entangled state representation is useful in the research. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Export Similarity Networks and Proximity Control Methods for Comparative Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gathani Sachin; Stoelinga Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we explore just how similar the growth trajectory of countries with similar exports is, and exploit this similarity to conduct counter-factual analysis. We find that a synthetic combination of a country’s most similar exporters often perfectly matches economic growth in the reference country over a long period of time. We call this method Proximity Controls and apply it to the case of Indonesia’s 1997 financial and political crisis. We also highlight applications to the cases of ...

  11. Evaluation of Candidate Genes in Case-Control Studies: A Statistical Method to Account for Related Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Slager, S. L.; Schaid, D J

    2001-01-01

    Traditional case-control studies provide a powerful and efficient method for evaluation of association between candidate genes and disease. The sampling of cases from multiplex pedigrees, rather than from a catchment area, can increase the likelihood that genetic cases are selected. However, use of all the related cases without accounting for their biological relationship can increase the type I error rate of the statistical test. To overcome this problem, we present an analysis method that i...

  12. An Investigation of Science Teachers’ Teaching Methods and Techniques: Amasya Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan KARAMUSTAFAOĞLU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the methods and techniques science teachers mostly employ in their classrooms. To collect data, the researchers employed a survey with 60 science teachers and randomly selected 6 of them to observe these selected teachers in real classroom situation. Furthermore, the researchers invited 154 students taught by the selected 6 teachers in this study, for focus group interviewing. After analyzing the collected data, the researchers found that teachers in this study 1 were more likely to use narrative method, 2 supported their teaching with question and answer, demonstration, case study, and problem solving methods and techniques, and 3 rarely employed student centered discussion, laboratory practice, role playing and project-based learning methods in their classroom. Consequently, there exist some differences between theory and practice regarding teaching methods and techniques of teachers in this study.

  13. 30 CFR 77.701-2 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding metallic frames... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.701-2 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other... methods of grounding metallic frames, casings, and other enclosures of electric equipment receiving...

  14. Variational method for nonconservative field theories: Formulation and two PT-symmetric case examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent publication [5 Galley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 174301 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.174301], Galley proposed an initial value problem formulation of Hamilton's principle that enables consideration of dissipative systems. Here we explore this formulation at the level of field theories with infinite degrees of freedom. In particular, we illustrate that it affords a previously unwarranted and appealing as well as broadly relevant possibility, namely, to generalize the popular collective coordinate or variational method to open systems, i.e., nonconservative ones. To showcase the relevance or validity of the method we explore two case examples from the timely area of PT-symmetric variants of field theories, in this case for a sine-Gordon and for a ϕ4 model.

  15. Integrated Markov-neural reliability computation method: A case for multiple automated guided vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an integrated Markovian and back propagation neural network approaches to compute reliability of a system. While states of failure occurrences are significant elements for accurate reliability computation, Markovian based reliability assessment method is designed. Due to drawbacks shown by Markovian model for steady state reliability computations and neural network for initial training pattern, integration being called Markov-neural is developed and evaluated. To show efficiency of the proposed approach comparative analyses are performed. Also, for managerial implication purpose an application case for multiple automated guided vehicles (AGVs) in manufacturing networks is conducted. - Highlights: • Integrated Markovian and back propagation neural network approach to compute reliability. • Markovian based reliability assessment method. • Managerial implication is shown in an application case for multiple automated guided vehicles (AGVs) in manufacturing networks

  16. Bayes and empirical Bayes methods for reduced rank regression models in matched case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satagopan, Jaya M; Sen, Ananda; Zhou, Qin; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Langseth, Hilde; Engel, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Matched case-control studies are popular designs used in epidemiology for assessing the effects of exposures on binary traits. Modern studies increasingly enjoy the ability to examine a large number of exposures in a comprehensive manner. However, several risk factors often tend to be related in a nontrivial way, undermining efforts to identify the risk factors using standard analytic methods due to inflated type-I errors and possible masking of effects. Epidemiologists often use data reduction techniques by grouping the prognostic factors using a thematic approach, with themes deriving from biological considerations. We propose shrinkage-type estimators based on Bayesian penalization methods to estimate the effects of the risk factors using these themes. The properties of the estimators are examined using extensive simulations. The methodology is illustrated using data from a matched case-control study of polychlorinated biphenyls in relation to the etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:26575519

  17. A new statistical precipitation downscaling method with Bayesian model averaging: a case study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianliang; Yan, Xiaodong

    2015-11-01

    A new statistical downscaling method was developed and applied to downscale monthly total precipitation from 583 stations in China. Generally, there are two steps involved in statistical downscaling: first, the predictors are selected (large-scale variables) and transformed; and second, a model between the predictors and the predictand (in this case, precipitation) is established. In the first step, a selection process of the predictor domain, called the optimum correlation method (OCM), was developed to transform the predictors. The transformed series obtained by the OCM showed much better correlation with the predictand than those obtained by the traditional transform method for the same predictor. Moreover, the method combining OCM and linear regression obtained better downscaling results than the traditional linear regression method, suggesting that the OCM could be used to improve the results of statistical downscaling. In the second step, Bayesian model averaging (BMA) was adopted as an alternative to linear regression. The method combining the OCM and BMA showed much better performance than the method combining the OCM and linear regression. Thus, BMA could be used as an alternative to linear regression in the second step of statistical downscaling. In conclusion, the downscaling method combining OCM and BMA produces more accurate results than the multiple linear regression method when used to statistically downscale large-scale variables.

  18. Technical aspects and manufacturing methods for JT-60SA toroidal field coil casings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A contract between ENEA and Walter Tosto started on July 2012 for the construction of 18 TF coil casings for JT-60SA. • Design and manufacturing of mock-ups representative of straight and curved legs of the casings have been completed. • Final design of the casings has been completed and manufacturing activities have already started and are ongoing. • The completion of the first three casings will be completed within the end of 2013 and the production of all the 18 casings is foreseen by the end of 2015. - Abstract: JT-60SA is a superconducting tokamak machine to be assembled in Naka site, Japan, designed to contribute to the early realization of fusion energy by supporting the exploitation of ITER and research toward DEMO. In the frame of the Broader Approach Agreement a contract between ENEA and Walter Tosto (Chieti, Italy) started on July 2012 for the construction of 18 TF coil casings for JT-60SA. Two different sets of 9 casings each will be progressively delivered, from 2013 to the end of 2015, to ASG Superconductors (Genoa, Italy) and to Alstom (Belfort, France), where the integration of the winding pack into the casing will be carried out. Each TF coil casing (height 7.5 m and width 4.5 m) consists of four main components: one “Straight Leg Outboard” and one “Curved Leg Outboard” both with their own covers, “Straight Leg Inboard” and “Curved Leg Inboard”. The casing components are segmented in forgings and plates made of FM316LNL. The straight leg outboard is composed of two wings welded to a central core and two elbows welded at the ends with a cooling channel installed inside. Elbows of straight leg outboard are segmented in two half-elbows machined from 1 rough forging and welded to the central core made by plate. Welding of wings to the central core is performed in EBW (electron beam welding) and the straight part is welded to the elbows by NGTIG (TIG narrow gap) process. The curved leg outboard is composed of two

  19. Multiple Criteria Decision Making: Method Selection And Application To Three Contrasting Agricultural Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dooley, A.E.; Sheath, Gavin W.; Smeaton , D.

    2005-01-01

    Agribusiness, farm business and agricultural-environmental decisions which varied in their characteristics were used to evaluate multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) in an agricultural context. This paper discusses differences between the case studies, strengths and weaknesses of the methods used, and the success of the MCDM process based on participants’ expectations and experiences. While MCDM can help identify the best decision, the main benefits identified in using MCDM included bette...

  20. A robust statistical method for case-control association testing with copy number variation

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Chris; Plagnol, Vincent; Fitzgerald, Tomas; Redon, Richard; Marchini, Jonathan; Clayton, David; Hurles, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is pervasive in the human genome and can play a causal role in genetic diseases. The functional impact of CNV cannot be fully captured through linkage disequilibrium with SNPs. These observations motivate the development of statistical methods for performing direct CNV association studies. We show through simulation that current tests for CNV association are prone to false-positive associations in the presence of differential errors between cases and controls, espe...

  1. Acceptance of routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence: a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    H. Stöckl; Hertlein, L; Himsl, I; Ditsch, N; C. Blume; Hasbargen, U; Friese, K.; Stöckl, D

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence and detrimental health effects of intimate partner violence have resulted in international discussions and recommendations that health care professionals should screen women for intimate partner violence during general and antenatal health care visits. Due to the lack of discussion on routine or case-based inquiry for intimate partner violence during antenatal care in Germany, this study seeks to explore its acceptability among pregnant German women. METHODS A m...

  2. Analysis of a Prototypical Multiscale Method Coupling Atomistic and Continuum Mechanics:the Convex Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xavier Blanc; Claude Le Bris; Prédéric Legol

    2007-01-01

    In order to describe a solid which deforms smoothly in some region,but non smoothly in some other region,many multiscale methods have been recently proposed that aim at coupling an atonfistic model (discrete mechanics)with a macroscopic model(continuum mechanics).We provide here a theoretical basis for such a coupling in a one-dimensional setting,in the case of convex energy.

  3. Case studies method in teaching the professional English language at higher school

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Pavlovna Sazukina

    2016-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the analysis of the application of the case studies method, which for a rather long period of time has been used for teaching business, managers, lawyers, doctors and in the sphere of social sciences, for teaching the professional English language, with the aim of defining to what extent students use the material learned previously, in real situations. On the grounds of analysis of theoretical sources and pedagogical practices, the author offers a direction for sea...

  4. A Critique on Integrating Geographical Information Systems And Multi-Criteria Methods: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    As a researcher, the title provided by the authors has the element of simplicity, brevity, specificity and location and subject matter focused. The reader can easily determine what the study is all about and what it tries to investigate (Integrating GIS and multi-criteria methods: A case study) and what mathematical model? A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA)/multi objective Linear Programming (MOLP). Brief title but very informative. To more make informative, it would be better if the...

  5. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  6. Out of the box selection and application of UX evaluation methods and practical cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obrist, Marianna; Knoche, Hendrik; Basapur, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    The scope of user experience supersedes the concept of usability and other performance oriented measures by including for example users' emotions, motivations and a strong focus on the context of use. The purpose of this tutorial is to motivate researchers and practitioners to think about the...... challenging questions around how to select and apply UX evaluation methods for different usage contexts, in particular for the "home" and "mobile" context, relevant for TV-based services. Next to a general understanding of UX evaluation and available methods, we will provide concrete UX evaluation case...

  7. Estimating the economic impacts of ecosystem restoration—Methods and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher; Skrabis, Kristin; Sidon, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Federal investments in ecosystem restoration projects protect Federal trusts, ensure public health and safety, and preserve and enhance essential ecosystem services. These investments also generate business activity and create jobs. It is important for restoration practitioners to be able to quantify the economic impacts of individual restoration projects in order to communicate the contribution of these activities to local and national stakeholders. This report provides a detailed description of the methods used to estimate economic impacts of case study projects and also provides suggestions, lessons learned, and trade-offs between potential analysis methods.

  8. NOISE REDUCTION SCHEDULING METHOD IN A SHOP FLOOR AND ITS CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fei; Cao Huajun; Zhang Hua; Yuan Chuanping

    2003-01-01

    Noise reduction in a shop floor is one of the important parts of green manufacturing. In a shop floor, machine tools are the main noise sources in a shop floor. A new approach is discovered by investigation that the noise can be obviously reduced in a shop floor by optimizing the scheduling between work pieces and machine tools. Based on the discovery, a new method of noise reduction is proposed. A noise reduction scheduling model in a shop floor is established, and the application of the model is also discussed. A case is studied, which shows that the method and model are practical.

  9. Clustering as an EDA Method: The Case of Pedestrian Directional Flow Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Regina E. Estuar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the data of pedestrian trajectories in NTXY format, three clustering methods of K Means, Expectation Maximization (EM and Affinity Propagation were utilized as Exploratory Data Analysis to find the pattern of pedestrian directional flow behavior. The analysis begins without a prior notion regarding the structure of the pattern and it consequentially infers the structure of directional flow pattern. Significant similarities in patterns for both individual and instantaneous walking angles based on EDA method are reported and explained in case studies

  10. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs

  11. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyermann, T.J.; Sambeek, L.L. Van [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-11-01

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs.

  12. Lessons learned applying CASE methods/tools to Ada software development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Maurice H.; Randall, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from introducing CASE methods/tools into organizations and applying them to actual Ada software development projects. This paper will be useful to any organization planning to introduce a software engineering environment (SEE) or evolving an existing one. It contains management level lessons learned, as well as lessons learned in using specific SEE tools/methods. The experiences presented are from Alpha Test projects established under the STARS (Software Technology for Adaptable and Reliable Systems) project. They reflect the front end efforts by those projects to understand the tools/methods, initial experiences in their introduction and use, and later experiences in the use of specific tools/methods and the introduction of new ones.

  13. The Case Anatomical Knowledge Index (CAKI): A Novel Method Used to Assess Anatomy Content in Clinical Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Sekelani S.

    2009-01-01

    There are concerns in the literature that the use of case-based teaching of anatomy could be compromising the depth and scope of anatomy learned by students in a problem-based learning curriculum. Poor selection of clinical cases that are used as vehicles for teaching/learning anatomy may be the root problem because some clinical cases do not…

  14. Case Study of CPT-based Design Methods for Axial Capacity of Driven Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    loaded offshore driven piles in cohesionless soil has until now been the β-method given in API. The API-method is based on the effective overburden pressure at the depth in question. Previous studies show deviations between full-scale load test measurements of the axial pile capacity and the predictions...... found by means of the API-method. Compared to the test measurements, the API-method under-estimates the capacity of short piles (<20m) in dense sand, over-estimates the capacity of long piles in loose sand, and gives a shaft capacity less conservative for piles in tension than for piles in compression....... Thus, several CPT-based methods have been proposed for the design of offshore driven piles in cohesionless soil such as the UWA-05, ICP-05, and NGI-99 methods. This article treats a case study where the API-method as well as the UWA-05 and NGI-99 methods are compared using CPT-data from an offshore...

  15. Fired Cartridge Case Identification Using Optical Images and the Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei; Thompson, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method for ballistics identification was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The CMC method is based on the correlation of pairs of small correlation cells instead of the correlation of entire images. Four identification parameters – TCCF, Tθ, Tx and Ty are proposed for identifying correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The correlation conclusion (matching or non-matching) is determined by whether the number of CMC is ≥ 6. This method has been previously validated using a set of 780 pair-wise 3D topography images. However, most ballistic images stored in current local and national databases are in an optical intensity (grayscale) format. As a result, the reliability of applying the CMC method on optical intensity images is an important issue. In this paper, optical intensity images of breech face impressions captured on the same set of 40 cartridge cases are correlated and analyzed for the validation test of CMC method using optical images. This includes correlations of 63 pairs of matching images and 717 pairs of non-matching images under top ring lighting. Tests of the method do not produce any false identification (false positive) or false exclusion (false negative) results, which support the CMC method and the proposed identification criterion, C = 6, for firearm breech face identifications using optical intensity images. PMID:26601045

  16. Nuclear forensic science - Case histories and investigation methods at the Institute for Transuranium Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1994 the Institute for Transuranium Elements has been involved with the examination of cases of illegal trafficking in nuclear materials, and to date over twenty-five samples have been investigated. In many of the cases the material was relatively easy to identify since it consisted of unirradiated UO2 fuel pellets, with characteristic dimensions and form which could be compared directly with information contained in the Institute's database of commercial fuel. However several of the seized illegal samples were in powder form, or contaminated samples of other materials, and these required a more detailed investigation. Three cases which represent different aspects of the Nuclear Forensic Science investigations will be presented. These are: 1. A mixture of plutonium and uranium oxide powders confiscated at Munich airport; 2. A quantity of high weapons grade plutonium metal found by chance in a garage on the German-Swiss border, also in 1994; 3. Stainless steel scrap contaminated with enriched uranium, detected in a scrap metal yard in Karlsruhe in 1997. A description of these cases is given along with the methods used in the investigations

  17. A Method to Select Test Input Cases for Safety-critical Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heeeun; Kang, Hyungook [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hanseong [Joongbu Univ., Geumsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This paper proposes a new testing methodology for effective and realistic quantification of RPS software failure probability. Software failure probability quantification is important factor in digital system safety assessment. In this study, the method for software test case generation is briefly described. The test cases generated by this method reflect the characteristics of safety-critical software and past inputs. Furthermore, the number of test cases can be reduced, but it is possible to perform exhaustive test. Aspect of software also can be reflected as failure data, so the final failure data can include the failure of software itself and external influences. Software reliability is generally accepted as the key factor in software quality since it quantifies software failures which can make a powerful system inoperative. In the KNITS (Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Systems) project, the software for the fully digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) was developed under a strict procedure including unit testing and coverage measurement. Black box testing is one type of Verification and validation (V and V), in which given input values are entered and the resulting output values are compared against the expected output values. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) were used in implementing critical systems and function block diagram (FBD) is a commonly used implementation language for PLC.

  18. A Method to Select Test Input Cases for Safety-critical Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a new testing methodology for effective and realistic quantification of RPS software failure probability. Software failure probability quantification is important factor in digital system safety assessment. In this study, the method for software test case generation is briefly described. The test cases generated by this method reflect the characteristics of safety-critical software and past inputs. Furthermore, the number of test cases can be reduced, but it is possible to perform exhaustive test. Aspect of software also can be reflected as failure data, so the final failure data can include the failure of software itself and external influences. Software reliability is generally accepted as the key factor in software quality since it quantifies software failures which can make a powerful system inoperative. In the KNITS (Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Systems) project, the software for the fully digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) was developed under a strict procedure including unit testing and coverage measurement. Black box testing is one type of Verification and validation (V and V), in which given input values are entered and the resulting output values are compared against the expected output values. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) were used in implementing critical systems and function block diagram (FBD) is a commonly used implementation language for PLC

  19. Evaluation methods for improving surface geometry of concrete floors: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Loprencipe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among various construction activities, related to concrete pavement technologies, an important role is reserved to industrial floors. For these structures it is necessary to ensure resistance and stability, durability, reliability, and many other properties. In particular, the flatness and the levelness are special requirements that assume a real significance respect to functional performances, especially when the pavement has to allow the movement of vehicles and goods or the storage in elevated stacks or shelves. These geometric properties can be defined in different ways, but in every cases they are referred to pavement surface, that has to be even (without superelevated or depressed areas and level (horizontal, without grades, curvatures, and waves. The acceptance limits are defined by technical standards, in various countries, together with the suitable methods for measurements and controls. In many cases, however, these methods are considered not really feasible or easy, in particular when a continuous sampling of the pavement, along selected alignments, is needed. In particular, the paper describes the operating procedures to calculate indexes FF and FL, according to ASTM 1155M standard, starting from data provided by a contact profilometer. If the target values are not reach, it is necessary to provide some alternative solutions to avoid the demolition of the slabs or the payment of penalties by the builder, if this is required by the contract. There are two main possible methods for increasing flatness and levelness while other functional surface properties are maintained at the expected levels: the surface grinding and the overtopping with self-levelling and high resistance resins. A case study where the two alternative methods are applied to improve flatness and levelness of a surface is presented. The results of measures made before and after the treatments showed that both the solutions are able to ensure, within certain limits, the

  20. 30 CFR 75.701-2 - Approved method of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved method of grounding metallic frames... grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt... only method of grounding that will be approved is the connection of all metallic frames, casings...

  1. 30 CFR 75.701-3 - Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding metallic frames... Grounding § 75.701-3 Approved methods of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures of electric... grounding metallic frames, casings and enclosures of any electric equipment or device-receiving power from...

  2. Treatment of 38 Cases of Sudden Deafness by Acupuncture plus Acupoint-injecting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; HUANG Guo-qi

    2005-01-01

    采用针刺耳门、听宫、听会、翳风、中渚、三阴交和太溪等穴位,配合穴位注射隔日交替治疗的方法治疗突发性耳聋38例,并与常规西药治疗30例对照,结果两组总有效率分别为89.5%和66.6%.%In the treatment of 38 cases of sudden deafness by puncturing Ermen (TE 21),Tinggong (SI 19), Tinghui (GB 2), Yifeng (TE 17), Zhongzhu (TE 3), Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Taixi (KI 3), in combination of acupoint-injecting method every second day in alternation,together in comparison with 30 cases in the treatment of routine western medications, the total effective rate was respectively 89.5% and 66.6% in the two groups.

  3. A New Method for Controlling Billet Temperature During Isothermal Die Forging of a Complex Superalloy Casing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. C.; Wu, Xian-Yang

    2015-09-01

    Isothermal die forging is one of near net-shape metal-forming technologies. Strict control of billet temperature during isothermal die forging is a guarantee for the excellent properties of final product. In this study, a new method is proposed to accurately control the billet temperature of complex superalloy casing, based on the finite element simulation and response surface methodology (RSM). The proposed method is accomplished by the following two steps. Firstly, the thermal compensation process is designed and optimized to overcome the inevitable heat loss of dies during hot forging. i.e., the layout and opening time of heaters assembled on die sleeves are optimized. Then, the effects of forging speed (the pressing velocity of hydraulic machine) and its changing time on the maximum billet temperature are discussed. Furthermore, the optimized forging speed and its changing time are obtained by RSM. Comparisons between the optimized and conventional die forging processes indicate that the proposed method can effectively control the billet temperature within the optimal forming temperature range. So, the optimized die forging processes can guarantee the high volume fraction of dynamic recrystallization, and restrict the rapid growth of grains in the forged superalloy casing.

  4. Congenital pseudarthrosis of lower leg treated by almost outdated method: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital pseudarthrosis of tibia is a rare congenital deformity with progressive evolution. Treatment is vague and difficult, and many methods have been used - from once mandatory early amputation to contemporary operative (Ilizarov method, free microvascular fibular graft and adjuvant methods (electrostimulation, biphosphonates, bone morphogenetic protein. We present the usage of once popular method of homologous graft insertion and intramedullary fixation. Case Outline. This is a case report of male patient with pseudarthrosis involving both crural bones (Boyd type 5, diagnosed in neonatal age. Early conservative treatment was unsuccessful, so child never initiated gait. At the age of three and a half years, operative treatment was applied: resection of pseudarthrosis on both tibia and fibula, and osteoplasty of tibia using cylindric homologous graft and intramedullary fixation with transtarsal Steinman pin, followed by long leg cast immobilization. Pin was removed after ten months, and physical therapy was initiated 1.5 year after surgery, with initial to partial weight bearing and short leg cast throughout another year. Two and a half years after surgery complete union of graft was documented, and then full weight bearing was allowed. At final visit, five years and three months after surgery, shin axis was correct, leg lengths were equal, and child had normal walk with full range of motion. X-ray showed complete union of both tibia and fibula. Conclusion. Despite bad prognostic factors (young age, severe deformity, utilization of obsolete and almost forgotten treatment methods can provide excellent result. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41004

  5. Case histories portraying different methods of installing liners for verticle barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, G.K. [Hayward Baker Inc., Odenton, MD (United States); Crockford, R.M. [Keller Colcrete Ltd., Wetherby, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Achhorner, F.N. [Slurry Walls, Inc., Irving, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The installation of liners for vertical barriers is difficult and has been a learning experience for every contractor making the attempt. Soil stratigraphy and hydrogeologic conditions can vary over short distances, creating a variety of problems. This is particularly so when working near landfills and documentation of the as-built condition is poor. Successful installation requires detailed planning and knowledge of what to expect, as well as alternate plans for potential problems. Several successful methods of panel connection will be presented as well as a variety of installation techniques. Project case histories will be reviewed, highlighting the challenges associated with specific construction techniques.

  6. Research and technology management in the electricity industry methods, tools and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Daim, Tugrul; Kim, Jisun

    2013-01-01

    Technologies such as renewable energy alternatives including wind, solar and biomass, storage technologies and electric engines are creating a different landscape for the  electricity industry. Using sources and ideas from technologies such as renewable energy alternatives, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry explores a different landscape for this industry and applies it to the electric industry supported by real industry cases. Divided into three sections, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry introduces a range of  methods and tools includ

  7. Case histories portraying different methods of installing liners for verticle barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of liners for vertical barriers is difficult and has been a learning experience for every contractor making the attempt. Soil stratigraphy and hydrogeologic conditions can vary over short distances, creating a variety of problems. This is particularly so when working near landfills and documentation of the as-built condition is poor. Successful installation requires detailed planning and knowledge of what to expect, as well as alternate plans for potential problems. Several successful methods of panel connection will be presented as well as a variety of installation techniques. Project case histories will be reviewed, highlighting the challenges associated with specific construction techniques

  8. Treatment of 40 Cases of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome by Cupping Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张水臣

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) refers to a group of main manifestations characterized by chronic or recurrent severe fatigue,accompanied by headache,sore throat,muscular and joint pain,insomnia and multiple nervous and psychological symptoms,but without other chronic organic diseases and mental disorders.In 1987,it was termed formally by the United States Centers for Diseases Control.Currently,the etiology and pathogenesis of CFS are still unknown,and there is effective medication for it.The author has treated 40 cases of this syndrome by applying cupping method on Back-Shu points since 2005.Now,the report is given as follows.

  9. Effect of arousal methods for 175 cases of prolonged coma and its factors after severe traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江基尧; 包映晖; 殷玉华; 潘耀华; 梁玉敏; 罗其中

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of arousal methods for prolonged coma of 175 patients with severe traumatic brain injury and related factors.Methods: There were 175 cases with persistent coma longer than 1 month after severe traumatic brain injury. Coma lasted 1-12 months. Arousal procedures included hyperbaric oxygen, physical therapy and arousal drugs. Results: In the 175 prolonged coma patients 110 got recovery of consciousness; in 118 cases with coma of 1-3 months, 86 cases recovered consciousness (72.9%); in 42 cases with coma of 4-6 months, 20 cases recovered consciousness (47.6);and in 15 cases with coma of longer than 6 months, only 4 cases recovered consciousness (26.7%). The recovery of consciousness depended on patient's primary brain stem damagme, cerebral hernia, GCS score, and age .Conclusions: Application of appropriate arousal procedures improves recovery of consciousness in patients with prolonged coma.

  10. The Keyimage Method of Learning Sound-Symbol Correspondences: A Case Study of Learning Written Khmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lavolette

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available I documented my strategies for learning sound-symbol correspondences during a Khmer course. I used a mnemonic strategy that I call the keyimage method. In this method, a character evokes an image (the keyimage, which evokes the corresponding sound. For example, the keyimage for the character 2 could be a swan with its head tucked in. This evokes the sound "kaw" that a swan makes, which sounds similar to the Khmer sound corresponding to 2. The method has some similarities to the keyword method. Considering the results of keyword studies, I hypothesize that the keyimage method is more effective than rote learning and that peer-generated keyimages are more effective than researcher- or teacher-generated keyimages, which are more effective than learner-generated ones. In Dr. Andrew Cohen's plenary presentation at the Hawaii TESOL 2007 conference, he mentioned that more case studies are needed on learning strategies (LSs. One reason to study LSs is that what learners do with input to produce output is unclear, and knowing what strategies learners use may help us understand that process (Dornyei, 2005, p. 170. Hopefully, we can use that knowledge to improve language learning, perhaps by teaching learners to use the strategies that we find. With that in mind, I have examined the LSs that I used in studying Khmer as a foreign language, focusing on learning the syllabic alphabet.

  11. A test case of the deformation rate analysis (DRA) stress measurement method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dight, P.; Hsieh, A. [Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Univ. of WA, Crawley (Australia); Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hudson, J.A. [Rock Engineering Consultants (United Kingdom); Kemppainen, K.

    2012-01-15

    As part of Posiva's site and ONKALO investigations, the in situ rock stress has been measured by a variety of techniques, including hydraulic fracturing, overcoring, and convergence measurements. All these techniques involve direct measurements in a drillhole or at the rock surface. An alternative method is to test drillhole core in a way that enables estimation of the magnitudes and orientations of the in situ rock stress. The Kaiser Effect (KE) and Deformation Rate Analysis (DRA) are two ways to do this. In the work reported here, a 'blind' DRA test was conducted on core obtained from the POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment) niche in the ONKALO. The term 'blind' means that the two first authors of this report, who conducted the tests at the Australian Centre for Geomechanics, did not know the depths below surface at which the cores had been obtained. The results of this DRA Test Case are presented, together with an explanation of the DRA procedure. Also, additional information that would help in such DRA testing and associated analysis is explained. One of the problems in comparing the DRA results with the known Olkiluoto stress field is that the latter is highly variable across the site, as experienced by the previous in situ stress measurements and as predicted by numerical analysis. The variability is mainly caused by the presence of the large brittle deformation zones which perturb the local stress state. However, this variability reduces with depth and the stress field becomes more stable at the {approx} 350 m at which the drillhole cores were obtained. Another compounding difficulty is that the stress quantity, being a second order tensor, requires six independent components for its specification. In other words, comparison of the DRA results and the known stress field requires comparison of six different quantities. In terms of the major principal stress orientation, the DRA results predict an orientation completely

  12. Knowledge acquisition method for case-knowledge-based product family design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition has always been the bottleneck of artificial intelligence. It is the critical point in product family design. Here a knowledge acquisition method was introduced based on scenario model and repository grid and attribute ordering table technology. This method acquired knowledge through providing product design cases to expert, and recording the means and knowledge used by the expert to describe and resolve problems. It used object to express design entity, used scenario to describe the design process, used Event-Condition-Action (ECA) rule to drive design process, and with the help of repository grid and attribute ordering table technology to acquire design knowledge. It's a good way to capture explicit and implicit knowledge. And its validity is proved with respective examples.

  13. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS METHOD OF ECOMMERCE WEBSITES DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALLMEDIUM ENTERPRISES, CASE STUDY: INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica S. Moertini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with the growth of the Internet, the trend shows that e-commerce have been growing significantly in the last several years. This means business opportunities for small-medium enterprises (SMEs, which are recognized as the backbone of the economy. SMEs may develop and run small to medium size of particular e-commerce websites as the solution of specific business opportunities. Certainly, the websites should be developed accordingly to support business success. In developing the websites, key elements of e-commerce business model that are necessary to ensure the success should be resolved at the requirement stage of the development. In this paper, we propose an enhancement of requirement analysis method found in literatures such that it includes activities to resolve the key elements. The method has been applied in three case studies based on Indonesia situations and we conclude that it is suitable to be adopted by SMEs.

  14. Clinical Observations on 30 Cases of Chronic Simple Pharyngitis Treated by Acupuncture plus Cupping Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玲; 张春燕; 甘志豪

    2006-01-01

    Objective:In order to investigate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture plus cupping method for treating chronic pharyngitis. Methods: Sixty patients with chronic simple pharyngitis were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty cases in the treatment group were treated by acupuncture plus cupping method and 30 cases in the control group by routine anti-inflammatory and antiviral therapy. The clinical effects were observed in the two groups. Results: The total effective rate was 93.3% in the treatment group and 80.0% in the control group. The therapeutic effect was significantly better in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Acupuncture plus cupping method has a good effect for chronic simple pharyngitis.%目的:观察针刺加拔罐治疗慢性咽炎的临床疗效.方法:将慢性咽炎患者60例随机分为两组,治疗组30例,采用针罐治疗;对照组30例,采用常规的抗炎、抗病毒治疗.观察两组的临床疗效.结果:治疗组总有效28/30,对照组为24/30.治疗组疗效明显优于对照组(P《0.05).结论:针刺加拔罐治疗慢性咽炎的疗效好.

  15. Nuclear forensic science - Case histories and investigation methods at the Institute for Transuranium Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1994 the Institute for Transuranium Elements has been involved with the examination of cases of illegal trafficking in nuclear materials, and to date over twenty-five samples have been investigated. In many of the cases the material was relatively easy to identify since it consisted of unirradiated UO2 fuel pellets, with characteristic dimensions and form which could be compared directly with information contained in the Institute's database of commercial fuel. However several of the seized illegal samples were in powder form, or contaminated samples of other materials, and these required a more detailed investigation. Three cases which represent different aspects of the Nuclear Forensic Science investigations will be presented. These are: 1. A mixture of plutonium and uranium oxide powders confiscated at Munich airport. 2. A quantity of high weapons grade plutonium metal found by chance in a garage on the German-Swiss border, also in 1994. 3. Stainless steel scrap contaminated with enriched uranium, detected in a scrap metal yard in Karlsruhe in 1997. A description of these cases will be given along with the methods used in the investigations. The trafficking in contaminated scrap metal is likely to be one of the foremost problems in the field of nuclear forensic science in the future. In addition to TIMS and SIMS the Institute has electron microscopes which have been modified for working with contaminated samples. The transmission electron microscope, a Hitachi H700, is connected directly via the specimen entry port to a glovebox chain, and has facilities for EDX and SEM. The scanning electron microscope, a Philips XL40, has the complete column and vacuum system mounted inside a glovebox. This is also equipped with EDX and has a 'Gunshots Residue Programme' for the automatic identification and location of specific types of particle

  16. Vojta method in the treatment of developmental hip dysplasia – a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebzak, Wojciech; Żurawski, Arkadiusz; Dwornik, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Background Developmental dysplasia of the hip joint is one of the most common congenital defects and often results in functional and structural disorders. Such cases particularly demand optimizing therapeutic effects and maximally reducing the duration of therapy. Purpose The aim of this case report is to present the therapeutic process in a child with developmental hip dysplasia. Case report This is a case report of a female child with a birth weight of 2,800 g and an Apgar score of 9 points born to a gravida 3 para 3 mother at 37 weeks. The child was delivered by cesarean section, and the pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios. Subluxation of the left hip joint was diagnosed by an orthopedist in the third month of life. The treatment followed was the Vojta method (the first phase of reflex turning and reflex crawling). Results During the 6 weeks of the Vojta treatment, the left half of the femoral head was centralized, and the process of formation of the hip joint acetabulum was influenced effectively enough to change the acetabulum’s Graff type from the baseline D to IIb after 41 days of treatment. Conclusion The diagnostic work-up of congenital hip joint dysplasia should involve a physiotherapist who will investigate the child’s neuromuscular coordination, in addition to a neonatologist and a pediatrician. The therapy for a disorder of hip joint development of neuromotor origin should involve the application of global patterns according to Vojta. Children with congenital dysplasia of the hip joint should commence rehabilitation as early as possible. PMID:27578980

  17. Technology transfer through a network of standard methods and recommended practices - The case of petrochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Karvounis, Sotirios

    2012-12-01

    Technology transfer may take place in parallel with cooperative action between companies participating in the same organizational scheme or using one another as subcontractor (outsourcing). In this case, cooperation should be realized by means of Standard Methods and Recommended Practices (SRPs) to achieve (i) quality of intermediate/final products according to specifications and (ii) industrial process control as required to guarantee such quality with minimum deviation (corresponding to maximum reliability) from preset mean values of representative quality parameters. This work deals with the design of the network of SRPs needed in each case for successful cooperation, implying also the corresponding technology transfer, effectuated through a methodological framework developed in the form of an algorithmic procedure with 20 activity stages and 8 decision nodes. The functionality of this methodology is proved by presenting the path leading from (and relating) a standard test method for toluene, as petrochemical feedstock in the toluene diisocyanate production, to the (6 generations distance upstream) performance evaluation of industrial process control systems (ie., from ASTM D5606 to BS EN 61003-1:2004 in the SRPs network).

  18. Sensitivity analysis methods and a biosphere test case implemented in EIKOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-based models can be used to approximate real life processes. These models are usually based on mathematical equations, which are dependent on several variables. The predictive capability of models is therefore limited by the uncertainty in the value of these. Sensitivity analysis is used to apportion the relative importance each uncertain input parameter has on the output variation. Sensitivity analysis is therefore an essential tool in simulation modelling and for performing risk assessments. Simple sensitivity analysis techniques based on fitting the output to a linear equation are often used, for example correlation or linear regression coefficients. These methods work well for linear models, but for non-linear models their sensitivity estimations are not accurate. Usually models of complex natural systems are non-linear. Within the scope of this work, various sensitivity analysis methods, which can cope with linear, non-linear, as well as non-monotone problems, have been implemented, in a software package, EIKOS, written in Matlab language. The following sensitivity analysis methods are supported by EIKOS: Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (CC), Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient (RCC), Partial (Rank) Correlation Coefficients (PCC), Standardized (Rank) Regression Coefficients (SRC), Sobol' method, Jansen's alternative, Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (EFAST) as well as the classical FAST method and the Smirnov and the Cramer-von Mises tests. A graphical user interface has also been developed, from which the user easily can load or call the model and perform a sensitivity analysis as well as uncertainty analysis. The implemented sensitivity analysis methods has been benchmarked with well-known test functions and compared with other sensitivity analysis software, with successful results. An illustration of the applicability of EIKOS is added to the report. The test case used is a landscape model consisting of several linked

  19. CC-Case as an Integrated Method of Security Analysis and Assurance over Life-cycle Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kaneko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Secure system design faces many risks such as information leakage and denial of service. We propose a method named CC-Case to describe se-curity assurance cases based on the security struc-tures and thereat analysis. CC-Case uses Common Criteria (ISO/IEC15408. While the scope of CC-Case mainly focuses to the requirement stage, CC-Case can handle the life-cycle process of sys-tem design that contains the requirement, design, implementation, test and the maintenance stages. It can make countermeasure easily against the situation which an unexpected new threat produced by invisible attackers incessantly.

  20. Steel Casing Resistivity Technology (SCRT): Innovative Applications of Electrical Methods for Buried Tank Leak Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, J. B.; Levitt, M. T.; Gee, G. W.

    2002-12-01

    The need for non-invasive leak detection methods is extremely important for monitoring cleanup efforts of nuclear waste contained in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Facility in Washington. Drilling is both very expensive and undesirable in the tank farms. Various geophysical imaging methods were evaluated over the past two years at two "cold" sites but within geologic conditions similar to the tank farms. The "cold" sites consisted of 1. a dense array of 32 steel casings, and 2. a "mock tank" in which various controlled leaks (injections) of a saturated aqueous solution of Na2S2O35H20 were metered. Nearly all methods required invasive drilling for subsurface placement of sensors. An innovative direct-current electrical method using existing infrastructure as grounding electrodes, such as steel casings and steel tanks, has shown very promising results and is undergoing further testing. The most useful results have been obtained by using multiple grounding points for spatial determinations and continuous time-series monitoring for temporal variations. Although the large size of tanks and lengths of casings make discrete volume estimations difficult, data acquired for test leaks to date have shown a surprising correlation between leak rates and the rate-of-change of specific electrical measurements. First order volume approximations can be made based on existing knowledge of the geologic environment and hydraulic parameters. Spatial data provide general leak location and gross flow characteristics, whereas temporal data indicate test leak commencement, cessation, and approximate leak rates. On-going testing is providing quantitative calibration information that is expected to transfer to the tank farm environments. Procedures are being developed that will simplify the installation and operation of the system in the tank-farm environments. Implementation of the technology necessitated remote operation and monitoring of the electrical system

  1. Method of calculating pilestrip foundations in case of karst hole formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotman Al'fred Leonidovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents pile strip foundations in the areas with karst risk. The analysis of karst hole formation mechanism shows the lateral soil pressure on the piles caused by the downfallen soil on the hole rims, which transfers around the hole edges during karst hole formation. In this case, the horizontal pressure of the pile reactive force in the area of the pile connection with the raft is transferred to the raft. Pile failure at the hole boundaries will lead to the increase of the raft bearing distance above the karst hole. The inadequate raft bearing capacity can provoke the emergency situation. The existing Codes on karst protective foundations design do not contain the analysis of pile and raft horizontal pressure under the downfallen soil.The goal of this work is to develop the method of pile strip foundations analysis in the areas with karst risk in case of karst hole formation. The analysis of stress-strain state of the system “foundation soil — pile foundation” was carried out using numerical modeling in geotechnical program MIDAS GTS. As a result of numerical investigations, the diagrams of lateral soil pressure onto the piles and the raft are plotted. The pile pressure is approximated with the linear or bilinear function in dependence on geometrical dimensions of the karst hole and strength characteristics of soil that generates the horizontal pressure.In the Codes, the analysis of a pile under lateral soil pressure is given for a pile with the free end. In the problem examined, the pile head has the hinged bearing in place of the connection with the raft. In view of the given boundary data, the pile design scheme is plotted. The inner forces and displacements of the pile are determined by integrating the differential equation of a pile bending. The consistent integrations are evaluated out of the boundary conditions. The boundary values of inner forces and displacements are evaluated from the equality conditions of

  2. Using the case study teaching method to promote college students' critical thinking skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, David Richard

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine general and domain-specific critical thinking skills in college students, particularly ways in which these skills might be increased through the use of the case study method of teaching. General critical thinking skills were measured using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) Short Form, a forty-item paper-and-pencil test designed to measure important abilities involved in critical thinking, including inference, recognition of assumptions, deduction, interpretation, and evaluation of arguments. The ability to identify claims and support those claims with evidence is also an important aspect of critical thinking. I developed a new instrument, the Claim and Evidence Assessment Tool (CEAT), to measure these skills in a domain-specific manner. Forty undergraduate students in a general science course for non-science majors at a small two-year college in the northeastern United States experienced positive changes in general critical thinking according to results obtained using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA). In addition, the students showed cumulative improvement in their ability to identify claims and evidence, as measured by the Claim and Evidence Assessment Tool (CEAT). Mean score on the WGCTA improved from 22.15 +/- 4.59 to 23.48 +/- 4.24 (out of 40), and the mean CEAT score increased from 14.98 +/- 3.28 to 16.20 +/- 3.08 (out of 24). These increases were modest but statistically and educationally significant. No differences in claim and evidence identification were found between students who learned about specific biology topics using the case study method of instruction and those who were engaged in more traditional instruction, and the students' ability to identify claims and evidence and their factual knowledge showed little if any correlation. The results of this research were inconclusive regarding whether or not the case study teaching method promotes college students' general or

  3. Estimation and Control in Agile Methods for Software Development: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre-Hernández Hugo A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of software (SW using agile methods is growing due to the productivity associated with these methodologies, in addition to the flexibility shown in small teams. However, these methods have clear weaknesses of software development in cost estimation and management, as well as the fact that project managers do not have enough evidence to verify the budget spending on a project due to the poor documentation generated and the lack of monitoring of resource spending. A proposal estimation and cost control in agile methods to solve these shortcomings. To this end, a case study was conducted in an agile software development company using the proposal for Software as a Service (SaaS and Web application projects. The results found were that the proposal generates a high degree of evidence for project managers, but it has shortcomings in the administration of the evidence for the control and decision making, which led to a definition of a decision making process to be coupled with the measurement proposal.

