Sample records for case history approach

  1. Case Histories of Landslide Impact: A Database-driven Approach (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo


    Fundamental understanding of landslide risk requires in-depth knowledge of how landslides have impacted society in the past (e.g., Corominas et al., 2014). A key to obtain insights into the evolution of landslide risk at single facilities of critical infrastructures are case histories of landslide impact. The purpose of such historical analyses is to inform about the site-specific interactions between landslides and land-use activity. Case histories support correlating landslide events and associated damages with multiple control variables of landslide risk, including (i) previous construction works, (ii) hazard awareness, (iii) the type of structure or its material properties, and (iv) measures of post-disaster mitigation. It is a key advantage of case histories to provide an overview of the changes in the exposure and vulnerability of infrastructures over time. Their application helps to learn more about changing patterns in risk culture and the effectiveness of repair or prevention measures (e.g., Klose et al., 2014). Case histories of landslide impact are developed on the basis of information extracted from landslide databases. The use of path diagrams and illustrated flowcharts as data modeling techniques is aimed at structuring, condensing, and visualizing complex historical data sets on landslide activity and land-use. Much of the scientific potential of case histories simply depends on the quality of available database information. Landslide databases relying on a bottom-up approach characterized by targeted local data specification are optimally suited for historical impact analyses. Combined with systematic retrieval, extraction, and integration of data from multiple sources, landslide databases constitute a valuable tool for developing case histories that enable to open a whole new window on the study of landslide impacts (e.g., Damm and Klose, 2014). The present contribution introduces such a case history for a well-known landslide site at a heavily

  2. Life History Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling


    as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...... History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy...... of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work....

  3. Writing of Patient Case History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Junying


    This paper introduces the language features, structure and contents of case history. Good patient case history contributes to correct diagnosis and formulation of a treatment plan, therefore, it is important for physicians to learn how to write case history.

  4. A "Great Roads" Approach to Teaching Modern World History and Latin American Regional Survey Courses: A Veracruz to Mexico City Case Study. (United States)

    Brown, James Seay, Jr.; Sullivan-Gonzalez, Douglass


    Outlines an innovative way of teaching "World History Since 1500" at Samford University (Birmingham, Alabama) called the "great roads" approach, centered upon important roads in a country's history. Presents the "Veracruz to Mexico City corridor" case study used to teach a Latin American modern history course. (CMK)

  5. Helicopter internal noise control: Three case histories (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Cox, C. R.


    Case histories are described in which measurable improvements in the cabin noise environments of the Bell 214B, 206B, and 222 were realized. These case histories trace the noise control efforts followed in each vehicle. Among the design approaches considered, the addition of a fluid pulsation damper in a hydraulic system and the installation of elastomeric engine mounts are highlighted. It is concluded that substantial weight savings result when the major interior noise sources are controlled by design, both in altering the noise producing mechanism and interrupting the sound transmission paths.

  6. The Use of History of Science Texts in Teaching Science: Two Cases of an Innovative, Constructivist Approach (United States)

    Koliopoulos, Dimitris; Dossis, Sotiris; Stamoulis, Efthymios


    This study proposes an empirical classification of ways to introduce elements of the history of science into science teaching, as well as describing a special way to do so characterized by the introduction of short extracts from historical texts. The aim is to motivate students to participate in problem-solving activities and to transform their…

  7. A Psycho-Reeducative Approach to History. (United States)

    Girouard, Pierre

    Discussed is the application of a psycho-reeducative approach to the teaching of history in a boarding school for bright elementary grade boys. Topics discussed include the historic process and the process of adaptation, historic activity in a reeducative context, the historic evolution of this approach (1961-1972), the integration of concepts to…

  8. Temporal Visualization for Legal Case Histories. (United States)

    Harris, Chanda; Allen, Robert B.; Plaisant, Catherine; Shneiderman, Ben


    Discusses visualization of legal information using a tool for temporal information called "LifeLines." Explores ways "LifeLines" could aid in viewing the links between original case and direct and indirect case histories. Uses the case of Apple Computer, Inc. versus Microsoft Corporation and Hewlett Packard Company to…

  9. Approaches and Methods of Periodization in Literary History

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    Dr. N. Gh. Sarli

    Full Text Available One of the most fundamental acts of historiography is to classify historical information in diachronic axis. The method of this classification or periodization shows the theoretical approach of the historian and determines the structure and the form of his history. Because of multiple criteria of analysis and various literary genres, periodization in literary history is more complicated than that of general history. We can distinguish two approaches in periodization of literary history, although these can be used together: extrinsic or social-cultural approach (based on criteria extrinsic to literature and intrinsic or formalist approach (based on criteria intrinsic to literature. Then periodization in literary history can be formulated in different methods and may be based upon various criteria: chronological such as century, decade and year; organic patterns of evolution; great poets and writers; literary emblems and evaluations of every period; events, concepts and periods of general or political history; analogy of literary history and history of ideas or history of arts; approaches and styles of language; dominant literary norms. These methods actually are used together and everyone has adequacy in special kind of literary history. In periodization of Persian contemporary literature, some methods and models current in periodization of poetry have been applied identically to periodization of prose. Periodization based upon century, decade and year is the simplest and most mechanical method but sometimes certain centuries in some countries have symbolic and stylistic meaning, and decades were used often for subdivisions of literary history, especially nowadays with fast rhythm of literary change.Periodization according to organic patterns of evolution equates the changes of literary history with the life phases of an organism, and offers an account of birth, mature and death (and sometimes re-birth of literary genres, but this method have

  10. The strange case of the Freudian case history: the role of long case histories in the development of psychoanalysis. (United States)

    Sealey, Anne


    Sigmund Freud's five long case histories have been the focus of seemingly endless fascination and criticism. This article examines how the long case-history genre developed and its impact on the professionalization of psychoanalysis. It argues that the long case histories, using a distinctive form that highlighted the peculiarities of psychoanalytic theory, served as exemplars in the discipline. In doing so, the article extends John Forrester's work on "thinking in cases" to show the practical implications of that style of reasoning. The article illustrates how the form disappeared once the theoretical basis of the movement was set. The genre never became institutionalized, although the content of the five long case histories did, because of Freud's accepted role as theoretician of psychoanalysis.

  11. [Psychiatric case history of Vincent van Gogh]. (United States)

    van Meekeren, E


    Much has been written about Vincent van Gogh's pathological condition. Most authors base their various diagnoses on the symptoms he exhibited in the last years of his life. However, Van Gogh during a much longer part of his life displayed symptoms best consistent with a borderline (personality) disorder: impulsivity, variable moods, self-destructive behaviour, fear of abandonment, an unbalanced self-image, authority conflicts and other complicated relationships. The precipitating element disturbing Vincent's psychic balance--delicate in any case due to a positive family history, malnutrition, intoxication and exhaustion and the borderline disorder--may have been his being deserted by his friend Gauguin. He (also) developed an organic psychosyndrome with psychotic and epileptic elements. The stress (due to social isolation, by his being a psychiatric patient, and by poor prospects), the intoxication going on outside the hospitals and especially also the problems relating to his brother Theo caused a downward spiral culminating in suicide.

  12. Geothermal systems: Principles and case histories (United States)

    Rybach, L.; Muffler, L. J. P.

    The classification of geothermal systems is considered along with the geophysical and geochemical signatures of geothermal systems, aspects of conductive heat transfer and regional heat flow, and geothermal anomalies and their plate tectonic framework. An investigation of convective heat and mass transfer in hydrothermal systems is conducted, taking into account the mathematical modelling of hydrothermal systems, aspects of idealized convective heat and mass transport, plausible models of geothermal reservoirs, and preproduction models of hydrothermal systems. Attention is given to the prospecting for geothermal resources, the application of water geochemistry to geothermal exploration and reservoir engineering, heat extraction from geothermal reservoirs, questions of geothermal resource assessment, and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development. A description is presented of a number of case histories, taking into account the low enthalpy geothermal resource of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary, the Krafla geothermal field in Northeast Iceland, the geothermal system of the Jemez Mountains in New Mexico, and extraction-reinjection at the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador.

  13. Lesson learned case study: What the history of ozone depelting chemical phaseout may teach us about how to approach international climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younis, S.E. [Conceptual Engineering Group, Inc., Crofton, MD (United States); Verdonik, D.P. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)


    The world approached the production phaseout of ozone depleting chemicals conservatively under the Vienna Convention. The initial tasks were to recognize the problem within the science field and make political leaders and people aware that the problem existed and was a real threat to environmental stability. Several years later, Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol to Protect the Stratospheric Ozone Layer began occurring regularly. Long term goals on production reduction levels of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons were set. Rapid acceleration in production phaseout dates were implemented worldwide, impacting industry plans to research, develop, and implement replacements. The impacts were widespread from small cleaning processes to the defense of countries. The trials and tribulations that industries such as the foam, refrigeration, air conditioning, fire protection, and manufacturing industries have gone through to meet the accelerated challenges are great. This fight is not yet over. Alternatives have yet to be fully implemented, long term effects analysis are not yet completed, budgets have not caught up with the rapid phaseout, and supplies of ODCs are dwindling quickly, as well as increasing in cost at a rapid rate. This is being felt from car owner all the way up to the national defense of countries. The paper will briefly describe the historic events and developments that occurred to industry and the users, from a political, environmental, and business perspective. From this, valuable lessons can be learned and we can plan for the future well in advance, in order that we are not caught off guard again. A very real environmental problem exists with global climate change. This is being increasingly recognized by both political leaders and citizens alike. From what we have seen with ODC phaseout, we can potentially project what course the future.

  14. Cynicism, Skepticism and History. Cioran and Veyne Cases

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    Roch Charles Little


    Full Text Available Cynicism and skepticism are nowadays conceived as curiosities in the history of philosophical thought, reduced to "eccentric" characters like Diogenes of Sinope and Pyrrho of Elis and a series of anecdotes about them.However, they have gone beyond classical antiquity to the present. Both schools of thought offer a constant challenge to the "official" thought bon ton: mocking and irreverent criticism in the case of the first and extreme relativism in the second.This paper presents an epistemological approach supporting the recovery of the cynicism and the pyrrhonian skepticism principles for the criticism of the historical thought in the modernity It is divided into two parts: the first one shows the broad features of these philosophical trends and the second examines their contributions to historical knowledge based on two cases: Cioran for the cynicism and Veyne for the skepticism.

  15. The Energy Crisis and the Media: Some Case Histories. (United States)

    Schmertz, Herbert

    The five case histories presented in this paper discuss the relations of the Mobil Oil Corporation with various news media since 1973, particularly the difficulties that the oil industry has faced in communicating with and through the news media. The case histories deal with the following topics; news stories about tankers allegedly waiting…

  16. Life History Approach: Biographies and psycho-societal Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling


    -societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning...... in intended as well as unintended learning, in formal education as well as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind......, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho...

  17. Blogging as Popular History Making, Blogs as Public History: The Singapore Case Study

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    Stephanie Ho


    Full Text Available Blogging is a twenty-first century phenomenon that has heralded an age where ordinary people can make their voices heard in the public sphere of the Internet. This article explores blogging as a form of popular history making; the blog as a public history document; and how blogging is transforming the nature of public history and practice of history making in Singapore. An analysis of two Singapore ‘historical’ blogs illustrates how blogging is building a foundation for a more participatory historical society in the island nation. At the same time, the case studies also demonstrate the limitations of blogging and blogs in challenging official versions of history.

  18. A case history: from traumatic repetition towards psychic representability. (United States)

    Bichi, Estela L


    This paper is devoted principally to a case history concerning an analytic process extending over a period of almost ten years. The patient is B, who consulted the author after a traumatic episode. Although that was her reason for commencing treatment, a history of previous traumatogenic situations, including a rape during her adolescence, subsequently came to light. The author describes three stages of the treatment, reflected in three different settings in accordance with the work done by both patient and analyst in enabling B to own and work through her infantile and adult traumatic experiences. The process of transformation of traumatic traces lacking psychic representation, which was undertaken by both members of the analytic couple from the beginning of the treatment, was eventually approached in a particular way on the basis of their respective creative capacities, which facilitated the patient's psychic progress towards representability and the possibility of working through the experiences of the past. Much of the challenge of this case involved the analyst's capacity to maintain and at the same time consolidate her analytic posture within her internal setting, while doing her best to overcome any possible misfit (Balint, 1968) between her own technique and the specific complexities of the individual patient. The account illustrates the alternation of phases, at the beginning of the analysis, of remembering and interpretation on the one hand and of the representational void and construction on the other. In the case history proper and in her detailed summing up, the author refers to the place of the analyst during the analytic process, the involvement of her psychic functioning, and the importance of her capacity to work on and make use of her countertransference and self-analytic introspection, with a view to neutralizing any influence that aspects of her 'real person' might have had on the analytic field and on the complex processes taking place within

  19. JSTOR: A Case Study in the Recent History of Scholarly Communications (United States)

    Schonfeld, Roger C.


    Purpose: To argue for the consideration from an historical perspective of technology-enabled changes in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: Uses examples from the author's history of JSTOR as a case study. Findings: That the case of JSTOR offers evidence that technology-enabled changes in higher education will have historical interest.…

  20. [Paraffinomas: history, clinical features and treatment. A case report]. (United States)

    Mounios-Perchenet, A S; Le Fourn, B; Hepner-Lavergne, D; Pannier, M


    One case of paraffinoma is reported on a 60 years old man following injections of paraffin fourty years ago. The authors recalled with this observation history of paraffin, clinical aspect and surgical treatment of the paraffinoma.

  1. Women in United States History: A Thematic Approach. (United States)

    Connor, Mary


    Outlines a thematic approach to a U.S. history survey course that focused on the struggles and achievements of women. Covers cultural images of femininity and beauty as well as political and economic issues. Includes brief biographies of Eliza Pinckey, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Alice Paul. (MJP)

  2. The Bipolar Approach: A Model for Interdisciplinary Art History Courses. (United States)

    Calabrese, John A.


    Describes a college level art history course based on the opposing concepts of Classicism and Romanticism. Contends that all creative work, such as film or architecture, can be categorized according to this bipolar model. Includes suggestions for objects to study and recommends this approach for art education at all education levels. (CFR)

  3. Drug Discovery Case History: US Spelling (United States)

    Kufahl, Peter R.; Watterson, Lucas R.


    Introduction Globally, alcohol abuse and dependence are significant contributors to chronic disease and injury and are responsible for nearly 4% of all deaths annually. Acamprosate (Campral), one of only three pharmacological treatments approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence, has shown mixed efficacy in clinical trials in maintaining abstinence of detoxified alcoholics since studies began in the 1980’s. Yielding inconsistent results, these studies have prompted skepticism. Areas Covered Herein, the authors review the preclinical studies which have assessed the efficacy of acamprosate in various animal models of alcohol dependence and discuss the disparate findings from the major clinical trials. Moreover, the authors discuss the major limitations of these preclinical and clinical studies and offer explanations for the often contradictory findings. The article also looks at the importance of the calcium moiety that accompanies the salt form of acamprosate and its relevance to its activity. Expert opinion The recent discovery that large doses of calcium largely duplicate the effects of acamprosate in animal models has introduced a serious challenge to the widely-held functional association between this drug and the glutamate neurotransmission system. Future research on acamprosate or newer pharmacotherapeutics should consider assessing plasma and/or brain levels of calcium as a correlate or mediating factor in anti-relapse efficacy. Furthermore, preclinical research on acamprosate has thus far lacked animal models of chemical dependence on alcohol, and the testing of rodents with histories of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal is suggested. PMID:25258174

  4. Rehabilitation of Navigation Lock Walls: Case Histories (United States)


    the low bidder, Pre mier Waterproofing Company, Denver, Colorado. 258. There was no device or test which co uld be used to measure the degree of...concrete to be in sound condition except for surface deterioration. Total resurfacing of the lock chamber would be for cosmetic reasons only and was not...replacement of deteriorated concrete may only be cosmetic and in many cases the appearance may not be satisfac- tory either. Damage from freezing and

  5. A psycho-societal approach to life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling


    particularly interested in the relations between the culturally mediated and the sensory/bodily aspects of experience processes because this is the boundary zones of knowledge and seat of the dynamics of learning. My psycho-societal approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain...... other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main...

  6. Breast hypoplasia and breastfeeding: a case history. (United States)

    Thorley, Virginia


    Hypoplasia, or glandular insufficiency, of the breasts is an infrequent cause of breastfeeding failure or infant failure to thrive. Early evaluation of the breasts of early identification of infant indicators can enable mothers to breastfeed while providing appropriate supplementation to facilitate satisfactory hydration and growth. A case report is presented of a highly motivated mother with minimal breast tissue who was able to soothe four of her infants at her breasts, supplying some breastmilk, while providing the bulk of their nutritional requirements by other means. At the time of writing she is tandem breastfeeding as well as providing artificial milk by bottle.

  7. The wholeness teaching in history lessons: A perspective essay from Gestalt approach to holistic approach

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    Ahmet Şimşek


    Full Text Available In these days, education researchs emphasise on learning. The importance of wholeness in learning is just realized. Because of this, the thesis that the way individuals sense the world is complete, is became more important. The studies which are emphasize on wholeness learning are Gestalt, contructivism and holistic thinking. In this study, it is claimed that teaching history will be more fruitfull by the wholeness learning approach. Because, by wholeness history teaching, it will be possible to make individuals learn meaningful, permanent and functional. For this, firstly, history teaching curriculum’s contents have to be prepared as in Annales school with a interdisipliner approach. Additionally, in the history teaching process, it is clear that a plan, aplication and evaluation which will be supported the wholeness learning are needed. At this point, in developing a history curriculum, 2005 Elemantary Social Science Curricullum approach can be appropriated. That is a tematic curriculum which takes note the chronological order. But, it is not enough to change the teaching curriculum for wholeness history teaching. First of all, teachers have to leave their traditional history perception and appropriate the wholeness approach.

  8. Contaminant source and release history identification in groundwater: A multi-step approach (United States)

    Gzyl, G.; Zanini, A.; Frączek, R.; Kura, K.


    The paper presents a new multi-step approach aiming at source identification and release history estimation. The new approach consists of three steps: performing integral pumping tests, identifying sources, and recovering the release history by means of a geostatistical approach. The present paper shows the results obtained from the application of the approach within a complex case study in Poland in which several areal sources were identified. The investigated site is situated in the vicinity of a former chemical plant in southern Poland in the city of Jaworzno in the valley of the Wąwolnica River; the plant has been in operation since the First World War producing various chemicals. From an environmental point of view the most relevant activity was the production of pesticides, especially lindane. The application of the multi-step approach enabled a significant increase in the knowledge of contamination at the site. Some suspected contamination sources have been proven to have minor effect on the overall contamination. Other suspected sources have been proven to have key significance. Some areas not taken into consideration previously have now been identified as key sources. The method also enabled estimation of the magnitude of the sources and, a list of the priority reclamation actions will be drawn as a result. The multi-step approach has proven to be effective and may be applied to other complicated contamination cases. Moreover, the paper shows the capability of the geostatistical approach to manage a complex real case study.

  9. Reconstructing medical history: historiographical features, approaches and challenges. (United States)

    Conti, A A


    Medical historiography deals with the concepts, theories, and approaches adopted in the reconstruction and discussion of the history of medicine. The expression has changed through time and according to different scholars and contexts, and it largely depends on the general standpoint from which the medicine of the past is examined. From an Evidence Based History of Medicine perspective, an accurate and complete examination of all available sources must be carried out to draw a picture of the medical theme examined, and, to reach this aim, the issue of the reliability of sources is a preliminary point to take into account. Different historiographical models adopted in the twentieth century will be discussed in this paper. The current ample discussion on the characterising features, methods and challenges of medical historiography documents the wide extent of the debate on the ways available today for the reconstruction of medical history. It also testifies to the relevance, inter-disciplinarity and remarkable vitality of the topic in current academic, scientific and social contexts. Medical and health history is an essential part of current medicine, and the study of the development of medicine through time is an extremely formative experience, which should not be confined to historians and professionals, but which, in appropriate formats and in correct methodological terms, should have full right of citizenship in current health care initiatives.

  10. A review of the decoherent histories approach to the arrival time problem in quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yearsley, James M


    We review recent progress in understanding the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, from the point of view of the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory. We begin by discussing the arrival time problem, focussing in particular on the role of the probability current in the expected classical solution. After a brief introduction to decoherent histories we review the use of complex potentials in the construction of appropriate class operators. We then discuss the arrival time problem for a particle coupled to an environment, and review how the arrival time probability can be expressed in terms of a POVM in this case. We turn finally to the question of decoherence of the corresponding histories, and we show that this can be achieved for simple states in the case of a free particle, and for general states for a particle coupled to an environment.

  11. Using History to Teach Mathematics: The Case of Logarithms (United States)

    Panagiotou, Evangelos N.


    Many authors have discussed the question why we should use the history of mathematics to mathematics education. For example, Fauvel (For Learn Math, 11(2): 3-6, 1991) mentions at least fifteen arguments for applying the history of mathematics in teaching and learning mathematics. Knowing how to introduce history into mathematics lessons is a more difficult step. We found, however, that only a limited number of articles contain instructions on how to use the material, as opposed to numerous general articles suggesting the use of the history of mathematics as a didactical tool. The present article focuses on converting the history of logarithms into material appropriate for teaching students of 11th grade, without any knowledge of calculus. History uncovers that logarithms were invented prior of the exponential function and shows that the logarithms are not an arbitrary product, as is the case when we leap straight in the definition given in all modern textbooks, but they are a response to a problem. We describe step by step the historical evolution of the concept, in a way appropriate for use in class, until the definition of the logarithm as area under the hyperbola. Next, we present the formal development of the theory and define the exponential function. The teaching sequence has been successfully undertaken in two high school classrooms.

  12. A historical perspective on the male sexual case history. (United States)

    Quallich, Susanne A


    The contemporary sexual medicine case history is grounded in the Biopsychosocial Model and its recognition that the past influences one's current interpretation of symptoms. However, the thread of this model can be found throughout the case studies of the early pioneers of sexology. These early investigators began with examinations of homosexual men, slowly moving toward awareness that male sexuality comprises a continuum, while striving to place sexual behavior in a biologic context. Their perspectives served to establish the groundwork for the emerging construct of sexuality and helped shape current methods for identification of sexual function concerns.

  13. La historia Médico legal en casos de delitos sexuales en niños -un enfoque médico forense The medical-legal history in cases of sexual assault in children. A forensic medical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Alonso Madrigal Ramírez


    Full Text Available Se ha considerado al Interrogatorio Médico Forense en casos de Delitos Sexuales en Niños como revictimizante. La Historia Médico Legal en Delitos Sexuales recoge la información necesaria para orientar el Examen Físico y para la recolección de evidencias en la víctima y en su contexto. Existen técnicas médico forenses para interrogar al niño con el afán de evitar la revictimización, entendida esta como el sufrimiento que experimentan las víctimas al promoverse una actualización del evento traumático. La Historia Médico Legal persigue objetivos diferentes al resto de los interrogatorios dentro del proceso judicial y sigue las pautas del Arte y Ciencia de la Medicina y bien implementadas no produce la revictimización del paciente.The Forensic Medical interrogation has been considered as revictimizing in cases about Sexual Assaults on Children. The Medical Legal History in Sexual Assaults meets the necessary information to guide the two main procedures: the physical examination and the gathering of evidence on the victim as well as in its context. There are forensic techniques to avoid revictimization on children during interrogation, understanding the revictimization as the suffering the victim experiences, when remembering a traumatic event during the Medical Legal Examination. The medical-legal history pursues goals that are different from those of other interrogation procedures within the judicial process, and when following the guidelines of the art and science of medicine, it well established, do not produce revictimization of the patient.

  14. Analysis of Life Histories: A State Space Approach

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    Rajulton, Fernando


    Full Text Available EnglishThe computer package LIFEHIST written by the author, is meant for analyzinglife histories through a state-space approach. Basic ideas on which the various programs have beenbuilt are described in this paper in a non-mathematical language. Users can use various programs formultistate analyses based on Markov and semi-Markov frameworks and sequences of transitions implied inlife histories. The package is under constant revision and programs for using a few specific modelsthe author thinks will be useful for analyzing longitudinal data will be incorporated in the nearfuture.FrenchLe système d'ordinateur LIFEHIST écrit par l'auteur est établi pour analyser desévénements au cours de la vie par une approche qui tient compte des états aucours du temps. Les idées fondamentales à la base des divers programmes dumodule sont décrites dans un langage non-mathématique. Le systèmeLIFEHIST peut être utilisé pour des analyses Markov et semi-Markov desséquences d’événements au cours de la vie. Le module est sous révisionconstante, et des programmes que l’auteur compte ajouter pour l'usage dedonnées longitudinales sont décrit.

  15. Approaches and species in the history of vertebrate embryology. (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick


    Recent debates about model organisms echo far into the past; taking a longer view adds perspective to present concerns. The major approaches in the history of research on vertebrate embryos have tended to exploit different species, though there are long-term continuities too. Early nineteenth-century embryologists worked on surrogates for humans and began to explore the range of vertebrate embryogenesis; late nineteenth-century Darwinists hunted exotic ontogenies; around 1900 experimentalists favored living embryos in which they could easily intervene; reproductive scientists tackled farm animals and human beings; after World War II developmental biologists increasingly engineered species for laboratory life; and proponents of evo-devo have recently challenged the resulting dominance of a few models. Decisions about species have depended on research questions, biological properties, supply lines, and, not least, on methods. Nor are species simply chosen; embryology has transformed them even as they have profoundly shaped the science.

  16. Marshall G. S. Hodgson and the Hemispheric Interregional Approach to World History. (United States)

    Burke, Edmund, III


    Maintains that Marshall Hodgson's work, "Rethinking World History," is an interregional approach to world history. Argues that his chief contributions to historical writing were his consideration of epistemological issues, his revisionist views of the history of Europe, and his vision of world history as the center of a reinvigorated…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Guajardo Soto


    Full Text Available The article highlights the need to address the history of public companies in Latin America for having played a significant role in regional development during the 20th Century, as well as for the current reappearance of these organisms in the international energy sector, for the strategic role they still play in many countries and, lastly, because decades of privatization have weakened the collective memory on these organisms, in favour of the prevailing neoliberal version which justified the sale of the public heritage. Do we have good knowledge on the history behind the importance and track record of public companies in Mexico and Latin America? How can their resistance after decades of privatizations be explained? These queries are replied in the current dossier of the Public Management Journal, which gathers a group of studies analysing the cases of Uruguay, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Brazil and Argentina between 1912 and 2012, shedding light on the entrepreneurial activities of the State under different economic models. In these countries, public companies have placed themselves in vital areas for the functioning of the economies, such as telecommunications, electricity,oil, transportation and, to a lesser extent, manufacturing. The final section is an invitation not only to read but also to initiate an agenda to analyse and allow revealing the complex history of these public organisms.

  18. Branch dependence in the "consistent histories" approach to quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, T


    In the consistent histories formalism one specifies a family of histories as an exhaustive set of pairwise exclusive descriptions of the dynamics of a quantum system. We define branching families of histories, which strike a middle ground between the two available mathematically precise definitions of families of histories, viz., product families and Isham's history projector operator formalism. The former are too narrow for applications, and the latter's generality comes at a certain cost, barring an intuitive reading of the ``histories''. Branching families retain the intuitiveness of product families, they allow for the interpretation of a history's weight as a probability, and they allow one to distinguish two kinds of coarse-graining. It is shown that for branching families, the ``consistency condition'' is not a precondition for assigning probabilities, but for a specific kind of coarse-graining.

  19. The diagnosis of turbine component degradation - case histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak S, J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Centro de Investigacio en Ingeniera y Ciencias; Garcia-Gutierrez, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas,Gerencia de Geotermia, Temixco (Mexico); Urquiza B, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Turbomaquinaria, Temixco (Mexico)


    Four case histories of steam and gas turbine components degradation identified during operation and verified during overhaul are presented. The diagnosis was carried out before the overhauls to indicate major problems to the personnel of the plants. The estimation of degrees of degradation of the steam turbine components was carried out applying simplified flow equation considering three key pressures. In the case of the gas turbine the output capacity and pressures, temperature and air and gas flow were analyzed. The results obtained during on-line analysis were confirmed by measurements of the dimensions of degraded components during an overhaul. Also, the results obtained from a sophisticated computer program proved the usefulness of the applied methods.(author)

  20. Approaches to the History of Patients: From the Ancient World to Early Modern Europe. (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael


    This chapter looks from an early modernist's perspective at some of the major questions and methodological issues that writing the history of patients in the ancient world shares with similar work on Patientengeschichte in medieval and early modern Europe. It addresses, in particular, the problem of finding adequate sources that give access to the patients' experience of illness and medicine and highlights the potential as well as the limitations of using physicians' case histories for that purpose. It discusses the doctor-patient relationship as it emerges from these sources, and the impact of the patient's point of view on learned medical theory and practice. In conclusion, it pleads for a cautious and nuanced approach to the controversial issue of retrospective diagnosis, recommending that historians consistently ask in which contexts and in what way the application of modern diagnostic labels to pre-modern accounts of illness can truly contribute to a better historical understanding rather than distort it.

  1. Social History of Medicine today – a classic approach beyond the turns of the turns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfons Labisch


    Full Text Available In the late 1960s, social history developed into an imperative approach in general historiography in Germany. Since the mid‐1970s, also social history of medicine has been developed into a comprehensive research approach. But in the 1990s, all of a sudden, social history of medicine vanished. The constructivist history of science, the linguistic‐ constructivist theories in humanities and micro‐historiographical approaches from general history prevailed. After the firstdecade of the 21st century, the innovative highlights of these developments exceeded. Just at this point, it is appropriate to ask for the genuine and permanent role of a social history of medicine. Seen from the peculiarity of medicine the social history of medicine has a genuine field of topics in the social environment of disease and health. These topics have to be treated with their own approaches and methods, derived from its reference disciplines sociology and economics.

  2. Case teaching in economics: History, practice and evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Volpe


    Full Text Available Case studies are, normally, real-world problems that might include relevant or irrelevant data, correct or incorrect analysis and that require some sort of interpretation or solution. The use of case studies has been a common feature of undergraduate studies in business and law for a long time. In recent years, the so-called “case method” has become quite popular in economics education as well since it is believed to help the development to three key objectives in economics education: the mastering of economics principles, the application of principles to reality and the systematic analysis of policy issues. Coupled with student-centred approaches to learning, the case method can prove a very effective method in helping students to achieve a deeper understanding of both economic theory and policy analysis. The article provides an account of how case studies can be effectively used in economics teaching and reviews the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of the approach.

  3. A Moderate Hermeneutical Approach to Empathy in History Education (United States)

    Retz, Tyson


    The concept of empathy in history education involves students in the attempt to think within the context of historical agents' particular predicaments. Tracing the concept's philosophical heritage to R. G. Collingwood's philosophy of history and "re-enactment doctrine", this article argues that our efforts in history…

  4. Case-control geographic clustering for residential histories accounting for risk factors and covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goovaerts Pierre


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods for analyzing space-time variation in risk in case-control studies typically ignore residential mobility. We develop an approach for analyzing case-control data for mobile individuals and apply it to study bladder cancer in 11 counties in southeastern Michigan. At this time data collection is incomplete and no inferences should be drawn – we analyze these data to demonstrate the novel methods. Global, local and focused clustering of residential histories for 219 cases and 437 controls is quantified using time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Business address histories for 268 industries that release known or suspected bladder cancer carcinogens are analyzed. A logistic model accounting for smoking, gender, age, race and education specifies the probability of being a case, and is incorporated into the cluster randomization procedures. Sensitivity of clustering to definition of the proximity metric is assessed for 1 to 75 k nearest neighbors. Results Global clustering is partly explained by the covariates but remains statistically significant at 12 of the 14 levels of k considered. After accounting for the covariates 26 Local clusters are found in Lapeer, Ingham, Oakland and Jackson counties, with the clusters in Ingham and Oakland counties appearing in 1950 and persisting to the present. Statistically significant focused clusters are found about the business address histories of 22 industries located in Oakland (19 clusters, Ingham (2 and Jackson (1 counties. Clusters in central and southeastern Oakland County appear in the 1930's and persist to the present day. Conclusion These methods provide a systematic approach for evaluating a series of increasingly realistic alternative hypotheses regarding the sources of excess risk. So long as selection of cases and controls is population-based and not geographically biased, these tools can provide insights into geographic risk factors that were not specifically

  5. Decoherent histories approach to the cosmological measure problem

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Seth


    The method of decoherent histories allows probabilities to be assigned to sequences of quantum events in systems, such as the universe as a whole, where there is no external observer to make measurements. This paper applies the method of decoherent histories to address cosmological questions. Using a series of simple examples, beginning with the harmonic oscillator, we show that systems in a stationary state such as an energy eigenstate or thermal state can exhibit decoherent histories with non-trivial dynamics. We then examine decoherent histories in a universe that undergoes eternal inflation. Decoherent histories that assign probabilities to sequences of events in the vicinity of a timelike geodesic supply a natural cosmological measure. Under reasonable conditions, such sequences of events do not suffer from the presence of unlikely statistical fluctuations that mimic reality.

  6. A Conceptual Approach to Library History: Towards a History of Open Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Miert, D.K.W.


    This article argues that Library History ought to be guided by well-contextualized questions of cultural history. It proposes one such question: that which asks after the ways in which repositories of knowledge were created, organized and used in the past. The examples that are discussed in this art

  7. A Discipline-Specific Approach to the History of U.S. Science Education (United States)

    Otero, Valerie K.; Meltzer, David E.


    Although much has been said and written about the value of using the history of science in teaching science, relatively little is available to guide educators in the various science disciplines through the educational history of their own discipline. Through a discipline-specific approach to a course on the history of science education in the…

  8. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. The consistent histories approach to loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, David A


    We review the application of the consistent (or decoherent) histories formulation of quantum theory to canonical loop quantum cosmology. Conventional quantum theory relies crucially on "measurements" to convert unrealized quantum potentialities into physical outcomes that can be assigned probabilities. In the early universe and other physical contexts in which there are no observers or measuring apparatus (or indeed, in any closed quantum system), what criteria determine which alternative outcomes may be realized and what their probabilities are? In the consistent histories formulation it is the vanishing of interference between the branch wave functions describing alternative histories -- as determined by the system's decoherence functional -- that determines which alternatives may be assigned probabilities. We describe the consistent histories formulation and how it may be applied to canonical loop quantum cosmology, describing in detail the application to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models with ...

  10. Specific Features of the Contact History of Probable Cases of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To describe the specific features of the contact history of probable cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Beijing. Methods Data of SARS cases notified from the Beijing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention (BCDC) and supplemented by other channels were collected. All the data were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology. Results ①The number of probable cases with contact history was significantly higher than the excluded cases. ②The proportion of probable cases with contact history descended with epidemic development, but this situation did not occur in health care workers (HCWs). ③The fatality rate of probable cases with contact history was significantly higher than the cases without contact history (OR=1.489). ④The proportion of probable cases with contact history was 85.86% among health care workers, which was significantly higher than that of non-health care workers (85.86% v.s. 56.44%, OR=4.69). Conclusions ①The susceptible persons with contact history may not get infected, and the contact history is just a sufficient condition of infecting SARS; ②There are 3 conceivable reasons for the descending trend of the proportion in probable cases with contact history; ③The contact history is one of the risk factors of the death of SARS cases; ④The risk of contacting with SARS among health care workers is approximately 5 times higher than that of non-HCWs.

  11. Multidisciplinary Treatment Approach in a Patient with History of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atacan Yavuz


    Full Text Available Radiotherapy in NPC patients has side effects on the dentition, which affects quality of life dramatically. This case report presents multidisciplinary dental treatment approach in a 17-year-old male patient with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, which was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The adolescent patient applied to dental hospital 4 years after the radiotherapy with aesthetic and functional problems on dentition affecting psychological, social, and physical aspects of his life. The dentition of the patient demonstrated the severe destruction as a devastating side effect of radiotherapy. With a successful multidisciplinary approach, our patient’s aesthetics, function, and self-confidence were obtained. Well-established procedures, which include preventative care and maintenance, can reduce the duration and expenses of the treatment and help in challenging the life-long complications of radiotherapy.

  12. Landscape and history: a multidisciplinary approach. Project Group Environmental History (P.G.E.H.). (United States)


    Human societies have inhabited parts of the Central European country of Austria for thousands of years. The development process shopping the landscape by this long period of human impact remains poorly understood. The present study is an attempt to research landscape history on a local scale and compares an alpine, pre-alpine and midland-village area in Austria. We have developed an appropriate concept to describe the landscape ecology features of the study areas in several stages of the past from 1733 on. The landscape analysis is based on the interpretation of different kinds of historical data (e.g., documents, maps) going back to the pre-industrial epoch, which has--at least in terms of landscape ecology--hardly been accessible until now. An important aim of the study is to localize the historical information in the landscape. Individual plots can be traced back even to the early 14th century. Based on the quality of the available historical data, the historical landscape is analysed with regard to categories such as form and intensity of land use, distribution of nutrients and water as well as the pattern of landscape elements and their ecological functions. The comparison of present stages with former ones yields detailed knowledge on the dynamics and stability of landscape structure. This approach allows present-day land units to be identified as a result of long-term development going back to Medieval times. The primary aim of the study is to analyze factors that bring about change or resist it by creating stability. We therefore examine factors coupling landscape structure, agricultural production and population development. For this reason, we have studied the people and the evidence for their labor over a period of 400 years (1400-1800). Besides demographic data of the 18th and 19th century, historical registrar material has been collected; it enabled the land tenures to be reconstructed from the 15th to the 19th century. This type of data is a valuable

  13. Using History to Teach Mathematics: The Case of Logarithms (United States)

    Panagiotou, Evangelos N.


    Many authors have discussed the question "why" we should use the history of mathematics to mathematics education. For example, Fauvel ("For Learn Math," 11(2): 3-6, 1991) mentions at least fifteen arguments for applying the history of mathematics in teaching and learning mathematics. Knowing "how" to introduce history into mathematics lessons is a…

  14. Historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage

    Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler......Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler...

  15. [Pertinence of the Elias approach in history of medicine]. (United States)

    Wenger, Alexandre


    Norbert Elias has notably influenced the historiography of the Early Modern Period since the 1970s. In the course of the borrowing of his concepts by different disciplines, the uniqueness of these concepts was nevertheless altered. This article aims to show that Elias' 'Sociology of configurations' proposed an original point of view on Longue Durée in history. It thus suggests: 1) to re-evaluate the historical dimension of Elias' sociology; 2) to question eventual contributions to present-day research to the history of medicine and health.

  16. [Life history interview--an effective approach to building positive doctor-patient relations and guide to proper end of life home care]. (United States)

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Yamanashi, Irotomo; Miyamori, Tadashi


    The acclaimed psychiatrist, Arthur Kleinman, proposed Life History Interview as a way of enabling doctors to truly listen to a patient who is suffering from chronic disease. Two cases of terminally ill patients were carried out with Life History Interview. When speaking of the end of life home care, Life History Interview is an effective approach in building positive doctor-patient relations in the early stages. It truly allows for a good foundation for providing a proper care.

  17. The consistent histories approach to loop quantum cosmology (United States)

    Craig, David A.


    We review the application of the consistent (or decoherent) histories formulation of quantum theory to canonical loop quantum cosmology. Conventional quantum theory relies crucially on “measurements” to convert unrealized quantum potentialities into physical outcomes that can be assigned probabilities. In the early universe and other physical contexts in which there are no observers or measuring apparatus (or indeed, in any closed quantum system), what criteria determine which alternative outcomes may be realized and what their probabilities are? In the consistent histories formulation it is the vanishing of interference between the branch wave functions describing alternative histories — as determined by the system’s decoherence functional — that determines which alternatives may be assigned probabilities. We describe the consistent histories formulation and how it may be applied to canonical loop quantum cosmology, describing in detail the application to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models with scalar matter. We show how the theory may be used to make definite physical predictions in the absence of “observers”. As an application, we demonstrate how the theory predicts that loop quantum models “bounce” from large volume to large volume, while conventional “Wheeler-DeWitt”-quantized universes are invariably singular. We also briefly indicate the relation to other work.

  18. A Jigsaw Puzzle Approach To Learning History in Introductory Psychology. (United States)

    Krauss, Judith


    Believes that it may be daunting for some students to learn about the history of psychology. Describes a teaching strategy that uses jigsaw puzzles to teach about the historical terms of structuralism, functionalism, and gestalt psychology. Finds that students performed better on test questions related to these three concepts after using this…

  19. Theorizing Learning in Life History - a psycho-societal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling


      Taking it's point of departure in some critical remarks to some of the most important recent theorizing of learning, this article presents an alternative framework for theorizing learning as a subjective process in a social and societal context, based in life history research. Key concepts...

  20. Historical Myths or Mythological History: A Fresh Approach to Understand the History of Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Pranab Jyoti Sarma


    Full Text Available This paper carries out a critical review of the trends of historical writings in Assam. The historiographical study reveals that the beginning of the historical phase was, in fact, late in the North East region. Moreover, in many of these historical writings, the importance of the local histories of the communities of the region was ignored. The author highlights the fact that a pan-Indian history for the region may not be authentic enough to understand the cultural dynamics of the complex society of the Northeast. The author also focuses on corroborating ‘proper’ historical source material for reconstructing the history of the region rather than deriving inferences from mythology and legends. However, the importance of recent trends in historiography such as selective utilisation of oral traditions, folklores and memory studies has been emphasised. An alternative and more precise periodisation of the historical phase has been provided which does not, however, project any clear marker between periods and eras but emphasises on slow and steady transformations. Importance of archaeological sources and material evidence has been kept in mind while deriving periodical divisions. Relooking at the history of the Koches, Kacharis has been emphasised.

  1. Using History To Teach Scientific Method: The Case of Argon (United States)

    Giunta, Carmen J.


    The history of science is full of stories that exhibit scientific methodology to an exemplary degree. Such stories can be vehicles for the teaching of scientific thought to non-science majors in general-education science courses, particularly if they do not involve much technical background and are told in ordinary language. This paper illustrates the kind of lessons that can be gleaned from such stories by examining the discovery of argon, an episode replete with examples of how scientists pursue knowledge. Lord Rayleigh's use of multiple methods to determine the density of nitrogen; his persistent tracking down of a small but real anomaly in those measurements; his and William Ramsay's eventual realization that the anomaly was due to a previously unknown but relatively plentiful component of the atmosphere, an inert, monatomic gas; and Ramsay's subsequent successful search for other members of the inert gas family all illustrate the scientific approach to knowledge. This story can be presented to students in Rayleigh's words, annotated to supply background material and to pose questions.

  2. Swelling packer technology : case histories in open hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkens, A. [Easywell, Woodlands, TX (United States)


    This paper presented case histories of swelling packer technology open hole innovations. Challenges such as fluid flow management and the restriction of solids entering the well bore were discussed. Other challenges included the need to reduce well construction costs, long-term reliability, production optimization methods and positive economic returns. In order to simplify production methods, minimize pay zone damage and eliminate moving parts, it is advisable to return to the simpler open hole well-bore method. Zonal isolation issues were discussed. The role of oil swelling packer was described with reference to its flexibility attributes such as the fact that rubber swells in hydrocarbons, activates in oil but not pure water, and creates an effective seal in open hole. Swell packer for oil-based mud was examined, along with details of successful applications. Functionality issues were discussed. The advantages of swell pack for oil-based mud is that it is rugged, self-repairing and has no environmental impact. It also has a good track record and is more flexible than concrete, more durable than Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (HNBR) and regains integrity after failure. Various well construction advances, completion advances and global installations were discussed. Reservoir, well construction and completion challenges were reviewed. Economic challenges were discussed. Various features of the Constrictor swell packer, which enables annular fluid flow management, were presented. The Oil Selector, a product that enables automatic water control, was also reviewed. 7 figs.

  3. [Methodological approach to the history of medical hydrology]. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J A


    An historical study of medical hydrology allows us to outline a clear social history in Spain. The author identifies three groups of people living and working in and around thermal baths; he suggests studying relations between doctors and patients, therms economics, the social life in baths and the organization of people living around them. A correct use of handwritten and printed sources describing various aspects of thermal life can help us to understand an always interesting phenomenon.

  4. An intelligent approach to machine component health prognostics by utilizing only truncated histories (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Tao, Laifa; Fan, Huanzhen


    Numerous techniques and methods have been proposed to reduce the production downtime, spare-part inventory, maintenance cost, and safety hazards of machineries and equipment. Prognostics are regarded as a significant and promising tool for achieving these benefits for machine maintenance. However, prognostic models, particularly probabilistic-based methods, require a large number of failure instances. In practice, engineering assets are rarely being permitted to run to failure. Many studies have reported valuable models and methods that engage in maximizing both truncated and failure data. However, limited studies have focused on cases where only truncated data are available, which is common in machine condition monitoring. Therefore, this study develops an intelligent machine component prognostics system by utilizing only truncated histories. First, the truncated Minimum Quantization Error (MQE) histories were obtained by Self-organizing Map network after feature extraction. The chaos-based parallel multilayer perceptron network and polynomial fitting for residual errors were adopted to generate the predicted MQEs and failure times following the truncation times. The feed-forward neural network (FFNN) was trained with inputs both from the truncated MQE histories and from the predicted MQEs. The target vectors of survival probabilities were estimated by intelligent product limit estimator using the truncation times and generated failure times. After validation, the FFNN was applied to predict the machine component health of individual units. To validate the proposed method, two cases were considered by using the degradation data generated by bearing testing rig. Results demonstrate that the proposed method is a promising intelligent prognostics approach for machine component health.

  5. Educational Research--History of Education a Curious Case? (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce; Grosvenor, Ian


    The article begins with an exploration of the current state of history of education by drawing on published reviews of history of education, thematic analysis of journal content, and mapping of postgraduate study. It then highlights "moments of insecurity". These are characterised by a particular discourse that frames the future of the discipline…

  6. Why history matters: The place of historical consciousness in a multidimensional approach towards biblical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise C. Jonker


    Full Text Available Since the linguistic turn of New Criticism and the advent of reader-response approaches in the previous century, the category of history has come under pressure in biblical interpretation. New developments in general historiography have also emphasised that the past is forever past, and that only constructions of the past remain. These developments bring many to the conclusion that the past offers no assistance in the interpretation process. In my paper I would like to re-emphasise that �historical consciousness� does not mean an anachronistic clinging to something which no longer exists, but rather refers to the ability to sense the multidimensionality of interpretation, particularly in the case of ancient biblical texts.

  7. Clinical Approach in Orbital Cellulitis Cases: Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altan Atakan Özcan


    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the etiological factors, diagnosis, follow-up and treatment procedures in cases of orbital cellulitis. Ma te ri al and Met hod: A retrospective review was performed on medical records of patients with orbital cellulitis treated between 2009 and 2011 in our clinic. The patients were studied for age, ophthalmologic examination features, laboratory and radiology results, treatment modalities and the response to these treatments. Re sults: Eleven patients (7 male, 4 female having an average age of 9.7 years (6 months-25 years participated in the study. All patients had eyelid oedema, hyperemia and ocular pain; with chemosis in 3, gaze restriction in 6, relative afferent pupillary defect and proptosis in 4 cases. Orbital cellulitis was observed to occur secondary to paranasal sinusitis in 10 patients (90.9% and 1 patient had only history of superior respiratory tract infection. Sinus infection was localized in ethmoid and maxillary sinuses in all except one case. Laboratory tests showed leukocytosis in 8 patients. Surgical drainage was performed in 7 of 8 patients with abscess formation observed with radiological imaging. The remainder of the patients were followed with sole medical treatment. All patients recovered without any vision loss or life-threatening complication. Dis cus si on: Orbital cellulitis cases must be followed with radiologic imaging for any complication that may occur and patients with abscess should be evaluated for surgical drainage besides antimicrobial treatment.(Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 284-7

  8. Confederate Immigration to Brazil: A Cross-Cultural Approach to Reconstruction and Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Esposito


    Full Text Available Given the interconnectedness of the contemporary world, it is imperative that historians place their studies within a global context, connecting domestic and foreign events in order to offer a thorough picture of the past. As historians, we should aim at exploring transnational connections in our published research and incorporating the same methodologies in the classroom, as well as in the field of Public History. Cross-cultural collaboration and transnational studies are challenging, but exceptionally effective approaches to developing a comprehensive understanding of the past and connecting people to their history. Important recent scholarship has placed the American Civil War in a broad international and transnational context. This article argues for the importance of continuing this trend, pointing to a unique case study: the confederate migration to Brazil during and after the Civil War. This episode can help us understand the international impact of the War in the western hemisphere. These confederates attempted to preserve some aspects of their Southern society by migrating to Brazil, one of the remaining slaveholding societies in the hemisphere at the time. Moreover, the descendants that remained in Brazil have engaged in a unique process of remembering and commemorating their heritage over the years. Exploring this migration will enhance Civil War and Reconstruction historiography, as well as commemoration, heritage and memory studies.

  9. Regionalism in history, 1890-1945 : The cultural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, H.J.


    Only recently the region has become an object of analysis again. Particularly the cultural approach, focusing on the process of regional identity formation, is producing remarkable results. Nevertheless, the strength of regionalism in many European countries during the period 1890-1945, which has be

  10. Mining and Visualizing Family History Associations in the Electronic Health Record: A Case Study for Pediatric Asthma. (United States)

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Melton, Genevieve B; Wasserman, Richard C; Rosenau, Paul T; Howard, Diantha B; Sarkar, Indra Neil


    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease and has seen increasing prevalence worldwide. While there is existing evidence of familial and other risk factors for pediatric asthma, there is a need for further studies to explore and understand interactions among these risk factors. The goal of this study was to develop an approach for mining, visualizing, and evaluating association rules representing pairwise interactions among potential familial risk factors based on information documented as part of a patient's family history in the electronic health record. As a case study, 10,260 structured family history entries for a cohort of 1,531 pediatric asthma patients were extracted and analyzed to generate family history associations at different levels of granularity. The preliminary results highlight the potential of this approach for validating known knowledge and suggesting opportunities for further investigation that may contribute to improving prediction of asthma risk in children.

  11. A Mathematic Approach to Nitrogen Fixation Through Earth History (United States)

    Delgado-Bonal, Alfonso; Martín-Torres, F. Javier

    Nitrogen is essential for life as we know it. According to phylogenetic studies, all organisms capable of fixing nitrogen are prokaryotes, both bacteria and archaea, suggesting that nitrogen fixation and ammonium assimilation were metabolic features of the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all organisms. At present time the amount of biologically fixed nitrogen is around 2 × 1{0}^{13} g/year (Falkowski 1997), an amount much larger than the corresponding to the nitrogen fixed abiotically (between 2. 6 ×109 and 3 × 1{0}^{11} g/year) (Navarro-González et al. 2001). The current amount of nitrogen fixed is much higher than it was on Earth before the Cambrian explosion, where the symbiotic associations with leguminous plants, the major nitrogen fixer currently, did not exist and nitrogen was fixed only by free-living organisms as cyanobacteria. It has been suggested (Navarro-González et al. 2001) that abiotic sources of nitrogen fixation during Early Earth times could have an important role triggering a selection pressure favoring the evolution of nitrogenase and an increase in the nitrogen fixation rate. In this study we present briefly a method to analyze the amount of fixed nitrogen, both biotic and abiotic, through Earth's history.

  12. [Compound odontoma with history of trauma: report of a case]. (United States)

    Sámano Iturría, G; Cedeño Pacheco, E


    Clinical and roentgenographical features are described for a compound odontoma in a ten-year old male with a history of trauma in the anterior region of the face. Diagnostical methods and surgical handling are discussed, with a review of the pertinent literature.

  13. NATO in History and Civics Textbooks: The West German Case. (United States)

    Fritzsche, K. Peter


    When analyzing the degree to which a balanced presentation of NATO is achieved in West German history and civics textbooks, two standards may be used: first, inclusion of information on NATO's formation, aims, strategies and achievements; and, second, inclusion of the criticisms that have been leveled at NATO from various points of view. This…

  14. United States -- Mexican joint ventures: A case history approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, N.L.; Chidester, R.J.; Hughes, K.R.; Fowler, R.A.


    Because the Mexican government has encouraged investment in Mexico by increasing the percentage of ownership of a Mexican business that a US company can hold, joint ventures are more attractive now than they had been in the past. This study provides preliminary information for US renewable energy companies who are interested in forming a joint venture with a Mexican company. This report is not intended to be a complete reference but does identifies a number of important factors that should be observed when forming a Mexican joint venture: (1)Successful joint ventures achieve the goals of each partner. (2)It is essential that all parties agree to the allocation of responsibilities. (3)Put everything in writing. (4)Research in depth the country or countries in which you are considering doing business.

  15. Tourism Planning: A Case Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Khan


    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the tourism marketing and attraction strategies adopted by various countries. A case study based approach is adopted in this study. On the basis of investigation of tourism development strategies adopted by various countries, suggestions are also made at the end. These suggestions are aimed to increase visitors our tourists’ base in a country. These suggestions can be used by any country to increase visitors or tourists. Future directions are also given at the end.

  16. Number theory an approach through history from Hammurapi to Legendre

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, André


    Number Theory or arithmetic, as some prefer to call it, is the oldest, purest, liveliest, most elementary yet sophisticated field of mathematics. It is no coincidence that the fundamental science of numbers has come to be known as the "Queen of Mathematics." Indeed some of the most complex conventions of the mathematical mind have evolved from the study of basic problems of number theory. André Weil, one of the outstanding contributors to number theory, has written an historical exposition of this subject; his study examines texts that span roughly thirty-six centuries of arithmetical work — from an Old Babylonian tablet, datable to the time of Hammurapi to Legendre’s Essai sur la Théorie des Nombres (1798). Motivated by a desire to present the substance of his field to the educated reader, Weil employs an historical approach in the analysis of problems and evolving methods of number theory and their significance within mathematics. In the course of his study Weil accompanies the reader into the worksho...

  17. The Mystery of the Blue Death: A Case Study in Epidemiology and the History of Science (United States)

    Muench, Susan Bandoni


    This case study introduces students to John Snow, considered to be one of the founders of both epidemiology and anesthesiology, and a remarkable figure in the history of science. Although historical case studies are often less popular with students than contemporary issues (Herreid 1998), a number of aspects of this case make it attractive to…

  18. Discovery and geology of the Desert Peak geothermal field: a case history. Bulletin 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit, W.R.; Hiner, J.E.; Forest, R.T.


    A case history of the exploration, development (through 1980), and geology of the Desert Peak geothermal field is presented. Sections on geochemistry, geophysics, and temperature-gradient drilling are included.

  19. [The history of spondylolisthesis. The nineteenth century: early case reports, terminology, etiology and pathogenesis]. (United States)

    Schlenzka, D


    The author describes the history of research and development of knowledge on lumbar spondylolisthesis. Based on the available literature, early case reports, creation of the terminology and etiological concepts are presented.

  20. A Course on Humanistic Creativity in Later Life: Literature Review, Case Histories, and Recommendations. (United States)

    Nuessel, Frank; Van Stewart, Arthur; Cedeno, Aristofanes


    Presents case histories of late-life creativity in literature (May Sarton), painting (Marcel Duchamp), music (Leos Janacek), dance (Martha Graham), and theatre (Jessica Tandy). Offers suggestions for a course on humanistic creativity in later life. (Contains 74 references.) (SK)

  1. The Unheralded History of the Lemon Grove Desegregation Case (United States)

    Madrid, E. Michael


    In 1931, the Southern California community of Lemon Grove served as the unlikely stage for a dramatic and significant civil rights court case. A group of Mexican and Mexican-American parents and their children won a major victory in the battle against school segregation and the notion of separate but equal facilities. The case, now commonly…

  2. Operations research at CSIR: A brief history through cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HW Ittmann


    Full Text Available Apart from work in the mining industry during the 1950s, the first real Operations Research (OR group in South Africa was established at CSIR in the early 1960s. Those initially involved in this group played a significant role in establishing OR at various universities in South Africa. The OR group at CSIR did, however, continue and today the group still exists. This paper presents a brief history of this group and endeavours to provide a glimpse of some of the projects conducted over the many years since its establishment.

  3. [History, pedagogy and psychiatry in Saxony in the XIXth century (a propos the approaches to the Schreber family)]. (United States)

    Skurnik, N; Bourguignon, A


    History and Psychiatry are two different disciplines, but very often psychiaters have, for the sake of their discipline, used historical elements; and the reverse is true. The most frequent approach is to look into history in order to understand Psychiatry, the reverse being unusual. Few examples of psychiaters or historians approaching psychiatry in order to understand history can be provided: Sparta, Luther and Nazism. Some of these historians and psychiaters have studied still more limited phenomenons and in this field, we must say that the Schreber's case, as well as the education of D. G. Schreber, has been the most studied case. We think that these studies mostly carried up by psychiaters or psychologists, have left aside something essential: the part of D. G. Schreber in the German national revival. There has been an exaggeration of his part of pedagogue and above all an exaggeration of the causalities between all this, nazism and the 20th century. Therefore, what we are trying to do by studying the education of D. G. Schreber as well as the psychosis of D. P. Schreber is an attempt of clarification, an attempt that will take into account the period in which they lived.

  4. Current signature analysis for condition monitoring of cage induction motors industrial application and case histories

    CERN Document Server

    Thomson, William T


    This book has 13 chapters and contains a unique database of 50 industrial case histories on theapplication of MCSA to diagnose broken rotor bars or unacceptable levels of airgap eccentricity in cage induction motors with ratings from 127 kW (170 H.P.) to 10,160 kW (13,620 H.P.). There are also unsuccessful case histories which is another unique feature of the book. The case studies also illustrate the effects of mechanical load dynamics downstream of the motor on the interpretation of current signatures. A number of cases are presented where abnormal operation of the driven loadwas diagnosed.

  5. Management of dental implant fractures. A case history. (United States)

    Al Quran, Firas A M; Rashan, Bashar A; Al-Dwairi, Ziad N


    The widespread use of endosseous osseointegrated implants to replace missing natural teeth increases the chances of implant complications and failures, despite the high initial success rate reported in the literature. Implant fracture is one possible complication that results in ultimate failure of the dental implant. Such a complication poses a management crisis even for the most experienced clinician. This article reports on a case of implant fracture, its possible causes, and how the case was managed.

  6. Multiculturalism in Technology-Based Education: Case Studies on ICT-Supported Approaches (United States)

    Garcia-Penalvo, Francicso Jose


    Our differences in language, cultures, and history around the world play a vital role in the way we learn. As technology-based education continues to be used worldwide, there is an ever growing interest in how multiculturalism comes into effect. Multiculturalism in Technology-Based Education: Case Studies on ICT-Supported Approaches explores the…

  7. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie


    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor...... but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma...... probands who reported 199 cases of melanoma in relatives, of which 135 cases where in first degree relatives. We confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in 77% of all relatives, and in 83% of first degree relatives. In 181 probands we validated the negative family history of melanoma in 748 first degree...

  8. Turner syndrome case report: A multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Thiesen


    Full Text Available Turner syndrome (TS was fi rst reported in the literature in 1938 by Laurel Thatcher Ulrich and Henry Turner. This chromosomal alteration only affects female individuals, who have monosomy of the X chromosome. Only one X chromosome is functional, while the other sexual chromosome is either absent or abnormal. The main oral characteristics are transverse defi ciency of the maxilla, mandibular retrognathism, anterior open bite, cleft palate, premature dental eruption, and alterations in the shape, size and thickness of teeth, with an increased number of roots on the fi rst and second premolars. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical case of a patient with TS undergoing orthodontic treatment, and to emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to patients with TS.

  9. The case for an emergentist approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertus van Rooy


    Full Text Available This paper sets out an argument in favour of emergentism as an alternative theoretical paradigm to nativism, arguing that it offers a coherent, evidence-based account of language structure, language acquisition, language evolution, and language change. A number of key tenets of the nativist approach are summarised first, including the nature of the presumed complexity of language, the poverty of the input argument against the learnability of language, the assumption of parsimony, the view of language as innate, biological faculty, and the view of the primary function of language as cognitive representation rather than communication. This is followed by a presentation of the emergentist alternative, which is centred on the notion of the grammatical construction as central unit in the emergentist approach. The properties of constructions, and how they can come into being with recourse to only domain-general cognitive processes, are presented, before the implications of this view for language structure, language acquisition, language evolution and language change are discussed. Additional points of difference with the nativist position are highlighted, including the assumptions of non-parsimonious storage and the centrality of communicative interaction in the ontogenetic and phylogenetic development of language. Throughout the presentation, arguments are illustrated with reference to aspects of complementation in the Germanic languages. The article concludes with a detailed case study of the wh-extraction construction, drawing on an analysis of corpus data from Afrikaans, to demonstrate how the construction-based, emergentist approach leads to an insightful analysis of a well-known construction, without having to make extensive assumptions about the underlying linguistic complexity and the need for innate mechanisms to enable the acquisition of such a complex construction.

  10. Dating reservoir filling - a case history from the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhullar, Abid G.; Karlsen, Dag A.; Backer-Owe, Kristian [Oslo Dept. of Geology, Petroleum Geochemistry Program, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Seland, Reinert T. [Aker Geo Petroleum Services asa, Hillevaag (Norway); Le Tran, Khanh [Elf Aquitaine Production, CSTJF, Pau, 64 (France)


    Secondary petroleum inclusions in reservoir sandstones in the Froy Field and the Rind Discovery are used in combination with burial history modelling, reservoir oils and core extracts to shed light on how and when these structures received their hydrocarbons charges. Analysis of normal alkane and biomarker distributions in these three data sets: fluid inclusions, core extracts and drill stem tests (DSTs) provide information on the changes in organic facies and maturity of petroleum in the various reservoir strata over time. The geochemistry of core extracts and DST oils in Rind and Froy reveal that the maturity of the Rind petroleum system is higher and also of slightly less anoxic facies compared to the oil present in the Froy system. Biodegraded oil is found today in a small sub-compartment of the Froy Field. Using the burial history of the Froy and the assumption that biodegradation effectively comes to a halt at 70-80DegC, we tentatively conclude that the filling of this sub-compartment and the biodegradation off the oil must have occurred earlier than 30-40 m.y.b.p. and before oil from the Upper Jurassic Draupne shales more recently homogeneously filled the main Froy structure. At 30-40 m.y.b.p., the Froy structure was at a depth of 1.5-2 km, compared to the present depth of 3.5-4 km, and it is more than likely that neither the Heather nor the Draupne Formations were mature in the paleo-drainage area of the field at this time. Still, the stratigraphically deeper Dunlin Formation could have been mature and the geochemical signatures of the now biodegraded oil correlates with known signatures from the Dunlin Formation in this region. In the Rind Discovery, no fluorescent petroleum inclusions are observed in K-feldspar overgrowths. However, the number of inclusions in quartz and plagioclase is larger than that observed in the shallower Froy Field. From the mean homogenisation temperatures of the petroleum inclusions, which are close to the present reservoir

  11. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science (United States)

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau; Rabinowitz, Mitchell


    How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of domain, age, and previous experience with content on the ways students approach questioning across history and science texts. In 3 experiments, 3rd-, 8th-, and 10th-grade students in large…

  12. Unified approach for determining the enthalpic fictive temperature of glasses with arbitrary thermal history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Potuzak, M.; Mauro, J. C.;


    We propose a unified routine to determine the enthalpic fictive temperature of a glass with arbitrary thermal history under isobaric conditions. The technique is validated both experimentally and numerically using a novel approach for modeling of glass relaxation behavior. The technique is applic...

  13. A Time Sequence-Oriented Concept Map Approach to Developing Educational Computer Games for History Courses (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Yang, Kai-Hsiang; Chen, Jing-Hong


    Concept maps have been recognized as an effective tool for students to organize their knowledge; however, in history courses, it is important for students to learn and organize historical events according to the time of their occurrence. Therefore, in this study, a time sequence-oriented concept map approach is proposed for developing a game-based…

  14. Cooperative Learning about Nature of Science with a Case from the History of Science (United States)

    Wolfensberger, Balz; Canella, Claudia


    This paper reports a predominantly qualitative classroom study on cooperative learning about nature of science (NOS) using a case from the history of science. The purpose of the research was to gain insight into how students worked with the historical case study during cooperative group work, how students and teachers assessed the teaching unit,…

  15. Mathematical representations in science: a cognitive-historical case history. (United States)

    Tweney, Ryan D


    The important role of mathematical representations in scientific thinking has received little attention from cognitive scientists. This study argues that neglect of this issue is unwarranted, given existing cognitive theories and laws, together with promising results from the cognitive historical analysis of several important scientists. In particular, while the mathematical wizardry of James Clerk Maxwell differed dramatically from the experimental approaches favored by Michael Faraday, Maxwell himself recognized Faraday as "in reality a mathematician of a very high order," and his own work as in some respects a re-representation of Faraday's field theory in analytic terms. The implications of the similarities and differences between the two figures open new perspectives on the cognitive role of mathematics as a learned mode of representation in science.

  16. Approaching the Problem of Time with a Combined Semiclassical-Records-Histories Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward


    I approach the Problem of Time and other foundations of Quantum Cosmology using a combined histories, timeless and semiclassical approach. This approach is along the lines pursued by Halliwell. It involves the timeless probabilities for dynamical trajectories entering regions of configuration space, which are computed within the semiclassical regime. Moreover, the objects that Halliwell uses in this approach commute with the Hamiltonian constraint, H: [H, O] = 0. This approach has not hitherto been considered for models that also possess nontrivial linear constraints, Lin. This paper carries this out for some concrete relational particle models (RPM's). If also [Lin, O] = 0 - the Kuchar observables condition - the constructed objects are Dirac observables. Moreover, this paper shows that the problem of Kuchar observables is explicitly resolved for 1- and 2-d RPM's. Then as a first route to Halliwell's approach for nontrivial linear constraints that is also a construction of Dirac observables, I consider theor...

  17. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Case report and family history. (United States)

    Ries, F; Ferster, A; Rieux-Laucat, F; Biwer, A; Dicato, M


    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disease caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis and is characterized by non-malignant lymphoproliferation, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune manifestations and increased risk of both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most forms of the disease are due to germ line mutations of the FAS gene and manifest during the first years of life with fluctuating lymphadenopathies, hemolysis, immune thrombocytopenia. During the second decade of life disease manifestations improve spontaneously but autoimmune problems still occur and there is an increased risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy. We describe a typical case of ALPS in a now 44 year old man, followed since the age of 2 for disease manifestations that were unclear at the beginning.

  18. The neurosyphilis is not history. A case presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erélido Hernández Valero


    Full Text Available The syphilis is a sexual transmitted disease, caused by the pal Treponema that has had an increment with the appearance of the syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency disease starting from 1980. In 1906 this germ was observed in the human cerebrospinal fluid, in this way it opened up the neurosiphilis diagnosis. Is presented the case of a patient who began in a sudden way with a two-phase convulsive square followed by a state of coma of several days, then appeared fever, astenia, left hemiparesis. He was entered and disorientation stigmas, nape rigidity and fever emerged of up to 39oC, twelve days later He was received in neurology room where, after a series of studies, he was diagnosed with neurosyphilis.

  19. History of medical informatics in europe - a short review by different approach. (United States)

    Mihalas, George; Zvarova, Jana; Kulikowski, Casimir; Ball, Marion; van Bemmel, Jan; Hasman, Arie; Masic, Izet; Whitehouse, Diane; Barber, Barry


    The panel intended to collect data, opinions and views for a systematic and multiaxial approach for a comprehensive presentation of "History of Medical Informatics", treating both general (global) characteristics, but emphasizing the particular features for Europe. The topic was not only a subject of large interest but also of great importance in preparing a detailed material for celebration of forty years of medical informatics in Europe. The panel comprised a list of topics, trying to cover all major aspects to be discussed. Proposals of staging the major periods of medical informatics history were also discussed.

  20. History-sensitive versus future-sensitive approaches to security in distributed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario; Nielson, Flemming


    We consider the use of aspect oriented techniques as a flexible way to deal with security policies in distributed systems. Recent work suggests to use aspects for analysing the future behaviour of programs and to make access control decisions based on this; this gives the flavour of dealing...... with information flow rather than mere access control. We show in this paper that it is beneficial to augment this approach with history based components as is the traditional approach in reference monitor based approaches to mandatory access control. Our developments are performed in an aspect...

  1. [Electrical burns in children. 3 years of case histories]. (United States)

    Caneira, E; Serafim, Z; Duarte, R; Leal, M J


    The Burn Unit of Dona Estefânia Hospital admitted a total of 454 patients from January 1992 to January 1995, 24 of these patients suffered from electric shock. Of these 24 patients 3 suffered burns in the mouth, 15 in one or both hands and 6 multiple burns. In 19 patients the burns were up to 1%. A description is made of 5 cases, male children between the ages of 9 and 13 years, which were deemed severe. The incidents occurred outdoors with different voltages and in activities considered of ludic or experimental nature: two on the roof of a house, two with railway cables and one with an electrical cable in a port zone. The burnt areas vary between 4% and 70%, all of them 2nd and 3rd degree, with hospitalization lasting from 36 to 116 days. In addition to early and coordinated medical and rehabilitative treatment, according to individual needs, a description is also made of the cutaneous sequelae (deforming cicatrices, bridles), neurologic and psychologic sequelae, with emphasis on a patient who underwent amputation of the lower left leg and 4th and 5th ranges of the right foot. It was concluded that measures should be taken in education and legislation to prevent these accidents. Relevance is given to the need for a multidisciplinary team and specialized center for the treatment of these patients.

  2. A Consensus Tree Approach for Reconstructing Human Evolutionary History and Detecting Population Substructure (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chi; Blelloch, Guy; Ravi, R.; Schwartz, Russell

    The random accumulation of variations in the human genome over time implicitly encodes a history of how human populations have arisen, dispersed, and intermixed since we emerged as a species. Reconstructing that history is a challenging computational and statistical problem but has important applications both to basic research and to the discovery of genotype-phenotype correlations. In this study, we present a novel approach to inferring human evolutionary history from genetic variation data. Our approach uses the idea of consensus trees, a technique generally used to reconcile species trees from divergent gene trees, adapting it to the problem of finding the robust relationships within a set of intraspecies phylogenies derived from local regions of the genome. We assess the quality of the method on two large-scale genetic variation data sets: the HapMap Phase II and the Human Genome Diversity Project. Qualitative comparison to a consensus model of the evolution of modern human population groups shows that our inferences closely match our best current understanding of human evolutionary history. A further comparison with results of a leading method for the simpler problem of population substructure assignment verifies that our method provides comparable accuracy in identifying meaningful population subgroups in addition to inferring the relationships among them.

  3. New approaches within the history and theory of medicine and their relevance for homeopathy. (United States)

    Schmidt, Josef M


    Conventional sciences have brought forth a wealth of knowledge and benefits, but they have not always been clear and precise about their legitimate scope and methodological limitations. In contrast, new and critical approaches in modern sciences question and reflect their own presuppositions, dependencies, and constraints. Examples are quantum physics, theory and history of science, as well as theory and history of medicine, sociology, and economics. In this way, deprecative dogmatism and animosity amongst sciences ought to be lessened, while the field opens up for each science to redefine its appropriate place in society. This would appear to be a chance for homeopathy, as new approaches, especially within the social and economic sciences, suggest that being a follower of Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) may have advantages and privileges that conventional medicine seems to be lacking and whose relevance was overlooked during the rise of economic thinking in the last two centuries.

  4. The introduction history of invasive garden ants in Europe: Integrating genetic, chemical and behavioural approaches


    Boomsma Jacobus J; Kronauer Daniel JC; Drijfhout Falko P; Ugelvig Line V; Pedersen Jes S; Cremer Sylvia


    Abstract Background The invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus, is the most recently detected pest ant and the first known invasive ant able to become established and thrive in the temperate regions of Eurasia. In this study, we aim to reconstruct the invasion history of this ant in Europe analysing 14 populations with three complementary approaches: genetic microsatellite analysis, chemical analysis of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and behavioural observations of aggression behaviour. We eva...

  5. A Case of Recurrent Skin Abscesses: A Conundrum Solved after Obtaining a Thorough Sexual History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego P. Peralta


    Full Text Available Background. Despite the improvement in patient-physician communication techniques, sexuality and sexual health continue to be challenging areas for discussion during a clinical encounter. Most people are not prepared to discuss sexual matters openly as it can be perceived as negative or inappropriate. Consequently, an incomplete health assessment can result in delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Case Report. We present a 33-year-old woman who developed recurrent left breast abscesses. She required multiple incision and drainage procedures in the operating room followed by antimicrobial therapy. Although she always had an initial improvement with this approach, she continued to have recurrences and development of new abscesses in other body areas. The polymicrobial nature of her recurrences prompted an extensive and costly workup to determine the nature of her condition. The cause was finally elucidated when a thorough sexual history was obtained. Poor hygiene practices during her sexual encounters were considered the cause of her recurrent abscesses. After medical therapy and modification of her sexual practices, she has not developed new recurrences for more than two years. Conclusion. Discussions on sexuality and sexual health are important parts of any clinical encounter, yet frequently forgotten or avoided. Becoming aware of their importance would avoid delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis.

  6. Single-Case Research Methods: History and Suitability for a Psychological Science in Need of Alternatives. (United States)

    Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; López-López, Wilson


    This paper presents a historical and conceptual analysis of a group of research strategies known as the Single-Case Methods (SCMs). First, we present an overview of the SCMs, their history, and their major proponents. We will argue that the philosophical roots of SCMs can be found in the ideas of authors who recognized the importance of understanding both the generality and individuality of psychological functioning. Second, we will discuss the influence that the natural sciences' attitude toward measurement and experimentation has had on SCMs. Although this influence can be traced back to the early days of experimental psychology, during which incipient forms of SCMs appeared, SCMs reached full development during the subsequent advent of Behavior Analysis (BA). Third, we will show that despite the success of SCMs in BA and other (mainly applied) disciplines, these designs are currently not prominent in psychology. More importantly, they have been neglected as a possible alternative to one of the mainstream approaches in psychology, the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST), despite serious controversies about the limitations of this prevailing method. Our thesis throughout this section will be that SCMs should be considered as an alternative to NHST because many of the recommendations for improving the use of significance testing (Wilkinson & the TFSI, 1999) are main characteristics of SCMs. The paper finishes with a discussion of a number of the possible reasons why SCMs have been neglected.

  7. Taxonomy and why history of science matters for science: a case study. (United States)

    Hamilton, Andrew; Wheeler, Quentin D


    The history of science often has difficulty connecting with science at the lab-bench level, raising questions about the value of history of science for science. This essay offers a case study from taxonomy in which lessons learned about particular failings of numerical taxonomy (phenetics) in the second half of the twentieth century bear on the new movement toward DNA barcoding. In particular, it argues that an unwillingness to deal with messy theoretical questions in both cases leads to important problems in the theory and practice of identifying taxa. This argument makes use of scientific and historical considerations in a way that the authors hope leads to convincing conclusions about the history of taxonomy as well as about its present practice.

  8. History and Philosophy of Science through Models: The Case of Chemical Kinetics. (United States)

    Justi, Rosaria; Gilbert, John K.


    A greater role for the history and philosophy of science in science education can only be realized if it is based on both a credible analytical approach--such as that of Lakatos--and if the evolution of a sufficient number of major themes in science is known in suitable detail. Considers chemical kinetics as an example topic. Contains 62…

  9. Extended Brugge benchmark case for history matching and water flooding optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Chen, Y.; Leeuwenburgh, O.; Oliver, D.S.


    The Brugge benchmark case designed for the SPE Applied Technology Workshop (ATW) held in Brugge in June 2008 has proven to be valuable for testing and comparing methods of history matching, production optimization and closed-loop optimization by its extensive use in literature. Key features that con

  10. Teaching History with Comic Books: A Case Study of Violence, War, and the Graphic Novel (United States)

    Decker, Alicia C.; Castro, Mauricio


    In this essay, the authors present a case study that demonstrates how graphic novels can be utilized in the history classroom. More specifically, they discuss the benefits (and challenges) of using comic books to teach undergraduates about war and violence. While much of their discussion focuses on the historical particularities of Uganda, their…

  11. History Places: A Case Study for Relational Database and Information Retrieval System Design (United States)

    Hendry, David G.


    This article presents a project-based case study that was developed for students with diverse backgrounds and varied inclinations for engaging technical topics. The project, called History Places, requires that student teams develop a vision for a kind of digital library, propose a conceptual model, and use the model to derive a logical model and…

  12. An Amphibious Being: How Maritime Surveying Reshaped Darwin's Approach to Natural History. (United States)

    Sponsel, Alistair


    This essay argues that Charles Darwin's distinctive approach to studying distribution and diversity was shaped by his face-to-face interactions with maritime surveyors during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836). Introducing their hydrographic surveying methods into natural history enabled him to compare fossil and living marine organisms, to compare sedimentary rocks to present-day marine sediments, and to compare landscapes to submarine topology, thereby realizing Charles Lyell's fanciful ambition for a superior form of geology that might be practiced by an "amphibious being." Darwin's theories of continental uplift, coral reef formation, and the origin of species all depended on his amphibious natural history. This essay contributes to our understanding of theorizing in nineteenth-century natural history by illustrating that specific techniques of observing and collecting could themselves help to generate a particular theoretical orientation and, indeed, that such practical experiences were a more proximate source of Darwin's "Humboldtian" interest in distribution and diversity than Alexander von Humboldt's writings themselves. Darwin's debt to the hydrographers became obscured in two ways: through the "funneling" of credit produced by single-authorship publication in natural history and the "telescoping" of memory by which Darwin's new theories made him recall his former researches as though he had originally undertaken them for the very purpose of producing the later theory.

  13. [Proliferative diabetic retinopathy -- therapeutic approach (clinical case)]. (United States)

    Burcea, M; Muşat, Ovidiu; Mahdi, Labib; Gheorghe, Andreea; Spulbar, F; Gobej, I


    We present the case of a 54 year old pacient diagnosed with neglected insulin dependent diabetes and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Surgery was recommended and we practiced posterior vitrectomy, endolaser and heavy silicone oil endotamponade. Post-operative evolution was favorable.

  14. The Development of Dalton's Atomic Theory as a Case Study in the History of Science: Reflections for Educators in Chemistry (United States)

    Viana, Helio Elael Bonini; Porto, Paulo Alves


    The inclusion of the history of science in science curricula--and specially, in the curricula of science teachers--is a trend that has been followed in several countries. The reasons advanced for the study of the history of science are manifold. This paper presents a case study in the history of chemistry, on the early developments of John…

  15. The Utilization of Local History in Teaching American Religious History: A Gilded Age and Progressive Era North Dakota Case Study (United States)

    Price, Christopher Neal


    Teachers of college-level courses on American religious history generally leave out the importance of local and regional histories when telling the story of religion in America. The study of local history provides a fertile ground for understanding broad national trends in a local context. This dissertation focuses upon a little-studied religious…



    Casier, Koen; Verbrugge, Sofie; Lannoo, Bart; Van Ooteghem, Jan; Demeester, Piet


    For most European operators, there is more value in upgrading their existing infrastructure than installing a new Fibre-to-the-Home (FTTH) network. One approach to improving the FTTH business case could be to use an holistic approach, tackling the business case on those three fronts - strategic geo-marketing, synergetic installation and detailed operational modelling. This will not only improve the viability of the business case of FTTH, but could also lead to an earlier FTTH deployment and h...

  17. Graeco-Roman case histories and their influence on Medieval Islamic clinical accounts. (United States)

    Alvarez Millan, C


    The medieval Islamic medical tradition was the direct heir of Classical and Hellenistic medicine thanks to an unprecedented movement of translation into Arabic, commentaries and systematizations of Greek scientific texts. In the process of assimilation, not only theoretical principles, but also literary models of presenting medical knowledge were adopted, amongst them the case history. Since the clinical account can be used as a tool for medical instruction as well as an instrument for professional self-promotion, this study seeks to investigate which purpose most motivated Islamic physicians, and to demonstrate the extent to which they were influenced by the stylistic patterns which served them as a model. This article comprises an analysis of the context, literary devices and purpose of case histories of the Epidemics, Rufus of Ephesos and Galen, and compares them with those by the tenth-century Islamic physician Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Zakariya al-Razi. Author of the largest number of case histories preserved within the medieval Islamic medical literature, al-Razi's clinical records constitute an instrument with which to study and expand medical knowledge as well as providing useful material for students' medical training. Although al-Razi fused elements from the sources which served him as a model, he did not emulate Galen's use of the clinical history to assert himself in order to gain authority and prestige, but remained faithful to the Hippocratic essence.

  18. A case-control study and analyze the epidemiological importance risk of family history of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac


    Full Text Available We have conducted a case-control study to analyze the epidemiological importance risk of family history of psoriasis. The retrospective study was done on 1236 patients diagnosed with psoriasis on clinical and histopathological grounds, between 2004-2011, in an Out-patient Clinic in North-Eastern part of Romania.The sex ratio of psoriasis was 1.18:1 (male patients 54.13%, female patients 45.87%, median age at the diagnosis was 29.34±15.24SD; family history of psoriasis (by declaration was 29.53% (Tabl. I.

  19. On the validity of the case-time-control design for autocorrelated exposure histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Weeke, Peter


    The case-time-control design is an extension of the case-crossover design capable of handling time trends in the exposure of the general population. Time-invariant confounders are controlled for by the design itself. The idea is to compare the exposure status of a person in one or several reference...... periods during which no event occurred with the exposure status of the same person in the index period where the event occurred. By comparing case-crossover results in cases to case-crossover results in controls, the exposure-outcome association can be estimated by conditional logistic regression. We...... review the mathematical assumptions underlying the case-time-control design and examine sensitivity to deviations from the assumed independence of within-individual exposure history. Results from simulating various scenarios suggest that the design is quite robust to deviations from this model assumption...

  20. Teaching Medieval Music Today: New Approaches to Paleography and Music History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesarino Ruini


    Full Text Available Besides a tendency to abstractness, inherent in the technical nature of the subject itself, a common problem in the teaching of medieval music history is how to awaken the interest of learners in matters that are so far back in time as to have nothing in common with modern sensibility. Referring to the introduction of the staff by Guido of Arezzo in the 11th century, the article tries to explain how, by aptly combining chronologically organized descriptions of facts with a basic study of documents (that is, by adopting the rudiments of the research methods used by expert historians, students can be encouraged to reconstruct history with a strict method. This approach also sheds light on the reasons why men and women of the past adopted certain innovations or kept certain traditions alive.

  1. An Integrative Psychotherapy Approach to Foster Community Engagement and Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study Illustration. (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Whitesel, Frankie; Lysaker, Paul H


    This case study illustrates the use of a long-term integrative psychotherapy approach with a middle- aged man with chronic schizophrenia and a mood disorder. The case of "Holst" describes a man with a history of insecure attachment and trauma who later went on to contract a serious chronic illness, precipitating the onset of psychotic symptoms, depression, and chronic suicidal ideation, resulting in multiple hospitalizations. Combining metacognition-oriented therapy with elements of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychiatric rehabilitation, this approach fostered significantly improved community functioning and attainment of personal goals over time. Through the journey of therapy, the patient also developed a more coherent narrative about his life, established a stable sense of self, and became an active agent in the world. This case illustration demonstrates that these three different approaches can be used in a sequential and complementary fashion to foster recovery in the midst of serious physical and mental illness.

  2. Methodologically Sound: Evaluating the Psychometric Approach to the Assessment of Human Life History [Reply to Copping, Campbell, and Muncer, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio José Figueredo


    Full Text Available Copping, Campbell, and Muncer (2014 have recently published an article critical of the psychometric approach to the assessment of life history (LH strategy. Their purported goal was testing for the convergent validation and examining the psychometric structure of the High-K Strategy Scale (HKSS. As much of the literature on the psychometrics of human LH during the past decade or so has emanated from our research laboratory and those of close collaborators, we have prepared this detailed response. Our response is organized into four main sections: (1 A review of psychometric methods for the assessment of human LH strategy, expounding upon the essence of our approach; (2 our theoretical/conceptual concerns regarding the critique, addressing the broader issues raised by the critique regarding the latent and hierarchical structure of LH strategy; (3 our statistical/methodological concerns regarding the critique, examining the validity and persuasiveness of the empirical case made specifically against the HKSS; and (4 our recommendations for future research that we think might be helpful in closing the gap between the psychometric and biometric approaches to measurement in this area. Clearly stating our theoretical positions, describing our existing body of work, and acknowledging their limitations should assist future researchers in planning and implementing more informed and prudent empirical research that will synthesize the psychometric approach to the assessment of LH strategy with complementary methods.

  3. Enuresis in children: a case based approach. (United States)

    Baird, Drew C; Seehusen, Dean A; Bode, David V


    Enuresis is defined as intermittent urinary incontinence during sleep in a child at least five years of age. Approximately 5% to 10% of all seven-year-olds have enuresis, and an estimated 5 to 7 million children in the United States have enuresis. The pathophysiology of primary nocturnal enuresis involves the inability to awaken from sleep in response to a full bladder, coupled with excessive nighttime urine production or a decreased functional capacity of the bladder. Initial evaluation should include a history, physical examination, and urinalysis. Several conditions, such as constipation, obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, chronic kidney disease, and psychiatric disorders, are associated with enuresis. If identified, these conditions should be evaluated and treated. Treatment of primary monosymptomatic enuresis (i.e., the only symptom is nocturnal bed-wetting in a child who has never been dry) begins with counseling the child and parents on effective behavioral modifications. First-line treatments for enuresis include bed alarm therapy and desmopressin. The choice of therapy is based on the child's age and nighttime voiding patterns, and the desires of the child and family. Referral to a pediatric urologist is indicated for children with primary enuresis refractory to standard and combination therapies, and for children with some secondary causes of enuresis, including urinary tract malformations, recurrent urinary tract infections, or neurologic disorders.

  4. History and Technical Approaches and Considerations for Ablative Surgery for Epilepsy. (United States)

    Sinha, Saurabh; Danish, Shabbar F


    The history of epilepsy surgery is generally noted to have begun in 1886 with Victor Horsley's first report of craniotomies for posttraumatic epilepsy. With increased understanding of brain function and development of electroencephalographic methods, nonlesional epilepsy began to be treated with resection in the 1950s. Methodological improvements and increased understanding of pathophysiology followed, and the advent of stereotaxy and ablative technology in the 1960s and 1970s heralded a new era of minimally invasive, targeted procedures for lesional and nonlesional epilepsy. Current techniques combine stereotactic methods, improved ablative technologies, and electroencephalographic methods for a multidisciplinary approach to the neurosurgical treatment of epilepsy.

  5. Social learning in Models and Cases - an Interdisciplinary Approach (United States)

    Buhl, Johannes; De Cian, Enrica; Carrara, Samuel; Monetti, Silvia; Berg, Holger


    Our paper follows an interdisciplinary understanding of social learning. We contribute to the literature on social learning in transition research by bridging case-oriented research and modelling-oriented transition research. We start by describing selected theories on social learning in innovation, diffusion and transition research. We present theoretical understandings of social learning in techno-economic and agent-based modelling. Then we elaborate on empirical research on social learning in transition case studies. We identify and synthetize key dimensions of social learning in transition case studies. In the following we bridge between more formal and generalising modelling approaches towards social learning processes and more descriptive, individualising case study approaches by interpreting the case study analysis into a visual guide on functional forms of social learning typically identified in the cases. We then try to exemplarily vary functional forms of social learning in integrated assessment models. We conclude by drawing the lessons learned from the interdisciplinary approach - methodologically and empirically.

  6. The nature and dynamics of world religions: a life-history approach. (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Chevallier, Coralie


    In contrast with tribal and archaic religions, world religions are characterized by a unique emphasis on extended prosociality, restricted sociosexuality, delayed gratification and the belief that these specific behaviours are sanctioned by some kind of supernatural justice. Here, we draw on recent advances in life history theory to explain this pattern of seemingly unrelated features. Life history theory examines how organisms adaptively allocate resources in the face of trade-offs between different life-goals (e.g. growth versus reproduction, exploitation versus exploration). In particular, recent studies have shown that individuals, including humans, adjust their life strategy to the environment through phenotypic plasticity: in a harsh environment, organisms tend to adopt a 'fast' strategy, pursuing smaller but more certain benefits, while in more affluent environments, organisms tend to develop a 'slow' strategy, aiming for larger but less certain benefits. Reviewing a range of recent research, we show that world religions are associated with a form of 'slow' strategy. This framework explains both the promotion of 'slow' behaviours such as altruism, self-regulation and monogamy in modern world religions, and the condemnation of 'fast' behaviours such as selfishness, conspicuous sexuality and materialism. This ecological approach also explains the diffusion pattern of world religions: why they emerged late in human history (500-300 BCE), why they are currently in decline in the most affluent societies and why they persist in some places despite this overall decline.

  7. Case history report on East Mesa and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, DG.; Sanyal, S.K.


    Well log analysis as applied to the geothermal industry is one of the areas of technology in great need of further development. One means of improving log analysis technology is to study case histories of the past uses of log analysis as applied to specific fields. The project described in this report involved case history studies on two well-known geothermal areas in North America: the East Mesa field in California and the Cerro Prieto field in Mexico. Since there was considerably more pertinent material available on East Mesa, a major part of the effort on this project was devoted to studying the East Mesa field. One particular problem that first came to attention when studying the Cerro Prieto data was the difficulty in determining actual formation temperature at the time of logging. Since the temperature can have a significant effect on well log readings, an accurate temperature determination was considered to be important.

  8. The introduction history of invasive garden ants in Europe: integrating genetic, chemical and behavioural approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Line; Drijfhout, Falko; Kronauer, Daniel;


    BACKGROUND: The invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus, is the most recently detected pest ant and the first known invasive ant able to become established and thrive in the temperate regions of Eurasia. In this study, we aim to reconstruct the invasion history of this ant in Europe analysing 14...... populations with three complementary approaches: genetic microsatellite analysis, chemical analysis of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and behavioural observations of aggression behaviour. We evaluate the relative informative power of the three methodological approaches and estimate both the number...... of independent introduction events from a yet unknown native range somewhere in the Black Sea area, and the invasive potential of the existing introduced populations. RESULTS: Three clusters of genetically similar populations were detected, and all but one population had a similar chemical profile. Aggression...

  9. Approaches and Technologies for Systems Integration: A Case Study at the Federal University of Lavras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARCIA, C. M.


    Full Text Available This case study aims to analyze the integration's approaches and technologies among information systems and services in an academic environment. It has been done a study on the integration history in the Federal University of Lavras. The data had been gathered via questionnaires and documentation analysis. In this analysis, 4 distinct phases were specified. Besides, the advantages and disadvantages of each phase were discussed. The main contribution of this work is the analysis of different integration approaches among information systems and other services.

  10. Case history studies of energy conservation improvements in the dairy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Presented are ten case histories about energy-efficient technologies implemented by the dairy industry. For each case is presented: the name and location of the company, and its product line; energy consumption and costs at the plant before and after implementation of energy-conserving technology; the factors that prompted the investment; and product quality as a result of the new equipment. The measures presented are: refrigeration compressor replacement, turbulators in boiler tubes, stack exchange on boilers, reverse osmosis, six-effect evaporator, multi-effect evaporator with thermal vapor recompressor, spray dryer heat recovery, efficient compressor operations, mechanical vapor recompression evaporator, preheated spray dryer air with recoverable waste heat. (LEW)

  11. Excessive daydreaming: a case history and discussion of mind wandering and high fantasy proneness. (United States)

    Schupak, Cynthia; Rosenthal, Jesse


    This case study describes a patient presenting with a long history of excessive daydreaming which has caused her distress but is not incident to any other apparent clinical psychiatric disorders. We have treated this patient for over 10 years, and she has responded favorably to fluvoxamine therapy, stating that it helps to control her daydreaming. Our patient, and other psychotherpists, have brought to our attention other possible cases of excessive daydreaming. We examine the available literature regarding daydreaming, mind wandering, and fantasy proneness relative to current cognitive and neuroanatomical models of executive attention.

  12. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings The worst case approach

    CERN Document Server

    Takewaki, Izuru; Fujita, Kohei


    Engineers are always interested in the worst-case scenario. One of the most important and challenging missions of structural engineers may be to narrow the range of unexpected incidents in building structural design. Redundancy, robustness and resilience play an important role in such circumstances. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings: The worst case approach discusses the importance of worst-scenario approach for improved earthquake resilience of buildings and nuclear reactor facilities. Improving the Earthquake Resilience of Buildings: The worst case approach consists of two parts. The first part deals with the characterization and modeling of worst or critical ground motions on inelastic structures and the related worst-case scenario in the structural design of ordinary simple building structures. The second part of the book focuses on investigating the worst-case scenario for passively controlled and base-isolated buildings. This allows for detailed consideration of a range of topics includin...

  13. Growth and resilience of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations: a cross-case analysis of organizational histories. (United States)

    Kimberlin, Sara E; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J


    Knowledge of organizational history is important for recognizing patterns in effective management and understanding how organizations respond to internal and external challenges. This cross-case analysis of 12 histories of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations contributes an important longitudinal perspective on organizational history, complementing the cross-sectional case studies that dominate the existing research on nonprofit organizations. The literature on organizational growth, including lifecycle models and growth management, is reviewed, along with the literature on organizational resilience. Based on analysis of the 12 organizational histories, a conceptual model is presented that synthesizes key factors in the areas of leadership, internal operations, and external relations that influence organizational growth and resilience to enable nonprofit organizations to survive and thrive over time. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal examples from the organizational histories illustrate the conceptual map. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research on nonprofit organizational history.

  14. An Object-Based Approach for Fire History Reconstruction by Using Three Generations of Landsat Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Katagis


    Full Text Available In this study, the capability of geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA in the reconstruction of the recent fire history of a typical Mediterranean area was investigated. More specifically, a semi-automated GEOBIA procedure was developed and tested on archived and newly acquired Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS, Thematic Mapper (TM, and Operational Land Imager (OLI images in order to accurately map burned areas in the Mediterranean island of Thasos. The developed GEOBIA ruleset was built with the use of the TM image and then applied to the other two images. This process of transferring the ruleset did not require substantial adjustments or any replacement of the initially selected features used for the classification, thus, displaying reduced complexity in processing the images. As a result, burned area maps of very high accuracy (over 94% overall were produced. In addition to the standard error matrix, the employment of additional measures of agreement between the produced maps and the reference data revealed that “spatial misplacement” was the main source of classification error. It can be concluded that the proposed approach can be potentially used for reconstructing the recent (40-year fire history in the Mediterranean, based on extended time series of Landsat or similar data.

  15. The introduction history of invasive garden ants in Europe: Integrating genetic, chemical and behavioural approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomsma Jacobus J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus, is the most recently detected pest ant and the first known invasive ant able to become established and thrive in the temperate regions of Eurasia. In this study, we aim to reconstruct the invasion history of this ant in Europe analysing 14 populations with three complementary approaches: genetic microsatellite analysis, chemical analysis of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and behavioural observations of aggression behaviour. We evaluate the relative informative power of the three methodological approaches and estimate both the number of independent introduction events from a yet unknown native range somewhere in the Black Sea area, and the invasive potential of the existing introduced populations. Results Three clusters of genetically similar populations were detected, and all but one population had a similar chemical profile. Aggression between populations could be predicted from their genetic and chemical distance, and two major clusters of non-aggressive groups of populations were found. However, populations of L. neglectus did not separate into clear supercolonial associations, as is typical for other invasive ants. Conclusion The three methodological approaches gave consistent and complementary results. All joint evidence supports the inference that the 14 introduced populations of L. neglectus in Europe likely arose from only very few independent introductions from the native range, and that new infestations were typically started through introductions from other invasive populations. This indicates that existing introduced populations have a very high invasive potential when the ants are inadvertently spread by human transport.

  16. Individual perception and cultural development: Foucault's 1954 approach to mental illness and its history. (United States)

    Joranger, Line


    In his 1954 book Mental Illness and Personality Foucault combines the subjective experience of the mentally ill person with a sociocultural historical approach to mental illness and suggests that there exists a reciprocal connection between individual perception and sociocultural development. This article examines the ramifications of these connections in Foucault's 1954 works and the connection with his later historical works. The article also examines the similarities between Foucault's 1954 thoughts and contemporary intellectual thought, such as those outlined in Maurice Merleau-Ponty's existential phenomenology and in Gaston Bachelard and Georges Canguilhem's historical epistemology. In sum, my study shows that Foucault's historical analysis began long before his 1961 dissertation History of Madness. It also shows that, more than announcing the "death" of the subject, Foucault's historical analysis may have contributed to saving it.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Estevam Lima de Almeida*


    Full Text Available This article appoachs the similarities between history and literature under its origins’ focus. The appearing of historygrafy, happened in Old Greece, up to the similarities and differences of Heródoto and Tucídides in account to the myth. This intersection point upon the edge is the main concern of our assay. Reviewing the discussion about the “tropos of speech” we propose one of the feasibles metodologics readings of a literary documentation – Euripides Tragedy “ João Estevam Lima de AlmeidaPsicanálise & Barroco em revista. v.4, n.2:, 82-119 dez. 2006. 119The Baccantes” – and its tribute to the work of the historian of ancient times, to finally approach some reflexions around the proficable discussion about two disciplines.


    Costa, Rossella; Frezza, Giulia


    The origin of epigenetics has been traditionally traced back to Conrad Hal Waddington's foundational work in 1940s. The aim of the present paper is to reveal a hidden history of epigenetics, by means of a multicenter approach. Our analysis shows that genetics and embryology in early XX century--far from being non-communicating vessels--shared similar questions, as epitomized by Thomas Hunt Morgan's works. Such questions were rooted in the theory of epigenesis and set the scene for the development of epigenetics. Since the 1950s, the contribution of key scientists (Mary Lyon and Eduardo Scarano), as well as the discussions at the international conference of Gif-sur-Yvette (1957) paved the way for three fundamental shifts of focus: 1. From the whole embryo to the gene; 2. From the gene to the complex extranuclear processes of development; 3. From cytoplasmic inheritance to the epigenetics mechanisms.

  19. Spacetime Coarse Grainings in the Decoherent Histories Approach to Quantum Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wallden, P


    We investigate the possibility of assigning consistent probabilities to sets of histories characterized by whether they enter a particular subspace of the Hilbert space of a closed system during a given time interval. In particular we investigate the case that this subspace is a region of the configuration space. This corresponds to a particular class of coarse grainings of spacetime regions. We consider with the arrival time problem and the problem of time in reparametrization invariant theories as for example in canonical quantum gravity. Decoherence conditions and probabilities for those application are derived. The resulting decoherence condition does not depend on the explicit form of the restricted propagator that was problematic for generalizations such as application in quantum cosmology. Closely related is the problem of tunnelling time as well as the quantum Zeno effect. Some interpretational comments conclude, and we discuss the applicability of this formalism to deal with the arrival time problem.

  20. Forms of Discourse and the Sciences of the Mind: Luria, Sacks, and the Role of Narrative in Neurological Case Histories. (United States)

    Journet, Debra


    Discusses two sets of neurological case histories: A. R. Luria's "The Man with a Shattered World," and Oliver Sack's "Awakenings." Argues that these histories display two paradigmatic explanations for the mind/brain relation, and that the movement from one paradigm to another also necessitates a movement to different forms of…

  1. Case histories portraying different methods of installing liners for verticle barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, G.K. [Hayward Baker Inc., Odenton, MD (United States); Crockford, R.M. [Keller Colcrete Ltd., Wetherby, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Achhorner, F.N. [Slurry Walls, Inc., Irving, TX (United States)


    The installation of liners for vertical barriers is difficult and has been a learning experience for every contractor making the attempt. Soil stratigraphy and hydrogeologic conditions can vary over short distances, creating a variety of problems. This is particularly so when working near landfills and documentation of the as-built condition is poor. Successful installation requires detailed planning and knowledge of what to expect, as well as alternate plans for potential problems. Several successful methods of panel connection will be presented as well as a variety of installation techniques. Project case histories will be reviewed, highlighting the challenges associated with specific construction techniques.

  2. CT cold areas in both putamens in cases with history of perinatal asphyxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaki, Asayo; Maruyama, Hiroshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))


    CT bilaterally showed a cold area in the putamen of 5 infants with cerebral palsy who had had asphyxia at birth. The etiology was discussed, and 4 of the cases were clinically studied. All four patients had convulsive tetraplegia, or convulsive bilateral paralysis with the element of athetosis. Three of them had a history of infantile epilepsy, accompanied by abnormal ocular movement. Two patients with tetraplegia showed marked hypotonia of the trunk in ventral support (Landau). Impairment of the bilateral putamens in the abnormal muscle tone was inferred.

  3. Evolution of Terrorist Network using Clustered approach: A Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    In the paper we present a cluster based approach for terrorist network evolution. We have applied hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach to 9/11 case study. We show that, how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small clusters and result in a fully...... evolved network. This method of network evolution can help intelligence security analysts to understand the structure of the network....

  4. Antimesenteric jejunal diverticulosis after a remote history of necrotising enterocolitis: a case report. (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosebel; Schneble, Erica; Mino, Jeffrey; Stallion, Anthony


    Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare, acquired pathology of the small bowel. While most patients are asymptomatic, the condition is difficult to diagnose. It may present with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhoea, bloating and complications including malabsorption, diverticulitis, bleeding, intestinal obstruction or perforation. This is a case presentation of a 27-year-old woman with a history of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) requiring surgical resection as a premature newborn who presented with recurrent abdominal pain and was found to have several small bowel diverticula intraoperatively. She underwent resection with complete resolution of symptoms over a 2-year follow-up. This is the first case report to suggest that small bowel diverticular disease as a long-term complication of NEC may result in chronic morbidity in long-term survivors.

  5. Case history studies of energy conservation improvements in the meat industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Presented are case histories for ten energy-efficient technologies implemented by the meat industry. For each case is presented: the name and location of the plant, name of plant employee contact with address and telephone number, energy consumption and costs at the plant before and after implementation of energy-conserving technology, description of the investment decision process, and changes in production or product quality as a result of the new equipment. The measures presented are: continuous rendering, high-pressure return on the boiler, heat recovery from condensate return and flash steam, continuous whole blood processing, preheating of process water with recovered refrigeration waste heat, continuous rendering of poultry scraps, electrical stimulation of beef, preheating and storing process water with recovered refrigeration waste heat, microcomputer control system, and housekeeping improvements. (LEW)

  6. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigdeli, Tim B; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin;


    of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N...... of schizophrenia that might be specific to particular family history subgroups. However, consideration of a polygenic risk score indicated a significant enrichment among family history positive cases for common allelic effects. Familial illness might, therefore, represent a more heritable form of schizophrenia...

  7. Coevolution: a history of the macroevolutionary approach to studying host-parasite associations. (United States)

    Klassen, G J


    The year 1991 marked 100 yr of coevolution research. I have reviewed the first 90 yr of this history. Three chronological phases are apparent: recognition of predictable associations among hosts and their parasites; search for patterns of association and their underlying causes, emphasizing either correlated biogeographic patterns or correlated phylogenies; and development of objective and repeatable methodologies for reconstructing and interpreting these patterns of association. Von Ihering, an outspoken anti-Darwinian, was undoubtedly the first to recognize and make use of predictable host-parasite associations. Kellogg and Fahrenholz, however, had more profound influence on subsequent generations, but in different directions. Kellogg attempted to meld natural selection with speciation by isolation. He also considered host specificity a component of coevolution, important but variable. His work laid the foundation for future research concentrated on biogeographic interpretations of host-parasite relationships. This emphasis and Metcalf's failed attempts to provide adequate mechanisms for reconstructing phylogenies reduced the biogeographic approach to an empirical research program in the hands of Manter. Fahrenholz, on the other hand, exposed to a strong anti-Darwinian sentiment, emphasized the importance of strict host specificity. This led to Eichler's formulation of the first 3 coevolutionary rules and the conclusion that host specificity was not a component but the cause of coevolution and ultimately the tautology inherent in the phylogenetic approach. All had to rely on 1 assumption, that host and parasite phylogenies were reflected in the taxonomic hierarchy. Hennig criticized this assumption and provided a method whereby phylogenies are reconstructed independently. Brooks melded this new phylogenetic method (cladistics) with an equally new biogeographic method (vicariance biogeography), providing the foundations for the modern macroevolutionary approach to

  8. Is a positive family history predictive for recurrent acute otitis media in children? An evidence-based case report. (United States)

    Albersen, Monique; Bulatović, Maja; Lindner, Sanneke H; van Stiphout, Feikje; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; Schilder, Anne G M; Rovers, Maroeska M


    In this evidence-based case report, we studied the clinical question: Is a positive family history of acute otitis media (AOM) predictive for recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) in children between zero and two years of age? The search yielded 3178 articles, of which only two were relevant and had a high validity regarding our clinical question. Neither of these two studies provided the final answer to our clinical question because they did not report stratified absolute risks for a positive family history. Fortunately, we were able to study the absolute risks in one of the two studies. The absolute risk of rAOM without distinguishing family history was 33 percent; the risk was 27 percent for children without a family history and 45 percent for children with a positive family history. Family history increases the absolute risk, but not in a way that it will help to predict rAOM accurately.