  4. Method to detect differentially methylated loci with case-control designs using Illumina arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang

    2011-11-01

    It is now understood that many human cancer types are the result of the accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic changes. DNA methylation is a molecular modification of DNA that is crucial for normal development. Genes that are rich in CpG dinucleotides are usually not methylated in normal tissues, but are frequently hypermethylated in cancer. With the advent of high-throughput platforms, large-scale structure of genomic methylation patterns is available through genome-wide scans and tremendous amount of DNA methylation data have been recently generated. However, sophisticated statistical methods to handle complex DNA methylation data are very limited. Here, we developed a likelihood based Uniform-Normal-mixture model to select differentially methylated loci between case and control groups using Illumina arrays. The idea is to model the data as three types of methylation loci, one unmethylated, one completely methylated, and one partially methylated. A three-component mixture model with two Uniform distributions and one truncated normal distribution was used to model the three types. The mixture probabilities and the mean of the normal distribution were used to make inference about differentially methylated loci. Through extensive simulation studies, we demonstrated the feasibility and power of the proposed method. An application to a recently published study on ovarian cancer identified several methylation loci that are missed by the existing method. PMID:21818777

  5. A method for optimizing waste collection using mathematical programming: a Buenos Aires case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Flavio; Durán, Guillermo; Larumbe, Frederico; Marenco, Javier

    2012-03-01

    A method is proposed that uses operations research techniques to optimize the routes of waste collection vehicles servicing dumpster or skip-type containers. The waste collection problem is reduced to the classic travelling salesman problem, which is then solved using the Concorde solver program. A case study applying the method to the collection system in the southern zone of Buenos Aires is also presented. In addition to the typical minimum distance criterion, the optimization problem incorporates the objective of reducing vehicle wear and tear as measured by the physics concept of mechanical work. The solution approach, employing graph theory and mathematical programming tools, is fully described and the data correction process is also discussed. The application of the proposed method minimized the distance travelled by each collection vehicle in the areas studied, with actual reductions ranging from 10 to 40% of the existing routes. The shortened distances led in turn to substantial decreases in work done and therefore in vehicle wear and tear. Extrapolation of the results to the entire southern zone of Buenos Aires indicates potential savings for the civic authorities of more than US $200,000 per year in addition to the qualitative impacts of less traffic disruption, less vehicle driver fatigue and less pollution. PMID:21460074

  6. O método do caso aplicado ao ensino da Biblioteconomia: histórico e perspectivas / The case method applied to Librarianship education: history and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Miglioli, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the case method as a teaching methodology in Librarianship, from the origin of the case method to its application. The goal is to explain how the case method can be applied on building management skills in professional librarians. It describes the main actors of the process: student, teacher and author of cases and inherent features in their statutes. Presents a typology of cases and their application. Addresses the scenario of the method in Brazil. Describes how is its ap...

  7. Teaching with the Case Study Method to Promote Active Learning in a Small Molecule Crystallography Course for Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael G.; Powers, Tamara M.; Zheng, Shao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Implementing the case study method in a practical X-ray crystallography course designed for graduate or upper-level undergraduate chemistry students is described. Compared with a traditional lecture format, assigning small groups of students to examine literature case studies encourages more active engagement with the course material and…

  8. A proposal on teaching methodology: cooperative learning by peer tutoring based on the case method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Durbán, Juan J.; Salas, Carlos; del Mar Lázaro, M.

    2014-07-01

    The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) proposes substantial changes in the teaching-learning model, moving from a model based mainly on the activity of teachers to a model in which the true protagonist is the student. This new framework requires that students develop new abilities and acquire specific skills. This also implies that the teacher should incorporate new methodologies in class. In this work, we present a proposal on teaching methodology based on cooperative learning and peer tutoring by case study. A noteworthy aspect of the case-study method is that it presents situations that can occur in real life. Therefore, students can acquire certain skills that will be useful in their future professional practice. An innovative aspect in the teaching methodology that we propose is to form work groups consisting of students from different levels in the same major. In our case, the teaching of four subjects would be involved: one subject of the 4th year, one subject of the 3rd year, and two subjects of the 2nd year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry of the University of Granada, Spain. Each work group would consist of a professor and a student of the 4th year, a professor and a student of the 3rd year, and two professors and two students of the 2nd year. Each work group would have a tutoring process from each professor for the corresponding student, and a 4th-year student providing peer tutoring for the students of the 2nd and 3rd year.

  9. TCM Treatment of 18 Cases of Sicca Syndrome with the Heat-Removing and Dampness-Eliminating Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑瑛

    2002-01-01

    @@ With rich clinic experience of over 30 years, the author have treated 18 cases of sicca syndrome with the heat-removing and dampness eliminating method, and obtained satisfactory therapeutic results. A report follows.

  10. CASE STUDY OF THE OPTIMIZING THE AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS EFFICIENCY VIA APPLYING NEW METHOD OF SCHEDULING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehfarzaneh Nojabaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency is becoming a pivotal aspect in each manufacturing system and scheduling plays a crucial role in sustaining it. The applicability of distributed computing to coordinate and execute jobs has been investigated in the past literature. Moreover, it is significant that even for sensitive industrial systems the only criterion of allocating jobs to appropriate machines is the FIFO policy. On the other flip, many researchers are of the opinion that the main reason behind failing to provide fairness in distributed systems is considering the only criterion of time stamp to judge upon and form the queue of jobs with the aim of allocating those jobs to the machines. In order to increase the efficiency of sensitive industrial system, this study takes into consideration of three criteria of each job including priority, time action and time stamp. The methodology adopted by this study is definition of job scheduler and positioning jobs in temporary queue and sorting via developing bubble sort. In sorting algorithm criterion of priority, time action should be considered besides time stamp to recognize the tense jobs for processing earlier. To evaluate this algorithm first a numerical test case (simulation is programmed and then the case study performing in order to optimize efficiency of applying this method in real manufacturing system. Eventually the results of this study provided evidence on that the rate of efficiency is increased.

  11. Optimum design of a heat-exchanger-fan casing of clothes dryer using the taguchi method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is carried out to get the high flowrate of a Heat-Exchanger (HE) fan through an optimum condition of a fan casing. The control factors in the present study are the orifice inlet diameter, the orifice inlet clearance, the cut-off angle, and the cut-off clearance. The goal of this study is to select the best combination of each control factor of the HE fan casing with a minimum variability and to obtain a linear relationship between the flowrate and the number of revolution. Thus, the parameter design of the Taguchi method is adopted for robust design by a dynamic characteristic analysis using orthogonal arrays and S/N ratios. The flowrate measurements are conducted by using a small-sized fan tester according to the orthogonal array L9(34). In the present study, the flowrate under an optimum condition having a set of satisfies with the linear equation y=0.0039 · M as to the number of revolution, and the flowrate is improved by about 44.4 (%) as compared with the current condition

  12. A cautionary lesson on the use of targeted methods for EGFR mutation analysis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, K; Wallace, W A; Butler, R; Mackean, M J; Harrison, D J; Stirling, D; Oniscu, A

    2014-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation analysis is recommended for lung cancer patients prior to the prescription of first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in order to predict response to treatment. There are many methods available to identify mutations in the EGFR gene; a large number of clinical laboratories use the therascreen EGFR RGQ PCR kit (Qiagen). We report a case where this kit detected an exon 19 deletion, predicting sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which on further analysis was found to be a 2 bp indel (c.2239_2240delinsCC, p.(Leu747Pro)). Two of four published cases with this mutation were found to be associated with resistance to EGFR TKI. The sample was also tested using two other commercial kits, one of which indicated a deletion. This is a rare mutation making the erroneous detection of a deletion unlikely; however, it is important that clinical laboratories are aware of the potential failings of two commercial kits for EGFR mutation analysis. PMID:24811487

  13. Fatigue life prediction of casing welded pipes by using the extended finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Lazić Vulićević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extended finite element (XFEM method has been used to simulate fatigue crack growth in casing pipe, made of API J55 steel by high-frequency welding, in order estimate its structural integrity and life. Based on the critical value of stress intensity factor KIc, measured in different regions of welded joint, the crack was located in the base metal as the region with the lowest resistance to crack initiation and propagation. The XFEM was first applied to the 3 point bending specimens to verify numerical results with the experimental ones. After successful verification, the XFEM was used to simulate fatigue crack growth, position axially in the pipe, and estimate its remaining life.

  14. Viability and resilience of complex systems concepts, methods and case studies from ecology and society

    CERN Document Server

    Deffuant, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    One common characteristic of a complex system is its ability to withstand major disturbances and the capacity to rebuild itself. Understanding how such systems demonstrate resilience by absorbing or recovering from major external perturbations requires both quantitative foundations and a multidisciplinary view of the topic. This book demonstrates how new methods can be used to identify the actions favouring the recovery from perturbations on a variety of examples including the dynamics of bacterial biofilms, grassland savannahs, language competition and Internet social networking sites. The reader is taken through an introduction to the idea of resilience and viability and shown the mathematical basis of the techniques used to analyse systems. The idea of individual or agent-based modelling of complex systems is introduced and related to analytically tractable approximations of such models. A set of case studies illustrates the use of the techniques in real applications, and the final section describes how on...

  15. Research on the localization method of protecting traditional village landscape: a case study on Tangyin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2015-08-01

    China has over 271 million villages and less than the number in ten years ago in which there are 363 million villages. New rural construction indeed do some good for common villages but still destroy hundreds and thousands traditional village which contain great cultural, science, artistic values. In addition, traditional villages can't meet the increasing needs in more convenient and comfortable living conditions. Increasing population also makes traditional villages out of control in construction. With the background of this, we have to set up in traditional village protection. This article put forward an idea in protection which make use of landscape localization to pursue the sustainable development and vernacular landscape protection. Tangyin Town is a famous trade center in history and left many cultural heritage, especially historical buildings. Take Tangyin as a case study to apply the localization method which could guide other similar villages to achieve same goals.

  16. Estimating Groundwater Recharge Using Empirical Method: A Case Study in the Tropical Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation and forecast of groundwater recharge and capacity of aquifer are essential issues in water resources investigation. In the current research, groundwater recharge, recharge coefficient and effective rainfall were determined through a case study using empirical methods applicable to the tropical zones. The related climatological data between January 2000 and December 2010 were collected in Selangor, Malaysia. The results showed that groundwater recharge was 326.39 mm per year, effective precipitation was 1807.97 mm per year and recharge coefficient was 18% for the study area. In summary, the precipitation converted to recharge, surface runoff and evapotranspiration are 12, 32 and 56% of rainfall, respectively. Correlation between climatic parameters and groundwater recharge showed positive and negative relationships. The highest correlation was found between precipitation and recharge. Linear multiple regressions between recharge and measured climatologic data proved significant relationship between recharge and rainfall and wind speed. It was also proven that the proposed model provided an accurate estimation for similar projects. (author)

  17. Novel apexification method in a non-vital tooth with an open apex: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many materials have been introduced for apexification each having their own advantages and disadvantages. This case report aims to present a new method of apexification using a combination of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM and enamel matrix derivative (EMD. After irrigating the canal of the maxillary right canine with 2.5 % sodium hypochlorite, a mixture of Bio-Oss and EMD was packed into the apical region for formation of an apical barrier and the canal was obturated by thermoplastic gutta percha technique with AH26 sealer; coronal seal was achieved by resin bonded composite. The size of the periapical lesion decreased significantly after 3, 6, 12 and 18-months. The patient had no radiographic signs or clinical symptoms at 24-month follow up and complete maturation of the apex and healing of the periapical bone were achieved.

  18. Treatment of penile strangulation by the rotating saw and 4-needle aspiration method: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raidh A. Talib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this article was to describe our experience in using rotating saw and also combination of the instrument with 4-needle aspiration. Methods: A comprehensive review of the literature was performed using PubMed. “Penile strangulation, -constriction, -incarceration, -entrapment” were used as search terms, and a manual bibliographic review of cross referenced items was performed. Results: Search results yielded nearly 70 cases of penile strangulation caused by a variety of objects. Various instruments have been described in the literature for their safe removal, each with its own pros and cons. Conclusions: Penile strangulation should be accepted as a self-induced priapism and managed as an emergency in order to preserve erectile function and to prevent penile necrosis. Surgical creativity and patience are necessary in order to have a successful outcome.

  19. Sales Education beyond the classroom: Building participative learning experiences in Sales Management through the CMGS Method (Case Method with Guest Speakers)

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Ruizalba Robledo; Estefanía Almenta López; María Vallespín Arán

    2014-01-01

    The overarching goal of working through the CMGSMethod (Case Method with GuestSpeakers) in Sales Management courses is toprovide Marketing students with practical knowledge about how a sales managercan deal with a wide variety of possible professional scenarios. Even when thecase method itself is an excellent way to equip students for their prospectiveemployment, the potential of this method can be enhanced with innovativepedagogical tools. Firstly, eight sales managers were invited to the Sa...

  20. "Geo-statistics methods and neural networks in geophysical applications: A case study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Sandoval, R.; Urrutia Fucugauchi, J.; Ramirez Cruz, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    The study is focus in the Ebano-Panuco basin of northeastern Mexico, which is being explored for hydrocarbon reservoirs. These reservoirs are in limestones and there is interest in determining porosity and permeability in the carbonate sequences. The porosity maps presented in this study are estimated from application of multiattribute and neural networks techniques, which combine geophysics logs and 3-D seismic data by means of statistical relationships. The multiattribute analysis is a process to predict a volume of any underground petrophysical measurement from well-log and seismic data. The data consist of a series of target logs from wells which tie a 3-D seismic volume. The target logs are neutron porosity logs. From the 3-D seismic volume a series of sample attributes is calculated. The objective of this study is to derive a set of attributes and the target log values. The selected set is determined by a process of forward stepwise regression. The analysis can be linear or nonlinear. In the linear mode the method consists of a series of weights derived by least-square minimization. In the nonlinear mode, a neural network is trained using the select attributes as inputs. In this case we used a probabilistic neural network PNN. The method is applied to a real data set from PEMEX. For better reservoir characterization the porosity distribution was estimated using both techniques. The case shown a continues improvement in the prediction of the porosity from the multiattribute to the neural network analysis. The improvement is in the training and the validation, which are important indicators of the reliability of the results. The neural network showed an improvement in resolution over the multiattribute analysis. The final maps provide more realistic results of the porosity distribution.

  1. Forty Cases of Tumorous Fever Treated with TCM Method of Removing Blood Heat and Dissipating Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Yantao; Chen Liang; Jia Yingjie; Sun Yiyu; Chen Jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ The TCM method of removing blood heat and dissipating blood stasis, originated in Treatise on Epidemic Febrile Diseases (温热论) by ancient physician Ye Tianshi (叶天士), was adopted for the cases of epidemic febrile diseases with pathogenic heat invading the ying-blood system. We take this therapeutic method to treat 40 cases of tumorous fever with rather good effect. A report follows.

  2. Can the caged bird sing? Reflections on the application of qualitative research methods to case study design in homeopathic medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson Trevor DB

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Two main pathways exist for the development of knowledge in clinical homeopathy. These comprise clinical trials conducted primarily by university-based researchers and cases reports and homeopathic "provings" compiled by engaged homeopathic practitioners. In this paper the relative merits of these methods are examined and a middle way proposed. This consists of the "Formal Case Study" (FCS) in which qualitative methods are used to increase the rigour and sophistication wit...

  3. Vojta method in the treatment of developmental hip dysplasia – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiebzak W

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wojciech Kiebzak,1,2 Arkadiusz Żurawski,2 Michał Dwornik3 1Center for Pediatrics, Regional Hospital in Kielce, Kielce, Poland; 2Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland; 3Department of Osteopathic Medicine and Physiotherapy, Medical College of Podkowa Lesna, Podkowa Lesna, Poland Background: Developmental dysplasia of the hip joint is one of the most common congenital defects and often results in functional and structural disorders. Such cases particularly demand optimizing therapeutic effects and maximally reducing the duration of therapy. Purpose: The aim of this case report is to present the therapeutic process in a child with developmental hip dysplasia. Case report: This is a case report of a female child with a birth weight of 2,800 g and an Apgar score of 9 points born to a gravida 3 para 3 mother at 37 weeks. The child was delivered by cesarean section, and the pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios. Subluxation of the left hip joint was diagnosed by an orthopedist in the third month of life. The treatment followed was the Vojta method (the first phase of reflex turning and reflex crawling. Results: During the 6 weeks of the Vojta treatment, the left half of the femoral head was centralized, and the process of formation of the hip joint acetabulum was influenced effectively enough to change the acetabulum’s Graff type from the baseline D to IIb after 41 days of treatment. Conclusion: The diagnostic work-up of congenital hip joint dysplasia should involve a physiotherapist who will investigate the child’s neuro­muscular coordination, in addition to a neonatologist and a pediatrician. The therapy for a disorder of hip joint development of neuromotor origin should involve the application of global patterns according to Vojta. Children with congenital dysplasia of the hip joint should commence rehabilitation as early as possible. Keywords: global pattern

  4. A science methods course in a professional development school context: A case study of student teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopko, Linda Diane

    The purpose of this case study was to explore how six student teachers constructed their personal understanding about teaching science to elementary students in the context of a professional development school (PDS). The science methods course was one of five university courses that they attended at the PDS site. The participants spent the remainder of the school day in an assigned classroom where they assisted the classroom teacher in a paraprofessional role. This study was an attempt to determine the knowledge that the participants constructed of science instruction and the school during the preservice semester of their PDS experience and what knowledge was transferred into their student teaching practices. The methodology selected was qualitative. A case study was conducted to determine the constructs of the participants. Data collection included documents concerning the PDS school and personal artifacts of the student teachers. Student teachers, cooperating teachers, and administrators were interviewed. The student teachers were also observed teaching. Triangulation was achieved with the use of multiple data sources, a reflexive journal, and peer debriefers. A cross case comparison was used to identify issues salient to the research questions. The PDS context immediately challenged the participants' prior conceptions about how children learn and should be instructed. Participants believed that the situational knowledge constructed during the PDS semester contributed to their self-confidence during student teaching. The instructional emphasis on standardized tests in the PDS and the limited emphasis on science curriculum and instruction constructed an image of science as a minor component in the elementary curriculum. The student teachers were able to transfer knowledge of inquiry-based instructional strategies, as modeled and practiced in their science methods course, into their science lesson during student teaching. One student teacher used inquiry

  5. IMPACT OF CASE STUDY METHOD OF TEACHING ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF BUSINESS GRADUATES, IN THE CASE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT IBA-UNIVERSITY OF SINDH-JAMSHORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ali Shah G.Syed

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on business graduates of IBA-University of Sindh-Jamshoro. A complementary survey was conducted from 50 organizations in Sindh province by using simple random technique, and 200 sample size were selected from student data set. The results showed that case analysis method increasing the vision and understanding the subject as well as practical exposure of the different organizations and it also impact on the personal development of the student when they are solving they different cases in different situations for firm or organization. From last couple of years this method is pretty popular among the students, and they applied all the case studies in local environment and teachers are importing the quality of the education by employing different case studies and their practical touches of different cases. It also helps the graduates when they are going for the jobs, and it has the positive relationship with the job performance. Case studies improving the vision of the business students.

  6. EVALUATION OF WEB SEARCHING METHOD USING A NOVEL WPRR ALGORITHM FOR TWO DIFFERENT CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lakshmi Praba

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to web data and documents. Web content mining and web structure mining have important roles in identifying the relevant web page. Relevancy of web page denotes how well a retrieved web page or set of web pages meets the information need of the user. Page Rank, Weighted Page Rank and Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS are existing algorithms which considers only web structure mining. Vector Space Model (VSM, Cover Density Ranking (CDR, Okapi similarity measurement (Okapi and Three-Level Scoring method (TLS are some of existing relevancy score methods which consider only web content mining. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm, Weighted Page with Relevant Rank (WPRR which is blend of both web content mining and web structure mining that demonstrates the relevancy of the page with respect to given query for two different case scenarios. It is shown that WPRR’s performance is better than the existing algorithms.

  7. Formal Methods for Verification and Validation of Partial Specifications: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Steve; Callahan, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes our work exploring the suitability of formal specification methods for independent verification and validation (IV&V) of software specifications for large, safety critical systems. An IV&V contractor often has to perform rapid analysis on incomplete specifications, with no control over how those specifications are represented. Lightweight formal methods show significant promise in this context, as they offer a way of uncovering major errors, without the burden of full proofs of correctness. We describe a case study of the use of partial formal models for V&V of the requirements for Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery on the space station. We conclude that the insights gained from formalizing a specification are valuable, and it is the process of formalization, rather than the end product that is important. It was only necessary to build enough of the formal model to test the properties in which we were interested. Maintenance of fidelity between multiple representations of the same requirements (as they evolve) is still a problem, and deserves further study.

  8. Towards bulk thermodynamics via non-equilibrium methods: gaseous methane as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbetto, Mirco; Frezzato, Diego

    2015-01-21

    We illustrate how the Jarzynski equality (JE), which is the progenitor of non-equilibrium methods aimed at constructing free energy landscapes for molecular-sized fluctuating systems subjected to steered transformations, can be applied to derive equations of state for bulk systems. The key-step consists of physically framing the computational strategy of "total energy morphing", recently presented by us as an efficient implementation of the JE [M. Zerbetto, A. Piserchia, D. Frezzato, J. Comput. Chem., 2014, 35, 1865-1881], in terms of build-up of the real thermodynamic state of a bulk material from the corresponding ideal state, in which the particles are non-interacting. In this context, the JE machinery yields the excess free energy versus suitably chosen controlled state variables, whose thermodynamic derivatives eventually lead to the equation of state. As an explanatory case study, we apply the methodology to derive the equation of state of gaseous methane by constructing the Helmholtz free energy versus the particle density (at fixed temperature) and then evaluating the thermodynamic derivative with respect to the volume. In our intent, this "old-style" work on gaseous methane should open the way for the investigation of thermodynamics of extended systems via non-equilibrium methods. PMID:25475171

  9. A new method in thoracoscopic inferior mediastinal lymph node biopsy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanlı Maruf

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We performed video-thoracoscopy with a video-mediastinoscope to conduct a mediastinal lymph node biopsy. Here, we discuss the various advantages of the method. Case presentation A 56-year-old Turkish Caucasian man had been complaining of dyspnea on exertion, hacking cough, fever and continuous sweating for one and a half months. Thoracic computed tomography revealed enlarged paratracheal and aorticopulmonary lymph nodes, the largest of which was 1 cm in diameter and reticulo-micronodular interstitial infiltration extending symmetrically to the pleural surfaces in both pulmonary perihilar areas. Computed tomography supported positron emission tomography showed increased fluorodeoxyglucose retention in lymph nodes in both hilar areas (10R and 10L (maximum standardized uptake values 5.6 and 5.7, and in the right lower paratracheal (4R (maximum standardized uptake value 4.1 and right para-esophageal (8 (maximum standardized uptake value 8.9 lymph nodes. Pathological examination of the right lymph node number 8 biopsy using the video-mediastinoscope revealed the presence of granulomatous inflammation. No problems were observed during the postoperative period. Conclusion The use of the video-mediastinoscope for inferior lymph node biopsy in thoracoscopy is an easy, safe and practical method, especially in patients with pleural adhesions.

  10. Single-Case Research Methods: History and Suitability for a Psychological Science in Need of Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; López-López, Wilson

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a historical and conceptual analysis of a group of research strategies known as the Single-Case Methods (SCMs). First, we present an overview of the SCMs, their history, and their major proponents. We will argue that the philosophical roots of SCMs can be found in the ideas of authors who recognized the importance of understanding both the generality and individuality of psychological functioning. Second, we will discuss the influence that the natural sciences' attitude toward measurement and experimentation has had on SCMs. Although this influence can be traced back to the early days of experimental psychology, during which incipient forms of SCMs appeared, SCMs reached full development during the subsequent advent of Behavior Analysis (BA). Third, we will show that despite the success of SCMs in BA and other (mainly applied) disciplines, these designs are currently not prominent in psychology. More importantly, they have been neglected as a possible alternative to one of the mainstream approaches in psychology, the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST), despite serious controversies about the limitations of this prevailing method. Our thesis throughout this section will be that SCMs should be considered as an alternative to NHST because many of the recommendations for improving the use of significance testing (Wilkinson & the TFSI, 1999) are main characteristics of SCMs. The paper finishes with a discussion of a number of the possible reasons why SCMs have been neglected. PMID:25876996

  11. Fatal Intoxication Involving 3-MeO-PCP: A Case Report and Validated Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakota, Erica; Arndt, Crystal; Romoser, Amelia A; Wilson, Stephen K

    2016-09-01

    We present in this case report a validated method for accurate quantitative analysis of 3-methoxy phencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) to determine postmortem blood concentrations of this PCP analog. A 29-year-old male with a history of illicit drug use was found unresponsive in his bed with a bag of white powder next to him. Resuscitation efforts were unsuccessful and the individual was pronounced dead 9 minutes after arrival to the hospital. Initial ELISA screening suggested the presence of PCP in the decedent's blood. However, confirmatory testing revealed no detectable PCP. Instead, a large peak corresponding to a m/z 274.218 species with retention time similar to PCP was present on a LC-TOF-MS drug screen, suggesting a possible PCP analog. This mass corresponds specifically to a methoxy-PCP analog, several of which are available for purchase online. Standards for 3-MeO-PCP and 4-MeO-PCP were obtained and injected on the same instrument. Although the 3- and 4-MeO-PCP analogs have identical masses and retention times, they are still distinguishable through their mass spectra. The peak from the decedent's sample matched both the mass spectrum and the retention time of 3-MeO-PCP. A quantitative LC-MS-MS method was subsequently developed and validated for casework. Analysis using this method revealed a concentration of 139 ± 41 µg/L 3-MeO-PCP in the decedent's blood. Diphenhydramine (4.1 ± 0.7 mg/L), marijuana metabolite (presumptive positive, confirmation not performed) and a small amount of amphetamine (<0.10 mg/L) were also found in the decedent's blood. The cause of death was determined to be combined 3-MeO-PCP, diphenhydramine and amphetamine toxicity. The manner of death was certified as an accident. PMID:27339479

  12. Incorporating formative assessment and science content into elementary science methods---A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Derek John

    Just as elementary students enter the science classroom with prior knowledge and experiences, so do preservice elementary teachers who enter the science methods classroom. Elementary science methods instructors recognize the challenges associated with preparing teachers for the science classroom. Two of these challenges include overcoming limited science content understanding and a low science teaching efficacy. Based upon research in science misconceptions, conceptual change theory, formative assessment, and science teaching efficacy, this design experiment explored the use of formative assessment in an authentic learning environment to address some of these challenges. As a case study, the goal was to identify two specific topics in science which the preservice teachers did not understand and to model consistent use of formative assessment to guide instruction in those science topics for six weeks. The research questions for this study sought to explore the design of the class while also exploring students' understanding of the science content and their understanding of formative assessment. One specific question was whether the formative data could differentiate between deeply held student misconceptions in science and incomplete science understanding. In addition, data was collected to measure changes in science teaching efficacy as well as preservice teachers' desire to use formative assessment in their own future classrooms. Based upon student interviews and a final content quiz, the participants in this study did show improved science content understanding in the areas of plant food/energy and plate tectonics. The course design implemented a variety of formative assessment tools including formative assessment probes, student science notebooks, student concept maps, a non-graded quiz, and more. The STEBI-B survey identified improved science teaching efficacy among the participants. Student final essays indicated improved understanding of formative assessment

  13. A novel method of estimating effective dose from the point dose method: a case study—parathyroid CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to validate a novel approach of applying a partial volume correction factor (PVCF) using a limited number of MOSFET detectors in the effective dose (E) calculation. The results of the proposed PVCF method were compared to the results from both the point dose (PD) method and a commercial CT dose estimation software (CT-Expo). To measure organ doses, an adult female anthropomorphic phantom was loaded with 20 MOSFET detectors and was scanned using the non-contrast and 2 phase contrast-enhanced parathyroid imaging protocols on a 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography scanner. E was computed by three methods: the PD method, the PVCF method, and the CT-Expo method. The E (in mSv) for the PD method, the PVCF method, and CT-Expo method was 2.6  ±  0.2, 1.3  ±  0.1, and 1.1 for the non-contrast scan, 21.9  ±  0.4, 13.9  ±  0.2, and 14.6 for the 1st phase of the contrast-enhanced scan, and 15.5  ±  0.3, 9.8  ±  0.1, and 10.4 for the 2nd phase of the contrast-enhanced scan, respectively. The E with the PD method differed from the PVCF method by 66.7% for the non-contrast scan, by 44.9% and by 45.5% respectively for the 1st and 2nd phases of the contrast-enhanced scan. The E with PVCF was comparable to the results from the CT-Expo method with percent differences of 15.8%, 5.0%, and 6.3% for the non-contrast scan and the 1st and 2nd phases of the contrast-enhanced scan, respectively. To conclude, the PVCF method estimated E within 16% difference as compared to 50–70% in the PD method. In addition, the results demonstrate that E can be estimated accurately from a limited number of detectors. (paper)

  14. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources. PMID:27548986

  15. The importance of magnetic methods for soil mapping and process modelling. Case study in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr; Sukhorada, Anatoliy

    2016-04-01

    The correct planning of agriculture areas is fundamental for a sustainable future in Ukraine. After the recent political problems in Ukraine, new challenges emerged regarding sustainability questions. At the same time the soil mapping and modelling are intensively developing all over the world (Pereira et al., 2015; Brevik et al., in press). Magnetic susceptibility (MS) methods are low cost and accurate for the developing maps of agricultural areas, fundamental for Ukrain's economy.This allow to colleact a great amount of soil data, usefull for a better understading of the spatial distribution of soil properties. Recently, this method have been applied in other works in Ukraine and elsewhere (Jordanova et al., 2011; Menshov et al., 2015). The objective of this work is to study the spatial distribution of MS and humus content on the topsoils (0-5 cm) in two different areas. The first is located in Poltava region and the second in Kharkiv region. The results showed that MS depends of soil type, topography and anthropogenic influence. For the interpretation of MS spatial distribution in top soil we consider the frequency and time after the last tillage, tilth depth, fertilizing, and the puddling regarding the vehicle model. On average the soil MS of the top soil of these two cases is about 30-70×10-8 m3/kg. In Poltava region not disturbed soil has on average MS values of 40-50×10-8 m3/kg, for Kharkiv region 50-60×10-8 m3/kg. The tilled soil of Poltava region has on average an MS of 60×10-8 m3/kg, and 70×10-8 m3/kg in Kharkiv region. MS is higher in non-tilled soils than in the tilled ones. The correlation between MS and soil humus content is very high ( up to 0.90) in both cases. Breivik, E., Baumgarten, A., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Jordán, A. Soil mapping, classification, and modelling: history and future directions. Geoderma (in press), doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.05.017 Jordanova D., Jordanova N., Atanasova A., Tsacheva T., Petrov P

  16. A Shrinkage Method for Testing the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yong; Yuan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Testing for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is often used as an initial step for checking the quality of genotyping. When testing the HWE for case-control data, the impact of a potential genetic association between the marker and the disease must be controlled for otherwise the results may be biased. Li and Li (2008) proposed a likelihood ratio test (LRT) that accounts for this potential genetic association and it is more powerful than the commonly used control-only χ2 test. However, the LRT is not efficient when the marker is independent of the disease, and also requires numerical optimization to calculate the test statistic. In this article, we propose a novel shrinkage test for assessing the HWE. The proposed shrinkage test yields higher statistical power than the LRT when the marker is independent of or weakly associated with the disease, and converges to the LRT when the marker is strongly associated with the disease. In addition, the proposed shrinkage test has a closed form and can be easily used to test the HWE for large datasets that result from genome-wide association studies. We compare the performance of the shrinkage test with existing methods using simulation studies, and apply the shrinkage test to a genome-wide association dataset for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23934751

  17. Evaluation of Am-241 organ burdens using a determinant method: analysis of six exposure cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years we have been actively involved in the design and construction of phantoms for the calibration of in vivo measurements used in the determination of skeletally-deposited Am-241. The phantom design and construction (which has been based on the simulation of the natural distribution observed in baboons and on the observed surface area distribution in humans) has been reported in this and previous annual reports. In addition to the design and construction of these, we have been actively involved in the measurement and intercomparison of calibration values for the lung and liver measurements using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory phantom. By incorporating the calibration values obtained from the measurement of the lung, liver and skeletal phantoms and all the possible cross-contributions between these measurement sites, we have developed a determinant solution for the estimation of Am-241 in these major deposition loci. We have applied this method to the measurement of the organ distribution of Am-241 in six exposure cases. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. [Hematoma of the abdominal wall. A case report: pitfall of Seldinger method via femoral artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Hisaya; Sugiura, Yasushi; Takeda, Ririko; Nanba, Hiroki

    2009-02-01

    We reported a case of an abdominal wall hematoma which caused by Seldinger method via the femoral artery. A 48-year-old female, suffered from direct carotid cavernous fistula, was treated by transfemoral transvenous embolization (TVE). The whole procedure was completed without difficulty except minor resistance of guide wire manipulation during left femoral artery catheterization. Four hours later, the patient became hypotensive and showed the sign of impending shock without definitive causes. Nine hours after the embolization a huge hematoma of the abdominal wall was found. It required the total 1200 m/ of blood transfusion before her blood pressure returned to normal. She recovered fully from this event and discharged uneventfully. There is a speculation that a deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) was injured with an angle-shaped guide wire and bled into the abdominal wall. And subsequent systemic heparinization prevented the coagulation process, resulting a large hematoma. Anatomically, an angle-shaped guide wire is easily able to migrate into DCIA. To prevent a vascular injury, it is very important to manipulate a guide wire under fluoroscopic control and to select a J-shaped guide wire instead of an angle-shaped one. PMID:19227158

  19. Using Statistical and Probabilistic Methods to Evaluate Health Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjing Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The toxic chemical and heavy metals within wastewater can cause serious adverse impacts on human health. Health risk assessment (HRA is an effective tool for supporting decision-making and corrective actions in water quality management. HRA can also help people understand the water quality and quantify the adverse effects of pollutants on human health. Due to the imprecision of data, measurement error and limited available information, uncertainty is inevitable in the HRA process. The purpose of this study is to integrate statistical and probabilistic methods to deal with censored and limited numbers of input data to improve the reliability of the non-cancer HRA of dermal contact exposure to contaminated river water by considering uncertainty. A case study in the Kelligrews River in St. John’s, Canada, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and capacity of the proposed approach. Five heavy metals were selected to evaluate the risk level, including arsenic, molybdenum, zinc, uranium and manganese. The results showed that the probability of the total hazard index of dermal exposure exceeding 1 is very low, and there is no obvious evidence of risk in the study area.

  20. Agent-based modelling as scientific method: a case study analysing primate social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Joanna J; Ando, Yasushi; Lehmann, Hagen

    2007-09-29

    A scientific methodology in general should provide two things: first, a means of explanation and, second, a mechanism for improving that explanation. Agent-based modelling (ABM) is a method that facilitates exploring the collective effects of individual action selection. The explanatory force of the model is the extent to which an observed meta-level phenomenon can be accounted for by the behaviour of its micro-level actors. This article demonstrates that this methodology can be applied to the biological sciences; agent-based models, like any other scientific hypotheses, can be tested, critiqued, generalized or specified. We review the state of the art for ABM as a methodology for biology and then present a case study based on the most widely published agent-based model in the biological sciences: Hemelrijk's DomWorld, a model of primate social behaviour. Our analysis shows some significant discrepancies between this model and the behaviour of the macaques, the genus used for our analysis. We also demonstrate that the model is not fragile: its other results are still valid and can be extended to compensate for these problems. This robustness is a standard advantage of experiment-based artificial intelligence modelling techniques over analytic modelling. PMID:17434852

  1. Catchments as simple dynamical systems: A case study on methods and data requirements for parameter identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke; Teuling, Adriaan; van Berkum, Sonja; Torfs, Paul; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    In many rainfall-runoff models at least some calibration of model parameters has to take place. Especially for ungauged or poorly gauged basins this can be problematic, because there is little or no data available for calibration. A possible solution to overcome the problems caused by data scarcity is to set up a measurement campaign for a short time period. With the employed approach based on the theory of Kirchner (2009), a model was developed and applied to the Rietholzbach catchment in Switzerland (Teuling et al., 2010, Seneviratne et al., 2012), with only two parameters. These two parameters describe a unique storage-discharge relation. The model is constructed such that the parameters can be determined not only with automatic calibration, but also by recession analysis and a priori from Boussinesq theory. The automatic calibration and the recession analysis have been fed with different selections of the full data record as well as with the full data record itself. For Boussinesq theory, catchment characteristics were given as required input. In the end, a comparison of the performance of the three different methods was made, and a comparison on the amount of data that is required by each of the three parameter identification methods. Melsen, L.A., Teuling, A.J., van Berkum, S.W., Torfs, P.J.J.F., Uijlenhoet, R. (2013) Catchments as simple dynamical systems: A case study on methods and data requirements for parameter identification, Water Resour. Res., under review References Kirchner, J.W. (2009), Catchments as simple dynamical systems: Catchment characterization, rainfall-runoff modeling, and doing hydrology backward, Water Resour. Res. 45:W02429. Seneviratne, S.I., I. Lehner, J. Gurtz, A.J. Teuling, H Lang, U. Moser, D. Grebner, L. Menzel, K. Schro, T. Vitvar, and M. Zappa (2012), Swiss prealpine Rietholzbach research catchment and lysimeter: 32 year time series and 2003 drought event, Water Resour. Res. 48:W06526. Teuling, A. J., I. Lehner, J. W. Kirchner

  2. Pay-for-performance as a method to establish the business case for quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John R C; White, Bert; Rauscher, Simone; Nahra, Tammie A; Reiter, Kristin L; Curtin, Kathleen M; Damberg, Cheryl L

    2007-01-01

    One of the major reasons providers give for not implementing promising quality-enhancing interventions (QEI) is that no "business case" for quality has been made. This article clarifies the concepts of the business case for quality and the related economic case for quality and identifies the perspectives of the various actors in health care financing, production, and consumption decisions. A methodology to evaluate the business case for quality from the perspective of payers and providers is presented. The article then uses implemented QEIs to show how a pay-for-performance (P4P) program can alter the business cases for payers and providers. Specifically, the P4P programs described in this article allow a provider to implement a QEI with the financial alignment of the payer in order to achieve financial and non-financial benefits. In some cases, providers and payers may be able to establish P4P programs providing net benefits for both parties. PMID:19172960

  3. The Ranking of Financing Methods in Urban Old Texture (Case Study of Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moayedfar

    2013-01-01

    final weight of 0.235 is in the second place in financing methods priority. On the other hand, considering the advantages of this method and also its high place in ranking due to criteria, more attention should be given to it.-As the results showed, the method of private sector participation is the best method for reconstructing and rehabilitating old urban texture. Thus, government officials need to consider this and provide required facilities to supply bonds.-To use private sector resources, whether in the form of investing in a project or the owner's participation, well and on time announcement of project's conditions is one of the main preconditions and advertisement and announcement are among the items which yet no investment is done for them and we can say that this is one of the problems in the reconstruction and rehabilitation of projects and solving it can be very useful for financing resources. -The rate of return was one important criterion in current research to attract private sector's partnership. So, it is necessary to consider profit rate in financing methods in a way that private sector's capitals instead of being invested in banks, be used in profitable urban projects which will either bring more economic profit or make the city more beautiful, healthier and with more and better services. -Designing new financing methods for reconstructing and rehabilitating old urban texture considering the criteria ranking of this research.Also, it is suggested that in the case of using AHP method, try to have more variation in financing methods.Key words: Financing, Partnership, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction, Old texture, Analytic Hierarchy Process AHPReferencesAkbari, N and Zahedi Keyvan, M. (2008. Application of ranking approaches and MADAM decision making. Tehran: Country Municipalities Organization.Akbari, N. and Tavasoli, N. (2009. Pathological and analyzing of municipal revenue sources (Isfahan city case study. Daricheh Quarterly, 20, 21-32.Alizadeh, A

  4. A Case Study of Teaching Marketing Research Using Client-Sponsored Projects: Method, Challenges, and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Liliana L.; Davies, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    This case study outlines the use of client-sponsored research projects in a quantitative postgraduate marketing research subject conducted in a 12-week semester in a research-intensive Australian university. The case study attempts to address the dearth of recent literature on client-sponsored research projects in the discipline of marketing.…

  5. Use of Case Study Methods in Human Resource Management, Development, and Training Courses: Strategies and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James R.; Gilberti, Anthony F.; Mupinga, Davison M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will study some of the problems associated with case studies and make recommendations using standard and innovative methodologies effectively. Human resource management (HRM) and resource development cases provide context for analysis and decision-making designs in different industries. In most HRM development and training courses…

  6. Potential for Single-Case Evaluation in Employment Services : Goal Attainment Scaling Method for Difficult-to-Employ Jobseekers

    OpenAIRE

    Piirainen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    Individual goal-setting in services is not a new topic. Goal-oriented work and the need for such are brought up for discussion occasionally. At the same time, it is usually mentioned that it is important to evaluate the attainment of goals. Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) is a single-case evaluation method developed for individual goal-setting and the evaluation of effects. The Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela) has introduced the method for use in their rehabilitation services...