  9. Haptic and Olfactory Experiences of the Perth Foreshore: Case Studies in Sensory History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saren Reid


    Full Text Available The liminal zone where a city meets ‘the water’s edge’ is a place of heightened sensory experiences. In Australia, these settings have been continually reshaped and experienced, individually and collectively, both before and after European settlement, and so they provide a physical domain for reinterpreting Australian history. In Perth, Western Australia, at the turn of the twentieth century, two recreational buildings on the foreshore, the Perth City Baths (1898–1914 and the Water Chute (1905–unknown, promoted new aquatic leisure practices that provided heightened sensory experiences of the Swan River and the city foreshore. These buildings are examined from the perspective of ‘sensory history’, an alternative form of cultural and environmental analysis that has been garnering interest from a range of disciplines over the past several decades (see, for example, the work of Constance Classen, Alain Corbin, David Howes and Mark M Smith. Sensory history seeks to reveal through historical inquiry the informative and exploratory nature of the senses in specific contexts. The potential value of sensory history to studies of built and natural environments lies in drawing attention away from the overweening and frequently generalising dominance of ‘the visual’ as a critical category in humanities research. The case studies explore how evolving swimming practices at the City Baths and ‘shooting the chutes’ at the Water Chute provided novel, exciting and sometimes unpleasant haptic and olfactory experiences and consider how changing forms of recreation allowed for broadly sensuous rather than primarily visual experiences of the foreshore and Swan River. These case studies are part of a larger body of research that seeks to ‘make sense’ of the Perth foreshore and, more broadly, Australian urban waterfronts as sites of varied and evolving sensory experience.

  10. Retesting of liquefaction and nonliquefaction case histories from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (United States)

    Moss, R.E.S.; Kayen, R.E.; Tong, L.-Y.; Liu, S.-Y.; Cai, G.-J.; Wu, J.


    A field investigation was performed to retest liquefaction and nonliquefaction sites from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake in China. These sites were carefully investigated in 1978 and 1979 by using standard penetration test (SPT) and cone penetration test (CPT) equipment; however, the CPT measurements are obsolete because of the now nonstandard cone that was used at the time. In 2007, a modern cone was mobilized to retest 18 selected sites that are particularly important because of the intense ground shaking they sustained despite their high fines content and/or because the site did not liquefy. Of the sites reinvestigated and carefully reprocessed, 13 were considered accurate representative case histories. Two of the sites that were originally investigated for liquefaction have been reinvestigated for cyclic failure of fine-grained soil and removed from consideration for liquefaction triggering. The most important outcome of these field investigations was the collection of more accurate data for three nonliquefaction sites that experienced intense ground shaking. Data for these three case histories is now included in an area of the liquefaction triggering database that was poorly populated and will help constrain the upper bound of future liquefaction triggering curves. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  11. Nonfunctioning parathyromatosis after endoscopic thyroid lobectomy via an axillo-breast approach: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Chun; Jeong, Young Ju [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Parathyromatosis is characterized by multiple lesions of benign hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue in the neck or mediastinum. Parathyromatosis is caused by proliferation of embryonic remnant or seeding of parathyroid tissue after parathyroidectomy. Parathyromatosis is rare but is the common cause of recurrent hyperparathyroidism. We describe a unique case of non-functional parathyromatosis in a 16-year-old girl with a history of right thyroid lobectomy via an axillo-breast approach for a nonfunctioning parathyroid adenoma in the right side of the neck.

  12. Migraine with Aura or Sports-Related Concussion: Case Report, Pathophysiology, and Multidisciplinary Approach to Management. (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Cordingley, Dean; Girardin, Richard; Ritchie, Lesley; Johnston, Janine

    The evaluation and management of athletes presenting with clinical features of migraine headache with aura in the setting of sports-related head trauma is challenging. We present a case report of a 15-yr-old boy with a history of migraine with visual aura that developed acute visual disturbance and headache after a head injury during an ice hockey game. The patient underwent comprehensive assessment at a multidisciplinary concussion program, including neuro-ophthalmological examination, neurocognitive testing, and graded aerobic treadmill testing. Clinical history and multidisciplinary assessment was consistent with the diagnosis of coexisting sports-related concussion and migraine with brainstem aura. The authors discuss the pearls and pitfalls of managing patients who develop migraine headache with visual aura after sports-related head injury and the value of a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to this unique patient population.

  13. Case studies approach for an undergraduate astrobiology course (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.; Enger, Sandra


    Case studies is a well known and widely used method in law schools, medical schools, and business schools, but relatively little used in physics or astronomy courses. We developed an astrobiology course based strongly on the case studies approach, and after teaching it first at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, we have adapted it and are now teaching it at Alabama A&M University, a HBCU. The case studies approach uses several well tested and successful teaching methods - including group work, peer instruction, current interest topics, just-in-time teaching, &c. We have found that certain styles of cases are more popular among students than other styles, and will revise our cases to reflect such student preferences. We chose astrobiology -- an inherently multidisciplinary field -- because of the popularity of the subject matter, its frequent appearance in the popular media (news stories about searches for life in the universe, the discovery of Earth-like exoplanets, etc, in addition to SciFi movies and novels), and the rapid current progress in the field. In this talk we review briefly the case studies method, the styles of cases used in our astrobiology course, and student response to the course as found in our assessment analysis.

  14. Chylothorax--a conservative approach (a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oak S


    Full Text Available Lymphatic blockage due to a non-specific inflammation probably of a filarial origin caused dilatation and ectasia of lymph channels at thoracic inlet of a child. Transudation of lymph through these channels led to chylothorax. The present case report highlights the significance of conservative approach towards this complex problem.

  15. The inextricable axis of targeted diagnostic imaging and therapy: An immunological natural history approach. (United States)

    Cope, Frederick O; Abbruzzese, Bonnie; Sanders, James; Metz, Wendy; Sturms, Kristyn; Ralph, David; Blue, Michael; Zhang, Jane; Bracci, Paige; Bshara, Wiam; Behr, Spencer; Maurer, Toby; Williams, Kenneth; Walker, Joshua; Beverly, Allison; Blay, Brooke; Damughatla, Anirudh; Larsen, Mark; Mountain, Courtney; Neylon, Erin; Parcel, Kaeli; Raghuraman, Kapil; Ricks, Kevin; Rose, Lucas; Sivakumar, Akhilesh; Streck, Nicholas; Wang, Bryan; Wasco, Christopher; Williams, Amifred; McGrath, Michael


    approaches. Beyond the elements of imaging applications of these agents is their evolution to therapeutic agents as well, and even in the neo-logical realm of theranostics. Characteristics of agents such as tilmanocept that exploit the natural history of diseases with remarkably high specificity are the expectations for the future of patient- and disease-centered diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Parasitic fibroid: case report and novel approach in reducing incidence of future cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukainah S.


    Full Text Available We report a case of parasitic fibroid which developed less than 1 year following laparoscopic myomectomy using power morcellation. Following this case, a novel approach in reducing the incidence of future parasitic fibroid is described. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2836-2839

  17. Art and architecture as experience: an alternative approach to bridging art history and the neurosciences. (United States)

    Zschocke, Nina


    In 1972, Michael Baxandal characterizes the processes responsible for the cultural relativism of art experience as highly complex and unknown in their physiological detail. While art history still shows considerable interest in the brain sciences forty years later, most cross-disciplinary studies today are referring to the neurosciences in an attempt to seek scientific legitimization of variations of a generalized and largely deterministic model of perception, reducing interaction between a work of art and its observers to a set of biological automatisms. I will challenge such an approach and take up art theory's interest in the historico-cultural and situational dimensions of art experience. Looking at two examples of large-scale installation and sculptural post-war American art, I will explore instable perceptions of depth and changing experiences of space that indicate complex interactions between perceptual and higher cognitive processes. The argument will draw on recent theories describing neuronal processes underlying multistable phenomena, eye movement, visual attention and decision-making. As I will show a large number of neuroscientific studies provide theoretical models that help us analyse not the anthropological constants but the influence of cultural, individual and situational variables on aesthetic experience.

  18. Comparison of 2 approaches for determining the natural history risk of brain arteriovenous malformation rupture. (United States)

    Kim, Helen; McCulloch, Charles E; Johnston, S Claiborne; Lawton, Michael T; Sidney, Stephen; Young, William L


    Estimating risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) for patients with unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the natural course is essential for assessing risks and benefits of treatment. Traditionally, the survival period starts at the time of diagnosis and ends at ICH, but most patients are quickly censored because of treatment. Alternatively, a survival period from birth to first ICH, censoring at the date of diagnosis, has been proposed. The authors quantitatively compared these 2 timelines using survival analysis in 1,581 Northern California brain AVM patients (2000-2007). Time-shift analysis of the birth-to-diagnosis timeline and maximum pseudolikelihood identified the point at which the 2 survival curves overlapped; the 95% confidence interval was determined using bootstrapping. Annual ICH rates per 100 patient-years were similar for both the birth-to-diagnosis (1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36) and the diagnosis-to-ICH (1.17, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.53) timelines, despite differences in curve morphology. Shifting the birth-to-diagnosis timeline an optimal amount (10.3 years, 95% CI: 3.3, 17.4) resulted in similar ICH survival curves (P = 0.979). These results suggest that the unconventional birth-to-diagnosis approach can be used to analyze risk factors for natural history risk in unruptured brain AVM patients, providing greater statistical power. The data also suggest a biologic change around age 10 years influencing ICH rate.

  19. The Ecology of Sustainable Implementation: Reflection on a 10-Year Case History Illustration. (United States)

    Rimehaug, Tormod


    The primary aim of this paper is to illustrate the strategic and ecological nature of implementation. The ultimate aim of implementation is not dissemination but sustainability beyond the implementation effort. A case study is utilized to illustrate these broad and long-term perspectives of sustainable implementation based on qualitative analyses of a 10-year implementation effort. The purveyors aimed to develop selective community prevention services for children in families burdened by parental psychiatric or addictive problems. Services were gradually disseminated to 23 sites serving 40 municipalities by 2013. Up to 2013, only one site terminated services after initial implementation. Although many sites suspended services for shorter periods, services are still offered at 22 sites. This case analysis is based on project reports, user evaluations, practitioner interviews, and service statistics. The paper focuses on the analyses and strategies utilized to cope with quality decay and setbacks as well as progress and success in disseminating and sustaining the services and their quality. Low-cost multilevel strategies to implement services at the community level were organized by a prevention unit in child psychiatry, supervised by a university department (purveyors). The purveyors were also involved in national and international collaboration and development. Multilevel strategies included manualized intervention, in-practice training methods, organizational responsibility, media strategies, service evaluation, staff motivation maintenance, quality assurance, and proposals for new law regulations. These case history aspects will be discussed in relation to the implementation literature, focusing on possible applicability across settings.

  20. Sealable joint steel sheet piling for groundwater control and remediation: Case histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, D. [Univ. of Waterloo (Canada); Jowett, R. [Waterloo Barrier Inc., Rockwood, Ontario (Canada); Gamble, M. [C3 Environmental, Breslau, Ontario (Canada)


    The Waterloo Barrier{trademark} steel sheet piling (patents pending) incorporates a cavity at each interlocking joint that is flushed clean and injected with sealant after the piles have been driven into the ground to form a vertical cutoff wall. The installation and sealing procedures allow for a high degree of quality assurance and control. Bulk wall hydraulic conductivities of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -10} cm/sec have been demonstrated at field installations. Recent case histories are presented in which Waterloo Barrier{trademark} cutoff walls are used to prevent off-site migration of contaminated groundwater or soil gases to adjacent property and waterways. Full enclosures to isolate DNAPL source zones or portions of contaminated aquifers for pilot-scale remediation testing will also be described. Monitoring data will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Waterloo Barrier{trademark} in these applications.

  1. Griscelli syndrome: A case report of Reye′s syndrome and atopic dermatitis history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirzioglu Z


    Full Text Available Griscelli syndrome (GS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that results in pigmentary dilution of the skin and the hair (silver hair, with the presence of large clumps of pigment in hair shafts, and an accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes. Sixty cases of GS have been reported in the literature, but we could find no description of its oro-dental symptoms. Reye′s syndrome (RS is characterized by acute noninflammatory encephalopathy and renal and hepatic failure, while atopic dermatitis (AD is a skin disorder with an immunologic basis. The aim of this paper is to describe the oro-dental and physical findings in a girl who had been diagnosed with GS at 3.5 years of age; she also had AD as well as a history of RS at infancy. We discuss the possible relationship between the three syndromes.

  2. Saint Ioannis Lampadistis, the first possible case of blindness due to organic mercury poisoning in history. (United States)

    Tsakiris, Kleonikos A


    Saint Ioannis Lampadistis is a Cypriot saint of the Greek Orthodox Church, widely venerated in his island of origin. He lived during the 11th century and was blinded by ingesting contaminated fish in the mountainous area of Galata, withdrew from civil life when he was 18, and died at the age of 22. The reason for his blindness remains unknown, though it is widely attributed to an unknown poison related to the copper mines of the region. As fish is the end reservoir of organic mercury, it is quite possible that his blindness was the result of heavy metal toxicity. Organic mercury is associated with CNS atrophy and hypoplasia, and blindness is a frequent presenting symptom. While not much is known about the saint's clinical symptoms (as his ecclestiastical biography focuses on his example and miracles), organic mercury poisoning could explain his sudden loss of vision, thus possibly making him the first-recorded case of organic mercury poisoning in history.

  3. The suspension therapy for tabes dorsalis. A case history of a therapeutic fad. (United States)

    Lanska, D J; Edmonson, J M


    The suspension therapy of tabes dorsalis was introduced by Motschutkovsky in 1883, popularized by Charcot and Gilles de la Tourette in 1889, and subsequently rapidly and widely disseminated on the basis of enthusiastic case series. Dissemination was facilitated by endorsements of eminent neurologists, widespread publicity in professional journals and lay press, and the apparent simplicity and safety of the procedure. However, increasingly critical reports appeared, indicating much lower success rates, frequent postprocedure deterioration, and occasional serious complications. The disparity between early and later studies resulted from a placebo effect, from disregard of the natural history of the condition, from misdiagnosis, and from biased observation and reporting. By the end of 1890, the procedure was largely abandoned, despite proponents' attempts to modify the technique or to identify a more responsive subgroup of patients.

  4. Case Studies Approach in Tourism Destination Branding Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyinka-Ojo S.F.


    Full Text Available A review of literature indicates that there are different types of qualitative research methods such as action research, content analysis, ethnography, grounded theory, historical analysis, phenomenology and case study. However, which approach is to be used depends on several factors such as the nature and objectives of the research. The aim of this paper is to focus on the research methodology aspects of applying case study as a research approach and its relevance in tourism destination branding research specifically on a single case study (SCS context. There are arguments that the SCS is a weak research strategy. Some of the potentials or shortcomings highlighted in the literature include the primitive nature of SCS, flexibility of sample technique, data collection method and data analysis. Others include lack of rigour, reliability, validity, credibility of findings and generalisation. This paper has adopted content analysis of the literature on tourism destination branding. Findings indicate that the quality of SCS can be verified using specific case study tactics for four design tests such as validity (construct, internal and external; and reliability using the case study protocol. Theoretical implication suggests that SCS is an empirical enquiry use to understand complex phenomena and favoured by practitioners.

  5. Neurological Fallacies Leading to Malpractice: A Case Studies Approach. (United States)

    Johnston, James C; Wester, Knut; Sartwelle, Thomas P


    A young woman presents with an intracranial arachnoid cyst. Another is diagnosed with migraine headache. An elderly man awakens with a stroke. And a baby delivered vaginally after 2 hours of questionable electronic fetal monitoring patterns grows up to have cerebral palsy. These seemingly disparate cases share a common underlying theme: medical myths. Myths that may lead not only to misdiagnosis and treatment harms but to seemingly never-ending medical malpractice lawsuits, potentially culminating in a settlement or judgment against an unsuspecting neurologist. This article provides a case studies approach exposing the fallacies and highlighting proper management of these common neurologic presentations.

  6. The History of the English Language Course: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to the Humanities (United States)

    Dressman, Michael R.


    The study of the history of the English language can help students become aware of major issues in several academic fields, including history, literature, political science, anthropology, communication, economics, the Arts, and, of course, languages and linguistics. Even though instructors may not have an especially broad background in the…

  7. Biology, History and Louis Pasteur: A New Approach to Teaching Science. (United States)

    Hendrick, Robert


    Presents a rationale for using the history of science in science education. Uses the life and work of Louis Pasteur to illustrate how the history of science can illustrate the nature of science. Describes how Pasteur's bourgeois ideology and ambition influenced his selection of problems to investigate. (over 35 references) (PR)

  8. A GIS Approach to Urban History: Rome in the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keti Lelo


    Full Text Available This article explores the integration of GIS technology with urban historical studies, focusing on one case study from the 18th century, the project Historical atlas of the modern Rome. The methodology employed in this project allows for effectiveness and accuracy in historical data acquisition and integration, which enables refined analyses of socioeconomic and environmental phenomena. The approach outlined in this article allowed researchers from different disciplines—city historians, archaeologists, demographists, economists, and so on—to interpret urban phenomenologies according to different thematic keys. These interpretations were derived from archival sources that complement each other and offer diversified insights into the urban context. The techniques described in the article are based on methods of data acquisition and spatial analysis developed in a GIS environment by exploiting the effectiveness of this technology in the quantitative treatment of cartographic and documentary sources.

  9. Treatment Approach to Sleep Terror: Two Case Reports. (United States)

    Sodan Turan, Hatice; Gündüz, Nermin; Polat, Aslıhan; Tural, Ümit


    Parasomnias are a group of disorders characterized by abnormal behaviors, physical activities, and autonomic arousal symptoms while transition to sleep or continuation of sleep. Sleep terror (ST) is classified under parasomnias characterized by sudden fear attacks beginning with crying attacks or high-frequency screams and continuing with increased autonomic symptoms. ST occurs in the first few hours of sleep during the delta phase. Further, the lifetime prevalence of ST in adults is less than 1%. It is important to obtain; anamnesis from patients' bed partner for a clinical evaluation of ST. Methods, such as evaluating sleep diaries and video recordings, can help ST diagnosis. It is also important to evaluate patients' medical history, history of substance or alcohol abuse, psychological traumatic experiences, primary or secondary incomes, and detailed neurological aspects. Physician can select some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCADs) as medical treatment if patients have a high frequency of attacks. Because of addiction and relapse of ST episodes, benzodiazepines are not preferred as the first-line treatment. In this study, we will discuss ST, which is rare in adulthood, and use of long-acting benzodiazepine based on two cases.

  10. Art, Science and History in a Globalized World: the Case of Italy-China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Lorusso


    Full Text Available Art and science, over the centuries, though starting from different positions, have very often led to the same conclusions. History, on the other hand, establishes identities that derive from our past and allows for exchanges and unity between people of different nationalities, in both a commercial and scientific context, in a world without borders, in spite of obvious contradictions related to this globalized world. The case of Italy-China bears witness to this in a significant way.A case in point is represented by the scientific collaboration between the Alma Mater University of Bologna and Zhejiang University, as well as that between the Salesian Pontifical University of Rome and Fudan University in Shanghai, Zhejiang University and the Foreign Studies University of Beijing.In the first case, the ongoing research project “Historical anamnesis, preservation and valorization of the statues of the Longxing Buddhist Temple of Qingzhou (China” is being carried out between the Department of Cultural Heritage Diagnostic Laboratory for Cultural Heritage of the University of Bologna and the Cultural Heritage Institute of Zhejiang University. In the second case, collaboration between the Salesian Pontifical University and the Chinese Universities, covers activities relating to the study of philosophy, pedagogy and Latin language and literature.The paper highlights the importance of drawing value of a cultural, conservative, social, identitary nature within the context of the holistic value of cultural heritage and respecting ethical aspects at a personal and interpersonal level, in particular, by offering young people the opportunity to enter the employment market and of which they are currently experiencing all the problematic fluctuations.

  11. Endoscopic or Surgical Approach to Cure Pancreatitis and Its Complications: The History Continues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pezzilli


    Full Text Available Endoscopic and surgical treatment are the two main techniques for the treatment of pancreatitis, mainly represented by the persistent pain not responding to medical treatment and the complications associated with pain, such as pseudocysts and ductal stenosis. However, the dilemma is related to the procedures we use to treat these complications: surgical or endoscopic approach? Probably the treatment of choice is based on the expertise available in the various centers, but we also need an evidence-based approach. Thus, in 2007 [1], I commented on the paper of Cahen et al. [2] with enthusiasm for two reasons: the first was that, for the first time, a comparative study on the long term results of endoscopic vs. surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis patients was carried out, and the second was that the follow-up period was sufficient to assess the results of the two different treatments, not only from a medical point of view but also considering the patient reported outcomes using the SF-36 questionnaire. For the same reasons, I invite you to read, with attention, the paper of Varadarajulu et al. [3] reporting the data of the clinical outcomes of EUS-guided cystgastrostomy in comparison to surgical cystgastrostomy for the management of patients with uncomplicated pancreatic pseudocysts; the authors also evaluated the cost analysis of each treatment modality. Unfortunately, this was a retrospective case-controlled study carried out in a tertiary-referral center.

  12. Linking biomedical engineering ethics case study approach and policy. (United States)

    Dibrell, William; Dobie, Elizabeth Ann


    In this paper we link bioengineering case study methods to the development of policy. The case study approach to ethics is an excellent way to show the complex nature of practical/moral reasoning. This approach can, however, lead to a kind of overwhelming complexity. The individual nature of each case makes it difficult to identify the most important information and difficult to see what moral considerations are most relevant. In order to make the overwhelming complexity less debilitating, we present a framework for moral decision making derived from suggestions made by W.D. Ross and Virginia Held. Ross articulates the multiple sources of morality and Held deepens the discussion by reminding us of the foundational importance of care and sympathy to our moral natures. We show how to use the notion of prima facie duty and discuss moral conflict. In doing this, we show how the framework, applied to cases, can be of assistance in helping us develop policies and codes of ethics with sufficient plasticity to be useful in the complex world of the bioengineer.

  13. Running a history programme outside the classroom. A case study of athletics at Zonnebloem College.


    Cleophas, Francois J


    Sport history has been neglected, even ignored, in South African classroom and pedagogy debates. Despite, a large reservoir of South African sport history literature of a formal and informal nature being available for teachers, other historical areas of concern are usually focussed on. This study attempts to break this mould and offer history teachers an opportunity for creating pedagogical opportunities outside the formal history curriculum. In order to achieve this, a hist...

  14. An approach for immunodiagnosis of clinical cases of filariasis. (United States)

    Gupta, P K; Raychaudhury, C; Bandopadhyay, A K; Ghosh, D K


    In this communication an immunodiagnostic approach has been adopted for detection of antigen and antibody in amicrofilaeamic Mf(-) patients by countercurrent immuno electrophoresis (CCIE) and immunodiffusion (ID). Using Setaria cervi and Immune Complex (IC) antigens, out of fifteen clinical cases the number of positive patients in CCIE were twelve and ten respectively. Sixty percent of the Mf(-) cases were positive in antigen detection against both the homologous and heterologous antibody. In ID nine Mf(-) cases gave precipitin bands against S. cervi antigen while with IC antigens ten patients were positive. In similar experiments, it was found that out of fifteen Mf(-) cases nine and eleven patients were positive in antigen detection against microfilaraemic Mf(+) sera and S. cervi antibody respectively. All the Mf(+) cases were positive in both antibody and antigen detection. From the standpoint of immunodiagnosis the data were analysed by two-way analysis of variance study and a newly developed system using Binomial distribution. The sera from the control group were negative in all the immunodiagnostic tests.

  15. Family history of cancer and the risk of laryngeal cancer: a case-control study from Italy and Switzerland. (United States)

    Garavello, Werner; Turati, Federica; Bosetti, Cristina; Talamini, Renato; Levi, Fabio; Lucenteforte, Ersilia; Chiesa, Fausto; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva


    Only limited data is available on the relationship between family history of laryngeal and other neoplasms and laryngeal cancer risk. We investigated the issue using data from a multicentre case-control study conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1992 and 2009 including 852 cases with histologically confirmed laryngeal cancer and 1970 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non neoplastic conditions. Unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, study center, education, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and number of siblings were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of laryngeal cancer. The multivariate OR was 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-5.3) in subjects reporting a first-degree relative with laryngeal cancer, as compared to subjects with no family history. The OR was higher when the relative was diagnosed before 60 years of age (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.8). As compared to subjects without family history, non-smokers, and moderate drinkers, the OR was 37.1 (95% CI 9.9-139.4) for current smokers, heavy drinkers, with family history of laryngeal cancer. Family history of colorectal (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3) and kidney (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-12.1) cancer were also associated to an increased risk of laryngeal cancer, while no significant increase in risk was found for family history of cancer at all sites, excluding the larynx (OR = 1.1).

  16. [Beyond Weimar Culture--the significance of the Forman thesis for a cultural approach to the history of science]. (United States)

    Trischler, Helmuth; Carson, Cathryn; Kojevnikov, Alexei


    '"Forman thesis', published in 1971, argued for a historical linkage among the intellectual atmosphere of Weimar Germany, popular revolts against determinism and materialism, and the creation of the revolutionary new theory of quantum mechanics. Paul Forman's long essay on "Weimar Culture" has shaped research agendas in numerous fields, from the history and philosophy of physics to German history to the sociology of scientific knowledge. Despite its status as a classic and its transformative effect, Weimar Culture has always inspired as much critique as assent. In particular in the history of science, cohorts of students and two generations of scholars have debated the Forman thesis as a conceptual tool for linking scientific change with cultural processes. The Forman thesis raises critical questions for both the ongoing debates over cultural approaches to the history of science and the burgeoning newer scholarship on physics in and beyond Weimar Germany. Exploring these implications has been the aim of a transnational project of the three authors of this article which sheds some light on these debates and briefly introduces the following papers of this special issue devoted to Paul Forman and his seminal works in the history of science.

  17. Equivalence between the real time Feynman histories and the quantum shutter approaches for the "passage time" in tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    García-Calderón, G; Yamada, N; Garcia-Calderon, Gaston; Villavicencio, Jorge; Yamada, Norifumi


    We show the equivalence of the functions $G_{\\rm p}(t)$ and $|\\Psi(d,t)|^2$ for the ``passage time'' in tunneling. The former, obtained within the framework of the real time Feynman histories approach to the tunneling time problem, using the Gell-Mann and Hartle's decoherence functional, and the latter involving an exact analytical solution to the time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for cutoff initial waves.

  18. Chemometrics approach to substrate development, case: semisyntetic cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Hansen, Birgitte Vedel


    In several cases a well defined, robust and easy reproducible substrate that meets specific requirements is needed. This is the case in studies of fungal growth and metabolism on specific products as affected by environmental conditions or processing factors, or isolation of product specific fungi...... from food production facilities.The Chemometrics approach to substrate development is illustrated by the development of a semisyntetic cheese substrate. Growth, colour formation and mycotoxin production of 6 cheese related fungi were studied on 9 types of natural cheeses and 24 synthetic cheese...... substrates and compared using principal component analysis (PCA). The synthetic cheese substrates contained various amounts of Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, lactate, lactose and casein. In this manner a robust, well-defined and easy prepared laboratory cheese substrate was developed for Penicillium commune...

  19. Successful field implementation of novel cementing solution for ISC wells : case histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meher, R.K.; Suyan, K.M.; Dasgupta, D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)]|[Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd., Tel Bhavan, Dehradun (India); Deodhar, S.; Sharma, V.; Jain, V.K. [Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd., Tel Bhavan, Dehradun (India)


    Cementation of in-situ combustion (ISC) wells is challenging since wells are frequently associated with weak and unconsolidated formation. However, cement rise up to surface is desired to prevent casing failure. Moreover, the cement sheath is also required to withstand extreme stresses due to high temperature cycling experienced during in-situ combustion process. In response to the problem of inadequate placement time and flash setting, Portland cement-silica blends were used for cementation of ISC wells in India instead of alumina cement blends. However, the use of the cement-silica blends has resulted in insufficient cement rise because of losses during cementation. The cured cement failed to contain the strength and permeability in course of ISC process causing charge of sub-surface shallower layers. This paper discussed the development and implementation of a non-alumina based thermally stable lightweight lead slurry and a ductile high temperature resistance tail slurry for mitigating these problems. The paper provided details of the study as well as four successful case histories. The cementing practice for ISC wells around the world was first described and illustrated. Next, the paper outlined the formulation of thermally stable tail slurry through laboratory studies. Slurry parameters of the tail slurry were presented, including slurry weight; thickening time; fluid loss; free fluid; and rheology. The paper also reviewed a study of compressive strength and permeability of thermal slurry; slurry parameters of the lightweight lead slurry; and study of compressive strength and permeability of lightweight thermal slurry. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  20. Uncommon case of brain metastasis in a patient with a history of heavy smoking. (United States)

    Scharl, M; Bode, B; Rushing, E; Knuth, A; Rordorf, T


    Primary sarcomas of the aorta are extremely uncommon. Depending on histomorphology and immunohistochemical pattern, intimal sarcomas can show angiosarcomatous differentiation. Here, we describe the case of a 60-year-old woman with a primary intimal sarcoma of the aortic arch and signs of cerebral metastatic disease as the initial manifestation. After the patient experienced the onset of severe headaches, ataxia, and left-sided weakness, magnetic resonance imaging showed several brain lesions. Histologic assessment of a brain biopsy specimen revealed a malignant tumour composed of large pleomorphic cells that were positive for pancytokeratin and CD10. Radiation to the brain did not significantly improve the patient's symptoms, and cranial computed tomography (ct) imaging revealed several metastases, indicating lack of response. Because of the patient's smoking history, the presence of central nervous system and skeletal metastases on combined positron-emission tomography and ct imaging, and the focal pan-cytokeratin positivity of the tumour, carcinoma of the lung was favoured as the primary tumour. Despite chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide, the patient's neurologic symptoms and general condition deteriorated rapidly, and she died within a few days. At autopsy, an undifferentiated intimal sarcoma of the aortic arch was diagnosed. The primary tumour in the aorta consisted of large pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of the aortic tumour and brain metastases demonstrated diffuse positivity for vimentin and p53 and focal S-100 staining. In summary, we report a challenging case of advanced intimal sarcoma of the aortic arch with brain and bone metastases at initial presentation. Our report demonstrates the difficulties in diagnosing and treating this disease, and the need for multicentre studies to accrue more patients for investigations of optimal therapy.

  1. Angina in a diabetic patient: a case of integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Roberto Cosentino


    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus, both of type 1 and 2, is an important risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis: in diabetic patients vascular atherosclerotic complications are responsible of approximately 80% of all the deaths. There is no doubt that patients affections originating from diabetes and coronaropathy remain at high risk. For this reason it is essential to adopt an aggressive strategy of secondary prevention. We report a case of a patient with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: the successful management was due to an integrated approach that involved the general practitioner and cardiologist.

  2. Cross-Border Collaboration in History among Nordic Students: A Case Study about Creating Innovative ICT Didactic Models (United States)

    Spante, Maria; Karlsen, Asgjerd Vea; Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Christiansen, Rene B.


    Gränsöverskridande Nordisk Undervisning/Utdanelse (GNU, meaning Cross-Border Nordic Education), the larger Nordic project, under which this case study was carried out, aims at developing innovative, cross-border teaching models in different subject domains in elementary school, including mathematics, language, science, social studies and history.…

  3. PALB2 germline mutations in familial breast cancer cases with personal and family history of pancreatic cancer



    PALB2 germline mutations in familial breast cancer cases with personal and family history of pancreatic cancer phone: +39-02-23903224 (Radice, Paolo) (Radice, Paolo) IFOM, Fondazione Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare - Milan - ITALY (Peterlongo, Paolo) Department of Preventive and Predictive Medicine, Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori - Milan - ITALY (Peterlongo, Pao...

  4. Four Aspects of Civic Education: Teaching the History and Geography of the Land of Israel as a Case Study (United States)

    Cohen, Aviv


    At the center of this study stands the will to understand the use of the subjects of History and Geography as means of civic education. A new theoretical framework is offered, encompassing different aspects of civic education. With the use of this framework, the Israeli educational system was evaluated as a case study. (Contains 1 table, 1 figure,…

  5. History in Fiction:The Case of “Rip Van Winkle”%History in Fiction: The Case of “Rip Van Winkle”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jun


    Washington Irving's "Rip Van Winkle" has been so ritualistically cited and discussed by historians,political scientists and literary scholars that it is no longer just a simple tale but a prominent text in American culture.The tale,as one critic proclaims,"presides over the birth of the American imagination" (Fiedler xx).This essay revisits "Rip Van Winkle" for the sole purpose of considering how this literary text can also stimulate critical thinking on the connection between fiction (or poetry) and history.

  6. Decoherent Histories and Hydrodynamic Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Halliwell, J J


    For a system consisting of a large collection of particles, a set of variables that will generally become effectively classical are the local densities (number, momentum, energy). That is, in the context of the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory, it is expected that histories of these variables will be approximately decoherent, and that their probabilites will be strongly peaked about hydrodynamic equations. This possibility is explored for the case of the diffusion of the number density of a dilute concentration of foreign particles in a fluid. It is shown that, for certain physically reasonable initial states, the probabilities for histories of number density are strongly peaked about evolution according to the diffusion equation. Decoherence of these histories is also shown for a class of initial states which includes non-trivial superpositions of number density. Histories of phase space densities are also discussed. The case of histories of number, momentum and energy density for more general...

  7. Teaching Science Rhetorically: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Natural History, 1948-1985. (United States)

    DePaolo, Charles


    Considers the different analogies used by James Rettie, Teilhard de Chardin, Robert Ardrey, Jacob Bronowski, Richard Leakey, Steven Weinberg, Heinz Pagels, and Carl Sagan to make concepts related to time and natural history accessible to the layperson. Suggests that these analogies be used at the undergraduate level in both humanities and science…

  8. A Novel Approach: Using Fiction by African American Women To Teach Black Women's History. (United States)

    Bunch-Lyons, Beverly A.


    Discusses the use of novels and other works written by African American women as tools for teaching the history of black women in the United States in an undergraduate course. Focuses on specific works used in the course, such as Octavia Butler's "Kindred" and Terry McMillan's "Waiting to Exhale." (CMK)

  9. The World Wars through Tabletop Wargaming: An Innovative Approach to University History Teaching (United States)

    Reynaud, Daniel; Northcote, Maria


    This article explores the experiences of a lecturer and students in a class on the World Wars, where wargaming is used alongside traditional lecturing as a learning experience. It outlines the processes used and then evaluates the various kinds of learning, historical and other, that occur. Drawing on literature associated with history education…

  10. Native American History in a Box: A New Approach to Teaching Native American Cultures (United States)

    Helms, Emory C.; Hitt, Austin M.; Schipper, Jason A.; Jones, Adam M.


    This article describes the Native American History in a Box curriculum which is designed to introduce elementary and middle-level students to Native American cultures. The curriculum consists of a five day unit addressing the following concepts pertaining to Native American Nations: settlements, tools, sustenance, pottery, and contact with…

  11. The evolution and plasticity of life histories upon variation in nutrition : on aging focused integrative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, Joost van den


    In this thesis I describe studies of life history traits under variation in nutrition focused on ageing. The predictive adaptive response is a type of plastic response which is advantageous later in life, rather than immediately. We tested with a resource allocation model whether for a relatively sh

  12. The Virtual History Museum: A Universally Designed Approach to Social Studies Instruction (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Courtad, Carrie Anna; Heutsche, Anne; Okolo, Cynthia M.; Englert, Carol Sue


    In contrast to other school subjects, social studies has not received adequate attention in the education of students with disabilities, although it is an important domain of study for all students. In this article, the authors describe how teachers can use Web-based tools, such as the Virtual History Museum (VHM), to complement their instruction.…

  13. Seismic response in archaeological areas: the case-histories of Rome (United States)

    Donati, Stefano; Funiciello, Renato; Rovelli, Antonio


    Rome is affected by earthquakes associated to three different seismogenic districts: the Central Apennines area, the Colli Albani volcanic area and the Roman area. The major effects were exclusively due to Apennine seismicity and reached in some cases felt intensities up to VII-VIII degree (MCS scale). The predominant role in the damage distribution seems to be played by the local geological conditions. The historical centre of the city is characterized by the presence of two geomorphologic domains: the alluvial plain of Tiber river and the topographic relieves of Roman Hills, where tradition indicates the first site of the city foundation. In particular, the right river side is characterized by the outcropping of the regional bedrock along the Monte Mario-Gianicolo ridge, while the eastern relieves are the remnants of the Sabatini and Albani volcanic plateau, deeply eroded by the Tiber river and its tributaries during the last glacial low-stand (Würm). These domains are characterized by a large difference in seismic response, due to the high impedance contrast between Holocene coarse deposits filling the Tiber Valley and sedimentary and volcanic Plio-Pleistocene units. Seismic damage observed in 150 monuments of downtown Rome was indicating a significant concentration on alluvial recent deposits. This result was confirmed by the geographical distribution of conservation and retrofitting activities subsequent to main earthquakes, mostly related to local geological conditions. The cases of Marcus Aurelius' Column and Colosseum confirmed the influence of the Holocene alluvial network in local seismic response. During 2500 years of history, the monuments of Rome have `memorized' the seismic effects of historical earthquakes. In some cases, the integration of historical and geological research and macroseismic observations may provide original and useful indications to seismologists to define the seismic response of the city. Local site effects represent a serious

  14. A secured e-tendering modeling using misuse case approach (United States)

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman


    Major risk factors relating to electronic transactions may lead to destructive impacts on trust and transparency in the process of tendering. Currently, electronic tendering (e-tendering) systems still remain uncertain in issues relating to legal and security compliance and most importantly it has an unclear security framework. Particularly, the available systems are lacking in addressing integrity, confidentiality, authentication, and non-repudiation in e-tendering requirements. Thus, one of the challenges in developing an e-tendering system is to ensure the system requirements include the function for secured and trusted environment. Therefore, this paper aims to model a secured e-tendering system using misuse case approach. The modeling process begins with identifying the e-tendering process, which is based on the Australian Standard Code of Tendering (AS 4120-1994). It is followed by identifying security threats and their countermeasure. Then, the e-tendering was modelled using misuse case approach. The model can contribute to e-tendering developers and also to other researchers or experts in the e-tendering domain.

  15. The Hidden History of Refugee Schooling in Britain: The Case of the Belgians, 1914-18. (United States)

    Myers, Kevin


    Discusses the hidden history of refugee schooling in England during 1914-18. Focuses primarily on the Belgian refugee children who escaped to England during World War I. Invites education researchers and historians to include the aspects and issues of refugee schooling to adequately convey a clear picture of educational history. (MER)

  16. Effects of Authoritarianism on the Teaching of National History: The Case of Latvia (United States)

    Abens, Aija


    Recent research on history teaching has begun to focus on political motivation. This paper is the result of the author's dissertation, which investigates Latvian history teaching under the authoritarian regimes of Ulmanis and Stalin. It reveals the effects of authoritarianism on goals, curriculum, teaching materials and methods, and the teacher's…

  17. Kinematic History of a Salient-recess Junction Explored through a Combined Approach of Field Data and Analog Sandbox Modeling. (United States)

    Ismat, Zeshan; Toeneboehn, Kevin


    Within fold-thrust belts, the junctions between salients and recesses may hold critical clues to the overall kinematic history. The deformation history within these junctions is best preserved in areas where thrust sheets extend from a salient through an adjacent recess. We examine one such junction within the Sevier fold-thrust belt (western United States) along the Leamington transverse zone, northern Utah. Deformation within this junction took place by faulting and cataclastic flow. Here, we describe a protocol that examines these fault patterns to better understand the kinematic history of the field area. Fault data is supplemented by analog sandbox experiments. This study suggests that, in detail, deformation within the overlying thrust sheet may not directly reflect the underlying basement structure. We demonstrate that this combined field-experimental approach is easy, accessible, and may provide more details to the deformation preserved in the crust than other more expensive methods, such as computer modeling. In addition, the sandbox model may help to explain why and how these details formed. This method can be applied throughout fold-thrust belts, where upper-crustal rocks are well preserved. In addition, it can be modified to study any part of the upper crust that has been deformed via elastico-frictional mechanisms. Finally, this combined approach may provide more details as to how fold-thrust belts maintain critical-taper and serve as potential targets for natural resource exploration.

  18. The Special Place Project: Efficacy of a Place-Based Case Study Approach for Teaching Geoscience (United States)

    Moosavi, Sadredin


    Achieving geoscience literacy of the general population has become increasingly important world wide as ever more connected and growing societies depend more and more on our planet's limited natural resource base. Building citizen understanding of their dependence on the local environment, and the geologic processes which created and continue to change it, has become a great challenge to educators at all levels of the education system. The Special Place Project described in this presentation explores use of a place-based case study approach combining instruction in geoscience content with development of observation, reasoning, writing and presentation skills. The approach allows students to select the locations for their individual case studies affording development of personal connections between the learner and his environment. The approach gives instructors at many grade levels the ability to develop core pedagogical content and skills while exploring the unique geologic environments relevant to the local population including such critical issues as land use, resource depletion, energy, climate change and the future of communities in a changing world. The geologic reasons for the location of communities and key events in their histories can be incorporated into the students' case studies as appropriate. The project is unique in placing all course instruction in the context of the quest to explore and gain understanding of the student's chosen location by using the inherently more generalized course content required by the curriculum. By modeling how scientists approach their research questions, this pedagogical technique not only integrates knowledge and skills from across the curriculum, it captures the excitement of scientific thinking on real world questions directly relevant to students' lives, increasing student engagement and depth of learning as demonstrated in the case study reports crafted by the students and exam results. Student learning of topics

  19. Sense of control under uncertainty depends on people's childhood environment: a life history theory approach. (United States)

    Mittal, Chiraag; Griskevicius, Vladas


    Past research found that environmental uncertainty leads people to behave differently depending on their childhood environment. For example, economic uncertainty leads people from poor childhoods to become more impulsive while leading people from wealthy childhoods to become less impulsive. Drawing on life history theory, we examine the psychological mechanism driving such diverging responses to uncertainty. Five experiments show that uncertainty alters people's sense of control over the environment. Exposure to uncertainty led people from poorer childhoods to have a significantly lower sense of control than those from wealthier childhoods. In addition, perceptions of control statistically mediated the effect of uncertainty on impulsive behavior. These studies contribute by demonstrating that sense of control is a psychological driver of behaviors associated with fast and slow life history strategies. We discuss the implications of this for theory and future research, including that environmental uncertainty might lead people who grew up poor to quit challenging tasks sooner than people who grew up wealthy.

  20. A case history study on causation of the landslide in Santa Clara, California, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Liao; Sadek M. Derrega; Craig A. Hall


    This paper presents a case history study on the geologic investigation and numerical modeling of a reactivated landslide in the County of Santa Clara, California to identify the failure mechanism. The landslide occurred on an approximately 18.3-m high, north-facing slope during March 2011. The land-slide measured about 33.5 m in width and about 51.8 m in length. Along the toe of the slope, a residential structure with a swimming pool was built on a cut and fill pad and there are several other structures present along the western side of the pad. The landslide occurred immediately to the south of the residential building and moved northward between the County Road A and the house’s side yard. The movement of the landslide resulted in damaging the west-bound traffic lane of County Road A and encroached onto the paved driveway for the residential property. An investigation was performed to identify the failure mechanism of the landslide to conclude whether Road A re-alignment by the County or prominent cutting performed along the lower portion of the slope by the homeowner during 2000 through 2004 contributed to the reactivation of the old landslide deposit. The investigation included site reconnaissance, reviewing available published geologic information, reviewing site-specific geologic and geotechnical data developed by other consultants, and performing numerical modeling. The outcomes of the investigation indicate that the primary causation for the reactivation and failure of the subject pre-existing landslide is the prominent cutting performed along the lower portion of the slope during 2000 through 2004 and water tank cut bench. The Road A re-alignment did not contribute to the reactivation of the old landslide deposit.

  1. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  2. [Three Cases of Moyamoya Disease with a History of Kawasaki Disease]. (United States)

    Kawasaki, Toshinari; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Sugino, Toshiya; Mitsuhara, Takafumi; Funaki, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Masaomi; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kunieda, Takeharu; Takahashi, Jun C; Takagi, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Susumu


    Here, we report three cases of moyamoya disease with a history of Kawasaki disease. A 33-year-old man was found to have stenotic lesions of the internal carotid arteries(ICAs)on both sides at a nearby hospital where he visited complaining of headache and lisping. He had received immunoglobulin therapy for Kawasaki disease at the ages of 1, 2, and 6 years. MRI showed only a chronic ischemic lesion in the white matter. Angiography showed occlusion at the terminal portion of the ICAs on both sides. He was diagnosed with moyamoya disease, but as he had no symptoms and preserved cerebral blood flow (CBF), he was kept under observation. An 8-year-old boy was diagnosed with moyamoya disease and underwent right encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis at a nearby hospital. He had received immunoglobulin therapy for Kawasaki disease at the age of 1 year. His ischemic symptoms worsened. Although MRI detected no apparent ischemic lesion, angiography revealed severe stenosis at the terminal portions of the ICAs on both sides, and 123I-IMP SPECT showed CBF impairment. Bilateral direct bypass was performed. His father was subsequently also diagnosed with moyamoya disease. A 4-year-old girl with epilepsy was diagnosed with moyamoya disease at a nearby hospital. She had been treated with aspirin for Kawasaki disease at the age of 1 year. MRI detected no remarkable ischemic lesions, but angiography revealed mild stenosis at the terminal portions of the ICAs on both sides. Five months later, her ischemic symptoms were worsening with progressing stenotic lesions, and she underwent bilateral direct bypass.

  3. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Treated by Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Combination with Psychological Approaches in 310 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Junhua


    Objective: To observe clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion combined with a psychological approach on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Methods: The treatment was given by acupuncture plus moxibustion combined with a psychological approach based on differentiation of symptoms and signs in 310 cases. Results: Of 310 cases observed, 275 cases (88.7%) were clinically cured,28 cases (9%) improved, and 7 cases (2.3%) failed. Conclusion: Acupuncture plus moxibustion combined with a psychological approach is an effective therapy for CFS.

  4. Contributions to the Chile’s Seismic History: the Case of the Great Earthquake of 1730

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María X. Urbina Carrasco


    Full Text Available According to the new and previously known documents it is concluded the earthquake of Chile in 1730 was composed by two independent earthquakes, each associated to a tsunami. Considering the latitudinal extension of the damage and the size of the tsunamis, it can be taken as the largest seismic event occurred in the history of Metropolitan or Central Chile. These conclusions allow to know better the seismic sequence of Central Chile, the Seismic History of the country, and contribute to the knowledge of the colonial history of the kingdom of Chile.

  5. Bayesian network approach to spatial data mining: a case study (United States)

    Huang, Jiejun; Wan, Youchuan


    Spatial data mining is a process of discovering interesting, novel, and potentially useful information or knowledge hidden in spatial data sets. It involves different techniques and different methods from various areas of research. A Bayesian network is a graphical model that encodes causal probabilistic relationships among variables of interest, which has a powerful ability for representing and reasoning and provides an effective way to spatial data mining. In this paper we give an introduction to Bayesian networks, and discuss using Bayesian networks for spatial data mining. We propose a framework of spatial data mining based on Bayesian networks. Then we show a case study and use the experimental results to validate the practical viability of the proposed approach to spatial data mining. Finally, the paper gives a summary and some remarks.

  6. Environmental, medical, and family history risk factors for Parkinson's disease: a New England-based case control study. (United States)

    Taylor, C A; Saint-Hilaire, M H; Cupples, L A; Thomas, C A; Burchard, A E; Feldman, R G; Myers, R H


    Controversy persists about the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Pesticides, herbicides, well-water consumption, head injury, and a family history of PD have been reported as risk factors for PD. The purpose of this study was to (1) investigate the impact of environmental factors on PD risk (2) estimate the chronology, frequency, and duration of those exposures associated with PD; and (3) investigate the effects of family history on PD risk. One-hundred and forty PD cases were recruited from Boston University Medical Center. The control group was composed of 147 friends and in-laws of PD patients. Environmental, medical, and family history data were obtained by structured interview from each participant for events recalled prior to PD onset for cases, or corresponding censoring age for controls (mean age = 56 years of age for each group). A traditional stratified analysis, adjusting for birth cohort and sex, was employed. Four factors were associated with increased risk for PD: (1) head injury (OR=6.23, confidence interval [CI]: 2.58-15.07); (2) family history of PD (OR=6.08, CI: 2.35-15. 58); (3) family history of tremor (OR=3.97, CI: 1.17-13.50); and (4) history of depression (OR=3.01, CI: 1.32-6.88). A mean latency of 36. 5 (SE=2.81) years passed between the age of first reported head injury and PD onset. A mean latency of 22 (SE=2.66) years passed between the onset of the first reported symptoms of depression and onset of PD. Years of education, smoking, and well-water intake were inversely associated with PD risk. PD was not associated with exposure to pesticides or herbicides. These findings support the role of both environmental and genetic factors in the etiology in PD. The results are consistent with a multifactorial model. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 88:742-749, 1999.

  7. Postmodernity or High Modernity? Emerging Approaches in the New History of Education. (United States)

    Escolano, Agustin


    Compares and contrasts two emerging approaches to educational historical research. Reveals a double-edged sword in that while these approaches open up the field to a wide array of subject matter and styles of inquiry, they also may weaken the epistemological stature of the discipline. (MJP)

  8. Cognitive theories as reinforcement history surrogates: the case of likelihood ratio models of human recognition memory. (United States)

    Wixted, John T; Gaitan, Santino C


    B. F. Skinner (1977) once argued that cognitive theories are essentially surrogates for the organism's (usually unknown) reinforcement history. In this article, we argue that this notion applies rather directly to a class of likelihood ratio models of human recognition memory. The point is not that such models are fundamentally flawed or that they are not useful and should be abandoned. Instead, the point is that the role of reinforcement history in shaping memory decisions could help to explain what otherwise must be explained by assuming that subjects are inexplicably endowed with the relevant distributional information and computational abilities. To the degree that a role for an organism's reinforcement history is appreciated, the importance of animal memory research in understanding human memory comes into clearer focus. As Skinner was also fond of pointing out, it is only in the animal laboratory that an organism's history of reinforcement can be precisely controlled and its effects on behavior clearly understood.

  9. Towards a History of Moral Education: Some Fundamental Considerations and a Case Study (United States)

    Bruneau, William Arthur


    Presents definitions and understandings of moral education, surveys some historical techniques likely to yield starting points for work on a history of moral education, and examines John Locke's theory and practice of moral education. (Author/IRT)

  10. An approach to LCSA: the case of concrete recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Mingming; Kleijn, René; Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova;


    with the realistic scenario settings that are generated with the knowledge gained from the MFA studies at the meso-level and from the policy/economic studies at the macro level. The combined application of LCA, LCC and SLCA at the project level shows not all the cost items and only one social impact indicator can....... This approach is illustrated with an on-going case study on concrete recycling. Methods In the context of an EC-FP7 project on technology innovation for concrete recycling, five operational steps to implement the LCSA framework are proposed: (1) broad system definition, (2) making scenarios, (3) defining...... the sub-questions suitable to be assessed by the individual analytical tools (e.g., LCA, LCC, SLCA, MFA, etc.). The C2CA-LCSA shows a practical approach to model the life cycle impacts of the broad system is to start by modelling the technological system at the micro level and then scale it up...

  11. [The business game as a form of organization of competent approach in teaching of history of medicine]. (United States)

    Konopleva, E L; Ostapenko, V M


    The article considers issue of implementation of competent approach in teaching of course of history of medicine in medical universities. The such methods of active training as imitation role business games are proposed as a mean of developing common cultural and professional competences offuture medical personnel. The business games promote development of motivation basis or education and require activities related to practical implementation of acquired knowledge and skills (analysis of historical event, work with map, reading of historical documents, participation in scientific discussion, etc.). As a result, students acquire sufficiently large notion concerning world of medicine, relationship of historical epochs and occurrences and unity of medical systems.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Ta-gen; CHEN Gua-da


    According to the available data and field research, based on the diwatheory, the authors have studied the geotectonic evolution history and the associated minerlization in the Victoria area. It has been shown that this area is in fact a part of the Lachlan diwa region. The Victoria area can be divided into geodome fault-fold zone and subsidence zone. The former can be subdivided into three zones, from west to east, which are western uplift zone, central depression zone and eastern uplift zone. The evolution history of the Victoria area can be divided into four stages-Pregeosyncline, geosyncline, plateform and diwa. Each stage has distinct sedimentary, magmatic and structural features. Of the four stages, diwa stage is the most important for minerlization. Diwa stage started in the Devonian. During the development of diwa, a number of granites, which are characterized by high SiO2 and Na2O+K2O, were formed. The granites were abundance with mineralforming material. On the other hand, diwa geotectonism reformed and enriched the geosynclinal or platform ore deposits. Therefore, most of the ore deposits that occurred in the Victoria area are,more or less, related with diwa tectonism.

  13. A reaction kinetic approach to the temperature-time history of sedimentary basins (United States)

    Sajgó, Cs.; Lefler, J.

    Three biological marker reactions have been studied in order to determine the temperature — time history of a sedimentary sequence. Two of these reactions are configurational isomerization reactions, at C-20 in a C29-sterane and at C-22 in C31 and C32 hopane hydrocarbons. In the third reaction two C29 C-ring monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons convert to a C28 triaromatic one. The progress of these reactions is different because of their different rate constants. Based on temperature and age data obtained from field measurements and on concentration measurements of reactants and products in core samples of a Pannonian borehole, we calculated the rate parameters: pre-exponential factors, enthalpies and entropies of activation. It is obvious, that at least two different reactions are necessary to characterize the maturity of any system. The aromatization seems to be a rather complicated reaction, and we believe its use to be premature. Fortunately, two isomerizations work well and are suitable for elucidation of thermal history in different basins if the rate constants are universally valid.

  14. The Norwegian curriculum in history and historical thinking: a case study of three lower secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Bergum Johanson


    Full Text Available AbstractThe didactics of history and the content of the curriculum and syllabi have changed over the years in order to make history more relevant for the students of today. It is important to provide students with “knowing what” knowledge in addition to “knowing how” knowledge in order to support and develop critical thinking and historical understanding. One way of promoting historical understanding is through introducing the concepts of historical thinking. However, studies show that history classes often promote teaching that is still quite traditional, using history books uncritically and without problematizing their truthfulness, which do not make students see how history is formed, nor how it can be important for the present and the future. The present article explores whether the concepts of historical thinking are encouraged and used in three different lower secondary schools in Norway today. The main sources of data are current history textbooks, teaching plans, tests and assignments. The findings of the study show that the concepts of historical thinking are not made clear and explicit enough in neither history books, plans nor tests. Furthermore, it seems like reproduction rather than reflection is focused on in many classrooms, making it difficult to develop a historical understanding. It is therefore suggested that both teachers and students learn and work thoroughly with the concepts of historical thinking.schools in Norway today. History books in use, plans, tests and assignments were considered important empirical information for the research question. The findings of the study show that the concepts of historical thinking are not clear enough neither in history books, plans nor tests. Furthermore, it seems like reproduction rather than reflections are practiced in many classrooms, making it difficult to get a historical understanding. To accomplish historical understanding it is suggested that both teachers and students

  15. Histological and molecular biology diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in a patient without history of travel to endemic areas – Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L’Ollivier C.


    Full Text Available Background: in endemic areas, neurocysticercosis appears mainly as a single, large, spherical and non-enhancing intracranial cyst. Case presentation: an atypical case of neurocysticercosis (NCC in a French Caucasian, without history of travel to endemic areas, was confirmed by histology and molecular speciation. Imaging was atypical, showing several hook-bearing scolices visible in the cyst, while the serology employed was non-contributary. Conclusions: NCC should be considered when multiple taeniid scolices are observed within the same cystic lesion.

  16. New Maps for Old: a Topological Approach to "the Faerie Queene" and Shakespeare's History Plays (United States)

    Graney, Kathleen M.


    When Nicholas Copernicus published De revolutionibus in 1543, his announced discoveries both displaced humankind from its former place at the center of the universe and enlarged the boundaries of that universe beyond anything that had been imagined before. These discoveries evoked in men and women of the late-sixteenth century a new consciousness of both cosmic space and of psychological spaces within themselves, spaces for self-definition made available by the breakdown of the traditional, hierarchical world view. This re-vision of space is evident in almost every aspect of the culture of Elizabethan England, from its science and art to the accounts of New World voyagers. In the works of Edmund Spenser and William Shakespeare, this spatial awareness manifests itself "topologically" --that is, in the relationship between places in their epic and dramatic works that can be identified as "inside" or "outside" and in the kinds of actions associated with each place. In Books One and Two of The Faerie Queene Spenser uses space both topographically and topologically. He maps the journeys of his knights through Fairyland by means of references to allegorical structures and features of the mythical landscape. At the same time, he contrasts inside spaces, where the knights struggle psychologically to define themselves in terms of certain moral virtues, and outside spaces, where that "self" intersects with Spenser's myth of English history. In his earliest chronicle plays of the 1580s and '90s Shakespeare also depicts English history topographically, as a series of epic confrontations enacted in outside, public spaces bearing familiar place -names. With Richard III, however, he begins to dramatize that history as related to moments of self-discovery achieved by the central character within the privacy of inside spaces and involving some conflict between the values of public and private life. Unlike Spenser, whose characters ultimately define themselves in terms of some value

  17. 36 year old man presenting with pancreatitis and a history of recent commencement of orlistat case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Matthew


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orlistat is an anti-obesity drug licensed in the United Kingdom for 7 years. We present a case of a patient who developed pancreatitis four days after commencing orlistat. Case presentation A 36 year old man presented to hospital with acute severe pancreatitis four days after starting a course of Orlistat, a lipase inhibitor used in the treatment of obesity. A diagnosis of drug related pancreatitis was made by exclusion of other causes of pancreatitis; he was a teetotaller, had a normal serum calcium, had no family history of pancreatitis or hyperlipidaemia, no history of trauma and had no evidence of gallstones on Computerised Tomography scan (CT. Conclusion Orlistat was the only drug that had been started recently and has been associated with pancreatitis previously. We found no case reports of similar cases, however 99 cases of orlistat related pancreatitis have been reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, but no causative link has been found in clinical trials by the drug company. It is therefore not on the list of possible complications or side effects of the drug.

  18. Reconstruction of Galaxy Star Formation Histories through SED Fitting: The Dense Basis Approach (United States)

    Iyer, Kartheik; Gawiser, Eric J.


    The standard assumption of a simplified parametric form for galaxy Star Formation Histories (SFHs) during Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) fitting biases estimations of physical quantities (Stellar Mass, SFR, age) and underestimates their true uncertainties. Here, we describe the Dense Basis formalism, which uses an atlas of well-motivated basis SFHs to provide robust reconstructions of galaxy SFHs and provides estimates of previously inaccessible quantities like the number of star formation episodes in a galaxy's past. We train and validate the method using a sample of realistic SFHs at z=1 drawn from current Semi Analytic Models and Hydrodynamical simulations, as well as SFHs generated using a stochastic prescription. We then apply the method on ~1100 CANDELS galaxies at 1high S/N SEDs for the N~O(10^8) galaxies from the upcoming generation of surveys including LSST, HETDEX and J-PAS.

  19. Entangled histories (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank


    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time.

  20. A brief history of behavioral and cognitive behavioral approaches to sexual offenders: Part 1. Early developments. (United States)

    Laws, D R; Marshall, W L


    This is the first of two papers which briefly outline the development of behavioral and cognitive behavioral treatment of sexual offenders from the mid-1800s to 1969. We first consider the historic role of Sigmund Freud and note that a broad scientific interest in deviant sexual behaviour was well established by 1900. In the early to mid-20th century, two psychologies were prominent in the development of behaviorial approaches, those of John B. Watson and Alfred Kinsey. Behavior therapy for a variety of problems emerged in the 1950s and soon found application to deviant sexuality. The development of penile plethysmography helped to focus interest on deviant sexual preference and behavior. While nonbehavioral approaches to sexual offenders paralleled these developments, a combination of behavioral and cognitive behavioral treatments began to emerge in the late 1960s which ultimately developed into the approaches more commonly seen today.

  1. Life history approaches to access and retention of nontraditional students in higher education: A cross-European approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Field


    Full Text Available Higher education participation has become an important focus for policy debate as well as for scholarly research. Partly this results from ongoing attempts to expand the higher education system in line with wider policies promoting a 'knowledge economy'; and partly it results from widespread policy concerns for equity and inclusion. In both cases, researchers and policymakers alike have tended to focus on access and entry to the system, with much less attention being paid to the distribution of outcomes from the system. This paper reports on a multi-country study that was aimed at critically understanding the experiences of non-traditional students in higher education, and in particular on the factors that helped promote retention. In doing so, the study straddles the sociology of social reproduction and the psychosociology of learner transformations.

  2. Private Information Disclosure from Web Searches. (The case of Google Web History)

    CERN Document Server

    Castelluccia, Claude; Perito, Daniele


    As the amount of personal information stored at remote service providers increases, so does the danger of data theft. When connections to remote services are made in the clear and authenticated sessions are kept using HTTP cookies, data theft becomes extremely easy to achieve. In this paper, we study the architecture of the world's largest service provider, i.e., Google. First, with the exception of a few services that can only be accessed over HTTPS (e.g., Gmail), we find that many Google services are still vulnerable to simple session hijacking. Next, we present the Historiographer, a novel attack that reconstructs the web search history of Google users, i.e., Google's Web History, even though such a service is supposedly protected from session hijacking by a stricter access control policy. The Historiographer uses a reconstruction technique inferring search history from the personalized suggestions fed by the Google search engine. We validate our technique through experiments conducted over real network tr...

  3. History effects in the sedimentation of light aerosols in turbulence: the case of marine snow

    CERN Document Server

    Guseva, Ksenia; Feudel, Ulrike; Tél, Tamás


    We analyze the effect of the Basset history force on the sedimentation of nearly neutrally buoyant particles, exemplified by marine snow, in a three-dimensional turbulent flow. Particles are characterized by Stokes numbers much smaller than unity, and still water settling velocities, measured in units of the Kolmogorov velocity, of order one. The presence of the history force in the Maxey-Riley equation leads to individual trajectories which differ strongly from the dynamics of both inertial particles without this force, and ideal settling tracers. When considering, however, a large ensemble of particles, the statistical properties of all three dynamics become more similar. The main effect of the history force is a rather slow, power-law type convergence to an asymptotic settling velocity of the center of mass, which is found numerically to be the settling velocity in still fluid. The spatial extension of the ensemble grows diffusively after an initial ballistic growth lasting up to ca. one large eddy turnove...

  4. Does history of childhood maltreatment make a difference in prison? A hierarchical approach on early family events and personality traits. (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Sakelliadis, Emmanouil I; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Goutas, Nikolaos; Sergentanis, Ioannis N; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Papadodima, StavroulaA


    This study attempts to assess childhood maltreatment in prison through a hierarchical approach. The hierarchical approach principally aims to disentangle the independent effects of childhood maltreatment upon psychiatric morbidity/personality traits, if any, from the burden that the adverse family conditions have already imposed to the mental health of the maltreated individual-prisoner. To this direction, a conceptual framework with five hierarchical levels was constructed, namely: immutable demographic factors; family conditions; childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, neglect and sexual abuse); personality traits, habits and psychiatric morbidity; prison-related variables. A self-administered, anonymous set (battery) of questionnaires was administered to 173 male prisoners in the Chalkida prison, Greece; 26% of prisoners disclosed childhood maltreatment. Psychiatric condition in the family, parental alcoholism and parental divorce correlated with childhood maltreatment. After adjustment for immutable demographic factors and family conditions, childhood maltreatment was associated with aggression (both in terms of Lifetime History of Aggression and Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire scores), illicit substance use, personal history of psychiatric condition, current smoking, impulsivity and alcohol abuse. In conclusion, childhood maltreatment represents a pivotal, determining factor in the life course of male prisoners. Delinquents seem to suffer from long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment in terms of numerous mental health aspects.

  5. Why do women stop reproducing before menopause? A life-history approach to age at last birth. (United States)

    Towner, Mary C; Nenko, Ilona; Walton, Savannah E


    Evolutionary biologists have long considered menopause to be a fundamental puzzle in understanding human fertility behaviour, as post-menopausal women are no longer physiologically capable of direct reproduction. Menopause typically occurs between 45 and 55 years of age, but across cultures and history, women often stop reproducing many years before menopause. Unlike age at first reproduction or even birth spacing, a woman nearing the end of her reproductive cycle is able to reflect upon the offspring she already has--their numbers and phenotypic qualities, including sexes. This paper reviews demographic data on age at last birth both across and within societies, and also presents a case study of age at last birth in rural Bangladeshi women. In this Bangladeshi sample, age at last birth preceded age at menopause by an average of 11 years, with marked variation around that mean, even during a period of high fertility. Moreover, age at last birth was not strongly related to age at menopause. Our literature review and case study provide evidence that stopping behaviour needs to be more closely examined as an important part of human reproductive strategies and life-history theory. Menopause may be a final marker of permanent reproductive cessation, but it is only one piece of the evolutionary puzzle.

  6. Explosion approach for external safety assessment: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D. Michael; Halford, Ann [Germanischer Lloyd, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Several questions related to the potential for explosions are explored as this became an important subject during an enterprise risk analysis. The understanding of explosions underwent a substantial evolution in the final 20 years of the 20{sup th} century following international research projects in Europe involving several research institutes, as well gas and oil companies. This led to the development of techniques that could be used to assess the potential consequences of explosions on oil, gas and petrochemical facilities. This paper presents an overview of the potential for explosions in communities close to industrial sites or pipelines right of way (RoW), where the standard explosion assessment methods cannot be applied. With reference to experimental studies, the potential for confined explosions in buildings and Vapor Cloud Explosions is explored. Vapor Cloud Explosion incidents in rural or urban areas are also discussed. The method used for incorporating possible explosion and fire events in risk studies is also described using a case study. Standard explosion assessment methodologies and a revised approach are compared as part of an on going evaluation of risk (author)

  7. Clinical presentation and diagnostic approach in cases of genitourinary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kapoor


    Full Text Available Objective: We herein describe the various modes of presentation in genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB and a simple diagnostic approach to it. Materials and Methods: We made a literature search through Medline database and various other peer-reviewed online journals to study the various modes of presentation in GUTB. We reviewed over 100 articles published in the last 10 years (1998 -- 2007, which were tracked through the key words like GUTB and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Results: GUTB has varied presentation and the most common way of presentation is in the form of irritative voiding symptoms, which are found in more than 50% of the patients. The usual frequency of organ involvement is: kidney, bladder, fallopian tube, and scrotum. The usual tests used to diagnose GUTB are the demonstration of mycobacterium in urine or body fluid and radiographic examination. Intravenous urography (IVU has been considered to be one of the most useful tests for the anatomical as well as the functional details of kidneys and ureters. In cases of renal failure, MRI can be used. Newer examinations such as radiometric liquid culture systems (i.e., BACTEC ® , Becton Dickinson,USA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR give rapid results and are highly sensitive in the identification of mycobacterium. Conclusion: GUTB can involve any part of the genitourinary system and presentation may vary from vague urinary symptoms to chronic kidney disease. Newer tests like radiometric liquid culture systems and polymerase chain reaction give rapid results and carry high diagnostic value.

  8. History and Philosophy of Science through Models: Some Challenges in the Case of "The Atom". (United States)

    Justi, Rosaria; Gilbert, John


    Suggests that the contribution of history and philosophy of science (HPS) to science education can be enhanced through a consideration of scientific models. Analyzes the curriculum and textbooks for 14-16 year olds in Brazil and the United Kingdom and identifies the use of hybrid models. (Contains 35 references.) (Author/YDS)

  9. (Re)Viewing a Review: A Case History of the "Review of Educational Research." (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Graue, Elizabeth


    Examined work that appeared in the "Review of Educational Research" (RER) since its first volume to explore the ways that educational issues and educational research found their ways into the journal and to consider what a review really is. Identifies three periods in the history of RER and shows changes in the review genre over time.…

  10. History effects in the sedimentation of light aerosols in turbulence: The case of marine snow (United States)

    Guseva, Ksenia; Daitche, Anton; Feudel, Ulrike; Tél, Tamás


    We analyze the effect of the Basset history force on the sedimentation of nearly neutrally buoyant particles, exemplified by marine snow, in a three-dimensional turbulent flow. Particles are characterized by Stokes numbers much smaller than unity, and still water settling velocities, measured in units of the Kolmogorov velocity, of order one. The presence of the history force in the Maxey-Riley equation leads to individual trajectories which differ strongly from the dynamics of both inertial particles without this force and ideal settling tracers. The main effect of the history force is an extraordinary slow, power-law type convergence to an asymptotic settling velocity of the center of mass, which is found numerically to be the settling velocity in still fluid. The spatial extension of the ensemble grows diffusively after an initial ballistic growth lasting up to circa one large eddy turnover time. We demonstrate that the settling of the center of mass for such light aggregates is best approximated by the settling dynamics in still fluid found with the history force, on top of which fluctuations appear which follow very closely those of the turbulent velocity field.

  11. Therapeutic Intervention in a Case of Ataxic Dysarthria Associated with a History of Amateur Boxing (United States)

    McMicken, Betty L.; Ostergren, Jennifer A.; Vento-Wilson, Margaret


    The goals of this study were to (a) describe the presenting features of ataxic dysarthria present in a participant with a long history of amateur boxing, (b) describe a novel application of behavioral principles in the treatment of this participant, and (c) discuss implications in the treatment of ataxic dysarthria secondary to boxing. The…

  12. Popular Medicine and Empirics in Greece, 1900-1950: An Oral History Approach. (United States)

    Hionidou, Violetta


    Western literature has focused on medical plurality but also on the pervasive existence of quacks who managed to survive from at least the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Focal points of their practices have been their efforts at enrichment and their extensive advertising. In Greece, empirical, untrained healers in the first half of the twentieth century do not fit in with this picture. They did not ask for payment, although they did accept 'gifts'; they did not advertise their practice; and they had fixed places of residence. Licensed physicians did not undertake a concerted attack against them, as happened in the West against the quacks, and neither did the state. In this paper, it is argued that both the protection offered by their localities to resident popular healers and the healers' lack of demand for monetary payment were jointly responsible for the lack of prosecutions of popular healers. Moreover, the linking of popular medicine with ancient traditions, as put forward by influential folklore studies, also reduced the likelihood of an aggressive discourse against the popular healers. Although the Greek situation in the early twentieth century contrasts with the historiography on quacks, it is much more in line with that on wise women and cunning-folk. It is thus the identification of these groups of healers in Greece and elsewhere, mostly through the use of oral histories but also through folklore studies, that reveals a different story from that of the aggressive discourse of medical men against quacks.

  13. Identifying postpartum intervention approaches to prevent type 2 diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rahim Zainab S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM have an increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. Despite this "window of opportunity," few intervention studies have targeted postpartum women with a history of GDM. We sought perspectives of women with a history of GDM to identify a barriers and facilitators to healthy lifestyle changes postpartum, and b specific intervention approaches that would facilitate participation in a postpartum lifestyle intervention program. Methods We used mixed methods to gather data from women with a prior history of GDM, including focus groups and informant interviews. Analysis of focus groups relied on grounded theory and used open-coding to categorize data by themes, while frequency distributions were used for the informant interviews. Results Of 38 women eligible to participate in focus groups, only ten women were able to accommodate their schedules to attend a focus group and 15 completed informant interviews by phone. We analyzed data from 25 women (mean age 35, mean pre-pregnancy BMI 28, 52% Caucasian, 20% African American, 12% Asian, 8% American Indian, 8% refused to specify. Themes from the focus groups included concern about developing type 2 diabetes, barriers to changing diet, and barriers to increasing physical activity. In one focus group, women expressed frustration about feeling judged by their physicians during their GDM pregnancy. Cited barriers to lifestyle change were identified from both methods, and included time and financial constraints, childcare duties, lack of motivation, fatigue, and obstacles at work. Informants suggested facilitators for lifestyle change, including nutrition education, accountability, exercise partners/groups, access to gyms with childcare, and home exercise equipment. All focus group and informant interview participants reported access to the internet, and the majority expressed interest in an intervention program delivered

  14. Applying patient centered approach in management of pulmonary tuberculosis: A case report from Malaysia. (United States)

    Atif, M; Sulaiman, Sas; Shafi, Aa; Muttalif, Ar; Ali, I; Saleem, F


    A 24 year university student with history of productive cough was registered as sputum smear confirmed case of pulmonary tuberculosis. During treatment, patient suffered from itchiness associated with anti tuberculosis drugs and was treated with chlorpheniramine (4mg) tablet. Patient missed twenty eight doses of anti tuberculosis drugs in continuation phase claiming that he was very busy in his studies and assignments. Upon questioning he further explained that he was quite healthy after five months and unable to concentrate on his studies after taking prescribed medicines. His treatment was stopped based on clinical improvement, although he did not complete six months therapy. Two major reasons; false perception of being completely cured and side effects associated with anti TB drugs might be responsible for non adherence. Non sedative anti histamines like fexofenadine, citrizine or loratidine should be preferred over first generation anti histamines (chlorpheniramine) in patients with such lifestyle. Patient had not completed full course of chemotherapy, which is preliminary requirement for a case to be classified as "cure" and "treatment completed". Moreover, patient had not defaulted for two consecutive months. Therefore, according to WHO treatment outcome categories, this patient can neither be classified as "cure" or "treatment completed" nor as "defaulter". Further elaboration of WHO treatment outcome categories is required for adequate classification of patients with similar characteristics. Likelihood of non adherence can be significantly reduced by applying the WHO recommended "Patient Centered Approach" strategy. Close friend, class mate or family member can be selected as treatment supporter to ensure adherence to treatment.

  15. History as a dog and pony show? The (mis)uses of history for marketing by Wells Fargo & Company


    Keulen, S.; Neilson, L.C.


    Purpose - This paper researches the question of how the history of the bank Wells Fargo & Company is used in its marketing as a case study for the rapid spread of history marketing in Europe. The paper assesses the critique of philosophers and academic historians towards history marketing by using the Wells Fargo & Company as case study. Design/methodology/approach - Historical quantitative analysis, focusing in a case study. Research limitation/implications - The paper finds that the use of ...

  16. Approaches to Climate Literacy at the American Museum of Natural History (United States)

    Steiner, R. V.


    The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) offers a suite of courses, workshops and special events in climate change education for audiences ranging from young children to adults and utilizing both online and in-person formats. These offerings are supported by rich digital resources including video, animations and data visualizations. These efforts have the potential to raise awareness of climate change, deepen understandings and improve public discourse and decision-making on this critical issue. For adult audiences, Our Earth's Future offers participants a five-week course at AMNH that focuses on climate change science, impacts and communication, taking advantage of both AMNH expertise and exhibitry. Online versions of this course include both a ten-week course as well as three different three-week thematic courses. (The longer course is now available as a MOOC in Coursera.) These activities have been supported by a grant from IMLS. The results of independent evaluation provide insight into participant needs and how they might be addressed. For K-12 educators, the Museum's Seminars on Science program of online teacher professional development offers, in collaboration with its higher education partners, a graduate course in climate change that is authored by both an AMNH curator and leading NASA scientists. Developed with support from both NASA and NSF, the course provides a semester-equivalent introduction to climate change science for educators, including digital resources, assignments and discussions for classroom use. The results of independent evaluation will be presented. For younger audiences, the presentation will highlight resources from the AMNH Ology site; television programming conducted in partnership with HBO; Science Bulletinsvideos that include current climate change research; resources related to the GRACE mission for tracking water from space; and special event programming at the Museum on climate change. This presentation will address the

  17. The Future of History and History Teaching. (United States)

    Commager, Henry Steele


    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  18. Approach to cases with postpartum haemorrhage: Retrospective analysis of 41 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan İncebıyık


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess treatment approaches and outcomes in 41 cases with postpartum haemorrhage (PPH. Methods: Screening the electronic database of the hospital identified 41 cases admitted to the obstetrics clinic with a diagnosis of PPH (ICD codes: O72, O72, O72.2 between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2013. The clinical findings and the results of the surgical and medical treatments used were noted in all the patients. Results: Forty-one cases with PPH were detected who had been managed at the clinic during a 3-year period. Normal spontaneous vaginal delivery (26 patients; 63.4% was the most common type of delivery. Uterine atony was the most common cause of PPH in 30 patients (73.2%. Medical therapy was the most common therapeutic approach in PPH caused by uterine atony (16 patients; 53.3%, followed by total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH plus bilateral hypogastric artery ligation (9 patients; 30.0%, uterine packing sutures plus bilateral hypogastric artery ligation (BHAL (4 patients; 13.3% and intrauterine balloon tamponade (IUBT (one patient; 2.4%. Only one of 3 patients with uterine rupture underwent a hysterectomy. Three patients in whom placental adhesion anomalies were detected were treated by a combination of manual removal of the placenta, uterine curettage and IUBT. Conclusion: The results suggest that care should be taken regarding PPH in pregnant women, even in those without any risk factors. In particular, the third phase of labour should be carefully monitored. Medical treatment and organ-sparing surgery are generally associated with positive outcomes in patients with stable haemodynamic status. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 18-23

  19. Cross-border collaboration in history among Nordic students: A case study about creating innovative ICT didactic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Spante


    Full Text Available Gränsöverskridande Nordisk Undervisning/Utdanelse (GNU, meaning Cross-Border Nordic Education, the larger Nordic project, under which this case study was carried out, aims at developing innovative, cross-border teaching models in different subject domains in elementary school, including mathematics, language, science, social studies and history. This paper provides an in-depth description and analysis of how four social science and history elementary school teachers and their 70 students (5th–7th grades worked together between November 2011 and December 2012. Previous research regarding the use of information and communication technology (ICT in history education in elementary schools is limited, thus calling for contemporary investigations in this particular subject domain. The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK model, enhancing the combination of teachers’ pedagogical, content and technical competence, was used as the analytical framework, together with nation-specific curricula and the European Union’s recommendations regarding students’ skills for lifelong learning. A range of empirical materials was analyzed, such as classroom observations, students’ video productions, texts and photos distributed and shared on a mutual blog, real-time interaction and teachers’ communication. The teachers tried out two ICT didactic models. In the asynchronous model, the major focus was on the form and content of the video productions being shared, whereas work with the synchronous model concentrated on the content and quality of the communication. Notwithstanding obstacles, cross-border collaboration provided added value. The nation-specific differences triggered curiosity and motivation to produce digital presentations of history content to be understood by the students in the three nations, facilitating goal fulfillment in communication skills and digital competence. However, achieving subject-specific goals in history

  20. A case of Hydrops fetalis due to Kell alloimmunization: A perinatal approach to a rare case

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    Arzu Akdag


    Full Text Available Introduction: While the routine administration of Rhesus immunoglobulin has significantly reduced the incidence of this type of alloimmunization, maternal alloimmunization to other red cell antigens continues to contribute to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Although the Kell antigen is found on the red cells of only 9% of the population, attention has increasingly been focused on Kell antibodies. Case Report: We present a case of fetal hydrops who was sonographically detected at 30th week of pregnancy. Antenatal tests for evaluation of fetal condition clearly showed the critical level of hemolytic disease but the baby was delivered prematurely due to fetal distress. The combination of anemia, reticulocytopenia, hydrops fetalis, and positive indirect Coombs test suggested Kell isoimmunization. The baby was treated by exchange transfusion with the Kell-negative packed red cell succesfully, and was discharged on postnatal 30th day. Conclusion: Here we describe a case of hydrops fetalis caused by Kell alloimmunization that was determined in postnatal period, and thus we plan to discuss the perinatal approach to the Kell immunization.

  1. New technologies applied to family history: a particular case of southern Europe in the eighteenth century. (United States)

    García, Manuel Pérez


    In this article, the author explains how the support of new technologies has helped historians to develop their research over the last few decades. The author, therefore, summarizes the application of both database and genealogical programs for the southern Europe family studies as a methodological tool. First, the author will establish the importance of the creation of databases using the File Maker program, after which they will explain the value of using genealogical programs such as Genopro and Heredis. The main aim of this article is to give detail about the use of these new technologies as applied to a particular study of southern Europe, specifically the Crown of Castile, during the late modern period. The use of these computer programs has helped to develop the field of social sciences and family history, in particular, social history, during the last decade.

  2. Reference Data Layers for Earth and Environmental Science: History, Frameworks, Science Needs, Approaches, and New Technologies (United States)

    Lenhardt, W. C.


    Global Mapping Project, Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD), International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP), hydrology, solid earth dynamics, sedimentary geology, climate modeling, integrated assessments and so on all have needs for or have worked to develop consistently integrated data layers for Earth and environmental science. This paper will present an overview of an abstract notion of data layers of this types, what we are referring to as reference data layers for Earth and environmental science, highlight some historical examples, and delve into new approaches. The concept of reference data layers in this context combines data availability, cyberinfrastructure and data science, as well as domain science drivers. We argue that current advances in cyberinfrastructure such as iPython notebooks and integrated science processing environments such as iPlant's Discovery Environment coupled with vast arrays of new data sources warrant another look at the how to create, maintain, and provide reference data layers. The goal is to provide a context for understanding science needs for reference data layers to conduct their research. In addition, to the topics described above this presentation will also outline some of the challenges to and present some ideas for new approaches to addressing these needs. Promoting the idea of reference data layers is relevant to a number of existing related activities such as EarthCube, RDA, ESIP, the nascent NSF Regional Big Data Innovation Hubs and others.

  3. From Suns to Life: A Chronological Approach to the History of Life on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé; Montmerle, Thierry; Pascal, Robert; Reisse, Jacques


    This review emerged from several interdisciplinary meetings and schools gathering a group of astronomers, geologists, biologists, and chemists, attempting to share their specialized knowledge around a common question: how did life emerge on Earth? Their ultimate goal was to provide some kind of answer as a prerequisite to an even more demanding question: is life universal? The resulting state-of-the-art articles were written by twenty-five scientists telling a not-so linear story, but on the contrary, highlighting problems, gaps, and controversies. Needless to say, this approach yielded no definitive answers to both questions. However, by adopting a chronological approach to the question of the emergence of life on Earth, the only place where we know for sure that life exists; it was possible to break down this question into several sub-topics that can be addressed by the different disciplines. The main chapters of this review present the formation and evolution of the solar system (3); the building of a habi...

  4. Family history of hypertension increases risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem Endeshaw


    Advanced maternal age (AOR=4.79;95% CI 1.031-22.18, family history of hypertension (AOR=11.16;95% CI 5.41-41.43, history of diabetes mellitus (AOR=6.17;95% CI 2.11-20.33, UTI in the current pregnancy (AOR=6.58;95% CI 2.93-14.73, failure to comply with iron and folic acid supplement during pregnancy (AOR=8.32;95% CI 3.35-20.62, lack of exercise (AOR=3.33;95% CI 1.35-8.17, multiple pregnancy (AOR=4.05;95% CI 1.57-12.27, anemia (AOR=4.19;95% CI 1.27-13.92, and periodontal disease or gingivitis (AOR =3.51;95% CI 1.14-10.83 were associated with preeclampsia. Conclusion Family history of hypertension was the most dominant risk factor for preeclampsia in pregnant women. Encouraging pregnant women to have health seeking behavior during pregnancy would provide a chance to diagnose preeclampsia as early as possible.

  5. Inferring the demographic history from DNA sequences: An importance sampling approach based on non-homogeneous processes. (United States)

    Ait Kaci Azzou, S; Larribe, F; Froda, S


    In Ait Kaci Azzou et al. (2015) we introduced an Importance Sampling (IS) approach for estimating the demographic history of a sample of DNA sequences, the skywis plot. More precisely, we proposed a new nonparametric estimate of a population size that changes over time. We showed on simulated data that the skywis plot can work well in typical situations where the effective population size does not undergo very steep changes. In this paper, we introduce an iterative procedure which extends the previous method and gives good estimates under such rapid variations. In the iterative calibrated skywis plot we approximate the effective population size by a piecewise constant function, whose values are re-estimated at each step. These piecewise constant functions are used to generate the waiting times of non homogeneous Poisson processes related to a coalescent process with mutation under a variable population size model. Moreover, the present IS procedure is based on a modified version of the Stephens and Donnelly (2000) proposal distribution. Finally, we apply the iterative calibrated skywis plot method to a simulated data set from a rapidly expanding exponential model, and we show that the method based on this new IS strategy correctly reconstructs the demographic history.

  6. The “Natural” History of Medically Treated Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: What Can an Evidence-Based Approach Tell Us?

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    Colin Bruce Josephson


    Full Text Available We systematically reviewed the literature to describe the “natural” history of medically treated temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. No population-based studies recruiting incident cases of TLE irrespective of age exist. Prospective, population-based studies were limited to those recruiting only childhood-onset TLE or those reporting TLE as a subgroup of cohorts of focal epilepsies. Few studies have been performed in the “MRI era” limiting information on natural history secondary to specific pathologies. Available data suggests that TLE is highly variable, with unpredictable transient remissions and low rates of seizure freedom (30 to 50%. Etiology and failure of first and second drug seem to be the most important predictors for treatment prognosis. The role of initial precipitating injuries remains speculative, as imaging information of related events is either missing or conflicting. Prospective cohorts of new-onset TLE with long-term followup using advanced MRI techniques, timely EEG recordings, and assessments of psychiatric comorbidities are needed.

  7. Histopathologic findings in two cases with history of intrastromal corneal ring segments insertion

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    Mohammad Al-Amry


    Full Text Available Intrastromal corneal ring segments (INTACS implantation for mild myopia or keratoconus is simple and effective in most cases. Rarely, major complications can occur due to implantation. In this case report, we present two examples of possible intraoperative and postoperative complications of INTACS. The first case had histopathologic documentation of Descemet′s membrane perforation as an intraoperative complication and the second case had accumulation of foamy histiocytes along the lamellar channels which has not been previously reported. These complications suggest further study is required on the long term effect of INTACS implantation on corneal tissue.

  8. [History of an epidemiological route between Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso: the case of the Koudougou sleeping sickness foci]. (United States)

    Kiendrébéogo, D; Kambiré, R; Jamonneau, V; Lingué, K; Solano, P; Courtin, F


    In the first half of the XXth century, while Upper-Volta (now Burkina Faso) was suffering a terrible epidemic of sleeping sickness, the French colonial administration encouraged the movement of people from Upper-Volta to Ivory Coast to meet their demands for labour. This led to the establishment of Mossi villages, such as those of Koudougou, in the Ivorian forest with populations originating from areas of Upper-Volta that were not only densely populated but also severely affected by sleeping sickness. Since 2000, most cases of sleeping sickness in the Koudougou district of Burkina Faso have been in people originally from Ivory Coast. Who are they? Where did they settle in Burkina Faso? Where do they come from in Ivory Coast? After having retraced the epidemiological history of Koudougou villages in Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast, the history of ten cases of sleeping sickness detected passively at Koudougou hospital since 2000 were analysed. All cases originated from the forest area of Ivory Coast. Understanding the spread of sleeping sickness between Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast will assist in the identification of areas of disease risk.

  9. Multiple Sclerosis and Several Demographic Characteristics, Family History of MS, and Month of Birth: A Case-Control Study

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    Full Text Available Background Several factors have been reported as risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS; however, the main causes of the disease are still unknown. A geographical area with a low MS incidence is Ahvaz, Iran. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of several demographic characteristics, family history, and birth month with MS in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a case-control study including 155 MS cases and 155 controls matched for age, sex, and residential status. The participants were selected randomly, using a systematic method, from the MS patients referred to the MS Society of Khuzestan (Iran. The data collection tool was a standardized questionnaire designed by the authors to assess demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including mean, frequency, and standard deviation and inferential statistical tests including χ2, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression using SPSS version 19. Results In both cases and controls, no significant associations were found between Arab ethnicity and incidence of MS, marital status and risk of MS in Ahvaz, or more than 15-year residency in Ahvaz, birth in Khuzestan, and month of birth and the risk of MS (P > 0.05. However, there was a marginally significant association between living from birth to age 15 years in Ahvaz and MS (P = 0.05. Furthermore, there was an association between a family history of MS and the risk of MS in Ahvaz (P = 0.02, which was significant in univariate logistic regression (P = 0.006. Conclusions The findings suggested that according to the ecological conditions of Ahvaz, a family history of MS may increase the risk of developing MS.

  10. A Practice Concepts Symposium on Drug Misuse in the Elderly: Examination of a Case History. (United States)

    Silverstone, Barbara; And Others


    Set of articles consisting of an introduction (Barbara Silverstone, et al.) and case study concerning drug misuse in the elderly, and six papers examining the case from the perspectives of clinical pharmacology (William Simonson); pharmacology (Peter Lamy); psychiatry (Charles Gaitz and Nancy Wilson); nursing (Delores Alford); social work (Janet…

  11. Fixed full-arch implant-supported prostheses in a patient with epidermolysis bullosa: a clinical case history report. (United States)

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Gomar-Vercher, Sonia; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Guzmán-Letelier, Marcelo; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel


    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a rare skin disorder characterized by blister formation in response to minor trauma and accompanied by extracutaneous manifestations. The use of endosseous implants to support fixed prostheses for the rehabilitation of patients with recessive dystrophic EB might provide a considerably better clinical treatment outcome than traditional prosthodontic interventions. This case history report describes the clinical management of such an afflicted patient. Implants were placed immediately following teeth extractions and subsequently loaded with fixed full-arch prostheses. This treatment option is proposed for patients with recessive dystrophic EB to preclude mucosal irritation associated with wearing removable prostheses.

  12. Preservice Teachers' Application of a Problem-Solving Approach on Multimedia Case (United States)

    Kilbane, Clare R.


    This study explored the use of case-based pedagogy to promote preservice teachers' problem-solving proficiency. Students in a web-supported course called CaseNEX learned to use a problem-solving approach when analyzing multimedia case studies. Their performance was compared with students in two groups who had no exposure to case methods--other…

  13. A successfully treated case of severe periodontitis using interdisciplinary approach: Report of a case

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    Mahajan Ajay


    Full Text Available Treatment options for severely misaligned teeth with advanced bone loss are limited. We report the management of a case of advanced periodontitis in a labially placed extruded maxillary canine. A 24 years old male reported to the periodontal clinic to preserve his mobile and misaligned upper left lateral incisor. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed advanced attachment loss with bone resorption around the affected tooth. The decision was taken to reconstruct the lost periodontal tissues in coordination with orthodontic intervention to align the tooth in a functionally esthetic position. At the end of the combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment, the tooth was preserved and was well-aligned in the arch; the patient was satisfied with the treatment outcome. It can be concluded that severely misaligned teeth with advanced bone loss can be salvaged with a combined and meticulously planned Periodontal Orthodontic treatment approach.

  14. A successfully treated case of severe periodontitis using interdisciplinary approach: Report of a case (United States)

    Ajay, Mahajan; Negi, Kehar Singh; Saroj, Thakur; Kanwarjeet, Asi Singh


    Treatment options for severely misaligned teeth with advanced bone loss are limited. We report the management of a case of advanced periodontitis in a labially placed extruded maxillary canine. A 24 years old male reported to the periodontal clinic to preserve his mobile and misaligned upper left lateral incisor. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed advanced attachment loss with bone resorption around the affected tooth. The decision was taken to reconstruct the lost periodontal tissues in coordination with orthodontic intervention to align the tooth in a functionally esthetic position. At the end of the combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment, the tooth was preserved and was well-aligned in the arch; the patient was satisfied with the treatment outcome. It can be concluded that severely misaligned teeth with advanced bone loss can be salvaged with a combined and meticulously planned Periodontal Orthodontic treatment approach. PMID:27041848

  15. The History of Petroleum Pollution in Malaysia; Urgent Need for Integrated Prevention Approach

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    Mahyar Sakari


    Full Text Available Petroleum pollution is known as point and non-point source of contaminations in the environment. A major class of petroleum contaminant is groups of compounds consist of two or more fused benzene rings called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic. Source identification of petroleum pollution is necessary to prevent pollution entry into the environment. Eight sedimentary cores were obtained from developed and developing areas around Peninsular Malaysia to investigate the historical profile of PAHs, their characteristics and its possible origins. The results showed that the PAHs concentrations varied from very minimum to 2400 ng/g d. w. in average quarter century intervals. Most of the studied locations showed high contribution of PAHs from combusted fuel, coal, biomasses and wood materials except for the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia in which revealed dominance of petroleum products. The findings indicate that PAHs are delivered from different intermediate materials such as asphalt, street dust, vehicular emission and crankcase oil. However, there has been a decline of PAHs input into the marine environment in recent years; petroleum is shown to be a significant cause of marine pollution since the second quarter of 20th century. An overview on sourced materials of petroleum pollution indicates multi-approach necessity toward pollution control, regardless of concentration and possible degradation processes. Various sectors both governmental and non-governmental are needed for prevention and control of petroleum pollution where different sources apparently contribute to the pollution generation process.

  16. Functional gene polymorphism to reveal species history: the case of the CRTISO gene in cultivated carrots.

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    Vanessa Soufflet-Freslon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carrot is a vegetable cultivated worldwide for the consumption of its root. Historical data indicate that root colour has been differentially selected over time and according to geographical areas. Root pigmentation depends on the relative proportion of different carotenoids for the white, yellow, orange and red types but only internally for the purple one. The genetic control for root carotenoid content might be partially associated with carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO has emerged as a regulatory step in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway and could be a good candidate to show how a metabolic pathway gene reflects a species genetic history. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the nucleotide polymorphism and the linkage disequilibrium among the complete CRTISO sequence, and the deviation from neutral expectation were analysed by considering population subdivision revealed with 17 microsatellite markers. A sample of 39 accessions, which represented different geographical origins and root colours, was used. Cultivated carrot was divided into two genetic groups: one from Middle East and Asia (Eastern group, and another one mainly from Europe (Western group. The Western and Eastern genetic groups were suggested to be differentially affected by selection: a signature of balancing selection was detected within the first group whereas the second one showed no selection. A focus on orange-rooted carrots revealed that cultivars cultivated in Asia were mainly assigned to the Western group but showed CRTISO haplotypes common to Eastern carrots. CONCLUSION: The carotenoid pathway CRTISO gene data proved to be complementary to neutral markers in order to bring critical insight in the cultivated carrot history. We confirmed the occurrence of two migration events since domestication. Our results showed a European background in material from Japan and Central Asia. While confirming the introduction of European

  17. Rethinking the early history of post-Vygotskian psychology: the case of the Kharkov school. (United States)

    Yasnitsky, Anton; Ferrari, Michel


    Between the death of Vygotsky in 1934 and the discovery of Vygotsky's work in the West in 1962, Vygotskian psychology was developed through research done by the first generation of Vygotsky's students and their followers, primarily associated with the Kharkov School. Surprisingly, these studies carried out in the 1930s, of great importance for the development of virtually all subsequent Vygotskian psychology, still remain largely unknown; this represents a significant gap in understanding the history of Vygotskian psychology as an empirical study of consciousness. This paper provides a systematic overview of the research agenda of the Kharkov group between 1931 and 1941 and provides new insights into the early development of Vygotskian psychology.

  18. Applying adaptive management in resource use in South African National Parks: A case study approach

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    Kelly Scheepers


    Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks has a history of formal and informal natural resource use that is characterised by polarised views on national conservation interests and benefits to communities. Current efforts aim to determine the sustainability of existing resource use in parks and to formalise these activities through the development of resource use protocols. The resource use policy of SANParks outlines principles for sustainable resource use, including greater involvement of local communities in management of protected areas and an adaptive management approach to determining sustainable use levels. This paper examines three case studies on plant use in national parks with regard to the development of criteria and indicators for monitoring resource use, and the role of thresholds of potential concern in measuring effectiveness of managing for sustainable use levels. Opportunities and challenges for resource use management are identified. Findings show that platforms for discussion and knowledge sharing, including research committees and community associations, are critical to building relationships, trust and a shared vision of sustainable resource use between stakeholders. However, additional capacity building is needed to enable local community structures to manage internal social conflicts and jealousy, and to participate fully in monitoring efforts. Long-term monitoring is essential for developing flexible harvest prescriptions for plant use, but this is a time-consuming and resource-intensive exercise. Flexible management strategies are difficult to implement and sometimes command-and-control measures are necessary to protect rare or endangered species. A holistic approach that considers resource use in national parks as a complement to broader community development initiatives offers a way forward.Conservation implications: There is no blueprint for the development of sustainable resource use systems and resource use is often

  19. Red blood cell folate levels in pregnant women with a history of mood disorders: a case series (United States)

    Yaremco, Elyse; Inglis, Angela; Innis, Sheila M.; Hippman, Catriona; Carrion, Prescilla; Lamers, Yvonne; Honer, William G.; Austin, Jehannine


    Objective Maternal folate supplementation reduces offspring risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) and other congenital abnormalities. Maternal red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations of >906nmol/L have been associated with the lowest risk of having an NTD affected pregnancy. Mood disorders (e.g. depression, bipolar disorder) are common among women and can be associated with folate deficiency. Thus, pregnant women with histories of mood disorders may be prone to RBC folate levels insufficient to provide optimal protection against NTDs. While previous studies have assessed RBC folate concentrations in pregnant women from the general population, none have looked specifically at a group of pregnant women who have a history of a mood disorder. Methods We collected data about RBC folate concentrations and folic acid supplement intake during early pregnancy (906nmol/L, despite all participants reporting current daily use of folic acid supplements. Data regarding offspring were available for 22 women: birthweights ranged from 2296g to 4819g, and congenital abnormalities were identified in two (hypoplastic left heart, annular pancreas). Conclusion Data from this exploratory case series suggest a need for future larger scale controlled studies investigating RBC folate concentrations in early pregnancy and offspring outcomes among women with and without histories of mood disorders. PMID:23760977


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    Slavko Arsovski


    Full Text Available There are a number of approaches for quality improvement that start from previously defined goal and definition of activities which lead to achievement of that goal. In this deterministic approach, risk in quality improvement has constantly been reduced by improvement activities, with relatively little increase in goal function. The basic approach is presented in the paper as well as measures and activities for decease of risk and vulnerability of quality improvement. This approach is tested in large company and part of results of model testing is presented in this paper.

  1. Phage therapy--history from Twort and d'Herelle through Soviet experience to current approaches. (United States)

    Chanishvili, Nina


    Felix d'Herelle proposed the use of bacteriophages for the therapy of human and animal bacterial infections at the beginning of the 20th century. This approach, however, was not widely accepted in the West. After the emergence of antibiotics in 1940s, phage research was diverted to a more fundamental level. At the same time, phage therapy was widely practiced in the Soviet Union due to collaboration of Felix d'Herelle with his Georgian colleagues. The majority of the articles dedicated to this subject are from the 1930s and 1940s. The old Soviet literature indicates that phage therapy was used extensively to treat a wide range of bacterial infections in the areas of dermatology (Beridze, 1938), ophthalmology (Rodigina, 1938), urology (Tsulukidze, 1938), stomatology (Ruchko and Tretyak, 1936), pediatrics (Alexandrova et al., 1935; Lurie, 1938), otolaryngology (Ermolieva, 1939), and surgery (Tsulukidze, 1940, 1941). These articles were published in Russian and thus were not readily available to Western scientists. The Western skepticism toward phage therapy itself was again followed by renewed interest and reappraisal, mainly due to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Often the experiments described in the old Soviet articles were not designed properly: the use of placebos and the coding of preparations were absent from most of the studies, number of patients in the experimental and control groups was unequal or missing, sometimes no control groups were used at all, or patients treated previously unsuccessfully with antibiotics were employed as an experimental group and as control. The results obtained and the efficiency of phage prophylaxis were estimated by comparing with results obtained in previous years. In most publications, phage titers and descriptions of methods used for evaluation of the results are not specified. Nevertheless, past experience indicates some effectiveness of phage therapy and prophylaxis. Therefore, these clinical results should not

  2. Serratia marcescens: A case history to illustrate the value of radiographer history taking in the face of poor health professional communication

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    Hannah, Susan [Medical Imaging Department, The Townsville Hospital, 100 Angus Smith Dr, Douglas, QLD 4814 (Australia); McConnell, Jonathan [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC3800 (Australia)], E-mail:


    The radiographer is often the only point of contact that a patient may have with the Medical Imaging team. Assessment of the patient by the radiographer is a role that has tacitly and historically occurred in most practice, though in this age of litigation and heavy workloads it is prudent to suggest that a formulated approach should be adopted. This may occur in undergraduate education and be developed in the postgraduate forum such that good imaging is performed and appropriate extra information reaches the radiologist that may often be lacking in the referral historical details. This case based article uses an unusual presentation of osteomyelitis to illustrate where radiographer patient assessment, communication and teamwork could have contributed to a more rapid and hence higher quality experience for one situation, and also demonstrates the difficulties of eliciting information locked in the memories of patients.

  3. Family history of hypertension increases risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study



    Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortalities worldwide. Despite extensive research, the underlying cause of preeclampsia remains poorly understood. This study aimed to offer compelling evidence on the important risk factors of preeclampsia in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Methods A case control study was conducted in public health facilities of Bahir Dar city from September 2014 to January 2015. A total of 453 (151 cases and 302 co...

  4. Using Language Objectives to Integrate Language and Content Instruction: A Case History of Planning and Implementation Challenges (United States)

    Hoare, Philip; Kong, Stella; Bell, Jill


    This paper provides a case study of the use of language objectives within a newly developed English language teacher education programme in Hong Kong. The programme development team decided to adopt a content-based language teaching approach to support students' second language development through content learning. The teacher education programme…

  5. Epigastric hernia in pregnancy: a management plan based on a systematic review of literature and a case history. (United States)

    Debrah, Samuel A; Okpala, Amalachukwu M


    Symptomatic epigastric hernia is rare in pregnant women. A case history, management of which prompted a systematic review of the literature and proposed plan for treatment of such cases, is hereby presented. There is paucity of information on management of this condition in the standard literature as searches in Pubmed, Science Direct, Hinari, Medline, African Journal Online, Bioone as well as Cochrane library revealed. There are two schools of thought for the management of hernias in pregnancy-watchful waiting and herniorrhaphy in pregnancy. There is no consensus or definite guideline on the management of epigastric hernias in pregnancy. Based on the literature review, a management algorithm is proposed, which combines the two schools of thought.

  6. Peter Heller's a Child Analysis with Anna Freud: the significance of the case for the history of child psychoanalysis. (United States)

    Midgley, Nick


    A Child Analysis with Anna Freud, a collection of Anna Freud's detailed case notes of her treatment of the young Peter Heller between 1929 and 1932, was first published in English in 1990. Not only does this work give us direct access to Anna Freud's ways of thinking and working at a crucial period in the early history of child analysis; it is also one of the few records of an adult reflecting in depth on the experience of being in analysis as a child. Yet to date this work has received little attention in the psychoanalytic literature. In an attempt to redress this neglect, the Heller case study is placed in the context of Anna Freud's emerging ideas about child analysis. In particular, its significance in the development of her psychoanalytic thinking is investigated in the light of her 1927 book, The Technique of Child Analysis.

  7. Case histories : implementation of new liner hanger technology in south central Venezuela significantly improves operations in complex wells

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    Jimenez, C.; Soto, S.; Leon, A. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Marval, P.; Schoener-Scott, M. [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States)


    Liner hangers are used in deep drilling operations to eliminate the need for full casing strings. However, conventional liner-hanger system do not always permit tool rotation, and liner-hanger failures can result in the complete loss of the wellbore. This study discussed an expandable liner hanger designed to withstand aggressive reaming as well as drilling to depths. Three case histories of wells located in southern Venezuela were used to compare the use of traditional and expandable liner hanger systems. The studies considered liner weight, and the pressure differentials caused by the use of positive seals. The study showed that conventional liner systems are not suited to the extreme environments of the Venezuelan heavy oil reserves. Multiple leak paths were observed. The expandable liner system provided a gas-tight seal, improved flow paths, and reduced the need for remedial cement jobs. It was concluded that use of the expandable systems also increased worker safety. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  8. Long-term misuse of zopiclone in an alcohol dependent woman with a history of anorexia nervosa: a case report

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    Keaney Francis


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Z-drugs, zaleplon, zopiclone and zolpidem, are short-acting hypnotics which act at the same receptor as the benzodiazepines, but seemingly without the potential for misuse and the development of dependence of the older benzodiazepines. However, with increased prescribing of Z-drugs, reports of misuse and possible dependence began to appear in the literature, particularly in people with a history of substance misuse and comorbid psychiatric illness. Here we report the case of a woman with a history of chronic zopiclone use and anorexia nervosa, admitted for alcohol detoxification. Case presentation A 31-year old Caucasian British woman with a history of long-term zopiclone use and anorexia nervosa was admitted as an inpatient for a ten-day alcohol detoxification. Her weekly (four days out of seven intake of alcohol was 180 units and her daily intake of zopiclone, 30 mg. Apart from a short period five years ago, she had been taking zopiclone for 13 years at daily doses of up to 90 mg. She admitted to using 'on top' of her prescribed medication, purchasing extra tablets from friends or receiving them gratis from her partner. After detoxification from alcohol and zopiclone, she was prescribed diazepam which she found ineffectual and voiced her intention of returning to zopiclone on leaving the hospital. Conclusion Zopiclone is generally regarded as safer than benzodiazepines, however, this particular individual, who was using high doses of zopiclone over many years, may provide further evidence of a risk of dependency when this drug is prescribed for substance users with a comorbid psychiatric illness.

  9. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea. (United States)

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T


    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  10. Anesthesia Management of an Emergent Caesarean Section Case with the History of Central Core Myopathy: Case Report



    Central core myopatyhy is a rarely seen hereditary neuromuscular disorder that is involved in congenitally myopathies group. The disease is characterized by muscular weakness, skeleton system deformities, increased malign hyperthermia sensitivity and anesthesia management is critically important. In these patients, prolonged muscular weakness and malign hyperthermia that can complicate the perioperative management are the most critical risks. In this case report, anesthesia management of an e...

  11. The Infertile Crescent Revisited: A Case (Study for the History of Archaeology

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    Jennifer Bracewell


    Full Text Available This paper examines the history of archaeological research concerning the eastern coast of James Bay in northern Quebec. The construction of prehistory in northern Quebec began with the earliest contact of Europeans with Native Canadians and developed from religious explanations to Classical Evolutionary ones to Culture-Historical ones to Neoevolutionary scientific ones. Although the theoretical interpretations changed over time, the content remained surprisingly constant. The challenges of research in the area, and the resulting paucity of data, led to generalizations that telescoped thousands of years and eight million square miles into a single interpretation, based largely on eighteenth- and nineteenth-century assumptions about hunter-gatherer mobility, subsistence and social evolution. This paper traces how these assumptions have affected the archaeology of the twentieth century in James Bay and northern Quebec.