  7. Evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation after surgery using the Ravitch and Nuss methods: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Bal-Bocheńska, Monika Anna

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitation may be helpful in the prevention of complications associated with the treatment of patients with pectus excavatum who are subjected to surgery using the Ravitch and Nuss methods. This paper presents the case of a patient who underwent successful physical rehabilitation after 8 weeks from the surgery using the combined method. As part of the Nuss procedure, two plates were implanted to form a scaffolding for the patient's chest, which had previously been corrected with the Ravit...

  8. Software projects effort estimation using “use case points” method in the context of Project Management Body of Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Montejano, Germán Antonio; Uzal, Roberto; Riesco, Daniel Eduardo; Debnath, Narayan C.

    2007-01-01

    As a contribution to consider software projects to be risk investments, it is important the full standardization of either the planning methodology (as a subset of project management methodology) and the effort estimation method. We think there is important and abundant evidence backing the convenience of the join use of Project Management Body of Knowledge and “Use case points” method in software project planning and control. Software development teams should share information, as it is impo...

  9. Case Studies in Low-Energy District Heating Systems: Determination of Dimensioning Methods for Planning the Future Heating Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Svendsen, Svend

    The climate crisis and the new technological possibilities for building low energy buildings give the opportunity to improve the municipal heating systems. The heating demand will be less in the future and renewable energy has to be integrated in the design of district heating systems. The paper...... future’s sustainable and energy efficient heating infrastructure. In this paper, a case study which focuses on dimensioning method of piping network of low-energy DH system in a new settlement, located in Roskilde Municipality, Denmark, is presented. In addition to the developed dimensioning method......, results about the optimal network layout and substation type for low-energy DH systems are also pointed out regarding to this case study. A second case study, included in this paper, focuses on technical and economical aspects of replacing natural gas heating system to low-energy DH system in an existing...

  10. Detecting Well Casing Leaks in Bangladesh Using a Salt Spiking Method

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, M.O.; Ong, J.B.; Harvey, C. F.; Johnson, C. D.; Badruzzaman, A.B.M.; Tarek, M.H.; van Geen, A.; J. A. Anderson; Lane, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    We apply fluid-replacement logging in arsenic-contaminated regions of Bangladesh using a low-cost, down-well fluid conductivity logging tool to detect leaks in the cased section of wells. The fluid-conductivity tool is designed for the developing world: it is lightweight and easily transportable, operable by one person, and can be built for minimal cost. The fluid-replacement test identifies leaking casing by comparison of fluid conductivity logs collected before and after spiking the wellbor...

  11. Traumatic Rupture of the Isthmic Aorta. Diagnostic Methods and Therapeutic Options. Case Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Bindea; Ioan Mureşan; Teodora Mihai; Lucia Kesseri; Emese Kovacs; Traian Scridon

    2014-01-01

    Acute traumatic rupture of the aortic isthmus constitutes a major challenge for the cardiovascular surgeon. The traditional management of this pathology has been, in most cases, repair of the injury as soon as possible. Although techniques in aortic surgery have improved over the years, morbidity and mortality rates still remain high. The high death rate is often the result of the associated injuries that may be present in the patient who has experienced major trauma.We present here the case ...

  12. The Art of Empathy: A Mixed Methods Case Study of a Critical Place-Based Art Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertling, Joy Gaulden

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods case study examined middle school students' empathy with the environment within a critical place-based art classroom. The curriculum was informed by the ecological imagination, which calls for a new mode of education: education that embraces the arts as a way to conceive of pro-ecological perspectives, other ways of being…

  13. A Comparison of Case Study and Traditional Teaching Methods for Improvement of Oral Communication and Critical-Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Lynnette; Vance, Diane E.; Smith, Michelle L. DePoy

    2010-01-01

    This study compares a traditional paper presentation approach and a case study method for the development and improvement of oral communication skills and critical-thinking skills in a class of junior forensic science majors. A rubric for rating performance in these skills was designed on the basis of the oral communication competencies developed…

  14. The Role of Trust in Virtual and Interpersonal Environments: Implications for Team Learning and Case Method Pedagogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Anne M.; Jayakar, Krishna P.; Erickson, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    Reports on research undertaken in a telecommunications management course. Investigates how communication technology can facilitate team learning. Describes a quasi-experiment designed to observe the interaction among the pedagogies of team learning, active learning (the case method), and computer-mediated learning. (PM)

  15. Impacts modeling using the SPH particulate method. Case study; Modelisation d'impacts par la methode particulaire SPH. Etude de cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debord, R

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study is the modeling of the impact of melted metal on the reactor vessel head in the case of a core-meltdown accident. Modeling using the classical finite-element method alone is not sufficient but requires a coupling with particulate methods in order to take into account the behaviour of the corium. After a general introduction about particulate methods, the Nabor and SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) methods are described. Then, the theoretical and numerical reliability of the SPH method is determined using simple cases. In particular, the number of neighbours significantly influences the preciseness of calculations. Also, the mesh of the structure must be adapted to the mesh of the fluid in order to reduce the edge effects. Finally, this study has shown that the values of artificial velocity coefficients used in the simulation of the BERDA test performed by the FZK Karlsruhe (Germany) are not correct. The domain of use of these coefficients was precised during a low speed impact. (J.S.)

  16. Choquet integral as an alternative aggregation method to measure the overall academic performance of primary school students: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Maznah Mat; Abdullah, Siti Rohana Goh

    2014-07-01

    Many average methods are available to aggregate a set of numbers to become single number. However these methods do not consider the interdependencies between the criteria of the related numbers. This paper is highlighting the Choquet Integral method as an alternative aggregation method where the interdependency estimates between the criteria are comprised in the aggregation process. The interdependency values can be estimated by using lambda fuzzy measure method. By considering the interdependencies or interaction between the criteria, the resulted aggregated values are more meaningful as compared to the ones obtained by normal average methods. The application of the Choquet Integral is illustrated in a case study of finding the overall academic achievement of year six pupils in a selected primary school in a northern state of Malaysia.

  17. The Paradox of "Structured" Methods for Software Requirements Management: A Case Study of an e-Government Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Kieran; Lang, Michael

    This chapter outlines the alternative perspectives of "rationalism" and "improvisation" within information systems development and describes the major shortcomings of each. It then discusses how these shortcomings manifested themselves within an e-government case study where a "structured" requirements management method was employed. Although this method was very prescriptive and firmly rooted in the "rational" paradigm, it was observed that users often resorted to improvised behaviour, such as privately making decisions on how certain aspects of the method should or should not be implemented.

  18. The zhou’s method for solving the nonlinear lane-emden type equations: a special case

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Pedro P.; Devia, Diana M.; Mesa, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    In this work we apply the differential transformation method (the Zhou’s method) for solving some classes of Lane- Emden type equations as a model for the dimensionless density distribution in an isothermal gas sphere, which are nonlinear ordinary differential equations on the semi-infinite domain, as a special case y′′ + 2 y′ +ey = 0 and y′′ + 2 y′ + e−y = 0. Differential transformation method may be considered as alternative and efficient for finding the approximate solutions of the initial...

  19. Method of evaluating the impact of ERP implementation critical success factors - a case study in oil and gas industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic, Gordana; Stankovski, Stevan; Ostojic, Gordana; Tesic, Zdravko; Miladinovic, Ljubomir

    2014-01-01

    The so far implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have in many cases failed to meet the requirements regarding the business process control, decrease of business costs and increase of company profit margin. Therefore, there is a real need for an evaluation of the influence of ERP on the company's performance indicators. Proposed in this article is an advanced model for the evaluation of the success of ERP implementation on organisational and operational performance indicators in oil-gas companies. The recommended method establishes a correlation between a process-based method, a scorecard model and ERP critical success factors. The method was verified and tested on two case studies in oil-gas companies using the following procedure: the model was developed, tested and implemented in a pilot gas-oil company, while the results were implemented and verified in another gas-oil company.

  20. Symplectic Partitioned Runge-Kutta Methods with Minimum Phase Lag - Case of 5 Stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we consider explicit Symplectic Partitioned Runge-Kutta methods (SPRK) with five stages for problems with separable Hamiltonian. We construct a new method with constant coefficients third algebraic order and eighth phase-lag order.

  1. THE COST MANAGEMENT BY APPLYING THE STANDARD COSTING METHOD IN THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY-Case study

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Mărginean

    2013-01-01

    Among the modern calculation methods used in managerial accounting, with a large applicability in the industrial production field, we can find the standard costing method. This managerial approach of cost calculation has a real value in the managerial accounting field, due to its usefulness in forecasting production costs, helping the managers in the decision making process. The standard costing method in managerial accounting is part of modern managerial accounting methods, used in many ente...

  2. Mixed methods in emerging academic subdisciplines: the case of sport management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.-W. van der Roest; R. Spaaij; M. van Bottenburg

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and characteristics of mixed methods research in the relatively new subdiscipline of sport management. A mixed methods study is undertaken to evaluate the epistemological/philosophical, methodological, and technical levels of mixed methods design in sport managem

  3. Mixed Methods in Emerging Academic Subdisciplines : The Case of Sport Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Spaaij, Ramón; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and characteristics of mixed methods research in the relatively new subdiscipline of sport management. A mixed methods study is undertaken to evaluate the epistemological/philosophical, methodological, and technical levels of mixed methods design in sport managem

  4. Mixed Methods in Emerging Academic Subdisciplines: The Case of Sport Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Roest, Jan-Willem; Spaaij, Ramón; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and characteristics of mixed methods research in the relatively new subdiscipline of sport management. A mixed methods study is undertaken to evaluate the epistemological/philosophical, methodological, and technical levels of mixed methods design in sport management research. The results indicate that mixed…

  5. [The Moral Deliberation: The Clinical Ethics Method. Presentation of a Paediatric Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuesta, Juana; Vásquez, Pablo; Roa, Juan David; Acuña, Hilda

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making is one of the most difficult tasks of medical judgment, especially when cases involve paediatric patients with different cultural characteristics. It is the obligation of clinical ethics, taking the interdisciplinary approach as a tool to comprehensively analyse the clinical, social, cultural and legal aspects, among other topics, when choosing the treatment options that will be more beneficial for the patient. A clinical case, should enable this process of analysis and teamwork to be understood in practical way in order to address difficult medical problems. PMID:27569017

  6. Nose and Midface Augmentation by Rib Cartilage Grafts: Methods and Outcome in 32 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Adham Farouk; Saad Ibrahiem

    2015-01-01

    Recession of the midface is a relatively common condition that can have a negative impact on facial and nasal aesthetic appearance, and it poses a challenge to plastic surgeons. In cases with generalized maxillary retrusion and/or malocclusion, bone advancement surgery is required, but in localized cases, mostly seen in cleft lip patients, the quest is for an ideal material and a proper technique that would be used to augment the receding area. Throughout a period of seven years, thirty-two p...

  7. Radiofrequency kyphoplasty: a new method for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licht AW

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From January 2005 to December 2008, a total of 148 patients with 205 vertebral fractures were treated with the balloon kyphoplasty system of Medtronic Company at the Asklepios Südpfalzkliniken in Kandel. The outcome of the procedure was favourable. During this period, cement leakages were observed in 27 % of cases, and a pulmonary embolism requiring intervention occurred in one case. Since February 2009, 21 patients with 26 vertebral fractures have been manutreated by the new radiofrequency kyphoplasty procedure of DFine Company. Very good clinical results have been obtained with this method.

  8. Indication, methods and results of selective arteriography of the A. iliaca interna in case of erectile dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehren, W.; Gall, H.; Scherb, W.; Thon, W.

    1988-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction very frequently can be traced back to the real cause by means of angiography. Selective angiography is the method of choice in cases where other causes of circulatory disturbance have already been excluded, and non-invasive tests are expected to yield information of relevance to therapy. The qualitatively best angiographic results are obtained by examination under peridural anesthesia and by intracavitary injection of vaso-active substances. Selective arteriography is indicated in cases of primary or post-traumatic erectile dysfunction. It is a prerequisite of surgery for revascularisation of the pudendal-penile vascular bed.

  9. Indication, methods and results of selective arteriography of the A. iliaca interna in case of erectile dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erectile dysfunction very frequently can be traced back to the real cause by means of angiography. Selective angiography is the method of choice in cases where other causes of circulatory disturbance have already been excluded, and non-invasive tests are expected to yield information of relevance to therapy. The qualitatively best angiographic results are obtained by examination under peridural anesthesia and by intracavitary injection of vaso-active substances. Selective arteriography is indicated in cases of primary or post-traumatic erectile dysfunction. It is a prerequisite of surgery for revascularisation of the pudendal-penile vascular bed. (orig./MG)

  10. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - I. Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negri, E; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Dal Maso, L; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Kleinerman, R; Land, C; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hallquist, A; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Braga, C; La Vecchia, C

    1999-01-01

    Objective. Because the etiology of thyroid cancer is not well described, we conducted a pooled analysis of all published case-control studies, as well as two identified unpublished studies. This paper describes the major characteristics of the 14 studies included in the analysis, as well as the stat

  11. Cases on Digital Game-Based Learning: Methods, Models, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Youngkyun; Whitton, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    In K-12 classrooms, as well as on the college and university level, the incorporation of digital games has played a vital role in the educational system. While introducing teachers to new fields, these digital games have been designed and implemented for the classroom and have shown positive results at a variety of educational levels. Cases on…

  12. A Method of Developing and Introducing Case-Based Learning to a Preclinical Veterinary Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Emma; Baillie, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Case-based learning (CBL) has been introduced as part of a major review of the veterinary curriculum at the University of Bristol. The initial aim was to improve integration between all first year subjects, i.e., basic science disciplines (anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry), animal management, and professional studies, while highlighting the…

  13. Advancing Higher Education with Mobile Learning Technologies: Cases, Trends, and Inquiry-Based Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared, Ed.; Maxfield, Marian B., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advancements in technology are creating new opportunities for educators to enhance their classroom techniques with digital learning resources. Once used solely outside of the classroom, smartphones, tablets, and e-readers are becoming common in many school settings. "Advancing Higher Education with Mobile Learning Technologies: Cases,…

  14. Cell-Phone Use and Cancer: A Case Study Exploring the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon Parrilla, Wilma V.

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an introductory nonmajors biology course, this case study presents students with a series of short news stories describing a scientific study of cell-phone use and its health effects. Students read the news stories and then the scientific paper they are based on, comparing the information presented by the news media to the information…

  15. The Research of Through-casing Resistivity Logging Logging Calibration System Leakage Current Measurement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jiatian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the logging principle of through-casing resistivity logging technology, finds a phenomenon that the leakage current measurements are susceptible to sufferring interferences. The through-casing resistivity logging technology in Russia and that of Schlumberger are studied, and the system of through-casing resistivity logging is established to improve the accuracy of calibrating, testing and measuring of the instrument. In this paper, distribution parameters of the form is replaced by the lumped parameter, and precision resistor array simulation in formation leakage current and scale pool simulation in different resistivity of formation are conducted, which make the dynamic range of the simulation in formation resistivity of the medium increase to 1- 300 Ω·m and meet the requirement of through-casing resistivity logging technology measurement range, 1 Ω·m ~ 100 Ω·m. Since the measuring signals of calibration acquisition and processing systems are extremely weak and calculation signals need to tell the nV (nanovolts level, the high accurate data acquisition system of 24 digits is applied.

  16. Strategic Planning for Tourism Development by SWOT Method (Case Study: Shiraz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hadiani

    2012-01-01

    be considered in Shiraz. To achieve this, the strategy to familiarize hotels and travel agencies managers with new methods of advertising and marketing of tourism, increase awareness of tourism interested in the unique attractions of Shiraz city and surrounding areas. Consequently increase the number of tourists and increase tourists to stay in the city is practical. However SO1 invasive strategy with 7.3 scores is considered as the most effective strategy for the conservative strategy. To achieve goals and enjoying the tourist development strategy, strengthening and increasing the amount of facilities and services offered alongside the importance of tourism attractions and resources in national and international levels, with the aim of attracting more tourists, especially the satisfaction of foreign tourists in order to introduce position of historic -civilization sites of Shiraz to other countries are recommended with the aim of attracting even more foreign tourists and create sustainable employment and income on the other hand.Keywords: strategic planning; tourism development; SWOT; city of Shiraz.RefrencesAbdollahi, A., (2009. Change the role (function of old tissue to the tourism attractions of Shiraz, Past, Present, Future, M.Sc thesis in Urban Planning Geography, Supervisor by Zohreh Hadiani, University of Sistan and Baluchestan.Behzadfar, M., Zamanian, R., (2007. Application of Multi-Criteria Decision Making for AHP Process in Tourism Planning, International Engineer Science Leaflet, Vol. 19, No.6. Behzadfar, M., Zamanian, R., (2008. Strategic Planning for Tourism Development with Emphasize On Product Sector Case Study: Neyshabour County, International Engineer Science Leaflet, Vol. 19, No. 6Boniface, P., Fowler, P.J., (1993. Heritage and Tourism in the Global Village, London.Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Fars, (2008. Performance Summary of Tourism Activities in Fars, with an Approach to Strategies and Policies during the Years

  17. An integrated assessment method of urban drainage system:A case study in Shenzhen City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,the urban drainage system in China is facing the dual pressure of renovation and construction.This requires that the integrated assessment for the planning and operation of the urban drainage system is obligatory.To evaluate the urban drainage system,an integrated assessment methodology based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP),integrated simulation,and fuzzy assessment is established.This method is a multi-criteria decision adding approach to the assessment of the urban drainage system comprehensively.Through the integration of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM),a simple wastewater treatment plant model,and a surface water quality model,an integrated modelling system for the urban drainage system is developed and applied as a key tool for assessment.Using the established method,a case study in Shenzhen City has been implemented to evaluate and compare two urban drainage system renovation plans,the distributed plan and the centralized plan.Because of the particularity of this case study,the established method is not applied entirely.Considering the water environmental impact,ecological impact,technological feasibility,and economic cost,the integrated performance of the distributed plan is better.As shown in this case study,the proposed method is found to be both effective and practical.

  18. Purists need not apply: the case for pragmatism in mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczak, Kristine L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this column is to describe several different ways of conducting mixed method research. The paradigms that underpin both qualitative and quantitative research are also considered along with a cursory review of classical pragmatism as it relates conducting mixed methods studies. Finally, the idea of loosely coupled systems as a means to support mixed methods studies is proposed along with several caveats to researchers who desire to use this new way of obtaining knowledge. PMID:25248767

  19. Method and Practice of Extensive Reading : A Case Study at Hirosaki University

    OpenAIRE

    Onodera, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the method and practice of the extensive reading program at Hirosaki University. Extensive reading methods and practices have been developed in foreign countries since the 1980s. Extensive reading has been said to enhance the learner's reading ability dramatically, especially in reading speed and reading comprehension. As teachers of English as a foreign language, we have explored the best methods of extensive reading suitable for students at Hirosaki University, and hav...

  20. Effects of Sampling Methods on Prediction Quality. The Case of Classifying Land Cover Using Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Hochreiter, Ronald; Waldhauser, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Clever sampling methods can be used to improve the handling of big data and increase its usefulness. The subject of this study is remote sensing, specifically airborne laser scanning point clouds representing different classes of ground cover. The aim is to derive a supervised learning model for the classification using CARTs. In order to measure the effect of different sampling methods on the classification accuracy, various experiments with varying types of sampling methods, sample sizes, a...

  1. A case for ''other'' geophysical methods in exploration for uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report demonstrates that non-radiometric geophysical methods have important applications to uranium exploration problems. Gravity, magnetic, electromagnetic, and induced-polarization surveys, conducted on regional and local scales over a wide variety of uranium deposits, are described. The geophysical data indicate that no one geophysical method will always succeed in identifying favourable areas for uranium deposits. The successful application of any geophysical method depends upon an understanding of the probable geochemical and geological environment of a uranium deposit. (author)

  2. A method to identify Resources of opportunity: illustration by an industrial case

    CERN Document Server

    Lyonnet, Barbara; Pralus, Magali; Guizzi, Ludovic; Habchi, Georges

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a method that would enable the company to prioritize the means contributing the most to its performance. The proposed method is based on the profit margin (an economical performance measure of the company), the customer's risk, the costs of maintenance and the employee's safety. The prioritization method of resources was applied to the data obtained from a small subcontracting business in mechanics. The theoretical foundations of this method are based on a multi-criteria approach using the attribution of criticality indexes for nine criteria linked to the financial loss.

  3. Malaria incidence in children in South-West Burkina Faso: comparison of active and passive case detection methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred B Tiono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and seasonal pattern of malaria in children in South-West Burkina Faso, and to compare, in a randomized trial, characteristics of cases detected by active and passive surveillance. This study also enabled the planning of a malaria vaccine trial. METHODS: Households with young children, located within 5 kilometers of a health facility, were randomized to one of two malaria surveillance methods. In the first group, children were monitored actively. Each child was visited twice weekly; tympanic temperature was measured, and if the child had a fever or history of fever, a malaria rapid diagnostic test was performed and a blood smear collected. In the second group, children were monitored passively. The child's parent or caregiver was asked to bring the child to the nearest clinic if he was unwell. Follow up lasted 13 months from September 2009. RESULTS: Incidence of malaria (Fever with parasitaemia ≥5,000/µL was 1.18 episodes/child/year in the active cohort and 0.89 in the passive cohort (rate ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.13-1.54. Malaria cases in the passive cohort were more likely to have high grade fever; but parasite densities were similar in the two groups. Incidence was highly seasonal; when a specific case definition was used, about 60% of cases occurred within the 4 months June-September. CONCLUSION: Passive case detection required at least a 30%-40% increase in the sample size for vaccine trials, compared to active detection, to achieve the same power. However we did not find any evidence that parasite densities were higher with passive than with active detection. The incidence of malaria is highly seasonal and meets the WHO criteria for Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC. At least half of the malaria cases in these children could potentially be prevented if SMC was effectively deployed.

  4. The influence of alternative pedagogical methods in postsecondary biology education: How do students experience a multimedia case-study environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Bjorn Hugo Karl

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how an online, multimedia case study method influenced students' motivation, performance, and perceptions of science in collegiate level biology classes. It utilized a mix-methods design including data from pre- and post-test, student surveys, and focus group interviews to answer one primary question, did participation in the affect student performance? Two sub-questions were: (a) did participation affect persistence? and (b) did students believe it to be a good learning experience? One hundred and eight students in 5 classes from 4 campuses in the United States and Puerto Rico participated in this study during spring semester 2009. After receiving instruction on HIV, students took a 6 questions pre-test to measure their initial knowledge of both HIV and lab procedures. Participants then engaged in the Case It! learning environment, where they watched case-studies on HIV, used virtual lab tools, created an online poster of their findings, and role-played as both family members and physicians about their case. A post-test identical to the pre-test was given to students upon completion. Both were then scored using rubrics and analyzed via paired t-Tests and ANOVA. The researcher visited all 4 study sites to conduct both the focus group interviews and student surveys. Student surveys were quantified and descriptive statistics generated. Focus group interviews were video recorded, transcribed, and inductively and deductively coded. Student knowledge increased because of participation, and the majority of students said they found the Case It! project to be both a good learning experience (95%) and one that would help with future classes or careers (87%). Based on student interviews, the Case It! project did have a beneficial impact on students' intentions to persist as science majors. Many students noted that the learning environment created an overall context in which they could apply knowledge from multiple classes

  5. Bone paracoccidioidomycosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: evaluation by radiological methods - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease, caused by the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis fungus. This disease involves primarily the lungs, although disseminated forms may occur. Bone involvement is rare, and is associated to systemic disease or may present as a focal lesion. An association between paracoccidioidomycosis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first established in 1989. There are only a few reports on this association, and none of them was the fungus isolated from bone lesions. This is the first case report on the paracoccidioidomycosis-AIDS association in which bone lesions demonstrated infection by P. brasiliensis. The authors propose the inclusion of paracoccidioidomycosis in the differential diagnosis of lytic bone lesions in patients with AIDS and discuss the role of radiological diagnostic in this case. (author)

  6. Point-splitting as a regularization method for λφ4-type vertices: Abelian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtained regularized Abelian Lagrangians containing λφ4 -type vertices by means of a suitable point-splitting procedure. The calculation is developed in details for a general Lagrangian, whose fields (gauge and matter ones) satisfy certain conditions. We illustrates our results by considering some special cases, such as the Abelian Higgs, the (ψ-barψ)2 and the Avdeev-Chizov (real rank-2 antisymmetric tensor as matter fields) models. We also discuss some features of the obtained Lagrangian such as the regularity and non-locality of its new integrating terms. Moreover, the resolution of the Abelian case may teach us some useful technical aspects when dealing with the non-Abelian one. (author)

  7. Sea surface salinity reconstruction as seen with foraminifera shells: Methods and cases studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaizé B.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of past salinities in surface oceans (SSS can be done by measuring the isotopic composition of foraminifera shells found in the deep sea sediments. The proportion of heavy oxygen isotopes (18O in the calcite of these shells depend on the temperature and the isotopic oxygen composition of the surrounded waters (δ18 Osw, this latter parameter depending on the water salinity. Mainly two equations allows to reconstructed past SSS, one estimating past temperature variations and the other one changes in the δ18 Osw through time. Uncertainties linked with these calculation can be important, and therefore quantitative reconstructions need to be taken with cautions. For some specific cases, uncertainties on temperature and δ18 Osw estimations can be reduced. For such cases, salinity reconstructions showing amplitude changes higher than 1 per mil can be considered as significative.

  8. The Examination of Change Management Using Qualitative Methods: A Case Industry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron C. T.; Evans, Daniel M.; Westerbeek, Hans M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the number of theories explaining the nature and antecedents of change, there is no consensus on a universally applicable model. Competing theories have been tested using deductive methods focusing on hypothesis testing. This study has utilized qualitative methods for collecting data within the sport industry to provide an initial…

  9. Application of multi-locus analytical methods to identify interacting loci in case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Sham, P.; Knight, J.

    2007-01-01

    To identify interacting loci in genetic epidemiological studies the application of multi-locus methods of analysis is warranted. Several more advanced classification methods have been developed in the past years, including multiple logistic regression, sum statistics, logic regression, and the multi

  10. Music behind Scores: Case Study of Learning Improvisation with "Playback Orchestra" Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, P.; Ruokonen, I.; Ruismäki, H.

    2015-01-01

    For music students in the early stages of learning, the music may seem to be hidden behind the scores. To support home practising, Juntunen has created the "Playback Orchestra" method with which the students can practise with the support of the notation program playback of the full orchestra. The results of testing the method with…

  11. The nuclear analytical method in historical science: the case of precious metals from the new world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power of the nuclear analytical method using a cyclotron to solve the economic problems of contempory history is demonstrated with two examples. This method allows, for the first time, to estimate the percentage and therefore the true contribution of American silver and gold to European monetary and economic growth in the 16th early 17th and in the 18th century

  12. Incorporating Formative Assessment and Science Content into Elementary Science Methods--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Derek John

    2012-01-01

    Just as elementary students enter the science classroom with prior knowledge and experiences, so do preservice elementary teachers who enter the science methods classroom. Elementary science methods instructors recognize the challenges associated with preparing teachers for the science classroom. Two of these challenges include overcoming limited…

  13. Diagnosing Developmental Dyscalculia on the Basis of Reliable Single Case FMRI Methods: Promises and Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkel, P. H.; Willmes, Klaus; Krinzinger, Helga; Konrad, Kerstin; Koten Jr, Jan Willem

    2013-01-01

    FMRI-studies are mostly based on a group study approach, either analyzing one group or comparing multiple groups, or on approaches that correlate brain activation with clinically relevant criteria or behavioral measures. In this study we investigate the potential of fMRI-techniques focusing on individual differences in brain activation within a test-retest reliability context. We employ a single-case analysis approach, which contrasts dyscalculic children with a control group of typically dev...

  14. Diagnosing developmental dyscalculia on the basis of reliable single case FMRI methods : promises and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkel, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    FMRI-studies are mostly based on a group study approach, either analyzing one group or comparing multiple groups, or on approaches that correlate brain activation with clinically relevant criteria or behavioral measures. In this study we investigate the potential of fMRI-techniques focusing on individual differences in brain activation within a test-retest reliability context. We employ a single-case analysis approach, which contrasts dyscalculic children with a control group of typically dev...

  15. ESTIMATING HAZARD RATIOS IN NESTED CASE-CONTROL STUDIES BY MANTEL-HAENSZEL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠占

    2001-01-01

    In this article, a class of Mantel-Haenszel type estimators of hazard ratios in proportional hazards model is presented for simple nested case-control study. The estimators have the form of the Mantel-Haenszel estimator of odds ratios, and it is shown that the estimators are dually consistent, and asymptotically normal. Dually consistently estimated covariance matrices of the proposed estimators are also developed. An example is given to illustrate the estimators.

  16. The use of marine geophysical methods in Geo-Engineering investigations of Dams/ Barrages - a case study of Kosi Barrage

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Naidu, P.D.

    Geophysical Methods in Geo-Engineering Investigations of Dams/ Barrages - A Case Study of Kosi Barrage INTRODUCTION KH. Vora* P. Divakar Naidu* Dams and barrages are such civil engineering structures where foundation is submerged. The impounded water column... AND POWER ..--------------------------;:=:::;:=======::::::;1 OCTOBER 1990 CLI ... c: c: 0 0 B N .~ .... 00- c: U CLI 0 CLI ~ ... ~ .... :0 c: CLI U L. III CLI u .... .:- Cl c: 0 CLI 0 ... 0 ...J W a.. u: fEI~·~ • OCTOBER 1990 GEOPHYSICAL METHODS IN GEe-ENGINEERING...

  17. Decoupling multivariable GPC with reference observation and feed-forward compensation method Case Study: Neonate incubator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Zermani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focused on a design of an algorithm for decoupling multivariable systems based on generalized predictive control (DGPC. Two techniques are developed and compared for decoupling of TITO (Two-Input, Two-Output processes. The first method is based on adding compensators between the upper and lower control paths. According to the second method, we use an adaptive error weighting factor in cost function in order to reduce coupling between control loops. Both different decoupling methods are applied and compared to the multivariable control of incubator system.

  18. Level set discrete element method for three-dimensional computations with triaxial case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Reid; Andò, Edward; Viggiani, Gioacchino; Andrade, José E.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we outline the level set discrete element method (LS-DEM) which is a discrete element method variant able to simulate systems of particles with arbitrary shape using level set functions as a geometric basis. This unique formulation allows seamless interfacing with level set-based characterization methods as well as computational ease in contact calculations. We then apply LS-DEM to simulate two virtual triaxial specimens generated from XRCT images of experiments and demonstrate LS-DEM's ability to quantitatively capture and predict stress-strain and volume-strain behavior observed in the experiments.

  19. Modified method of T-tube placement in cases of ruptured choledochal cyst having complete loss of anterior wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Intezar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Survival rates for infants and children who have choledochal cyst with or without spontaneous rupture have improved dramatically in the past decades. Despite excellent long-term survival for patients with choledochal cyst who undergo elective surgery, many significant complications can occur in the patients being operated in emergency for rupture of the cyst. Spontaneous rupture of the cyst is one such problem resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality in these patients. Majority of surgeons manage these cases with T-tube external drainage. The conventional methods of T-tube placement for long period has remained simple as described in choledochotomies where there is no deficit of the walls of common bile duct (CBD. The present technique has been designed specially for the cases of ruptured choledochal cyst, where the wall of the CBD gets necrosed leaving behind a long gap between the two ends. In these cases, placement of T-tube with conventional method is not possible because there is no wall to suture together, and make the CBD water tight again to prevent leakage of bile. We found only two patients of spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst with a long gap between two ends of CBD because of necrosed anterior wall. In both of these patients, it was not possible to put T-tube with traditional method and one would have to opt for primary definitive repair despite poor general condition of patients.

  20. New methods for solving a vertex p-center problem with uncertain demand-weighted distance: A real case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Nematian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertex and p-center problems are two well-known types of the center problem. In this paper, a p-center problem with uncertain demand-weighted distance will be introduced in which the demands are considered as fuzzy random variables (FRVs and the objective of the problem is to minimize the maximum distance between a node and its nearest facility. Then, by introducing new methods, the proposed problem is converted to deterministic integer programming (IP problems where these methods will be obtained through the implementation of the possibility theory and fuzzy random chance-constrained programming (FRCCP. Finally, the proposed methods are applied for locating bicycle stations in the city of Tabriz in Iran as a real case study. The computational results of our study show that these methods can be implemented for the center problem with uncertain frameworks.

  1. Analytical methods in heavy quark physics and the case of $\\tau_{1/2}(w)$

    OpenAIRE

    Yaouanc, A. Le

    2004-01-01

    Analytical methods in heavy quark physics are shortly reviewed, with emphasis on the problems of dynamical calculations. Then, attention is attracted to the various difficulties raised by a tentative experimental determination of $\\tau_{1/2}$

  2. Supervised Learning with Hybrid Global Optimisation Methods. Case Study: Automated Recognition and Classification of Cork Tiles

    OpenAIRE

    Georgieva, Antoniya; jordanov, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Here has been presented an overview of our recent research findings. Initially, a novel Global Optimisation technique, called LPO, has been investigated and proposed. The method is based on LP Low-discrepancy Sequences and novel heuristic rules for guiding the search. Subsequently, LPO has been hybridized with Nelder-Mead local search, showing very good results for low-dimensional problems. Nevertheless, with the increase of problems dimensionality, method's computational load increases consi...

  3. Assessment the performance of classification methods in water quality studies, A case study in Karaj River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizadeh, Mohamad

    2015-09-01

    To show the performance of classification methods in water quality studies, linear discriminant, and Naïve Bayesian classification methods were applied at nine sampling stations with respect to four parameters including COD, nitrite, nitrate, and total coliforms (selected from ten water quality variables) in Karaj River, Iran. To fulfill the goals of this study, the sampling stations were first separated into two groups using cluster analysis. Rural wastewater was the main source of pollution in the first group, whereas the quality of water in the second group has been degraded mainly by organic and agricultural pollution. In order to have an independent group against which the performance of other classification methods is considered, three cross-validation methods including twofold, leave-one-out, and holdout methods were utilized to retain an independent test set. The results of cross-validation for the linear discriminant analysis show that, except for the leave-one-out method with 11.1 % misclassification error, the overall performance has been the same as that of the training data set. Therefore, it has outperformed compared with that of Naïve Bayesian classification method. However, even though in situations where the correlation coefficient among the parameters is low, the latest method can offer the same performance as that of linear discriminant analysis as well. A sensitivity analysis was implemented using ten water quality variables (pH, COD, EC, TDA, turbidity, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, TC, and FC) to find the most important variables in the classification of Karaj River showing that turbidity, next to COD, pH, nitrate, and sulfate, have had the most contribution in this field. PMID:26275762

  4. EXPRESS METHOD OF ESTIMATION OF THE POTENTIAL TERRITORIAL RISK IN CASE OF ACCIDENTS ON TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Biliaiev; L. Ya. Muntian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The present research is aimed to the development of a method to assess the potential territorial risk in accidents on the railways, which takes into account the specificity of the chemically hazardous substances emission in emergency situations during their transportation. Methodology. The basis of the proposed method is numerical modeling of the transfer process is chemically dangerous substances in the atmosphere. The basis of the numerical model is the equation of convective-diffu...

  5. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer) and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana) regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moder...

  6. Introducing agile methods in a large software development organisation: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Giblin, Mary

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed The adoption of agile methods of software development has gained momentum within the software industry. NW Soft Solutions Ltd. (a pseudonym) is a large software development unit that develops large-scale network centric software solutions. NW Soft Solutions Ltd decided to adopt an agile development methodology. Martin Fowler in his article ???The New Methodology???, states that in his opinion ???Since agile methods are so fundamentally people-oriented, it's ess...

  7. Business Sample Survey Measurement on Statistical Thinking and Methods Adoption: the Case of Croatian Small Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Berislav Žmuk

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate attitudes of management in Croatian small enterprises that use statistical methods towards statistical thinking in order to gain an insight into related issues. The research was conducted in 2013 using a web survey with a random sample of 631 Croatian small enterprises, but this paper focuses only on those enterprises that use statistical methods. In order to get detailed information, a complex stratified sample survey design was used. In the a...

  8. The Use of Multiple Methods of Engagement: A Case Study of Foreign & Colonial Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Isukul, Araniyar

    2013-01-01

    The central aim of the thesis is to examine the use of multiple methods in institutional investors‟ engagement in the UK. In pursuit of that aim, the thesis seeks to examine institutional investors‟ engagement through the agency theory framework. Previous research on institutional investors‟ engagement has failed to illuminate the ways in which institutional investors‟ engagement in corporate governance and corporate social responsibility is applying multiple methods to engagement; particular...

  9. Geneious! Simplified genome skimming methods for phylogenetic systematic studies: A case study in Oreocarya (Boraginaceae) 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ripma, Lee A.; Simpson, Michael G.; Hasenstab-Lehman, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: As systematists grapple with how to best harness the power of next-generation sequencing (NGS), a deluge of review papers, methods, and analytical tools make choosing the right method difficult. Oreocarya (Boraginaceae), a genus of 63 species, is a good example of a group lacking both species-level resolution and genomic resources. The use of Geneious removes bioinformatic barriers and makes NGS genome skimming accessible to even the least tech-savvy systematists. • Me...

  10. Nonlinear methods in the analysis of protein sequences: a case study in rubredoxins.

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliani, A.; Benigni, R; Sirabella, P.; Zbilut, J P; A. Colosimo

    2000-01-01

    Two computational methods widely used in time series analysis were applied to protein sequences, and their ability to derive structural information not directly accessible through classical sequence comparisons methods was assessed. The primary structures of 19 rubredoxins of both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, coded with hydrophobicity values of amino acid residues, were considered as time series and were analyzed by 1) recurrence quantification analysis and 2) spectral analysis of th...

  11. A semi-directive interview method to analyze behavioral changes: a focus on two cases studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rocci, A

    2009-01-01

    The surveying of travel behavior changes toward more sustainable mobility practices raises many methodological questions. First is the choice of method, determining how to analyze these behavioral changes via their contextual, temporal, and multifactor dynamics, while attempting to control possible biases. This paper proposes an examination of the use of qualitative methods through two empirical research projects and finds that the order and content of the interview protocol questions can po...