  12. Culture, history, and health in an Australian aboriginal community: the case of utopia. (United States)

    Anderson, Heather; Kowal, Emma


    The poor health of Indigenous Australians is well established. However, the health of residents of one remote community in the Northern Territory of Australia called Utopia has been found recently to be much better than expected. In this article, we draw on historical anthropological research to explain this finding. We trace how cultural and social structures were maintained through changing eras of government policy from the 1930s, and show how these structures strengthened psychosocial determinants of health. We argue that the mainstream psychosocial determinants of social cohesion and self-efficacy are usefully reconceptualized in an Indigenous context as connectedness to culture and land, and collective efficacy, respectively. Continuity of cultural and social structures into the 1940s was facilitated by a combination of factors including the relatively late colonial occupation, the intercultural practices typical of the pastoral industry, the absence of a mission or government settlement, and the individual personalities and histories of those connected to Utopia.

  13. Case histories of organophosphate pesticides killing birds of prey in the United States (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kolbe, E.J.; Hill, E.F.; Blus, L.J.


    Since 1982 when secondary. poisoning of Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur on cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested for organophosphate (OP) poisoning in selected birds of prey found dead. This report documents the circumstances for a number of. cases where birds of prey were killed by OP pesticides in the United States. Many of the cases were brought to our attention by the U S. Fish and Wildlife Service Division of Law Enforcement The cases may be divided into three categories: misuse, approved use, and unknown. Now that we are looking for OP poisoning of birds of prey, we are finding it more frequently than previously suspected.

  14. Global change ecotoxicology: Identification of early life history bottlenecks in marine invertebrates, variable species responses and variable experimental approaches. (United States)

    Byrne, M


    Climate change is a threat to marine biota because increased atmospheric CO₂ is causing ocean warming, acidification, hypercapnia and decreased carbonate saturation. These stressors have toxic effects on invertebrate development. The persistence and success of populations requires all ontogenetic stages be completed successfully and, due to their sensitivity to environmental stressors, developmental stages may be a population bottleneck in a changing ocean. Global change ecotoxicology is being used to identify the marine invertebrate developmental stages vulnerable to climate change. This overview of research, and the methodologies used, shows that most studies focus on acidification, with few studies on ocean warming, despite a long history of research on developmental thermotolerance. The interactive effects of stressors are poorly studied. Experimental approaches differ among studies. Fertilization in many species exhibits a broad tolerance to warming and/or acidification, although different methodologies confound inter-study comparisons. Early development is susceptible to warming and most calcifying larvae are sensitive to acidification/increased pCO₂. In multistressor studies moderate warming diminishes the negative impact of acidification on calcification in some species. Development of non-calcifying larvae appears resilient to near-future ocean change. Although differences in species sensitivities to ocean change stressors undoubtedly reflect different tolerance levels, inconsistent handling of gametes, embryos and larvae probably influences different research outcomes. Due to the integrative 'developmental domino effect', life history responses will be influenced by the ontogenetic stage at which experimental incubations are initiated. Exposure to climate change stressors from early development (fertilization where possible) in multistressor experiments is needed to identify ontogenetic sensitivities and this will be facilitated by more consistent

  15. Inferring Population Size History from Large Samples of Genome-Wide Molecular Data - An Approximate Bayesian Computation Approach.

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    Simon Boitard


    Full Text Available Inferring the ancestral dynamics of effective population size is a long-standing question in population genetics, which can now be tackled much more accurately thanks to the massive genomic data available in many species. Several promising methods that take advantage of whole-genome sequences have been recently developed in this context. However, they can only be applied to rather small samples, which limits their ability to estimate recent population size history. Besides, they can be very sensitive to sequencing or phasing errors. Here we introduce a new approximate Bayesian computation approach named PopSizeABC that allows estimating the evolution of the effective population size through time, using a large sample of complete genomes. This sample is summarized using the folded allele frequency spectrum and the average zygotic linkage disequilibrium at different bins of physical distance, two classes of statistics that are widely used in population genetics and can be easily computed from unphased and unpolarized SNP data. Our approach provides accurate estimations of past population sizes, from the very first generations before present back to the expected time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample, as shown by simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. When applied to samples of 15 or 25 complete genomes in four cattle breeds (Angus, Fleckvieh, Holstein and Jersey, PopSizeABC revealed a series of population declines, related to historical events such as domestication or modern breed creation. We further highlight that our approach is robust to sequencing errors, provided summary statistics are computed from SNPs with common alleles.

  16. The glass ceiling of corporate social responsibility : Consequences of a business case approach towards CSR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.


    Purpose – This paper aims to clarify that corporate social responsibility (CSR) has come a long way by the prevailing business case approach, but increasingly hits a glass ceiling. The glass ceiling metaphor refers to the inherent limitations created by a business case approach towards CSR. Design/m

  17. Enhancing Students' Approaches to Learning: The Added Value of Gradually Implementing Case-Based Learning (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien


    Previous research has shown the difficulty of enhancing students' approaches to learning, in particular the deep approach, through student-centred teaching methods such as problem- and case-based learning. This study investigates whether mixed instructional methods combining case-based learning and lectures have the power to enhance students'…

  18. Dance Pedagogy Case Studies: A Grounded Theory Approach to Analyzing Qualitative Data (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret


    Combining traditional forms of research to fit unique populations contributes to understanding broad phenomena within the discipline of dance. This paper describes a methodological approach for understanding separate, but interrelated, case studies which illuminated a particular approach to teaching and learning about the body. In each case study…

  19. Complementary Approaches to Teaching Nature of Science: Integrating Student Inquiry, Historical Cases, and Contemporary Cases in Classroom Practice (United States)

    Allchin, Douglas; Andersen, Hanne Moller; Nielsen, Keld


    Research has now demonstrated that students can learn nature of science concepts variously through student-led investigations, contemporary cases, and historical cases. Here we articulate more precisely the merits, deficits, and context of each approach and begin to profile how to integrate them as complementary methods. Emphasis now needs to…

  20. The Case for a Hot Archean Climate and its Implications to the History of the Biosphere


    Schwartzman, David W.


    The case for a much warmer climate on the early Earth than now is presented. The oxygen isotope record in sedimentary chert and the compelling case for a near constant isotopic oxygen composition of seawater over geologic time support thermophilic surface temperatures prevailing in the Archean, with some support for hot conditions lasting until about 1.5 billion years ago, aside from lower temperatures including glacial episodes at 2.1-2.4 Ga and possibly an earlier one at 2.9 Ga. Other evide...

  1. Conservative approach to Hepatic Portal Venous Gas: A case report

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    G.C. Ginesu


    Conclusion: This case underscores the role of conservative management, highlighting how the severity of the prognosis of HPVG should be related to the underlying pathology, and not influenced by the presence of HPVG itself.

  2. Hypothyroidism in a five-year-old boy with rhabdomyolysis and recent history of cardiac tamponade: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzana Claudia


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cardiac tamponade is a rare manifestation of hypothyroidism, and a less rare cause of pericardial effusion. The accumulation of the pericardial fluid is gradual, and often does not compromise cardiac hemodynamic function. There is a relationship between the severity and chronicity of the disease with the presence of pericardial effusion. There are few cases describing associated pericardial tamponade published in the literature. When a tamponade occurs, a concomitant provocative factor such as a viral pericarditis may be related. Our patient's case appears to be the youngest patient described so far. Case presentation We report the case of a previously healthy five-year-old Hispanic (non-indigenous boy who developed rhabdomyolysis with a history of a recent pericardial effusion and tamponade two months before that required the placement of a percutaneous pericardial drainage. Pericardial effusion was considered to be viral. Later on readmission, clinical primary hypothyroidism was diagnosed and thought to be associated with the previous cardiac tamponade. He developed rhabdomyolysis, which was considered to be autoimmune and was treated with steroids. The level of creatine phosphate kinase and creatine kinase MB fraction returned to within the reference rangeone week after our patient was started on steroids and three weeks after he was started on thyroid hormones. Conclusions Physicians should consider hypothyroidism as a differential diagnosis in patients with pericardial effusion. Pericardial effusion may progress and cause a cardiac tamponade with hemodynamic instability. The fact that our patient did not have any manifestations of hypothyroidism might have delayed diagnosis.

  3. Anesthesia Management of an Emergent Caesarean Section Case with the History of Central Core Myopathy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagla Bali


    Full Text Available Central core myopatyhy is a rarely seen hereditary neuromuscular disorder that is involved in congenitally myopathies group. The disease is characterized by muscular weakness, skeleton system deformities, increased malign hyperthermia sensitivity and anesthesia management is critically important. In these patients, prolonged muscular weakness and malign hyperthermia that can complicate the perioperative management are the most critical risks. In this case report, anesthesia management of an electively planned caesarean section patient, taken into emergency surgery that is also previously known to have central core myopathy diagnosis will be shared. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 770-773

  4. Setting the stage for a business case for leadership diversity in healthcare: history, research, and leverage. (United States)

    Dotson, Ebbin; Nuru-Jeter, Amani


    Leveraging diversity to successfully influence business operations is a business imperative for many healthcare organizations as they look to leadership to help manage a new era of culturally competent, patient-centered care that reduces health and healthcare disparities. This article presents the foundation for a business case in leadership diversity within healthcare organizations and describes the need for research on managerial solutions to health and healthcare disparities. It provides a discussion of clinical, policy, and management implications that will help support a business case for improving the diversity of leadership in healthcare organizations as a way to reduce health and healthcare disparities. Historical contexts introduce aspects of the business case for leveraging leadership diversity based on a desire for a culturally competent care organization. Little research exists on the impact that the role of leadership plays in addressing health disparities from a healthcare management perspective. This article provides practitioners and researchers with a rationale to invest in leadership diversity. It discusses three strategies that will help set the stage for a business case. First, provide empirical evidence of the link between diversity and performance. Second, link investments in diversity to financial outcomes and organizational metrics of success. Third, make organizational leadership responsible for cultural competence as a performance measure. In order to address health and healthcare disparities, collaborations between researchers and practitioners are necessary to effectively implement these strategies.

  5. Non-respiratory tuberculosis with Mycobacterium tuberculosis after penetrating lesions of the skin : five case histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, JW; van Altena, R


    Tuberculosis is primarily transmitted from person to person via the respiratory route. We describe five cases of patients who developed tuberculosis at the site of a skin injury: three after being treated repeatedly with local corticosteroids via intramuscular injections, and two who cut themselves

  6. The Need for a Culturally Relevant Approach to Gifted Education: The Case of Cyprus (United States)

    Ieridou, Alexandra N.


    This article presents an overview of the status of gifted education in Cyprus and argues for the need for a culturally relevant approach. First, the history of education in Cyprus is briefly reviewed. Then, past unsuccessful efforts to provide education for academically advanced students in the public elementary schools are critically examined.…

  7. Independent life history evolution between generations of bivoltine species: a case study of cyclical parthenogenesis. (United States)

    Hood, Glen R; Ott, James R


    Successive generations of bi- and multivoltine species encounter differing biotic and abiotic environments intra-annually. The question of whether selection can independently adjust the relationship between body size and components of reproductive effort within successive generations in response to generation-specific environmental variation is applicable to a diversity of taxa. Herein, we develop a conceptual framework that illustrates increasingly independent life history adjustments between successive generations of taxa exhibiting complex life cycles. We apply this framework to the reproductive biology of the gall-forming insect, Belonocnema treatae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). This bivoltine species expresses cyclical parthenogenesis in which alternating sexual and asexual generations develop in different seasons and different environments. We tested the hypotheses that ecological divergence between the alternate generations is accompanied by generational differences in body size, egg size, and egg number and by changes in the relationships between body size and these components of reproductive effort. Increased potential reproductive effort of sexual generation B. treatae is attained by increased body size and egg number (with no trade-off between egg number and egg size) and by a significant increase in the slope of the relationship between body size and potential fecundity. These generation-specific relationships, interpreted in the context of the model framework, suggest that within each generation selection has independently molded the relationships relating body size to potential fecundity and potential reproductive effort in B. treatae. The conceptual framework is broadly applicable to comparisons involving the alternating generations of bi- and multivoltine species.

  8. The Goldsmith/Lakeshore Field : a case history of an Ontario Trenton oil pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, S.; Waugh, G. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The development of the Goldsmith/Lakeshore oil and gas field located in Mersea and Romney Townships in southwestern Ontario was described with reference to the geological, geophysical and engineering aspects of the field. It was discovered in 1985 and has since produced 5 MMSTB oil and 3 Bcf gas from the Middle Ordovician carbonates of the Trenton Group. A total of 40 wells currently produce about 700 bopd and 1 MMcfg/d. The field is expected to continue to make a significant contribution to Ontario's total oil production for many years. The remaining reserves are estimated at 2 MMSTB oil and 1 Bcf gas. The development history over the 17 year period can be sub-divided into 4 distinct phases: (1) the early years from 1985-1989, (2), the development phase from 1990-1993, (3) the mature phase from 1994-1997, and (4) the horizontal drilling phase from 1998-2002. This paper describes the heterogeneous nature of the reservoir and the changes in drilling and completion practices over the years. In particular, it describes in detail how Talisman Energy Ltd. used horizontal drilling to develop an extension of the field beneath Lake Erie. Talisman is currently evaluating options for future field development including field extensions along the trend, in-fill drilling, and stimulation work on existing wells to increase production and reserves. 6 refs., 34 figs.

  9. A Case Study in Connectomics: The History, Mapping, and Connectivity of the Claustrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carinna Margaret Torgerson


    Full Text Available The claustrum seems to have been waiting for the science of connectomics. Due to its tiny size, the structure has remained remarkably difficult to study until modern technological and mathematical advancements like graph theory, connectomics, diffusion tensor imaging, HARDI, and excitotoxic lesioning. That does not mean, however, that early methods allowed researchers to assess micro-connectomics. In fact, the claustrum is such an enigma that the only things known for certain about it are its histology, and that it is extraordinarily well connected. In this literature review, we provide background details on the claustrum and the history of its study in the human and in other animal species. By providing an explanation of the neuroimaging and histology methods have been undertaken to study the claustrum thus far – and the conclusions these studies have drawn – we illustrate this example of how the shift from micro-connectomics to macro-connectomics advances the field of neuroscience and improves our capacity to understand the brain.

  10. Writing history: case study of the university of Victoria School of Nursing. (United States)

    Scaia, Margaret R; Young, Lynne


    A historical examination of a nursing curriculum is a bridge between past and present from which insights to guide curriculum development can be gleaned. In this paper, we use the case study method to examine how the University of Victoria School of Nursing (UVic SON), which was heavily influenced by the ideology of second wave feminism, contributed to a change in the direction of nursing education from task-orientation to a content and process orientation. This case study, informed by a feminist lens, enabled us to critically examine the introduction of a "revolutionary" caring curriculum at the UVic SON. Our research demonstrates the fault lines and current debates within which a feminist informed curriculum continues to struggle for legitimacy and cohesion. More work is needed to illuminate the historical basis of these debates and to understand more fully the complex landscape that has constructed the social and historical position of women and nursing in Canadian society today.

  11. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. Rehabilitation of Navigation Lock Walls: Case Histories. (United States)


    construction contract for the repairs was awarded to the low bidder, Premier Waterproofing Company, .- Denver, Colorado. 258. There was no device or test...sound condition except for surface deterioration. Total resurfacing of the lock chamber would be for cosmetic reasons only and was not considered...may only be cosmetic and in many cases the appearance may not be satisfac- . ’ tory either. Damage from freezing and thawing may only be a % few

  12. A Mexican case study on a centralised database from world natural history museums


    Navarro S, Adolfo G; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gordillo-Martínez, Alejandro


    The present contribution is a case study of the possibilities of using data from world scientific collections to understand the distribution and conservation of Mexican birds. Information was gathered on specimens from Mexico housed in 40 scientific collections in Mexico, the United States, Canada, and Europe. This information was compiled in a centralized database and various analyses were developed to address historical patterns of ornithological investigations in Mexico: current and potent...

  13. Application of Monolithic Zirconia Ceramics in Dental Practice: A Case History Report. (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk; Yeo, In-Sung


    Monolithic zirconia restorations increasingly have been used in dental practice in recent years and demonstrate superior mechanical performance compared with porcelain-veneered zirconia restorations. Recent advances in manufacturing technology have made possible the fabrication of translucent monolithic zirconia ceramics. This case report describes three clinical examples of monolithic zirconia fixed dental prostheses being used in the anterior and posterior regions and exhibiting acceptable esthetic results.

  14. Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma: A rare case and palliative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viral M Bhanvadia


    Full Text Available Primary peritoneal serous carcinoma (PPSC is a rare primary malignancy that diffusely involves the peritoneum, indistinguishable clinically and histopathologically from primary serous ovarian carcinoma. The origin of PPSC has not been well characterized. Here we present a case of PPSC diagnosed in ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in a 76- old female presenting with ascites, abdominal pain, distension and constipation. PPSC is an unusual tumour but cytomorphology is distinctive enough to diagnose preoperatively. In the case report hereby described PPSC is an inoperable malignancy, hence chemotherapy and palliative care are the only offered treatment.

  15. The Need for an Alternative Narrative to the History of Ideas or To Pay a Debt to Women: A Feminist Approach to Ricœur's Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Henriques


    Full Text Available This paper explores the thought of Paul Ricœur from a feminist point of view. My goal is to show that it is necessary to narrate differently the history of our culture – in particular, the history of philosophy – in order for wommen to attain a self-representation that is equal to that of men. I seek to show that Ricoeur’s philosophy – especially his approach to the topics of memory and history, on the one hand, and the human capacity for initiative, on the other hand– can support the idea that it is possible and legitimate to tell our history otherwise by envisioning a more accurate truth about ourselves. 

  16. Moving the boundaries of forest and land use history - the case of Upper East Region in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wardell, David Andrew


    Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure......Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure...

  17. Toward a Collaborative Approach to Curriculum Development: A Case Study. (United States)

    Nunan, David


    Describes the National Curriculum Project, an effort in curriculum renewal set up within the Australian Adult Migrant Education Program. The rationale for and the effectiveness of a collaborative approach between teachers and curriculum specialists in school-based English-as-a-Second-Language curriculum development are discussed. Project…

  18. Dialogical Approach Applied in Group Counselling: Case Study (United States)

    Koivuluhta, Merja; Puhakka, Helena


    This study utilizes structured group counselling and a dialogical approach to develop a group counselling intervention for students beginning a computer science education. The study assesses the outcomes of group counselling from the standpoint of the development of the students' self-observation. The research indicates that group counselling…

  19. The Case for Individualizing Behavior Management Approaches in Inclusive Classrooms (United States)

    Grossman, Herbert


    In today's heterogeneous classrooms, one-method-fits-all-students behavior management approaches are ineffective and often harmful. To succeed with all of their students, teachers should determine whether students have emotional disorders, conduct/behavior disorders, robust male-typical behavior patterns, culturally influenced behavior, learning…

  20. The Balance of Payments: A Case Study Approach (United States)

    McCulloch, D. W.


    An economic case study is presented of the balance of payments in Italy, Canada, and West Germany during the 1940s through 1960s. The study examines the circular flow of income, price level fluctuations, supply and demand theory, and basic considerations of financial markets. For journal availability, see SO 505 703. (Author/AV)

  1. Approaches to the diagnosis and management of patients with a history of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related urticaria and angioedema. (United States)

    Kowalski, Marek L; Woessner, Katharine; Sanak, Marek


    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced urticarial and angioedema reactions are among the most commonly encountered drug hypersensitivity reactions in clinical practice. Three major clinical phenotypes of NSAID-induced acute skin reactions manifesting with angioedema, urticaria, or both have been distinguished: NSAID-exacerbated cutaneous disease, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced urticaria/angioedema (NIUA), and single NSAID-induced urticaria and angioedema. In some patients clinical history alone might be sufficient to establish the diagnosis of a specific type of NSAID hypersensitivity, whereas in other cases oral provocation challenges are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Moreover, classification of the type of cutaneous reaction is critical for proper management. For example, in patients with single NSAID-induced reactions, chemically nonrelated COX-1 inhibitors can be safely used. However, there is cross-reactivity between the NSAIDs in patients with NSAID-exacerbated cutaneous disease and NIUA, and thus only use of selective COX-2 inhibitors can replace the culprit drug if the chronic treatment is necessary, although aspirin desensitization will allow for chronic treatment with NSAIDs in some patients with NIUA. In this review we present a practical clinical approach to the patient with NSAID-induced urticaria and angioedema.

  2. Emphasizing the History of Genetics in an Explicit and Reflective Approach to Teaching the Nature of Science (United States)

    Williams, Cody Tyler; Rudge, David Wÿss


    Science education researchers have long advocated the central role of the nature of science (NOS) for our understanding of scientific literacy. NOS is often interpreted narrowly to refer to a host of epistemological issues associated with the process of science and the limitations of scientific knowledge. Despite its importance, practitioners and researchers alike acknowledge that students have difficulty learning NOS and that this in part reflects how difficult it is to teach. One particularly promising method for teaching NOS involves an explicit and reflective approach using the history of science. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a historically based genetics unit on undergraduates' understanding of NOS. The three-class unit developed for this study introduces students to Mendelian genetics using the story of Gregor Mendel's work. NOS learning objectives were emphasized through discussion questions and investigations. The unit was administered to undergraduates in an introductory biology course for pre-service elementary teachers. The influence of the unit was determined by students' responses to the SUSSI instrument, which was administered pre- and post-intervention. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted that focused on changes in students' responses from pre- to post-test. Data collected indicated that students showed improved NOS understanding related to observations, inferences, and the influence of culture on science.

  3. Monomelic amyotrophy: clinical profile and natural history of 279 cases seen over 35 years (1976-2010). (United States)

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Gourie-Devi, Mandavilli; Thennarasu, Kandavel; Ramalingaiah, Aravinda Hanumanthapura


    Our objective was to study the clinical characteristics and natural history of monomelic amyotrophy (MMA). We used a retrospective study of 279 patients diagnosed to have either upper (Hirayama disease) or lower limb MMA. Results showed that brachial MMA (BMMA) occurred in 224 patients (male:female, 9:1). Mean age of onset was 19.5 ± 4.18 years. Progression occurred over less than five years in the majority (95.9%) of patients. Duration at the last follow-up was: up to five years in 61.4%, 5-10 in 21.3%, 10-15 in 7.2%, > 15 years in 10.1%. MRI showed asymmetrical lower cervical cord atrophy in 44.6% of patients. Crural MMA (CMMA) occurred in 55 patients (male:female, 13:1). Mean age of onset was 21.38 ± 5.3 years. Similar to BMMA, most cases (65.5%) had onset between 15 and 25 years of age. Total duration of illness at the last follow-up was up to five years in 52.7%, 10 and beyond in 47.3%. In conclusion, a large cohort of patients with monomelic amyotrophy seen over 35 years (1976-2010) is described. Study data support the clinical findings and its natural history with long term follow-up, and the findings emphasize that monomelic amyotrophy is a 'benign' condition with a self-limiting course.

  4. Food safety and risk communication: cases history and best practice (in avian flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermarco Aroldi


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of institutional communication in the case of health risks and emergencies. The article is divided in three sections. The first section examines the most recent theories on risk and on its communicational aspect; the second analyses a recent state of emergency crisis, specifically the panic which stemmed from the perceived danger of an avian flu pandemic in Italy; and finally an example of best practice in the form of a food safety handbook designed and edited by the Italian Ministry of Rural Affairs, which was based on the skills and knowledge acquired during the avian flu emergency.

  5. Review of non-convulsive status epilepticus and an illustrative case history manifesting as delirium. (United States)

    Epstein, Daniel; Diu, Eric; Abeysekera, Tamara; Kam, Daniel; Chan, Yin


    Non-convulsive status epilepticus can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The condition can be difficult to recognise, and can mimic delirium due to other underlying pathologies. There are several clinical subtypes, although these can be difficult to distinguish by their clinical features alone. Electroencephalogram is the key diagnostic tool to making the diagnosis, but this investigation is a limited resource in many institutions. In this review, we present a case of non-convulsive status epilepticus, manifesting as delirium, and then proceed to a literature review on this important diagnosis.

  6. A multi-nuclide approach to quantify long-term erosion rates and exposure history through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strunk, Astrid; Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou;

    possible to resolve the complex pattern of exposure history under a fluctuating ice sheet. In this study, we quantify long-term erosion rates along with durations of multiple exposure periods in West Greenland by applying a novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion approach to existing 10Be and 26Al....... The new MCMC approach allows us to constrain the most likely landscape history based on comparisons between simulated and measured cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. It is a fundamental assumption of the model that the exposure history at the site/location can be divided into two distinct regimes: i...... simulates numerous different landscape scenarios based on these four parameters and zooms in on the most plausible combination of model parameters. We apply the MCMC-model to the concentrations of 10Be and 26Al measured in previously published studies from Upernavik, Uummannaq and Sisimiut and quantify...

  7. In Defense of Oral History: Evidence from the Mercosur Case En defensa de la Historia Oral: Evidencia del caso de Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Gardini


    Full Text Available This article makes a case in defense of oral history in the study of political science and international relations. The existing literature has scrutinized the technical aspects and appropriate use of oral material. This article focuses on the circumstances under which oral history may be an indispensable method of scholarly investigation: first, when written primary sources are not readily available; second, when an investigation targets complex and secret high-level negotiations; and third, when the main research concern is the human agent’s perspective and ideational factors. The article first addresses the issue of reliability and rigor of oral history as compared to written sources and then concentrates on the creation of Mercosur as an example of the validity of oral history under the three circumstances identified. The conclusion proposes a revival of a more historical approach to political studies.Este artículo argumenta en favor del uso de la historia oral como método de estudio de las relaciones internacionales y de las ciencias políticas. La literatura académica se ha centrado en las cuestiones más técnicas de las entrevistas y en el uso apropiado de este método. El foco innovador del articulo analiza las circunstancias en que la historia oral puede representar una herramienta indispensable para la investigación académica: primero, cuando las fuentes escritas no están disponibles; segundo, cuando se investigan negociaciones reservadas y complejas de alto nivel; tercero, cuando el interés principal de la investigación es la perspectiva del agente y los factores ideacionales. En primer lugar, el artículo discute la confiabilidad y el rigor de la historia oral en comparación con las fuentes escritas. Luego, el análisis se centra en el caso de estudio de la creación de Mercosur, usado como ejemplo de la validez de la historia oral bajo las tres circunstancias identificadas. La conclusión propone un uso más amplio del

  8. Ruptured Heterotopic Tubal Pregnancy for a Patient with a History of Segmental Salpingectomy from Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Kyung Bum; Namkung, Sook; Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, Heung Cheol; Cho, Young; Choi, Young Hee [Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chyncheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Heterotopic pregnancy refers to the simultaneous development of an intrauterine pregnancy and an extrauterine pregnancy. We experienced a case of a ruptured heterotopic pregnancy for a patient with a history of a right segmental salpingectomy from an ectopic pregnancy. The 30-year-old patient with amenorrhea for six weeks complained of lower abdominal pain with hypovolemic shock. Transabdominal ultrasonography showed diffuse hemoperitoneum with a structure similar to an ectatic tube or a deformed cyst with no echogenic double ring or peripheral hypervascularity in the right adnexa and an intrauterine gestational sac. We considered a ruptured corpus luteum cyst as an ultrasonographic finding and found a ruptured tubal mass in the right salpinx and hemoperitoneum through an emergency laparotomy. We performed a right salpingectomy, and the histopathologic report confirmed ectopic pregnancy.

  9. The Case for a Hot Archean Climate and its Implications to the History of the Biosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartzman, David W


    The case for a much warmer climate on the early Earth than now is presented. The oxygen isotope record in sedimentary chert and the compelling case for a near constant isotopic oxygen composition of seawater over geologic time support thermophilic surface temperatures prevailing in the Archean, with some support for hot conditions lasting until about 1.5 billion years ago, aside from lower temperatures including glacial episodes at 2.1-2.4 Ga and possibly an earlier one at 2.9 Ga. Other evidence includes the following: 1) Melting temperatures of proteins resurrected from sequences inferred from robust molecular phylogenies give paleotemperatures at emergence consistent with a very warm early climate. 2) High atmospheric pCO2 levels in the Archean are consistent with high climatic temperatures near the triple point of primary iron minerals in banded iron formations, the formation of Mn-bicarbonate clusters leading to oxygenic photosynthesis and generally higher weathering intensities on land. These higher weat...

  10. Innovation in project-based companies - A case study in different approaches to organisational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grex, Sara


    This paper asks how project-based organizations can be developed in order to establish and sustain innovation. The question is being explored by examining and comparing two approaches to organizational change. One approach emphasizes planning, regulation and control and creation of changes through...... new structures and procedures whereas the other approach emphasizes the organizational history, knowledge and experience of the members of the organization and the creation of changes through dialogue, role-shift and interactive theatre playing. The present paper does not suggest choosing between...

  11. Porridge deconstructed: a comparative linguistic approach to the history of staple starch food preparations in Bantuphone Africa


    Ricquier, Birgit


    Despite the current interest in food studies, little is known about the culinary history of Central and Southern Africa. Using the methods of historical-comparative linguistics, this dissertation provides the first insights into the culinary traditions of early Bantu speech communities. The dissertation focuses on the history of staple starch food preparations, more specifically, the history of porridge and the integration of cassava into Kongo culinary traditions.

  12. The Use of History and Philosophy of Science as a Core for a Socioconstructivist Teaching Approach of the Concept of Energy in Primary Education (United States)

    Rizaki, Aikaterini; Kokkotas, Panagiotis


    The present study should be thought as a socioconstructivist teaching approach (a teaching model) for the concept of energy in primary education. It contains important and crucial aspects of the History and Philosophy of Natural Sciences, introduces the concept of energy using the macroscopic framework of thermodynamics, takes into consideration…

  13. EU minority protection: A modest case for a synergetic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Kochenov


    Full Text Available In a stark contrast with the dominant minority-protection literature in the EU this paper proposes a synergetic approach to minority protection in the Union, acknowledging that attempts to draw clear distinctions between different minority groups on the basis of a number of criteria can be profoundly unhelpful and is able to undermine the efforts to improve the lives of Europeans belonging to the most vulnerable groups. Such synergetic approach provides a solid point of departure for the discussion of the problems in the area of minority protection that the EU is facing, which is the main focus of the paper. It is argued that theorizing minority protection can only result in the sound resolution of outstanding problems if unnecessary compartmentalization of the vulnerable groups is avoided.

  14. The Case for a Structured Approach to Managing Unstructured Data

    CERN Document Server

    Doan, AnHai; Baid, Akanksha; Chai, Xiaoyong; Chen, Fei; Chen, Ting; Chu, Eric; DeRose, Pedro; Gao, Byron; Gokhale, Chaitanya; Huang, Jiansheng; Shen, Warren; Vuong, Ba-Quy


    The challenge of managing unstructured data represents perhaps the largest data management opportunity for our community since managing relational data. And yet we are risking letting this opportunity go by, ceding the playing field to other players, ranging from communities such as AI, KDD, IR, Web, and Semantic Web, to industrial players such as Google, Yahoo, and Microsoft. In this essay we explore what we can do to improve upon this situation. Drawing on the lessons learned while managing relational data, we outline a structured approach to managing unstructured data. We conclude by discussing the potential implications of this approach to managing other kinds of non-relational data, and to the identify of our field.

  15. Motivation in nurse education practice: a case study approach. (United States)

    Murphy, Fiona

    "There are three things to remember about education. The first is motivation. The second one is motivation. The third one is motivation" (Maehr and Meyer, 1997 p372). It is important to understand motivation and the reasons why nurses, including educators and clinicians, need to continually motivate their students both in the classroom and within clinical practice. Using relevant literature, the following case study explores the significant issues pertinent in motivating a student undertaking a Postgraduate Diploma in Specialist Nursing. A combination of motivational and learning theories are used in the process of assisting this student to learn from her recent assessment failure and to become re-motivated. There is a discussion of the significance of this case and the key issues drawn from it, which may assist nursing staff in supporting student nurses to remain motivated within the clinical area.

  16. A multidisciplinary approach for the management of hypodontia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Accácio Lins do Valle


    Full Text Available Hypodontia is the congenital absence of one or more teeth and may affect permanent teeth. Several options are indicated to treat hypodontia, including the maintenance of primary teeth or space redistribution for restorative treatment with partial adhesive bridges, tooth transplantation, and implants. However, a multidisciplinary approach is the most important requirement for the ideal treatment of hypodontia. This paper describes a multidisciplinary treatment plan for congenitally missing permanent mandibular second premolars involving orthodontics, implantology and prosthodontic specialties.

  17. Short-distance relocation management approaches: 5 Case from Finland


    Peggie Rothe; Christopher Heywood


    Corporate short-distance relocation is a significant event in the course of an organization’s lifetime. While these kinds of relocations happen frequently, they are an infrequent event from the perspective of a single organization. Therefore, few organizations have experience and knowledge on relocation management, which can result in improvised ways of managing the process. The aim of this paper is to describe different short-distance relocation management approaches applied by organizations...

  18. Association of history of allergies and influenza-like infections with laryngeal cancer in a case-control study. (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Schwartz, Stephen M; Becker, Nikolaus; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Kirschfink, Michael; Dietz, Andreas; Becher, Heiko; Ramroth, Heribert


    Prior studies suggest that history of allergy and infections early in life might be inversely associated with cancer. We explored the association between allergies, recent influenza infections and laryngeal cancer risk. We used data from a case-control study which included 229 cases of laryngeal cancer and 769 population controls matched for age and sex. History of a physician-diagnosed allergy, influenza-like infections in the past 5 years, smoking, alcohol consumption and occupational exposure to carcinogens were self-reported. Allergies were classified into two groups (Type I and Type IV), according to the underlying immunologic mechanism. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted using laryngeal cancer as the outcome, adjusting for smoking, alcohol consumption and occupational exposure and stratified for age and sex. Having any allergy was not associated significantly with laryngeal cancer. Although Type I and Type IV allergies were non-significantly associated with laryngeal cancer, Type IV allergies showed a strong inverse association after adjusting for smoking and alcohol (OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.22-1.2). Participants who reported at least one influenza-like infection during the past 5 years were significantly less likely to have laryngeal cancer (OR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.39-0.81). After considering fever (≥38.5 °C) as a criterion for influenza infection, the association between influenza infection and laryngeal cancer was even stronger (OR 0.29, 95 % CI 0.13-0.63). We found no significant association between any allergy and laryngeal cancer, some indication of an inverse association between Type IV allergy and laryngeal cancer, whereas recent influenza infections were inversely associated with laryngeal cancer risk.

  19. The State and Water Resources Development through the Lens of History: A South African Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Swatuk


    Full Text Available This article sets contemporary challenges to good water governance in South Africa within an important historical context. While it is correct to say that 'the world water crisis is a crisis of governance', it is problematic to assume that all states can follow a similar path toward environmentally sustainable, economically efficient and socially equitable water resources governance and management. The nexus of decision-making power varies within and beyond states, and over time. Gramsci (1971 describes this as the "constellation of social forces". Where this constellation of social forces achieves consensus, a 'historic bloc' is said to emerge giving rise to a particular state form. The South African state form has varied greatly over several centuries, giving rise to various historic blocs. The resulting body of laws and policies and the varied forms of infrastructure that were developed to harness water for multiple social practices over time constitute a complex political ecological terrain not easily amenable to oversimplified frameworks for good water governance. This article outlines the role of water in the history of South Africa’s multiple state forms. It shows that over time, water policy, law and institutions came to reflect the increasingly complex needs of multiple actors (agriculture, mining, industry, cities, the newly enfranchised represented by different state forms and their characteristic political regimes: the Dutch East India Company; the British Empire; the Union of South Africa; the apartheid and post-apartheid republics. Authoritarian, semi-authoritarian and democratic state forms have all used central-state power to serve particular interests. Through time, this constellation of social forces has widened until, today, the state has taken upon itself the task of providing "some water for all forever" (slogan of the Department of Water Affairs. As this article suggests, despite the difficult challenges presented by a



    Costa, Mónica Raquel Saraiva; Mota,Catarina Pinheiro; Milheiro,Cláudia


    Abstract: This case study refers to the borderline personality theme shown through the life experience of a young adult woman who demonstrates inner instability and the passage to action through self-mutilation. The evaluation reveals self-fragmentation and inefficiency in the use of defense mechanisms, shown by a fragile and immature personality with low impulse control. This study was developed within the psychology consultations in the Psychology Department of Hospital Magalhães Lemos. Psy...

  1. The trials, tribulations, and triumphs of black faculty in the math and science pipeline: A life history approach (United States)

    Williams, Lisa D.


    This study explores the career progression and life history of black mathematicians and scientists who teach on university faculties in the United States. It investigates the following questions: Why are there so few black mathematicians and scientists in colleges and universities in the United States? What is the experience of black students who express an interest in science and math? What barriers do black scientists and mathematicians face as they move through school towards their career in higher education? What factors facilitate their success? The current literature shows that there are few women and minorities teaching or working in math and science compared to white men, although reasons for this underrepresentation are still not well understood. I explored this phenomenon by conducting two sets of in-depth interviews with twelve black faculty, six women, six men, from both historically black and predominantly white higher educational institutions in the United States. My interviews were based upon a life history approach that identified the participants' perceptions of the barriers and obstacles, as well as the supports and facilitators encountered in their schooling and career progression. The findings from the study show the importance of a strong family, community, and teacher support for the participants throughout their schooling. Support systems continued to be important in their faculty positions. These support systems include extended family members, teachers, community members, supervisors, and classmates, who serve as role models and mentors. The life study interviews provide striking evidence of the discrimination, isolation, and harassment due to race and gender experienced by black male and female mathematicians and scientists. The racial discrimination and the compounding effect of racism and sexism play out differently for the male and female participants in this study. This study suggests directions for future research on the experiences

  2. Role of monitoring network in the control management of air quality. An industrial case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbo, G. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Merceology; Fabiano, B.; Ferraiolo, A.; Solisio, C.; Ruaro, R.


    Air quality control by a system of monitoring station is indispensable for the environmental protection. Moreover, a monitoring network have not to be only a mere data collection a good air quality control is possible only if the network management allows to prevent unacceptable pollutants level. In other terms, elaboration and interpretation data are fundamental in order to make monitoring system really able for regulations of corrective measures as, for example, the reduction of local emissions. The case of monitoring network run from the Industrial Society CIPA of Siracusa (Italy) is discussed. The management of the data obtained from a continuous survey allows to keep pollutants level below the current limits set down by the Italian law. Furthermore, elaboration of the data allows useful evaluations about atmospheric dispersion phenomena. (author)

  3. HISTORY, AUTHORITY, AND POWER: A Case of Religious Violence in Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajat Burhanudin


    Full Text Available This article discusses the way Islam transformed into an ideology that potentially used as justification for violence. By analising the case of the murder of Teungku Ayub, leader of a small circle for basic religious learning (pengajian in Bireun, Aceh, in 2012, the study reveals to the role of Islam as an ideology of mass movement to cleanse deviant tenet (aliran sesat among the Acehnese. This is because of two reasons. First, the term of the veranda of Mecca (serambi Mekkah remains considered as “holy word” in the Acehnese society today, which supports any Islamic agenda of purifying Aceh from aliran sesat. Secondly, the adoption of Islam into a formal body of state (Aceh province represented by the implementation of Islamic law (sharīʻah. Both reasons above strengthen ulama in Aceh to facilitate the mass movement in the name of religion as well as the rationale background of the murder of Teungku Ayub.

  4. Prolonged Unilateral Disuse Osteopenia 14 Years Post External Fixator Removal: A Case History and Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Knapp


    Full Text Available Disuse osteopenia is a complication of immobilisation, with reversal generally noted upon remobilisation. This case report focuses on a patient who was seen 18 years following a road traffic collision when multiple fractures were sustained. The patient had an external fixator fitted for a tibia and fibula fracture, which remained in situ for a period of 4 years. Following removal, the patient was mobilised but, still required a single crutch to aid walking. Fourteen years post removal of the fixator, the patient had a DXA scan which, demonstrated a T-score 2.5 SD lower on the affected hip. This places the patient at an increased risk of hip fracture on this side, which requires monitoring. There appear to be no current studies investigating prolonged disuse-osteopenia in patients following removal of long-term external fixators. Further research is required to quantify unilateral long-term effects to bone health and fracture risk in this population.

  5. Case history: improved maxillary growth and development following digit sucking elimination and orofacial myofunctional therapy. (United States)

    Green, Shari


    Orofacial myologists are frequently called upon to address retained oral habit concerns. During this process, current I.A.O.M. recommended treatment includes addressing tongue, lip, and jaw rest posture concerns. Following digit sucking remediation, we may also be called upon to address these rest posture issues, and tongue thrust more aggressively together. In this process, facial growth and development and jaw structure may coincidentally improve as a result of 'nature taking its course' by addressing both swallow AND rest posture. In a select subset of clients, dramatic improvements may occur if the timing is right. This article discusses one such case that appears to have yielded a significant improvement in oral postures influencing improved facial and oral growth and development.

  6. Fanweed toxicosis in cattle: case history, analytical method, suggested treatment, and fanweed detoxification. (United States)

    Smith, R A; Crowe, S P


    Two hundred and twenty head of pregnant cows were fed virtually 100% fanweed (Thlaspi arvense) in November 1984. One hundred became distressed and colicy within 4 hr of feeding. Eight died over the next 5 days despite removal of the feed and symptomatic treatment. Necropsy revealed massive submucosal edema of the wall of the forestomachs, particularly the rumen. Four abortions occurred. The feed was analyzed and was found to liberate 250 mg/100g of AITC. Possible methods of treatment were devised in case the problem should recur. Fanweed contains sinigrin and the enzyme myrosin. When the plant is crushed and moistened, allylisothiocyanate (AITC) is formed along with glucose and potassium acid sulfate. Application of Le Chatelier's principle led to an investigation of the effect of pH on in vitro generation of AITC. Methods of destroying AITC were also examined, and detoxification studies were undertaken on fanweed.

  7. Biopsychosocial approaches to a patient with vomiting of 10 years' duration – a case of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitamura Kana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vomiting is commonly encountered in clinical medicine. When organic gastrointestinal, metabolic, and brain diseases are ruled out, many cases are considered to be functional. We experienced an adult patient with epilepsy whose main symptom was vomiting. Biopsychosocial approaches were needed to control the symptoms. Case presentation A 26-year-old female with a 10-year history of persistent vomiting was found to have temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Throughout this time, during which the vomiting had become part of a vicious cycle, her epilepsy was poorly controlled by medication. Biopsychosocial approaches were employed successfully and the patient subsequently undertook training to become a home-helper, started a job, and was able to leave her parents' house and live independently. All of her symptoms resolved after she became self-sufficient. Discussion Vomiting without impaired consciousness is seldom considered to be a manifestation of epilepsy. Difficulty in recording an electroencephalogram (EEG because of the presence of persistent vomiting delayed the diagnosis. The improvement of symptoms was thought to have been due to the patient's emotional stabilization and physical improvement, which may have stabilized the limbic system. Conclusion When an illness persists for many years and conditioning and a vicious cycle occur secondarily, systematic biopsychosocial approaches are needed in addition to general treatment. Also, secondary symptoms make the diagnosis more difficult when efforts at treatment are ineffective.

  8. Treatment of Children's Fears: A Strategic Utilization Approach. (United States)

    Protinsky, Howard


    Describes briefly Milton Erickson's strategic utilization approach to therapy. Discusses the usefulness of this approach in treating children's fears. Presents two case histories in which the approach successfully eliminated the fear of the child. (BH)

  9. A Case Study on Methodological Approaches to Conversation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Taking a piece of social interaction as the object of the study, some basic and brief analysis on how meaning is negotiat-ed is offered from both structural and functional perspectives. The potential purpose is to provide readers with a maybe rough but clear presentation of those assorted methods used in conversation analysis. Out of the presentation is developed a possibility for language learners as well as teachers to be more aware of the differences and also the interrelations among these methodological approaches to conversation analysis, which may be of some relevance to teaching practice.

  10. Cathodic protection of reinforced concrete structure using discrete anode strips -- case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulikers, J. [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management (Netherlands)


    Cathodic protection of reinforcing steel suffering from chloride-induced corrosion has been used for at least the last decade. It has been demonstrated to be the most appropriate, cost-effective and reliable repair option when compared to conventional repair methods. This case study describes the actions taken on a bridge substructure in the Netherlands, built in 1938 as the major structural support for a balance bridge, where a condition assessment revealed that reinforcement corrosion had been initiated by chloride penetration and carbonation. Cathodic protection with impressed current was proposed to protect the reinforcing steel. The system was based on discrete titanium anode strips, inserted perpendicular to the concrete surface. In order to achieve a uniform distribution of protective current, a system of an average of 10 strips per square meter of concrete surface was placed in holes drilled to a depth of 35 cm. In view of the innovative nature of the design and the heightened risk of non-uniform current distribution, provisions were made for additional monitoring of the performance of the cathodic system. Measurements included concrete resistance, current distribution over the concrete surface and frequent depolarization. Monitoring results revealed a pronounced non-uniform current distribution over the concrete surface and a high current demand in one particular zone. The pronounced differences encountered in this instance were attributed to delaminations and macroscopic cracks in the concrete cover, severely limiting the flow of protective current to the reinforcement. It is suggested that repair of the delaminations by injecting a low resistivity cementitious grout, thereby allowing the use of a more cost-effective surface-mounted anode system might have been a more appropriate option than the one chosen. The principal lesson learned from this particular case is the strong need for quantitative information regarding anodic and cathodic current

  11. Thinking Education Histories Differently: Biographical Approaches to Class Politics and Women's Movements in London, 1900s to 1960s (United States)

    Martin, Jane


    This paper forms part of a recent trend that aims to contribute to the writing of a more inclusive education history sensitive to the operation of gender. The author presents an analysis of educator activists in twentieth-century England that connects, rather than separates, the domains of education, labour history and politics. The paper also…

  12. The case for immunomodulatory approaches in treating HSV encephalitis. (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Chandran; Openshaw, Harry; Cantin, Edouard M


    HSV encephalitis (HSE) is the most prevalent sporadic viral encephalitis. Although safe and effective antiviral therapies and greatly improved noninvasive diagnostic procedures have significantly improved outcomes, mortality (~20%) and debilitating neurological sequelae in survivors remain unacceptably high. An encouraging new development is that the focus is now shifting away from the virus exclusively, to include consideration of the host immune response to infection in the pathology underlying development of HSE. In this article, the authors discuss results from recent studies in experimental mouse models, as well as clinical reports that demonstrate a role for exaggerated host inflammatory responses in the brain in the development of HSE that is motivating researchers and clinicians to consider new therapeutic approaches for treating HSE. The authors also discuss results from a few studies that have shown that immunomodulatory drugs can be highly protective against HSE, which supports a role for deleterious host inflammatory responses in HSE. The impressive outcomes of some immunomodulatory approaches in mouse models of HSE emphasize the urgent need for clinical trials to rigorously evaluate combination antiviral and immunomodulatory therapy in comparison with standard antiviral therapy for treatment of HSE, and support for such an initiative is gaining momentum.

  13. Adding value in oil and gas by applying decision analysis methodologies: case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marot, Nicolas [Petro Andina Resources Inc., Alberta (Canada); Francese, Gaston [Tandem Decision Solutions, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Petro Andina Resources Ltd. together with Tandem Decision Solutions developed a strategic long range plan applying decision analysis methodology. The objective was to build a robust and fully integrated strategic plan that accomplishes company growth goals to set the strategic directions for the long range. The stochastic methodology and the Integrated Decision Management (IDM{sup TM}) staged approach allowed the company to visualize the associated value and risk of the different strategies while achieving organizational alignment, clarity of action and confidence in the path forward. A decision team involving jointly PAR representatives and Tandem consultants was established to carry out this four month project. Discovery and framing sessions allow the team to disrupt the status quo, discuss near and far reaching ideas and gather the building blocks from which creative strategic alternatives were developed. A comprehensive stochastic valuation model was developed to assess the potential value of each strategy applying simulation tools, sensitivity analysis tools and contingency planning techniques. Final insights and results have been used to populate the final strategic plan presented to the company board providing confidence to the team, assuring that the work embodies the best available ideas, data and expertise, and that the proposed strategy was ready to be elaborated into an optimized course of action. (author)

  14. Pancreatic islet fibrosis in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), Part 1: Case histories, clinical pathology, and epizootiology. (United States)

    Gamble, Kathryn C; Garner, Michael M; Krause, Laura; Alvarado, Thomas P


    Two adult female rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) at the Dallas Zoo were confirmed with spontaneous diabetes mellitus from 1997-2000, whereas a third animal with a similar clinical presentation never became hyperglycemic. The pancreas in all three animals showed pancreatic islet fibrosis (PIF). Retrospective examination of medical records for rock hyraxes acquired by this collection or born into it from 1991-2002 identified eight more animals affected with PIE All affected animals, including three males and eight females, were 1-7 yr of age and presented either with vague clinical signs of soft feces and rough hair coat or were acutely moribund or dead. Clinical pathology data was available for seven of the animals before onset of overt clinical signs and revealed inappropriate hyperglycemia in six, as well as elevated serum concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, amylase, and lipase in all seven animals. Pedigree evaluation did not support a familial pattern for PIE Review of the histopathology findings from nine other zoologic collections with rock hyrax deaths during the study period identified six institutions with 12 additional cases genetically unrelated to the incident collection. Histopathology and viral serology did not support an infectious cause. Analysis of serum anti-islet and anti-insulin antibodies did not suggest autoimmune disease, and none of the animals had known exposure to toxic substances. Limited nutritional analyses did not support a nutritional basis for the condition, and the cause for PIF remains unknown.

  15. Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY)--history, first case reports and recent advances. (United States)

    Siddiqui, Khalid; Musambil, Mohthash; Nazir, Nyla


    The world is seemingly facing a global increase in people suffering from diabetes especially in developing countries. The worldwide occurrence of diabetes for all age groups in year 2000 was estimated to be 2.8% and this number is most certainly expected to rise to 4.4% by 2030. Maturity-onset of diabetes of the young, or MODY, is a form of monogenic diabetes that is caused by mutations occurring in a number of different genes. Mutations in different genes tend to cause a slightly different variant of diabetes. MODY is typically diagnosed during late childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood and is usually observed to develop in adults during their late 50's. One of the main drawbacks in its diagnosis is that many people with MODY are misdiagnosed as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, a molecular and genetic diagnosis can result in a better treatment and could also help in identifying other family members with MODY. This article explores the historical prospect and the genetic background of MODY, a brief summary of the first case reported and the significant factors that differentiate it from type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  16. Approach to renal clycosuria in children: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Pais


    Full Text Available Introduction: The accidental finding of glycosuria should lead to the exclusion of diabetes mellitus. In the absence of hyperglycemia, glycosuria is probably of renal origin. It can be isolated, as in familiar renal glycosuria, or it can be part of a hereditary tubular disorder such as Fanconi-Bickel syndrome or associated with an acquired tubular dysfunction. The renal and tubular function should be investigated. Case report: The authors describe the case of a previously healthy five-year old child with persistent glycosuria of renal cause. The investigation showed the coexistence of elevated renal excretion of glycine. Discussion: Familiar renal glycosuria and hyperglycinuria are caused by genetic defects in different renal tubular membrane transporters. The rare association of glycosuria and glycinuria was only described in one family in the 1960’s. The authors discuss the possible pathophysiologic mechanisms of this association and the importance of studying other tubulopathies in a child with glycosuria as it has prognostic and clinical management implications.

  17. Place Branding – Geographical Approach. Case Study: Waterloo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Cristian Neacşu


    Full Text Available This study represents an exploratory analysis of the evolution of the place branding concept, with an important focus on the geographical perspective. How has this notion, a newcomer into the geographers' analysis, changed over time and what role does it have in the decision making process of intervening into the way a certain place is organised or as an instrument of economic revival and territorial development? At least from the perspective of Romanian geographical literature, the originality and novelty of this study is obvious. An element of the originality of this research is the attempt of redefining the concept of place branding so that it is more meaningful from the perspective of spatial analyses. The reason for which Waterloo was chosen as a case study is multi-dimensional: the case studies so far have mainly focused on large cities (urban branding instead of place branding and this site has all the theoretical elements to create a stand-alone brand.

  18. A Kriging surrogate model coupled in simulation-optimization approach for identifying release history of groundwater sources (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Lu, Wenxi; Xiao, Chuanning


    As the incidence frequency of groundwater pollution increases, many methods that identify source characteristics of pollutants are being developed. In this study, a simulation-optimization approach was applied to determine the duration and magnitude of pollutant sources. Such problems are time consuming because thousands of simulation models are required to run the optimization model. To address this challenge, the Kriging surrogate model was proposed to increase computational efficiency. Accuracy, time consumption, and the robustness of the Kriging model were tested on both homogenous and non-uniform media, as well as steady-state and transient flow and transport conditions. The results of three hypothetical cases demonstrate that the Kriging model has the ability to solve groundwater contaminant source problems that could occur during field site source identification problems with a high degree of accuracy and short computation times and is thus very robust.

  19. Audio material as part of the local history collection at the public library – a case study of radio program by Ivan Herman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Batur


    Full Text Available The paper presents and analyses the laws and other legal documents as well as standards, guidelines and codes of library profession related to the local history collection creation and development at the public library. The Croatian laws on electronic media and copyright are also analysed because the paper describes the case study of audio materials which were created as part of the radio program of the local radio station. Such materials are local in nature and therefore surely belong to the local history library collection. Since this type of material is not directly regulated in legislation, the paper offers a starting point for such cases to be included in public libraries local history collections. The case study shows the destiny of radio program named U četiri ćoška by Ivan Herman which was aired on the Croatian Radio Županja.

  20. Evaluating risk factors for endemic human Salmonella Enteritidis infections with different phage types in Ontario, Canada using multinomial logistic regression and a case-case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Csaba


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE infections in Ontario will assist public health authorities to design effective control and prevention programs to reduce the burden of SE infections. Our research objective was to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various phage types (PT in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that certain PTs (e.g., PT8 and PT13a have specific risk factors for infection. Methods Our study included endemic SE cases with various PTs whose isolates were submitted to the Public Health Laboratory-Toronto from January 20th to August 12th, 2011. Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that included questions pertaining to demographics, travel history, clinical symptoms, contact with animals, and food exposures. A multinomial logistic regression method using the Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model procedure and a case-case study design were used to identify risk factors for acquiring SE infections with various PTs in Ontario, Canada. In the multinomial logistic regression model, the outcome variable had three categories representing human infections caused by SE PT8, PT13a, and all other SE PTs (i.e., non-PT8/non-PT13a as a referent category to which the other two categories were compared. Results In the multivariable model, SE PT8 was positively associated with contact with dogs (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.68 and negatively associated with pepper consumption (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.94, after adjusting for age categories and gender, and using exposure periods and health regions as random effects to account for clustering. Conclusions Our study findings offer interesting hypotheses about the role of phage type-specific risk factors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis and the case-case study approach are novel methodologies to evaluate associations among SE infections with different PTs and various risk factors.

  1. Minimally invasive approaches in pancreatic pseudocyst: a Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohollah Y


    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: According to importance of post operative period, admission duration, post operative pain, and acceptable rate of complications, minimally invasive approaches with endoscope in pancreatic pseudocyst management becomes more popular, but the best choice of procedure and patient selection is currently not completely established. During past decade endoscopic procedures are become first choice in most authors' therapeutic plans, however, open surgery remains gold standard in pancreatic pseudocyst treatment."n"nMethods: we present here a patient with pancreatic pseudocyst unresponsive to conservative management that is intervened endoscopically before 6th week, and review current literatures to depict a schema to management navigation."n"nResults: A 16 year old male patient presented with two episodes of acute pancreatitis with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Hyperamilasemia, pancreatic ascites and a pseudocyst were found in our preliminary investigation. Despite optimal conservative management, including NPO (nil per os and total parentral nutrition, after four weeks, clinical and para-clinical findings deteriorated. Therefore, ERCP and trans-papillary cannulation with placement of 7Fr stent was

  2. Premonitory patterns of seismicity months before a large earthquake: Five case histories in Southern California (United States)

    Keilis-Borok, V. I.; Shebalin, P. N.; Zaliapin, I. V.


    This article explores the problem of short-term earthquake prediction based on spatio-temporal variations of seismicity. Previous approaches to this problem have used precursory seismicity patterns that precede large earthquakes with “intermediate” lead times of years. Examples include increases of earthquake correlation range and increases of seismic activity. Here, we look for a renormalization of these patterns that would reduce the predictive lead time from years to months. We demonstrate a combination of renormalized patterns that preceded within 1–7 months five large (M ≥ 6.4) strike-slip earthquakes in southeastern California since 1960. An algorithm for short-term prediction is formulated. The algorithm is self-adapting to the level of seismicity: it can be transferred without readaptation from earthquake to earthquake and from area to area. Exhaustive retrospective tests show that the algorithm is stable to variations of its adjustable elements. This finding encourages further tests in other regions. The final test, as always, should be advance prediction. The suggested algorithm has a simple qualitative interpretation in terms of deformations around a soon-to-break fault: the blocks surrounding that fault began to move as a whole. A more general interpretation comes from the phenomenon of self-similarity since our premonitory patterns retain their predictive power after renormalization to smaller spatial and temporal scales. The suggested algorithm is designed to provide a short-term approximation to an intermediate-term prediction. It remains unclear whether it could be used independently. It seems worthwhile to explore similar renormalizations for other premonitory seismicity patterns. PMID:12482945

  3. Reconstructing land use history from Landsat time-series. Case study of a swidden agriculture system in Brazil (United States)

    Dutrieux, Loïc P.; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Latifah, Siti H.; Kooistra, Lammert


    We developed a method to reconstruct land use history from Landsat images time-series. The method uses a breakpoint detection framework derived from the econometrics field and applicable to time-series regression models. The Breaks For Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) framework is used for defining the time-series regression models which may contain trend and phenology, hence appropriately modelling vegetation intra and inter-annual dynamics. All available Landsat data are used for a selected study area, and the time-series are partitioned into segments delimited by breakpoints. Segments can be associated to land use regimes, while the breakpoints then correspond to shifts in land use regimes. In order to further characterize these shifts, we classified the unlabelled breakpoints returned by the algorithm into their corresponding processes. We used a Random Forest classifier, trained from a set of visually interpreted time-series profiles to infer the processes and assign labels to the breakpoints. The whole approach was applied to quantifying the number of cultivation cycles in a swidden agriculture system in Brazil (state of Amazonas). Number and frequency of cultivation cycles is of particular ecological relevance in these systems since they largely affect the capacity of the forest to regenerate after land abandonment. We applied the method to a Landsat time-series of Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) spanning the 1984-2015 period and derived from it the number of cultivation cycles during that period at the individual field scale level. Agricultural fields boundaries used to apply the method were derived using a multi-temporal segmentation approach. We validated the number of cultivation cycles predicted by the method against in-situ information collected from farmers interviews, resulting in a Normalized Residual Mean Squared Error (NRMSE) of 0.25. Overall the method performed well, producing maps with coherent spatial patterns. We identified

  4. A case of exemplarity: C. F. Rottböll's history of smallpox inoculation in Denmark-Norway, 1766. (United States)

    Eriksen, Anne


    Smallpox inoculation was one of the great discoveries of the 18th century and has been written into the grand narrative of medical progress, describing the taming of epidemic disease. Setting the perspective of progress aside, the article explores how this medical innovation was situated in 18th-century society and culture. The aim is to investigate how medical practice was intertwined with social structure and cultural patterns. The article takes its case from a book published in Copenhagen in 1766 by Professor C. F. Rottböll, former Head Physician of the Royal Inoculation House in Copenhagen. Being the first medical treatise on inoculation in Denmark-Norway, the book also has a historical section followed by a collection of reports and letters written by a number of other authors from various parts of the kingdom. Through close reading, the article explores how the introduction of the new technique was described in the texts. The reports were written to present practice and discuss cases. In doing so, they also presented a variety of other concerns so that a diversity of aims and intentions are added to the medical ones. The social and rhetorical strategies employed illuminate social ambition and systems of patronage, as well as understandings of history and of truth.

  5. Membrane solutions for coal seam methane produced water : case history at Origin Energy, Spring Gully Gas Plant, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wines, T. [Pall Corp., Port Washington, NY (United States); Blyth, G.; Chalmers, S. [Pall Australia, Melbourne (Australia); Karlapudi, R. [Pall Industrial Water, Port Washington, NY (United States)


    Coal seam methane is a significant and emerging source of energy that can be found in Australia, western Canada, the United States, China and India. However, the extraction of methane from coal seams has one particular problem whereby, in many cases, large volumes of water with high levels of dissolved salts are produced along with the gas. This produced water poses an environmental liability, but with proper treatment can be converted into an asset. This paper discussed the use of an integrated membrane system (IMS) consisting of microfiltration coupled with reverse osmosis filtration. A case history at Origin Energy was evaluated where pilot testing was first conducted and later followed by a commercial installation treating nine million liters per day, creating a purified water product that can be used for industrial processes as well as irrigation or discharge into the environment. The paper also presented lessons learned from the pilot phase and explained the experience of the full scale operation demonstrating the advantages of this newly applied technology for coal seam methane production. The IMS system has met Origin Energy's requirements for producing high quality water, and has continued to operate effectively, producing treated water that is well within the Queensland Environmental Protection Agency's guidelines. 6 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  6. Energy budgets, growth rates, and thermal constraints: toward an integrative approach to the study of life-history variation. (United States)

    Niewiarowski, P H


    Variation in thermal constraints on activity has been hypothesized to be an important ecological source of geographic variation in growth rates of juvenile eastern fence lizards Sceloporus undulatus. However, most of the evidence to support this hypothesis is either inferential or indirect. In this study, I quantitatively compared thermal constraints on activity and their relationship to growth rates of free-ranging juvenile fence lizards from two extremes of the range of variation in growth rate (Nebraska and New Jersey) used in a reciprocal transplant experiment. I also examined energy allocation made to growth and storage by yearling lizards. Reduced growth rates in New Jersey of normally fast-growing hatchlings from Nebraska were associated with a more stringent thermal constraint on activity corresponding to a 2-3-h shorter predicted daily activity period in New Jersey compared to Nebraska. The thermal constraint on activity was particularly strong (24% less time available in New Jersey compared to Nebraska) during the period when hatchling lizards emerge (August-October). An 8% reduction in total activity time available over the course of a single year was associated with a 7% reduction in the total amount of energy accumulated by lizards in New Jersey. Differences in the total amount of energy available for allocation were also accompanied by differences in how energy was allocated. Lizards from New Jersey had an allocatable energy pool of approximately 40.34 kJ (88% to growth, 12% to storage, and 0% to reproduction). Lizards from Nebraska had an allocatable pool of 43.44 kJ (22% to growth, 18% to storage, and 60% to reproduction). This study joins others in advocating and illustrating an integrative approach to determining the causes and consequences of life-history variation by combining experimental, comparative, and phylogenetic methods in a single system.

  7. A coupled phylogeographical and species distribution modelling approach recovers the demographical history of a Neotropical seasonally dry forest tree species. (United States)

    Collevatti, Rosane G; Terribile, Levi Carina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Nabout, João C; de Oliveira, Guilherme; Rangel, Thiago F; Rabelo, Suelen G; Diniz-Filho, Jose A F


    We investigated here the demographical history of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Bignoniaceae) to understand the dynamics of the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry forests (SDFs), based on coupling an ensemble approach encompassing hindcasting species distribution modelling and statistical phylogeographical analysis. We sampled 17 populations (280 individuals) in central Brazil and analysed the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnS-trnG, psbA-trnH, and ycf6-trnC intergenic spacers) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on median-joining network showed no haplotype sharing among population but strong evidence of incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent analyses showed historical constant populations size, negligible gene flow among populations, and an ancient time to most recent common ancestor dated from ~4.7 ± 1.1 Myr BP. Most divergences dated from the Lower Pleistocene, and no signal of important population size reduction was found in coalescent tree and tests of demographical expansion. Demographical scenarios were built based on past geographical range dynamic models, using two a priori biogeographical hypotheses ('Pleistocene Arc' and 'Amazonian SDF expansion') and on two additional hypotheses suggested by the palaeodistribution modelling built with several algorithms for distribution modelling and palaeoclimatic data. The simulation of these demographical scenarios showed that the pattern of diversity found so far for T. impetiginosa is in consonance with a palaeodistribution expansion during the last glacial maximum (LGM, 21 kyr BP), strongly suggesting that the current disjunct distribution of T. impetiginosa in SDFs may represent a climatic relict of a once more wide distribution.

  8. A novel best practices approach: the MARLISCO case. (United States)

    Loizidou, Xenia I; Loizides, Michael I; Orthodoxou, Demetra L


    Research that was undertaken to identify and evaluate best practices that can effectively minimise the amount of marine litter in European Seas is presented. Best practices were approached in a novel way that aimed to maximise the impact and added value of the FP7-funded project MARLISCO. The practices served as a tool to enhance the active participation and build capacity in key actors through the implementation of the innovative, dedicatedly-developed decision support tool, DeCyDe-4-Marlisco. This paper also presents the key 'preference' attributes of successful marine litter management practices and provides a snapshot of the key characteristics of the recorded best practices as a means of helping the reader, and particularly decision makers, recognise what would make their marine litter management efforts more successful.

  9. [Hypersensibility reaction to parenteral nutrition approach; a case report]. (United States)

    Sanchez Acera, Elián; Arenas Villafranca, Jose Javier; Abilés, Jimena; Faus Felipe, Vicente


    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is essential in the treatment of many hospitalized patients. However, administration of PN is not without potential complications and patients are exposed to related possible adverse reactions such as hypersensitivity. For that reason and because of the complexity of this treatment, PNs are considered by the ISMP (Institute for Safe Medication Practice) a high risk medication. Following is introduced the case of an oncologic patient with severe malnutrition, who after receiving PN for several days, developed a hypersensitivity reaction that could have being associated with intravenous mixture administration. Our aim is to analize the difficulties related with pre-surgery nutrition and to clarify the main possible causes of the reaction.

  10. Pneumatosis Intestinalis: A Case Report and Approach to Management

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    Sean Donovan


    Full Text Available Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI, defined as gas within the bowel wall, is an uncommon radiographic sign which can represent a wide spectrum of diseases and a variety of underlying diagnoses. Because its etiology can vary greatly, management of PI ranges from surgical intervention to outpatient observation (see, Greenstein et al. (2007, Morris et al. (2008, and Peter et al. (2003. Since PI is infrequently encountered, clinicians may be unfamiliar with its diagnosis and management; this unfamiliarity, combined with the potential necessity for urgent intervention, may place the clinician confronted with PI in a precarious medical scenario. We present a case of pneumatosis intestinalis in a patient who posed a particularly challenging diagnostic dilemma for the primary team. Furthermore, we explore the differential diagnosis prior to revealing the intervention offered to our patient; our concise yet inclusive differential and thought process for rapid evaluation may be of benefit to clinicians presented with similar clinical scenarios.

  11. Vital Approach to Transition: Slovene Multiple Case Study

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    Suzanne Winbauer Catana


    Full Text Available This paper uses a multiple case study to suggest the effectiveness in application of an integrated model for the design of sustainable change strategies in high velocity environments and organizations. The model integrates awareness of current organizational cultural characteristics with leadership intent and strategy formation. The cultural analysis provides a lens through which diverse organizational values are exposed and stakeholders can assess organizational alignment with the external environment, organizational mission and future vision. Using the inherent differentiation of values as creative tensions, strategies are formulated for purposeful change to improve alignment. Leadership inquiry is used to suggest an alignment of personal intent with the strategic initiatives to project sustainable change. This Values, Inquiry, and Tensions Alignment for Leadership model (VITAL is applied as an intervention sequence which provides information, direction, and motivation for sustainable change in transition organizations and environments.

  12. Networks in Argentine agriculture: a multiple-case study approach

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    Sebastián Senesi


    Full Text Available Argentina is among the four largest producers of soybeans, sunflower, corn, and wheat, among other agricultural products. Institutional and policy changes during the 1990s fostered the development of Argentine agriculture and the introduction of innovative process and product technologies (no-till, agrochemicals, GMO, GPS and new investments in modern, large-scale sunflower and soybean processing plants. In addition to technological changes, a "quiet revolution" occurred in the way agricultural production was carried out and organized: from self-production or ownership agriculture to a contract-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to explore and describe the emergence of networks in the Argentine crop production sector. The paper presents and describes four cases that currently represent about 50% of total grain and oilseed production in Argentina: "informal hybrid form", "agricultural trust fund", "investor-oriented corporate structure", and "network of networks". In all cases, hybrid forms involve a group of actors linked by common objectives, mainly to gain scale, share resources, and improve the profitability of the business. Informal contracts seem to be the most common way of organizing the agriculture process, but using short-term contracts and sequential interfirm collaboration. Networks of networks involve long-term relationships and social development, and reciprocal interfirm collaboration. Agricultural trust fund and investor-oriented corporate structures have combined interfirm collaboration and medium-term relationships. These organizational forms are highly flexible and show a great capacity to adapt to challenges; they are competitive because they enjoy aligned incentives, flexibility, and adaptability.

  13. Accessory wandering spleen: Report of a case of laparoscopic approach in an asymptomatic patient

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    Alessandro Perin


    CONCLUSION: We suggest performing surgery with a laparoscopic approach in patients with accessory wandering spleen, though asymptomatic, because of the risk of serious complications in case of accessory spleen torsion.

  14. Stress history controls the spatial pattern of aftershocks: case studies from strike-slip earthquakes (United States)

    Utkucu, Murat; Durmuş, Hatice; Nalbant, Süleyman


    Earthquake ruptures perturb stress within the surrounding crustal volume and as it is widely accepted now these stress perturbations strongly correlates with the following seismicity. Here we have documented five cases of the mainshock-aftershock sequences generated by the strike-slip faults from different tectonic environments of world in order to demonstrate that the stress changes resulting from large preceding earthquakes decades before effect spatial distribution of the aftershocks of the current mainshocks. The studied mainshock-aftershock sequences are the 15 October 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake (Mw = 6.4) in southern California, the 27 November 1979 Khuli-Boniabad (Mw = 7.1), the 10 May 1997 Qa'enat (Mw = 7.2) and the 31 March 2006 Silakhor (Mw = 6.1) earthquakes in Iran and the 13 March 1992 Erzincan earthquake (Mw = 6.7) in Turkey. In the literature, we have been able to find only these mainshocks that are mainly characterized by dense and strong aftershock activities along and beyond the one end of their ruptures while rare aftershock occurrences with relatively lower magnitude reported for the other end of their ruptures. It is shown that the stress changes resulted from earlier mainshock(s) that are close in both time and space might be the reason behind the observed aftershock patterns. The largest aftershocks of the mainshocks studied tend to occur inside the stress-increased lobes that were also stressed by the background earthquakes and not to occur inside the stress-increased lobes that fall into the stress shadow of the background earthquakes. We suggest that the stress shadows of the previous mainshocks may persist in the crust for decades to suppress aftershock distribution of the current mainshocks. Considering active researches about use of the Coulomb stress change maps as a practical tool to forecast spatial distribution of the upcoming aftershocks for earthquake risk mitigation purposes in near-real time, it is further suggested that

  15. The approach of ischemic colitis case followed by the lower gastrointesitnal bleeding

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    Full Text Available Colonic vascular ischemia is commonly seen in the descending colon and causes malnutrition and is to be commensurate with the duration of clinical myocardial ischemia. History of cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, with coronary hearth disease, 68-year-old female patient was followed for about 2 weeks with the occasional massive gastrointestinal bleeding complaint. After ceasing oral intake, fluid and electrolyte replacement and a broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was established. Abdomen bowel wall thickening of the colon in continuity in the CT results were observed with the open SMA SMV. Follow-up colonoscopy was performed from the dentate line at 5 cm starting hemorrhagic and ischemic segments was seen as an area of ​​about 40 cm long. After hemodynamic deterioration she was underwent emergency surgery because of abdominal sensitivity increase. Hartman procedure was performed. Postop pneumonia and pulmonary embolism were suspected. Candida was observed in urine infection. The sudden improving of the patient's postoperative bleeding from the rectal stump where the staple line was, has evolved on the 7th day. The sponges with the adrenaline stopped the bleeding and the hemodynamic support was stabilized with it. The minimal fluid in pelvis was also monitored by ultrasound . The colostomy was fine following the blood supply to the bowel. Later oral intake was started, the general condition of the patient was improved. But on the postoperative day 12 she had suddenly respiratory and cardiac arrest . Finally, the histopathological examination revealed that the ischemic necrosis and purulent some areas could be selected as a morphologic ischemic and necrotic (the intraoperative peritoneal reflection of the level of false membrane formation at the perforation focus off ischemic colitis. Approximately 20% of similar cases were followed with the clinical practice under medical treatment and surgical approach. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 74-76

  16. Elements of War and Peace in History Education in the US and Japan: A Case Study Comparison (United States)

    Langager, Mark


    History praxis can transform perceptions of the "other" by reshaping ideas about events transpiring between groups. Nevertheless, peace education research has rarely examined history teaching. This article addresses the potential for teaching peace through history teaching. After laying out a conceptual framework for understanding the importance…

  17. Manifest Meanings: The Selling (Not Telling) of American Indian History and the Case of "The Black Horse Ledger" (United States)

    Gercken, Becca


    What is the value or perceived necessity--for an Indian or for a white man--of changing Northern Cheyenne history? How are a reader's conclusions affected by her perception of the race of the person altering that history? Why is it acceptable to sell but not tell American Indian history? An examination of the visual and discursive rhetoric of "The…

  18. The reconstructive study in arcaheology: case histories in the communication issues

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    Francesco Gabellone


    Full Text Available EnThe most significant results obtained by Information Technologies Lab (IBAM CNR - ITLab in the construction of VR-based knowledge platforms have been achieved in projects such as ByHeriNet, Archeotour, Interadria, Interreg Greece-Italy, Iraq Virtual Museum, etc. These projects were guided by the belief that in order to be effective, the process of communicating Cultural Heritage to the wider public should be as free as possible from the sterile old VR interfaces of the 1990s. In operational terms, this translates into solutions that are as lifelike as possible and guarantee the maximum emotional involvement of the viewer, adopting the same techniques as are used in modern cinema. Communication thus becomes entertainment and a vehicle for high-quality content, aimed at the widest possible public and produced with the help of interdisciplinary tools and methods. In this context, high-end technologies are no longer the goal of research; rather they are the invisible engine of an unstoppable process that is making it harder and harder to distinguish between computer images and real objects. An emblematic case in this regard is the reconstructive study of ancient contexts, where three-dimensional graphics compensate for the limited expressive potential of two-dimensional drawings and allows for interpretative and representative solutions that were unimaginable a few years ago. The virtual space thus becomes an important opportunity for reflection and study, as well as constituting a revolutionary way to learn for the wider public.ItI risultati più significativi ottenuti dall’Information Technologies Lab (IBAM CNR - ITLab nella costruzione di piattaforme di conoscenza basate sulla Realtà Virtuale, sono stati conseguiti nell’ambito di progetti internazionali quali ByHeriNet, Archeotour, Interadria, Interreg Greece-Italy, Iraq Virtual Museum, ecc. Il nostro lavoro in questi progetti è costantemente caratterizzato dalla convinzione che l

  19. Primary Dermal Melanoma in a Patient with a History of Multiple Malignancies: A Case Report with Molecular Characterization

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    Germana Sini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary dermal melanoma (PDM is a recently described clinical entity accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Histologically, it is located in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue, and it shows no connections with the overlying epidermis. The differential diagnosis is principally made along with that of metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Case Report: A 72-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of multiple cancers (metachronous bilateral breast cancer, meningioma, clear cell renal cell carcinoma, uterine fibromatosis and intestinal adenomatous polyposis, came to our attention with a nodular lesion on her back. After removal of the lesion, the histology report indicated malignant PDM or metastatic malignant melanoma. The clinical and instrumental evaluation of the patient did not reveal any other primary tumour, suggesting the primitive nature of the lesion. The absence of an epithelial component argued for a histological diagnosis of PDM. Subsequently, the patient underwent a wide surgical excision with sentinel node biopsy, which was positive for metastatic melanoma. Finally, the mutational status was studied in the main genes that regulate proliferation, apoptosis and cellular senescence. No pathogenetic mutations in CDKN2A, BRAF, NRAS, KRAS, cKIT, TP53 and PTEN genes were observed. This suggests that alternative pathways and low-frequency alterations may be involved. Conclusions: The differential diagnosis between PDM and isolated metastatic melanoma depends on the negativity of imaging studies and clinical findings for other primary lesions. This distinction is important because 5-year survival rates in such cases are higher than in metastatic cases (80-100 vs. 5-20%, respectively.

  20. Two Case Reports and Actual Treatment Approachs of Retroperitoneal Fibrosis

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    Eymen Gazel


    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF is a rare disease of unclear etiology, which is characterized by a chronic non specific inflammation of the retroperitoneum. This inflammation of the retroperitoneum may entrap and obstruct retroperitoneal structures, particularly the ureters. Patients with RPF show non specific clinical symptoms, including poorly localized back pain, general malaise, weight loss, anemia, features of renal failure and occasionally, mild fever. The early symptoms are non specific and an accurate diagnosis is often achieved only subsequent to urological obstruction or the occurrence of renal failure. Although a number of scientific journals devoted to RPF are present in the litera¬ture, there is no accepted diagnostic or therapeutic strategy for this disease. However, there are several therapeutic strate¬gies which have been proven to be effective. Hereby, we reported two cases of retroperitoneal fibrosis which had similar symptoms and findings but different responses to medical treatment .We aimed to discuss challanges of RPF%u2019s diagnosis and the treatment protocol.

  1. Catheter malposition following supraclavicular approach for subclavian vein catheterisation--case reports. (United States)

    Singh, Prem K; Ali, Zulfiquar; Rath, Girija P; Prabhakar, Hemanshu


    The supraclavicular approach of subclavian vein catheterization is associated with the lowest incidence of malposition. We report two cases of unusual malpositions seen during central venous cathelerization of subclavian vein via supraclavicular approach. Literature search did not reveal such malpositions. The possible cause for the malposition and method to prevent it is discussed.

  2. Taylor Approach of Spinal Anaesthesia in a case of Ankylosing Spondylitis for Hip Fracture Surgery


    Urmila Palaria; Mohd Asim Rasheed; D C Punera; Umesh K Bhadani


    Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease primarily affecting the axial joints manifesting as stiffnesss of the spine. Patient with ankylosing spondylitis is a challenge to anaesthesiologists in terms of airway management and neuraxial blocks. Modified paramedian approach (Taylor approach) of spinal anaesthesia can be used as an alternative to technically difficult cases in patients undergoing lower limb surgeries.

  3. Taylor Approach of Spinal Anaesthesia in a case of Ankylosing Spondylitis for Hip Fracture Surgery

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    Urmila Palaria


    Full Text Available Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease primarily affecting the axial joints manifesting as stiffnesss of the spine. Patient with ankylosing spondylitis is a challenge to anaesthesiologists in terms of airway management and neuraxial blocks. Modified paramedian approach (Taylor approach of spinal anaesthesia can be used as an alternative to technically difficult cases in patients undergoing lower limb surgeries.

  4. Quantitative approaches to fiscal sustainability analysis: a case study of Turkey since the 2001 crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budina, N.; van Wijnbergen, S.


    This case study of fiscal sustainability in Turkey after the crisis in 2001 reviews and extends quantitative approaches to fiscal sustainability analysis and brings them together in a user-friendly tool applicable in a data-sparse environment. It combines a dynamic simulations approach with a steady

  5. The Current Case of Quinolones: Synthetic Approaches and Antibacterial Activity. (United States)

    Naeem, Abdul; Badshah, Syed Lal; Muska, Mairman; Ahmad, Nasir; Khan, Khalid


    Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases. These novel analogues are made by substitution at different sites--the variation at the C-6 and C-8 positions gives more effective drugs. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the C-6 position produces fluroquinolones, which account for a large proportion of the quinolones in clinical use. Among others, substitution of piperazine or methylpiperazine, pyrrolidinyl and piperidinyl rings also yields effective analogues. A total of twenty six analogues are reported in this review. The targets of quinolones are two bacterial enzymes of the class II topoisomerase family, namely gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Quinolones increase the concentration of drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes and convert them into cellular toxins; as a result they are bactericidal. High bioavailability, relative low toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetics have resulted in the clinical success of fluoroquinolones and quinolones. Due to these superior properties, quinolones have been extensively utilized and this increased usage has resulted in some quinolone-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteria become resistant to quinolones by three mechanisms: (1) mutation in the target site (gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV) of quinolones; (2) plasmid-mediated resistance; and (3) chromosome-mediated quinolone resistance. In plasmid-mediated resistance, the efflux of quinolones is increased along with a decrease in the interaction of the drug with gyrase (topoisomerase IV). In the case of chromosome

  6. The Current Case of Quinolones: Synthetic Approaches and Antibacterial Activity

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    Abdul Naeem


    Full Text Available Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases. These novel analogues are made by substitution at different sites—the variation at the C-6 and C-8 positions gives more effective drugs. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the C-6 position produces fluroquinolones, which account for a large proportion of the quinolones in clinical use. Among others, substitution of piperazine or methylpiperazine, pyrrolidinyl and piperidinyl rings also yields effective analogues. A total of twenty six analogues are reported in this review. The targets of quinolones are two bacterial enzymes of the class II topoisomerase family, namely gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Quinolones increase the concentration of drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes and convert them into cellular toxins; as a result they are bactericidal. High bioavailability, relative low toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetics have resulted in the clinical success of fluoroquinolones and quinolones. Due to these superior properties, quinolones have been extensively utilized and this increased usage has resulted in some quinolone-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteria become resistant to quinolones by three mechanisms: (1 mutation in the target site (gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV of quinolones; (2 plasmid-mediated resistance; and (3 chromosome-mediated quinolone resistance. In plasmid-mediated resistance, the efflux of quinolones is increased along with a decrease in the interaction of the drug with gyrase (topoisomerase IV. In the case of

  7. Examining Preservice Teachers' Classroom Management Decisions in Three Case-Based Teaching Approaches (United States)

    Cevik, Yasemin Demiraslan; Andre, Thomas


    This study was aimed at comparing the impact of three types of case-based approaches (worked example, faded work example, and case-based reasoning) on preservice teachers' decision making and reasoning skills related to realistic classroom management situations. Participants in this study received a short-term implementation of one of these three…

  8. A Case-Based Curriculum Approach to Special Education Teacher Preparation. (United States)

    Anderson, Peggy L.; Baker, Barbara K.


    Describes how Metropolitan State College of Denver, a large undergraduate institution, developed and implemented a case-based special-education curriculum approach to special-education teacher preparation. Of 20 students prepared using the case-based method, 19 have successfully passed the State of Colorado mandated teacher competency test.…

  9. [The Caribbean origins of the National Public Health System in the USA: a global approach to the history of medicine and public health in Latin America]. (United States)

    Espinosa, Mariola


    This article defines global history in relation to the history of medicine and public health. It argues that a global approach to history opens up a space for examining the reverberations transmitted from the geographic periphery towards western regions, which have traditionally dominated modern historiography. It analyzes two medical interventions in the Caribbean in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, showing how these events had profound consequences in the USA. The successes achieved in the Caribbean in terms of yellow fever and ancylostoma control, as well as providing a model for health campaigns in the southern USA, inspired the centralization of public health in North America under the centralizing control of the federal government.

  10. Subtemporal transtentorial approach for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression via the lateral suboccipital approach: case report. (United States)

    Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Goto, Tetsuya; Kusano, Yoshikazu; Kuroiwa, Masafumi; Kiuchi, Takafumi; Kodama, Kunihiko; Takemae, Toshiki; Hongo, Kazuhiro


    Microvascular decompression (MVD) via lateral suboccipital craniotomy is the standard surgical intervention for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). For recurrent TN, difficulties are sometimes encountered when performing reoperation via the same approach because of adhesions and prosthetic materials used in the previous surgery. In the present case report the authors describe the efficacy of the subtemporal transtentorial approach for use in recurrent TN after MVD via the lateral suboccipital approach. An 86-year-old woman, in whom an MVD via a lateral suboccipital craniotomy had previously been performed for TN, underwent surgery for recurrent TN via the subtemporal transtentorial approach, which provided excellent visualization of the neurovascular relationships and the trigeminal nerve without adhesions due to the previous surgery. Her TN disappeared after the MVD. The present approach is ideal for visualizing the trigeminal root entry zone, and the neurovascular complex can be easily dissected using a new surgical trajectory. This approach could be another surgical option for reoperation when the previous MVD had been performed via the suboccipital approach.

  11. Reconstructing Land Use History from Landsat Time-Series. Case study of Swidden Agriculture Intensification in Brazil (United States)

    Dutrieux, L.; Jakovac, C. C.; Siti, L. H.; Kooistra, L.


    We developed a method to reconstruct land use history from Landsat images time-series. The method uses a breakpoint detection framework derived from the econometrics field and applicable to time-series regression models. The BFAST framework is used for defining the time-series regression models which may contain trend and phenology, hence appropriately modelling vegetation intra and inter-annual dynamics. All available Landsat data are used, and the time-series are partitioned into segments delimited by breakpoints. Segments can be associated to land use regimes, while the breakpoints then correspond to shifts in regimes. To further characterize these shifts, we classified the unlabelled breakpoints returned by the algorithm into their corresponding processes. We used a Random Forest classifier, trained from a set of visually interpreted time-series profiles to infer the processes and assign labels to the breakpoints. The whole approach was applied to quantifying the number of cultivation cycles in a swidden agriculture system in Brazil. Number and frequency of cultivation cycles is of particular ecological relevance in these systems since they largely affect the capacity of the forest to regenerate after abandonment. We applied the method to a Landsat time-series of Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) spanning the 1984-2015 period and derived from it the number of cultivation cycles during that period at the individual field scale level. Agricultural fields boundaries used to apply the method were derived using a multi-temporal segmentation. We validated the number of cultivation cycles predicted against in-situ information collected from farmers interviews, resulting in a Normalized RMSE of 0.25. Overall the method performed well, producing maps with coherent patterns. We identified various sources of error in the approach, including low data availability in the 90s and sub-object mixture of land uses. We conclude that the method holds great promise for

  12. A polytomous conditional likelihood approach for combining matched and unmatched case-control studies. (United States)

    Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Guimaraes, Paulo; Cozen, Wendy; Conti, David V


    In genetic association studies it is becoming increasingly imperative to have large sample sizes to identify and replicate genetic effects. To achieve these sample sizes, many research initiatives are encouraging the collaboration and combination of several existing matched and unmatched case-control studies. Thus, it is becoming more common to compare multiple sets of controls with the same case group or multiple case groups to validate or confirm a positive or negative finding. Usually, a naive approach of fitting separate models for each case-control comparison is used to make inference about disease-exposure association. But, this approach does not make use of all the observed data and hence could lead to inconsistent results. The problem is compounded when a common case group is used in each case-control comparison. An alternative to fitting separate models is to use a polytomous logistic model but, this model does not combine matched and unmatched case-control data. Thus, we propose a polytomous logistic regression approach based on a latent group indicator and a conditional likelihood to do a combined analysis of matched and unmatched case-control data. We use simulation studies to evaluate the performance of the proposed method and a case-control study of multiple myeloma and Inter-Leukin-6 as an example. Our results indicate that the proposed method leads to a more efficient homogeneity test and a pooled estimate with smaller standard error.

  13. History of Physics as a Tool to Detect the Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Students: The Case of Simple Electric Circuits in Primary Education (United States)

    Leone, Matteo


    The present paper advocates the use of History of Science into the teaching of science in primary education through a case study in the field of electricity. In this study, which provides both historical and experimental evidence, a number of conceptual difficulties faced by early nineteenth century physicists are shown to be a useful tool to…

  14. Prosthodontic treatment in a partially edentulous patient with a complex medical history of epilepsy and deep vein thrombosis: a case report. (United States)

    Kosyfaki, Panagiota; Woerner, Wolf; Att, Wael


    This report describes the prosthodontic rehabilitation of a partially edentulous patient by means of a maxillary implant-supported removable dental prosthesis and mandibular telescopic crown prosthesis. Due to the patient's contributory medical history for epilepsy and deep vein thrombosis, clinical management considerations are outlined along with an evidence-based, medically oriented treatment sequence concerning the surgical and prosthodontic stages of the case.

  15. Asbestos Removal Case History. (United States)

    Haney, Stanley J.


    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  16. Transhepatic approach to closure of patent foramen ovale: report of 2 cases in adults. (United States)

    Hussain, Jamal; Strumpf, Robert; Ghandforoush, Aslan; Jamal, Ayman; Diethrich, Edward


    Patent foramen ovale is increasingly diagnosed in patients who are undergoing clinical study for cryptogenic stroke or migraine. In addition, patent foramen ovale is often suspected as a cause of paradoxical embolism in patients who present with arterial thromboembolism. The femoral venous approach to closure has been the mainstay. When the femoral approach is not feasible, septal occluder devices have been deployed via a transjugular approach.Herein, we describe 2 cases of patent foramen ovale in which the transhepatic approach was used for closure. To our knowledge, this is the 1st report of a transhepatic approach to patent foramen ovale closure in an adult patient. Moreover, no previous case of patent foramen ovale closure has been reported in a patient with interrupted inferior vena cava.

  17. A series of critically challenging case scenarios in moderate to severe psoriasis: a Delphi consensus approach. (United States)

    Strober, Bruce; Berger, Emily; Cather, Jennifer; Cohen, David; Crowley, Jeffrey J; Gordon, Kenneth B; Gottlieb, Alice; Horn, Elizabeth J; Kavanaugh, Arthur F; Korman, Neal J; Krueger, Gerald G; Leonardi, Craig L; Menter, Alan; Schwartzman, Sergio; Sobell, Jeffrey M; Young, Melodie


    Clinical trials for systemic psoriasis therapy typically enroll healthy patients and exclude patients with cardiovascular disease, latent tuberculosis, liver disease, histories of malignancies, viral infections, children, and pregnant or breast-feeding women. Physicians often require guidance for optimum management of severe psoriasis in patients that have a combination of underlying disease states. To provide treatment recommendations for complex psoriasis scenarios, a consensus panel comprising 15 experts in psoriatic disease convened to review and discuss available evidence-based data and to arrive at a consensus for treatment options of difficult cases. An application of the Delphi Method was used to select case scenarios, provide medical treatment options, present the case study with existing medical evidence, and anonymously vote on treatment options. The top 10 treatment options were ranked and statistically analyzed to compare the differences between treatments. The final rankings and analysis provide guidance for practical, safe, and efficacious treatment options in a number of complex psoriasis scenarios.

  18. Probabilities and Surprises: A Realist Approach to Identifying Linguistic and Social Patterns, with Reference to an Oral History Corpus (United States)

    Sealey, Alison


    The relationship between language and identity has been explored in a number of ways in applied linguistics, and this article focuses on a particular aspect of it: self-representation in the oral history interview. People from a wide range of backgrounds, currently resident in one large city in England, were asked to reflect on their lives as part…

  19. Developing Greek Primary School Students' Critical Thinking through an Approach of Teaching Science which Incorporates Aspects of History of Science (United States)

    Malamitsa, Katerina; Kasoutas, Michael; Kokkotas, Panagiotis


    In this paper, the development of sixth grade students' critical thinking skills in science courses is discussed relatively to the contribution of the integration of aspects of History of Science into instruction. Towards this direction a project on electromagnetism was designed and implemented aiming to engage primary school students in a…

  20. A Humanities Approach to Early National U.S. History: Activities and Resources for the Junior High School Teacher. (United States)

    Giese, James R., Ed.; Parisi, Lynn S., Ed.

    This volume presents a framework for teaching eighth grade U.S. history up to 1830 using an integrated humanities perspective that includes art, architecture, literature, religion, music, and dance as applied to everyday colonial life. The 28 activities are presented in standard format, including a brief introduction, list of objectives, time…

  1. Architectural and environmental retrofit of public social housing: opportunity for contemporary city. A case history in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Paris


    Full Text Available Declension of the terms Reduce, Reuse, Recycle in relation to urban development, nowadays offers the opportunity for a new generation of spaces and architectures that interpret construction – dilapidated, neglected worn out or abandoned – as a real resource and hence value. Renewal activities concern new programmes and projects for rethinking uses, meanings and values which existing construction – from the individual building to the neighbourhood – contain and which can change. Indeed, nowadays, a series of design approaches can be acknowledged and consolidated; European best practices which reinterpret renewal projects – including energy regeneration –, not limiting themselves to technological and typological updating of buildings, but also to urban and social implications. The paper proposes to document these advanced reference scenarios, flanked by educational experimentation and research being performed in case studies developed together with Rome’s local building authority (ATER.

  2. Identification of Alteration Features in Basalts by Atomic Force Microscopy: New Approach for Understanding the Climate History of Mars. (United States)

    Skiścim, M.; Gurgurewicz, J.; Mège, D.


    Studies on Martian meteorites, as well as the analysis of data obtained during space missions, indicate the presence of basalts on the Martian surface. Analysis of their alteration features may provide insights into the climate evolution and its local variations. In this work we consider Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) as a tool to identify diagnostic alteration features on a basaltic surface. AFM is one of the most widely used tools for surface science and has already been introduced in space missions. Its advantages include, among others, low instrument weight and high resolution capability. It allows to observe objects in the nanoscale and analyze their topography and roughness. AFM can operate in ambient atmosphere and can be used for different, also non-conductive, materials. However, it has some significant limitations, e.g. it is not possible to determine the chemical composition directly. In order to assess the suitability of this method for analysis of basalt alteration it is necessary to complement AFM with other methods, in this case, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Basalt samples from arid cold (Udokan, Siberia) and arid hot (Ogaden, Ethiopia) environments, two of the possible Martian end-member paleo-environments, have been studied. Interesting places in the samples were marked with a diamond stylus for easy identification with AFM and SEM. Mineralogical analysis based on backscattered electron spectra (BSE) was carried out in selected areas of the samples. Structures examined by AFM were assigned to specific mineral phases; it is possible to perceive details of structures that may result from weathering. The study of rocks exposed to contrasted climatic conditions (arid cold and arid hot) aims at determining effect of temperature on the formation of these features. With the used experimental approach, the same area in a given sample can be studied both by SEM and AFM. The structure of minerals identified in the BSE can be located and observed at

  3. The transconjunctival approach for orbital bony surgery: in which cases should it be used? (United States)

    Suga, Hirotaka; Sugawara, Yasushi; Uda, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Naotaka


    The advantages and disadvantages of the transconjunctival approach were examined to determine its indication for orbital bony surgery. The transconjunctival approach was used in 22 patients. The average follow-up was 13 months. Two patients had an intraoperative lower eyelid laceration because of excessive traction. Lower eyelid retraction occurred in 5 patients after surgery, although only 1 of them required surgical repair. With a transconjunctival approach alone, the exposure of the orbital lateral wall is limited and incorporation of a lateral incision has been found to be necessary. Postoperative eyelid retraction seems to occur even in the transconjunctival approach. The transconjunctival approach is best indicated in cases with an orbital medial wall fracture because it provides much easier access than any cutaneous approach.

  4. An approach for integrating toxicogenomic data in risk assessment: The dibutyl phthalate case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euling, Susan Y., E-mail: [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Chiu, Weihsueh A. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Benson, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, Mail code 8P-W, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)


    An approach for evaluating and integrating genomic data in chemical risk assessment was developed based on the lessons learned from performing a case study for the chemical dibutyl phthalate. A case study prototype approach was first developed in accordance with EPA guidance and recommendations of the scientific community. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was selected for the case study exercise. The scoping phase of the dibutyl phthalate case study was conducted by considering the available DBP genomic data, taken together with the entire data set, for whether they could inform various risk assessment aspects, such as toxicodynamics, toxicokinetics, and dose–response. A description of weighing the available dibutyl phthalate data set for utility in risk assessment provides an example for considering genomic data for future chemical assessments. As a result of conducting the scoping process, two questions—Do the DBP toxicogenomic data inform 1) the mechanisms or modes of action?, and 2) the interspecies differences in toxicodynamics?—were selected to focus the case study exercise. Principles of the general approach include considering the genomics data in conjunction with all other data to determine their ability to inform the various qualitative and/or quantitative aspects of risk assessment, and evaluating the relationship between the available genomic and toxicity outcome data with respect to study comparability and phenotypic anchoring. Based on experience from the DBP case study, recommendations and a general approach for integrating genomic data in chemical assessment were developed to advance the broader effort to utilize 21st century data in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Performed DBP case study for integrating genomic data in risk assessment • Present approach for considering genomic data in chemical risk assessment • Present recommendations for use of genomic data in chemical risk assessment.

  5. Twitter as a teaching tool in the Social Sciences faculties. A case study from the Economic History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Arturo López Zapico


    Full Text Available 0 0 1 127 701 USAL 5 1 827 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The increasing use of social networking among university students ease the way for teachers to use these kinds of tools towards achieving the objectives set in the European Higher Education Area. In this sense, Twitter appears as a highly versatile learning tool that perfectly fits with the skill-based education approach, as evidenced by the literature. This paper describes the methodology, as well as, discusses the results of three experiments that took place during the 2011-2012 Academic Year at the School of Economics and Business of the University of Oviedo. Twitter was used during those experiments to debate the today’s economic crisis. The indicators obtained are used to conclude that microblogging services are a proper tool not only for teaching Economic History but also for doing so for any Social Sciences.

  6. Problematic Incinerator Ash: A Case Study of Finding a Successful Treatment Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Gering


    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) produces incinerator flyash and bottom ash as a consequence of burning low-level radioactive waste materials at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). The incineration process greatly reduces original waste volumes but concentrates the metals that are present, such as toxic metals (most notably cadmium, lead, and antimony) and nuisance metals (e.g., zinc). Anion species also become predominant in flyash produced by INEEL incineration, where chloride and sulfate are at concentrations that can approach 15-20 wt% each. In addition, treatment of the WERF flyash is further complicated by a significant fraction of ignitables composed of carbon soot and various hydrocarbon species that have been measured in some cases at 30% net by Loss-on-Ignition tests. Bottom ash produced at the WERF site is generally much less toxic, if not nontoxic, as compared to the flyash. Due to the complex composition of the flyash material, stabilization attempts at the INEEL have been only partly successful, causing the effectiveness and viability of treatment methods to be revisited. Breakthroughs in flyash stabilization came in 1998 when more complete characterization data gave us further insight into the chemical and physical nature of the flyash. These breakthroughs were also facilitated by the use of a computer model for electrolytes that allowed us to simulate stabilization options prior to started laboratory studies. This paper summarizes efforts at the INEEL, spanning the past three years, that have focused on stabilizing flyash. A brief history of INEEL treatability studies is given, showing that the degree of effective flyash stabilization was proportional to the amount of meaningful characterization data that was available. Various binders have been used in these treatability studies, including Portland cement type I/II, Portland cement type V, JGC Super Cement (blast furnace slag cement), a Fluid Tech

  7. A Novel Approach to Extracting Casing Status Features Using Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikai Chen


    Full Text Available Casing coupling location signals provided by the magnetic localizer in retractors are typically used to ascertain the position of casing couplings in horizontal wells. However, the casing coupling location signal is usually submerged in noise, which will result in the failure of casing coupling detection under the harsh logging environment conditions. The limitation of Shannon wavelet time entropy, in the feature extraction of casing status, is presented by analyzing its application mechanism, and a corresponding improved algorithm is subsequently proposed. On the basis of wavelet transform, two derivative algorithms, singular values decomposition and Tsallis entropy theory, are proposed and their physics meanings are researched. Meanwhile, a novel data mining approach to extract casing status features with Tsallis wavelet singularity entropy is put forward in this paper. The theoretical analysis and experiment results indicate that the proposed approach can not only extract the casing coupling features accurately, but also identify the characteristics of perforation and local corrosion in casings. The innovation of the paper is in the use of simple wavelet entropy algorithms to extract the complex nonlinear logging signal features of a horizontal well tractor.

  8. Business and University Responses to the Environmental Challenge: A Case Study Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    It has long been recognized that education and training are essential factors in promoting environmental management in business organizations. So far, however, there has been little documentation about environmental management practice and related educational and training requirements in even...... an EU research project has been carried out. One of the basic research methodologies was a case study approach. The background for selecting this approach, how it was carried out as well as a few concentrated examples will be presented in this paper....

  9. Diagnosis and Treatment of Small Bowel Strangulation Due To Congenital Band: Three Cases of Congenital Band in Adults Lacking a History of Trauma or Surgery (United States)

    Nicolas, Gregory; Kfoury, Tony; Shimlati, Rasha; Koury, Elliott; Tohme, Maroon; Gharios, Elie; Wakim, Raja


    Case series Patients: Male, 33 • Male, 18 • Male, 19 Final Diagnosis: Congenital band causing a small bowel obstruction Symptoms: Progressive abdominal pain that eventually becomes excessive Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic band removal Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Among the causes of constipation are bands and adhesions that lead to obstructions at different points in the intestinal tract. These can occur as a consequence of healing following surgery or trauma. However, an entity known as congenital band exists where a band is present from birth. Here we report three such cases of adults with symptoms of intestinal obstruction, in whom a congenital band was discovered through exploratory laparoscopy. Case Reports: All three of these patients presented lacking a history of any abdominal trauma or previous abdominal surgeries, a fact that is often used to exclude an adhesion as a differential. All three recovered quickly and had relief of their symptoms following surgical intervention. Conclusions: Bands and adhesions are common surgical causes of small bowel obstruction, leading to symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and obstipation. These bands almost always result from a prior abdominal surgery or from a recent abdominal trauma. The three cases presented here show a far more unusual picture of a band, one that is congenitally present, as there was an absence of such a history. This is significant because clinical suspicion of a band is often very low due to a lack of distinguishing clinical and diagnostic features, and when the past history is negative. PMID:27713389

  10. Morphological and life-history responses of anurans to predation by an invasive crayfish: an integrative approach. (United States)

    Nunes, Ana L; Orizaola, Germán; Laurila, Anssi; Rebelo, Rui


    Predator-induced phenotypic plasticity has been widely documented in response to native predators, but studies examining the extent to which prey can respond to exotic invasive predators are scarce. As native prey often do not share a long evolutionary history with invasive predators, they may lack defenses against them. This can lead to population declines and even extinctions, making exotic predators a serious threat to biodiversity. Here, in a community-wide study, we examined the morphological and life-history responses of anuran larvae reared with the invasive red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, feeding on conspecific tadpoles. We reared tadpoles of nine species until metamorphosis and examined responses in terms of larval morphology, growth, and development, as well as their degree of phenotypic integration. These responses were compared with the ones developed in the presence of a native predator, the larval dragonfly Aeshna sp., also feeding on tadpoles. Eight of the nine species altered their morphology or life history when reared with the fed dragonfly, but only four when reared with the fed crayfish, suggesting among-species variation in the ability to respond to a novel predator. While morphological defenses were generally similar across species (deeper tails) and almost exclusively elicited in the presence of the fed dragonfly, life-history responses were very variable and commonly elicited in the presence of the invasive crayfish. Phenotypes induced in the presence of dragonfly were more integrated than in crayfish presence. The lack of response to the presence of the fed crayfish in five of the study species suggests higher risk of local extinction and ultimately reduced diversity of the invaded amphibian communities. Understanding how native prey species vary in their responses to invasive predators is important in predicting the impacts caused by newly established predator-prey interactions following biological invasions.

  11. Environmental harshness shapes life-history variation in an Australian temporary pool breeding frog: a skeletochronological approach. (United States)

    Reniers, Jane; Brendonck, Luc; Roberts, J Dale; Verlinden, Wim; Vanschoenwinkel, Bram


    For many amphibians, high temperatures and limited precipitation are crucial habitat characteristics that limit species ranges and modulate life-history characteristics. Although knowledge of the ability of amphibians to cope with such environmental harshness is particularly relevant in the light of ongoing environmental change, relatively little is known about natural variation in age, maturation and associated life-history traits across species' ranges. We used the analysis of growth rings in bones to investigate the link between environmental harshness and life-history traits, including age and body size distribution, in specimens from 20 populations of the Australian bleating froglet, Crinia pseudinsignifera. Despite the short lifespan of the species, bone slides revealed geographic variation in average age, body size and reproductive investment linked to variation in temperature and rainfall. We found no difference in age at maturation in different climatic harshness regimes. Frogs from harsher environments invested less in their first reproductive event but grew older than their counterparts in more benign environments, thereby allowing for more reproductive events and buffering them against the increased chance of reproductive failure in the harsher environments. For individual frogs, climatic harshness experienced during an individual's life promoted larger body size. Overall, these results illustrate how bone structure analyses from preserved specimens allow both the testing of ecogeographic hypotheses and the assessment of the adaptive potential of species in the light of environmental change.

  12. Hybrid approach in a difficult case of pseudoaneurysm of right common carotid artery. (United States)

    Kumar, Dilip; Chakraborty, Saujatya; Banerjee, Sunip


    We present the case of a 65-year-old gentleman, who presented with a symptomatic pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery. Because of high surgical risk, endovascular approach was decided upon. However, taking hardware across the lesion via the aortic arch provided us with insurmountable difficulties. Therefore, a hybrid approach was resorted to, in which an arteriotomy was done in the carotid artery followed by direct implantation of the stent. We were thus able to create a favorable trade-off between the high surgical risk of a full surgical procedure and the peri-operative benefit of an endovascular approach.