  12. A Semidirective interview method to analyze behavioral changes. A focus on two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rocci, A

    2009-01-01

    The surveying of travel behavior changes toward more sustainable mobility practices raises many methodological questions. First is the choice of method, determining how to analyze these behavioral changes via their contextual, temporal, and multifactor dynamics, while attempting to control possible biases. This paper proposes an examination of the use of qualitative methods through two empirical research projects and finds that the order and content of the interview protocol questions can pot...

  13. A Universal Design Method for Reflecting Physical Characteristics Variability: Case Study of a Bicycle Frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masato; Suzuki, Wataru; Yamada, Shuho; Inoue, Masato

    2016-01-01

    To achieve a Universal Design, designers must consider diverse users' physical and functional requirements for their products. However, satisfying these requirements and obtaining the information which is necessary for designing a universal product is very difficult. Therefore, we propose a new design method based on the concept of set-based design to solve these issues. This paper discusses the suitability of proposed design method by applying bicycle frame design problem. PMID:27534334

  14. Management of multi-method engineering design research: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Green, G.; Kennedy, P.; McGown, A.

    2002-01-01

    There is a need for a research management methodology that will utilise research methods on an individual basis and when combined in a multi-method approach. An agreed methodology would enable rapid progress in achieving agreement on the main issues within engineering design research. Researchers at the University of Glasgow have developed a conceptual management methodology, testing it on three engineering design research projects. This paper describes the methodology and presents results in...

  15. THE DELPHI METHOD AS A TOOL FOR ANALYZING TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION: CASE OPEN SOURCE THIN COMPUTING

    OpenAIRE

    MATTI KARVONEN; VILLE RYYNÄNEN; TUOMO KÄSSI

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to show how the Delphi method works as a management tool when analyzing technology evolution. The paper also provides insights on how thin computing and open source can affect the future IT infrastructure development. The primary data was collected in a three round Delphi study consisting of the following interest groups: (1) Developers of open source thin computing, (2) Industrial experts, (3) Representatives of academic institutes. The Delphi method represents...

  16. We are all us : Case study on implementing agile methods in an organization

    OpenAIRE

    Pylvänäinen, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, agile software development methods have been exploited by numerous enterprises. Several studies argue agile methods and lean management to have significant impact on productivity and efficiency. Enticed by these promises even more and more software companies and development teams decide to abandon old waterfall approach and implement the new way of developing. Business Unit xxxx’s business is based on repeatable solutions aka products. Product development is carried o...

  17. Innovation methods integration for safety conflicts management in design Case study : the three-point hitch

    OpenAIRE

    Ghemraoui, R.; Mathieu, L.; Tricot, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the problem of taking safety requirements into account in the agricultural equipment design thanks to the integration of innovation theories and methods. Firstly, it goes to introduce two major methods, Axiomatic Design and TRIZ, which have been applied in other transportation domains and have given successful results. Currently, Axiomatic Design is used to analyse the technical product and to point out technical problems. Based on two design axioms, Axiomatic Design is a ...

  18. Estimation and Control in Agile Methods for Software Development: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mitre-Hernández Hugo A.; Ortega-Martínez Edgar; Lemus-Olalde Cuauhtémoc

    2014-01-01

    The development of software (SW) using agile methods is growing due to the productivity associated with these methodologies, in addition to the flexibility shown in small teams. However, these methods have clear weaknesses of software development in cost estimation and management, as well as the fact that project managers do not have enough evidence to verify the budget spending on a project due to the poor documentation generated and the lack of monitoring of resource spending. A proposal es...

  19. A LINEAR PROGRAMMING METHOD TO ENHANCE RESOURCE UTILIZATION CASE OF ETHIOPIAN APPAREL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegn Tesfaye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ethiopian industrial development strategy is characterized by export-led and labor intensive industrialization. The country is emerging as the most important investment destination in its apparel sector. Thought this sector is expected to generate more income from the export market, its export earnings remain trivial mainly due to the inefficient organizational resource utilization. One of the competent techniques that help companies to efficiently improve the use of their resources to increase their profit is linear programming. In apparel manufacturing firms, efficient use of materials such as fabrics and sewing threads and processing time at different stages of production as well as minimization of labor and materials cost are necessary to enhance their profitability. Cutting, sewing, and finishing operations deserve more attention for apparel process optimization. However, the issue of proper resource allocation remains an unsolved problem within the Ethiopian apparel industry. The aim of this research is to devise efficient resource utilization mechanism for Ethiopian apparel sector to improve their resource utilization and profitability, taking one of the garment factories engaged in the export market as a case study. Five types of products the company is currently producing, the amount of resources employed to produce each unit of the products, and the value of profit per unit from the sale of each products have been collected from the case company. The monthly availability of resources utilized and the monthly production volume of the five products have also been collected from the company. The data gathered was mathematically modeled using a linear programming technique, and solved using MS-Excel solver. The findings of the study depicts that all of the organizational resources are severely underutilized. This research proved that the resource utilization of the case company can be improved from 46.41% of the current resource

  20. EXPRESS METHOD OF ESTIMATION OF THE POTENTIAL TERRITORIAL RISK IN CASE OF ACCIDENTS ON TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present research is aimed to the development of a method to assess the potential territorial risk in accidents on the railways, which takes into account the specificity of the chemically hazardous substances emission in emergency situations during their transportation. Methodology. The basis of the proposed method is numerical modeling of the transfer process is chemically dangerous substances in the atmosphere. The basis of the numerical model is the equation of convective-diffusion transfer of chemically hazardous substances. This equation takes into account the dispersion in atmosphere of dangerous substances due to wind and atmospheric diffusion. For the numerical integration of the equations of transfer of chemically hazardous substances in the atmosphere is applied an implicit finite-difference scheme of splitting. Based on the constructed numerical model was developed method for the assessment of potential territorial risk and generated code in algorithmic language Fortran. The developed method of spatio-temporal risk assessment takes into account: the territorial probable weather situations; emission mode of chemically hazardous substances; emission power; the movement of the source of emission. A computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution above the village Sinelnikovo during the emergency leak of ammonia was conducted. Findings. The proposed method allows calculating quicklythe potential risk of the leakage of chemically hazardous substances on the basis of the calculation of the level of pollution in different meteosituation. The method allows determining the size of the zone of toxic casualties and assessing the level of risk of accidents in railway transport. Using the developed numerical model evaluated the assessment of risk of casualties in the residential area of the village Sinelnikovo. Originality. The scientists established the method for the assessment of potential territorial risk, based on

  1. Methods for estimating petrophysical parameters from well logs in tight oil reservoirs: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peiqiang; Zhuang, Wen; Sun, Zhongchun; Wang, Zhenlin; Luo, Xingping; Mao, Zhiqiang; Tong, Zemin

    2016-02-01

    Estimating petrophysical parameters from well logs plays a significant role in the exploration and development of tight oil resources, but faces challenges. What’s more, the methods for petrophysical parameters from well logs are paid little attention at present. In this paper, the typical tight oil reservoirs of Northwest China are used as an example. Based on the characteristics of mineralogy and fluids in the study field, the rock is assumed into five components which are clays, quartz and feldspar, carbonates, kerogen and pore fluids (porosity). The sum of kerogen content and porosity is defined as the apparent porosity. Then, two porosity log response equations are established. Once the clay content is determined by an individual method, the quartz and feldspar content, carbonate content and apparent porosity are calculated through the established equations. The kerogen content is the difference of the apparent porosity and porosity from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs. This paper also presents a new approach that combines the complex refractive index method (CRIM) and pseudo Archie method to compute saturation from dielectric logs, which avoids selection for the dielectric constants of each of the minerals. The effectiveness and reliability of these methods are verified by the successful application in the study of the target tight oil play in Northwest China.

  2. Application of multivariate statistical methods to monitoring data, case study of a gravity dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi Nedushan, B.; Chouinard, L.E. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    2003-07-01

    The safety of a dam is determined by design, construction and supervision during operation. Early detection of unexpected behaviour has been improved since the early part of the century through the use of improved measurement techniques. The measurements are subjected to statistical analysis using linear regression methods. The traditional methods of monitoring each instrument of a dam are time consuming and personnel intensive. Faulty instruments must be identified, outliers must be removed, data must be interpreted, models must be fitted, and alarms must be managed for the statistical detection of significant changes in the response of a dam. This presentation proposed a multivariate statistical method, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for analyzing dam monitoring data. A few linear combinations of the original variables help explain the variance-covariance structure of a data set. To better illustrate the concept, the authors applied the PCA method to a concrete gravity dam comprising three sections. The authors analyzed displacements, flow rates, and crack movements simultaneously. The advantages of the PCA method regarding noise reduction and the reduction of the number of variables that require monitoring were discussed. 19 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  3. A CASE STUDY OF ACADEMIC WRITING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PRINCIPLED VERSUS STANDARD CLT METHOD AT BINUS UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almodad Biduk Asmani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research project is to investigate how far the academic writing skills of Binus University students can be developed through two conflicting CLT methods: standard and principled. The research project is expected to result in computer-animated format which can be used as one of the main tools in teaching and learning grammar at Binus University. The research project uses the qualitative approach, and thus uses verbal data. The research project involves two subject groups (experimental and control. The experimental group will receive the treatment of grammar learning by using the Principled CLT approach, while the control group receives the standard CLT approach. Survey is then conducted to the two groups so as to find out their comments on the two teaching methods. From the results of the questionnaires, it is found that Principled CLT method is favored for its knowledge and accuracy factors, while the Standard CLT is preferred for its fun and independence factors.

  4. Optimal Base Station Placement: A Stochastic Method Using Interference Gradient In Downlink Case

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, Salman; Kelif, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the optimal placement and optimal number of base stations added to an existing wireless data network through the interference gradient method. This proposed method considers a sub-region of the existing wireless data network, hereafter called region of interest. In this region, the provider wants to increase the network coverage and the users throughput. In this aim, the provider needs to determine the optimal number of base stations to be added and their optimal placement. The proposed approach is based on the Delaunay triangulation of the region of interest and the gradient descent method in each triangle to compute the minimum interference locations. We quantify the increase of coverage and throughput.

  5. Comparison of two inductive learning methods: A case study in failed fuel identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two inductive learning methods, the ID3 and Rg algorithms, are studied as a means for systematically and automatically constructing the knowledge base of expert systems. Both inductive learning methods are general-purpose and use information entropy as a discriminatory measure in order to group objects of a common class. ID3 constructs a knowledge base by building decision trees that discriminate objects of a data set as a function of their class. Rg constructs a knowledge base by grouping objects of the same class into patterns or clusters. The two inductive methods are applied to the construction of a knowledge base for failed fuel identification in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Through analysis of the knowledge bases generated, the ID3 and Rg algorithms are compared for their knowledge representation, data overfitting, feature space partition, feature selection, and search procedure

  6. Indirect methods of measurement in case of stress corrosion cracking of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternating current process has proved to be a suitable method for crack length measurement in a corrosive environment. This process permits computer-controlled tests with ΔK = constant for the analysis of the interaction between crack propagation and corrosion. When simultaneously used, the compliance method is suited to record the crack closing behaviour by means of measuring techniques. Crack closing due to plastic crack closing, caused by cover layers, can be observed and information about the time-dependent structural variation of the cover layer is obtained. Furthermore, it is shown by means of the compliance method that the rigidity of the sample changes due to the absorption of hydrogen. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of energy efficiency assessment methods: Case Bio-SNG process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of biofuel production is to partially replace fossil fuels in energy generation and transport. For the evaluation of biofuel production processes different criteria are applied and usually they include costs, efficiency aspects and emissions. However, evaluation of the energy efficiency of biofuels production is difficult since no general standard method exists for that. This paper compares three different assessment methods of energy efficiency both qualitatively and quantitatively. The methods are: thermal efficiency, exergy analysis and primary energy analysis. The feasibility of the methods is tested on a Bio-SNG (synthetic natural gas) production process which was modelled in AspenPlus and MS Excel. The results show that the exergy analysis seems to be advantageous when it comes to detailed (sub-) process analysis whereas the primary energy analysis offers the advantage of showing how the system is influencing the global primary energy resources. The results obtained by the thermal efficiency analysis do not add any new information to the results obtained by exergy and primary energy analyses. Exergy and primary energy analyses should be the preferred means for process assessment. Especially a combination of the two methods could offer the chance to develop a more holistic energy efficiency indicator. - Highlights: • Evaluation of thermal, primary, and exergy efficiency assessment methods. • Thermal energy analysis does not give additional information. • Primary energy analysis is not a suitable tool for detailed process analysis. • Exergy analysis does not consider the global impact of an energy system. • Improved efficiency assessment should combine exergy and primary energy analysis

  8. CASE OF SUCCESSFUL APPLICATION OF METHOD FOR 3D VISUALIZATION AND MODELING IN THORACIC ONCOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shchadenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The application of method of 3D-visualization and modeling in thoracic oncology is described.Materials and methods. The block diagram of system of 3D-visualization and modeling consisting of six stages is shown. The reconstructions of anatomic computer 3D-models of rib cage and tumor were performed for the patient with cancer (plasma cell myeloma. The tumor size and its topographic anatomy relatively to neighboring organs, bones and soft tissues were identified. Results.The obtained data had been used to plan surgical intervention, which was successfully conducted at Thoracic surgery department ofTomskRegionalClinicalHospital. 

  9. Prevalence of Post-Tonsillectomy Bleeding as Day-Case Surgery with Combination Method; Cold Dissection Tonsillectomy and Bipolar Diathermy Hemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolahassan Faramarzi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage remains an important factor in determining the safety of performing tonsillectomy as a day case procedure. The aim of this study was to determine the safety of day case tonsillectomy by using combination method, cold dissection tonsillectomy and bipolar diathermy hemostasis. Methods:A prospective randomized clinical study conducted on the patients who had undergone day case tonsillectomy (DCT. There were two groups (DCT and control group each group consisting of 150 cases. Tonsillectomy was performed by using combination method; cold dissection and hemostasis was achieved by ligation of vessels with bipolar electerocautery. Findings:We found 3 cases of post-tonsillectomy bleeding in DCT group and 4 cases in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of post-operative hemorrhage between the two groups. Conclusion:The findings suggest the safety of the combination of cold dissection tonsillectomy and bipolar diathermy hemostasis as day case tonsillectomy.

  10. Prevalence of Post-tonsillectomy Bleeding as Day-case Surgery with Combination Method; Cold Dissection Tonsillectomy and Bipolar Diathermy Hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Abolahassan; Heydari, Seyed Taghi

    2010-01-01

    Objective Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage remains an important factor in determining the safety of performing tonsillectomy as a day case procedure. The aim of this study was to determine the safety of day case tonsillectomy by using combination method, cold dissection tonsillectomy and bipolar diathermy hemostasis. Methods A prospective randomized clinical study conducted on the patients who had undergone day case tonsillectomy (DCT). There were two groups (DCT and control group) each group consisting of 150 cases. Tonsillectomy was performed by using combination method; cold dissection and hemostasis was achieved by ligation of vessels with bipolar electerocautery. Findings We found 3 cases of post-tonsillectomy bleeding in DCT group and 4 cases in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of post-operative hemorrhage between the two groups. Conclusion The findings suggest the safety of the combination of cold dissection tonsillectomy and bipolar diathermy hemostasis as day case tonsillectomy. PMID:23056702

  11. Water supply management using an extended group fuzzy decision-making method: a case study in north-eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatour, Yasser; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zarghami, Mahdi; Bakhshi, Maryam Ali

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a group fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method to be applied in rating problems associated with water resources management. Thus, here Chen's group fuzzy TOPSIS method extended by a difference technique to handle uncertainties of applying a group decision making. Then, the extended group fuzzy TOPSIS method combined with a consistency check. In the presented method, initially linguistic judgments are being surveyed via a consistency checking process, and afterward these judgments are being used in the extended Chen's fuzzy TOPSIS method. Here, each expert's opinion is turned to accurate mathematical numbers and, then, to apply uncertainties, the opinions of group are turned to fuzzy numbers using three mathematical operators. The proposed method is applied to select the optimal strategy for the rural water supply of Nohoor village in north-eastern Iran, as a case study and illustrated example. Sensitivity analyses test over results and comparing results with project reality showed that proposed method offered good results for water resources projects.

  12. Comparison of River Bank Stabilization Methods using Computer Simulations (Case Study: Mashalak River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Bahari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Protection and stabilization river bank operations along the river to prevent erosion, landslides coast, demolition of existing facilities and the riverside villages is very essential to the recovery of agricultural lands. In this paper, various methods of river bank stabilization such as Levee, Groin (Epi, Submerged Vane, biotechnical revetment, Riprap revetment and concrete revetment has been investigated. To achieve this end reach Mashalak River (approximate length of 2 kilometers were considered because of urban and is important as the study area. Using software HEC-RAS, the model was simulated with the coastal protection structures and flow hydraulic conditions were compared with existing of river. Hydraulic parameters that were evaluated are mean flow velocity, shear stress and Chanel power. To investigate the best way of training among the existing methods, the parameter of the shear stress was chosen for comparison. Finally, the epi-levee option is introduced as the preferred method of hydraulically between the methods in the selected reach.

  13. Building America Case Study: Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The 2012 IECC has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure for both single family and multifamily construction in Climate Zones 3-8. Other programs (LEED, ASHRAE 189, ASHRAE 62.2) have similar or tighter compartmentalization requirements, thus driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings.

  14. Educational Methods as Commodities within European Education: A Norwegian-Danish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottensen, Eli; Lund, Birthe; Grams, Sarah; Aas, Marit; Proitz, Tine Sophie

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies in the past few decades address how the governing of educational systems are changing as a result of intensified measurement and use of statistics. This article suggests that another consequence may be the construction of solutions, tools, and methods which target the problems constructed through comparable indicators and…

  15. 皮炎外治验案%Proved Cases of Cytitis by External Treatment Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宝宽; 周探

    2013-01-01

    目的:总结中药外治皮炎经验.方法:以医案形式,融理、法、方、药为一体进行阐述.结果:清热凉血、泻火解毒、祛湿敛疮、养血润燥等中药外治激素性皮炎、脂溢性皮炎、接触性皮炎、日光性皮炎,疗效显著.结论:中药外治皮炎直达病所,起效快,疗效肯定.%Objective:To summarize ZHOU Baokuan's clinical experience on cytitis by external treatment methods of traditional Chinese medicine.Methods:Principles,methods,formulae and medicinals of hypomnesia were discussed based on medical records.Results:Traditional Chinese medicine of removing heat to cool blood,purging fire for removing toxin,dispelling dampness and wound healing,were given for steroid dermatitis,seborrheic dermatitis,contact dermatitis,solar dermatitis,it shows significant curative effect.Conclusions:External treatment methods of traditional Chinese medicine can introduce the drug to the affected area,showing good effect on cytitis with rapid action time.

  16. Algebraic method for constructing singular steady solitary waves: A case study

    CERN Document Server

    Clamond, Didier; Galligo, André

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the use of algebraic methods in a phase plane analysis of ordinary differential equations. The method is illustrated by the study of capillary-gravity steady surface waves propagating in shallow water. We consider the (fully nonlinear, weakly dispersive) Serre-Green-Naghdi equations with surface tension, because it provides a tractable model that, in the same time, is not too simple so the interest of the method can be emphasised. In particular, we analyse a special class of solutions, the solitary waves, which play an important role in many fields of Physics. In capillary-gravity regime, there are two kinds of localised infinitely smooth travelling wave solutions -- solitary waves of elevation and of depression. However, if we allow the solitary waves to have an angular point, the "zoology" of solutions becomes much richer and the main goal of this study is to provide a complete classification of such singular localised solutions using the methods of the effective Algebraic Geometry.

  17. Developing Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching in a Methods Course: The Case of Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Michael D.; Hillen, Amy F.; Smith, Margaret S.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes teacher learning in a teaching experiment consisting of a content-focused methods course involving the mathematical knowledge for teaching function. Prospective and practicing teachers in the course showed growth in their ability to define function, to provide examples of functions and link them to the definition, in the…

  18. A Framework for Mixing Methods in Quantitative Measurement Development, Validation, and Revision: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyt, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A framework for quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods is introduced. It extends and adapts Adcock and Collier's work, and thus, facilitates understanding of quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision as an integrated and cyclical set of…

  19. A Stimulating Approach To Teaching, Learning and Assessing Finite Element Methods: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadelis, J. N.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the benefits of introducing finite element methods into the curriculum of undergraduate courses. Analyzes the structure of the computer-assisted-design module and the extent to which it fulfills its main objectives. Discusses the efficiency of modern teaching and learning techniques used to develop skills for solving engineering problems;…

  20. Initiating Self-Assessment Strategies in Novice Physiotherapy Students: A Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Student self- and peer-assessment strategies ideally are instigated early in programmes for health professionals. This study presents an innovative method of stimulating critical evaluation of clinical skills learned in the practical class setting for first year physiotherapy students. Twice in the semester (beginning and end) students assessed…

  1. Multisymplectic Structure-Preserving in Simple Finite Element Method in High Dimensional Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yong-Qiang; LIU Zhen; PEI Ming; ZHENG Zhu-Jun

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study a finite element scheme of some semi-linear elliptic boundary value problems inhigh-dimensional space. With uniform mesh, we find that, the numerical scheme derived from finite element method cankeep a preserved multisymplectic structure.

  2. Incorporating Experiential Teaching Methods in Sustainable Natural Resources Curriculum: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Pineda, Henry J.; Adams, Erica; Hammett, A. L. Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article presents results of utilizing a college course design that is based on experiential learning theory and experiential education methods. The subject matter of the course included how human dimensions, economic development, and policy affect the sustainability of natural resources such as water, wildlife, and forestry in a highly ranked…

  3. A case study on the design and development of minigames for research methods and statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Rosmalen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research methodology involves logical reasoning and critical thinking skills which are core competences in developing a more sophisticated understanding of the world. Acquiring expertise in research methods and statistics is not easy and poses a significant challenge for many students. The subject material is challenging because it is highly abstract and complex and requires the coordination of different but inter-related knowledge and skills that are all necessary to develop a coherent and usable skills base in this area. Additionally, while many students embrace research methods enthusiastically, others find the area dry, abstract and boring. In this paper we discuss the design and the first evaluation of a set of mini-games to practice research methods. Games are considered to be engaging and allow students to test out scenarios which provide concrete examples in a way that they typically only do once they are out in the field. The design of a game is a complex task. First, we describe how we used cognitive task analysis to identify the knowledge and competences required to develop a comprehensive and usable understanding of research methods. Next, we describe the games designed and how 4C-ID, an instructional design model, was used to underpin the games with a sound instructional design basis. Finally, the evaluation approach is discussed and how the findings of the first evaluation phase were used to improve the games.

  4. Complex band structure eigenvalue method adapted to Floquet systems: topological superconducting wires as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For systems that can be modeled as a single-particle lattice extended along a privileged direction, such as, for example, quantum wires, the so-called eigenvalue method provides full information about the propagating and evanescent modes as a function of energy. This complex band structure method can be applied either to lattices consisting of an infinite succession of interconnected layers described by the same local Hamiltonian or to superlattices: systems in which the spatial periodicity involves more than one layer. Here, for time-dependent systems subject to a periodic driving, we present an adapted version of the superlattice scheme capable of obtaining the Floquet states and the Floquet quasienergy spectrum. Within this scheme the time periodicity is treated as existing along a spatial dimension added to the original system. The solutions at a single energy for the enlarged artificial system provide the solutions of the original Floquet problem. The method is suited for arbitrary periodic excitations, including strong and anharmonic drivings. We illustrate the capabilities of the methods for both time-independent and time-dependent systems by discussing: (a) topological superconductors in multimode quantum wires with spin–orbit interaction and (b) microwave driven quantum dots in contact with a topological superconductor. (paper)

  5. A Method to Exploit the Structure of Genetic Ancestry Space to Enhance Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodea, Corneliu A; Neale, Benjamin M; Ripke, Stephan; Daly, Mark J; Devlin, Bernie; Roeder, Kathryn

    2016-05-01

    One goal of human genetics is to understand the genetic basis of disease, a challenge for diseases of complex inheritance because risk alleles are few relative to the vast set of benign variants. Risk variants are often sought by association studies in which allele frequencies in case subjects are contrasted with those from population-based samples used as control subjects. In an ideal world we would know population-level allele frequencies, releasing researchers to focus on case subjects. We argue this ideal is possible, at least theoretically, and we outline a path to achieving it in reality. If such a resource were to exist, it would yield ample savings and would facilitate the effective use of data repositories by removing administrative and technical barriers. We call this concept the Universal Control Repository Network (UNICORN), a means to perform association analyses without necessitating direct access to individual-level control data. Our approach to UNICORN uses existing genetic resources and various statistical tools to analyze these data, including hierarchical clustering with spectral analysis of ancestry; and empirical Bayesian analysis along with Gaussian spatial processes to estimate ancestry-specific allele frequencies. We demonstrate our approach using tens of thousands of control subjects from studies of Crohn disease, showing how it controls false positives, provides power similar to that achieved when all control data are directly accessible, and enhances power when control data are limiting or even imperfectly matched ancestrally. These results highlight how UNICORN can enable reliable, powerful, and convenient genetic association analyses without access to the individual-level data. PMID:27087321

  6. The effectiveness of different interventional methods for partial fallopian tube obstruction: an analysis of 186 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate selective salpingo-catheterization recanalization therapy in treating partial fallopian tube obstruction through comparing its clinical effectiveness with that of non-interventional radiology methods. Methods: During the period from January 2008 to October 2010, a total of 186 infertility women with partial fallopian tube obstruction, which was confirmed with hysterosalpingography, were encountered in authors' hospital. This study protocol was approved by our hospital ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. According of different treatment methods, 186 patients were divided into two groups. Patients (n=78) in group A received non-interventional radiology methods, including hydrotubation, enema, laparoscopy, physical therapy and traditional Chinese medication, while patients (n=108) in group B received selective salpingo-catheterization recanalization therapy. All 186 patients were followed up for more than six months. Close observation on the pregnancy incidence after different treatments and fallopian tube patency was carried out. The clinical findings were documented. The results were statistically analyzed by using paired 'x2' test. Results: Half a year after different procedures, in group A the pregnancy rate was 12.82% (n=10), and different degrees of fallopian tube obstruction were found in 31.58% patients. Whereas in group B, during the same period of observation, the pregnancy rate was 58.33% (n=63), and partial occlusion in cornual region was seen in one patient (0.47%). Significant difference in both pregnancy rate and fallopian tube occlusion rate existed between two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Because of its minimal invasiveness, high effectiveness and safety, the selective salpingography together with fallopian tube recanalization procedures are well accepted by the patients. The selective salpingo-catheterization recanalization therapy is superior to non-interventional radiology methods in

  7. Diffuse interface methods for inverse problems: case study for an elliptic Cauchy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Løseth Elvetun, Ole; Schlottbom, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Many inverse problems have to deal with complex, evolving and often not exactly known geometries, e.g. as domains of forward problems modeled by partial differential equations. This makes it desirable to use methods which are robust with respect to perturbed or not well resolved domains, and which allow for efficient discretizations not resolving any fine detail of those geometries. For forward problems in partial differential equations methods based on diffuse interface representations have gained strong attention in the last years, but so far they have not been considered systematically for inverse problems. In this work we introduce a diffuse domain method as a tool for the solution of variational inverse problems. As a particular example we study ECG inversion in further detail. ECG inversion is a linear inverse source problem with boundary measurements governed by an anisotropic diffusion equation, which naturally cries for solutions under changing geometries, namely the beating heart. We formulate a regularization strategy using Tikhonov regularization and, using standard source conditions, we prove convergence rates. A special property of our approach is that not only operator perturbations are introduced by the diffuse domain method, but more important we have to deal with topologies which depend on a parameter \\varepsilon in the diffuse domain method, i.e. we have to deal with \\varepsilon -dependent forward operators and \\varepsilon -dependent norms. In particular the appropriate function spaces for the unknown and the data depend on \\varepsilon . This prevents the application of some standard convergence techniques for inverse problems, in particular interpreting the perturbations as data errors in the original problem does not yield suitable results. We consequently develop a novel approach based on saddle-point problems. The numerical solution of the problem is discussed as well and results for several computational experiments are reported. In

  8. Comparison of methods for rooting phylogenetic trees: a case study using Orcuttieae (Poaceae: Chloridoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Laura M; Kubatko, Laura Salter; Lowrey, Timothy K

    2010-03-01

    DNA sequence data (cpDNA trnL intron and nrDNA ITS1 and ITS2) were analyzed to identify relationships within Orcuttieae, a small tribe of endangered grasses endemic to vernal pools in California and Baja California. The tribe includes three genera: Orcuttia, Tuctoria, and Neostapfia. All three genera carry out C(4) photosynthesis but aquatic taxa of Orcuttia lack Kranz anatomy. The unusual habitat preference of the tribe is coupled with the atypical development of C(4) photosynthesis without Kranz anatomy. Furthermore, the tribe has no known close relatives and has been noted to be phylogenetically isolated within the subfamily Chloridoideae. In this study we examine the problem of inferring the root of the tribe in the absence of an identified outgroup, analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the constituent taxa, and evaluate the evolutionary development of C(4) photosynthesis. We compare four methods for inferring the root of the tree: (1) the outgroup method, (2) midpoint rooting, the imposition of a molecular clock for both (3) maximum likelihood (ML) and (4) Bayesian analysis. We examine the consequences of each method for the inferred phylogenetic relationships. Three of the methods (outgroup rooting and the ML and Bayesian molecular clock analyses) suggest that the root of Orcuttieae is between Neostapfia and the Tuctoria/Orcuttia lineage, while midpoint rooting gives a different root. The Bayesian method additionally provides information about probabilities associated with other possible root locations. Assuming that the true root of Orcuttieae is between Neostapfia and the Tuctoria/Orcuttia lineage, our data indicate Neostapfia and Orcuttia are both monophyletic, while Tuctoria is paraphyletic (with no synapomorphies in either dataset) and forming a grade between the other two genera and needs taxonomic revision. Our data support the hypothesis that Orcuttieae was derived from a terrestrial ancestor and evolved specializations to an aquatic environment

  9. The power of case study method in developing academic skills in teaching Business English (time to play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brattseva E. F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is targeted at analyzing the advantages of using the case study method in the course of Business English at Scientific Research University - Higher School of Economics in Saint Petersburg. Cases offer a lot of opportunities for developing academic skills in reading, writing, listening and making presentations. Students get not only linguistic skills but also non-linguistic competences. Students are taught to work in teams, to analyze the data given in the task, to make decisions. Communicative and managerial skills are obtained as well. Special attention is paid to making team presentations. It is vital to mention that analysis and case solving can be compared to a play where students are actors trying to come up with a solution of a problem using the information given. This approach stimulates students to be more creative, decisive, communicative and goal-oriented. This method helps to achieve better results in developing academic skills while studying Business English. In this article, the importance of Russian companies’ problems analyses is pushed forward.

  10. The development of dynamic test method and dynamic test case generating technique for the inadequate core cooling monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic test method and dynamic test case related technique for the ICCMS software in PWR is developed. The developed dynamic test method consists of the module dynamic test and the integration dynamic test using ICCMS Test Facility (TF) and simulator. In the module dynamics test, the processing error, caused by the differences in hardware and programming language between ICCMS TF and simulator, is calculated such that the error is used as the acceptance criteria for the integration test. In the integration dynamic test, the dynamic response of the ICCMS software is tested for the operational environments. The test items for each dynamic test were selected by the results of analysis for the design bases accident and the operational requirements of the ICCMS. The dynamic test cases for those items were generated from the simulation data of the Safety Analysis, using the Dynamic Test Case Generating S/W which is developed and it's performance is verified in this study. (author). 4 tabs., 9 figs., 24 refs

  11. Evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation after surgery using the Ravitch and Nuss methods: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal-Bocheńska, Monika Anna

    2016-03-01

    Rehabilitation may be helpful in the prevention of complications associated with the treatment of patients with pectus excavatum who are subjected to surgery using the Ravitch and Nuss methods. This paper presents the case of a patient who underwent successful physical rehabilitation after 8 weeks from the surgery using the combined method. As part of the Nuss procedure, two plates were implanted to form a scaffolding for the patient's chest, which had previously been corrected with the Ravitch method. The plates were to be removed after 24 months of treatment. After the procedure, in spite of the favorable cosmetic effect of the repair, there was a significant decrease in the spirometric values and physical fitness of the patient. He underwent an individual physiotherapy program, which lasted four weeks. The streamlining of the respiratory system has significantly improved the spirometric values and raised the overall performance of the patient's organism. PMID:27212987

  12. Combining situated Cognitive Engineering with a novel testing method in a case study comparing two infusion pump interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittker, R; Schmettow, M; Verhoeven, F; Schraagen, J M C

    2016-07-01

    We validated the usability of a new infusion pump interface designed with a situated Cognitive Engineering approach by comparing it to a reference interface using a novel testing method employing repeated measurements and process measures, in addition to traditional outcome measures. The sample consisted of 25 nurses who performed eight critical tasks three times. Performance measures consisted of number and type of errors, deviations from a pre-established normative path solution, task completion times, number of keystrokes, mental effort and preferences in use. Results showed that interaction with the new interface resulted in 18% fewer errors, 90% fewer normative path deviations, 42% lower task completion times, 40% fewer keystrokes, 39% lower mental effort and 76% more subjective preferences in use. These outcomes suggest that within the scope of this case study, combining the situated Cognitive Engineering approach with a novel testing method addresses various shortcomings of earlier testing methods. PMID:26995032

  13. Prevalence of Post-tonsillectomy Bleeding as Day-case Surgery with Combination Method Cold Dissection Tonsillectomy and Bipolar Diathermy Hemostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Abolahassan Faramarzi; Seyed-Taghi Heydari

    2010-01-01

    Objective Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage remains an important factor in determining the safety of performing tonsillectomy as a day case procedure. The aim of this study was to determine the safety of day case tonsillectomy by using combination method, cold dissection tonsillectomy and bipolar diathermy hemostasis. Methods A prospective randomized clinical study conducted on the patients who had undergone day case tonsillectomy (DCT). There were two groups (DCT and control group) each group co...

  14. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the overstory and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp. but were negatively associated with the abundance of hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia. In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  15. Case study on the use of PSA methods: Station blackout risk at Millstone Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Westinghouse pressurized water reactors, severe accidents sequences resulting from station blackout have been recognized to be significant contributors to risk of core damage and public consequences. To properly quantify the risk of station blackout it is necessary to consider all possible types of core damage scenarios. Having obtained an accurate representation of the types of core damage scenarios involved specific areas of vulnerability can be pinpointed for further improvement. In performing this analysis it was decided to use time dependent probabilistic safety assessment method to provide a more realistic treatment of time dependent failure and recovery. Overview of the analysis, calculation procedures and methods, interpretation of the results are discussed. Peer review process is described. 13 refs, 19 figs

  16. Methods for case studies of waste-borne polluted groundwater zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes of deterioration and self-purification in the ground can be evaluated by comparing the chemical, isotope-chemical, microbiological and hygienic properties of the groundwater upstream and downstream of the pollution source. During the investigations at three waste sites the necessary information was collected using the following procedures: (a) construction of a net of observation wells; (b) determination of groundwater direction and velocity using hydrologic and radiohydrometric methods (ksub(f)-determination by pumping-tests and single-well methods, construction of groundwater contours); (c) chemical and physical measurements of water samples from observation wells; (d) microbiological determinations in water and sediments of wells, ponds, creeks, or even of aquifer material itself; (e) evaluation of the data using feasible statistical and graphical tools (electronic data processing) and (f) study of the distribution of stable isotopes in leachates and groundwaters. (author)

  17. THE ROLE OF QUALITY METHODS IN IMPROVING EDUCATION PROCESS: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Pavlović

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for applying the Lean Six Sigma method on the educational process. After defining defects that have negative influence on the final quality evaluation of higher education and how these defects can be remedied, the Pareto analysis is done, and that is used for establishing a vital minority of the exams that are critical for examination of faculty. The next step is the Statistical Process Control (SPC analysis that is performed on the exams that are classified as vital minority in Pareto analysis. Ishikawa diagram shows a relation between considered consequence (small number of passed exams and all factors that influence this consequence. Based on the results of implementation of the Lean Six Sigma method in the educational process and implementation of all suggested improvements, the comparative overview of Pareto analysis is given for 2009/2010 and 2012/2013 academic year at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Niš.

  18. The simple exposure dose calculation method in interventional radiology and one case of radiation injury (alopecia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional radiology (IVR) is less invasive than surgery, and has rapidly become widespread due to advances in instruments and X-ray apparatuses. However, radiation exposure of long-time fluoroscopy induces the risk of radiation injury. We estimated the exposure dose in the patient who underwent IVR therapy and developed radiation injury (alopecia). The patient outcome and the method of estimating the exposure dose are reported. The estimation method of exposure dose was roughly estimated by real-time expose dose during exam. It is a useful indicator for the operator to know the exposure dose during IVR. We, radiological technologist must to know call attention to the role of radiological technicians during IVR. (author)

  19. EM-I sensor NEMFIS: method, equipment and case stories of archaeological prospection

    OpenAIRE

    Manstein, Yuri; Manstein, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Sounding with alternating electromagnetic fields, including Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Induction (FD-EMI) sounding methods, have received increasing attention and broad application during the last three decade. A portable electromagnetic sensor (NEMFIS, aka EMS), developed at IPGG (Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences), and based on alternating electromagnetic fields, is described in this work. The paper presents a specific application to the near-surface investigation of ...

  20. MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION METHODS TO ESTABLISH ACTIVE PHASES ON HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS: CASE OF BULK TRANSITION METAL SULPHIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Machín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of procedures based on mathematical optimization methods to establish optimal active sulphide phases with higher HDS activity. This paper proposes a list of active phases as a guide for orienting the experimental work in the search of new catalysts that permit optimize the HDS process. Studies in this paper establish Co-S, Cr-S, Nb-S and Ni-S systems have the greatest potential to improve HDS activity.

  1. Comparison of several BHT correction methods: a case study on an Australian data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutorbe, Bruno; Lucazeau, Francis; Bonneville, Alain

    2007-08-01

    Bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) from oil exploration provide useful constraints on the subsurface thermal regime, but they need to be corrected to obtain the equilibrium temperature. In this work, we introduce several BHT correction methods and compare them using a large Australian data set of more than 650 groups of multiple BHT measurements in about 300 oil exploration boreholes. Existing and suggested corrections are classified within a coherent framework, in which methods are divided into: line/cylinder source; instantaneous/continuous heat extraction; one/two component(s). Comparisons with reservoir test temperatures show that most of the corrections lead to reliable estimates of the formation equilibrium temperature within +/-10°C, but too few data exist to perform an intercomparison of the models based on this criterion. As expected, the Horner method diverges from its parent models for small elapsed times (or equivalently large radii). The mathematical expression of line source models suffers from an unphysical delay time that also restrains their domain of applicability. The model that takes into account the difference of thermal properties between circulating mud and surrounding rocks-that is the two-component model-is delicate to use because of its high complexity. For these reasons, our preferred correction methods are the cylindrical source models. We show that mud circulation time below 10 hr has a negligible effect. The cylindrical source models rely on one parameter depending on the thermal diffusivity and the borehole radius, which are poorly constrained, but the induced uncertainty on the extrapolations remains reasonably low.

  2. Landslide hazard zonation using the MCE method (Case study: Agh Mashhad, Mazandaran Province, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani M. et al.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a spatial model for predicting landslide hazard. The model was based on past landslide occurrences. It presents a map of landslide susceptibility for forest roads from a process that combined fuzzy logic and hierarchical analysis. The method was developed with reference to previous related works and field work that identified the eight following factors as the most important primary factors affecting landslide occurrence: altitude, slope, aspect, geology map, soil map, di...

  3. Sustainability Capacity Building Based on Educational Method: A Case Study on China and Sweden Joint Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi; Marie Nesser; Jonathon Wigley; Yu Guopei

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development (EE&ESD) have been widely accepted as an effective educational method to contribute to capacity development and processes of change in developing countries. This paper takes SIDA supported EE&ESD in formal educationadvanced international training program, China as an example. By analyzing and reflecting its orientation, implementation, outcomes and evaluation, experiences and lessons learned are expected to help improve the sorts of international cooperation capacity building programs both from international and also Chinese perspectives.

  4. Socioeconomic development index ranking calculations of cities with fuzzy clustering method: case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ERİLLİ, Necati Alp

    2015-01-01

    In economy policies, socioeconomic indicators have an important place in determining the development levels. The determination and classification of the current social and economic structure of cities is considerably important in analyzing the development of cities and their probable development tendencies and in developing the regional development policies in parallel with this. In this study, cities are classified by fuzzy clustering c-means method according to their development levels with...

  5. Socioeconomic development index ranking calculations of cities with fuzzy clustering method: case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ERİLLİ, Necati Alp

    2015-01-01

    In economy policies, socioeconomic indicators have an important place in determining the development levels. The determination and classification of the current social and economic structure of cities is considerably important in analyzing the development of cities and their probable development tendencies and in developing the regional development policies in parallel with this. In this study, cities are classified by fuzzy clustering c-means method according to their developm...

  6. Agricultural land valuation methods used by financiers: the case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Middelberg, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural land is the preferred form of collateral used by financiers to finance South African farmers. The objective of the paper is twofold; firstly, to determine the valuation methods used by financiers in determining the value of agricultural land used as collateral, and secondly, to determine the correlation between the agricultural land value and the amount of financing provided. Interviews were conducted with five respondents representing the Land Bank, three of the four largest com...

  7. A CASE STUDY OF ACADEMIC WRITING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PRINCIPLED VERSUS STANDARD CLT METHOD AT BINUS UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Almodad Biduk Asmani

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research project is to investigate how far the academic writing skills of Binus University students can be developed through two conflicting CLT methods: standard and principled. The research project is expected to result in computer-animated format which can be used as one of the main tools in teaching and learning grammar at Binus University. The research project uses the qualitative approach, and thus uses verbal data. The research project involves two subject groups (ex...

  8. Rapid methods of landslide hazard mapping : Papua New Guinea case study

    OpenAIRE

    Greenbaum, D.; Tutton, M.; Bowker, M.R.; Browne, T.J.; Buleka, J.; Greally, K.B.; Kuna, G.; McDonald, A.J.W.; S. H. Marsh; Northmore, K.H.; O'Connor, E.A.; Tragheim, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    A landslide hazard probability map can help planners (1) prepare for, and/or mitigate against, the effects of landsliding on communities and infrastructure, and (2) avoid or minimise the risks associated with new developments. The aims of the project were to establish, by means of studies in a few test areas, a generic method by which remote sensing and data analysis using a geographic information system (GIS) could provide a provisional landslide hazard zonation map. The provi...

  9. Agent-based modelling as scientific method: a case study analysing primate social behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Joanna J.; Ando, Yasushi; Lehmann, Hagen

    2007-01-01

    A scientific methodology in general should provide two things: first, a means of explanation and, second, a mechanism for improving that explanation. Agent-based modelling (ABM) is a method that facilitates exploring the collective effects of individual action selection. The explanatory force of the model is the extent to which an observed meta-level phenomenon can be accounted for by the behaviour of its micro-level actors. This article demonstrates that this methodology can be applied to th...

  10. Asperger disorder and the Tomatis method : a case-study / Lindi Nel

    OpenAIRE

    Nel, Lindi

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to determine what the effect of participation in a Tomatis Programme (TP) would be on the psychological well-being and communication ability of a 14 year old, white adolescent boy with Asperger Disorder (AD). A mixed method design in the form of a single casestudy was used. Qualitative data were obtained via semi-s!mctured interviews, spontaneous sketches and observation. Quantitative data were gathered by means of projective drawings and the Profile of Mood...

  11. The simplest method to measure the geocentric lunar distance: a case of citizen science

    CERN Document Server

    Zuluaga, Jorge I; Ferrin, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of measuring the geocentric lunar distance using what we propose is the simplest method to achieve a precise result. Although lunar distance has been systematically measured to a precision of few millimeters using powerful lasers and retroreflectors installed on the moon by the Apollo missions, the method devised and applied here can be readily used by nonscientist citizens (e.g. amateur astronomers or students) and it requires only a good digital camera. After launching a citizen science project called the Aristarchus Campaign, intended to involve astronomy enthusiasts in scientific measurement of the Lunar Eclipse of 15 April 2014, we compiled and measured a series of pictures obtained by one of us (J.C. Figueroa). These measurements allowed us to estimate the lunar distance to a precision of 3%. We describe here how to perform the measurements and the method to calculate from them the geocentric lunar distance using only the pictures time stamps and a precise measurement of the insta...

  12. A method for risk analysis across governance systems: a Great Barrier Reef case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healthy governance systems are key to delivering sound environmental management outcomes from global to local scales. There are, however, surprisingly few risk assessment methods that can pinpoint those domains and sub-domains within governance systems that are most likely to influence good environmental outcomes at any particular scale, or those if absent or dysfunctional, most likely to prevent effective environmental management. This paper proposes a new risk assessment method for analysing governance systems. This method is then tested through its preliminary application to a significant real-world context: governance as it relates to the health of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The GBR exists at a supra-regional scale along most of the north eastern coast of Australia. Brodie et al (2012 Mar. Pollut. Bull. 65 81–100) have recently reviewed the state and trend of the health of the GBR, finding that overall trends remain of significant concern. At the same time, official international concern over the governance of the reef has recently been signalled globally by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). These environmental and political contexts make the GBR an ideal candidate for use in testing and reviewing the application of improved tools for governance risk assessment. (letter)

  13. Formal Methods in Air Traffic Management: The Case of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    As the technological and operational capabilities of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continue to grow, so too does the need to introduce these systems into civil airspace. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System is a NASA research project that addresses the integration of civil UAS into non-segregated airspace operations. One of the major challenges of this integration is the lack of an onboard pilot to comply with the legal requirement that pilots see and avoid other aircraft. The need to provide an equivalent to this requirement for UAS has motivated the development of a detect and avoid (DAA) capability to provide the appropriate situational awareness and maneuver guidance in avoiding and remaining well clear of traffic aircraft. Formal methods has played a fundamental role in the development of this capability. This talk reports on the formal methods work conducted under NASA's Safe Autonomous System Operations project in support of the development of DAA for UAS. This work includes specification of low-level and high-level functional requirements, formal verification of algorithms, and rigorous validation of software implementations. The talk also discusses technical challenges in formal methods research in the context of the development and safety analysis of advanced air traffic management concepts.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of sustainable development based on ecological footprint method: a case study of Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Since the concept of sustainable development emerged in the late 1980s, more and more countries and regions have been utilizing sustainable development as their developing strategy. But decades have passed without any effective methods available to quantitatively assess sustainable development, Since the ecological footprint evaluation method initiated in 1992, it has become popular in quantitative assessment of sustainable development because of its convenience, easy-understanding, and reliability. As one of the biggest coastal cities in north China and the economic center of the Bohai Coastal Region, Tianjin's gross domestic product (GDP) was 369.762 billion yuan in 2005, accounting for 2.0% of the whole nation's GDP The paper analyzes Tianjin's development with the ecological footprint method, and the results show that Tianjin's ecological footprint and biocapacity in 2005 were 2. 507gha/cap and 0.276gha/cap respectively. The ecological deficit was 2.230gha/cap. And from 1980 to 2005, Tianjin's ecological deficit per 104 yuan GDP decreased; while per capita ecological deficit has been tending to increase rapidly in recent years. All these results demonstrate that Tianjin is in a state of unsustainable development.

  15. ELV Recycling Service Provider Selection Using the Hybrid MCDM Method: A Case Application in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid depletion of natural resources and undesired environmental changes globally, more interest has been shown in the research of green supply chain practices, including end-of-life vehicle (ELV recycling. The ELV recycling is mandatory for auto-manufacturers by legislation for the purpose of minimizing potential environmental damages. The purpose of the present research is to determine the best choice of ELV recycling service provider by employing an integrating hybrid multi-criteria decision making (MCDM method. In this research, economic, environmental and social factors are taken into consideration. The linguistic variables and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers (TFNs are applied into this evaluation to deal with the vague and qualitative information. With the combined weight calculation of criteria based on fuzzy aggregation and Shannon Entropy techniques, the normative multi-criteria optimization technique (FVIKOR method is applied to explore the best solution. An application was performed based on the proposed hybrid MCDM method, and sensitivity analysis was conducted on different decision making scenarios. The present study provides a decision-making approach on ELV recycling business selection under sustainability and green philosophy with high robustness and easy implementation.

  16. An improved method for nonlinear parameter estimation: a case study of the Rössler model

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Ping; Wang, Liu; Jiang, Yun-Di; Wan, Shi-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Parameter estimation is an important research topic in nonlinear dynamics. Based on the evolutionary algorithm (EA), Wang et al. (2014) present a new scheme for nonlinear parameter estimation and numerical tests indicate that the estimation precision is satisfactory. However, the convergence rate of the EA is relatively slow when multiple unknown parameters in a multidimensional dynamical system are estimated simultaneously. To solve this problem, an improved method for parameter estimation of nonlinear dynamical equations is provided in the present paper. The main idea of the improved scheme is to use all of the known time series for all of the components in some dynamical equations to estimate the parameters in single component one by one, instead of estimating all of the parameters in all of the components simultaneously. Thus, we can estimate all of the parameters stage by stage. The performance of the improved method was tested using a classic chaotic system—Rössler model. The numerical tests show that the amended parameter estimation scheme can greatly improve the searching efficiency and that there is a significant increase in the convergence rate of the EA, particularly for multiparameter estimation in multidimensional dynamical equations. Moreover, the results indicate that the accuracy of parameter estimation and the CPU time consumed by the presented method have no obvious dependence on the sample size.

  17. Analysis micro-mechanism of burrs formation in the case of nanometric cutting process using numerical simulation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Burrs (exit failure), being one of the important factors influencing the final precision of workpiece, have been widely studied. Today, with the development of manufac- turing technology, the depth of cut falls into the range of nanometer or sub- nanometer, there may be some different disciplines dominating the burrs genera- tion process. Molecular dynamics (MD) method, which is different from continuous mechanics, plays an important role in describing microscopic world. Take the ex- ample of single crystal copper, this paper carries out MD analysis micro-mecha- nism of burrs generation process. The results show that the burrs geometry de- pends on the type of workpiece (ductile or brittle). The depth of cut is decreased in the case of positive burrs generation process while the depth of cut is increased in case of negative burrs generation process.

  18. Experiences in methods to involve key players in planning protective actions in the case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A widely used method in the planning of protective actions is to establish a stakeholder network to generate a comprehensive set of generic protective actions. The aim is to increase competence and build links for communication and coordination. The approach of this work was to systematically evaluate protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear accident. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players could be transparently and equally included in the decision taken. An approach called Facilitated Decision Analysis Workshop has been developed and tested. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and, therefore, various types of countermeasures had to be considered. Six workshops were organised in the Nordic countries where the key players were represented, i.e. authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. (authors)

  19. Analysis micro-mechanism of burrs formation in the case of nanometric cutting process using numerical simulation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN XueSong; HU YuanZhong

    2007-01-01

    Burrs (exit failure), being one of the important factors influencing the final precision of workpiece, have been widely studied. Today, with the development of manufacturing technology, the depth of cut falls into the range of nanometer or subnanometer, there may be some different disciplines dominating the burrs generation process. Molecular dynamics (MD) method, which is different from continuous mechanics, plays an important role in describing microscopic world. Take the example of single crystal copper, this paper carries out MD analysis micro-mechanism of burrs generation process. The results show that the burrs geometry depends on the type of workpiece (ductile or brittle). The depth of cut is decreased in the case of positive burrs generation process while the depth of cut is increased in case of negative burrs generation process.

  20. Problem Solving Method and Change Management in Universities (Applied case-Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alaya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available TQ/M is a style of management that has worked for several decades all over world and is receiving growing attention, new some colleges and universities are beginning to recognize that T.Q.M values are more compatible with higher education that many existing control originally coined by Feigenbaum (1983, also used in higher education want the service we provide to be the highest quality. The purpose of this study was to provide an over view of T.Q. M thou (problems solution method. It's feasibility for higher education and academic libraries, and the results of its implementation by colleges and universities. And the change management helps to control the success. Questionnaire was designed to measure the knowledge and perception of academic library directors, dependent heads. Each college has framework which named strategically planning concerned of the problem solving method. In the initial of the educational stage of a process, improvement program, quick results are often obtained because the solutions are obvious or someone has a brilliant idea... However long term, a systematic approach will yield the greatest benefits. In this research scientific method as applied used to constitute the improvement, on fact some control chart can be used effectively utilized is more than one step of the method, while process. Of improvement is the main goal, also in addition to management of changes are mapping to be as way of improve the process and to increase the satisfaction of the performing the process. Therefore the research is divided in to three parts First part care of problem solving method and how to utilize of it in colleges, second take the change management, third part applied among the stuffs of universities (120, who are dealing of education. The data analysis yields the following results: There was a significant differencing found among the respondents concerning their option (member of colleges staffs indicates that there is an evidence

  1. A watershed-based method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region. The method is based on the concept of “self-/peer-appraisal” of a watershed in term of vulnerability. The self-/peer-appraisal process is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. The analysis provided insights on the environmental conditions, in general, and the relative vulnerability pattern, in particular, of the Mid-Atlantic region. The suggested method offers a simple but effective and objective way to perform a regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Consequently the method can be used in various steps in environmental assessment and planning. - Highlights: ► We present a method for regional environmental vulnerability assessment. ► It is based on the self-/peer-appraisal concept in term of vulnerability. ► The analysis is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. ► The method provides insights on the regional relative vulnerability pattern.

  2. Methods for Probabilistic Fault Diagnosis: An Electrical Power System Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Brian W.; Mengshoel, Ole J.

    2009-01-01

    Health management systems that more accurately and quickly diagnose faults that may occur in different technical systems on-board a vehicle will play a key role in the success of future NASA missions. We discuss in this paper the diagnosis of abrupt continuous (or parametric) faults within the context of probabilistic graphical models, more specifically Bayesian networks that are compiled to arithmetic circuits. This paper extends our previous research, within the same probabilistic setting, on diagnosis of abrupt discrete faults. Our approach and diagnostic algorithm ProDiagnose are domain-independent; however we use an electrical power system testbed called ADAPT as a case study. In one set of ADAPT experiments, performed as part of the 2009 Diagnostic Challenge, our system turned out to have the best performance among all competitors. In a second set of experiments, we show how we have recently further significantly improved the performance of the probabilistic model of ADAPT. While these experiments are obtained for an electrical power system testbed, we believe they can easily be transitioned to real-world systems, thus promising to increase the success of future NASA missions.

  3. Daniel's story: self-injury and the case study as method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Andrew

    This article explores the value of case study methodology as a means of investigating the relationship between people with learning disabilities and self-injury. One life story might appear to be of limited value in this regard; however, it is argued that it might not only be of use in demonstrating the development of an isolated self-injuring career, but there may also be insights into its entrenchment in the lives of others. The telling of one story might serve as a filter, through which the interventions of medication, mechanical restraint and behaviourism can be observed over time. Furthermore, studying one life in some detail might be used to illustrate broader concerns about the context of the transition from institutional to community care. The restrictions of such an approach are acknowledged, particularly in the telling of a story where the main character's words cannot be heard, but maybe that is also the point of undertaking research about those at the margins of society. PMID:16493325

  4. Using an Agroecosystem Services Approach to Assess Tillage Methods: A Case Study in the Shikma Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Sagie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of ecosystem services (ES in agricultural management is expanding; however, its integration in decision making processes is still challenging. This project was formulated to examine the ES approach and its usefulness with regard to management dilemmas. The Shikma region, north of the Negev Desert, was chosen as a case study. The management issue identified was the effect of various alternatives (minimum-tillage, no-tillage, straw-mulch and stubble-grazing on the supply of ES. The expert-based ES assessments’ findings reveal that no-tillage has the potential to increase many agroecosystem services and be more profitable for the farmer and the public. However, trade-offs between different ES and among stakeholder groups make it difficult to reach an unequivocal conclusion. As we have found, the process of the study is as important as the results. Throughout the project, an effort was made to engage stakeholders and policy-makers and to define decision-making processes. The study suggests that the ES approach can be useful in expanding the scope of agricultural management beyond provisioning services and create collaborations among farmers, communities, national institutions and environmental organizations to advance conservation agriculture. The study provides guidelines for conducting a productive ES assessment process that will lead to enhanced awareness and implementation.

  5. A case report of 22q11 deletion syndrome confirmed by array-CGH method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sedghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS is caused by a submicroscopic deletion on the long arm of chromosome 22 and affects approximately 1 in 4000 persons, making it the second most prevalent genetic syndrome after Down syndrome and the most common genetic syndrome associated with cleft palate. Most of the 22q11.2 deletion cases are new occurrences or sporadic; however, in about 10 % of families, the deletion is inherited and other family members are affected or at risk for passing this deletion to their children. This report describes a 1.5 years-old male child with clinical signs of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS presented with heart defect, soft cleft palate, developmental delay, acrocephaly, seizure, MRI abnormalities and descriptive facial feature, such as hypertelorism. Array-CGH test was done to confirm the diagnosis; the result revealed a 2.6 Mbp deletion in 22q11.2 chromosome that containing TBX1 and COMT genes. Our data suggest that haploinsufficiency of TBX1 gene is probably a major contributor to some of the syndrome characteristic signs, such as heart defect. Because of developmental delay and dysmorphic facial feature were observed in the index′s mother and relatives, inherited autosomal dominant form of VCF is probable, and MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification test should be performed for parents to estimate the recurrent risk in next pregnancy.

  6. Modeling Of Blood Vessel Constriction In 2-D Case Using Molecular Dynamics Method

    CERN Document Server

    Rendi, Mohamad; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2013-01-01

    Blood vessel constriction is simulated with particle-based method using a molecular dynamics authoring software known as Molecular Workbench (WM). Blood flow and vessel wall, the only components considered in constructing a blood vessel, are all represented in particle form with interaction potentials: Lennard-Jones potential, push-pull spring potential, and bending spring potential. Influence of medium or blood plasma is accommodated in plasma viscosity through Stokes drag force. It has been observed that pressure p is increased as constriction c is increased. Leakage of blood vessel starts at 80 % constriction, which shows existence of maximum pressure that can be overcome by vessel wall.

  7. Provenance of pottery determined by soil physicochemical and chemometric methods: A case study from Frederiksgave, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Bredwa-Mensah, Y.; Borggaard, Ole K.;

    2009-01-01

    The suitability of using traditional soil chemical and mineralogical methods combined with chemometrics to trace provenance of archaeological samples was tested on potsherds from Frederiksgave, a former Danish plantation in southern Ghana, in use from 18301850. Soil and six potsherds from...... Frederiksgave, together with potsherds from two likely production sites at Ga and Dangme Shai, were investigated by visual inspection, total element analysis and X-ray diffraction and the results analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The investigation clearly showed that the...

  8. Effective methods to influence logistics costs : Case: Food services for elderly people in public homes

    OpenAIRE

    Kariuki, Airine

    2011-01-01

    The population in Finland is rapidly ageing the number of children and people of working age decreases. There were 255,912 at the age of 80 and over at the end of 2010 and it is estimated that by 2030 the population will rise still further. The municipality of Espoo is experiencing high logistics costs in food delivery services to public homes for the elderly and there is a need to develop more cost effective logistics methods to reduce these costs. The purpose of this study is to analyze...

  9. Influence of surgery method and post-operative irradiation dose in case of mastocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the therapy results and side effects of 422 patients who had been submitted to a radical or partially radical operation or to ablatio mammae. The post-operative irradiation was effected under high voltage conditions with doses between 40 and 50 Gy corresponding to the stage. The survival times were not influenced either by the surgery method or by the post-operative irradiation dose. As compared to radical surgery, edemas of the arm were significantly less frequent and serious after a less radical operation. No significant increase of recurrences was observed after partially radical operations. (orig.)

  10. Influence of surgery method and post-operative irradiation dose in case of mastocarcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, H.L.; Voss, A.C.

    1982-03-01

    The authors present the therapy results and side effects of 422 patients who had been submitted to a radical or partially radical operation or to ablatio mammae. The post-operative irradiation was effected under high voltage conditions with doses between 40 and 50 Gy corresponding to the stage. The survival times were not influenced either by the surgery method or by the post-operative irradiation dose. As compared to radical surgery, edemas of the arm were significantly less frequent and serious after a less radical operation. No significant increase of recurrences was observed after partially radical operations.

  11. Sales Education beyond the classroom: Building participative learning experiences in Sales Management through the CMGS Method (Case Method with Guest Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ruizalba Robledo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of working through the CMGSMethod (Case Method with GuestSpeakers in Sales Management courses is toprovide Marketing students with practical knowledge about how a sales managercan deal with a wide variety of possible professional scenarios. Even when thecase method itself is an excellent way to equip students for their prospectiveemployment, the potential of this method can be enhanced with innovativepedagogical tools. Firstly, eight sales managers were invited to the SalesManagement Course as guest speakers. Students were required to prepare forthese sessions, gathering information about the speaker’s sector andidentifying areas of special interest. Each speaker shared their hands-onexperience and offered an overview of their field in a workshop, whileanswering the students’ questions. These sessions increased the interaction ofstudents with sales professionals, who presented their insights into a careerin sales management. The learning experiences built through these workshopswere narrated by the students in the course blog. Secondly, students were askedto present a scientific paper with the aim of bridging the gap between highereducation and cutting-edge research. This article portrays the reasoning behindthe course as well as the different steps followed during the process. Thecourse finished with encouraging results, suggesting the desirability ofincorporating PL (participative learning experiences into any marketingcourse.

  12. Isolating DNA from sexual assault cases: a comparison of standard methods with a nuclease-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvin Alex M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profiling sperm DNA present on vaginal swabs taken from rape victims often contributes to identifying and incarcerating rapists. Large amounts of the victim’s epithelial cells contaminate the sperm present on swabs, however, and complicate this process. The standard method for obtaining relatively pure sperm DNA from a vaginal swab is to digest the epithelial cells with Proteinase K in order to solubilize the victim’s DNA, and to then physically separate the soluble DNA from the intact sperm by pelleting the sperm, removing the victim’s fraction, and repeatedly washing the sperm pellet. An alternative approach that does not require washing steps is to digest with Proteinase K, pellet the sperm, remove the victim’s fraction, and then digest the residual victim’s DNA with a nuclease. Methods The nuclease approach has been commercialized in a product, the Erase Sperm Isolation Kit (PTC Labs, Columbia, MO, USA, and five crime laboratories have tested it on semen-spiked female buccal swabs in a direct comparison with their standard methods. Comparisons have also been performed on timed post-coital vaginal swabs and evidence collected from sexual assault cases. Results For the semen-spiked buccal swabs, Erase outperformed the standard methods in all five laboratories and in most cases was able to provide a clean male profile from buccal swabs spiked with only 1,500 sperm. The vaginal swabs taken after consensual sex and the evidence collected from rape victims showed a similar pattern of Erase providing superior profiles. Conclusions In all samples tested, STR profiles of the male DNA fractions obtained with Erase were as good as or better than those obtained using the standard methods.

  13. Case studies for solving the Saint-Venant equations using the method of characteristics: pipeline hydraulic transients and discharge propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, R. M.; Tiago Filho, G. L.; dos Santos, I. F. S.; da Silva, F. G. B.

    2014-03-01

    Hydraulic transients occur during a change from one equilibrium state to another, for example, in flows. The pipeline project should provide the head and discharge in any operating states, e.g., sudden valve opening or closure. Among the various numerical approaches for the calculation of pipeline transients, the method of characteristics (MOC) is advantageous This study aims to present a hydraulic transitory study as MOC applications for solving the Saint- Venant equations in two case studies: 1) in a penstock of a small hydropower system as a simple pipeline in the case of valve-closure in the downstream boundary with a reservoir in the upstream boundary; and 2) for discharge propagation into a channel by velocity and depth of the flow channel along space evaluation. The main data for the first case study consisted of a design head that is 182 meters, a turbine discharge of 13.82 m3/s, a diameter of 4 meters and length pipe (penstock) of 2,152.50 meters. Regarding the second case study, the entry hydrogram was given to a rectangular channel with a width of 6.1 meters, length of 3,048 meters, slope of 0.0016 meters, and exhibited uniform flow with nominal depth of 2.44 meters. The characteristic curve of the discharge in the downstream extremity is Q = 158.(y - 3.25)32. The proposed methodology by Chaudry [5] concerning the development of hydrodynamic models was used. The obtained results for first case study showed that the simulated values for valve pressure while varying turning the valve between 4 and 12 seconds results in maximum values of pressures that oscillated between 219.97mca and 212.39 mca (4s) and 196.42mca and 190.86mca (12s). For the second case study, the values of discharge, velocity, and depth for x=0 and elapsed time of 850s were, respectively, 127.70m3/s, 3.87m/s, and 5.36m. For x=0 and an elapsed time of 1,230s, the values were 87.92m3/s, 4.49m/s, and 3.21m. Therefore, the MOC numerical approach has been confirmed to be useful for several

  14. Case studies for solving the Saint-Venant equations using the method of characteristics: pipeline hydraulic transients and discharge propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydraulic transients occur during a change from one equilibrium state to another, for example, in flows. The pipeline project should provide the head and discharge in any operating states, e.g., sudden valve opening or closure. Among the various numerical approaches for the calculation of pipeline transients, the method of characteristics (MOC) is advantageous This study aims to present a hydraulic transitory study as MOC applications for solving the Saint- Venant equations in two case studies: 1) in a penstock of a small hydropower system as a simple pipeline in the case of valve-closure in the downstream boundary with a reservoir in the upstream boundary; and 2) for discharge propagation into a channel by velocity and depth of the flow channel along space evaluation. The main data for the first case study consisted of a design head that is 182 meters, a turbine discharge of 13.82 m3/s, a diameter of 4 meters and length pipe (penstock) of 2,152.50 meters. Regarding the second case study, the entry hydrogram was given to a rectangular channel with a width of 6.1 meters, length of 3,048 meters, slope of 0.0016 meters, and exhibited uniform flow with nominal depth of 2.44 meters. The characteristic curve of the discharge in the downstream extremity is Q = 158.(y – 3.25)32. The proposed methodology by Chaudry [5] concerning the development of hydrodynamic models was used. The obtained results for first case study showed that the simulated values for valve pressure while varying turning the valve between 4 and 12 seconds results in maximum values of pressures that oscillated between 219.97mca and 212.39 mca (4s) and 196.42mca and 190.86mca (12s). For the second case study, the values of discharge, velocity, and depth for x=0 and elapsed time of 850s were, respectively, 127.70m3/s, 3.87m/s, and 5.36m. For x=0 and an elapsed time of 1,230s, the values were 87.92m3/s, 4.49m/s, and 3.21m. Therefore, the MOC numerical approach has been confirmed to be useful for several

  15. Analyzing the subsurface structure using seismic refraction method: Case study STMKG campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibowo, Bagus Adi, E-mail: bagusadiwibowo1993@gmail.com [The State College of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (STMKG), The Indonesian Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics Agency (BMKG), Perhubungan 1 Street, South Tangerang, 15221 (Indonesia); Ngadmanto, Drajat [The Center of Research and Development (PUSLITBANG), The Indonesian Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics Agency (BMKG), Angkasa I, Jakarta, 10620 (Indonesia); Daryono [The Mitigation of Earthquake and Tsunami, The Indonesian Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics Agency (BMKG), Angkasa I, Jakarta, 10620 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    A geophysic survey is performed to detect subsurface structure under STMKG Campus in Pondok Betung, South Tangerang, Indonesia, using seismic refraction method. The survey used PASI 16S24-U24. The waveform data is acquired from 3 different tracks on the research location with a close range from each track. On each track we expanded 24 geofons with spacing between receiver 2 meters and the total length of each track about 48 meters. The waveform data analysed using 2 different ways. First, used a seismic refractionapplication WINSISIM 12 and second, used a Hagiwara Method. From both analysis, we known the velocity of P-wave in the first and second layer and the thickness of the first layer. From the velocity and the thickness informations we made 2-D vertical subsurface profiles. In this research, we only detect 2 layers in each tracks. The P-wave velocity of first layer is about 200-500 m/s with the thickness of this layer about 3-6 m/s. The P-wave velocity of second layer is about 400-900 m/s. From the P-wave velocity data we interpreted that both layer consisted by similar materials such as top soil, soil, sand, unsaturated gravel, alluvium and clay. But, the P-wave velocity difference between those 2 layers assumed happening because the first layer is soil embankment layer, having younger age than the layer below.

  16. Ecological validity and the study of publics: The case for organic public engagement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Pat J

    2014-01-01

    This essay argues for a method of public engagement grounded in the criteria of ecological validity. Motivated by what Hammersly called the responsibility that comes with intellectual authority: "to seek, as far as possible, to ensure the validity of their conclusions and to participate in rational debate about those conclusions" (1993: 29), organic public engagement follows the empirical turn in citizenship theory and in rhetorical studies of actually existing publics. Rather than shaping citizens into either the compliant subjects of the cynical view or the deliberatively disciplined subjects of the idealist view, organic public engagement instead takes Asen's advice that "we should ask: how do people enact citizenship?" (2004: 191). In short, organic engagement methods engage publics in the places where they already exist and through those discourses and social practices by which they enact their status as publics. Such engagements can generate practical middle-range theories that facilitate future actions and decisions that are attentive to the local ecologies of diverse publics. PMID:23887250

  17. Comparison between different uncertainty propagation methods in multivariate analysis: An application in the bivariate case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullor, R. [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Alicante (Spain); Sanchez, A., E-mail: aisanche@eio.upv.e [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 (Spain); Martorell, S. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Martinez-Alzamora, N. [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    Safety related systems performance optimization is classically based on quantifying the effects that testing and maintenance activities have on reliability and cost (R+C). However, R+C quantification is often incomplete in the sense that important uncertainties may not be considered. An important number of studies have been published in the last decade in the field of R+C based optimization considering uncertainties. They have demonstrated that inclusion of uncertainties in the optimization brings the decision maker insights concerning how uncertain the R+C results are and how this uncertainty does matter as it can result in differences in the outcome of the decision making process. Several methods of uncertainty propagation based on the theory of tolerance regions have been proposed in the literature depending on the particular characteristics of the variables in the output and their relations. In this context, the objective of this paper focuses on the application of non-parametric and parametric methods to analyze uncertainty propagation, which will be implemented on a multi-objective optimization problem where reliability and cost act as decision criteria and maintenance intervals act as decision variables. Finally, a comparison of results of these applications and the conclusions obtained are presented.

  18. Application of Isotope and Dye Tracing Methods in Hydrology (Case Study: Havassan Dam Construction)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iran, with its annual average precipitation rate of 260 mm, is considered among the arid and semiarid regions of the world. So, water scarcity as a primitive problem has hindered development in agricultural, economic, social and industrial fields. Constructing dams across the rivers is one of the most accepted methods to control and exploit surface waters. Reservoirs formed by constructing dams change fluvial morphology from a river course to a lake. This causes changes in groundwater flow behaviour at the dam site, i.e. a kind of conversion takes place from the role of the aquifers as a recharge source for the rivers before dam construction, into the role of the river-reservoir as the recharge source for the aquifer. As a result, water leakage might occur in the reservoir. Isotope and dye tracing methods could be used to investigate questions such as the present condition of the river, the process of surface water leakage into aquifers, the specification of water leakage locations, the relationships between different water resources, age, class, type, velocity and direction of groundwater flows, the status of permeability of formations of the reservoir, karst development, etc. The paper presents the study on application of environmental isotopes and dye tracers to investigate interaction between surface water and groundwater and possible threats of water leakage from the reservoir at the Havassan Dam site. (author)

  19. Geolectrical methods applied on a contaminated site : the Entressen landfill case study (south-eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudet, V.; Revil, A.; Bottero, J.-Y.

    2003-04-01

    Redox potential is a controlling parameter in many contaminated site remediation technologies. Its knowledge is crutial to understand the contaminant plume development and risks for groundwater ressources. But, redox potential is very difficult to measure directlly in the field. A geophysical method that could determine the redox potential distribution in a contaminant plume would be particularly welcome. We believe that the self-potential method (SP) offers such a possibility. We performed extensive SP and electrical resistivity measurements downstream the Entressen landfill (south-eastern France in Provence). Thanks to the electrical resistivity tomographies, we obtained a 3D image of the aquifer datum. This image helps us to better understand the pattern of water flow through the channels, and to estimate the electrokinetic component of the SP signal. An important negative SP anomaly (-400 mV) is measured near the decantation basins of the landfill, suggesting an hypothetical leak of these basins. The polarity and the great amplitude of this anomaly indicate that the main component of the SP signal is due to electrochemical reactions such as oxido-reduction reactions. The comparison of the SP measurements and the geochemical data shows that the negative SP anomaly is correlated with the anaerobic zone of the contaminant plume. We believe that redox potential gradients in the contaminant plume generate a diffusion potential which is responsible for the SP anomaly. Microbial activity also plays a key role in all these processes.

  20. Analysis of Traffic Accidents Using Hazard Index Method: Case of Denizli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk OZAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents that occur as a result of a combination of many factors are complex and difficult issue. Although many studies are carried out in order to reduce the number of traffic accidents in urban transportation networks, exactly prevention of traffic accidents which arise from human and environmental factors is impossible. Therefore, especially in the urban transportation networks, determining links which have an accident risk and taking required measures are very important. In this study, the hazard index has been used to determine links which have an accident risk. Transportation network which contains high traffic volume regions in Denizli has been selected as study area. In this network, data were collected to be used in the hazard index, hazard indexes were calculated for links and risk grading was conducted. Morning and evening peak hour speed and traffic volume surveys were carried out in order to be used in analyses. Results showed that hazard index method can be used in traffic accident risk analysis and it is determined that hazard index method can be used to form a basis for future studies about decreasing the number of traffic accidents.

  1. Comparison between different uncertainty propagation methods in multivariate analysis: An application in the bivariate case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety related systems performance optimization is classically based on quantifying the effects that testing and maintenance activities have on reliability and cost (R+C). However, R+C quantification is often incomplete in the sense that important uncertainties may not be considered. An important number of studies have been published in the last decade in the field of R+C based optimization considering uncertainties. They have demonstrated that inclusion of uncertainties in the optimization brings the decision maker insights concerning how uncertain the R+C results are and how this uncertainty does matter as it can result in differences in the outcome of the decision making process. Several methods of uncertainty propagation based on the theory of tolerance regions have been proposed in the literature depending on the particular characteristics of the variables in the output and their relations. In this context, the objective of this paper focuses on the application of non-parametric and parametric methods to analyze uncertainty propagation, which will be implemented on a multi-objective optimization problem where reliability and cost act as decision criteria and maintenance intervals act as decision variables. Finally, a comparison of results of these applications and the conclusions obtained are presented.

  2. Analyzing the subsurface structure using seismic refraction method: Case study STMKG campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geophysic survey is performed to detect subsurface structure under STMKG Campus in Pondok Betung, South Tangerang, Indonesia, using seismic refraction method. The survey used PASI 16S24-U24. The waveform data is acquired from 3 different tracks on the research location with a close range from each track. On each track we expanded 24 geofons with spacing between receiver 2 meters and the total length of each track about 48 meters. The waveform data analysed using 2 different ways. First, used a seismic refractionapplication WINSISIM 12 and second, used a Hagiwara Method. From both analysis, we known the velocity of P-wave in the first and second layer and the thickness of the first layer. From the velocity and the thickness informations we made 2-D vertical subsurface profiles. In this research, we only detect 2 layers in each tracks. The P-wave velocity of first layer is about 200-500 m/s with the thickness of this layer about 3-6 m/s. The P-wave velocity of second layer is about 400-900 m/s. From the P-wave velocity data we interpreted that both layer consisted by similar materials such as top soil, soil, sand, unsaturated gravel, alluvium and clay. But, the P-wave velocity difference between those 2 layers assumed happening because the first layer is soil embankment layer, having younger age than the layer below

  3. An improved MCDM method for maintenance approach selection: A case study of auto industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Aghaee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current competitive environment, managers have been making attempts to convert organizations under their supervision into competitive and responsive through creating capability of timely delivery of quality products and services. In line with this, maintenance as a system plays an important role in achieving these goals. The maintenance strategy selection is a kind of multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM problem, which requires considering a large number of complex factors as multiple evaluation criteria. A robust MCDM method should consider the interactions among criteria. The analytic network process (ANP is a relatively new MCDM method, which can deal with all kinds of interactions systematically. Moreover, the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL not only can convert the relations between cause and effect of criteria into a visual structural model, but also can be used as a way to handle the inner dependences within a set of criteria. Hence, this paper proposes an effective solution based on a combined ANP and DEMATEL approach to help vehicle companies that need to evaluate and select maintenance strategies.

  4. Power sector investment risk and renewable energy: A Japanese case study using portfolio risk optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional pricing mechanism used for electricity systematically hides huge investment risks which are embedded in the overall cost of production. Although consumers are often unaware of these risks, they present a large financial burden on the economy. This study applies the portfolio optimization concepts from the field of finance to demonstrate the scope of greater utilization of renewable energies (RE) while reducing the embedded investment risk in the conventional electricity sector and its related financial burden. This study demonstrates that RE investment can compensate for the risks associated with the total input costs; such costs being external volatilities of fossil fuel prices, capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and the carbon costs. By means of example, this case study shows that Japan could in theory obtain up to 9% of its electricity supply from green sources, as compared to the present 1.37%, based on the utilization of a portfolio risk-analysis evaluation. Explicit comparison of the monetary values of the investment risks of conventional and renewable energy sources shows that renewable energies have high market competitiveness. The study concludes with a recommendation that, as a business objective, investors would benefit by focusing on electricity supply portfolio risk minimization instead of cost. This could also inherently increase the supply of renewable energy in the market. - Research highlights: ►Energy sector investors should not be bothered only about the absolute cost figures of the input factors like fossil fuels but should also be careful about the fluctuation of their costs while making the investment decisions. ►Inclusion of renewable energy in the investment portfolio can increase the cost apparently but can reduce the risk hedging costs, too. ►International carbon price may not be a good factor to encourage renewable energy investment in the market.

  5. Comparing Methods for Prioritising Protected Areas for Investment: A Case Study Using Madagascar's Dry Forest Reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie J Gardner

    Full Text Available There are insufficient resources available to manage the world's existing protected area portfolio effectively, so the most important sites should be prioritised in investment decision-making. Sophisticated conservation planning and assessment tools developed to identify locations for new protected areas can provide an evidence base for such prioritisations, yet decision-makers in many countries lack the institutional support and necessary capacity to use the associated software. As such, simple heuristic approaches such as species richness or number of threatened species are generally adopted to inform prioritisation decisions. However, their performance has never been tested. Using the reptile fauna of Madagascar's dry forests as a case study, we evaluate the performance of four site prioritisation protocols used to rank the conservation value of 22 established and candidate protected areas. We compare the results to a benchmark produced by the widely-used systematic conservation planning software Zonation. The four indices scored sites on the basis of: i species richness; ii an index based on species' Red List status; iii irreplaceability (a key metric in systematic conservation planning; and, iv a novel Conservation Value Index (CVI, which incorporates species-level information on endemism, representation in the protected area system, tolerance of habitat degradation and hunting/collection pressure. Rankings produced by the four protocols were positively correlated to the results of Zonation, particularly amongst high-scoring sites, but CVI and Irreplaceability performed better than Species Richness and the Red List Index. Given the technological capacity constraints experienced by decision-makers in the developing world, our findings suggest that heuristic metrics can represent a useful alternative to more sophisticated analyses, especially when they integrate species-specific information related to extinction risk. However, this can

  6. Groundwater contaminant transport with adsorption and ion exchange chemistry: method of characteristics for the case without dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminant transport in the groundwater environment with adsorption and ion exchange reactions is considered. For the case where the influence of dispersion is negligible, the method of characteristics is used to formulate the solution for any adsorption isotherm and an arbitrary number of exchanging cations. The approach applies equally well to linear flow systems and to nonlinear systems along streamlines in a nonuniform flow field. Transport problems related to the emerging technologies of in situ gasification of lignite and in situ leach mining of uranium are discussed. 12 refs

  7. Intelligent data analysis based on the complex network theory methods: a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Mryglod, O

    2010-01-01

    The development of modern information technologies permits to collect and to analyze huge amounts of statistical data in different spheres of life. The main problem is not to only to collect but to process all relevant information. The purpose of our work is to show the example of intelligent data analysis in such complex and non-formalized field as science. Using the statistical data about scientific periodical it is possible to perform its comprehensive analysis and to solve different practical problems. The combination of various approaches including the statistical analysis, methods of the complex network theory and different techniques that can be used for the concept mapping permits to perform an intelligent data analysis in order to obtain underlying patterns and hidden connections. Results of such analysis can be used for particular practical problems like information retrieval within journal.