  13. Learning from the patient: the East, synchronicity and transference in the history of an unknown case of C.G. Jung. (United States)

    de Moura, Vicente


    This article presents the history of one until now unknown case of C.G. Jung: Maggy Reichstein. Born in Indonesia in 1894 in a very aristocratic family, she brought her sister to Zurich to be treated by Jung in 1919, and later she herself was in analysis with him. Jung used her case as example in his lecture in 1937 on the realities of practical psychotherapy, relating it to the process of transference and countertransference. Jung deepened his studies in Eastern psychology after a series of dreams she had, which culminated in the Yoga Kundalini Seminars. She was also the case presented in his article of 1951 on the concept of synchronicity. Jung wrote that her case, concerning synchronicity, remained unique in his experience. Jung also published some of her mandalas. He considered her able to understand his ideas in depth. Reichstein was for Jung an important case, which challenged and triggered his interests in different subjects.

  14. [Integral approach by the case manager and the community nurse to a complex case of diabetes mellitus in the home]. (United States)

    Prats-Guardiola, Marta; López-Pisa, Rosa María


    We present the case of a patient with long-term and clinically complex Diabetes Mellitus. She was taking part in the home care program in Primary Care. The complications of her DM affected her quality of life: blindness, kidney failure, treated with hemodialysis, and a cerebrovascular attack. We describe the evaluation following Virginia's Henderson model. This evaluation was made in the patient's home after she was discharged from the socio-health centre where she was admitted as her right leg was amputated at a supracondylar level. It was designed a care plan between the community nurse and the case manager using NANDA, NOC and NIC taxonomy. The care plan was carried out as a joint effort between the community nurse and the case manager who coordinated the planning with the rest of professionals. Results were evaluated 6 months after the initial assessment. This case, which had a high dependence and a high clinical complexity, required a multidisciplinary approach and the integration of different professionals, services and institutions to implement the patient's treatment. Because of all the above, it is important to mention the case management function to guarantee continuity, and overall and integrated care.

  15. Feasibility of thoracoscopic approach for retrosternal goitre (posterior mediastinal goitre: Personal experiences of 11 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchangam Ramakanth Bhargav


    Full Text Available Introduction: Posterior mediastinal goitres constitute of a unique surgical thyroid disorder that requires expert management. Occasionally, they require thoracic approach for the completion of thyroidectomy. In this paper, we describe the feasibility and utility of a novel thoracoscopic approach for such goitres. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care endocrine surgery department in South India over a period of 5 years from January 2010 to December 2014. We developed a novel thoracoscopic technique for posterior mediastinal goitres instead of a more morbid thoracotomy or sternotomy. All the clinical, investigative, operative, pathological and follow-up data were collected from our prospectively filled database. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS 15.0 version. Descriptive analysis was done. Operative Technique of Thoracoscopic Thyroidectomy: Single lumen endotracheal tube (SLETT was used of anaesthetic intubation and general inhalational anaesthesia. Operative decubitus was supine with extension and abduction of the ipsilateral arm. Access to mediastinum was obtained by two working ports in the third and fifth intercostal spaces. Mediastinal extension was dissected thoracoscopically and delivered cervically. Results: Out of 1,446 surgical goitres operated during the study period, 72 (5% had retrosternal goitre. Also, 27/72 (37.5% cases had posterior mediastinal extension (PME, out of which 11 cases required thoracic approach. We utilised thoracoscopic technique for these 11 cases. The post-operative course was uneventful with no major morbidity. There was one case of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN injury and hoarseness of voice in the third case. Histopathologies in 10 cases were benign, out of which two had subclinical hyperthyroidism. One case had multifocal papillary microcarcinoma. Conclusions: We opine that novel thoracoscopic technique is a feasibly optimal approach for posterior mediastinal

  16. Bayesian approach to the assessment of the population-specific risk of inhibitors in hemophilia A patients: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng J


    Full Text Available Ji Cheng,1,2 Alfonso Iorio,2,3 Maura Marcucci,4 Vadim Romanov,5 Eleanor M Pullenayegum,6,7 John K Marshall,3,8 Lehana Thabane1,2 1Biostatistics Unit, St Joseph’s Healthcare Hamilton, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 3Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 4Geriatrics, Fondazione Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; 5Baxter HealthCare, Global Medical Affairs, Westlake Village, CA, USA; 6Child Health Evaluation Sciences, Hospital for Sick Children, 7Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, 8Division of Gastroenterology, Hamilton Health Science, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Developing inhibitors is a rare event during the treatment of hemophilia A. The multifacets and uncertainty surrounding the development of inhibitors further complicate the process of estimating inhibitor rate from the limited data. Bayesian statistical modeling provides a useful tool in generating, enhancing, and exploring the evidence through incorporating all the available information.Methods: We built our Bayesian analysis using three study cases to estimate the inhibitor rates of patients with hemophilia A in three different scenarios: Case 1, a single cohort of previously treated patients (PTPs or previously untreated patients; Case 2, a meta-analysis of PTP cohorts; and Case 3, a previously unexplored patient population – patients with baseline low-titer inhibitor or history of inhibitor development. The data used in this study were extracted from three published ADVATE (antihemophilic factor [recombinant] is a product of Baxter for treating hemophilia A post-authorization surveillance studies. Noninformative and informative priors were applied to Bayesian standard (Case 1 or random-effects (Case 2 and Case 3 logistic models. Bayesian probabilities of satisfying three meaningful thresholds of the risk of developing a clinical

  17. A Case Study Using Child-Centered Play Therapy Approach to Treat Enuresis and Encopresis. (United States)

    Cuddy-Casey, Maria


    Demonstrates an alternative method (nondirective child-centered therapy) in treating enuresis and encopresis resulting from emotional disturbances. Examines various etiologies and approaches to treating these conditions. Provides a case study example. Claims that professionals must differentiate between primary and secondary occurrences of these…

  18. Self-Assessment in Higher Education: Experience in Using a Metacognitive Approach in Five Case Studies (United States)

    Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lung, Ching Leung; Cheng, Doris Pui Wah; Cheung, Rebecca Hun Ping; Ng, Mei Lee


    This study describes the use of a metacognitive approach for self-assessment of teacher education students. The design of the study was guided by the principles of learning-oriented assessment and the centrality of reflection for teachers. The study comprised five case studies undertaken in five teacher education programmes. In each programme,…

  19. Differences in treatment approach between Dutch paediatric dentists and general practitioners, a case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuin, D.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.


    AIM: This case control study was to assess whether paediatric dentists perform significantly more diagnostic, preventive and curative care in a clinical setting then do general dental practitioners. METHODS: 16 paediatric dentists were approached and a matching control group of 16 general dental pra

  20. Exploring human centred approaches in market research and product development - Three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.; Koning, N. de; Pikaart, A.


    How can human centred approaches in market research and product development improve the process and results of innovation? Based on case studies two recommendations are formulated: 1) use a comprehensive view on man for studying people's behaviour, needs and wishes while they use products or service

  1. A Collaborative Approach to Experiential Learning in University Newswriting and Editing Classes: A Case Study (United States)

    Parks, Perry


    This case study examines a creative approach by two journalism professors to enhance experiential learning in separate skills-based newswriting and editing courses by collaborating to produce a live online news report from campus each week on a four-hour deadline. The study builds on previous research into how innovative classroom structures that…

  2. Improvement of risk assessment by integrating toxicological and epidemiological approaches: the case of isoflavones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, M.A.


      Improvement of risk assessment by integrating toxicological and epidemiological approaches: the case of isoflavones PhD-thesis Mohammed Ariful Islam This thesis describes the results of a research project that aimed at the improvement of the risk/benefit as

  3. [An anorexia nervosa case and an approach to this case with pharmacotherapy and psychodrama techniques]. (United States)

    Ozdel, Osman; Ateşci, Figen; Oğuzhanoğlu, Nalan K


    Anorexia nervosa in an eating disorder that primarily affects female adolescents and is more commonly seen in westernized countries. Although it is a sociocultural problem of developed societies, nowadays it is also increasing rapidly in developing cultures such as Turkey. Difficulties in the treatment of anorexia nervosa have directed clinicians to understand the disorder better. Although it is well known that various factors play a role in the etiology of anorexia nervosa, psychodynamic factors also have considerable importance. In addition, social and familial interactions contribute to the development of anorexia nervosa. In the light of these facts, treatment with psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy might be used to cure this disorder. In this article, the definitive features and process of anorexia nervosa along with its psychodynamics were discussed on the basis of a case. In the treatment of the patient, psychodrama techniques with drugs were thought to be useful. The patient became aware of the unfavourable relationship and improved by the use of this method. Thus she gained emotional-cognitive insight.

  4. A direct approach to generalised multiple mapping conditioning for selected turbulent diffusion flame cases (United States)

    Sundaram, Brruntha; Klimenko, Alexander Yuri; Cleary, Matthew John; Ge, Yipeng


    This work presents a direct and transparent interpretation of two concepts for modelling turbulent combustion: generalised Multiple Mapping Conditioning (MMC) and sparse-Lagrangian Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The MMC approach is presented as a hybrid between the Probability Density Function (PDF) method and approaches based on conditioning (e.g. Conditional Moment Closure, flamelet, etc.). The sparse-Lagrangian approach, which allows for a dramatic reduction of computational cost, is viewed as an alternative interpretation of the Filtered Density Function (FDF) methods. This work presents simulations of several turbulent diffusion flame cases and discusses the universality of the localness parameter between these cases and the universality of sparse-Lagrangian FDF methods with MMC.

  5. Conservative Management of Invasive Placentation: Two Cases with Different Surgical Approaches. (United States)

    Fay, Emily E; Norquist, Barbara; Jolley, Jennifer; Hardesty, Melissa


    Background When placenta accreta complicates a delivery, the typical management is to perform a cesarean hysterectomy. Other management strategies, including leaving the placenta in situ, have been attempted and supported in some cases. This may allow for an interval hysterectomy, which can potentially decrease average blood loss and/or allow a minimally invasive approach to the hysterectomy. Cases We present two cases of women with invasive placentation managed conservatively with interval hysterectomy. One woman was managed with robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery and the other with an open surgical approach. Conclusion These cases highlight the successful use of conservative management for invasive placentation in two stable patients and showcase the novel use of a robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for management of invasive placentation.

  6. 'Made Up People': An Interdisciplinary Approach to Labelling and the Construction of People in Post-War History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Crane


    Full Text Available The overarching theme of this one-day conference was to situate labelling theory, as conceptualised by Professor Hacking, in the study of post-war history. The post-war period witnessed the emergence of numerous new categories and classifications of people, through the development of labels including 'schizophrenic', 'gambler', and 'adolescent'. This conference drew together speakers and delegates from a range of disciplines in order to raise a set of questions about these 'made up people'. The conference aimed to facilitate a workshop-style atmosphere, with a key note speech by Professor Hacking, several panel sessions, and a roundtable discussion. Image: Andrey Maximov (flikr

  7. "Finding a way out": Case histories of mental health care-seeking and recovery among long-term internally displaced persons in Georgia. (United States)

    Singh, Namrita S; Jakhaia, Nino; Amonashvili, Nino; Winch, Peter J


    Trajectories of illness and recovery are ongoing and incomplete processes cocreated by individuals, their informal support networks, formal care-givers and treatment contexts, and broader social systems. This analysis presents two case histories of care-seeking for, and recovery from, mental illness and psychosocial problems in the context of protracted internal displacement. These case histories present individuals with experiences of schizophrenia and depression drawn from a sample of adult long-term internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Georgia, a country in the South Caucasus. Dimensions of care-seeking were compiled into a matrix for analysis. Interviews were open coded, and codes were linked with matrix dimensions to construct each case history. Findings illustrated that individuals moved cyclically among self-care, household support, lay care, and formal services domains to understand and manage their problems. Living with mental illness and within displacement are experiences that intersect at various points, including in the recognition and perceived causes of illness, stressors such as discrimination and isolation, the affordability and availability of services, and the capacity of social networks to provide informal care. Interventions are needed to support informal care-givers and build lay referral networks, as well as to identify intervention points within care-seeking processes. Interventions that target the mental health needs of displaced persons have the potential to contribute to the development of an innovative community mental health care system in Georgia.

  8. Enhanced ergonomics approaches for product design: a user experience ecosystem perspective and case studies. (United States)

    Xu, Wei


    This paper first discusses the major inefficiencies faced in current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches: (1) delivering an optimal end-to-end user experience (UX) to users of a solution across its solution lifecycle stages; (2) strategically influencing the product business and technology capability roadmaps from a UX perspective and (3) proactively identifying new market opportunities and influencing the platform architecture capabilities on which the UX of end products relies. In response to these challenges, three case studies are presented to demonstrate how enhanced ergonomics design approaches have effectively addressed the challenges faced in current HFE approaches. Then, the enhanced ergonomics design approaches are conceptualised by a user-experience ecosystem (UXE) framework, from a UX ecosystem perspective. Finally, evidence supporting the UXE, the advantage and the formalised process for executing UXE and methodological considerations are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents enhanced ergonomics approaches to product design via three case studies to effectively address current HFE challenges by leveraging a systematic end-to-end UX approach, UX roadmaps and emerging UX associated with prioritised user needs and usages. Thus, HFE professionals can be more strategic, creative and influential.

  9. Synchronous Morgagni and Bochdalek Hernias: A Case Report of a Unique Approach to a Rare Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction Multiple unilateral congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH are extremely rare, described only five times in the medical literature. Concurrent ipsilateral Bochdalek and Morgagni hernias are rarer still with only two cases previously described. In all reported cases of multiple concurrent defects, the hernias were repaired in an open fashion, either via a thoracotomy or laparotomy with both of the two combined Bochdalek and Morgagni hernias repaired via laparotomy. Case Presentation In this case report we have a 2-day-old who developed respiratory distress and on CT scan was found to have a congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH or eventration. This patient is ideal for this case report because he meets a lot of the previously established criteria for minimally invasive repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernias - minimal respiratory compromise, no congenital heart defects - and he has synchronous defects which have very rarely been seen before. Here we present the first reported case of concurrent ipsilateral Bochdalek and Morgagni hernias repaired in a one-stage minimally invasive fashion, approaching the Bochdalek hernia thoracoscopically and the Morgagni laparoscopically. The patient had a quick recovery post-operatively and he continues to do well. Conclusions From this experience, we argue that in the right circumstances a completely minimally invasive approach can be taken for synchronous congenital diaphragmatic hernias.

  10. A combined prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment approach in a case of growth inhibition induced by dental implants: a case report. (United States)

    Krieger, Elena; Wegener, Joachim; Wagner, Wilfried; Hornikel, Sandra; Wehrbein, Heinrich


    Functional and esthetic results can improve significantly when a combined prosthodontic-orthodontic treatment approach is employed in cases requiring extensive oral rehabilitation. The patient presented in this case report was treated in his late teens with dental implants as a replacement for his maxillary incisors. Ten years later, the entire maxillary anterior segment was in infraocclusion compared to the rest of the dentition and lip line. Since prosthodontic follow-up treatment alone could not achieve an optimal functional and esthetic outcome, the patient was treated orthodontically prior to renewing the restoration. A fixed appliance was used to intrude the mandibular anterior teeth as well as vertically align the infrapositioned maxillary lateral incisors.

  11. Severe Allergic Contact Dermatitis From Temporary "Black Henna" Coloring of the Hair During Religious Cultural Celebrations: Three Different Cases, Same History. (United States)

    Glatstein, Miguel M; Rimon, Ayelet; Danino, Dana; Scolnik, Dennis


    Contact dermatitis after the application of temporary, paint-on, henna tattoos represents a well-known, potentially serious problem of active sensitization. We describe 3 cases involving 3 children of the same age who developed a severe contact dermatitis with massive face and neck swelling after application of black henna to their hair during "Purim" celebrations. All 3 cases had a history of having applied henna tattoos in the previous year with mild local reactions. Their reactions are presumed to be due to sensitization to para-phenylenediamine. Although reactions to henna are being increasingly reported, reactions of this severity seem to be rare and could lead to permanent skin changes.

  12. Varenicline precipitating psychosis in a patient with no previous psychiatric history: a case report of a Spanish patient who was later diagnosed with paranoid personality disorder. (United States)

    Forcen, Fernando Espi; Martinez, Fernando Luis Espi; Moya, Amparo Martinez


    Varenicline is gaining popularity for the treatment of nicotine dependence. General treatment guidelines recommend monitoring for behavioral changes in patients with a mental illness. There are very few cases reported on patients developing psychiatric symptoms with no previous history. We are reporting the case of a Spanish patient who had developed a first-psychotic episode after he was started on varenicline. He was ultimately diagnosed with a paranoid personality disorder. Therefore, prior to starting a patient on varenicline, the clinician must identify possible paranoid and other cluster A personality traits. It is essential to monitor for new onset of psychotic symptoms during the treatment with this drug.

  13. Estimating contemporary early life-history dispersal in an estuarine fish: integrating molecular and otolith elemental approaches. (United States)

    Bradbury, I R; Campana, S E; Bentzen, P


    Dispersal during the early life history of the anadromous rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax, was examined using assignment testing and mixture analysis of multilocus genotypes and otolith elemental composition. Six spawning areas and associated estuarine nurseries were sampled throughout southeastern Newfoundland. Samples of adults and juveniles isolated by > 25 km displayed moderate genetic differentiation (F(ST) ~ 0.05), whereas nearby (nursery samples displayed low differentiation (F(ST) 80% self-assignment) with nearby runs self-assigning at rates between 50 % and 70%. Assignment and mixture analysis of juveniles using adult baselines indicated high local recruitment at several locations (70-90%). Nearby (estuaries at the head of St Mary's Bay showed mixtures of individuals (i.e. 20-40% assignment to adjacent spawning location). Laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry transects across otoliths of spawning adults of unknown dispersal history were used to estimate dispersal among estuaries across the first year of life. Single-element trends and multivariate discriminant function analysis (Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca) classified the majority of samples as estuarine suggesting limited movement between estuaries (juveniles evident in the genetic data at nearby sites and a lack of evidence of straying in the otolith data support a hypothesis of selective mortality of immigrants. If indeed selective mortality of immigrants reduces the survivorship of dispersers, estimates of dispersal in marine environments that neglect survival may significantly overestimate gene flow.

  14. The influence of mortality and socioeconomic status on risk and delayed rewards: a life history theory approach. (United States)

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Tybur, Joshua M; Delton, Andrew W; Robertson, Theresa E


    Why do some people take risks and live for the present, whereas others avoid risks and save for the future? The evolutionary framework of life history theory predicts that preferences for risk and delay in gratification should be influenced by mortality and resource scarcity. A series of experiments examined how mortality cues influenced decisions involving risk preference (e.g., $10 for sure vs. 50% chance of $20) and temporal discounting (e.g., $5 now vs. $10 later). The effect of mortality depended critically on whether people grew up in a relatively resource-scarce or resource-plentiful environment. For individuals who grew up relatively poor, mortality cues led them to value the present and gamble for big immediate rewards. Conversely, for individuals who grew up relatively wealthy, mortality cues led them to value the future and avoid risky gambles. Overall, mortality cues appear to propel individuals toward diverging life history strategies as a function of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting important implications for how environmental factors influence economic decisions and risky behaviors.

  15. New prospects for deducing the evolutionary history of metabolic pathways in prokaryotes: Aromatic biosynthesis as a case-in-point (United States)

    Ahmad, Suhail; Jensen, Roy A.


    Metabolic pathways of prokaryotes are more biochemically diverse than is generally recognized. Distinctive biochemical features are shared by phylogenetic clusters. The hierarchical levels of characterstate clustering depends upon evolutionary events which fortuitously became fixed in the genome of a common ancestor. Prokaryotes can now be ordered on a phylogenetic tree. This allows the evolutionary steps that underlie the construction and regulation of appropriately complex biochemical pathways to be traced in an evolutionary progression of prokaryote types that house these pathways. Essentially the approach is to deduce ancestral character states at ever deeper phylogenetic levels, utilizing logical principles of maximum parsimony. The current perspective on the evolution of the biochemical pathway for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids is developed as a case-in-point model for analyses that should be feasible with many major metabolic systems. Phenylalanine biosynthesis probably arose prior to the addition of branches leading to tyrosine and tryptophan. An evolutionary scenario is developed that begins with non-enzymatic reactions which may have operated in primitive systems, followed by the evolution of an enzymatic system that pre-dated the divergence of major lineages of modern eubacteria (Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative purple bacteria, and cyanobacteria).

  16. A multi-layer cellular automata approach for algorithmic generation of virtual case studies: VIBe. (United States)

    Sitzenfrei, R; Fach, S; Kinzel, H; Rauch, W


    Analyses of case studies are used to evaluate new or existing technologies, measures or strategies with regard to their impact on the overall process. However, data availability is limited and hence, new technologies, measures or strategies can only be tested on a limited number of case studies. Owing to the specific boundary conditions and system properties of each single case study, results can hardly be generalized or transferred to other boundary conditions. virtual infrastructure benchmarking (VIBe) is a software tool which algorithmically generates virtual case studies (VCSs) for urban water systems. System descriptions needed for evaluation are extracted from VIBe whose parameters are based on real world case studies and literature. As a result VIBe writes Input files for water simulation software as EPANET and EPA SWMM. With such input files numerous simulations can be performed and the results can be benchmarked and analysed stochastically at a city scale. In this work the approach of VIBe is applied with parameters according to a section of the Inn valley and therewith 1,000 VCSs are generated and evaluated. A comparison of the VCSs with data of real world case studies shows that the real world case studies fit within the parameter ranges of the VCSs. Consequently, VIBe tackles the problem of limited availability of case study data.

  17. Efficient big data assimilation through sparse representation: A 3D benchmark case study in seismic history matching

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xiaodong; Jakobsen, Morten; Nævdal, Geir


    In a previous work \\citep{luo2016sparse2d_spej}, the authors proposed an ensemble-based 4D seismic history matching (SHM) framework, which has some relatively new ingredients, in terms of the type of seismic data in choice, the way to handle big seismic data and related data noise estimation, and the use of a recently developed iterative ensemble history matching algorithm. In seismic history matching, it is customary to use inverted seismic attributes, such as acoustic impedance, as the observed data. In doing so, extra uncertainties may arise during the inversion processes. The proposed SHM framework avoids such intermediate inversion processes by adopting amplitude versus angle (AVA) data. In addition, SHM typically involves assimilating a large amount of observed seismic attributes into reservoir models. To handle the big-data problem in SHM, the proposed framework adopts the following wavelet-based sparse representation procedure: First, a discrete wavelet transform is applied to observed seismic attribu...

  18. A case of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy of a male with family history of the disease after receiving sildenafil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felekis T


    Full Text Available T Felekis1, I Asproudis1, K Katsanos2, EV Tsianos21University Eye Clinic of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: A 51-year-old male was referred to the University Eye Clinic of Ioannina with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION 12 hours after receiving sildenafil citrate (Viagra®. Examination for possible risk factors revealed mild hypercholesterolemia. Family history showed that his father had suffered from bilateral NAION. Although a cause-and-effect relationship is difficult to prove, there are reports indicating an association between the use of erectile dysfunction agents and the development of NAION. Physicians might need to investigate the presence of family history of NAION among systemic or vascular predisposing risk factors before prescribing erectile dysfunction drugs.Keywords: sildenafil, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, erectile dysfunction drugs, family history

  19. Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation of Locally Advanced Pancreatic Carcinoma Using the Dorsal Approach: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, Hester J., E-mail:; Melenhorst, Marleen C. A. M., E-mail: [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Vogel, Jantien A., E-mail: [Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Tilborg, Aukje A. J. M. van, E-mail: [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Nielsen, Karin, E-mail:; Kazemier, Geert, E-mail: [VU University Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Meijerink, Martijn R., E-mail: [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)


    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel image-guided ablation technique that is increasingly used to treat locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma (LAPC). We describe a 67-year-old male patient with a 5 cm stage III pancreatic tumor who was referred for IRE. Because the ventral approach for electrode placement was considered dangerous due to vicinity of the tumor to collateral vessels and duodenum, the dorsal approach was chosen. Under CT-guidance, six electrodes were advanced in the tumor, approaching paravertebrally alongside the aorta and inferior vena cava. Ablation was performed without complications. This case describes that when ventral electrode placement for pancreatic IRE is impaired, the dorsal approach could be considered alternatively.

  20. A Case History Report Print System of Television Laparoscopic Detection%电视腹腔镜病历报告打印系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶福丽; 杨玉星


    It was valuable to develop a case report print system of television laparoscopic detection because it could improve the doctors working efficiency greatly. In this paper, a case report print system for television laparoscopic test was designed, which included functions of intelligent creating of case report, print preview and print. Adopting ACCESS data-base managing system, we developed a programme software for a case history report print based MFC with Visual C++6. 0 on the desktop of Windows XP. The case history printing system afforded a desktop with abundant normative typical cases. Doctors did not need inputting the description on patient(s) condition with words by hand , so that the system could compose the case report automatically and quickly, which also has had abundant words and figures printing function for doctors to write case report for patients.%电视腹腔镜病历打印系统能够提高医师的工作效率.本文中电视腹腔镜病历打印系统的设计过程包括病历报告的智能创建、预览以及打印功能.在Windows XP平台上,采用ACCESS数据库管理系统,利用Visual C ++ 6.0基于MFC进行程序开发.结果显示出本文中设计的电视腹腔镜病历打印系统提供了丰富规范的典型病历打印界面,因为不需要医生直接输入文字进行病情描述,因此便于医生快捷编辑病历并生成报告,此病历打印系统还具有图文并茂的打印功能.

  1. Limited significance of family history for presence of BRCA1 gene mutation in Polish breast and ovarian cancer cases


    Brozek, Izabela; Ratajska, Magdalena; Piatkowska, Magdalena; Kluska, Anna; Balabas, Aneta; Dabrowska, Michalina; Nowakowska, Dorota; Niwinska, Anna; Rachtan, Jadwiga; Steffen, Jan; Limon, Janusz


    It is estimated that about 5–10% of ovarian and 2–5% of all breast cancer patients are carriers of a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation. Most families with detected BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation are qualified for molecular testing on the basis of family history of breast or ovarian cancers. The purpose of our study was to establish the frequency of positive family history of cancer in a series of Polish consecutive breast and ovarian cancer patients in two groups, with and without the BRCA1...

  2. A case-based approach for teaching professionalism to residents with online discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Programs must demonstrate that their residents are taught and assessed in professionalism. Most programs struggle with finding viable ways to teach and assess this critical competency. UTHSCSA Family and Community Medicine Residency developed an innovative option for interactive learning and assessment of residents in this competency which would be transferrable to other programs and specialties. Methods: The innovative approach uses an asynchronous online format on Blackboard. Threaded discussions on Blackboard require thoughtful reflective writing after case assessment and critical evaluation of other resident posts. Participation, content and progress of all resident postings are monitored by administrative staff and faculty. Faculty can further engage the residents at any point to deepen the discussion and learning. Results: 100% of all senior residents attained the required learning objectives. All were actively engaged in the assignments. Six cases have been developed using a Learning Matrix to demonstrate evaluation areas from the specialty specific competencies. Written feedback from residents verified the validity of case content in context of their current clinical practice. Postings by residents have provided value and insight for the faculty to access the professional development of our Family Medicine residents. The Clinical Competency Committee evaluates all third year residents using this information specific to the professionalism milestones. By using an asynchronous online approach to case discussion, all residents are involved with all aspects of this curriculum. Conclusions: More specific measurable learning outcomes are possible using this approach. Resident participation and engagement is easier to track and monitor than a lecture-based format and easier to capture valuable data than relying on evaluation feedback. Our Annual Review process will identify areas for improvement in the existing cases and help

  3. An iterative approach to case study analysis: insights from qualitative analysis of quantitative inconsistencies

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    Allain J Barnett


    Full Text Available Large-N comparative studies have helped common pool resource scholars gain general insights into the factors that influence collective action and governance outcomes. However, these studies are often limited by missing data, and suffer from the methodological limitation that important information is lost when we reduce textual information to quantitative data. This study was motivated by nine case studies that appeared to be inconsistent with the expectation that the presence of Ostrom’s Design Principles increases the likelihood of successful common pool resource governance. These cases highlight the limitations of coding and analysing Large-N case studies. We examine two issues: 1 the challenge of missing data and 2 potential approaches that rely on context (which is often lost in the coding process to address inconsistencies between empirical observations theoretical predictions.  For the latter, we conduct a post-hoc qualitative analysis of a large-N comparative study to explore 2 types of inconsistencies: 1 cases where evidence for nearly all design principles was found, but available evidence led to the assessment that the CPR system was unsuccessful and 2 cases where the CPR system was deemed successful despite finding limited or no evidence for design principles.  We describe inherent challenges to large-N comparative analysis to coding complex and dynamically changing common pool resource systems for the presence or absence of design principles and the determination of “success”.  Finally, we illustrate how, in some cases, our qualitative analysis revealed that the identity of absent design principles explained inconsistencies hence de-facto reconciling such apparent inconsistencies with theoretical predictions.  This analysis demonstrates the value of combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, and using mixed-methods approaches iteratively to build comprehensive methodological and theoretical approaches to understanding

  4. [Management of orbital cavernous hemangioma - evaluation of surgical approaches: report of 43 cases]. (United States)

    Aymard, P-A; Langlois, B; Putterman, M; Jacomet, P-V; Morax, S; Galatoire, O


    Cavernous hemangioma is the most frequent benign orbital tumor in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine its clinical features, to define surgical indications, and to determine the roles of the various surgical approaches praticed in ophthalmology: transconjunctival (increasingly utilized), anterior transcutaneous, and lateral orbitotomy. The records of all patients treated for orbital cavernous hemangioma (OCH) since 2004 at the Fondation Rothschild (Paris, France) were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-three patients were treated for orbital cavernous hemangioma. Fifty-eight percent were women, mean age 50.2; 79 % of the tumors were intraconal. Among those patients, 36 underwent surgical removal, 5 were followed periodically, and 2 were lost to follow-up. The main surgical indications were: optic nerve compression (26 patients), proptosis (24 patients) and diplopia (3 patients). Transconjunctival, anterior transcutaneous and Kronlein approaches were used in 16, 12 and 4 patients respectively. Four patients had intrapalpebral hemangiomas easily reached transcutaneously. Two patients demonstrated transient partial 3rd nerve palsy (one with the lateral orbitotomy approach and one with the transconjunctival approach), one patient with the lateral orbitotomy approach developed a palsy of the superior branch of the 3rd nerve, and one patient with the transcutaneous anterior approach developed mydriasis. Surgical excision of OCH's is required in the presence of clinical complications. The transconjunctival approach is a safe technique which can lead to complete resection of the tumor in most cases.

  5. A Rare Case of Tubulointerstitial Nephritis and Uveitis Syndrome Treated with a Multi-Specialty Approach. (United States)

    Purt, Boonkit; Hiremath, Siri; Smith, Sarah; Erzurum, Sergul; Sarac, Erdal


    BACKGROUND It is important for an ophthalmologist and nephrologist to look for hidden causes of uveitis and nephritis, respectively. Delay in diagnosis leads to increased morbidity and failure to systemically manage the patient results in future recurrence of disease. It is likely that TINU remains underdiagnosed and could potentially account for some of the cases of idiopathic uveitis, especially when greater than 50% of uveitis cases have no identifiable cause. Fewer than 300 cases of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome have been reported. In TINU syndrome, inflammation affects the renal tubules, interstitial tissue, and uveal tract. Its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. CASE REPORT We report a rare case of TINU syndrome in a 23-year-old female who was treated using a multispecialty approach. Her primary care physician diagnosed her with proteinuria and acute kidney injury and referred her to the nephrologist, who later referred her to the ophthalmologist. A left kidney biopsy confirmed acute interstitial nephritis. Following the discovery of a "pink eye", the patient was referred to ophthalmology and diagnosed with anterior uveitis, confirming TINU syndrome. Without the additional findings of uveitis, the diagnosis would have been missed. Resolution was obtained through steroid therapy. CONCLUSIONS Correctly diagnosing TINU syndrome requires a multispecialty approach and may not be obvious upon initial presentation. Therefore, the ophthalmologist needs to consider TINU in the differential diagnosis for a patient with bilateral uveitis and evaluate a urinalysis for proteinuria as part of the work up.

  6. Data science in R a case studies approach to computational reasoning and problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nolan, Deborah


    Effectively Access, Transform, Manipulate, Visualize, and Reason about Data and ComputationData Science in R: A Case Studies Approach to Computational Reasoning and Problem Solving illustrates the details involved in solving real computational problems encountered in data analysis. It reveals the dynamic and iterative process by which data analysts approach a problem and reason about different ways of implementing solutions. The book's collection of projects, comprehensive sample solutions, and follow-up exercises encompass practical topics pertaining to data processing, including: Non-standar

  7. Endoscopic repair of transsellar transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele; case report and review of approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalessi, M.D.


    Full Text Available We present an extremely rare case of transsellar transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele in a 36-year-old woman with pituitary dwarfism complaining of nasal obstruction. Imaging studies showed a bony defect in the sellar floor and sphenoid sinus with huge nasopharyngeal mass and 3rd ventricle involvement. Using endoscopic endonasal approach the sac was partially removed and the defect was reconstructed with fat and fascial graft, and buttressed with titanium mesh and septal flap. Visual field improvement was noticed post-operatively and no complication was encountered during follow-up. So, endoscopic endonasal approach with partial resection of the sac is a safe and effective treatment for this disease

  8. A history of late and very late stent thrombosis is not associated with increased activation of the contact system, a case control study

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    Brügger-Andersen Trygve


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiological pathways resulting in Late Stent Thrombosis (LST remain uncertain. Findings from animal studies indicate a role of the intrinsic coagulation pathway in arterial thrombus formation, while clinical studies support an association with ischemic cardiovascular disease. It is currently unknown whether differences in the state of the contact system might contribute to the risk of LST or Very Late Stent Thrombosis (VLST. We assessed the relation between levels of several components involved in the contact system and a history of LST and VLST, termed (VLST in a cohort of 20 patients as compared to a matched control group treated with PCI. Methods and Results Activated factor XII (FXIIa, FXII zymogen (FXII, FXIIa-C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inhibitor, Kallikrein-C1-inhibitor, FXIa-C1-inhibitor and FXIa-α1-antitrypsin (AT-inhibitor complexes were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assy (ELISA methodology. Cases and controls showed similar distributions in sex, age, baseline medications and stent type. Patients with a history of (VLST had a significantly greater stent burden and a higher number of previous myocardial infarctions than the control patients. There were no significant between-group differences in the plasma levels of the components of the contact system. Conclusion In a cohort of patients with a history of (VLST, we did not observe differences in the activation state of the intrinsic coagulation system as compared to patients with a history of percutaneous coronary intervention without stent thrombosis.

  9. Arrière-garde Perspectives on the History of Modern Literature : The Case of the Netherlands (1880-1940)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rymenants, Koen; Sintobin, Tom; Verstraeten, Pieter; Houppermans, Sjef; Liebregts, Peter; Baetens, Jan


    The history of Dutch literature between 1880 and 1940 has traditionally been described as a series of literary movements or generations in quick succession. Each generation is associated with a new, innovative literary programme that challenges and eventually replaces older aesthetic principles, onl

  10. Multiple Sclerosis and Several Demographic Characteristics, Family History of MS, and Month of Birth: A Case-Control Study



    Background Several factors have been reported as risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the main causes of the disease are still unknown. A geographical area with a low MS incidence is Ahvaz, Iran. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of several demographic characteristics, family history, and birth month with MS in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods ...

  11. Studies in the history of the English language V: variation and change in English grammar and lexicon: contemporary approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloutier, R.A.; Hamilton-Brehm, A.M.; Kretzschmar, W.A.


    This collection of essays focuses on current approaches to variation and change in historical English grammar and lexicon. Of the twelve papers in the collection, half are based on grammar and syntax, half on lexical developments. The volume highlights the contributions that strong empirical researc

  12. Stowaways in the history of science: the case of simian virus 40 and clinical research on federal prisoners at the US National Institutes of Health, 1960. (United States)

    Stark, Laura; Campbell, Nancy D


    In 1960, J. Anthony Morris, a molecular biologist at the US National Institutes of Health conducted one of the only non-therapeutic clinical studies of the cancer virus SV40. Morris and his research team aimed to determine whether SV40 was a serious harm to human health, since many scientists at the time suspected that SV40 caused cancer in humans based on evidence from in vivo animal studies and experiments with human tissue. Morris found that SV40 had no significant effect but his claim has remained controversial among scientists and policymakers through the present day--both on scientific and ethical grounds. Why did Morris only conduct one clinical study on the cancer-causing potential of SV40 in healthy humans? We use the case to explain how empirical evidence and ethical imperatives are, paradoxically, often dependent on each other and mutually exclusive in clinical research, which leaves answers to scientific and ethical questions unsettled. This paper serves two goals: first, it documents a unique--and uniquely important--study of clinical research on SV40. Second, it introduces the concept of "the stowaway," which is a special type of contaminant that changes the past in the present moment. In the history of science, stowaways are misfortunes that nonetheless afford research that otherwise would have been impossible specifically by creating new pasts. This case (Morris' study) and concept (the stowaway) bring together history of science and philosophy of history for productive dialog.

  13. Inside School Lives: Historiographical Perspectives and Case Studies. Teachers’ Memories Preserved at the Centre for Documentation and Research on the History of Schoolbooks and Children’s Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ascenzi


    Full Text Available This work focuses on teachers’ memories and intend to dwell on the heuristic potential of this source category, comparing it with the traditional sources of theoretical-regulatory and educational type. After a presentation on the state of art of historical and historical-educational studies on teachers’ memories, it will offer an overview of the different kinds of memories preserved in the centres of documentation and research of historical and educational interest, examining the books and documentary heritage of the Centre for documentation and research on the history of schoolbooks and children’s literature of Macerata University. Finally, through the analysis of a case study, the Memorie (Memoirs of the teacher and pedagogist Lorenzo Bettini (1855-1917, we will offer an exemplification of a possible integrated use of sources, for a plural reconstruction of teachers’ history. How to reference this article Ascenzi, A., & Patrizi, E. (2016. Inside School Lives: Historiographical Perspectives and Case Studies. Teachers’ Memories Preserved at the Centre for Documentation and Research on the History of Schoolbooks and Children’s Literature. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 3(1, 343-362. doi:

  14. A case-comparison study of automatic document classification utilizing both serial and parallel approaches (United States)

    Wilges, B.; Bastos, R. C.; Mateus, G. P.; Dantas, M. A. R.


    A well-known problem faced by any organization nowadays is the high volume of data that is available and the required process to transform this volume into differential information. In this study, a case-comparison study of automatic document classification (ADC) approach is presented, utilizing both serial and parallel paradigms. The serial approach was implemented by adopting the RapidMiner software tool, which is recognized as the worldleading open-source system for data mining. On the other hand, considering the MapReduce programming model, the Hadoop software environment has been used. The main goal of this case-comparison study is to exploit differences between these two paradigms, especially when large volumes of data such as Web text documents are utilized to build a category database. In the literature, many studies point out that distributed processing in unstructured documents have been yielding efficient results in utilizing Hadoop. Results from our research indicate a threshold to such efficiency.

  15. Internet-based asthma education – A novel approach to compliance: A case report (United States)

    O’Hara, Cindy; Vethanayagam, Dilini; Majaesic, Carina; Mayers, Irvin


    Asthma costs Canadians over $1.2 billion per annum and, despite advances, many asthmatic patients still have poor control. An action plan, symptom diary and measurement of peak expiratory flow have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Effective educational interventions are an important component of good care. However, many rural sites lack not only access to education but physician care as well. It is reasonable, therefore, that an Internet-based asthma management program may be used as an approach. In the present case report, a novel approach that may increase access in these poorly serviced areas is presented. In an Internet-based asthma management program, patients are reviewed by a physician, receive education and are given a unique password that provides program access. Patients record symptoms and peak expiratory flow rates. The present case report shows that a patient can be assisted through an exacerbation, thus averting emergency intervention and stabilizing control, even when travelling on another continent. PMID:16470251

  16. Internet-based asthma education - a novel approach to compliance: a case report. (United States)

    O'Hara, Cindy; Vethanayagam, Dilini; Majaesic, Carina; Mayers, Irvin


    Asthma costs Canadians over 1.2 billion dollars per annum and, despite advances, many asthmatic patients still have poor control. An action plan, symptom diary and measurement of peak expiratory flow have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Effective educational interventions are an important component of good care. However, many rural sites lack not only access to education but physician care as well. It is reasonable, therefore, that an Internet-based asthma management program may be used as an approach. In the present case report, a novel approach that may increase access in these poorly serviced areas is presented. In an Internet-based asthma management program, patients are reviewed by a physician, receive education and are given a unique password that provides program access. Patients record symptoms and peak expiratory flow rates. The present case report shows that a patient can be assisted through an exacerbation, thus averting emergency intervention and stabilizing control, even when travelling on another continent.

  17. Resource Sharing Among ISRO Libraries : a Case Study of Consortia Approach


    M.S. Sridhar


    The paper presents a practical step by step approach and efforts made to achieve huge savings in acquisition expenditures and creative resources sharing among a group of libraries working under a single parent institution, namely, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Actual cases of substantial savings in subscription to costly journals, CD-ROM databases and conference volumes in the way of consortia price and/or combination (print and electronic) subscription prices are depicted with...

  18. Academic writing for business students: a case for a content and language integrated approach


    Van Houtven, Tine; Kerkhofs, Goele; Peters, Elke


    Research has shown that many students (Dutch L1/L2) do not meet academic language requirements upon entering Flemish higher education (Peters, Van Houtven, El Morabit, 2010). Many universities feel compelled to help their first-year students bridge the gap between secondary and tertiary education. This paper reports on a case study at the Integrated Faculty of Business and Economics of the University of Leuven that investigated how a language-sensitive instructional approach could improve bus...

  19. Diagnosing and Managing Primary Aldosteronism in Hypertensive Patients: a Case-Based Approach. (United States)

    Carey, Robert M


    Primary aldosteronism with a prevalence of 8 % of hypertension and 20 % of pharmacologically resistant hypertension is the most common secondary cause of hypertension. Yet, the diagnosis is missed in the vast majority of patients. Current clinical practice guidelines recommend screening for primary aldosteronism in patients with sustained elevation of blood pressure (BP) ≥150/100 mmHg if possible prior to initiation of antihypertensive therapy, and in patients with resistant hypertension, spontaneous or diuretic-induced hypokalemia, adrenal incidentaloma, obstructive sleep apnea, a family history of early onset of hypertension or cerebrovascular accident case.

  20. Lumbosacral dumb-bell neurilemmoma approached by microsurgical interlaminar foraminotomy. A case report. (United States)

    Uchida, K; Baba, H; Maezawa, Y; Chen, Q; Imura, S


    The case history of a patient with a dumb-bell neurilemmoma arising from the L5 nerve root is described. The tumour extended into the outlet of the neural foramen at L5-S1 on the left and was also compressing the dural sac and the S1 nerve root. A limited laminotomy at L4-5 and L5-S1, with preservation of the neural arch, was followed by microsurgical medial foraminotomy at L5-S1 which allowed visualisation of the nerve root and enucleation of the tumour. The technique maintains stability of the posterior elements and spinal movement, and is recommended for the removal of this type of tumour.

  1. Theoretical life history responses of juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss to changes in food availability using a dynamic state-dependent approach (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Perry, Russell W.; Casal, Lynne; Connolly, Patrick J.; Sauter, Sally S.


    Marine subsidies can play an important role in the growth, survival, and migratory behavior of rearing juvenile salmonids. Availability of high-energy, marine-derived food sources during critical decision windows may influence the timing of emigration or the decision to forego emigration completely and remain in the freshwater environment. Increasing growth and growth rate during these decision windows may result in an altered juvenile population structure, which will ultimately affect the adult population age-structure. We used a state dependent model to understand how the juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss population structure may respond to increased availability of salmon eggs in their diet during critical decision windows. Our models predicted an increase in smolt production until coho salmon eggs comprised more than 50 percent of juvenile O. mykiss diet at the peak of the spawning run. At higher-than intermediate levels of egg consumption, smolt production decreased owing to increasing numbers of fish adopting a resident life-history strategy. Additionally, greater growth rates decreased the number of age-3 smolts and increased the number of age-2 smolts. Increased growth rates with higher egg consumption also decreased the age at which fish adopted the resident pathway. Our models suggest that the introduction of a high-energy food source during critical periods of the year could be sufficient to increase smolt production.

  2. From Suns to Life: A Chronological Approach to the History of Life on Earth 4. Building of a Habitable Planet (United States)

    Martin, Hervé; Albarède, Francis; Claeys, Philippe; Gargaud, Muriel; Marty, Bernard; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Pinti, Daniele L.


    Except the old Jack Hills zircon crystals, it does not exit direct record of the first 500 Ma of the Earth history. Consequently, the succession of events that took place during this period is only indirectly known through geochemistry, comparison with other telluric planets, and numerical modelling. Just after planetary accretion several episodes were necessary in order to make life apparition and development possible and to make the Earth surface habitable. Among these stages are: the core differentiation, the formation of a magma ocean, the apparition of the first atmosphere, oceans and continents as well as the development of magnetic field and of plate tectonics. In the same time, Earth has been subject to extraterrestrial events such as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) between 3.95 and 3.8 Ga. Since 4.4 4.3 Ga, the conditions for pre-biotic chemistry and appearance of life were already met (liquid water, continental crust, no strong meteoritic bombardment, etc...). This does not mean that life existed as early, but this demonstrates that all necessary conditions assumed for life development were already present on Earth.

  3. Time-History Seismic Analysis of Masonry Buildings: A Comparison between Two Non-Linear Modelling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Betti


    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison between two numerical modelling approaches employed to investigate the seismic behavior of unreinforced masonry buildings with flexible diaphragms. The comparison is performed analyzing a two-story prototype tested on a shaking table at the CNR-ENEA research center of Casaccia (Italy. The first numerical model was built by using the finite element (FE technique, while the second one was built by a simplified macro-element (ME approach. Both models were employed to perform non-linear dynamic analyses, integrating the equations of motion by step-by-step procedures. The shaking table tests were simulated to analyze the behavior of the prototype from the initial elastic state until the development of extensive damage. The main results of the analyses are discussed and critically compared in terms of engineering parameters, such as accelerations, displacements and base shears. The effectiveness of both models within the investigated typology of buildings is then evaluated in depth.

  4. Case study field evaluation of a systems approach to retrofitting a residential HVAC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; McWiliams, Jennifer A.; Konopacki, Steven J.


    This case study focusing on a residence in northern California was undertaken as a demonstration of the potential of a systems approach to HVAC retrofits. The systems approach means that other retrofits that can affect the HVAC system are also considered. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC system can be used. Secondly, we wanted to examine the practical issues and interactions with contractors and code officials required to accomplish the systems approach because it represents a departure from current practice. We identified problems in the processes of communication and installation of the retrofit that led to compromises in the final energy efficiency of the HVAC system. These issues must be overcome in order for HVAC retrofits to deliver the increased performance that they promise. The experience gained in this case study was used to optimize best practices guidelines for contractors (Walker 2003) that include building diagnostics and checklists as tools to assist in ensuring the energy efficiency of ''house as a system'' HVAC retrofits. The best practices guidelines proved to be an excellent tool for evaluating the eight existing homes in this study, and we received positive feedback from many potential users who reviewed and used them. In addition, we were able to substantially improve the energy efficiency of the retrofitted case study house by adding envelope insulation, a more efficient furnace and air conditioner, an economizer and by reducing duct leakage.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Zubkovych


    Full Text Available In the given article we analyze the representation of the period from the recent history- Socialist Yugoslavia- through the case study of national history museum and private exhibition. Although both of the analyzed objects are located in Ljubljana, the metastories which they construct and display are based on the different cultural patterns. We compare the differences of the narratives being used by the private and state institution and apply the visual analysis method together with semi-structured interviews for these purposes. As a result of our research, we show how differs ‘official narration’ compared to the so-called ‘Yugonostalgic’ or ‘Titostalgic’ viewpoint and describe their main characteristics.

  6. Allocating Risks in Public-Private Partnerships Using a Transaction Cost Economic Approach: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xioa-Hua Jin


    Full Text Available Public-private partnership (PPP projects are often characterisedby increased complexity and uncertainty due to their idiosyncrasyin the management and delivery processes such as long-termlifecycle, incomplete contracting, and the multitude of stakeholders.An appropriate risk allocation is particularly crucial to achievingproject success. This paper focuses on the risk allocation in PPPprojects and argues that the transaction cost economics (TCEtheory can integrate the economics part, which is currently missing,into the risk management research. A TCE-based approach isproposed as a logical framework for allocating risks between publicand private sectors in PPP projects. A case study of the SouthernCross Station redevelopment project in Australia is presented toillustrate the approach. The allocation of important risks is putunder scrutiny. Lessons learnt are discussed and alternativemanagement approaches drawing on TCE theory are proposed.

  7. Eclectic/mixed approach to physiotherapy in post-stroke patients – case study

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    Emilia Mikołajewska


    Full Text Available The prevalence of stroke, and its associated costs, are going to rise with the aging population and changes in lifestyle in developing countries. Further research should better identify modifiable and non-modifiable determinants of poor outcomes in stroke survivors. Complex rehabilitation of post-stroke survivors still needs novel solutions. An eclectic/mixed approach to intervention, regarded as synthesis of the classical intervention methods, techniques, and tools, may be regarded as one of them, but it still needs more research. The aim of the article is to familiarise the aforementioned approach based on the presented case report and to investigate the extent to which available opportunities of an eclectic/mixed approach to physiotherapy is being exploited.

  8. FIDELIS--innovative approaches to increasing global case detection of tuberculosis. (United States)

    Rusen, I D; Enarson, Donald A


    Tuberculosis was declared a global public health emergency in 1993. In 2003, only 45% of the world's estimated new smear-positive tuberculosis cases were detected-well below the 70% global case detection target set by the World Health Organization. The FIDELIS (Fund for Innovative DOTS Expansion Through Local Initiatives to Stop TB) initiative is a new global disease control initiative that has been developed to rapidly assess and implement innovative approaches to increase tuberculosis case detection. To date, 32 projects have been approved-covering approximately 378 million people in 13 countries-24 (75%) of which are in the world's 6 highest-burden countries. A wide range of target populations and interventions have been incorporated into successful FIDELIS projects. The FIDELIS initiative may serve as a model to discover best practices to address other urgent global public health problems.

  9. FIDELIS—Innovative Approaches to Increasing Global Case Detection of Tuberculosis (United States)

    Rusen, I. D.; Enarson, Donald A.


    Tuberculosis was declared a global public health emergency in 1993. In 2003, only 45% of the world’s estimated new smear-positive tuberculosis cases were detected—well below the 70% global case detection target set by the World Health Organization. The FIDELIS (Fund for Innovative DOTS Expansion Through Local Initiatives to Stop TB) initiative is a new global disease control initiative that has been developed to rapidly assess and implement innovative approaches to increase tuberculosis case detection. To date, 32 projects have been approved—covering approximately 378 million people in 13 countries—24 (75%) of which are in the world’s 6 highest-burden countries. A wide range of target populations and interventions have been incorporated into successful FIDELIS projects. The FIDELIS initiative may serve as a model to discover best practices to address other urgent global public health problems. PMID:16317206

  10. Transcription of Case Report Forms from Unstructured Referral Letters: A Semantic Text Analytics Approach. (United States)

    Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza; Singh, Abhinav Kumar; Christie, Sean


    In this paper we present a framework for the semi-automatic extraction of medical entities from referral letters and use them to transcribe a case report form. Our framework offers the functionality to: (a) extract the medical entity from the unstructured referral letters, (b) classify them according to their semantic type, and (c) transcribe a case report form based on the extracted information from the referral letter. We take a semantic text analytics approach where SNOMED-CT ontology is used to both classify referral concepts and to establish semantic similarities between referral concepts and CRF elements. We used 100 spine injury referral letters, and a standard case report form used by Association of Dalhousie Neurosurgeons, Dalhousie University.

  11. Approaches to dog health education programs in Australian rural and remote Indigenous communities: four case studies. (United States)

    Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A


    Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health.