  8. Comprehensive Evaluation Method of Urban Remnant Natural Area:A Case study of Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Sheng-quan; WANG Yun; GONG Bin

    2008-01-01

    Urban remnant natural area (URNA), located in the urban or suburb area, less disturbed by dwellers in the process of urbanization, is an important part of complex urban ecosystem and provides significant opportunity for urban sustainable development. Despite that there is a considerable amount of scientific researches on the urban nature in urban and suburb area, the comprehensive research of URNA is still rare. After analyzing the concept and value of URNA, this paper presented a methodology for comprehensive evaluation of URNA by adopting methods of document analysis, prior-selection process, analytic hierarchy process and vector resemblance-degree. As a result, the comprehensive evaluation index of URNA includes target level A, rule level B(ecological environment value, ecological recreation value, social culture value, scientific research value), index level C( diversity, singularity, nature, area, stability, recreation, landscape element, aesthetics, history, scientific), and index level D(20 items). Each index weight of comprehensive evaluation system of URNA of Shanghai was confirmed finally.

  9. Using informative priors in facies inversion: The case of C-ISR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valakas, G.; Modis, K.

    2016-08-01

    Inverse problems involving the characterization of hydraulic properties of groundwater flow systems by conditioning on observations of the state variables are mathematically ill-posed because they have multiple solutions and are sensitive to small changes in the data. In the framework of McMC methods for nonlinear optimization and under an iterative spatial resampling transition kernel, we present an algorithm for narrowing the prior and thus producing improved proposal realizations. To achieve this goal, we cosimulate the facies distribution conditionally to facies observations and normal scores transformed hydrologic response measurements, assuming a linear coregionalization model. The approach works by creating an importance sampling effect that steers the process to selected areas of the prior. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by an example application on a synthetic underdetermined inverse problem in aquifer characterization.

  10. COMPARABLE VALUATION METHOD A NEW APPROACH. CASE STUDY: A ROMANIAN FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING FIRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Imola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the valuation scheme of a flexographic printing industry firm. The industry, the technology used and most importantly the firm being young ones, it is not possible to use the classical comparable valuation methods. The new approach in this matter is to use as benchmark financial ratios not those related to the price of the firm (as P/E, P/S, P/BV, P/CF, P/CAPEX, but those related to the structure of the income statement, financial and operating leverage using 13 Romanian and 6 Hungarian reference firms data. Our main contribution to this line of research is to solve the problem of lack of reference data regarding the price, the benchmark companies not being listed on any stock exchange.

  11. The assessment of design fire cases on offshore installations using process analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster chaired by Lord Cullen, highlighted the short-comings of a prescriptive approach to safety and in particular, those of fire protection. This paper describes a method of critically analyzing the process sections and areas to determine the worst fire conditions which could occur following a hydrocarbon release. The results of the analyses would be used as the basis for fire protection design on a new platform or for assessing the adequacy of the protection on an existing installation thus allowing designers to adopt the goal setting approach advocated in the Inquiry, ie, designing systems to suit the fire hazards rather than to suit the regulations. It will also enable process engineers to appreciate the scale of fire hazards which might arise from poor design

  12. Mathematical methods and algorithms for calibration data processing in the case of spiral scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical methods of calibration data processing implemented as CALIBR program are described. This program is intended for weakly testing of the ''Spiral Reader'' automatic device in order to determine its precision and parameters of the transformation between two coordinate systems (Cartesian and polar) in which measurements are made. A new approach consists in introducing a special preliminary transformation of scanned data for nonlinear distortion elimination. Coefficients of this transformation are obtained by processing the artificial straight line data measurements. Algorithms of cross center determining, two-dimensional interpolation, straight line recognition and functional minimizing have been improved. Additional testing of scanned data and of the results of their processing have been introduced. Thus precision improvement has been achieved upto 2 μm over the total scanning range

  13. Measurement of productive efficiency with frontier methods: A case study for wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we measure the productive efficiency of a group of wind farms during the period 2001-2004 using the frontier methods Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Taking an extensive definition of the productive process of wind electricity as our starting point, we obtain results which allow us to identify, on the one hand, an essentially ex ante efficiency measure and, on the other hand, aspects of relevance for wind farm development companies (developers), technology suppliers and operators in terms of their economic impact. These results may also be of interest for regulators and other stakeholders in the sector. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of the simultaneous use of DEA and SFA methodologies.

  14. Using Correlation Adaptometry Method in Assessing Societal Stress: a Ukrainian Case

    CERN Document Server

    Rybnikov, Svyatoslav

    2012-01-01

    Societal stress may cause far reaching political, economic and even geological effects. Nevertheless, it is still scarcely investigated, contrary to social stress, which an individual faces in their interactions within a society. It is natural to suppose that in its adaptation, society demonstrates the same objective laws that biological population does, since they are, in fact, the closest systems. In the survey, the hypothesis is tested that the collective stress effect holds true in society, which must appear (as it happens according to correlation adaptometry method in biological systems) in escalation of both correlations between societal characteristics and their dispersion. Both tends are observed in Ukrainian society during 2009-2012, as a result of political elections that affect societal anxiety.

  15. Comparison of Some Motion Detection Methods in cases of Single and Multiple Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamir Alavi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Motion detection tells us whether there is a change in position of an object with respect to its surroundings or vice versa. It is applied to various domestic and commercial applications starting from simple motion detectors to high speed video surveillance systems. In this paper, results obtained from some simple motion detection algorithms, which use methods like image subtraction and edge detection, have been compared. The software used for this purpose was MATLAB 7.6.0 (R2008a. It has been observed that while image subtraction is sufficient to detect motion in a video stream, combining it with edge detection in different sequences yields different results in different scenarios.

  16. Measurement of productive efficiency with frontier methods. A case study for wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we measure the productive efficiency of a group of wind farms during the period 2001-2004 using the frontier methods Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Taking an extensive definition of the productive process of wind electricity as our starting point, we obtain results which allow us to identify, on the one hand, an essentially ex ante efficiency measure and, on the other hand, aspects of relevance for wind farm development companies (developers), technology suppliers and operators in terms of their economic impact. These results may also be of interest for regulators and other stakeholders in the sector. Furthermore, we discuss the implications of the simultaneous use of DEA and SFA methodologies. (author)

  17. Novel free-hand T1 pedicle screw method: Review of 44 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Rivkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary of Background Data: Multilevel posterior cervical instrumented fusions are becoming more prevalent in current practice. Biomechanical characteristics of the cervicothoracic junction may necessitate extending the construct to upper thoracic segments. However, fixation in upper thoracic spine can be technically demanding owing to transitional anatomy while suboptimal placement facilitates vascular and neurologic complications. Thoracic instrumentation methods include free-hand, fluoroscopic guidance, and CT-based image guidance. However, fluoroscopy of upper thoracic spine is challenging secondary to vertebral geometry and patient positioning, while image-guided systems present substantial financial commitment and are not readily available at most centers. Additionally, imaging modalities increase radiation exposure to the patient and surgeon while potentially lengthening surgical time. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of 44 consecutive patients undergoing a cervicothoracic fusion by a single surgeon using the novel free-hand T1 pedicle screw technique between June 2009 and November 2012. A starting point medial and cephalad to classic entry as well as new trajectory were utilized. No imaging modalities were employed during screw insertion. Postoperative CT scans were obtained on day 1. Screw accuracy was independently evaluated according to the Heary classification. Results: In total, 87 pedicle screws placed were at T1. Grade 1 placement occurred in 72 (82.8% screws, Grade 2 in 4 (4.6% screws and Grade 3 in 9 (10.3% screws. All Grade 2 and 3 breaches were <2 mm except one Grade 3 screw breaching 2-4 mm laterally. Only two screws (2.3% were noted to be Grade 4, both breaching medially by less than 2 mm. No new neurological deficits or returns to operating room took place postoperatively. Conclusions: This modification of the traditional starting point and trajectory at T1 is safe and effective. It attenuates additional bone

  18. Evaluation of leakage from a metal machining center using tracer gas methods: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitbrink, W A; Earnest, G S; Mickelsen, R L; Mead, K R; D'Arcy, J B

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of engineering controls in reducing worker exposure to metalworking fluids, an evaluation of an enclosure for a machining center during face milling was performed. The enclosure was built around a vertical metal machining center with an attached ventilation system consisting of a 25-cm diameter duct, a fan, and an air-cleaning filter. The evaluation method included using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas to determine the ventilation system's flow rate and capture efficiency, a respirable aerosol monitor (RAM) to identify aerosol leak locations around the enclosure, and smoke tubes and a velometer to evaluate air movement around the outside of the enclosure. Results of the tracer gas evaluation indicated that the control system was approximately 98% efficient at capturing tracer gas released near the spindle of the machining center. This result was not significantly different from 100% efficiency (p = 0.2). The measured SF6 concentration when released directly into the duct had a relative standard deviation of 2.2%; whereas, when releasing SF6 at the spindle, the concentration had a significantly higher relative standard deviation of 7.8% (p = 0.016). This increased variability could be due to a cyclic leakage at a small gap between the upper and lower portion of the enclosure or due to cyclic stagnation. Leakage also was observed with smoke tubes, a velometer, and an aerosol photometer. The tool and fluid motion combined to induce a periodic airflow in and out of the enclosure. These results suggest that tracer gas methods could be used to evaluate enclosure efficiency. However, smoke tubes and aerosol instrumentation such as optical particle counters or aerosol photometers also need to be used to locate leakage from enclosures. PMID:10635544

  19. Methods for determination and approximation of the domain of attraction in the case of autonomous discrete dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigis A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for determination and two methods for approximation of the domain of attraction Da(0 of the asymptotically stable zero steady state of an autonomous, ℝ-analytical, discrete dynamical system are presented. The method of determination is based on the construction of a Lyapunov function V, whose domain of analyticity is Da(0. The first method of approximation uses a sequence of Lyapunov functions Vp, which converge to the Lyapunov function V on Da(0. Each Vp defines an estimate Np of Da(0. For any x ∈ Da(0, there exists an estimate which contains x. The second method of approximation uses a ball B(R ⊂ Da(0 which generates the sequence of estimates Mp = f-p(B(R. For any x ∈ Da(0, there exists an estimate which contains x. The cases ||∂0f||<1 and ρ(∂0f < 1 ≤||∂0f|| are treated separately because significant differences occur.

  20. Study on wave energy resource assessing method based on altimeter data—A case study in Northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong; ZHANG Jie; MENG Junmin; WANG Jing; DAI Yongshou

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy resource is a very important ocean renewable energy. A reliable assessment of wave energy resources must be performed before they can be exploited. Compared with wave model, altimeter can provide more accuratein situ observations for ocean wave which can be as a novel method for wave energy assessment. The advantage of altimeter data is to provide accurate significant wave height observations for wave. In order to develop characteristic and advantage of altimeter data and apply altimeter data to wave energy assessment, in this study, we established an assessing method for wave energy in local sea area which is dedicated to altimeter data. This method includes three parts including data selection and processing, establishment of evaluation indexes system and criterion of regional division. Then a case study of Northwest Pacific was performed to discuss specific application for this method. The results show that assessing method in this paper can assess reserves and temporal and spatial distribution effectively and provide scientific references for the siting of wave power plants and the design of wave energy convertors.

  1. The case for increasing returns (2: the methods of planning horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic B. Jennings Jr.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In neoclassical economics, substitution assumptions support equilibrium models in closed systems shunning interdependence. On these grounds an array of frames show outcomes as stable, efficient, unique and determinate. Heterodox economists say equilibrium models sidestep practical knowledge and the rich reality of economic behavior. Rigor or realism, mainstream or radical, ecological, institutional, socio-cultural: economics invites a wide diversity of assumptions, once short-term models of substitution are opened to question. The answers are blurred by applications; there is clarity in a simplicity shielded from mundane detail. This paper addresses the methodological impact of planning horizons, increasing returns and complementarity, and their proper representation in economic constructions. Horizonal economics can be construed as extending orthodox standards into a realm of time, but for its subtler ramifications. Increasing returns make our relations complementary and not substitutional, loosening the tight deductions from mainstream models of choice. The horizonal extension of our received theory of price applies time to cost and demand curves, showing Marshallian scissors (supply and demand cut outward and downward with expanded horizons. Static conceptions appear in horizonal groups, suggesting complete theories of price should specify agents’ horizons, with no further radical impact: the trouble emerges with increasing returns and complementarity. Horizons stem from unbounded causality; if all we do ripples outward forever in nature and society, the relevant field of inquiry for economics is interdependent: this is the case for bounded rationality as an analytical limit to economic conceptions. In turn, interdependence suggests a use of network constructs to frame complex systemic cascades, and networks open a door to complementarity and increasing returns in transport and information exchange. The gaping maw of increasing returns and

  2. Mapping biomass with remote sensing: a comparison of methods for the case study of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Matieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing biomass is gaining increasing interest mainly for bioenergy, climate change research and mitigation activities, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+. In response to these needs, a number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches but the lack of comparable reference data limits their proper validation. The objectives of this study are to compare the available maps for Uganda and to understand the sources of variability in the estimation. Uganda was chosen as a case-study because it presents a reliable national biomass reference dataset. Results The comparison of the biomass/carbon maps show strong disagreement between the products, with estimates of total aboveground biomass of Uganda ranging from 343 to 2201 Tg and different spatial distribution patterns. Compared to the reference map based on country-specific field data and a national Land Cover (LC dataset (estimating 468 Tg, maps based on biome-average biomass values, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC default values, and global LC datasets tend to strongly overestimate biomass availability of Uganda (ranging from 578 to 2201 Tg, while maps based on satellite data and regression models provide conservative estimates (ranging from 343 to 443 Tg. The comparison of the maps predictions with field data, upscaled to map resolution using LC data, is in accordance with the above findings. This study also demonstrates that the biomass estimates are primarily driven by the biomass reference data while the type of spatial maps used for their stratification has a smaller, but not negligible, impact. The differences in format, resolution and biomass definition used by the maps, as well as the fact that some datasets are not independent from the

  3. Developing a service user facilitated, interactive case study--a reflective and evaluative account of a teaching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lisa J; Padgett, Kath

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the development and ongoing evaluation of a method of service user facilitated case study in health and social care education in a U.K. University. An action research approach (Norton 2009) has been used in which the aim of the work is to improve personal practice with the aim of enhancing the student experience. The paper is written from the perspective of the service user with support from an academic colleague. The paper describes how a narrative monologue, over time is developed into an interactive case study. In draws upon literature from service user involvement, case study and pedagogic action research. The research group are health and social care students both under and post-graduates. Analysis is via a session evaluation form. Thematic analysis draws out key themes. Firstly that first person accounts have a reasonance and interest with students. Secondly that the built in thinking time helps students to develop their reflection and critical thinking skills. Furthermore a theme emerges on how the technique supports students with their future careers. Finally the author reflects on how the approach enables the development of teaching practice and enhanced student learning. PMID:22036271

  4. Analyses of Crime Patterns in NIBRS Data Based on a Novel Graph Theory Clustering Method: Virginia as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a novel clustering method for analyzing the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS data, which include the determination of correlation of different crime types, the development of a likelihood index for crimes to occur in a jurisdiction, and the clustering of jurisdictions based on crime type. The method was tested by using the 2005 assault data from 121 jurisdictions in Virginia as a test case. The analyses of these data show that some different crime types are correlated and some different crime parameters are correlated with different crime types. The analyses also show that certain jurisdictions within Virginia share certain crime patterns. This information assists with constructing a pattern for a specific crime type and can be used to determine whether a jurisdiction may be more likely to see this type of crime occur in their area.

  5. Evaluation of two sets of immunohistochemical and Western blot confirmatory methods in the detection of typical and atypical BSE cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenlee Justin J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three distinct forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, defined as classical (C-, low (L- or high (H- type, have been detected through ongoing active and passive surveillance systems for the disease. The aim of the present study was to compare the ability of two sets of immunohistochemical (IHC and Western blot (WB BSE confirmatory protocols to detect C- and atypical (L- and H-type BSE forms. Obex samples from cases of United States and Italian C-type BSE, a U.S. H-type and an Italian L-type BSE case were tested in parallel using the two IHC sets and WB methods. Results The two IHC techniques proved equivalent in identifying and differentiating between C-type, L-type and H-type BSE. The IHC protocols appeared consistent in the identification of PrPSc distribution and deposition patterns in relation to the BSE type examined. Both IHC methods evidenced three distinct PrPSc phenotypes for each type of BSE: prevailing granular and linear tracts pattern in the C-type; intraglial and intraneuronal deposits in the H-type; plaques in the L-type. Also, the two techniques gave comparable results for PrPSc staining intensity on the C- and L-type BSE samples, whereas a higher amount of intraglial and intraneuronal PrPSc deposition on the H-type BSE case was revealed by the method based on a stronger demasking step. Both WB methods were consistent in identifying classical and atypical BSE forms and in differentiating the specific PrPSc molecular weight and glycoform ratios of each form. Conclusions The study showed that the IHC and WB BSE confirmatory methods were equally able to recognize C-, L- and H-type BSE forms and to discriminate between their different immunohistochemical and molecular phenotypes. Of note is that for the first time one of the two sets of BSE confirmatory protocols proved effective in identifying the L-type BSE form. This finding helps to validate the suitability of the BSE confirmatory tests for BSE

  6. Evaluation of the clinical process in a critical care information system using the Lean method: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof Maryati Mohd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous applications for Health Information Systems (HIS that support specific tasks in the clinical workflow. The Lean method has been used increasingly to optimize clinical workflows, by removing waste and shortening the delivery cycle time. There are a limited number of studies on Lean applications related to HIS. Therefore, we applied the Lean method to evaluate the clinical processes related to HIS, in order to evaluate its efficiency in removing waste and optimizing the process flow. This paper presents the evaluation findings of these clinical processes, with regards to a critical care information system (CCIS, known as IntelliVue Clinical Information Portfolio (ICIP, and recommends solutions to the problems that were identified during the study. Methods We conducted a case study under actual clinical settings, to investigate how the Lean method can be used to improve the clinical process. We used observations, interviews, and document analysis, to achieve our stated goal. We also applied two tools from the Lean methodology, namely the Value Stream Mapping and the A3 problem-solving tools. We used eVSM software to plot the Value Stream Map and A3 reports. Results We identified a number of problems related to inefficiency and waste in the clinical process, and proposed an improved process model. Conclusions The case study findings show that the Value Stream Mapping and the A3 reports can be used as tools to identify waste and integrate the process steps more efficiently. We also proposed a standardized and improved clinical process model and suggested an integrated information system that combines database and software applications to reduce waste and data redundancy.

  7. An assessment of ecological and case-control methods for estimating lung cancer risk due to indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of underground miners indicate that indoor radon is an important cause of lung cancer. This finding has raised concern that exposure to radon also causes lung cancer in the general population. Epidemiological studies, including both case-control and ecological approaches, have directly addressed the risks of indoor residential radon; many more case-control studies are in progress. Ecological studies that associate lung-cancer rates with typical indoor radon levels in various geographic areas have not consistently shown positive associations. The results of purportedly negative ecological studies have been used as a basis for questioning the hazards of indoor radon exposure. Because of potentially serious methodologic flaws for testing hypotheses, we examined the ecological method as a tool for assessing lung-cancer risk from indoor radon exposure. We developed a simulation approach that utilizes the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radon survey data to assign exposures to individuals within counties. Using the computer-generated data, we compared risk estimates obtained by ecological regression methods with those obtained from other regression methods and with the open-quotes trueclose quotes risks used to generate the data. For many of these simulations, the ecological models, while fitting the summary data well, gave risk estimates that differed considerably from the true risks. For some models, the risk estimates were negatively correlated with exposure, although the assumed relationship was positive. Attempts to improve the ecological models by adding smoking variables, including interaction terms, did not always improve the estimates of risk, which are easily affected by model misspecification. Because exposure situations used in the simulations are realistic, our results show that ecological methods may not accurately estimate the lung-cancer risk associated with indoor radon exposure

  8. Analysis of pavement serviceability for the Aashto Design Method: The Chilean Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serviceability is an indicator that represents the level of service a pavement provides to the users. This subjective opinion is closely related to objective aspects, which can be measured on the pavement's surface. This research aims specifically at relating serviceability results obtained by a 9-member evaluation panel, representing general public as closely as possible to parameters (particularly of roughness) measured within instruments on 30, 25 and 11 road sections of asphalt concrete, Portland cement concrete and asphalt overlay respectively. Results show that prediction of serviceability is quite accurate based on roughness evaluation, while also revealing that, by comparison to studies in more developed countries, Chileans are seemingly more tolerant, in that they assign a somewhat high rating to ride quality. Furthermore, visible distress does not have a significant influence on serviceability values for Chilean users. A ratio between International Roughness Index (IRI) and Serviceability, as defined by AASHTO, was developed and may be used in this design method. Results for the final pavement condition of urban pavements were obtained (IRI-asphalt final=5.9, IRI-concrete final=8.1). (author)

  9. LWR pressure vessel failure assessment in case of LOCA using advanced thermohydraulic and fracture mechanics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of NPP Stade (KKS) under emergency core cooling conditions have been carried out using experimental and theoretical/numerical investigations to improve modelling of the complex thermohydraulic processes during loss of coolant accidents and to gain more realistic input data for an updated fracture mechanics analysis. The results presented for RPV-KKS take into account the effect of austenitic cladding and include a reevaluation and application of the warm prestress effect. The results of thermohydraulic analyses were used as input to finite-element calculations to evaluate temperature and stresses in the vessel wall. Fracture mechanics analyses have proven the exclusion of crack initiation for crack sizes below and even above the detection threshold of the continuously improved NDE method. With this result, the safety against brittle fracture according to the first KTA/ASME criterion - exclusion of crack initiation - is proven. In addition, finite-element arrest analyses were performed, showing that all postulated cracks were arrested within the allowable crack depth of 3/4 of the wall thickness. By that, the safety against brittle fracture according to the second KTA/ASME criterion - crack arrest - is confirmed, also if the NDE results were totally neglected. Therefore, no critical crack depth exists as a possible reason for a failure of the pressure vessel. (J.S.). 12 refs., 8 figs

  10. Teachers’ recruitment process via MCDM methods: A case study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Karmaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of faculty members is very significant for educational organization to prompt reputation of the organization and to provide quality education. Teaching staff, the pillars of the educational institution, can change the whole nation stimulating the magnet of interest, knowledge, and wisdom in the pupils. Selecting a better academic staff among the others is very crucial for Human Resources Management (HRM as the success of any organization solely depends on how well it selects its manpower. Institute managing committee must have a reliable technique to judge a teachers’ ranking through multiple conflicting criteria because different teachers have various capabilities. In Bangladesh, it is a common practice in public engineering universities to select teachers only having good academic records. But teaching staff selection problem is a multi-staged decision-making problem having both quantitative and qualitative criteria. It is evident that it has become challenging as the number of alternatives and conflicting criteria increases. In this paper, a structured framework has been developed using MCDM methods both in fuzzy as well as non-fuzzy environments in the renowned engineering university of Bangladesh, where seven candidates under fifteen different sub-criteria are evaluated and ranked. The study helps the recruitment panel of educational organization in Bangladesh select the most eligible academic staff for required posts.

  11. Exploring the Quality Function Deployment method: A case study on the restaurant industry in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, Wen Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is always one of the most crucial issues being discussed in the world, which various industries are directly involved such as: agriculture, commerce, and recently the so-called Hi-Technology (Information Technology. With the notion that industry competition could brought about developments, such as improved product, cost cutting, and shortening of the time to market. Companies are continuously looking into what strategies that is beneficial and less risky. In Taiwan, the current economic situations have caused people to exert even more time and effort in earning money. Such phenomenon sparks the high frequency of eating out (or dining out. In addition, the current low birthrate situation in Taiwan, people tends to spend more money on leisure and less time at home. Hence, the restaurant industry has become quite demanding. The current study shall utilize the Quality Function Deployment (QFD method and the matrix House of Quality (HOQ, to evaluate and analyze the trade-off decisions between service quality and customer satisfaction in Taiwan’s restaurant industry. Recommendations and implications are then given to aid future researchers on similar areas of studies.

  12. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method - Susqueda Dam case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  13. Training to Use the Scientific Method in a First-Year Physics Laboratory: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasola, Ane; Rojas, Jose Félix; Okariz, Ana

    2015-10-01

    In this work, a specific implementation of a so-called experimental or open-ended laboratory is proposed and evaluated. Keeping in mind the scheduling limitations imposed by the context, first-year engineering physics laboratory practices have been revised in order to facilitate acquisition of the skills that are required in the experimental work. These skills concern different conceptual and procedural abilities related to designing experiments, taking measurements, analyzing the results and reporting properly the whole process. The employed approach is described, and the achieved results are evaluated by a series of tests at the beginning and end of the academic year. Additionally, the students' laboratory reports are used to quantify the evolution of acquiring these scientific skills. The evaluation of the results obtained from the aforementioned tests and laboratory reports gives enlightening information about students' apprehension of the experimental method itself, as well as the difficulties they find in each of the different, complex tasks that they must carry out during this process.

  14. Multicriterial Hierarchy Methods Applied in Consumption Demand Analysis. The Case of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Bob

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic information for computing the quantitative statistical indicators, that characterize the demand of industrial products and services are collected by the national statistics organizations, through a series of statistical surveys (most of them periodical and partial. The source for data we used in the present paper is an statistical investigation organized by the National Institute of Statistics, "Family budgets survey" that allows to collect information regarding the households composition, income, expenditure, consumption and other aspects of population living standard. In 2005, in Romania, a person spent monthly in average 391,2 RON, meaning about 115,1 Euros for purchasing the consumed food products and beverage, as well as non-foods products, services, investments and other taxes. 23% of this sum was spent for purchasing the consumed food products and beverages, 21.6% of the total sum was spent for purchasing non-food goods and 18,1%  for payment of different services. There is a discrepancy between the different development regions in Romania, regarding total households expenditure composition. For this reason, in the present paper we applied statistical methods for ranking the various development regions in Romania, using the share of householdsí expenditure on categories of products and services as ranking criteria.

  15. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CASE BASED DISCUSSION AS A VALID PROBLEM BASED LEARNING METHOD IN ANAESTHESIA POSTGRADUATE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melveetil S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT: Anaesthesia is a branch of medicine which allows only a very narrow margin of error. Anaesthesia post-graduate (PG teaching with problem-based learning (PBL enhances the critical thinking and problem-solving skills among the students .Among the different problem based learning methods case based discussions (CBD are most widely practiced out of all in anaesthesia PG teaching. METHODS AND MATERIAL: An anonymous questionnaire based, crosssectional survey among 37 anaesthesia residents from two medical institutions in North Kerala, India was conducted. The present survey was designed to assess the effectiveness of case based discussions in anaesthesia PG teaching by assessing the student’s satisfaction with CBD and the suggested modifications if any to improve the current status of teaching. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The CBD as a part of PBL in anesthesia PG teaching in our set up lacks many important aspects of PBL such as formulation of objectives, facilitation skills, communication on direction of PBL and supplementation of inadequacies. A broader, strict and organized implementation of PBL incorporating the key elements of PBL needs emphasis in PG teaching curriculum. Facilitation skill development programs needs motivation and encouragement from the perspective of the academic administrators.

  16. Documenting Elementary Teachers' Sustainability of Instructional Practices: A Mixed Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Bridget A.

    School reform programs focus on making educational changes; however, research on interventions past the funded implementation phase to determine what was sustained is rarely done (Beery, Senter, Cheadle, Greenwald, Pearson, et al., 2005). This study adds to the research on sustainability by determining what instructional practices, if any, of the Teaching SMARTRTM professional development program that was implemented from 2005--2008 in elementary schools with teachers in grades third through eighth were continued, discontinued, or adapted five years post-implementation (in 2013). Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: What do teachers who participated in Teaching SMARTRTM and district administrators share about the sustainability of Teaching SMARTRTM practices in 2013? What teaching strategies do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use in their science classrooms five years postimplementation (2013)? What perceptions about the roles of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) have five years later (2013)? And, What classroom management techniques do the teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use five years post implementation (2013)? A mixed method approach was used to answer these questions. Quantitative teacher survey data from 23 teachers who participated in 2008 and 2013 were analyzed in SAS v. 9.3. Descriptive statistics were reported and paired t-tests were conducted to determine mean differences by survey factors identified from an exploratory factor analysis, principal axis factoring, and parallel analysis conducted with teacher survey baseline data (2005). Individual teacher change scores (2008 and 2013) for identified factors were computed using the Reliable Change Index statistic. Qualitative data consisted of interviews with two district administrators and three teachers who responded to the survey in both

  17. Rural landscape and cultural routes: a multicriteria spatial classification method tested on an Italian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Diti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Europe is characterised by a rich net of itineraries that during the Middle Ages were taken by pilgrims head toward the holy places of Christianity. In Italy the main pilgrimage route is the Via Francigena (the road that comes from France, which starts from Canterbury and arrives in Rome, running through Europe for about 1800 km. Municipalities and local associations are focused on purposes and actions aimed at the promotion of those routes, rich in history and spirituality. Also for the European Union the enhancement of those itineraries, nowadays used both by pilgrims and tourists, is crucial, as shown by the various projects aimed at the identification of tools for the development of sustainable cultural tourism. It is important to understand how landscape, that according to the European Landscape Convention reflects the sense of places and represents the image of their history, has evolved along those roads, and to analyse the relationships between the built and natural environments, since they maintain a remarkable symbolic connection between places and peoples over time and history. This study focuses on the Italian section of the Via Francigena that crosses the Emilia-Romagna region, in the province of Piacenza. A land classification method is proposed, with the aim to take into account different indicators: land zoning provided by regional laws, elements of relevant historical and natural value, urban elements, type of agriculture. The analyses are carried out on suitable buffers around the path, thus allowing to create landscape profiles. As nature is a key element for the spirituality character of these pilgrimage routes, the classification process takes into account both protected and other valuable natural elements, besides agricultural activities. The outcomes can be useful to define tools aimed to help pilgrims and tourists to understand the surrounding places along their walk, as well as to lend support to rural and urban planning

  18. SYSTEMATIC RISK ASSESMENT USING OLS METHOD - THE CASE OF THE CAPITAL MARKET OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Zaimović

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sharpe-Lintner Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM implies a simple linear equation for pricing risky financial assets, individually and in portfolios. CAPM finds that the relevant risk measure of individual financial assets held as a portion of a well-diversified portfolio is not a variance (or a standard deviation of financial assets, as proposed by the Modern Portfolio Theory, but a contribution of financial assets to the portfolio variance, measured by the financial asset beta. Beta coefficient is the measure of the systematic risk of risky assets.This paper explores beta coefficients of stocks of the Bosnia and Herzegovina capital market. This capital market is new and underdeveloped, with a modest supply of securities and with a small number of marketable securities. It is interesting to explore whether the beta coefficients of domestic stocks are efficient and whether they could be used in portfolio management.The paper employs the OLS method to estimate the standard Sharpe-Linter CAPM model. As in most other new markets, this market has a non-synchronous trading problem, which determined the selection of the sample used in the econometric analysis. A representative sample of stocks with satisfactory marketability is analyzed over a five-year period, i.e. 2005–2009. The basic hypothesis of the research is: beta coefficient as a measure of systematic risk is a relevant risk measure for the capital market of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A special aim of the paper is to explore whether estimated models satisfy the presumptions of the linear regression model, which is being examined using a series of diagnostic tests. The results of this paper can be widely used and have significant implications for business purposes. Special attention is dedicated to estimating efficient beta coefficients that may be considered as reliable in a wide use of the CAPM model in financial practice.

  19. A hybrid method of simulating broadband ground motion : A case study of the 2006 Pingtung earthquake, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Y.; Ma, K.; Cheng, C.; Shao, K.; Lin, P.

    2011-12-01

    For the demand of engineering, the time-history of ground motions which consider the reliability and earthquake physical characters have been provided for earthquake resistant design of important building structures. However, the high frequency portion ( > 1 Hz) of near-fault ground motions was restricted by the insufficient resolution of velocity structure. Considering the relative small events which contain path and site effect in waveforms as Green's functions (i.e. empirical Green's function (EGF) method) can resolve the problem of lack of precise velocity structure to replace the path effect evaluation. Alternatively, a stochastic Green's function (SGF) method can be employed when the EGF is unavailable. Further, the low frequency ( power plant in southern tip of Taiwan was experienced a strong shaking by the 26 December 2006 Pingtung, Taiwan offshore earthquake. The closest strong motion station of the Central Weather Bureau, KAU082, recorded the peak acceleration value (PGA) of 0.24 g. We considered the adjacent stations to be the case study for possibility evaluation of predicting ground motion utilizing the EGF method or SGF method. The possible damage impact toward nuclear power plant for specific sites can be estimated and verified according to the simulation results

  20. Focused Ethnography as Research Method: A Case Study of Techno Music Producers in Home-Recording Studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michael Kühn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translator's Introduction: Jan-Michael Kühn's essay introduces the reader to Hubert Knoblauch's focused ethnography [fokussierte Ethnographie] as an ethnographic fieldwork method. More than a decade after Knoblauch's first publications on this method, there are precious few guides to focused ethnography in the English language, save one (Knoblauch 2005. At any rate, there are certainly no introductions to this methodology that also use EDM scenes as a case study. Kühn's article was originally published in German in Soziologie Magazin, a student-run journal published from Martin Luther University in Halle (Saale but operated by an editorial network that spans Germany. As a result, Kühn orients his writing towards an audience of junior researchers, post-docs and graduate students, highlighting the ways in which focused ethnography suits the circumstances of early research careers, where one may have difficulty securing long-term research stays for fieldwork of broader scope. In particular, he notes that Knoblauch's methods require a very narrow scope for the project (i.e., a "field sector" rather than the whole field, a reliance on the researcher's previous knowledge of the field, and short bursts of intense ethnographic activity in order to create work that is tightly focused but still rigorous and generative of fresh knowledge and new concepts.KEYWORDS: qualitative methods; cultural production; music production; home-recording; technoculture

  1. Experiences in methods to involve key players in planning protective actions in a case of nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Openness, transparency and key players participation are all important for balanced decision making in public issues. The emergency exercises involve commonly representatives from various sectors of the society to increase competence and build links for communication and coordination. A different approach has been a set of meetings where the key players aimed to plan comprehensive set of generic protective actions. The approach of this work was to develop methods and techniques to evaluate systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies. This was done in a way that all key players' concerns and issues related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated openly and equally. We have developed and tested an approach called facilitated workshop based an theory of decision analysis. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident at a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore various types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organized where all key players were represented, i.e., authorities, expert organizations, industry and producers. The participants were those who are responsible for preparing advice or making presentations of matters to those responsible for formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts. It was seen essential that the setup followed strictly the decision-making process the participants are accustomed with. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop, and committed to decision-making yielded insight on what information should be collected or studied. Information should be in the proper form needed in decision-making. For example, the study revealed the need to further develop methods to assess the radiological and cost implications of different countermeasures realistically. In order to provide consequence assessments

  2. The assessment of spatial correlation between location of deposits and faults using geostatistical methods: case study, Yazd province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dehghani Ahmadabad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Determining the promising area for ore deposits is one of the most important steps of prospecting in regional scales. There are many different methods for identifying these areas including geochemical and geophysical methods, remote sensing and sophisticated statistical methods. Based on the theory of spatial relations between the dispersion pattern of ore deposits and metallogenic provinces, mineralization belts, faults and structural factors, some new interpretative methods can be proposed in the preliminary exploration phase of the potential areas. In this study, the geostatistical methods were used, where the spatial location of faults and known metallic deposits were considered as the primary source of data to obtain their correlation (case study of metallic deposits in Yazd province. The research was performed on 807 major and minor faults and 76 metallic deposits, mainly from hydrothermal origins. The data was arranged in ArcViewGIS software environment. The geostatistical analysis was performed by defining the regionalized variable (distance between faults and deposits in a Mathematica subroutine. Variography operations, in order to find the spatial structure, were performed on regionalized variable using Surpac software. It was also shown that the theory of spatial correlation was valid for the defined variable. In this work, the variography operation was used to find the direction and the range of the effect of faults and deposits. Variograms indicated that the possibility of ore deposits existence in an area could depend on the direction of the faults. By drawing the directional variogram and variogram map, the best stretches for more exploratory studies is shown to be parallel along the Azimuth 130◦ and 64 km distance. By revealing the spatial structure in different directions, the area of mineralization related to the faults and the number of ore deposits associated with major faults have been marked.

  3. Do método do caso ao case: a trajetória de uma ferramenta pedagógica Case method and case study: an epistemological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Arlinda de Assis Menezes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho procura distinguir os conceitos acerca do método de estudo de casos e o método do caso dentro das Ciências Sociais e suas aplicabilidades, assim como diferenciar o modo empírico/indutivo e o teórico/dedutivo de pensar, sendo apresentado no trabalho como característicos de americanos e alemães respectivamente, fatores que diferenciam o ensino nos dois países. Para tanto, realiza uma descrição sobre o momento do surgimento do método do caso na escola de Direito em Harvard, destacando a conjuntura social, econômica e cultural que possibilitaram a criação desse instrumento pedagógico e, concomitantemente, apresenta o estudo de caso que, como proposto por Yin, cuja obra referenciou o trabalho em questão, se configura em um dos mais utilizados métodos nos estudos científicos, rompendo com o credo de que é um método fácil de ser aplicado, antes, exige do pesquisador dedicação e rigor científico, além de uma elaboração do problema de maneira a não torná-lo óbvio, um simples relato de experiência. Já o método de casos, criado por Christopher Columbus Langdell, não busca a pesquisa empírica como resposta a um determinado problema, antes, é uma ferramenta pedagógica utilizada na formação de advogados, juristas e administradores de empresas em que a teoria é um subsídio à análise de jurisprudências e experiências em administração, não apenas o objetivo puro e simples da academia.The present work seeks to draw a distinction between the concepts of Case Method and Case Study within the Social Sciences and their applicability, as well as to differentiate the empirical/inductive and theoretical/deductive modes of thinking, which are presented here as respectively characteristic of Americans and Germans, and as factors that distinguish the education in those two countries. To such end, the text describes the moment when the Case Method appeared in the Harvard Law School, emphasizing the social

  4. An application of a hybrid MCDM method for the evaluation of entrepreneurial intensity among the SMEs: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamzadeh, Reza; Ismail, Kamariah; Bodaghi Khajeh Noubar, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study presents one of the first attempts to focus on critical success factors influencing the entrepreneurial intensity of Malaysian small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) as they attempt to expand internationally. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and prioritize the entrepreneurial intensity among the SMEs using multicriteria decision (MCDM) techniques. In this research FAHP is used for finding the weights of criteria and subcriteria. Then for the final ranking of the companies, VIKOR (in Serbian: VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje) method was used. Also, as an additional tool, TOPSIS technique, is used to see the differences of two methods applied over the same data. 5 main criteria and 14 subcriteria were developed and implemented in the real-world cases. As the results showed, two ranking methods provided different ranking. Furthermore, the final findings of the research based on VIKOR and TOPSIS indicated that the firms A3 and A4 received the first rank, respectively. In addition, the firm A4 was known as the most entrepreneurial company. This research has been done in the manufacturing sector, but it could be also extended to the service sector for measurement. PMID:25197707

  5. An Application of a Hybrid MCDM Method for the Evaluation of Entrepreneurial Intensity among the SMEs: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rostamzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents one of the first attempts to focus on critical success factors influencing the entrepreneurial intensity of Malaysian small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs as they attempt to expand internationally. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and prioritize the entrepreneurial intensity among the SMEs using multicriteria decision (MCDM techniques. In this research FAHP is used for finding the weights of criteria and subcriteria. Then for the final ranking of the companies, VIKOR (in Serbian: VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje method was used. Also, as an additional tool, TOPSIS technique, is used to see the differences of two methods applied over the same data. 5 main criteria and 14 subcriteria were developed and implemented in the real-world cases. As the results showed, two ranking methods provided different ranking. Furthermore, the final findings of the research based on VIKOR and TOPSIS indicated that the firms A3 and A4 received the first rank, respectively. In addition, the firm A4 was known as the most entrepreneurial company. This research has been done in the manufacturing sector, but it could be also extended to the service sector for measurement.

  6. A different treatment method applied in a case in which osseous torticolis developed due to C6-C7 old fracture dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Taser, Omer; Cakmak, Mehmet; Domanic, Unsal; Karamehmetoglu, M.

    2004-01-01

    A report including a diffrent treatment method about a case who had an old fracture-dislocation at the C6-C7 level has been presented. The late results obtained from this case has been discussed under the light of the literature.

  7. Case Teaching Method in the Course of Modern Control Theory%现代控制理论教学中的案例教学法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼旭阳

    2015-01-01

    Case teaching method is a practical and effective teaching method. On the basis of case teaching method and com-bined with the problems in the teaching of modern control theory, this paper discusses the application of case teaching method in modern control theory teaching and the effect with two practical cases.%案例教学法是一种实用、有效的教学方法。本文在分析案例教学法的基础上,结合现代控制理论教学中存在的问题,以及两个实际案例,探讨了案例教学法在现代控制理论课堂教学中的应用和实施效果。

  8. Nonlinear Boltzmann equation for the homogeneous isotropic case: Some improvements to deterministic methods and applications to relaxation towards local equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asinari, P.

    2011-03-01

    Boltzmann equation is one the most powerful paradigms for explaining transport phenomena in fluids. Since early fifties, it received a lot of attention due to aerodynamic requirements for high altitude vehicles, vacuum technology requirements and nowadays, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMs). Because of the intrinsic mathematical complexity of the problem, Boltzmann himself started his work by considering first the case when the distribution function does not depend on space (homogeneous case), but only on time and the magnitude of the molecular velocity (isotropic collisional integral). The interest with regards to the homogeneous isotropic Boltzmann equation goes beyond simple dilute gases. In the so-called econophysics, a Boltzmann type model is sometimes introduced for studying the distribution of wealth in a simple market. Another recent application of the homogeneous isotropic Boltzmann equation is given by opinion formation modeling in quantitative sociology, also called socio-dynamics or sociophysics. The present work [1] aims to improve the deterministic method for solving homogenous isotropic Boltzmann equation proposed by Aristov [2] by two ideas: (a) the homogeneous isotropic problem is reformulated first in terms of particle kinetic energy (this allows one to ensure exact particle number and energy conservation during microscopic collisions) and (b) a DVM-like correction (where DVM stands for Discrete Velocity Model) is adopted for improving the relaxation rates (this allows one to satisfy exactly the conservation laws at macroscopic level, which is particularly important for describing the late dynamics in the relaxation towards the equilibrium).

  9. A Simple and Cost Effective Method used for Removal of a Fractured Implant Abutment Screw: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satwalekar, Parth; Chander, K Subash; Reddy, B Anantha; Sandeep, N; Sandeep, N; Satwalekar, Tanushree

    2013-01-01

    The success of dental implants is based primarily on the extent of osseointegration. The failure of dental implants is not only due to biological factors, such as unsuccessful osseointegration or the presence of peri-implantitis, but may also result from technical complications. Fracture of the implant abutment screw can be a serious problem, as the fragment remaining inside the implant may prevent the implant from functioning efficiently as an anchor. A simple and cost effective procedure used for the removal of fractured screw fragments and the successful utilization of the existing prosthesis are described in this clinical report. How to cite this article: Satwalekar P, Chander KS, Reddy BA, Sandeep N, Sandeep N, Satwalekar T. A Simple and Cost Effective Method used for Removal of a Fractured Implant Abutment Screw: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):120-3. PMID:24324315

  10. Change & Transition Methods and Tools, Best Practices, Case Studies, Reference and Guidance Material Available in the Safety Related and High Reliability Organisation Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Heimdal, Jan; Ek, Åsa; Arvidsson, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This document contains the description of relevant material for a compendium of methods & tools, best practices, case studies, reference and guidance material for change & transition available in the safety related industry. The findings from this study cover about 40 different methods, tools, case studies, etc. from the nuclear, petroleum, chemical/technical and maritime domains. The collected material include change management models and guidelines; rules and regulations; review che...

  11. Towards a suite of test cases and a pycomodo library to assess and improve numerical methods in ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Valérie; Honnorat, Marc; Benshila, Rachid; Boutet, Martial; Cambon, Gildas; Chanut, Jérome; Couvelard, Xavier; Debreu, Laurent; Ducousso, Nicolas; Duhaut, Thomas; Dumas, Franck; Flavoni, Simona; Gouillon, Flavien; Lathuilière, Cyril; Le Boyer, Arnaud; Le Sommer, Julien; Lyard, Florent; Marsaleix, Patrick; Marchesiello, Patrick; Soufflet, Yves

    2016-04-01

    The COMODO group (http://www.comodo-ocean.fr) gathers developers of global and limited-area ocean models (NEMO, ROMS_AGRIF, S, MARS, HYCOM, S-TUGO) with the aim to address well-identified numerical issues. In order to evaluate existing models, to improve numerical approaches and methods or concept (such as effective resolution) to assess the behavior of numerical model in complex hydrodynamical regimes and to propose guidelines for the development of future ocean models, a benchmark suite that covers both idealized test cases dedicated to targeted properties of numerical schemes and more complex test case allowing the evaluation of the kernel coherence is proposed. The benchmark suite is built to study separately, then together, the main components of an ocean model : the continuity and momentum equations, the advection-diffusion of the tracers, the vertical coordinate design and the time stepping algorithms. The test cases are chosen for their simplicity of implementation (analytic initial conditions), for their capacity to focus on a (few) scheme or part of the kernel, for the availability of analytical solutions or accurate diagnoses and lastly to simulate a key oceanic processus in a controlled environment. Idealized test cases allow to verify properties of numerical schemes advection-diffusion of tracers, - upwelling, - lock exchange, - baroclinic vortex, - adiabatic motion along bathymetry, and to put into light numerical issues that remain undetected in realistic configurations - trajectory of barotropic vortex, - interaction current - topography. When complexity in the simulated dynamics grows up, - internal wave, - unstable baroclinic jet, the sharing of the same experimental designs by different existing models is useful to get a measure of the model sensitivity to numerical choices (Soufflet et al., 2016). Lastly, test cases help in understanding the submesoscale influence on the dynamics (Couvelard et al., 2015). Such a benchmark suite is an interesting

  12. A case study of an enhanced eutrophication model with stoichiometric zooplankton growth sub-model calibrated by Bayesian method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Likun; Peng, Sen; Sun, Jingmei; Zhao, Xinhua; Li, Xia

    2016-05-01

    Urban lakes in China have suffered from severe eutrophication over the past several years, particularly those with relatively small areas and closed watersheds. Many efforts have been made to improve the understanding of eutrophication physiology with advanced mathematical models. However, several eutrophication models ignore zooplankton behavior and treat zooplankton as particles, which lead to the systematic errors. In this study, an eutrophication model was enhanced with a stoichiometric zooplankton growth sub-model that simulated the zooplankton predation process and the interplay among nitrogen, phosphorus, and oxygen cycles. A case study in which the Bayesian method was used to calibrate the enhanced eutrophication model parameters and to calculate the model simulation results was carried out in an urban lake in Tianjin, China. Finally, a water quality assessment was also conducted for eutrophication management. Our result suggests that (1) integration of the Bayesian method and the enhanced eutrophication model with a zooplankton feeding behavior sub-model can effectively depict the change in water quality and (2) the nutrients resulting from rainwater runoff laid the foundation for phytoplankton bloom. PMID:26780061

  13. The Von Kármán constant retrieved from CASES-97 dataset using a variational method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A variational method is developed to retrieve the von Kármán constant κ from the CASES-97 dataset, collected near Wichita, Kansas, the United States from 6 April to 24 May 1997. In the variational method, a cost function is defined to measure the difference between observed and computed gradients of wind speed, air temperature and specific humidity. An optimal estimated von Kármán constant is obtained by minimizing the cost function through adjusting values of the von Kármán constant. Under neutral stratification, the variational analysis confirms the conventional value of κ (=0.40. For non-neutral stratification, however, κ varies with stability. The computational results show that the κ decreases monotonously from stable to unstable stratification. The variational calculated mean value of the von Kármán constant is 0.383~0.390 when the atmospheric stratification is taken into consideration. Relations between κ and surface momentum and heat flux are also examined.

  14. Mineral trioxide aggregate apical plug method for the treatment of nonvital immature permanent maxillary incisors: Three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Günes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of nonvital immature permanent teeth with calcium-hydroxide is associated with some difficulties such as weakened tooth fracture, root canal reinfection and long treatment time. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA apical plug method is an alternative treatment option for open apices, and has gained popularity in the recent times. In this case report, we have attempted to present successful treatment of three maxillary incisors with open apices and periapical lesions with MTA. After preparing the access cavity, the working length was determined. The root canals were irrigated with 2.5% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and disinfected with calcium-hydroxide for two weeks. MTA was then placed in the apical 3 millimeters of the root canal. The remaining part of the root canal was filled with gutta-percha and the coronal restoration was finished with composite resin. After six months the radiographic examination showed a decrease of periapical lesions. At a 1-year and 18-months follow up, radiological and clinical successful healing of the incisor teeth was seen. MTA seems as an effective material for the apical plug method for the treatment of nonvital immature permanent teeth with open apices.

  15. Estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability with index-overlay and statistical methods: the case of eastern Kopaida, central Greece

    KAUST Repository

    Tziritis, E.

    2016-03-01

    The intrinsic vulnerability of a karstic aquifer system in central Greece was jointly assessed with the use of a statistical approach and PI method, as a function of topography, protective cover effectiveness and the degree to which this cover is bypassed due to flow conditions. The input data for the index-overlay PI method were derived from field works and 71 boreholes of the area; the information was obtained, subsequently its critical factors were compiled which included lithology, fissuring and karstification of bedrock, soil characteristics, hydrology, hydrogeology, topography and vegetation. The aforementioned parameters were processed jointly with the aid of a GIS and yielded the final estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Results were compared with an equivalent spatially distributed probability map obtained through a stochastic approach. The calibration and test phase of the latter relied on morphometric conditions derived by terrain analyses of a digital elevation model as well as on geology and land use from thematic maps. This procedure allowed taking into account the topographic influences with respect to a deep system such as the local karstic aquifer of eastern Kopaida basin. Finally, results were validated with ground truth nitrate values obtained from 41 groundwater samples, highlighted the spatial delineation of susceptible areas to contamination in both cases and provided a robust tool for regional planning actions and water resources management schemes.

  16. Biogas plants site selection integrating Multicriteria Decision Aid methods and GIS techniques: A case study in a Portuguese region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work addresses the problem of determining the most suitable sites for locating biogas plants using dairy manure as feedstock, specifically in the Entre-Douro-e-Minho Region in Portugal. A Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support System is developed to tackle this complex multicriteria decision-making problem, involving constraints and many environmental, economic, safety, and social factors. The approach followed combines the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) to manage and process spatial information with the flexibility of Multicriteria Decision Aid (MCDA) to assess factual information (e.g. soil type, slope, infrastructures) with more subjective information (e.g. expert opinion). The MCDA method used is ELECTRE TRI, an outranking-type method that yields a classification of the possible alternatives. The results of the performed analysis show that the use of ELECTRE TRI is suitable to address real-world problems of land suitability, leading towards a flexible and integrated assessment. - Highlights: • We present a spatial multi-criteria methodology to decide biogas plants siting. • Methodology combines ELECTRE TRI with GIS for spatial analysis. • Constraints and environmental, economic and social factors have been identified. • The methodology is illustrated with application to a case study in the EDM Region. • A suitability map was generated, identifying the most suitable biogas plant locations

  17. A resilience perspective to water risk management: case-study application of the adaptation tipping point method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersonius, Berry; Ashley, Richard; Jeuken, Ad; Nasruddin, Fauzy; Pathirana, Assela; Zevenbergen, Chris

    2010-05-01

    start the identification and analysis of adaptive strategies at the end of PSIR scheme: impact and examine whether, and for how long, current risk management strategies will continue to be effective under different future conditions. The most noteworthy application of this approach is the adaptation tipping point method. Adaptation tipping points (ATP) are defined as the points where the magnitude of change is such that the current risk management strategy can no longer meet its objectives. In the ATP method, policy objectives, determining aspirational functioning, are taken as the starting point. Also, the current measures to achieve these objectives are described. This is followed by a sensitivity analysis to determine the optimal and critical boundary conditions (state). Lastly, the state is related to pressures in terms of future change. It should be noted that in the ATP method the driver for adopting a new risk management strategy is not future change as such, but rather failing to meet the policy objectives. In the current paper, the ATP method is applied to the case study of an existing stormwater system in Dordrecht (the Netherlands). This application shows the potential of the ATP method to reduce the complexity of implementing a resilience-focused approach to water risk management. It is expected that this will help foster greater practical relevance of resilience as a perspective for the planning of water management structures.

  18. Designing a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method: a case study from central Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene McNaughton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Wolbachia strategy aims to manipulate mosquito populations to make them incapable of transmitting dengue viruses between people. To test its efficacy, this strategy requires field trials. Public consultation and engagement are recognized as critical to the future success of these programs, but questions remain regarding how to proceed. This paper reports on a case study where social research was used to design a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method, at a potential release site in central Vietnam. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The approach described here, draws on an anthropological methodology and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to design an engagement framework tailored to the concerns, expectations, and socio-political setting of a potential trial release site for Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The process, research activities, key findings and how these were responded to are described. Safety of the method to humans and the environment was the most common and significant concern, followed by efficacy and impact on local lives. Residents expected to be fully informed and engaged about the science, the project, its safety, the release and who would be responsible should something go wrong. They desired a level of engagement that included regular updates and authorization from government and at least one member of every household at the release site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results demonstrate that social research can provide important and reliable insights into public concerns and expectations at a potential release site, as well as guidance on how these might be addressed. Findings support the argument that using research to develop more targeted, engagement frameworks can lead to more sensitive, thorough, culturally comprehensible and therefore ethical consultation processes. This approach has now been used successfully to seek public input and eventually support for

  19. Mapping of soil salinity: a comparative study between deterministic and geostatistical methods, case of the Tadla plain (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbouchi, Meriem; Chokmani, Karem; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Lhissou, Rachid; El Harti, Abderrazak; Abdelfattah, Riadh

    2013-04-01

    Soil salinization hazard in semi-arid regions such as Central Morocco is increasingly affecting arable lands and this is due to combined effects of anthropogenic activities (development of irrigation) and climate change (Multiplying drought episodes). In a rational strategy of fight against this hazard, salinity mapping is a key step to ensure effective spatiotemporal monitoring. The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of geostatistical approach in mapping soil salinity compared to more forward deterministic interpolation methods. Three soil salinity sampling campaigns (27 September, 24 October and 19 November 2011) were conducted over the irrigated area of the Tadla plain, situated between the High and Middle Atlasin Central Morocco. Each campaign was made of 38 surface soil samples (upper 5 cm). From each sample the electrical conductivity (EC) was determined in saturated paste extract and used subsequently as proxy of soil salinity. The potential of deterministic interpolation methods (IDW) and geostatistical techniques (Ordinary Kriging) in mapping surface soil salinity was evaluated in a GIS environment through cross-validation technique. Field measurements showed that the soil salinity was generally low except during the second campaign where a significant increase in EC values was recorded. Interpolation results showed a better performance with geostatistical approach compared to deterministic one. Indeed, for all the campaigns, cross-validation yielded lower RMSE and bias for Kriging than IDW. However, the performance of the two methods was dependent on the range and the structure of the spatial variability of salinity. Indeed, Kriging showed better accuracy for the second campaign in comparison with the two others. This could be explained by the wider range of values of soil salinity during this campaign, which has resulted in a greater range of spatial dependence and has a better modeling of the spatial variability of salinity, which 'was

  20. Mixed methods evaluation of targeted case finding for cardiovascular disease prevention using a stepped wedged cluster RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Tom

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A pilot project cardiovascular prevention was implemented in Sandwell (West Midlands, UK. This used electronic primary care records to identify untreated patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease then invited these high risk patients for assessment by a nurse in their own general practice. Those found to be eligible for treatment were offered treatment. During the pilot a higher proportion of high risk patients were started on treatment in the intervention practices than in control practices. Following the apparent success of the prevention project, it was intended to extend the service to all practices across the Sandwell area. However the pilot project was not a robust evaluation. There was a need for an efficient evaluation that would not disrupt the planned rollout of the project. Methods/design Project nurses will sequentially implement targeted cardiovascular case finding in a phased way across all general practices, with the sequence of general practices determined randomly. This is a stepped wedge randomised controlled trial design. The target population is patients aged 35 to 74, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease whose ten-year cardiovascular risk, (determined from data in their electronic records is ≥20%. The primary outcome is the number of high risk patients started on treatment, because these data could be efficiently obtained from electronic primary care records. From this we can determine the effects of the case finding programme on the proportion of high risk patients started on treatment in practices before and after implementation of targeted case finding. Cost-effectiveness will be modelled from the predicted effects of treatments on cardiovascular events and associated health service costs. Alongside the implementation it is intended to interview clinical staff and patients who participated in the programme in order to determine acceptability to patients and clinicians. Practical

  1. A finite element perturbation method for computing fluid-induced forces on a centrifugal impeller rotating and whirling in a volute casing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.B.; Essen, van T.G.

    1997-01-01

    A finite element based method has been developed for computing time-averaged fluid-induced radial excitation forces and rotor dynamic forces on a two-dimensional centrifugal impeller rotating and whirling in a volute casing. In this method potential flow theory is used, which implies the assumption

  2. Magnetic method of full-scale sample-free control of the mechanical properties of ferromagnetic steel casing of water-moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of nondestructive control of the basic metal and welded joints of the clad casing of water-moderated reactors is shown. A method of full-scale sample-free control is developed on the base of combined method of kinetic hardness and magnetic method. The results of studying the magnetic and mechanical properties of casing steels in different states following irradiation and heat treatment are presented. It is shown that magnetic properties (and coercivity in the first place) are sensitive to change in the material structure

  3. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZrO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization method in aqueous electrolyte containing (NH42SO4 and NH4F. The morphology and structure of nanotube arrays were characterized through scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectra analysis. The zirconia nanotube arrays were used as catalyst in esterification reaction. The effects of calcination temperature and electrolyte concentration on catalytic esterification activity have been investigated in detail. Experiments indicate that nanotube arrays have highest catalytic activity when the concentration of (NH42SO4 is 1 mol/L, the concentration of NH4F is 1 wt%, and the calcination temperature is 400°C. Esterification reaction yield of as much as 97% could be obtained under optimal conditions.

  4. A case study of the change process of integrating technology into an elementary science methods course from 1997 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Sui

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to provide a detailed description of the change process of technology integration into a science methods course, SCIED 458, as well as to interpret and analyze essential issues involved in the change process and examine how these factors influenced the change process. This study undertook qualitative research that employed case study research design. In-depth interviewing and review of the documents were two major data collection methods in this study. Participants included the three key faculty members in the science education program, a former graduate student who participated in writing the Link-to-Learn grant proposal, a former graduate student who taught SCIED 458, and two current graduate students who were teaching SCIED 458. A number of data analysis strategies were used in this study; these strategies included (1) coding for different periods of time and project categories and roles of people, (2) identifying themes, trends and coding for patterns, (3) reducing the data for analysis of trends and synthesizing and summarizing the data, and (4) integrating the data into one analytical framework. The findings indicated that this change process had evolved through the stages of adoption and diffusion, implementation, and institutionalization and a number of strategies facilitated the changes in individual stages, including the formation of a leadership team in the early stages, gradual adoption of technology tools, use of powerful pedagogy and methodology, the formation of a research community, and separation of technology training and subject teaching. The findings also indicated the essential factors and systems that interacted with each other and sustained the change process; these included a transformational shared leadership team, the formation of a learning and research community, reduced resistance of the elementary prospective teachers to technology, availability of university resources, involvement of the

  5. Measurement of atmospheric mercury species with manual sampling and analysis methods in a case study in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, M.R.; Prestbo, E.M.; Hawkins, L.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-level concentrations of three atmospheric mercury species were measured using manual sampling and analysis to provide data for estimates of mercury dry deposition. Three monitoring stations were operated simultaneously during winter, spring, and summer 2004, adjacent to three mercury wet-deposition monitoring stations in northern, central, and southern Indiana. The monitoring locations differed in land-use setting and annual mercury-emissions level from nearby sources. A timer-controlled air-sampling system that contained a three-part sampling train was used to isolate reactive gaseous mercury, particulate-bound mercury, and elemental mercury. The sampling trains were exchanged every 6 days, and the mercury species were quantified in a laboratory. A quality-assurance study indicated the sampling trains could be held at least 120 h without a significant change in reactive gaseous or particulate-bound mercury concentrations. The manual sampling method was able to provide valid mercury concentrations in 90 to 95% of samples. Statistical differences in mercury concentrations were observed during the project. Concentrations of reactive gaseous and elemental mercury were higher in the daytime samples than in the nighttime samples. Concentrations of reactive gaseous mercury were higher in winter than in summer and were highest at the urban monitoring location. The results of this case study indicated manual sampling and analysis could be a reliable method for measurement of atmospheric mercury species and has the capability for supplying representative concentrations in an effective manner from a long-term deposition-monitoring network. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Applying a Hybrid QFD-TOPSIS Method to Design Product in the Industry (Case Study in Sum Service Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Haji Karimi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronics industry as an industry with high added value and television production industry especially as one of its pillars play an important role in the economy of each country. Therefore, the aim study of this paper is to illustrate how, using a combined QFD-TOPSIS model, organizations are able to their design product in accordance with requirements of consumers with a case study in Sum Service Company. Quality Function Deployment (QFD is one such extremely important quality management tool that is useful in product design and development. Traditionally, QFD rates the Design Requirements (DRs with respect to customer needs and aggregates the rating to get relative importance score of DRs. An increasing number of studies emphasize on the need to incorporate additional factors, such as cost and environmental impact, while calculating the relative importance of DRs. However, there is variety of methodologies for driving the relative importance of DRs, when several additional factors are considered. TOPSIS (technique for order preferences by similarity to ideal solution is suggested for the purpose of the research. This research proposes new approach of TOPSIS for considering the rating of DRs with respect to CRs and several additional factors simultaneously. Proposed method is illustrated using by step-by-step procedure. The proposed fuzzy QFDTOPSIS methodology was applied for the Sum Service Company in Iran.

  7. Combining the Fluctuating Charge Method, Non-Periodic Boundary Conditions and Meta-Dynamics: Aqua Ions as case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Giordano; Brancato, Giuseppe; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We present the current status of development of our code for performing Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations exploiting a polarizable force field based on the Fluctuating Charge (FQ) method and non-Periodic Boundary Conditions (NPBC). Continuing on the path set in a previous work, we increased the capabilities of the code by implementing a number of new features, including: a non-iterative algorithm for rigid trigonal molecule simulations; two additional temperature coupling schemes; a meta-dynamics based approach for effective free energy evaluations. Although these are well known algorithms, each present in one or more widely used MD packages, they have now been tested, for the first time, in the context of the FQ model coupled with NPBC. As case studies, we considered three aqueous ions of increasing charge, namely Na+, Ca2+ and La3+, at infinite dilution. In particular, by exploiting a computational approach recently proposed by our group and based on the metadynamics technique, we focused on the important role played by solvent polarization on ionic hydration structures, also investigating the free energy landscapes of ion coordination and the water exchange rates. Such an approach, previously tested with standard non-polarizable models, was applied here to evaluate the effects of explicit polarization on water exchange barriers between different solvent coordination structures. Moreover, we have analyzed and discussed in some detail non-linear electrostatic effects arising from solvent polarization while going from a mono- to a di- and trivalent ion. PMID:26543440

  8. Case studies within a mixed methods paradigm: toward a resolution of the alienation between researcher and practitioner in psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilio, Frank M; Edwards, David J A; Fishman, Daniel B

    2010-12-01

    This article addresses the long-standing divide between researchers and practitioners in the field of psychotherapy, regarding what really works in treatment and the extent to which interventions should be governed by outcomes generated in a "laboratory atmosphere." This alienation has its roots in a positivist paradigm, which is epistemologically incomplete because it fails to provide for context-based practical knowledge. In other fields of evaluation research, it has been superseded by a mixed methods paradigm, which embraces pragmatism and multiplicity. On the basis of this paradigm, we propose and illustrate new scientific standards for research on the evaluation of psychotherapeutic treatments. These include the requirement that projects should comprise several parallel studies that involve randomized controlled trials, qualitative examinations of the implementation of treatment programs, and systematic case studies. The uniqueness of this article is that it contributes a guideline for involving a set of complementary publications, including a review that offers an overall synthesis of the findings from different methodological approaches. PMID:21198233

  9. Leukemia among children near Sellafield nuclear plant. Methods, results and questions of the Gardner case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epidemiologic studies near the Sellafield plant investigate whether within a given area around the reprocessing plant any increased incidence of disease, especially cancer, can be detected. The studies apply two different methods: (1) Comparison of death rates due to a specific disease, or number of occurrence of disease, in the vicinity of Sellafield with the corresponding data of a defined, artificial population. (2) A case-control study among children with leukemia or lymphoma. The results obtained for the age group of 0-24 years show a dependence of cancer mortality on the social classes. This trend is significant only for all types of leukemia in total, and for lymphoid leukemia. The study results also reveal a significant increase of leukemia incidence in children near the Sellafield plant. As the study does not include individual data, the results are open to a variety of interpretations concerning possible causes. The increased leukemia mortality stated by the study (in 1989) not being explainable alone by enhanced radioactivity levels in the vicinity of the nuclear installations, other approaches for an explanation are discussed. (orig./MG)

  10. A Generic, Computer-assisted Method for Rapid Vegetation Classification and Survey: Tropical and Temperate Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N. Gillison

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard methods of vegetation classification and survey tend to be either too broad for management purposes or too reliant on local species to support inter-regional comparisons. A new approach to this problem uses species-independent plant functional types with a wide spectrum of environmental sensitivity. By means of a rule set, plant functional types can be constructed according to specific combinations from within a generic set of 35 adaptive, morphological plant functional attributes. Each combination assumes that a vascular plant individual can be described as a "coherent" functional unit. When used together with vegetation structure, plant functional types facilitate rapid vegetation assessment that complements species-based data and makes possible uniform comparisons of vegetation response to environmental change within and between countries. Recently developed user-friendly software (VegClass facilitates data entry and the analysis of biophysical field records from a standardized, rapid, survey pro forma. Case studies are presented at a variety of spatial scales and for vegetation types ranging from species-poor arctic tundra to intensive, multitaxa, baseline biodiversity assessments in complex, humid tropical forests. These demonstrate how such data can be rapidly acquired, analyzed, and communicated to conservation managers. Sample databases are linked to downloadable software and a training manual.

  11. Investigating the feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness of outreach case management in an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care service: a mixed methods exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, Deborah A.; Togni, Samantha J.; Schluter, Philip J.; Rogers, Lynne; Egert, Sonya; Potter, Nichola; Hayman, Noel E.; Cass, Alan; Brown, Alex D. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The disparities in health and life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples compared to non-Indigenous Australians are well documented. Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to these disparities. We aimed to determine the feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness of a case management approach to chronic disease care integrated within an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care service. Methods The Home-based, Outreach case Managem...

  12. Methods and basic data of case-control study of leukaemia and lymphona among young people near Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods and basic data of a case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma among young people near Sellafield are examined for reliability. Fifty-two cases of leukaemia, 22 of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 23 of Hodgkins disease occurring in people born in the area and diagnosed there in 1950-85 under the age of 25, and 1001 controls matched for sex and date of birth taken from the same birth registers were used in the study. (author)

  13. 案例教学法在医德修养教学中的应用%Application of Case Teaching Method in the Cultivation of Medical Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东霞

    2015-01-01

    Case teaching methodology is an instructive, practical, lfexible and interesting approach. It is suitable for application in the medical ethics education program. There are still some problems in case teaching, such as inadequate understanding of teaching methods, improperly selected cases and implementation method which does not reach the goal, etc. Methods solving these problems include deepened understanding of case teaching, scientifically selected cases, vividly demonstration, generalization and summarization. Case teaching methodology is a new and suitable approach for the medical ethics education.%案例教学法具有启发性、实践性、灵活性和趣味性等特点,适合应用于医德修养教学中。目前案例教学中还存在一些问题,如教师对案例教学的认识不足,案例选择不当,实施方法不到位等。解决的对策可以有加深教师对案例教学的认识,科学筛选案例,生动展现和归纳总结等方法。案例教学是适合医德教育特点的一种全新的教学方法。

  14. Intelligence-based automatic detection and classification of ground collapses using object-based image analysis method: a case study in Paitan of Pearl River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jie; Zheng, Xiao-zhan; Qian, Jun-ping; Liu, Rui-hua; Wu, Qi-tao

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, a new method is proposed by applying case-based reasoning technique for detecting the ground collapses. The study demonstrates that the high resolution remote sensing images are suitable for monitoring the ground collapses in the study area with karst relief. With the help of object-based image analysis method, the generic algorithm (GA) for optimizing the spatial, shape, spectral, hierarchy and textural features was used in the multi-scale image segmentation with the good fitness value, and then the case library was built for detecting the collapse. The case library is reusable for place-independent detection. The proposed method has been tested in the Pearl River Delta in south China. The result of ground-collapse detection is well.

  15. A new method for improving the dairy production sector in a developing country: The case of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    communities of farmers, organization and livestock extension services has often been less than expected. This in turn resulted in interventions for supplementary feeding, or for improving reproductive performance that did not demonstrate an economic benefit to the farmers. One of the reasons is that they focused only on one constraint or one discipline at a time, and other concurrent production problems were limiting the economic benefits. This study has developed an integrated method in improving dairy production in Cameroon and has found that marketing and milk production per cow per day were the most limiting factors of dairy improvement. Interventions were carried out to solve these constraints and others. Farmers adopting interventions had returns of 193% and 232% with or without opportunity costs proving the positive impact of interventions using the integrated method. The integrated method in solving these constraints will bring much improvement and clear economic benefits to smallholder farmers, proving its effectiveness in ensuring improvement of dairy systems in Cameroon. These interventions need to be spread to more farms in the country. This method needs to be adopted for further dairy production improvement by the creation of multidisciplinary intervention teams and the training of integrated intervention specialists in the dairy sector. The application of integrated interventions in dairying requires the synergistic action from the government, researchers, non-governmental organizations and farmers. It requires expertise from many different fields and calls for the need to create integrated action teems in each administrative region. Each team will be multidisciplinary constituted of an extension agent, an animal nutritionist, a veterinarian, a socio-economist, a dairy technologist and a reproduction scientist. It is quite likely that there be a lack of such specialists in each subdivision. In which case there can be a creation of intervention teams covering

  16. Empirical Bayesian Method for the Estimation of Literacy Rate at Sub-district Level Case Study: Sumenep District of East Java Province

    OpenAIRE

    A.Tuti Rumiati; Khairil Anwar Notodiputro; Kusman Sadik; Wayan Mangku, I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses Bayesian Method of Small Area Estimation (SAE) based on Binomial response variable. SAE method being developed to estimate parameter in small area due to insufficiency of sample. The case study is literacy rate estimation at sub-district level in Sumenep district, East Java Province. Literacy rate is measured by proportion of people who are able to read and write, from the population of 10 year-old or more. In the case study we used Social Economic Survey (Susenas)data co...

  17. Bedrock temperature as a potential method for monitoring change in crustal stress: Theory, in situ measurement, and a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shunyun; Liu, Peixun; Liu, Liqiang; Ma, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Experimental studies have confirmed that temperature is notably affected by rock deformation; therefore, change in crustal stress should be indicated by measurable changes in bedrock temperature. In this work, we investigated the possibility that the bedrock temperature might be used to explore the state of crustal stress. In situ measurement of bedrock temperature at three stations from 2011 to 2013 was used as the basis for the theoretical analysis of this approach. We began with theoretical analyses of temperature response to change in crustal stress, and of the effect of heat conduction. This allowed distinction between temperature changes produced by crustal stress (stress temperature) from temperature changes caused by conduction from the land surface (conduction temperature). Stress temperature has two properties (synchronous response and a high-frequency feature) that allow it to be distinguished from conduction temperature. The in situ measurements confirmed that apparently synchronous changes in the stress temperature of the bedrock occur and that there exist obvious short-term components of the in situ bedrock temperature, which agrees with theory. On 20 April 2013, an earthquake occurred 95 km away from the stations, fortuitously providing a case study by which to verify our method for obtaining the state of crustal stress using temperature. The results indicated that the level of local or regional seismic activity, representing the level of stress adjustment, largely accords with the stress temperature. This means that the bedrock temperature is a tool that might be applied to understand the state of stress during seismogenic tectonics. Therefore, it is possible to record changes in the state of crustal stress in a typical tectonic position by long-term observation of bedrock temperature. Hereby, the measurement of bedrock temperature has become a new tool for gaining insight into changes in the status of shallow crustal stress.

  18. Methods and strategy for modeling daily global solar radiation with measured meteorological data - A case study in Nanchang station, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar radiation is a primary driver for many physical, chemical and biological processes on the earth's surface, and complete and accurate solar radiation data at a specific region are quite indispensable to the solar energy related researches. This study, with Nanchang station, China, as a case study, aimed to calibrate existing models and develop new models for estimating missing global solar radiation data using commonly measured meteorological data and to propose a strategy for selecting the optimal models under different situations of available meteorological data. Using daily global radiation, sunshine hours, temperature, total precipitation and dew point data covering the years from 1994 to 2005, we calibrated or developed and evaluated seven existing models and two new models. Validation criteria included intercept, slope, coefficient of determination, mean bias error and root mean square error. The best result (R 2 = 0.93) was derived from Chen model 2, which uses sunshine hours and temperature as predictors. The Bahel model, which only uses sunshine hours, was almost as good, explaining 92% of the solar radiation variance. Temperature based models (Bristow and Campbell, Allen, Hargreaves and Chen 1 models) provided less accurate results, of which the best one (R 2 = 0.69) is the Bristow and Campbell model. The temperature based models were improved by adding other variables (daily mean total precipitation and mean dew point). Two such models could explain 77% (Wu model 1) and 80% (Wu model 2) of the solar radiation variance. We, thus, propose a strategy for selecting an optimal method for calculating missing daily values of global solar radiation: (1) when sunshine hour and temperature data are available, use Chen model 2; (2) when only sunshine hour data are available, use Bahel model; (3) when temperature, total precipitation and dew point data are available but not sunshine hours, use Wu model 2; (4) when only temperature and total precipitation are

  19. Fifty Cases of Child Restless Syndrome Treated with the Integrated Method of Chinese Herbal Drugs and Auricular-Plaster Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Fifty cases of child restless syndrome were treated with oral administration of Chinese traditional herbal drugs plus auricular-plaster therapy from December 1998 to November 2001, and another 47 cases were treated with oral administration of methylphenidate as controls. The result is reported as follows.

  20. The timing of river terrace formation - possibilities and challenges of luminescence dating methods: a case study from Northern Bavaria, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Thomas; Fuchs, Markus; Zöller, Ludwig

    2014-05-01

    Fluvial terraces are widespread geomorphic features of Quaternary landscapes. Besides tectonics, their formation is predominantly controlled by climatic conditions. Changes in either conditions cause changes in fluvial discharge and sediment load. Therefore, fluvial terraces can be used as important non-continuous sedimentary archives for paleotectonic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The information gained from fluvial archives and their significance for paleoenvironmental research, however, strongly depend on a precise dating of the terrace formation. In the past, numerical dating of fluvial sediments has often been proved to be difficult. Radiocarbon dating has been applied on fluvial sediments frequently, but it depends on the presence of organic remains and its dating range is limited to the last ca. 40-50 ka. In contrast, luminescence dating enables the dating of fluvial sediments far beyond the last glacial-interglacial cycle and due to the general abundances of quartz and feldspar, there is almost no limitation of dateable material. Thus, luminescence dating has become a commonly applied method for yielding sedimentation ages of fluvial deposits. Applying luminescence dating techniques to fluvial archives is, however, still far from being a standard method. Several problems, such as incomplete bleaching of the dated material, dosimetric inaccuracies due to the heterogeneity of terrace gravels and difficulties in estimating accurate water contents, have to be considered. Thus, the calculation of OSL ages for fluvial deposits often proves to be challenging and their implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions always demand a careful interpretation. This contribution illustrates the informative value of fluvial archives for paleoenvironmental research and reveals some of the difficulties that may occur when luminescence dating techniques are applied to river terraces. The presented results are based on a case study, located in an oversized valley

  1. Variational assimilation in combination with a regularization method for sea level pressure retrieval from QuikSCAT scatterometer data II: simulation experiment and actual case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea level pressure field can be computed from sea surface winds retrieved from satellite microwave scatterometer measurements, based on variational assimilation in combination with a regularization method given in part I of this paper. First, the validity of the new method is proved with a simulation experiment. Then, a new processing procedure for the sea level pressure retrieval is built by combining the geostrophic wind, which is computed from the scatterometer 10-meter wind using the University of Washington planetary boundary layer model using this method. Finally, the feasibility of the method is proved using an actual case study. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  2. Variational assimilation in combination with a regularization method for sea level pressure retrieval from QuikSCAT scatterometer data Ⅱ: simulation experiment and actual case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liang; Huang Si-Xun; Shen Chun; Shi Wei-Lai

    2011-01-01

    The sea level pressure field can be computed from sea surface winds retrieved from satellite microwave scatterometer measurements,based on variational assimilation in combination with a regularization method given in part I of this paper.First,the validity of the new method is proved with a simulation experiment.Then,a new processing procedure for the sea level pressure retrieval is built by combining the geostrophic wind,which is computed from the scatterometer 10-meter wind using the University of Washington planetary boundary layer model using this method.Finally,the feasibility of the method is proved using an actual case study.

  3. Using of the Boolean Stochastic Generation method to target field investigations: the Mortisa landslide (eastern Italian Alps) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Giulia; Marcato, Gianluca; Gottardi, Guido; Borgatti, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    When designing the geotechnical model of a landslide the information to define the soil profile within the slope is usually inferred from a small amount of data. This is particularly true for large landslides where the study area is vast and the variability of terrains is high. In this framework, a method allowing the best locations for further field investigation campaigns to be identified would be extremely useful. The Boolean Stochastic Generation method (BoSG), which randomly generates different soil distributions of two definite soil types in both 2D and 3D models, is a newly developed algorithm that can guide in this process. In this work the method has been applied to the Mortisa landslide case study, which is located in the Cortina d'Ampezzo valley (Veneto, Italy), part of the Dolomites UNESCO World Heritage list. The mudslide is 3.5 km long, stretching from 1750 to 1300 m a.s.l., and is located in a highly antrophized area where is damaging some buildings and a national road with its almost continuous movements. In fact, from year 2008, GNSS surveys recorded rates of displacements reaching 1.2 m/year in the most active parts of the landslide; the movements occur on a slip surfaces are located between 20 and 50 m below the surface. From the borecores some wooden samples were extracted allowing to reconstruct the sequence of events that led to the development of the present-day Mortisa slope. Interdigitated layers of gravel in a silty clay matrix originated from subsequent earth and debris flows events since the Lateglacial compose the landslide body, a condition that is particularly apt to be investigated with BoSG. A BoSG run for the Mortisa landslide was performed calculating 1200 soil configurations and using laboratory test parameters for the silty-clay matrix. The results were stacked in a tridimensional matrix in order to calculate the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of displacements for each element of the model mesh. In this way maps of the SD

  4. A finite element perturbation method for computing fluid-induced forces on a centrifugal impeller rotating and whirling in a volute casing

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, J.B.; Essen, van, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A finite element based method has been developed for computing time-averaged fluid-induced radial excitation forces and rotor dynamic forces on a two-dimensional centrifugal impeller rotating and whirling in a volute casing. In this method potential flow theory is used, which implies the assumption of irrotational inviscid flow. In comparison with other analyses of fluid-induced impeller forces, two main features have been included. Firstly, the hydrodynamic interaction between impeller and v...

  5. Ascertaining year of birth/age at death in forensic cases: A review of conventional methods and methods allowing for absolute chronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, H; Zweihoff, R;

    2010-01-01

    birth) is often a fundamental piece of data in connection with forensic identification of unidentified bodies. The methods most often used are based on determining various morphological, age-related, changes on the skeleton (or teeth, although odontological methods are not reviewed in this paper). As...

  6. The “Toronto prosthesis”, an appealing method for restoring patients candidates for hybrid overdentures: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Javier; Macedo de Paula, Carla; Albaladejo, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The implant is a therapeutic resource in constant evolution, and the different types of implants and techniques have been increasingly used in cases of both fully or partially edentulous patients. In some cases they provide more conservative treatment, and in others better stability, retention, and function. To achieve a satisfactory result, there are several factors that should be taken into account: the type and quality of the bone, bone density, the placement location of implants, retrieva...

  7. Art, Meet Chemistry; Chemistry, Meet Art: Case Studies, Current Literature, and Instrumental Methods Combined to Create a Hands-On Experience for Nonmajors and Instrumental Analysis Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivens, Delana A.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Chase, Jeffery M.; Verges, Katie J.; Jamieson, Deborah S.

    2010-01-01

    Case studies and current literature are combined with spectroscopic analysis to provide a unique chemistry experience for art history students and to provide a unique inquiry-based laboratory experiment for analytical chemistry students. The XRF analysis method was used to demonstrate to nonscience majors (art history students) a powerful…

  8. Simplified method for esophagus protection during radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation - prospective study of 704 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pachón Mateos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction:Although rare, the atrioesophageal fistula is one of the most feared complications in radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation due to the high risk of mortality.Objective:This is a prospective controlled study, performed during regular radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, to test whether esophageal displacement by handling the transesophageal echocardiography transducer could be used for esophageal protection.Methods:Seven hundred and four patients (158 F/546M [22.4%/77.6%]; 52.8±14 [17-84] years old, with mean EF of 0.66±0.8 and drug-refractory atrial fibrillation were submitted to hybrid radiofrequency catheter ablation (conventional pulmonary vein isolation plus AF-Nests and background tachycardia ablation with displacement of the esophagus as far as possible from the radiofrequency target by transesophageal echocardiography transducer handling. The esophageal luminal temperature was monitored without and with displacement in 25 patients.Results:The mean esophageal displacement was 4 to 9.1cm (5.9±0.8 cm. In 680 of the 704 patients (96.6%, it was enough to allow complete and safe radiofrequency delivery (30W/40ºC/irrigated catheter or 50W/60ºC/8 mm catheter without esophagus overlapping. The mean esophageal luminal temperature changes with versus without esophageal displacement were 0.11±0.13ºC versus 1.1±0.4ºC respectively, P<0.01. The radiofrequency had to be halted in 68% of the patients without esophageal displacement because of esophageal luminal temperature increase. There was no incidence of atrioesophageal fistula suspected or confirmed. Only two superficial bleeding caused by transesophageal echocardiography transducer insertion were observed.Conclusion:Mechanical esophageal displacement by transesophageal echocardiography transducer during radiofrequency catheter ablation was able to prevent a rise in esophageal luminal temperature, helping to avoid esophageal thermal

  9. Quantitative analysis of ecological effects for land use planning based on ecological footprint method: a case research in Nanyang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yaolin; Chen, Xinming

    2008-10-01

    The research of coordinated development between land use and ecological building is a new problem with the development of country economy, whose intention is to improve economy development and protect eco-environment in order to realize regional sustainable development. Evaluating human effects on the ecosystem by a comprehensive, scientific and quantitative method is a critical issue in the process of general land use planning. At present, ecological footprint methodology, as an excellent educational tool applicable to global issues, is essential for quantifying humanity's consumption of natural capital, for overall assessments of human impact on earth as well as for general land use planning. However, quantitative studies on the development trends of ecological footprint (EF) time series and biological capacity (BC) time series in a given region are still rare. Taking Nanyang City as a case study, this paper presents two quantitative estimate indices over time scale called the change rate and scissors difference to quantitatively analyze the trends of EF and BC over the planning period in general land use planning form 1997-2004 and to evaluate the ecological effects of the land use general planning form 1997 to.2010. The results showed that: 1 In Nanyang city, trends of the per capita EF and BC were on the way round, and the ecological deficit enhanced from 1997 to 2010. 2 The difference between the two development trends of per capita EF and BC had been increasing rapidly and the conflict between the EF and BC was aggravated from 1997 to 2010. 3 The general land use planning (1997 - 2010) of Nanyang city had produced some positive effects on the local ecosystem, but the expected biological capacity in 2010 can hardly be realized following this trend. Therefore, this paper introduces a "trinity" land use model in the guidelines of environment- friendly land use pattern and based on the actual situation of Nanyang city, with the systemic synthesis of land

  10. Water-Energy Nexus: the case of biogas production from energy crops evaluated by Water Footprint and LCA methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Tommaso; Caporali, Enrica; Federici, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    This study analyzes the production of biogas from aerobic digestion of energy crops. The production of biogas is an important case study because its spread, similar to other sources of bioenergy, creates questions about the environmental effects, the competition in the food market as well as the progressive change of land use. In particular is hereby analyzed the nexus between bioenergy production and water, which plays a key role because water resources are often the limiting factor in energy production from energy crops. The environmental performances of biogas production were analyzed through Water Footprint (WF) and Life cycle assessment (LCA): the integration of LCA and WF represents an attempt of taking advantage of their complementary strengths in environmental assessment, trying to give a comprehensive analysis of bioenergy production sustainability. Eighteen scenarios were considered, trying to figure out the performances of different combinations of locations (north, center, south Italy), crops (maize, sorghum, wheat) and treatments (anaerobic digestion with water dilution or manure co-digestion). WF assessment shows that cultivation phase is the most impacting on water resource use along the entire system life cycle. In particular, water requirements for crop growth shows that sorghum is the more water saver crop (in terms of consumptive water use to produce the amount of crop needed to produce 1 GJ of biogas energy content). Moreover WF investigates the kind of water use and shows that wheat, despite being the most intensive water user, exploits more green water than the other crops.WF was evaluated with respect to water stress indicators for the Italian territory, underlining the higher criticalities associated with water use in southern Italy and identifying consumptive blue water use, in this area, as the main hotspot. Therefore biogas production from energy crops in southern Italy is unsustainable from a water management perspective. At a basin

  11. Genetic Algorithm-based Optimized Design Method for Casing String%基于遗传算法的套管柱优化设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何英明; 王瑞和; 雷杨; 臧艳彬; 何英君

    2012-01-01

    In light of changeable external load of casing in complex geologic conditions, the optimized method to design casing string on the basis of genetic algorithm was established. The genetic algorithm theory was applied to determine the coding mode of chromosome, production method of initial population, and evaluation function of chromosome and genetic operation. Thus, the optimized design model for casing string on the basis of genetic algo- rithm was established to overcome the defects of complex calculation process and neglect of casing costs and risk factor in the traditional design method of casing string strength concerning complex geologic conditions. The design verification of some casing string in Puguang Gasfield shows that the design method is accurate and reliable. It improves the reliability of casing string and helps to reduce the costs. The present study offers the method to optimize the design of casing string in complex geologic conditions.%针对复杂地质条件下套管外载荷多变的特点,建立了基于遗传算法的套管柱优化设计方法。应用遗传算法理论,确定染色体编码方式、初始种群的产生方法、染色体评估函数及遗传操作,建立基于遗传算法的套管柱优化设计模型,从而克服了传统套管柱设计方法在复杂地质条件下套管柱强度设计中运算过程复杂,无法兼顾套管成本与风险因素的缺点。对普光气田某井套管柱进行的设计验证情况表明,该方法设计结果准确可靠,既提高了套管柱可靠性,又有利于降低成本。该项研究为复杂地质条件下优化套管柱设计提供了新的方法。

  12. The Instructional Designed for Information Technology on Case Method%基于案例教学法的中学信息技术教学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石敏力

    2012-01-01

    例教学法是当今世界教育和培训研究的热点问题。本文就如何设计案例教学展开了系统的研究和分析,并结合高中《信息技术〉第一章的教学内容提出了具体的教学设计方案。%The case method of instruction is the world's education and training research hotspot. This article is concerned with the research and design work of the case method of instruction. It analyzes how about the fwst chapter and will provide a theoretical framework for the method hoping to promote the broader concem.

  13. Systematic Review of Methods in Low-Consensus Fields: Supporting Commensuration through `Construct-Centered Methods Aggregation’ in the Case of Climate Change Vulnerability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Todd A.; Chesterman, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in using systematic review to synthesize evidence on the social and environmental effects of and adaptations to climate change. Use of systematic review for evidence in this field is complicated by the heterogeneity of methods used and by uneven reporting. In order to facilitate synthesis of results and design of subsequent research a method, construct-centered methods aggregation, was designed to 1) provide a transparent, valid and reliable description of research methods, 2) support comparability of primary studies and 3) contribute to a shared empirical basis for improving research practice. Rather than taking research reports at face value, research designs are reviewed through inductive analysis. This involves bottom-up identification of constructs, definitions and operationalizations; assessment of concepts’ commensurability through comparison of definitions; identification of theoretical frameworks through patterns of construct use; and integration of transparently reported and valid operationalizations into ideal-type research frameworks. Through the integration of reliable bottom-up inductive coding from operationalizations and top-down coding driven from stated theory with expert interpretation, construct-centered methods aggregation enabled both resolution of heterogeneity within identically named constructs and merging of differently labeled but identical constructs. These two processes allowed transparent, rigorous and contextually sensitive synthesis of the research presented in an uneven set of reports undertaken in a heterogenous field. If adopted more broadly, construct-centered methods aggregation may contribute to the emergence of a valid, empirically-grounded description of methods used in primary research. These descriptions may function as a set of expectations that improves the transparency of reporting and as an evolving comprehensive framework that supports both interpretation of existing and design of future

  14. Measuring Second-Order Factors Using Confirmatory Methods: A Case Study Example with the Hendrick-Hendrick Love Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bruce; Borrello, Gloria M.

    The application and utility of confirmatory second-order factor analytic methods are discussed. Factor analysis is central to concerns regarding measurement validity. Confirmatory methods are especially useful because they explicitly consider measurement error influences and because the methods are inherently theory-driven and theory-oriented.…

  15. Case Teaching Method Study of Electronic Design Courses%基于案例的电子设计课程教学方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭雪霏; 赵春波; 陈巩

    2014-01-01

    分析了案例教学法在电子设计课程中的必要性,阐述了案例教学的实施过程,教师如何引导学生对案例进行分析、辩论和总结,做出判断和决策,强调了学生的主体地位和能力的培养。该教学方法提高了学生的自主学习能力以及综合素质,活跃了课堂教学气氛,提高了教学质量,是应用型人才培养模式行之有效的教学模式。%This paper first analyzes the necessity of case teaching method in electronic design cour-ses.Then it describes the implementation process of the case teaching.By this method,students analyze, debate and sum up the case.It emphasizes the of student’s main status and the cultivation of comprehen-sive ability.Case teaching method enhances students’autonomous learning interest,activates classroom atmosphere and improves the teaching quality.It is an effective mode of cultivating applied talents.

  16. Use of an Innovative Simple Method for Anaerobiosis in the Diagnosis and Management of Infections in Two Unusual Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, J; Pal, N; Ray, R; Maiti, P K

    2016-01-01

    Technical limitations restrict routine anaerobe isolation from clinical materials in resource-limited laboratories. An innovative two steps combustion candle jar technique may be suitable for such setup. This system was tried with one case of chronic osteomyelitis developed on supracondyler compound fracture. Porphyromonas spp. was isolated and identified. Vancomycin was recommended based on in vitro sensitivity test, but the leg was amputed after receiving a resistant drug gentamycin. While in another child with hydrocephalous, V-P shunt associated infection by Peptostreptococcus anaerobius was successfully controlled by sensitive drug vancomycin. These two eye-opener cases insisted us for large scale application of the technique. PMID:27144078

  17. Structural evaluation method for class 1 vessels by using elastic-plastic finite element analysis in code case of JSME rules on design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A structural evaluation method by using elastic-plastic finite element analysis has been developed and published as a code case of Rules on Design and Construction for Nuclear Power Plants (The First Part: Light Water Reactor Structural Design Standard) in the JSME Codes for Nuclear Power Generation Facilities. Its title is 'Alternative Structural Evaluation Criteria for Class 1 Vessels Based on Elastic-Plastic Finite Element Analysis' (NC-CC-005). This code case applies elastic-plastic analysis to evaluation of such failure modes as plastic collapse, thermal ratchet, fatigue and so on. Advantage of this evaluation method is free from stress classification, consistently use of Mises stress and applicability to complex 3-dimensional structures which are hard to be treated by the conventional stress classification method. The evaluation method for plastic collapse has such variation as the Lower Bound Approach Method, Twice-Elastic-Slope Method and Elastic Compensation Method. Cyclic Yield Area (CYA) based on elastic analysis is applied to screening evaluation of thermal ratchet instead of secondary stress evaluation, and elastic-plastic analysis is performed when the CYA screening criteria is not satisfied. Strain concentration factors can be directly calculated based on elastic-plastic analysis. (author)

  18. Using the Delphi Method for Selecting Effective Rehabilitation Practices for Case Study Research: Methods, Challenges, and Solutions and Implications for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Allison R.; Boeltzig-Brown, Heike; Foley, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We describe a modified Delphi method used to select effective state vocational rehabilitation agency practices to prioritize rehabilitation services for individuals with most significant disabilities within the context of Order of Selection, an area where there is little known and published. Specifically, we describe how we applied the…

  19. The Application of Community Development Principles and Methods to Successful Rural Development Projects: Few Case Studies from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatena, Hailu

    This paper argues that the goal of community development should be to provide more than material gains such as fast economic growth. The paper provides two case studies from Ethiopia which demonstrate how proper implementation of community development processes and principles might lead to successful attainment of tangible and intangible…

  20. Pathways for Success in Developing a Nature Trail at a Zoo: A Mixed-Methods Evaluative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Carol F.

    2010-01-01

    Modern zoos serve as tourist attractions and recreational facilities, while providing educational outreach programs in ecology, conservation, and animal needs. However, in the 21st century, there has been a negative backlash of people associating zoos with animals being shut away in cages or pits. This case study included an examination of the…

  1. Measuring the units efficiency using an integrated DEA–AHP method: A case study of rivet producer

    OpenAIRE

    Azim zarei; Amir Mehdiabadi

    2012-01-01

    The present research purpose is applying a compose method from DEA and AHP for removing this technique deficiency on assessing. For this reason, a compose method on basis of unsubjective double comparisons matrix has been used. At research process, after specifying the input and output variables and also a proper model for DEA, computational research method are dismounted at two stages: At the first stage, DEA model, is dismounted for two-by –two of items (branches), regardless to other items...

  2. Estimation of Depth from Gravity survey using Radial Amplitude Spectrum method (Case Study: Ajichai Area, East Azerbaijan, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Alvandi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we applied an effective method for depth determination of a buried structure from gravity anomalies. The Radial Amplitude Spectrum method for potential field survey is found useful for finding the depth values and statistical properties of the source distribution. This method is applied to field survey from theAjichai area (Iran). All map images used in this paper have been generated using surfer software.

  3. Five Methods of Breast Volume Measurement: A Comparative Study of Measurements of Specimen Volume in 30 Mastectomy Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Ragip Kayar; Serdar Civelek; Murat Cobanoglu; Osman Gungor; Hidayet Catal; Mustafa Emiroglu

    2011-01-01

    Background: To compare breast volume measurement techniques in terms of accuracy, convenience, and cost. Methods: Breast volumes of 30 patients who were scheduled to undergo total mastectomy surgery were measured preoperatively by using five different methods (mammography, anatomic [anthropometric], thermoplastic casting, the Archimedes procedure, and the Grossman-Roudner device). Specimen volume after total mastectomy was measured in each patient with the water displacement method (Archimede...

  4. 软件测试用例设计的方法与实现%Methods and implementation of software test case design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 姚红

    2012-01-01

    The role of the test cases in testing work was described, and the common design methods of software test case were summarized through researching of software test cases. Finally, a test table was produced based on the actual work for providing a reference to the testers for their test in future.%通过对软件测试用例的研究,阐述了测试用例在测试工作中的作用,总结出了常用的软件测试用例设计方法。最后结合实际工作制作了一份测试用例表,为软件测试人员以后的测试工作提供了参考。

  5. Determination Instructions Efficiency of Teaching Methods in Teaching Physics in the Case of Teaching Unit "Viscosity. Newtonian and Stokes Law"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Branka; Stojanovic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The use of different teaching methods has resulted in different quality and quantity of students' knowledge. For this reason, it is important to constantly review the teaching methods and applied most effectively. One way of determining instruction efficiency is by using cognitive load and student achievement. Cognitive load can be generally…

  6. Application of the exergy method to the environmental impact estimation: The nitric acid production as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the exergy method is used to compare various methods for removal of NOx from waste (tail) gas released into the atmosphere from nitric acid production plants with respect to their overall environmental impact. Three basic methods for NOx abatement are analysed: selective catalytic reduction (SCR), non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) and extended absorption. The positive and negative effects and the net effect from the NOx abatement are calculated. The following exergy-based indicators are used for comparing the energy efficiency and the environmental impact of different treatment processes as a result from pollutants removal: reduction of the exergy of the emissions from the whole process route (ammonia and nitric acid production units); exergy of the additional emissions, arising as a result of the treatment process; total net reduction of the exergy consumption, Cumulative Energy Consumption (CEnC) and Cumulative Exergy Consumption (CExC) of natural resources as a result of the waste flows treatment. -- Highlights: → A thermodynamic study of the effects of three NOx abatement methods. → A comparison of the positive, negative and overall net effects of the three methods. → The best overall results are obtained for the extended absorption method. → The selective catalytic reduction method is estimated as unsatisfactory. → The non-selective catalytic reduction method could benefit from improved catalysts.

  7. A comparative study on methods for loss of life estimation: Applications to case studies in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Maaskant, B.; Kolen, B.; Zethof, M.; Lehman, W.P.; Needham, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, USA and other countries methods for the analysis of loss of life and evacuation associated with flooding are used in flood risk management. This paper compares the methods from the US and Netherlands in this field and considers both methodological principles as well as the outcom

  8. A CASE STUDY ANALYSIS OF CLT METHODS TO DEVELOP GRAMMAR COMPETENCY FOR ACADEMIC WRITING PURPOSES AT TERTIARY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almodad Biduk Asmani

    2013-09-01

    statistics, the numerical data show that there is no significant difference between the two methods results, and as a result, either method has its own strength and weaknesses. If one is to be implemented, it must be linked to the specific goals and purposes that each entails.

  9. Human-Centered Approaches in Geovisualization Design: Investigating Multiple Methods Through a Long-Term Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, D; Dykes, J.

    2011-01-01

    Working with three domain specialists we investigate human-centered approaches to geovisualization following an ISO13407 taxonomy covering context of use, requirements and early stages of design. Our case study, undertaken over three years, draws attention to repeating trends: that generic approaches fail to elicit adequate requirements for geovis application design; that the use of real data is key to understanding needs and possibilities; that trust and knowledge must be built and develo...

  10. Supplier selection process : criteria and methods case study analysis in ALMACO Group : an example of shipbuilding industry

    OpenAIRE

    Harju, Maija

    2010-01-01

    This study concentrates on organizational buying behaviour, and on determining what factors contribute to organizational buyer’s decisions by providing an example from ship building industry. Purchasing behaviour in ALMACO group is being investigated as a case study. Four ALMACO employees were interviewed in order to find out how purchasing decisions are made in ALMACO, and what elements the organizational buyers value in vendors. The interviews reveal there is no one unified organizationa...

  11. Case study on the use of PSA methods: Assessment of technical specifications for the reactor protection system instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study presents a methodology for the probabilistic evaluation of alternative plant technical specifications regarding system surveillance frequencies and out-of-service times. The methodology is applied to the reactor protection systems of a 4 loop BWR-RESAR-3S type nuclear power plant. The effect of the statistical characteristics of the system on the relative comparison of various sets of technical specifications is examined through sensitivity studies and an uncertainty analysis. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. The ecological footprint method on a farm level – a case study on a UK organic farm with parallel cropping

    OpenAIRE

    Schmutz, Dr Ulrich; Firth, Chris; Lewis, Kevin; Lillywhite, Mr Robert

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the farming community to understand and improve their ecological footprint and reduce CO2-carbon emissions. This case study compares the ecological footprint of organic and conventional cabbage, celeriac, sugar beet and winter wheat crops on a UK commercial, parallel cropping, farm. Results show lower ecological footprints and energy ratios in all organic crops. However, CO2-emissions per unit yield are only lower if the fertility building is not considered. In...

  13. Integrating Individual and Organizational Learning: Agency Lessons Learned Systems and The Case Method in Teaching Public Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Snider, Keith F

    2008-01-01

    Numerous public agencies have implemented systems for capturing and disseminating "lessons learned." To the extent that these systems provide descriptions of procurement practice, they compose a repository of case studies that may be used to train and educate public procurement professionals. Realizing the potential for such use depends on the degree to which agency organizational learning processes and procurement teaching processes may be integrated. This paper (1) describ...

  14. Design principles of educational virtual worlds for preschool children : a case study of JumpStart World Kindergarten's pedagogical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pejoska, Jana

    2010-01-01

    This thesis studies the design principles of educational virtual worlds for pre-school children. It examines the culture and contextualization of the virtual worlds for children used for the purpose of informal education through learning games in the case study of JumpStart World Kindergarten. The theoretical background provides an overview of the historical development of educational virtual worlds based on the progression of MUDs, MOOs and MMORPG. In addition, the issues in implementation a...

  15. Reflections on clinical reasoning in mental health occupational therapy: the case of the occupational therapy dynamic method

    OpenAIRE

    Taís Quevedo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    The Clinical Reasoning Study supported by the American Occupational Therapy Association/AOTA and the American Occupational Therapy Foundation/AOTF in the United States in the late 1980s, had inaugurated the scientific production in the field and offered an initial framework on clinical reasoning for understanding and conducting clinical cases in Occupational Therapy. Most of the researches in this field have focused on reasoning processes, and point out the need to understand the contents of ...

  16. A limiter-based well-balanced discontinuous Galerkin method for shallow-water flows with wetting and drying: One-dimensional case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, Stefan; Beisiegel, Nicole; Behrens, Jörn

    2015-11-01

    An important part in the numerical simulation of tsunami and storm surge events is the accurate modeling of flooding and the appearance of dry areas when the water recedes. This paper proposes a new algorithm to model inundation events with piecewise linear Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin approximations applied to the shallow water equations. This study is restricted to the one-dimensional case and shows a detailed analysis and the corresponding numerical treatment of the inundation problem. The main feature is a velocity based "limiting" of the momentum distribution in each cell, which prevents instabilities in case of wetting or drying situations. Additional limiting of the fluid depth ensures its positivity while preserving local mass conservation. A special flux modification in cells located at the wet/dry interface leads to a well-balanced method, which maintains the steady state at rest. The discontinuous Galerkin scheme is formulated in a nodal form using a Lagrange basis. The proposed wetting and drying treatment is verified with several numerical simulations. These test cases demonstrate the well-balancing property of the method and its stability in case of rapid transition of the wet/dry interface. We also verify the conservation of mass and investigate the convergence characteristics of the scheme.

  17. Site selection of temporary housing after earthquake by GIS and AHP method Case study: Region 6 of Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Givechi

    2013-01-01

    . can be temporarily used for temporary housing of damaged masses or temporary establishment of another important land use to continue urban life.Key words: Temporary housing, site selection, Disaster management, GIS, AHP MethodReferencesJifu Liu, Yida Fan, Piejun Shi (2011, Response to a high-Altitude Earthquake: The Yushu Earthquake example, Int J. Disaster risk sci, 2(1, 43-53Katerina R. Donevska, Pece V. Gorsevski (2011, Regional non-hazardous landfill site selection by integrating fuzzy logic, AHP and geographic information systems, Environ Earth Sci, 40-48McCoy, Jill, and Kevin Johnston.( 2001, Using ArcGIS Spatial Analyst: GIS by ESRI. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research InstituteQiang Wu, Siyuan Ye, Xiong Wu, Pei Pei Chen(2004, Risk assessment of earth fractures by constructing an intrinsic vulnerability map, a specific vulnerability map and a hazard map, using Yuci city, Shanxi, china as an example, Environmental Geology, 46: 104-112Saaty, T.L (1980:”The Analytical Hierarchy Process, Planning Priority, Resource Allocation”RWS Publication, USA.Sule Tudes, Nazan Duygu Yigiter (2010, Preparation of land use planning model using GIS based on AHP, Case study Adana-Turkey, Bull Eng Geology Environment, 69: 235-245United Nations office for the coordination of humanitrain affairs (OCHA, (1995: the use of military and Defense Assets in relief operation

  18. Key Techniques and Risk Management for the Application of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA Excavation Method: A Case Study of the Zhongjie Subway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-ping Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and construction of shallow-buried tunnels in densely populated urban areas involve many challenges. The ground movements induced by tunneling effects pose potential risks to infrastructure such as surface buildings, pipelines, and roads. In this paper, a case study of the Zhongjie subway station located in Shenyang, China, is examined to investigate the key construction techniques and the influence of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA excavation method on the surrounding environment. This case study discusses the primary risk factors affecting the environmental safety and summarizes the corresponding risk mitigation measures and key techniques for subway station construction using the PBA excavation method in a densely populated urban area.

  19. Key techniques and risk management for the application of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) excavation method: a case study of the Zhongjie subway station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yong-ping; Zhao, Wen; Li, Shen-gang; Zhang, Guo-bin

    2014-01-01

    The design and construction of shallow-buried tunnels in densely populated urban areas involve many challenges. The ground movements induced by tunneling effects pose potential risks to infrastructure such as surface buildings, pipelines, and roads. In this paper, a case study of the Zhongjie subway station located in Shenyang, China, is examined to investigate the key construction techniques and the influence of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) excavation method on the surrounding environment. This case study discusses the primary risk factors affecting the environmental safety and summarizes the corresponding risk mitigation measures and key techniques for subway station construction using the PBA excavation method in a densely populated urban area. PMID:25221783

  20. A case-control study of oral epithelial proliferative markers among Sudanese Toombak dippers using micronuclei assay, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region, Papanicolaou and crystal violet methods

    OpenAIRE

    Anass M. Abbas; Hussain G. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The use of Toombak has been reported to play a major role in the etiology of oral cancer in Sudan. The cellular proliferative activity on the oral epithelium of 210 Toombak dippers was assessed by applying the micronuclei frequency, mean argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) counts, Papanicolaou method, and 1% crystal violet stain. Participants were divided into 3 groups: 200 were apparently healthy individuals, 100 were Toombak users (cases), 100 were non-tobacco users (control) an...

  1. Key Techniques and Risk Management for the Application of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) Excavation Method: A Case Study of the Zhongjie Subway Station

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-ping Guan; Wen Zhao; Shen-gang Li; Guo-bin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The design and construction of shallow-buried tunnels in densely populated urban areas involve many challenges. The ground movements induced by tunneling effects pose potential risks to infrastructure such as surface buildings, pipelines, and roads. In this paper, a case study of the Zhongjie subway station located in Shenyang, China, is examined to investigate the key construction techniques and the influence of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) excavation method on the surrounding environment. This ...

  2. Variation in Breast Cancer–Risk Factor Associations by Method of Detection: Results From a Series of Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, Brian L.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Hampton, John M.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Titus, Linda J.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Remington, Patrick L; Newcomb, Polly A.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about breast cancer overdiagnosis have increased the need to understand how cancers detected through screening mammography differ from those first detected by a woman or her clinician. We investigated risk factor associations for invasive breast cancer by method of detection within a series of case-control studies (1992–2007) carried out in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire (n = 15,648 invasive breast cancer patients and 17,602 controls aged 40–79 years). Approximately half...

  3. Review and Prioritization of Various Advertisement Methods by Meat Products Matrix Analytic Hierarchy Method (AHP: A Case Study of Sausages Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Esfandi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is not only as a tool to increase company sales. Fast development of mass communication tools and added new mediums to advertising media have been introduced the advertising as a key element in the success or failure of a company. Due to the intense competition between companies and the fast growth of markets and changes in consumer behavior, advertising is taken into consideration as a major tool to create consumer awareness of products and services. Thus, in order to choose the best advertising method for meat products (sausages and salami, comments of 500 Shiraz citizens are collected by Cochran sampling and used in data analysis byAnalytical Hierarchy Process (AHP.After gathering the data, by synthesis the comments of respondents through arithmetic mean, the pairwise comparison matrix of criteria and priorities was formed to estimate the relative weights of them to achieve the goals of "the best method of advertising". The results indicated with respect to citizen viewpoints, the media advertisement, the street billboards, the advertising brochures, the advertising kiosks, and the purchase awards have the highest degree of importance with weight 0.430, 0.238, 0.139, 0.098 and 0.096, respectively. Due to the competition of different meat products factories, to make interest and encourage for purchasing a goods toward the competitor goods, it is necessary to use the persuasive advertisement.

  4. Application of methods (sequential extraction procedures and high-pressure digestion method) to fly ash particles to determine the element constituents: A case study for BCR 176

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequential extraction procedures and the high-pressure digestion method were selected to determine the element constituents of fly ash samples. Sequential extraction is one of the most useful methods used to measure the various elements from municipal solid waste incineration ash and contaminated soils. The extract from each step is analyzed using various techniques and equipments, and the results are then evaluated. In this work, a six-step extraction procedure modified from that of Tessier et al. and Wang et al. was performed and applied to the certified reference material BCR 176 (city waste incineration ash). Analyses were carried out by various techniques such as inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) to evaluate the characteristics of fly ash. The extraction efficiency of many elements was higher than 80%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) for recovery of most elements were within 10%. In addition, an H2O2 + HNO3 + HF mixed acid digestion solution processed using a low-temperature evaporation procedure was selected as the optimal process for fly ash digestion. The results of this work provide information on the chemical composition, distribution, and potential mobility of the investigated elements

  5. Mathematical simulation of gas dynamics on Eurelian meshes: a realization of Young's method for interface tracking in a three-dimensional case on orthogonal meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the exposition of Young's interface tracking method and includes determination of the flux across a cell side, as welt as modifications of a method for cases when a mixed cell contains more than three materials. The outcomes of simulations for three sample calculations: 'Jack and Balls,' 'Spinning Disk,' and 'Spinning Jack,' are also presented. The simulations represent linear motion and/or rotation of geometric planes on rectangular meshes, which provide an estimate of the resolution of the interface-tracking algorithms. (authors)

  6. A simple method to estimate radiation interception by nursery stock conifers: a case study of eastern white cedar

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, A.A.; Goudriaan, J.; Stilma, E.S.C.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    A simple method was developed to estimate the fraction radiation intercepted by small eastern white cedar plants (Thuja occidentalis 'Brabant'). The method, which describes the crop canopy as rows of cuboids, was compared with methods used for estimating radiation interception by crops with homogeneous canopies and crops grown in rows. The extinction coefficient k was determined at different plant arrangements and an average k-value of 0.48 ± 0.03 (R2 = 0.89) was used in the calculations. Eff...

  7. The Use of Modified Annandale’s Method in the Estimation of the Sediment Distribution in Small Reservoirs—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Michalec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the applicability of the Annandale method was verified based on the results of silting and sediment distribution measurements carried out in eight small reservoirs, with a capacity that does not exceed 5 million m3. It was found that the application of this method is possible only in the case of small reservoirs, in which the sediment load is deposited in the near-dam zone. The results of studies conducted on small reservoirs allowed the construction of a graph presenting the relationship of a sum of dimensionless sediment load volume as a function of relative distance from the dam, which became the modification of the graph in Annandale’s method. The proposed modification of Annandale’s method considers reservoirs with a length less than 1000 m and capacity-inflow ratio ranging from a few per mille to a percent.

  8. Evaluation of a X-ray imaging method in micro-fluidics: the case of T-shaped micro-channels filling up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-rays methods assessment in micro-fluidics: case of 'T' shaped microchannels filling. Fluid flows within 'T' or 'Y' shaped microchannels are deeply studied in order to develop adapted modeling approaches and experimental techniques. Our technological choice lies on the attenuation measurement of X-ray in matter. The main advantage of this non-intrusive technique is to be implemented on media opaque to visible light. Moreover, X-rays methods may achieve better spatial resolutions as compared to optical methods because of their much lower wavelength. In order to validate this X-ray method, measurements obtained by this technique are compared with direct measurements carried out on similar microchannels. Finally, experimental results are compared with a theoretical model. (author)

  9. Multi-Objective Optimisation Method for Posture Prediction and Analysis with Consideration of Fatigue Effect and its Application Case

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Liang; Chablat, Damien; Bennis, Fouad; Guillaume, François; 10.1016/j.cie.2009.06.003

    2009-01-01

    Automation technique has been widely used in manufacturing industry, but there are still manual handling operations required in assembly and maintenance work in industry. Inappropriate posture and physical fatigue might result in musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in such physical jobs. In ergonomics and occupational biomechanics, virtual human modelling techniques have been employed to design and optimize the manual operations in design stage so as to avoid or decrease potential MSD risks. In these methods, physical fatigue is only considered as minimizing the muscle or joint stress, and the fatigue effect along time for the posture is not considered enough. In this study, based on the existing methods and multiple objective optimisation method (MOO), a new posture prediction and analysis method is proposed for predicting the optimal posture and evaluating the physical fatigue in the manual handling operation. The posture prediction and analysis problem is mathematically described and a special application cas...

  10. Teaching Methods for Pupils with Low Mathematical Skills in Primary Schools : Case Study of Teaching Mathematics in Primary Schools, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the teaching methods used by the teachers in teaching pupils with low mathematical skills in Tanzania. The aim of this study was to introduce an effective intervention for enhancing pupils’ achievement levels in mathematics. The problem of low mathematical skills is caused by many reasons such as unsuitable teaching and learning environment, few teaching methods, negative attitude of pupils and parents towards mathematics, shortage of teaching and learning ...

  11. APPLICATION OF AHP METHOD IN THE IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF PROJECT SELECTION CRITERIA: AN ENERGY SECTOR CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Silvério, Adriano Augusto; Rodrigues, Leonel Cezar; Xavier, Amanda Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Choosing from several alternative investment projects in hydropower to build a portfolio of projects is a complex matter. The most commonly used selection model for building the portfolio is the financial method, however it constraints options investments to the economic and financial parameters, which are limiting in nature. Alternatively, this paper proposes the use of multicriterial method Analytic Hierarchy Process – AHP, which incorporates measures to evaluate both quantit...

  12. Development of a molecular alternative for classical microbiological subtyping methods, Salmonella phage typing as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wuyts, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Characterisation of pathogens below the subspecies or serovar level, i.e. subtyping, is essential in public health for routine surveillance of pathogens, outbreak detection and timely confinement of an outbreak. An ideal subtyping method is rapid, highly discriminative, inexpensive and robust. The classical subtyping methods for the bacterium Salmonella, a major foodborne pathogen, are phage typing, multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrop...

  13. Selecting the Location of a Nautical Tourism Port by Applying PROMETHEE And GAIA Methods Case Study – Croatian Northern Adriatic

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents the multi-criteria analysis methods, PROMETHEE I and II and GAIA, used for selecting the location of a nautical tourism port. In an example of the selected location of a nautical tourism port in the Northern Adriatic, the author has used an analytic and graphical evaluation for solving such a problem. Particular attention has been paid to the use of GAIA method, which is suitable for visualisation of the problem characteristics through geometrical interpreta...

  14. A simple method to estimate radiation interception by nursery stock conifers: a case study of eastern white cedar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method was developed to estimate the fraction radiation intercepted by small eastern white cedar plants (Thuja occidentalis ‘Brabant’). The method, which describes the crop canopy as rows of cuboids, was compared with methods used for estimating radiation interception by crops with homogeneous canopies and crops grown in rows. The extinction coefficient k was determined at different plant arrangements and an average k-value of 0.48 ± 0.03 (R2 = 0.89) was used in the calculations. Effects of changing plant characteristics and inter- and intra-row plant distances were explored. The fraction radiation intercepted that was estimated with the method for rows of cuboids was up to 20% and for row crops up to 8% lower than estimated with the method for homogeneous canopies at low plant densities and a LAI of 1. The fraction radiation intercepted by small plants of Thuja occidentalis ‘Brabant’ was best estimated by the simple method described in this paper

  15. A Case Study on the Application of a Structured Experimental Method for Optimal Parameter Design of a Complex Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This report documents a case study on the application of Reliability Engineering techniques to achieve an optimal balance between performance and robustness by tuning the functional parameters of a complex non-linear control system. For complex systems with intricate and non-linear patterns of interaction between system components, analytical derivation of a mathematical model of system performance and robustness in terms of functional parameters may not be feasible or cost-effective. The demonstrated approach is simple, structured, effective, repeatable, and cost and time efficient. This general approach is suitable for a wide range of systems.

  16. A method for controlling overflows of hydrogen sulfide bearing stratum waters into the casing annulus of wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyadechko, V.N.; Nesterov, I.I.; Panova, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to increase the reliability of plugging and to prevent the formation of agressive and corrosive byproducts. The cited purpose is achieved by controlling overflows of hydrogen sulfide bearing stratum waters in to the casing annulus of a well through plugging the pore space of the appearing stratum with the sediment which is formed with interaction between the hydrogen sulfide and the reagent pumped into the stratum. An aqueous solution of tetraamine copper (II) hydroxide is used as the reagent pumped into the stratum. The reagent is used in the form of a 0.1 to 0.5 percent aqueous solution.

  17. 刑法学实务案例教学方式探析%The Application of Case Teaching Method in the Science of Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆华; 王法

    2014-01-01

    Criminal cases should be considered in the selection of typical cases and criminal law practice ,major criminal cases should keep pace with the times and selecting the case should be moderate difficulty and other factors .The undergraduate teaching of criminal law should focus on criminal law theory study ,in order to make the theory of criminal law is more easily accepted by students ,it is necessary to complement by further explanation .Graduate teaching of criminal law without copying USA “case teaching method” and the German “into” teaching method ,no need to restart to explore“complementary teaching method teaching method” and other new , as long as we adhere to the application and improvement of “three three” teaching mode .%刑法学实务案例教学应选择较为典型与重大的刑法实务案例,刑法实务案例应与时俱进,所选案例应当难易适中。本科刑法学教学应把重点放在刑法理论的学习上,而为了使刑法理论更易被学生所接受,就有必要辅之以适当的案例作进一步说明、阐述。研究生刑法学教学既无需照搬美国的“判例教学法”与德国的“归入法”教学方式,也无需重新去探讨“互补式教学法”等新的教学方式,只要进一步坚持适用与完善“三三制”教学方式即可。

  18. The “Toronto prosthesis”, an appealing method for restoring patients candidates for hybrid overdentures: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo de Paula, Carla; Albaladejo, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The implant is a therapeutic resource in constant evolution, and the different types of implants and techniques have been increasingly used in cases of both fully or partially edentulous patients. In some cases they provide more conservative treatment, and in others better stability, retention, and function. To achieve a satisfactory result, there are several factors that should be taken into account: the type and quality of the bone, bone density, the placement location of implants, retrievability of restorations, the patient’s motivation, and economic issues. Trainees should be aware of the limitations of the techniques that can be used for successful prosthetic rehabilitation. This work describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a fully edentulous mandible treated with dental implants using the ‘Toronto Bridge” technique for restoring both function and aesthetics. This type of prosthesis is a screwed-in mesostructure with milled abutments for the cementation of single or multiple suprastructures. This device could also be named “abutment-hybrid overdenture” The main advantages and disadvantages of this protocol are discussed. Key words:Implant-supported restorations, dental implants. PMID:24455041

  19. On the performance of quantum chemical methods to predict solvatochromic effects. The case of acrolein in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aidas, Kestutis; Møgelhøj, Andreas; Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Mikkelsen, Kurt Valentin; Christiansen, Ove; Söderhjelm, Pär; Kongsted, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The performance of the Hartree–Fock method and the three density functionals B3LYP, PBE0, and CAM-B3LYP is compared to results based on the coupled cluster singles and doubles model in predictions of the solvatochromic effects on the vertical n¿* and ¿* electronic excitation energies of acrolein....... All electronic structure methods employed the same solvent model, which is based on the combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach together with a dynamical averaging scheme. In addition to the predicted solvatochromic effects, we have also performed spectroscopic UV measurements of...... acrolein in vapor phase and aqueous solution. The gas-to-aqueous solution shift of the n¿* excitation energy is well reproduced by using all density functional methods considered. However, the B3LYP and PBE0 functionals completely fail to describe the ¿* electronic transition in solution, whereas the...

  20. Comparison of four methods used in determination of secondary shielding requirements for a teletherapy facility: a case study of 137Cs room in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of four methods often used to calculate the secondary barrier requirements is evaluated for a typical 137Cs-therapy room as a case study. The first two methods are provided by the NCRP49 and IAEA and both consider the influence of the primary, leakage and scattered radiation at a point as corrected for the workload, use and occupancy factors. A different shielding model encompasses the third method, which determines the doses as corrected for build-up effects assuming the narrow beam geometry. The fourth method is based on the calculation of the dose rates from the source activity with a relevant gamma constant. In all four methods, an appropriate transmission factor for the protective barrier in question is applied. The results show that for controlled area, the similarity in the calculated thicknesses using all four methods was nearly within 50%. For uncontrolled areas, a significant difference of magnitude up to a factor of 2.4 was found, which is mainly attributed to the non-consideration of occupancy factors in the latter two methods. Nevertheless, the non-agreement is useful to validate the specific assumptions taken for the employed shielding method. Despite being slightly high, it is concluded that the current shielding methods based on NCRP fundamentals are satisfactorily optimal in planning new therapy facilities. However for existing facilities, such as those undesigned according to the standard requirements, the combination of the four different methods with the dose rate measurements tend to offer a better cost effective shielding option. Retrospectively, additional 41-cm thick concrete is recommended for the unshielded southern barrier of the 137Cs room. Interestingly, the recommended thickness agrees to within ±5% with that estimated by using the recently recommended method by IAEA