  12. Understanding invasion history and predicting invasive niches using genetic sequencing technology in Australia: case studies from Cucurbitaceae and Boraginaceae. (United States)

    Shaik, Razia S; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Clements, David R; Weston, Leslie A


    Part of the challenge in dealing with invasive plant species is that they seldom represent a uniform, static entity. Often, an accurate understanding of the history of plant introduction and knowledge of the real levels of genetic diversity present in species and populations of importance is lacking. Currently, the role of genetic diversity in promoting the successful establishment of invasive plants is not well defined. Genetic profiling of invasive plants should enhance our understanding of the dynamics of colonization in the invaded range. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have greatly facilitated the rapid and complete assessment of plant population genetics. Here, we apply our current understanding of the genetics and ecophysiology of plant invasions to recent work on Australian plant invaders from the Cucurbitaceae and Boraginaceae. The Cucurbitaceae study showed that both prickly paddy melon (Cucumis myriocarpus) and camel melon (Citrullus lanatus) were represented by only a single genotype in Australia, implying that each was probably introduced as a single introduction event. In contrast, a third invasive melon, Citrullus colocynthis, possessed a moderate level of genetic diversity in Australia and was potentially introduced to the continent at least twice. The Boraginaceae study demonstrated the value of comparing two similar congeneric species; one, Echium plantagineum, is highly invasive and genetically diverse, whereas the other, Echium vulgare, exhibits less genetic diversity and occupies a more limited ecological niche. Sequence analysis provided precise identification of invasive plant species, as well as information on genetic diversity and phylogeographic history. Improved sequencing technologies will continue to allow greater resolution of genetic relationships among invasive plant populations, thereby potentially improving our ability to predict the impact of these relationships upon future spread and better manage invaders possessing

  13. Understanding invasion history and predicting invasive niches using genetic sequencing technology in Australia: case studies from Cucurbitaceae and Boraginaceae (United States)

    Shaik, Razia S.; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Clements, David R.; Weston, Leslie A.


    Part of the challenge in dealing with invasive plant species is that they seldom represent a uniform, static entity. Often, an accurate understanding of the history of plant introduction and knowledge of the real levels of genetic diversity present in species and populations of importance is lacking. Currently, the role of genetic diversity in promoting the successful establishment of invasive plants is not well defined. Genetic profiling of invasive plants should enhance our understanding of the dynamics of colonization in the invaded range. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have greatly facilitated the rapid and complete assessment of plant population genetics. Here, we apply our current understanding of the genetics and ecophysiology of plant invasions to recent work on Australian plant invaders from the Cucurbitaceae and Boraginaceae. The Cucurbitaceae study showed that both prickly paddy melon (Cucumis myriocarpus) and camel melon (Citrullus lanatus) were represented by only a single genotype in Australia, implying that each was probably introduced as a single introduction event. In contrast, a third invasive melon, Citrullus colocynthis, possessed a moderate level of genetic diversity in Australia and was potentially introduced to the continent at least twice. The Boraginaceae study demonstrated the value of comparing two similar congeneric species; one, Echium plantagineum, is highly invasive and genetically diverse, whereas the other, Echium vulgare, exhibits less genetic diversity and occupies a more limited ecological niche. Sequence analysis provided precise identification of invasive plant species, as well as information on genetic diversity and phylogeographic history. Improved sequencing technologies will continue to allow greater resolution of genetic relationships among invasive plant populations, thereby potentially improving our ability to predict the impact of these relationships upon future spread and better manage invaders possessing

  14. Laparoscopic splenectomy: a single center experience. Unusual cases and expanded inclusion criteria for laparoscopic approach. (United States)

    Marte, Gianpaolo; Scuderi, Vincenzo; Rocca, Aldo; Surfaro, Giuseppe; Migliaccio, Carla; Ceriello, Antonio


    Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) is nowadays considered as the gold standard for most hematological diseases where splenectomy is necessary, but many questions still remain. The aim of this study was to analyze our 5-years experiences consisting of 48 consecutive LS cases in order to assess the optimal approach and the feasibility of the procedure also in malignant diseases and unusual cases such as a primary spleen lymphoma, a big splenic artery aneurism, or a spleen infarct due to a huge pancreatic pseudo-cyst. Forty-eight consecutive patients underwent LS from January 2006 to January 2011 with at least 1-year follow-up. Clinical data and immediate outcome were retrospectively recorded; age, diagnosis, operation time, perioperative transfusion requirement, conversion rate, accessory incision, hospital stay, and complications were analyzed. We had 14 cases of malignant splenic disease, the most frequent malignant diagnosis was non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (12/14, 85.7 %). Splenomegaly (interpole diameter (ID) >20 cm) was observed in 12 cases (25 %) and massive splenomegaly (ID >25 cm) in 3 cases (6.25 %). Conversion to laparotomy occurred in two patients (4.16 %), both associated to uncontrollable bleeding in patients with splenomegaly. Mean operative time was 138 ± 22 min. Mean hospital stay was 4.5 days. Postoperative morbidity rate was 8.8 % for the benign group and 35.7 % in the malignant group. Mortality occurred in 1/48 patients (2.08 %), as a result of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). LS can be performed safely for malignant splenic disease and splenomegaly without any statistically significant increase of morbidity and mortality rate. Conversion rate is increased for massive splenomegaly. LS should be considered as the preferential approach even in patients with malignant disease, splenomegaly, or unusual cases. Massive splenomegaly should be considered as relative contraindication to LS even at experienced centers.

  15. Evolutionary history of the grey-faced Sengi, Rhynchocyon udzungwensis, from Tanzania: a molecular and species distribution modelling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda P Lawson

    Full Text Available Rhynchocyon udzungwensis is a recently described and poorly understood sengi (giant elephant-shrew endemic to two small montane forests in Southern Tanzania, and surrounded in lower forests by R. cirnei reichardi. In this study, we investigate the molecular genetic relationship between R. udzungwensis and R. c. reichardi, and the possible role that shifting species distributions in response to climate fluctuations may have played in shaping their evolutionary history. Rhynchocyon udzungwensis and R. c. reichardi individuals were sampled from five localities for genetic analyses. Three mitochondrial and two nuclear loci were used to construct species trees for delimitation and to determine whether introgression was detectable either from ancient or ongoing hybridization. All species-tree results show R. udzungwensis and R. c. reichardi as distinct lineages, though mtDNA shows evidence of introgression in some populations. Nuclear loci of each species were monophyletic, implying introgression is exclusively historical. Because we found evidence of introgression, we used distribution data and species distribution modelling for present, glacial, and interglacial climate cycles to predict how shifting species distributions may have facilitated hybridization in some populations. Though interpretations are affected by the limited range of these species, a likely scenario is that the mtDNA introgression found in eastern mid-elevation populations was facilitated by low numbers of R. udzungwensis that expanded into lowland heavily occupied R. c. reichardi areas during interglacial climate cycles. These results imply that relationships within the genus Rhynchocyon may be confounded by porous species boundaries and introgression, even if species are not currently sympatric.

  16. Evolutionary History of the Asian Horned Frogs (Megophryinae): Integrative Approaches to Timetree Dating in the Absence of a Fossil Record. (United States)

    Mahony, Stephen; Foley, Nicole M; Biju, S D; Teeling, Emma C


    Molecular dating studies typically need fossils to calibrate the analyses. Unfortunately, the fossil record is extremely poor or presently non-existent for many species groups, rendering such dating analysis difficult. One such group is the Asian horned frogs (Megophryinae). Sampling all generic nomina, we combined a novel ∼5kb dataset composed of four nuclear and three mitochondrial gene fragments to produce a robust phylogeny, with an extensive external morphological study to produce a working taxonomy for the group. Expanding the molecular dataset to include out-groups of fossil represented ancestral anuran families, we compared the priorless RelTime dating method with the widely used prior based Bayesian timetree method, MCMCtree, utilising a novel combination of fossil priors for anuran phylogenetic dating. The phylogeny was then subjected to ancestral phylogeographic analyses, and dating estimates were compared with likely biogeographic vicariant events. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that previously proposed systematic hypotheses were incorrect due to paraphyly of genera. Molecular phylogenetic, morphological and timetree results support the recognition of Megophryinae as a single genus, Megophrys, with a subgenus level classification. Timetree results using RelTime better corresponded with the known fossil record for the outgroup anuran tree. For the priorless in-group, it also outperformed MCMCtree when node date estimates were compared with likely influential historical biogeographic events, providing novel insights into the evolutionary history of this pan-Asian anuran group. Given a relatively small molecular dataset, and limited prior knowledge, this study demonstrates that the computationally rapid RelTime dating tool may outperform more popular and complex prior reliant timetree methodologies.

  17. N-acetyltransferase-2 and medical history in bladder cancer cases with a suspected occupational disease (BK 1301) in Germany. (United States)

    Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus


    In 187 bladder cancer cases reported to the employers' liability insurance association in Germany as suspected cases of an occupational disease produced by aromatic amines, N- acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) activity status, occupational exposure data, period of latency, and clinical parameters were determined. In 83 out of 187 cases surveyed within the period 1991-1999, the NAT2 acetylator status was investigated by determining the molar ratio of an acetylated and a nonacetylated caffeine metabolite in urine (phenotyping) and/or by NAT2 genotyping according to standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol. The proportion of slow NAT2 acetylators in the surveyed 83 bladder cancer cases was 67%. In the entire group of surveyed 187 cases, mean duration of exposure was 17.6 yr and mean period of latency was 34.7 yr. Occupational exposures to potential bladder carcinogens were observed in 73 occupations, including chemical industry (25%), and occupations as a painter and/or varnisher (23%) were most often encountered. In 12% of the surveyed bladder cancer cases, a second primary malignancy was observed. The NAT2 distribution observed in the 83 cases is comparable to the proportion in 40 occupationally exposed bladder cancer cases in a Department of Urology located close to a former German production site of benzidine-based azo dyes, but higher than in most studies involving NAT2 genetic status in bladder cancer cases.

  18. Force Majeure and Unforeseen Change of Circumstances. The Case of Embargoes and Currency Fluctuations (Russian, German and French Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Kokorin


    Full Text Available Economic and political instability has become a characteristic of many societies around the globe. Recent examples revealing the volatility of the current state of affairs include the trade restrictions imposed by the Russian Federation in August 2014, and currency fluctuations experienced by many countries, including Russia and potentially Greece. In this situation, one may wonder whether contract law has a solution to offer to the parties affected. Traditionally dominated by the pacta sunt servanda principle, jurisdictions made their own choices. This paper analyses approaches adopted by Russian, German and French law in response to situations of force majeure (trade embargoesand unforeseen change of circumstances (currency fluctuations. In search for an explanation of each given approach, we reviewed historical arguments, as history played a crucial role in the formation of German and French responses, though in a completely different way. Whereas Germany, heavily affected by the cataclysms of the World Wars, was eager to adopt a lenient view on the possibility of the judicial revision of contracts, France never gave up its suspicion of court interventions. As legal preferences are often connected with cultural factors, we looked at distinct cultural traits of the societies at issue, by using the Hofstede index. We realized that there could be compelling cultural reasons why France and Germany are situated at opposite poles, while Russia is somewhere in the middle. Lastly, we took into account considerations derived from law and economics, arguing that narrowly construed court intervention might be economically justified in cases of impossibility and impracticability, as ultimately decreasing transaction and risk-appraisal costs.

  19. Combining Model-Based and Feature-Driven Diagnosis Approaches - A Case Study on Electromechanical Actuators (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sriram; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Balaban, Edward; Saxena, Abhinav


    Model-based diagnosis typically uses analytical redundancy to compare predictions from a model against observations from the system being diagnosed. However this approach does not work very well when it is not feasible to create analytic relations describing all the observed data, e.g., for vibration data which is usually sampled at very high rates and requires very detailed finite element models to describe its behavior. In such cases, features (in time and frequency domains) that contain diagnostic information are extracted from the data. Since this is a computationally intensive process, it is not efficient to extract all the features all the time. In this paper we present an approach that combines the analytic model-based and feature-driven diagnosis approaches. The analytic approach is used to reduce the set of possible faults and then features are chosen to best distinguish among the remaining faults. We describe an implementation of this approach on the Flyable Electro-mechanical Actuator (FLEA) test bed.

  20. Estimation of under-reported visceral Leishmaniasis (Vl cases in Bihar: a Bayesian approach

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    A Ranjan


    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a major health problem in the state of Bihar and adjoining areas in India. In absence of any active surveillance mechanism for the disease, there seems to be gross under-reporting of VL cases. Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate extent of under-reporting of VL cases in Bihar using pooled analysis of published papers. Method: We calculated the pooled common ratio (RRMH based on three studies and combined it with a prior distribution of ratio using inverse-variance weighting method. Bayesian method was used to estimate the posterior distribution of the “under-reporting factor” (ratio of unreported to reported cases. Results: The posterior distribution of ratio of unreported to reported cases yielded a mean of 3.558, with 95% posterior limits of 2.81 and 4.50. Conclusion: Bayesian approach gives evidence to the fact that the total number of VL cases in the state may be nearly more than three times that of currently reported figures. 

  1. The importance of taking a history of over-the-counter medication use: a brief review and case illustration of "PRN" antihistamine dependence in a hospitalized adolescent. (United States)

    Gracious, Barbara; Abe, Naomi; Sundberg, Jane


    Over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medication abuse has been rapidly increasing, yet publications on OTC abuse in adolescents are limited. We present a brief literature review and a novel report of antihistamine dependence emerging after admission in an adolescent, subsequently treated with naltrexone. This case highlights the need to take a thorough history of OTC, herbal, and prescription drug use from parents and patients separately and repeatedly, at initial presentation, and again if withdrawal symptoms emerge. General strategies for combating OTC and prescription abuse are given.

  2. Teaching American Environmental History. (United States)

    Strong, Douglas H.


    Themes, issues, teaching approaches, and bibliographic references to sources for a course in environmental history, offered with the hope of preparing students to formulate principles to guide our further conduct toward the environment, are described. (JH)

  3. Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps (United States)

    Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.


    Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches

  4. Library catalogues as resources for book history: case study of Novosel’s bookstore catalogue in Zagreb (1794 - 1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Tomić


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the book catalogue of Novosel’s bookstore, which operated in Zagreb from 1794 to 1825, and investigate the history of books and writing in Zagreb at the turn of the 19th century. The catalogue we analyzed is believed to have been published in 1801. Bearing in mind that the market-based economy started to develop in the late 18th century, it can be stipulated that Novosel and his staff and successors based the offer in their bookstore on market analysis, i.e. their readers’ needs. The increase in offer has sparked off new advertising techniques, i.e. printing of catalogues. It follows that their book catalogue reflects the image of the cultural and intellectual status and needs of readers in those times. The paper provides a short overview of book trade in the late 18th century Zagreb and of bookstore advertisements published both in books and individually, as well as a short overview of Novosel’s bookstore business. In the analysis we partly use the methodology introduced by Robert Darnton, the so-called Darnton’s circle, which takes a holistic view of the history of books taking into consideration all stages a book needs to go through - from the author, publisher, printer, bookstores, to readers, including the author him/herself as a reader. Every element is considered in relation to other elements in the circle, and in connection with external factors such as the economic and social environment, and political and intellectual influences. The books presented in the catalogue have been analyzed using different criteria: language, genre and country where they were printed. Books printed in Croatia and those written in Croatian have been given priority. In the catalogue analysis we used the database Skupni katalog hrvatskih knjižnica (joint Croatian library catalogue in order to reconstruct the printing year and printing shops that have not been listed in the catalogues. Using this methodology, we partly

  5. Preventing birth defects: The value of the NBDPS case-control approach. (United States)

    Dolk, Helen


    Birth Defect Registries provide a basis for epidemiological research into risk factors, thus facilitating a growing understanding of what causes congenital anomalies and how one might target preventive public health actions and reduce inequalities. The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) has used 10 U.S. registries as a basis for a large case-control study. This commentary reviews its methodology and selected areas of output. The strengths of NBDPS lie in the quality of diagnostic coding and classification of birth defects and its size. The sources of bias in NBDPS data relate particularly to retrospective exposure ascertainment entailing a long period of recall, incomplete ascertainment of terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly, and unknown bias in case selection. NBDPS results have shown the protective effect of healthy dietary patterns, but have not been as informative as expected in relation to furthering understanding of the protective effect of folic acid. NBDPS medication studies are making important contributions to addressing the gap in existing evidence systematically across a wide range of birth defects, but are challenged by the quality of information on exposure, dose and underlying disease condition, and the interpretation of results of multiple testing. Studies of environmental contaminants in collaboration with experts in exposure assessment have linked addresses to residential exposure measures, using the advantages of information on residential history and confounders, but are challenged by the need to consider exposure mixtures. NBDPS could increase its public health impact by placing more emphasis on socioeconomic inequalities.

  6. TCM and Western Medical History of 237 Cases of Adult Migraine%237例成人偏头痛中西医完全病史研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小星; 陈宝田; 陈敏; 黄瑞凝; 伍志勇; 商建青


    Objective To investigate the historical characteristics of adult migraine and to evaluate the diagnostic value of each historical characteristic. Methods Complete medical history of 237 adult migraine cases were collected and the independent diagnostic value of each case's characteristics was analyzed using statistical methods. In addition, history and types of childhood migraine were explored. Results Female patients accounted for 73. 4% of all cases ( 174/237 ) of adult migraine. The historical characteristics of migraine ( in descending frequency of occurrence ) included severe headache ( 71.7% , 170/ 237 ), temporal headache ( 64. 1% , 152/237 ), nausea and vomiting ( 61. 2% , 145/237 ), pulsatile headache ( 55. 7% , 132/237), history of childhood migraine (51.9%, 123/237), swelling headache (46.8%, 111/237), family history ( 44. 3% , 105/237 ), phonophobia ( 42. 2% , 100/237 ), dizziness ( 36. 3% , 86/237 ), and photophobia ( 33. 8% , 80/ 237 ). Most cases were influenced by alcohol consumption ( 66. 2% , 102/154 ), sleep ( 62. 4% , 148/237 ), six climatic evils ( 59. 5% , 141/237 ) and seven emotions ( 56. 1% , 133/237 ). Nearly half of the female cases were affected by their menstrual cycles ( 42. 5% , 74/174 ). Conclusion Migraine diagnosis should incorporate the patient's complete medical history including TCM and Western medicine and take consideration of both adult and childhood medical history.%目的 研究成人偏头痛患者病史特征,明确各病史特征的诊断价值大小,寻找适合我国的偏头痛诊断方法.方法 对237例成人偏头痛患者采集完全病史,统计分析每个病史特征的独立诊断价值;追溯研究对象儿童时期是否有小儿偏头痛,进行小儿偏头痛类型研究.结果 237例偏头痛患者中,女性占73.4%(174/237),对偏头痛诊断价值较高的病史特征依次为重度头痛(71.7%,170/237)、颞部头痛(64.1%,152/237)、恶心呕吐(61.2%,145/237)、跳痛(55.7%,132/237)

  7. Storia economica e pensiero economico: spunti dal caso italiano ((Economic history and economic thought: insights from the Italian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Ciocca


    Full Text Available L’articolo è rivolto a gettare un ponte fra la storia economica e la storia del pensiero economico nell’esperienza italiana dell’Ottocento e del Novecento. Vengono scelti e approfonditi episodi e fasi concernenti lo sviluppo, la stabilità, la distribuzione del reddito nell’economia italiana durante i due secoli. L’attenzione si incentra, in particolare, sui legami tra concorrenza e progresso tecnico nel trend di crescita dell’economia; cambio della lira e comportamenti delle imprese nel periodo fra le due guerre; passaggio dall’instabilità alla stabilità del sistema bancario negli anni dopo il 1950; correlazione negativa fra accelerazione nella crescita economica e sperequazione nella distribuzione personale e territoriale del reddito. Con riferimento a ciascuno di questi nodi i risultati più recenti delle ricerche di storia economica vengono accostati alle riflessioni degli economisti coevi e successivi di fronte a quegli stessi eventi. This article is intended to build a bridge between economic history and the history of economic thought in the Italian nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Are chosen and in-depth episodes and phases concerning the development, stability, income distribution in the Italian economy during the two centuries. The attention is focused in particular on the links between competition and technical progress in the growth trend of the economy; the lira exchange and behavior of firms in the period between the two wars; transition from instability to stability of the banking system in the years after the 1950; negative correlation between acceleration in economic growth and inequality in the personal and territorial distribution of income. With reference to each of these nodes the latest results of research in economic history are juxtaposed with ideas of contemporary and subsequent economists in front of those same events.  JEL Codes: B10, B20, N13, N14Keywords: storia economica, storia del pensiero

  8. Inaccuracies inthe history ofa well-known introduction:a case study ofthe Australian House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel C. Andrew; Simon C. Griffth


    Background: Modern ecosystems contain many invasive species as a result of the activity of acclimatisation socie-ties that operated in the second half of the nineteenth century, and these species provide good opportunities for studying invasion biology. However, to gain insight into the ecological and genetic mechanisms that determine the rate of colonization and adaptation to new environments, we need a good understanding of the history of the intro-duced species, and a knowledge of the source population, timing, and number of individuals introduced is particu-larly important. However, any inaccuracies in the history of an introduction will affect subsequent assumptions and conclusions. Methods: Focusing on a single well-known species, the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), we have documented the introduction into Australia using primary sources (e.g. acclimatisation records and newspaper articles). Results: Our revised history differs in a number of signiifcant ways from previous accounts. Our evidence indicates that the House Sparrow was not solely introduced from source populations in England but also from Germany and most strikingly also from India—with the latter birds belonging to a different race. We also clarify the distinction between the number released and the number of founders, due to pre-release captive breeding programs, as well as identifying inaccuracies in a couple of well-cited sources with respect to the range expansion of the introduced populations. Conclusions: Our work suggests that caution is required for those studying introductions using the key sources of historical information and ideally should review original sources of information to verify the accuracy of published accounts.

  9. Managing change in performance measures – An inter-company case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salloum, M.


    Full Text Available The field of performance measurement and management (PMM is well filled with frameworks, models and guidelines addressing what to measure and how to design a performance measurement system (PMS. However, what has been less examined so far is how to ensure that PM evolve in tandem with their environments. Further, the few approaches available today are prescriptive and outlines how or what practitioners should do in order to manage change in their PM. Thus, a gap exists in understanding how organisations manage change in their PM in practice. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to outline and compare the approaches of three case companies for managing PM change. In order to fulfil the purpose of the paper, the data presented has been collected through the deployment of case studies. The choice of case studies as means for data collection stems from the possibility of an in-depth and holistic examination of the formulated phenomenon. All three case companies belong to the same company-group that operates within the transportation industry. The industrial footprint of the company is global with operations and sales spread out over the world. The findings suggest that all three companies have processes in place for managing change in PM. However, the approaches differ in design and context. Even though the case companies had different approaches in place to manage change in PM, they shared several commonalities. Commonalities were shared in the way of execution, process input and challenges in IT and culture. Furthermore, employee involvement seemed to be the biggest challenge for all three companies. The findings put forward in this paper are limited as they are confined to three companies from the same company-group. More studies, both from within and outside the company-group, are needed in order to establish a solid base of empirical data for generalisation. However, this paper makes a contribution both through describing how three companies

  10. Library catalogues as resources for book history: case study of Novosel’s bookstore catalogue in Zagreb (1794 - 1825)


    Tomić, Marijana


    The aim of the paper is to analyze the book catalogue of Novosel’s bookstore, which operated in Zagreb from 1794 to 1825, and investigate the history of books and writing in Zagreb at the turn of the 19th century. The catalogue we analyzed is believed to have been published in 1801. Bearing in mind that the market-based economy started to develop in the late 18th century, it can be stipulated that Novosel and his staff and successors based the offer in their bookstore on market analysis...

  11. Piezoelectric surgery and navigation: a safe approach for complex cases of Eagle syndrome. (United States)

    Spalthoff, S; Zimmerer, R; Dittmann, O; Tavassol, F; Dittmann, J; Gellrich, N-C; Jehn, P


    Eagle syndrome was first described by Eagle in 1937. It is associated with an elongated styloid process and/or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, mainly resulting in pain in the orofacial region. The treatment of Eagle syndrome includes conservative treatment with physical therapy supported by medication, or surgical removal of the styloid process. Two different surgical approaches are described in the literature: the transoral and transcervical approaches. Both have their limitations and specific intraoperative risks. A modification of the transcervical approach that adds an extra security measure to the treatment of complex cases of Eagle syndrome is presented herein. The styloid process was removed by combining piezoelectric surgery, preoperative digital planning, and surgical navigation. No complication was noted, and the patient recovered quickly after surgery. A follow-up visit 2 months later showed no remaining symptoms of Eagle syndrome on the treated side. Therefore, digital planning and surgical navigation could add valuable safety measures to the treatment of complex cases of Eagle syndrome.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathish Manickam


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Cervical disc prolapse is one of the leading cause of morbidity and affecting the patients routine work of their ADL. Due to severity of symptoms and patients feeling of insecurity, physiotherapeutic conservative approach is questionable and has become challengeable against surgery. The purpose of this case report is to explore the efficacy of multimodal physiotherapeutic approach in treating a patient with acute cervical disc prolapse. Case Description: 33 year old male patient was diagnosed with acute cervical disc prolapse and the pain was radiating to the right upper limb associated with numbness. The patient was given initially physiotherapeutic modalities like cryotherapy, ultrasound and mechanical traction to reduce pain. Muscle Energy Technique was also implemented for initial days along with cryotherapy based on cryokinetics concept to enhance movements of cervical spine. Mckenzie exercises with appropriate techniques was administered for 10 days along with retraction exercise, basic ROM and neck isometrics as a home program. The patient received treatment for a period of 12 days. Outcome Measures: The outcome measures used were Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Neck Disability Index, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and Cervical ROM. Conclusion: Multimodal physiotherapeutic approach along with Mckenzie technique played a significant role in alleviating pain, numbness and improvement of the patient functionally for return to his normal work.

  13. Surgical Approaches to First Branchial Cleft Anomaly Excision: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Quintanilla-Dieck


    Full Text Available Objectives. First branchial cleft anomalies (BCAs constitute a rare entity with variable clinical presentations and anatomic findings. Given the high rate of recurrence with incomplete excision, identification of the entire tract during surgical treatment is of paramount importance. The objectives of this paper were to present five anatomic variations of first BCAs and describe the presentation, evaluation, and surgical approach to each one. Methods. A retrospective case review and literature review were performed. We describe patient characteristics, presentation, evaluation, and surgical approach of five patients with first BCAs. Results. Age at definitive surgical treatment ranged from 8 months to 7 years. Various clinical presentations were encountered, some of which were atypical for first BCAs. All had preoperative imaging demonstrating the tract. Four surgical approaches required a superficial parotidectomy with identification of the facial nerve, one of which revealed an aberrant facial nerve. In one case the tract was found to travel into the angle of the mandible, terminating as a mandibular cyst. This required en bloc excision that included the lateral cortex of the mandible. Conclusions. First BCAs have variable presentations. Complete surgical excision can be challenging. Therefore, careful preoperative planning and the recognition of atypical variants during surgery are essential.

  14. Heterotopic ossification in combat amputees from Afghanistan and Iraq wars: Five case histories and results from a small series of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Melcer, PhD


    Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO is excess bone growth in soft tissues that frequently occurs in the residual limbs of combat amputees injured in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, or Iraq and Afghanistan wars, respectively. HO can interfere with prosthetic use and walking and delay patient rehabilitation. This article describes symptomatic and/or radiographic evidence of HO in a patient series of combat amputees rehabilitating at a military amputee care clinic (27 patients/33 limbs. We conducted a retrospective review of patient records and physician interviews to document evidence of HO symptoms in these limbs (e.g., pain during prosthetic use, skin breakdown. Results showed HO-related symptoms in 10 of the 33 residual limbs. Radiographs were available for 25 of the 33 limbs, and a physician identified at least moderate HO in 15 of the radiographs. However, 5 of the 15 patients who showed at least moderate radiographic HO did not report adverse symptoms. Five individual patient histories described HO onset, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. These case histories illustrated how HO location relative to pressure-sensitive/pressure-tolerant areas of the residual limb may determine whether patients experienced symptoms. These histories revealed the uncommon but novel finding of potential benefits of HO for prosthetic suspension.

  15. Life-history trait plasticity and its relationships with plant adaptation and insect fitness: a case study on the aphid Sitobion avenae (United States)

    Dai, Peng; Shi, Xiaoqin; Liu, Deguang; Ge, Zhaohong; Wang, Da; Dai, Xinjia; Yi, Zhihao; Meng, Xiuxiang


    Phenotypic plasticity has recently been considered a powerful means of adaptation, but its relationships with corresponding life-history characters and plant specialization levels of insects have been controversial. To address the issues, Sitobion avenae clones from three plants in two areas were compared. Varying amounts of life-history trait plasticity were found among S. avenae clones on barley, oat and wheat. In most cases, developmental durations and their corresponding plasticities were found to be independent, and fecundities and their plasticities were correlated characters instead. The developmental time of first instar nymphs for oat and wheat clones, but not for barley clones, was found to be independent from its plasticity, showing environment-specific effects. All correlations between environments were found to be positive, which could contribute to low plasticity in S. avenae. Negative correlations between trait plasticities and fitness of test clones suggest that lower plasticity could have higher adaptive value. Correlations between plasticity and specialization indices were identified for all clones, suggesting that plasticity might evolve as a by-product of adaptation to certain environments. The divergence patterns of life-history plasticities in S. avenae, as well as the relationships among plasticity, specialization and fitness, could have significant implications for evolutionary ecology of this aphid. PMID:27426961

  16. A multidisciplinary team case management approach reduces the burden of frequent asthma admissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Burke


    Full Text Available Up to 10% of asthmatics have “difficult asthma”; however, they account for 80% of asthma-related expenditure and run the highest risk of acute severe exacerbations. An estimated 75% of admissions for asthma are avoidable. Guidelines advise that these patients be managed by an experienced specialist multidisciplinary team (MDT. We aimed to assess the impact of a case management strategy delivered via specialist MDTs on acute healthcare utilisation of patients with frequent asthma admissions. An MDT (consultant, specialist nurse, physiotherapist and psychologist case management strategy was introduced in 2010 at University Hospital Southampton Foundation Trust (Southampton, UK to support patients with frequent asthma admissions during admission and then in clinic. To assess efficacy, we systematically searched the hospital database for patients acutely admitted for asthma on two or more occasions in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Data were collected retrospectively covering patient demographics, admission details, asthma severity and comorbidity. From 2010 to 2012, 84 patients were admitted on two or more occasions per year (80% female, mean body mass index 31 kg·m−2 and 55% psychological comorbidity. After introducing an MDT approach repeat asthma admissions fell by 33% from 127 in 2010 to 84 in 2012 (p=0.0004. In addition, bed days fell by 52% from 895 in 2010 to 430 in 2010 (p=0.015. An MDT case management approach significantly reduces hospitalisation in difficult asthma patients with prior frequent admission.

  17. Heuristic approach to optimize the number of test cases for simple circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Thamarai


    Full Text Available In this paper a new solution is proposed for testing simples two stage electronic circuits. It minimizes the number of tests to be performed to determine the genuinity of the circuit. The main idea behind the present research work is to identify the maximum number of indistinguishable faults present in the given circuit and minimize the number of test cases based on the number of faults that has been detected. Heuristic approach is used for test minimization part, which identifies the essential tests from overall test cases.From the results it is observed that, test minimization varies from 50% to 99% with the lowest one corresponding to a circuit with four gates .Test minimization is low in case of circuits with lesser input leads in gates compared to greater input leads in gates for the boolean expression with same number of symbols. Achievement of 99% reduction is due to the fact that the large number of tests find the same faults.The new approach is implemented for simple circuits. The results show potential for both smaller test sets and lower cpu times

  18. Paleosandstorm characteristics and lake evolution history deduced from investigation on lacustrine sediments--The case of Hongjiannao Lake, Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ji; WANG Yong; YANG Xiangdong; ZHANG Enlou; YANG Bao; JI Junfeng


    Sediment cores from desert lakes serve as good records of the frequency and intensity of sandstorms in history. By multi-proxy analysis of grain-size, magnetic susceptibility, TOC and Rb/Sr ratio, the paleosandstorm characteristics and lake evolution history in Yulin Area for the past 80 years. are discussed in this article. It is revealed that Hongjiannao Lake formed in about 1928 A.D. and in its initial stage sandstorms were prevalent with three extremes taking place in 1936 A.D., 1939 A.D. and 1941 A.D.. During the expansion period of 1952―1960 A.D., inflow waters to the lake increased sharply and a lot more weathered materials were carried into the lake. The frequency and intensity of sandstorms have reduced a lot since 1960s and the "double peaks" feature of the grain-size frequency curve has changed into the "single peak" feature. Study on the catchment ecology of the lake shows that the occurrence of sandstorms has been effectively restrained by the forest plantation and water and soil conservation.

  19. A Critique of the Militarisation of Australian History and Culture Thesis: The Case of Anzac Battlefield Tourism

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    Jim McKay


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the militarisation of Australian history and culture thesis with specific reference to the increasing popularity of Anzac battlefield tourism. I argue that the militarisation thesis contains ontological and epistemological flaws that render it incapable of understanding the multifaceted ways in which Australians experience Anzac battlefield tours. I then argue that in order to study how Australians both at home and overseas respond to the upcoming Anzac Centenary researchers will need to deploy an empirically-grounded and multidisciplinary framework. I demonstrate how proponents of militarisation: (1 ignore the polymorphous properties of Anzac myths; (2 are complicit with constructions of ‘moral panics’ about young Australian tourists; (3 overlook the reflexive capacities of teachers, students and tourists with respect to military history and battlefield tours; and (4 disregard the complex and contradictory aspects of visits to battlefields. My counter-narrative relies both on Stuart Hall’s work on popular culture and empirical studies of battlefield tourism from myriad disciplines.

  20. Different approaches to caudate lobectomy with "curettage and aspiration" technique using a special instrument PMOD: A Report of 76 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-You Peng; Cheng-Hong Peng; Jiang-Tao Li; Yi-Ping Mou; Ying-Bin Liu; Yu-Lian Wu; He-Qing Fang; Li-Ping Cao; Li Chen; Xiu-Jun Cai


    AIM: To study different approaches to caudate lobectomy with "curettage and aspiration" technique using Peng's multifunctional operative dissector (PMOD). The surgical procedure of isolated complete caudate lobectomy was specially discussed.METHODS: In 76 cases of various types of caudate lobectomy, three approaches were used including left side approach, right side approach, and anterior approach.Among the 76 cases, isolated complete caudate lobectomy was carried out in 6 cases with transhepatic anterior approach. The surgical procedure consisted of mobilization of the total liver, ligation and separation of the short hepatic veins, splitting the liver parenchyma through the Cantlie's plane, ligation and division of the caudate portal triads from the hilum, dissection of the root of major hepatic veins,detachment of the caudate lobe from liver parenchyma.RESULTS: The mean operative time was 285±51 min,the mean blood loss was 1 600 mi. No severe complications were observed. Among the 6 cases receiving isolated complete caudate lobectomy with transhepatic anterior approach, one case died 17 months after operation due to disease recurrence and liver failure, the other 5 cases have been alive without recurrence, with one longest survival of 49 months.CONCLUSION: The choice of approach is essential to the success of caudate lobectomy. As PMOD and "curettage and aspiration" technique can delineate intrahepatic or extrahepatic vessels clearly, caudate lobe resection has become safer, easier and faster.

  1. A probabilistic approach to the assessment of some life history pattern parameters in a Middle Pleistocene human population. (United States)

    Durand, A I; Ipina, S L; Bermúdez de Castro, J M


    Parameters of a Middle Pleistocene human population such as the expected length of the female reproductive period (E(Y)), the expected interbirth interval (E(X)), the survival rate (tau) for females after the expected reproductive period, the rate (phi(2)) of women who, given that they reach first birth, do not survive to the end of the expected reproductive period, and the female infant plus juvenile mortality rate (phi(1)) have been assessed from a probabilistic standpoint provided that such a population were stationary. The hominid sample studied, the Sima de los Huesos (SH) cave site, Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain), is the most exhaustive human fossil sample currently available. Results suggest that the Atapuerca (SH) sample can derive from a stationary population. Further, in the case that the expected reproductive period ends between 37 and 40 yr of age, then 24 less, similarE(Y) less, similar27 yr, E(X)=3 yr, 0.224

  2. Narrative and evidence. How can case studies from the history of science support claims in the philosophy of science? (United States)

    Kinzel, Katherina


    A common method for warranting the historical adequacy of philosophical claims is that of relying on historical case studies. This paper addresses the question as to what evidential support historical case studies can provide to philosophical claims and doctrines. It argues that in order to assess the evidential functions of historical case studies, we first need to understand the methodology involved in producing them. To this end, an account of historical reconstruction that emphasizes the narrative character of historical accounts and the theory-laden character of historical facts is introduced. The main conclusion of this paper is that historical case studies are able to provide philosophical claims with some evidential support, but that, due to theory-ladenness, their evidential import is restricted.

  3. Teaching Introductory Oceanography through Case Studies: Project based approach for general education students (United States)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.


    A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid

  4. Pitfalls of the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) Approach Applied to Human Genetic History: A Case Study of Ashkenazi Jews. (United States)

    Flegontov, Pavel; Kassian, Alexei; Thomas, Mark G; Fedchenko, Valentina; Changmai, Piya; Starostin, George


    In a recent interdisciplinary study, Das et al. have attempted to trace the homeland of Ashkenazi Jews and of their historical language, Yiddish (Das et al. 2016 Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to Primeval Villages in the Ancient Iranian Lands of Ashkenaz. Genome Biol Evol. 8:1132-1149). Das et al. applied the geographic population structure (GPS) method to autosomal genotyping data and inferred geographic coordinates of populations supposedly ancestral to Ashkenazi Jews, placing them in Eastern Turkey. They argued that this unexpected genetic result goes against the widely accepted notion of Ashkenazi origin in the Levant, and speculated that Yiddish was originally a Slavic language strongly influenced by Iranian and Turkic languages, and later remodeled completely under Germanic influence. In our view, there are major conceptual problems with both the genetic and linguistic parts of the work. We argue that GPS is a provenancing tool suited to inferring the geographic region where a modern and recently unadmixed genome is most likely to arise, but is hardly suitable for admixed populations and for tracing ancestry up to 1,000 years before present, as its authors have previously claimed. Moreover, all methods of historical linguistics concur that Yiddish is a Germanic language, with no reliable evidence for Slavic, Iranian, or Turkic substrata.

  5. Dabigatran - a case history demonstrating the need for comprehensive approaches to optimise the use of new drugs

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    Rickard eMalmstrom


    Full Text Available Background: There are potential conflicts between authorities and companies to fund new premium priced drugs especially where there are safety and/ or budget concerns. Dabigatran, a new oral anticoagulant for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular AF, exemplifies this issue. Whilst new effective treatments are needed, there are issues in the elderly with dabigatran due to variable drug concentrations, no known antidote and dependence on renal elimination. Published studies have shown dabigatran to be cost-effective but there are budget concerns given the prevalence of atrial fibrillation. There are also issues with potentially re-designing anticoagulant services. This has resulted in activities across countries to better manage its use. Objective: To (i review authority activities in over 30 countries and regions, (ii use the findings to develop new models to better manage the entry of new drugs , and (iii review the implications for all major stakeholder groups. Methodology: Descriptive review and appraisal of activities regarding dabigatran and the development of guidance for groups through an iterative process. Results: There has been a plethora of activities to manage dabigatran including extensive pre-launch activities, risk sharing arrangements, prescribing restrictions and monitoring of prescribing post launch. Reimbursement has been denied in some countries due to concerns with its budget impact and/or excessive bleeding. Development of a new model and future guidance is proposed to better manage the entry of new drugs, centring on three pillars of pre-, peri- and post-launch activities. Conclusion: Models for introducing new drugs are essential to optimise their prescribing especially where there are concerns. Without such models, new drugs may be withdrawn prematurely and/ or struggle for funding.

  6. Defibrillation lead placement using a transthoracic transatrial approach in a case without transvenous access due to lack of the right superior vena cava. (United States)

    Otsuka, Yosuke; Okamura, Hideo; Sato, Syunsuke; Nakajima, Ikutaro; Ishibashi, Kohei; Miyamoto, Kouji; Noda, Takashi; Aiba, Takeshi; Kamakura, Shiro; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kusano, Kengo


    A 65-year-old woman with a history of syncope was diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. She had previously undergone mastectomy of the left breast owing to breast cancer. Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) and monitor ECG revealed sick sinus syndrome (Type II) and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation were induced in an electrophysiological study. Although the patient was eligible for treatment with a dual chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), venography revealed lack of the right superior vena cava (R-SVC). Lead placement from the left subclavian vein would have increased the risk of lymphedema owing to the patient׳s mastectomy history. Consequently, the defibrillation lead was placed in the right ventricle by direct puncture of the right auricle through the tricuspid valve. The atrial lead was sutured to the atrial wall, and the postoperative course was unremarkable. Defibrillation lead placement using a transthoracic transatrial approach can be an alternative method in cases where a transvenous approach for lead placement is not feasible.

  7. Retirement-from-sport considerations following pediatric sports-related concussion: case illustrations and institutional approach. (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; McDonald, Patrick J; Cordingley, Dean; Mansouri, Behzad; Essig, Marco; Ritchie, Lesley


    The decision to advise an athlete to retire from sports following sports-related concussion (SRC) remains a persistent challenge for physicians. In the absence of strong empirical evidence to support recommendations, clinical decision making must be individualized and should involve a multidisciplinary team of experts in concussion and traumatic brain injury. Although previous authors have advocated for a more conservative approach to these issues in child and adolescent athletes, there are few reports outlining considerations for this process among this unique population. Here, the authors use multiple case illustrations to discuss 3 subgroups of clinical considerations for sports retirement among pediatric SRC patients including the following: those with structural brain abnormalities identified on neuroimaging, those presenting with focal neurological deficits and abnormalities on physical examination, and those in whom the cumulative or prolonged effects of concussion are suspected or demonstrated. The authors' evolving multidisciplinary institutional approach to return-to-play and retirement decision making in pediatric SRC is also presented.

  8. Minimally invasive esthetic therapy: a case report describing the advantages of a multidisciplinary approach. (United States)

    Pinto, Rodrigo Carlos; Chambrone, Leandro; Colombini, Bella Luna; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; Britto, Isabella Maria; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre


    The decision-making process for the treatment of esthetic areas is based on the achievement of a healthy, harmonious, and pleasant smile. These conditions are directly associated with a solid knowledge of tooth anatomy and proportions, as well as the smile line, soft tissue morphology, and osseous architecture. To achieve these objectives, a multidisciplinary approach may be necessary to create long-term harmony between the final restoration and the adjacent teeth, and the health of the surrounding soft and hard tissues. This case report describes the application of a minimally invasive therapy on a 33-year-old woman seeking esthetic treatment. Minimally invasive periodontal plastic surgery associated with porcelain laminate veneers yielded satisfactory esthetics and minimal trauma to dental and periodontal tissues. Such a combined approach may be considered a viable option for the improvement of "white" and "red" esthetics.

  9. An individualized and everyday life approach to cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia: a case illustration. (United States)

    Levaux, M-N; Fonteneau, B; Larøi, F; Offerlin-Meyer, I; Danion, J-M; Van der Linden, M


    Objective. The effectiveness of an individualized and everyday approach to cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia was examined in a case study. Method. After cognitive and functional assessment, concrete objectives were targeted for the person's everyday complaints. Strategies were constructed based on an analysis of the cognitive profile, daily life functioning, and processes involved in activities. They included a memory strategy for reading, a diary to compensate memory difficulties, and working memory exercises to improve immediate processing of information when reading and following conversations. Efficacy was assessed with outcome measures. Results. The program had beneficial effects on the person's cognitive and everyday functioning, which persisted at a 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Findings provide suggestive evidence that an individualized and everyday approach may be a useful alternative in order to obtain a meaningfully lasting transfer of training to daily life, compared to the nomothetic ones which dominate the field.

  10. A stochastic approach for quantifying immigrant integration: the Spanish test case

    CERN Document Server

    Agliari, Elena; Contucci, Pierluigi; Sandell, Rickard; Vernia, Cecilia


    We apply stochastic process theory to the analysis of immigrant integration. Using a unique and detailed data set from Spain, we study the relationship between local immigrant density and two social and two economic immigration quantifiers for the period 1999-2010. As opposed to the classic time-series approach, by letting immigrant density play the role of "time", and the quantifier the role of "space" it become possible to analyze the behavior of the quantifiers by means of continuous time random walks. Two classes of results are obtained. First we show that social integration quantifiers evolve following pure diffusion law, while the evolution of economic quantifiers exhibit ballistic dynamics. Second we make predictions of best and worst case scenarios taking into account large local fluctuations. Our stochastic process approach to integration lends itself to interesting forecasting scenarios which, in the hands of policy makers, have the potential to improve political responses to integration problems. F...

  11. A Case Against the Linguistic Approach to Metaphysics Zeno Vendler ’s Project and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xiao-ling


    There are two approaches to metaphysics that concern language, the logical and the linguistic. Zeno Vendler, who took the linguistic one, distinguished with transformational techniques between two semantic categories, namely fact and event, and regarded them as corresponding respectively to a metaphysical category of beings. In doing this he presupposed that indepen-dent semantic categories could be sorted out, and corresponding categories of beings that are independent of language can be de-rived. But our analysis of Vendler’s case shows that it is not semantic categories but grammar that functions in differentiating event and fact. At least some semantic categories could not be separated from grammar, and this casts doubt on the linguistic ap-proach to metaphysics. If semantic categories are not independent of grammar, we could not derive metaphysics from linguistic study.

  12. An Individualized and Everyday Life Approach to Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-N. Levaux


    Full Text Available Objective. The effectiveness of an individualized and everyday approach to cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia was examined in a case study. Method. After cognitive and functional assessment, concrete objectives were targeted for the person’s everyday complaints. Strategies were constructed based on an analysis of the cognitive profile, daily life functioning, and processes involved in activities. They included a memory strategy for reading, a diary to compensate memory difficulties, and working memory exercises to improve immediate processing of information when reading and following conversations. Efficacy was assessed with outcome measures. Results. The program had beneficial effects on the person’s cognitive and everyday functioning, which persisted at a 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Findings provide suggestive evidence that an individualized and everyday approach may be a useful alternative in order to obtain a meaningfully lasting transfer of training to daily life, compared to the nomothetic ones which dominate the field.

  13. An integrated approach to teaching and learning logistics: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus N. Cronjé


    Full Text Available Business managers and students often criticise university teaching for not addressing real-life problems. Furthermore, professors are dissatisfied with the research capabilities of postgraduate students. This paper advocates an integrated approach to teaching and learning based on the features of project-based learning aimed at enhancing the practical and research skills of undergraduate students in Logistics. A case study is presented where third-year students were engaged in a real-life project in collaboration with industry, exposing them to collaborative learning, questionnaire design, surveys, analysing and evaluating results, literature review and report writing. The project was carried out in phases where students were assessed after each phase. The paper analyses the assessment of students and their perception of the value of the project. It is concluded that an integrated teaching and learning approach will increase students’ interest in the subject, understanding of theoretical concepts, research skills, business skills and life skills.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanaska Dinkova


    Full Text Available Lichen planus(LPis a common chronic muco­cuta­neous disease of unknown etiology. Usually, it presents with lesions on the flexor surfaces of the upper extremities, genitalia and mucous membranes. Oral lesions can be the initial as well as the only manifestations of this condition. Patients with LP can present first to the general dental practitioner so sufficient knowledge on this condition is important for the proper diagnosis, treatment and prevention of further complications. The clinical management of LRP requires liaison between dental and medical specialists.This article provides a review of the current literature on LP and a case report of a 55 years old female suffering with this condition. A multidisciplinary approach in the diagnosis and management of this case is described.

  15. Surgery-first orthognathic approach case series: Salient features and guidelines. (United States)

    Gandedkar, Narayan H; Chng, Chai Kiat; Tan, Winston


    Conventional orthognathic surgery treatment involves a prolonged period of orthodontic treatment (pre- and post-surgery), making the total treatment period of 3-4 years too exhaustive. Surgery-first orthognathic approach (SFOA) sees orthognathic surgery being carried out first, followed by orthodontic treatment to align the teeth and occlusion. Following orthognathic surgery, a period of rapid metabolic activity within tissues ensues is known as the regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP). By performing surgery first, RAP can be harnessed to facilitate efficient orthodontic treatment. This phenomenon is believed to be a key factor in the notable reduction in treatment duration using SFOA. This article presents two cases treated with SFOA with emphasis on "case selection, treatment strategy, merits, and limitations" of SFOA. Further, salient features comparison of "conventional orthognathic surgery" and "SFOA" with an overview of author's SFOA treatment protocol is enumerated.

  16. Anesthetic Approach to a Patient with Epidermolysis Bullosa: A Case Report

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    Ersin KOKSAL


    Full Text Available Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB is characterized by fragility and formation of blisters in the skin and mucosal membranes. Due to blisters on the airway and occurring new blisters as a result of anesthetic or surgical procedures may complicate anesthesia management. In this case report, we present the anesthetic approach of a 6 years old case with EB who underwent reconstructive surgery. After premedication and optimal monitorization, intravenous (IV anesthesia and analgesia was administered. Associated with the oropharyngeal lesions and limitation to reach an adequate mouth opening, we preferred the facemask to maintain ventilation. Neither new lesions nor complications were detected during or after surgery. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 192-195

  17. Using Stake's qualitative case study approach to explore implementation of evidence-based practice. (United States)

    Boblin, Sheryl L; Ireland, Sandra; Kirkpatrick, Helen; Robertson, Kim


    Although the use of qualitative case study research has increased during the past decade, researchers have primarily reported on their findings, with less attention given to methods. When methods were described, they followed the principles of Yin; researchers paid less attention to the equally important work of Stake. When Stake's methods were acknowledged, researchers frequently used them along with Yin's. Concurrent application of their methods did not take into account differences in the philosophies of these two case study researchers. Yin's research is postpositivist whereas Stake's is constructivist. Thus, the philosophical assumptions they used to guide their work were different. In this article we describe how we used Stake's approach to explore the implementation of a falls-prevention best-practice guideline. We focus on our decisions and their congruence with Stake's recommendations, embed our decisions within the context of researching this phenomenon, describe rationale for our decisions, and present lessons learned.

  18. Towards an Integrated Approach to Crowd Analysis and Crowd Synthesis: a Case Study and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Bandini, Stefania; Vizzari, Giuseppe


    Studies related to crowds of pedestrians, both those of theoretical nature and application oriented ones, have generally focused on either the analysis or the synthesis of the phenomena related to the interplay between individual pedestrians, each characterised by goals, preferences and potentially relevant relationships with others, and the environment in which they are situated. The cases in which these activities have been systematically integrated for a mutual benefit are still very few compared to the corpus of crowd related literature. This paper presents a case study of an integrated approach to the definition of an innovative model for pedestrian and crowd simulation (on the side of synthesis) that was actually motivated and supported by the analyses of empirical data acquired from both experimental settings and observations in real world scenarios. In particular, we will introduce a model for the adaptive behaviour of pedestrians that are also members of groups, that strive to maintain their cohesion...

  19. A multi-site evaluation of innovative approaches to increase tuberculosis case notification: summary results.

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    Jacob Creswell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, TB notifications have stagnated since 2007, and sputum smear positive notifications have been declining despite policies to improve case detection. We evaluate results of 28 interventions focused on improving TB case detection. METHODS: We measured additional sputum smear positive cases treated, defined as the intervention area's increase in case notification during the project compared to the previous year. Projects were encouraged to select control areas and collect historical notification data. We used time series negative binomial regression for over-dispersed cross-sectional data accounting for fixed and random effects to test the individual projects' effects on TB notification while controlling for trend and control populations. RESULTS: Twenty-eight projects, 19 with control populations, completed at least four quarters of case finding activities, covering a population of 89.2 million. Among all projects sputum smear positive (SS+ TB notifications increased 24.9% and annualized notification rates increased from 69.1 to 86.2/100,000 (p = 0.0209 during interventions. Among the 19 projects with control populations, SS+TB case notifications increased 36.9% increase while in the control populations a 3.6% decrease was observed. Fourteen (74% of the 19 projects' SS+TB notification rates in intervention areas increased from the baseline to intervention period when controlling for historical trends and notifications in control areas. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions were associated with large increases in TB notifications across many settings, using an array of interventions. Many people with TB are not reached using current approaches. Different methods and interventions tailored to local realities are urgently needed.

  20. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urinary bladder in an Arab woman with history of squamous cell carcinoma: a case report

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    Al Meshaan Mohd Khaled


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the urinary bladder are rare and tend to occur in an older age group than do their counterparts in bones and soft tissue. Case presentation We report a case of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urinary bladder in a 67-year-old woman of Arab origin. She had undergone transurethral resection followed by chemotherapy because of pulmonary metastasized muscle-invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in 2005. One year later, she first presented with a history of repeated hematuria in our institution. Performing cystoscopy any tumor could be detected. Control cystoscopy two months later showed a tumor mass of 3 cm in diameter at another location than described for the first tumor. After perforating by transurethral resection partial bladder resection had to be done. Tissue specimen after pathological analysis revealed a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor with tumor cells reactive to cluster of differentiation 99, neuron-specific enolase and S100 protein and stained negative for other markers such as cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, smooth muscle actin, chromogranin and leucocyte common antigen. Staging computerized tomography was especially free from any hint on organ metastasis, but the patient died due to a cardiac problem only a few months later. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we report the eighth case of bladder peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors in literature and the first concerning an Arab patient. It is also the first presentation of a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor patient with a history of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. As in other cases, expression of single-chain-type 1 glycoprotein and neural markers was positive and the disease was at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis.