WorldWideScience

Sample records for case cost estimates

  1. Hospital Case Cost Estimates Modelling - Algorithm Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Andru, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Ontario (Canada) Health System stakeholders support the idea and necessity of the integrated source of data that would include both clinical (e.g. diagnosis, intervention, length of stay, case mix group) and financial (e.g. cost per weighted case, cost per diem) characteristics of the Ontario healthcare system activities at the patient-specific level. At present, the actual patient-level case costs in the explicit form are not available in the financial databases for all hospitals. The goal of this research effort is to develop financial models that will assign each clinical case in the patient-specific data warehouse a dollar value, representing the cost incurred by the Ontario health care facility which treated the patient. Five mathematical models have been developed and verified using real dataset. All models can be classified into two groups based on their underlying method: 1. Models based on using relative intensity weights of the cases, and 2. Models based on using cost per diem.

  2. Estimating Teacher Turnover Costs: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Abigail Jurist; Joy, Lois; Ellis, Pamela; Jablonski, Erica; Karelitz, Tzur M.

    2012-01-01

    High teacher turnover in large U.S. cities is a critical issue for schools and districts, and the students they serve; but surprisingly little work has been done to develop methodologies and standards that districts and schools can use to make reliable estimates of turnover costs. Even less is known about how to detect variations in turnover costs…

  3. Fuzzy case based reasoning in sports facilities unit cost estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    This article presents an example of estimating costs in the early phase of the project using fuzzy case-based reasoning. The fragment of database containing descriptions and unit cost of sports facilities was shown. The formulas used in Case Based Reasoning method were presented, too. The article presents similarity measurement using a few formulas, including fuzzy similarity. The outcome of cost calculations based on CBR method was presented as a fuzzy number of unit cost of construction work.

  4. Hyperketonemia in early lactation dairy cattle: a deterministic estimate of component and total cost per case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Overton, M W

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a deterministic economic model to estimate the costs associated with (1) the component cost per case of hyperketonemia (HYK) and (2) the total cost per case of HYK when accounting for costs related to HYK-attributed diseases. Data from current literature was used to model the incidence and risks of HYK (defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration≥1.2 mmol/L), displaced abomasa (DA), metritis, disease associations, milk production, culling, and reproductive outcomes. The component cost of HYK was estimated based on 1,000 calvings per year; the incidence of HYK in primiparous and multiparous animals; the percent of animals receiving clinical treatment; the direct costs of diagnostics, therapeutics, labor, and death loss; and the indirect costs of future milk production losses, future culling losses, and reproduction losses. Costs attributable to DA and metritis were estimated based on the incidence of each disease in the first 30 DIM; the number of cases of each disease attributable to HYK; the direct costs of diagnostics, therapeutics, discarded milk during treatment and the withdrawal period, veterinary service (DA only), and death loss; and the indirect costs of future milk production losses, future culling losses, and reproduction losses. The component cost per case of HYK was estimated at $134 and $111 for primiparous and multiparous animals, respectively; the average component cost per case of HYK was estimated to be $117. Thirty-four percent of the component cost of HYK was due to future reproductive losses, 26% to death loss, 26% to future milk production losses, 8% to future culling losses, 3% to therapeutics, 2% to labor, and 1% to diagnostics. The total cost per case of HYK was estimated at $375 and $256 for primiparous and multiparous animals, respectively; the average total cost per case of HYK was $289. Forty-one percent of the total cost of HYK was due to the component cost of HYK, 33% to costs

  5. Hyperketonemia in early lactation dairy cattle: a deterministic estimate of component and total cost per case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Overton, M W

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a deterministic economic model to estimate the costs associated with (1) the component cost per case of hyperketonemia (HYK) and (2) the total cost per case of HYK when accounting for costs related to HYK-attributed diseases. Data from current literature was used to model the incidence and risks of HYK (defined as a blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration≥1.2 mmol/L), displaced abomasa (DA), metritis, disease associations, milk production, culling, and reproductive outcomes. The component cost of HYK was estimated based on 1,000 calvings per year; the incidence of HYK in primiparous and multiparous animals; the percent of animals receiving clinical treatment; the direct costs of diagnostics, therapeutics, labor, and death loss; and the indirect costs of future milk production losses, future culling losses, and reproduction losses. Costs attributable to DA and metritis were estimated based on the incidence of each disease in the first 30 DIM; the number of cases of each disease attributable to HYK; the direct costs of diagnostics, therapeutics, discarded milk during treatment and the withdrawal period, veterinary service (DA only), and death loss; and the indirect costs of future milk production losses, future culling losses, and reproduction losses. The component cost per case of HYK was estimated at $134 and $111 for primiparous and multiparous animals, respectively; the average component cost per case of HYK was estimated to be $117. Thirty-four percent of the component cost of HYK was due to future reproductive losses, 26% to death loss, 26% to future milk production losses, 8% to future culling losses, 3% to therapeutics, 2% to labor, and 1% to diagnostics. The total cost per case of HYK was estimated at $375 and $256 for primiparous and multiparous animals, respectively; the average total cost per case of HYK was $289. Forty-one percent of the total cost of HYK was due to the component cost of HYK, 33% to costs

  6. Software Cost Estimation Model Based on Integration of Multi-agent and Case-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al-Sakran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate software cost estimation is a vital task that affects the firm's software investment decisions before committing required resources to that project or bidding for a contract. This study proposes an improved Case-Based Reasoning (CBR approach integrated with multi-agent technology to retrieve similar projects from multi-organizational distributed datasets. The study explores the possibility of building a software cost estimation model by collecting software cost data from distributed predefined project cost databases. The model applying CBR method to find similar projects in historical data derived from measured software projects developed by different organizations.

  7. A case study to estimate costs using Neural Networks and regression based models

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Bhuiyan; Adil Salam; Fantahun M. Defersha

    2012-01-01

    Bombardier Aerospace’s high performance aircrafts and services set the utmost standard for the Aerospace industry. A case study in collaboration with Bombardier Aerospace is conducted in order to estimate the target cost of a landing gear. More precisely, the study uses both parametric model and neural network models to estimate the cost of main landing gears, a major aircraft commodity. A comparative analysis between the parametric based model and those upon neural networks model will be con...

  8. A case-based reasoning approach for estimating the costs of pump station projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective estimation of costs is crucial to the success of construction projects. Cost estimates are used to evaluate, approve and/or fund projects. Organizations use some form of classification system to identify the various types of estimates that may be prepared during the lifecycle of a project. This research presents a parametric-cost model for pump station projects. Fourteen factors have been identified as important to the influence of the cost of pump station projects. A data set that consists of forty-four pump station projects (fifteen water and twenty-nine waste water are collected to build a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR library and to test its performance. The results obtained from the CBR tool are processed and adopted to improve the accuracy of the results. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the development of the effectiveness of the tool.

  9. A case study to estimate costs using Neural Networks and regression based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bhuiyan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bombardier Aerospace’s high performance aircrafts and services set the utmost standard for the Aerospace industry. A case study in collaboration with Bombardier Aerospace is conducted in order to estimate the target cost of a landing gear. More precisely, the study uses both parametric model and neural network models to estimate the cost of main landing gears, a major aircraft commodity. A comparative analysis between the parametric based model and those upon neural networks model will be considered in order to determine the most accurate method to predict the cost of a main landing gear. Several trials are presented for the design and use of the neural network model. The analysis for the case under study shows the flexibility in the design of the neural network model. Furthermore, the performance of the neural network model is deemed superior to the parametric models for this case study.

  10. ESTIMATING IRRIGATION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having accurate estimates of the cost of irrigation is important when making irrigation decisions. Estimates of fixed costs are critical for investment decisions. Operating cost estimates can assist in decisions regarding additional irrigations. This fact sheet examines the costs associated with ...

  11. Software Cost Estimation Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ongere, Alphonce

    2013-01-01

    Software cost estimation is the process of predicting the effort, the time and the cost re-quired to complete software project successfully. It involves size measurement of the soft-ware project to be produced, estimating and allocating the effort, drawing the project schedules, and finally, estimating overall cost of the project. Accurate estimation of software project cost is an important factor for business and the welfare of software organization in general. If cost and effort estimat...

  12. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Cost Estimate Summary (Leveraged NDC Case).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan; Dawson, Jericah M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, based on leveraging a fully funded, Sandia executed NDC Modernization project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  13. Stochastic Frontier Estimation of a CES Cost Function: The Case of Higher Education in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Hooshang; Johnes, Geraint; Oskrochi, Reza; Crouchley, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Examines the use of stochastic frontier estimation of constant elasticity of substitution (CES) cost function to measure differences in efficiency among British universities. (Contains 28 references.) (PKP)

  14. Cost-Estimation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    COSTIT computer program estimates cost of electronic design by reading item-list file and file containing cost for each item. Accuracy of cost estimate based on accuracy of cost-list file. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The Sun version (NPO-19587). PC version (NPO-19157).

  15. Cost function estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C K; Andersen, K; Kragh-Sørensen, P

    2000-01-01

    a regression model based on the quality of its predictions. In exploring the econometric issues, the objective of this study was to estimate a cost function in order to estimate the annual health care cost of dementia. Using different models, health care costs were regressed on the degree of dementia, sex, age...... on these criteria, a two-part model was chosen. In this model, the probability of incurring any costs was estimated using a logistic regression, while the level of the costs was estimated in the second part of the model. The choice of model had a substantial impact on the predicted health care costs, e.......g. for a mildly demented patient, the estimated annual health care costs varied from DKK 71 273 to DKK 90 940 (US$ 1 = DKK 7) depending on which model was chosen. For the two-part model, the estimated health care costs ranged from DKK 44714, for a very mildly demented patient, to DKK 197 840, for a severely...

  16. Uncertainties in early-stage capital cost estimation of process design – a case study on biorefinery design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    is highlighted using the synthesis and design of a biorefinery as a case study. The impact of uncertainties in cost estimation on the identification of optimal processing paths is indeed found to be profound. To tackle this challenge, a comprehensive techno-economic risk analysis framework is presented to enable......Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales, and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early-stage design is a challenging task, which......) the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data are not available. Four well-known models for early-stage cost estimation are reviewed and analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early-stage process design...

  17. Case-Based Reasoning Method in Cost Estimation of Drilling Wells

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Shams Mianaei; Seyed Hossein Iranmanesh

    2013-01-01

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  18. Capital cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The capital cost estimate for the nuclear process heat source (NPHS) plant was made by: (1) using costs from the current commercial HTGR for electricity production as a base for items that are essentially the same and (2) development of new estimates for modified or new equipment that is specifically for the process heat application. Results are given in tabular form and cover the total investment required for each process temperature studied.

  19. Uncertainties in Early Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Process Design – A case study on biorefinery design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkan eSin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Capital investment, next to the product demand, sales and production costs, is one of the key metrics commonly used for project evaluation and feasibility assessment. Estimating the investment costs of a new product/process alternative during early stage design is a challenging task. This is especially important in biorefinery research, where available information and experiences with new technologies is limited. A systematic methodology for uncertainty analysis of cost data is proposed that employs (a Bootstrapping as a regression method when cost data is available and (b the Monte Carlo technique as an error propagation method based on expert input when cost data is not available. Four well-known models for early stage cost estimation are reviewed an analyzed using the methodology. The significance of uncertainties of cost data for early stage process design is highlighted using the synthesis and design of a biorefinery as a case study. The impact of uncertainties in cost estimation on the identification of optimal processing paths is found to be profound. To tackle this challenge, a comprehensive techno-economic risk analysis framework is presented to enable robust decision making under uncertainties. One of the results using an order-of-magnitude estimate shows that the production of diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene are the most promising with economic risks of 0.24 MM$/a and 4.6 MM$/a due to uncertainties in cost estimations, respectively.

  20. Coastal defence cost estimates: Case study of the Netherlands, New Orleans and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, M.M.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kanning, W.; Kok, M.; Geldenhuys, M.A.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    This study is part of a global study on the costs of adaptation to the effects of climate change. It adds information from three specific case studies (the Netherland, New Orleans and Vietnam) to the global study. The case study areas are comparable by type of coast; all are low-lying deltaic coasta

  1. Estimating SCR installation costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, M.; Sharp, G. [American Electric Power (United States)

    2006-01-15

    The EUCG surveyed 72 separate US installations of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired units totalling 41 GW of capacity to identify the systems' major cost drivers. The results, summarized in this article, provide excellent first-order estimates and guidance for utilities considering installing the downstream emissions-control technology. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. A Framework of Combining Case-Based Reasoning with a Work Breakdown Structure for Estimating the Cost of Online Course Production Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Currently, a work breakdown structure (WBS) approach is used as the most common cost estimation approach for online course production projects. To improve the practice of cost estimation, this paper proposes a novel framework to estimate the cost for online course production projects using a case-based reasoning (CBR) technique and a WBS. A…

  3. The cost of doing a cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Donald S.; Buchanan, Harry R.

    1993-01-01

    A model for estimating the cost required to do a cost estimate for Deep Space Network (DSN) projects that range from $0.1 to $100 million is presented. The cost of the cost estimate in thousands of dollars, C(sub E), is found to be approximately given by C(sub E) = K(/C(sub p)/(sup 0.35)) where C(sub p) is the cost of the project being estimated in millions of dollars and K is a constant depending on the accuracy of the estimate. For an order-of-magnitude estimate, K = 24; for a budget estimate, K = 60; and for a definitive estimate, K = 115. That is, for a specific project, the cost of doing a budget estimate is about 2.5 times as much as that for an order-of-magnitude estimate, and a definitive estimate costs about twice as much as a budget estimate. Use of this model should help provide the level of resources required for doing cost estimates and, as a result, provide insights towards more accurate estimates with less potential for cost overruns.

  4. Estimating health damage cost from secondary sulfate particles - a case study of Hunan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Ji-ming; LI Ji; YE Xue-mei; ZHU Tian-le

    2003-01-01

    China's coal-dominated energy pattern has resulted in large amount of SO2 emissions. Estimate of the sulfur-related health damage cost is necessary to help perform systematic cost-benefit analysis and set national energy and emissions control priorities. Current researches were confined to gaseous SO2 in urban areas; however, secondary sulfate (SO42-) particles can exert serious impact in a wider region. Based on the concept of "intake fraction", CALPUFF long-range dispersion model and 180 sample emission sources, multiple regression equation was obtained with good correlation(r=0.85), which illustrates that populations were key parameters to determine intake fraction but source characteristics were insignificant. Based on the formula and the population distribution data, county-level intake fractions were mapped for Hunan Province(range: 1.1×10-6-3.2×10-6) of China. A combination of county-level SO2 emissions with the intake fractions yields a total 1.98 tons of sulfate(SO42-) inhalation, and resulting total health damage cost to be 0.76(willingness to pay approach) or 0.16(human capital approach) billion USD in 1997, about 2.1% or 0.45% of GDP in Hunan in 1997. Average health damage cost per ton of SO2 emission is 930(willingness to pay approach) or 200 USD(human capital approach). The results demonstrated that more stringent regulation should be forced.

  5. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vered, Oded; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Yagupsky, Pablo; Malul, Miki; Cicurel, Assi; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU). Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS) enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010-2012 period (n = 470). Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410). HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391). Before diagnosis (baseline), the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, Pbrucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, Pbrucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these results in cost-effective analyses may be crucial for both reducing health inequities and optimal allocation of health systems' scarce resources.

  6. Estimating the Cost to do a Cost Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.; Buchanan, H. R.

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a model for estimating the cost required to do a cost estimate. Overruns may lead to concellation of a project. In 1991, we completed a study on the cost of doing cost estimates for the class of projects normally encountered in the development and implementation of equipment at the network of tracking stations operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA.

  7. Manned Mars mission cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Joseph; Smith, Keith

    1986-01-01

    The potential costs of several options of a manned Mars mission are examined. A cost estimating methodology based primarily on existing Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) parametric cost models is summarized. These models include the MSFC Space Station Cost Model and the MSFC Launch Vehicle Cost Model as well as other modes and techniques. The ground rules and assumptions of the cost estimating methodology are discussed and cost estimates presented for six potential mission options which were studied. The estimated manned Mars mission costs are compared to the cost of the somewhat analogous Apollo Program cost after normalizing the Apollo cost to the environment and ground rules of the manned Mars missions. It is concluded that a manned Mars mission, as currently defined, could be accomplished for under $30 billion in 1985 dollars excluding launch vehicle development and mission operations.

  8. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Vered

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU. Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010-2012 period (n = 470. Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410. HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391. Before diagnosis (baseline, the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, P<0.05, however, no significant differences were found at baseline in the predominant components of HCU, i.e. hospitalizations, diagnostic procedures, and medications. At the year following diagnosis, the average total annual HCU costs of brucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, P<0.001. Most of the difference stems from 7.9 times higher hospitalization costs (p<0.001. Additional elevated costs were 3.6 times higher laboratory tests (P<0.001, 2.8 times higher emergency room visits (P<0.001, 1.8 times higher medication (P<0.001 and 1.3 times higher diagnostic procedures (P<0.001. We conclude that human brucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these

  9. Estimating the Effects of Teaching on the Costs of Inpatient Care: The Case of Radiology Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massell, Adele P.; Hosek, James R.

    The report investigates production and the cost effects of teaching within hospital departments. Models of primary production show that the cost effects of teaching are determined by the salaries paid to students (including residents, interns, medical students, and technical trainees) and physicians, by the levels of student inputs used in…

  10. Machined part cost estimating in SMEs: a feature-driven case-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dimmock, S. I.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of a novel decision support process for machined part estimating in small and medium-sized engineering companies. Many SMEs tend to adopt manual estimating techniques, however this dependence on human expertise represents a risk to such organizations. Better information management in estimating can improve process performance and contribute to increased competitiveness. The research which is the subject of this thesis investigated whethe...

  11. Maximum likelihood estimation of search costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga González, José; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper Hong and Shum [2006. Using price distributions to estimate search costs. Rand Journal of Economics 37, 257-275] present a structural method to estimate search cost distributions. We extend their approach to the case of oligopoly and present a new maximum likelihood method to estima

  12. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Search Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); M.R. Wildenbeest (Matthijs)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn a recent paper Hong and Shum (forthcoming) present a structural methodology to estimate search cost distributions. We extend their approach to the case of oligopoly and present a maximum likelihood estimate of the search cost distribution. We apply our method to a data set of online p

  13. Estimating the Cost of Doing a Cost Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.; Buchanan, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides a model for estimating the cost required to do a cost estimate...Our earlier work provided data for high technology projects. This article adds data from the construction industry which validates the model over a wider range of technology.

  14. The Psychology of Cost Estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Cost estimation for large (and even not so large) government programs is a challenge. The number and magnitude of cost overruns associated with large Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs highlight the difficulties in developing and promulgating accurate cost estimates. These overruns can be the result of inadequate technology readiness or requirements definition, the whims of politicians or government bureaucrats, or even as failures of the cost estimating profession itself. However, there may be another reason for cost overruns that is right in front of us, but only recently have we begun to grasp it: the fact that cost estimators and their customers are human. The last 70+ years of research into human psychology and behavioral economics have yielded amazing findings into how we humans process and use information to make judgments and decisions. What these scientists have uncovered is surprising: humans are often irrational and illogical beings, making decisions based on factors such as emotion and perception, rather than facts and data. These built-in biases to our thinking directly affect how we develop our cost estimates and how those cost estimates are used. We cost estimators can use this knowledge of biases to improve our cost estimates and also to improve how we communicate and work with our customers. By understanding how our customers think, and more importantly, why they think the way they do, we can have more productive relationships and greater influence. By using psychology to our advantage, we can more effectively help the decision maker and our organizations make fact-based decisions.

  15. Cost Estimating Risk and Cost Estimating Uncertainty Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Timothy P.; Cherwonik, Jeffrey S.

    1997-01-01

    The Memorandum of Agreement signed by the Assistant Secretaries of the Navy for Research, Development, and Acquisition (ASN[RD&A]) and for Financial Management and Comptroller (FM&C) in June 1996 committed the Naval Center for Cost Analysis (NCCA) to improve cost analyses by helping program managers prepare better cost estimates. Recent computing advances make development of meaningful risk and uncertainty analyses easier, and these analyses can help managers do their job be...

  16. COINTEGRATION RELATIONSHIPS TO ESTIMATE THE MARGINAL COST OF DEFICIT IN PLANNING A HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM: THE CASE OF BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Lucio Guido Tapia Carpio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the behavior of gross domestic product (GDP) compared to electricity consumption in Brazil to estimate the curve of deficit marginal cost. The deficit cost is used as exogenous parameter in the chain of models for planning the operation and expansion of a hydrothermal system as part of the total cost of operation. The results show a cointegration relationship between GDP and electricity consumption; therefore, there is a long-term equilibrium relationship b...

  17. Solar power satellite cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, R. J.; Wadle, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The solar power configuration costed is the 5 GW silicon solar cell reference system. The subsystems identified by work breakdown structure elements to the lowest level for which cost information was generated. This breakdown divides into five sections: the satellite, construction, transportation, the ground receiving station and maintenance. For each work breakdown structure element, a definition, design description and cost estimate were included. An effort was made to include for each element a reference that more thoroughly describes the element and the method of costing used. All costs are in 1977 dollars.

  18. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  19. (Costing) The adaption of product cost estimation techniques to estimate the cost of service.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Estelle; Newnes, Linda B; Parry, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents an approach to ascertain whether product cost estimating techniques can be adapted for use in estimating the costs for providing a service. The research methodology adopted consists of a critique and analysis of the literature to ascertain how current cost estimation techniques are used. The analysis of the cost estimation techniques provides knowledge of cost estimation, in particular for products and service with advantages and drawbacks defined. Th...

  20. A probabilistic model estimating oil spill clean-up costs – A case study for the Gulf of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model evaluating oil spill cleanup-costs for the Gulf of Finland is presented. • Bayesian Belief Networks are used to develop the model in a probabilistic fashion. • The results are compared with existing models and good agreement is found. • The model can be applicable for cost-benefit analysis in risk framework. -- Abstract: Existing models estimating oil spill costs at sea are based on data from the past, and they usually lack a systematic approach. This make them passive, and limits their ability to forecast the effect of the changes in the oil combating fleet or location of a spill on the oil spill costs. In this paper we make an attempt towards the development of a probabilistic and systematic model estimating the costs of clean-up operations for the Gulf of Finland. For this purpose we utilize expert knowledge along with the available data and information from literature. Then, the obtained information is combined into a framework with the use of a Bayesian Belief Networks. Due to lack of data, we validate the model by comparing its results with existing models, with which we found good agreement. We anticipate that the presented model can contribute to the cost-effective oil-combating fleet optimization for the Gulf of Finland. It can also facilitate the accident consequences estimation in the framework of formal safety assessment (FSA)

  1. Estimating External Costs of Transportation in Regional Areas: Using Available Statistical Data the Case of the Region of Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gallo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper simplified methods for estimating the external costs due to transportation in regional areas are proposed. The methods are based on data available by national and regional statistical sources and do not need specific surveys; they allow obtaining approximate estimates useful for a preliminary evaluation of transportation plans, policies and projects. In more detail, a negative externality is defined as a cost that is produced by subject A and is borne by subject B; moreover, subject A does not consider the effects of his/her behavior on subject B and does not compensate subject B for the costs that this last one is forced to bear. In this paper after a literature review on methodologies proposed for estimating external costs, in national and international ambits, the main external costs produced by transportation systems in the Region of Campania are estimated. The main external costs considered are: greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise, accidents and congestion. In the paper the secondary external costs are neglected; the main ones are: water and soil pollution; landscape and nature damages; upstream and downstream effects; visual intrusion; separation effects; soil occupancy. In this paper the external costs estimated are the ones produced not only by road traffic, that anyway is the main “culprit”, but also by rail and air transportation systems. The evaluation of external costs has required the collection of several data on the regional mobility and the estimation of veh-kms per year produced in Campania by cars and freight vehicles. The estimation of veh-kms per year is based on circulating vehicles, subdivided by the COPERT classification, and on average yearly distances covered by each vehicle class. Other regional statistical data are collected about regional rail transport and air services at the main airports of the region. Moreover, since the evaluation of some external costs is based on damages on human

  2. Estimation of the inconvenience cost of a rolling blackout in the residential sector: The case of South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Korea is experiencing a serious imbalance in electricity supply and demand, which caused a blackout in 2011. The Korean government has planned to perform a rolling blackout to prevent large-scale blackouts when the electricity supply reserve margin reaches less than 1 million kW. This study attempts to estimate the inconvenience cost of household customers from a rolling blackout by using survey data. To this end, we apply a contingent valuation method (CVM) to measure their willingness-to-pay (WTP) in order to avoid a rolling blackout, i.e. the suspension of electricity supply. In this study, we estimate the inconvenience costs stemming from both an unannounced and an announced rolling blackout. As a result, we find that the inconvenience cost of a sudden rolling blackout is estimated at 3900.67 KRW (3.56 USD) per month per household, while that of an announced rolling blackout stands at 3102.95 KRW (2.83 USD). This difference in costs shows that people place value in receiving prior notice of a blackout, and that inconvenience costs of between 166.0 billion KRW (151.6 million USD) and 174.3 billion KRW (159.2 million USD) per year can be reduced nationwide by giving households advance notice of a planned rolling blackout. - Highlights: • We estimate the inconvenience cost of a rolling blackout in households in South Korea. • We use a contingent valuation method to measure the WTP to avoid a rolling blackout. • People have more WTP to avoid an unannounced rolling blackout than an announced one. • We estimate the value of preannouncement of the blackout by the difference in WTPs

  3. Research misconduct oversight: defining case costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Elizabeth; Franzini, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a sequential mixed method study design to define cost elements of research misconduct among faculty at academic medical centers. Using time driven activity based costing, the model estimates a per case cost for 17 cases of research misconduct reported by the Office of Research Integrity for the period of 2000-2005. Per case cost of research misconduct was found to range from $116,160 to $2,192,620. Research misconduct cost drivers are identified. PMID:24551963

  4. Research misconduct oversight: defining case costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Elizabeth; Franzini, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a sequential mixed method study design to define cost elements of research misconduct among faculty at academic medical centers. Using time driven activity based costing, the model estimates a per case cost for 17 cases of research misconduct reported by the Office of Research Integrity for the period of 2000-2005. Per case cost of research misconduct was found to range from $116,160 to $2,192,620. Research misconduct cost drivers are identified.

  5. Cost Estimates and Investment Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emhjellen, Kjetil; Emhjellen Magne; Osmundsen, Petter

    2001-08-01

    When evaluating new investment projects, oil companies traditionally use the discounted cashflow method. This method requires expected cashflows in the numerator and a risk adjusted required rate of return in the denominator in order to calculate net present value. The capital expenditure (CAPEX) of a project is one of the major cashflows used to calculate net present value. Usually the CAPEX is given by a single cost figure, with some indication of its probability distribution. In the oil industry and many other industries, it is common practice to report a CAPEX that is the estimated 50/50 (median) CAPEX instead of the estimated expected (expected value) CAPEX. In this article we demonstrate how the practice of using a 50/50 (median) CAPEX, when the cost distributions are asymmetric, causes project valuation errors and therefore may lead to wrong investment decisions with acceptance of projects that have negative net present values. (author)

  6. Xenia Spacecraft Study Addendum: Spacecraft Cost Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Spencer; Hopkins, Randall

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Xenia spacecraft cost estimates as an addendum for the Xenia Spacecraft study. The NASA/Air Force Cost model (NAFCPOM) was used to derive the cost estimates that are expressed in 2009 dollars.

  7. Estimating the cost of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating the cost of nuclear accidents may appear as an insurmountable task. There are so many different consequences; some of these appear extremely volatile; in any case, climatic conditions play a major role. However, in the absence of such costs, no cost-benefit analysis can be envisaged in nuclear safety; furthermore, an intuitive feel for what a nuclear crisis would look like is practically impossible to develop. This paper outlines what methodology has ben used in IRSN. It insists on the need to cover all major cost components. It stresses the value of accompanying estimation figures with a 'story telling' narrative in order to describe the resulting picture in simple, accessible words. (author)

  8. Estimating the Costs of Preventive Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael; Porter, Michele M.; Ayers, Tim S.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Sandler, Irwin

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to improve the practice and reporting of cost estimates of prevention programs. It reviews the steps in estimating the costs of an intervention and the principles that should guide estimation. The authors then review prior efforts to estimate intervention costs using a sample of well-known but diverse studies. Finally,…

  9. 40 CFR 261.142 - Cost estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate. 261.142 Section 261.142... Materials § 261.142 Cost estimate. (a) The owner or operator must have a detailed written estimate, in... facility. (1) The estimate must equal the cost of conducting the activities described in paragraph (a)...

  10. A model for the cost of doing a cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.; Buchanan, H. R.

    1992-01-01

    A model for estimating the cost required to do a cost estimate for Deep Space Network (DSN) projects that range from $0.1 to $100 million is presented. The cost of the cost estimate in thousands of dollars, C(sub E), is found to be approximately given by C(sub E) = K((C(sub p))(sup 0.35)) where C(sub p) is the cost of the project being estimated in millions of dollars and K is a constant depending on the accuracy of the estimate. For an order-of-magnitude estimate, K = 24; for a budget estimate, K = 60; and for a definitive estimate, K = 115. That is, for a specific project, the cost of doing a budget estimate is about 2.5 times as much as that for an order-of-magnitude estimate, and a definitive estimate costs about twice as much as a budget estimate. Use of this model should help provide the level of resources required for doing cost estimates and, as a result, provide insights towards more accurate estimates with less potential for cost overruns.

  11. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  12. Cost Overruns and Cost Estimation in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emhjellen, Magne; Emhjellen, Kjetil; Osmundsen, Petter

    2001-10-01

    Recently, a Norwegian government report on the cost overruns of projects in the North Sea was presented (NOU 1999:11). It concluded that there was a 25% increase in development costs from project sanction (POD, Plan for Operation and Development) to last CCE (Capital Cost Estimate) for the 11 oil field projects investigated. Many reasons like unclear project assumptions in early phase, optimistic interpolation of previous project assumptions, too optimistic estimates, and underestimation of uncertainty were given as reasons for overruns. In this article we highlight the possibility that the cost overruns are not necessarily all due to the reasons given, but also to an error in the estimation and reporting of the capital expenditure cost (CAPEX). Usually the CAPEX is given by a single cost figure, with some indication of its probability distribution. The oil companies report, and are required to do so by government authorities, the estimated 50/50 (median) cost estimate instead of the estimated expected value cost estimate. We demonstrate how the practice of using a 50/50 (median) CAPEX estimate for the 11 projects when the cost uncertainty distributions are asymmetric, may explain at least part of the ''overruns''. Hence, we advocate changing the practice of using 50/50 cost estimates instead of expected value cost estimates for project management and decision purposes. (author)

  13. Cost Estimation for Research Reactor Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency, and the European Commission as the general platform for decommissioning cost estimation purposes. Use of the ISDC based model facilitates the preliminary costing stages in the absence of decommissioning plans. For proper establishment of the costing case, the intended decommissioning strategy is used. The model should be flexible as to the extent and details of the inventory data. The impact of individual inventory items (working constraints) should be respected. Implementing the ISDC as the basis for the cost calculation structure ensures compatibility with the IAEA classification scheme for radioactive waste. The developed tool is intended for experts who are familiar with the facility, such as the former or actual operators of research reactors. A basic knowledge of decommissioning issues is recommended. (author)

  14. Cost Estimates for Federal Student Loans: The Market Cost Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In an ongoing debate about the relative costs of the federal government's direct and guaranteed student loan programs, some budget experts and private lenders have argued for the use of "market cost" estimates. They assert that official government cost estimates for federal student loans differ from what private entities would likely charge…

  15. Food irradiation : estimates of cost of processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For estimating the cost of food irradiation, three factors have to be taken into consideration. These are : (1) capital cost incurred on irradiation device and its installation, (2) recurring or running cost which includes maintenance cost and operational expenditure, and (3) product specific cost dependent on the factors specific to the food item to be processed, its storage, handling and distribution. A simple method is proposed to provide estimates of capital costs and running costs and it is applied to prepare a detailed estimate of costs for irradiation processing of onions and fish in India. The cost of processing onions worked out to be between Rs. 40 to 120 per 1000 Kg and for fish Rs 354 per 1000 Kg. These estimates do not take into account transparation costs and fluctuations in marketing procedures. (M.G.B.). 7 tables

  16. Reasons for inconsistencies between estimated and actual decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable cost estimating is one of the most important elements of decommissioning planning. Alternative technologies may be evaluated and compared based on their efficiency and effectiveness, and measured against a baseline cost as to the feasibility and benefits derived from the technology. When the plan is complete, those cost considerations ensure that it is economically sound and practical for funding.Estimates of decommissioning costs have been performed and published by many organizations for many different applications. The results often vary because of differences in the work scope. Labour force costs, monetary considerations, oversight costs, the specific contaminated materials involved, the waste stream and peripheral costs associated with that type of waste, or applicable environmental compliance requirements. Many of the differences in cost estimates are unavoidable since a reasonable degree of reliability and accuracy can only be achieved by developing decommissioning cost estimates on a case-by- case site-specific basis. The paper describes the estimating methodology and process applied to develop decommissioning cost estimates. A major effort has been made to standardize methodologies, and to understand the assumptions and bases that drive the costs. However, estimates are only as accurate as the information available from which to derive the costs. This information includes the assumptions of scope of the work, labour cost inputs, inflationary effects, and financial analyses that project these costs to year of expenditure. Attempts at comparison of estimates for two facilities of similar design and size must clearly identify the assumptions used in developing the estimate, and comparison of actual costs versus estimated costs must reflect these same assumptions. For the nuclear industry to grow, decommissioning estimating tools must improve to keep pace with changing technology, regulations and stakeholder issues. (author)

  17. A better approach to cost estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Russ

    2013-03-01

    Using ratios of costs to charges (RCCs) to estimate costs can cause hospitals to significantly over- or under-invest in service lines. A focus on improving cost estimation in cost centers where physicians have significant control over operating expenses, such as drugs or implants, can strengthen decision making and strategic planning. Connecting patient file information to purchasing data can lead to more accurate reflections of actual costs and help hospitals gain better visibility across service lines.

  18. Outer planet probe cost estimates: First impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination was made of early estimates of outer planetary atmospheric probe cost by comparing the estimates with past planetary projects. Of particular interest is identification of project elements which are likely cost drivers for future probe missions. Data are divided into two parts: first, the description of a cost model developed by SAI for the Planetary Programs Office of NASA, and second, use of this model and its data base to evaluate estimates of probe costs. Several observations are offered in conclusion regarding the credibility of current estimates and specific areas of the outer planet probe concept most vulnerable to cost escalation.

  19. Estimating the Cost of an Extension Event

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, George W.

    2012-01-01

    This Note first describes ways to estimate the costs of delivering an event. Second, the note describes the costs of developing programs and events and ways to reduce these. Third, it explores ways to estimate the cost per person and how this changes as the scale of the program increases.

  20. Estimating the impact of enterprise resource planning project management decisions on post-implementation maintenance costs: a case study using simulation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryling, Meg

    2010-11-01

    Organisations often make implementation decisions with little consideration for the maintenance phase of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, resulting in significant recurring maintenance costs. Poor cost estimations are likely related to the lack of an appropriate framework for enterprise-wide pre-packaged software maintenance, which requires an ongoing relationship with the software vendor (Markus, M.L., Tanis, C., and Fenema, P.C., 2000. Multisite ERP implementation. CACM, 43 (4), 42-46). The end result is that critical project decisions are made with little empirical data, resulting in substantial long-term cost impacts. The product of this research is a formal dynamic simulation model that enables theory testing, scenario exploration and policy analysis. The simulation model ERPMAINT1 was developed by combining and extending existing frameworks in several research domains, and by incorporating quantitative and qualitative case study data. The ERPMAINT1 model evaluates tradeoffs between different ERP project management decisions and their impact on post-implementation total cost of ownership (TCO). Through model simulations a variety of dynamic insights were revealed that could assist ERP project managers. Major findings from the simulation show that upfront investments in mentoring and system exposure translate to long-term cost savings. The findings also indicate that in addition to customisations, add-ons have a significant impact on TCO.

  1. Procedures for estimating nuclear fuel cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard procedures for estimating capital and operating costs for the Environmental Control Technology Project are presented in this report. Two different procedures were used for estimating capital costs: (1) general order-of-magnitude estimates for those facilities which are invariant among environmental control technologies, and (2) detailed estimating procedures for those facilities and control systems expected to vary among comparisons of environmental control methods. The general approaches and procedures of NUS-531 (Guide for Economic Evaluation of Nuclear Reactor Plant Designs, NUS Corporation, Rockville, MD, January 1969) were used for detailed capital cost estimates. Detailed procedures are presented for operating cost estimates. These include estimating worksheets and specific procedures for each of the components of the operating costs. These also were based on the approach of NUS-531

  2. Consideration of ISDC for Decommissioning Cost Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009, they decided to update the Yellow Book, and began to update it by analyzing user experiences. They found that several countries have adopted the proposed standardized cost structure for the production of cost estimates directly or for mapping national estimates onto a common structure. They also made conclusions that more detailed advice should be given on the use of the standardized structure and on the definition of cost items to avoid ambiguity. The revised cost structure, to be known as the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC), was published in 2012. The standardized cost structure developed in the report may be used for estimating the costs of decommissioning of any type of nuclear facility. We analyzed this standardized cost structure (ISDC) and applied it to DECOMMIS which was developed by KAERI. The appropriate estimation system for domestic application was examined by comparing the estimation results. KAERI made WBS code in DECOMMIS and data obtained during decommissioning work of KRR2 and UCP. Recently the IAEA updated the decommissioning cost items and its structure by ISDC. The cost estimation items of the DECOMMIS were applied to ISDC structure. For applying, the ISDC code compared with WBS code of DECOMMIS as on text of the activity name from daily report basis. The mapping result of the ISDC items to WBS code of the DECOMMIS is much different. AS results of this study that it need the corresponding cost category which classified in accordance with the national standard price estimates

  3. Cost overruns and cost estimation in the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Emhjellen, Magne; Emhjellen, Kjetil; Osmundsen, Petter

    2001-01-01

    Recently, a Norwegian government report on the cost overruns of projects in the North Sea was presented (NOU 1999:11). It concluded that there was a 25% increase in development costs from project sanction (POD, Plan for Operation and Development) to last CCE (Capital Cost Estimate) for the 11 oil field projects investigated. Many reasons like unclear project assumptions in early phase, optimistic interpolation of previous project assumptions, too optimistic estimates, and underestimation of u...

  4. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals

  5. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-09-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

  6. Data Service Provider Cost Estimation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kathy; Hunolt, Greg; Booth, Arthur L.; Banks, Mel

    2011-01-01

    The Data Service Provider Cost Estimation Tool (CET) and Comparables Database (CDB) package provides to NASA s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) the ability to estimate the full range of year-by-year lifecycle cost estimates for the implementation and operation of data service providers required by ESE to support its science and applications programs. The CET can make estimates dealing with staffing costs, supplies, facility costs, network services, hardware and maintenance, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software licenses, software development and sustaining engineering, and the changes in costs that result from changes in workload. Data Service Providers may be stand-alone or embedded in flight projects, field campaigns, research or applications projects, or other activities. The CET and CDB package employs a cost-estimation-by-analogy approach. It is based on a new, general data service provider reference model that provides a framework for construction of a database by describing existing data service providers that are analogs (or comparables) to planned, new ESE data service providers. The CET implements the staff effort and cost estimation algorithms that access the CDB and generates the lifecycle cost estimate for a new data services provider. This data creates a common basis for an ESE proposal evaluator for considering projected data service provider costs.

  7. A Cost Estimation Tool for Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl D.; Keller, Eric

    2009-01-01

    To align their financing strategies and fundraising efforts with their fiscal needs, charter school leaders need to know how much funding they need and what that funding will support. This cost estimation tool offers a simple set of worksheets to help start-up charter school operators identify and estimate the range of costs and timing of…

  8. Failing to Estimate the Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates cost estimation errors in the context of offshoring. It is argued that an imprecise estimation of the costs related to implementing a firm activity in a foreign location has a negative impact on the process performance of that activity. Performance is deterred...

  9. ANALYSIS OF SOFTWARE COST ESTIMATION MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir Abdullah; Rabia Saleem; Shahbaz Nazeer; Muhammad Usman

    2012-01-01

    Software Cost estimation is a process of forecasting the Cost of project in terms of budget, time, and other resources needed to complete a software system and it is a core issue in the software project management to estimate the cost of a project before initiating the Software Project. Different models have been developed to estimate the cost of software projects for the last several years. Most of these models rely on the Analysts’ experience, size of the software project and some other sof...

  10. Demystifying the Cost Estimation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    In manufacturing today, nothing is more important than giving a customer a clear and straight-forward accounting of what their money has purchased. Many potentially promising return business orders are lost because of unclear, ambiguous, or improper billing. One of the best ways of resolving cost bargaining conflicts is by providing a…

  11. Estimating the costs of human space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The plan for NASA's new exploration initiative has the following strategic themes: (1) incremental, logical evolutionary development; (2) economic viability; and (3) excellence in management. The cost estimation process is involved with all of these themes and they are completely dependent upon the engineering cost estimator for success. The purpose is to articulate the issues associated with beginning this major new government initiative, to show how NASA intends to resolve them, and finally to demonstrate the vital importance of a leadership role by the cost estimation community.

  12. Structural Estimation of Stock Market Participation Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of stock market participation, where consumers' decisions regarding stock market participation are influenced by participation costs. The practical significance of the participation costs is considered as being a channel through which financial...... education programs can affect consumers' investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market participation cost is about 4–6% of labor...

  13. The great environmental restoration cost estimating shootout: A blind test of three DOE cost estimating groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has increased steadily over the last three years and, in the process, has drawn increasing scrutiny from Congress, the public, and government agencies such as the Office of Management and Budget and the General Accounting Office. Programmatic costs have been reviewed by many groups from within the DOE as well as from outside agencies. While cost may appear to be a universally applicable barometer of project conditions, it is actually a single dimensional manifestation of a complex set of conditions. As such, variations in cost estimates can be caused by a variety of underlying factors such as changes in scope, schedule, performing organization, economic conditions, or regulatory environment. This paper will examine the subject of cost estimates by evaluating three different cost estimates prepared for a single project including two estimates prepared by project proponents and another estimate prepared by a review team. The paper identifies the reasons for cost growth as measured by the different estimates and evaluates the ability of review estimates to measure the validity of costs. The comparative technique used to test the three cost estimates will identify the reasons for changes in the estimated cost, over time, and evaluate the ability of an independent review to correctly identify the reasons for cost growth and evaluate the reasonableness of the cost proposed by the project proponents. Recommendations are made for improved cost estimates and improved cost estimate reviews. Conclusions are reached regarding the differences in estimate results that can be attributed to differences in estimating techniques, the implications of these differences for decision makers, and circumstances that are unique to environmental cost estimating. (author)

  14. Statistical methods of estimating mining costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    Until it was defunded in 1995, the U.S. Bureau of Mines maintained a Cost Estimating System (CES) for prefeasibility-type economic evaluations of mineral deposits and estimating costs at producing and non-producing mines. This system had a significant role in mineral resource assessments to estimate costs of developing and operating known mineral deposits and predicted undiscovered deposits. For legal reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey cannot update and maintain CES. Instead, statistical tools are under development to estimate mining costs from basic properties of mineral deposits such as tonnage, grade, mineralogy, depth, strip ratio, distance from infrastructure, rock strength, and work index. The first step was to reestimate "Taylor's Rule" which relates operating rate to available ore tonnage. The second step was to estimate statistical models of capital and operating costs for open pit porphyry copper mines with flotation concentrators. For a sample of 27 proposed porphyry copper projects, capital costs can be estimated from three variables: mineral processing rate, strip ratio, and distance from nearest railroad before mine construction began. Of all the variables tested, operating costs were found to be significantly correlated only with strip ratio.

  15. The application of artificial neural networks in indirect cost estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniak, Agnieszka

    2013-10-01

    Estimating of the costs of construction project is one of the most important task in the management of the project. The total costs can be divided into direct costs that are related to executing the works, and indirect costs that accompany delivery. A precise costs estimation is usually a highly labour and time-intensive task especially when using manual calculation methods. This paper presents Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to predicting index of indirect cost of construction projects in Poland. A quantitative study was undertaken on the factors conditioning indirect costs of polish construction projects and a determination was made of the actual costs incurred by enterprises during project implementation. As a result of these studies, a data set was assembled covering 72 real-life cases of building projects constructed in Poland.

  16. Landsvirkjun cost estimating and assessment for small hydropower plants : methodology and basis for estimating cost

    OpenAIRE

    Viðar Helgason

    2011-01-01

    This research is in the field of Project Management and it examines the process leading to the development of a Cost Estimate. The focus of the research is on the application of the tools and techniques that are part of the cost definition process. Consideration is given to what methodology is applied for the development of a Cost Estimate. Purpose – This research aims to document the current status of Project Cost Estimation within Landsvirkjun. The research also documents best practice ...

  17. Online Search Cost Estimation for SAT Solvers

    CERN Document Server

    Haim, Shai

    2009-01-01

    We present two different methods for estimating the cost of solving SAT problems. The methods focus on the online behaviour of the backtracking solver, as well as the structure of the problem. Modern SAT solvers present several challenges to estimate search cost including coping with nonchronological backtracking, learning and restarts. Our first method adapt an existing algorithm for estimating the size of a search tree to deal with these challenges. We then suggest a second method that uses a linear model trained on data gathered online at the start of search. We compare the effectiveness of these two methods using random and structured problems. We also demonstrate that predictions made in early restarts can be used to improve later predictions. We conclude by showing that the cost of solving a set of problems can be reduced by selecting a solver from a portfolio based on such cost estimations.

  18. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  19. Well cost estimates in various geothermal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, K.G.; Bomber, T.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants, Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A project to estimate well costs in regions of current geothermal activity has been initiated. Costs associated with commonly encountered drilling problems will be included. Activity-based costing techniques will be employed to allow the identification of cost drivers and the evaluation of the economic effects of new technologies and operational procedures on well costs. The sensitivity of well costs to a number of parameters such as rate-of-penetration and daily operating costs will be examined. Additional sensitivity analyses and trade-off studies will evaluate the efficiency of various operational practices and preventive, as well as remedial, actions. These efforts should help provide an understanding of the consumption of resources in geothermal drilling.

  20. Methods of estimating nuclear power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international panel of experts appointed by the Agency's Director General, after examining costing methods in detail, has recently produced a report entitled 'Introduction to Methods of Estimating Nuclear Power Generating Costs'. The report is intended to help the Agency's Member States, particularly those which are less-developed in nuclear technology, in making a preliminary economic assessment before the construction of a nuclear power station. It gives a description of the different cost items involved in a nuclear power project, some suggestions as to the extrapolation of available data, and an evaluation of different methods of allocating the costs to the units of energy produced

  1. Cost estimates of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The costs caused by the management of the spent fuel produced by nuclear power plant units TVO I and TVO II during their 30 years' operational life are estimated in the report. The cost estimate is based, in regard to the spent fuel management, on TVO's plan according to which spent fuel is stored intermediately and finally disposed as such in Finland. As far as decommissioning is concerned, the estimate is based on deferred dismantlement, and for reactor waste's part, on final disposal at site at Olkiluoto. The report deals also with the development of nuclear waste management reserve during the years 1979...1982 and the effect of the reserve on electricity prices. The Ministry of Trade and Industry has approved the calculation basis 1.36 p/kWh for the year 1982. The effect of significant changes in nuclear waste management plans on the cost estimate has also been discussed. This kind of changes comprise reprocessing, significant increase in waste amounts when a new power plant unit is added into the waste management plan, untimely termination of plant operation and accident at the plant. The cost estimate at October 1982 price level is as follows: spent nuclear fuel transfer to interim storage and intermediate storing 873 million marks, transfer to final disposal site 127 million marks, and encapsulation and final disposal 1450 million marks; decommissioning of the power plant 520 million marks; final disposal of reactor waste 80 million marks. The sales estimate for TVO I and TVO II during the corresponding period of time is 240 TWh. Thus the price effect with 0% discount rate is 1.27 p/kWh. Decrease, when compared to the cost estimate on which the previous provision calculations were based, is due to the new, more precise cost estimates concerning intermediate storing and transportation of spent nuclear fuel

  2. Cost analysis and estimating tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Changes in production processes reflect the technological advances permeat­ ing our products and services. U. S. industry is modernizing and automating. In parallel, direct labor is fading as the primary cost driver while engineering and technology related cost elements loom ever larger. Traditional, labor-based ap­ proaches to estimating costs are losing their relevance. Old methods require aug­ mentation with new estimating tools and techniques that capture the emerging environment. This volume represents one of many responses to this challenge by the cost analysis profession. The Institute of Cost Analysis (lCA) is dedicated to improving the effective­ ness of cost and price analysis and enhancing the professional competence of its members. We encourage and promote exchange of research findings and appli­ cations between the academic community and cost professionals in industry and government. The 1990 National Meeting in Los Angeles, jointly spo~sored by ICA and the National Estimating Society (NES),...

  3. Cost Contingency as the Standard Deviation of the Cost Estimate for Cost Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey Rothwell

    2004-01-01

    Traditional cost contingency estimation relies heavily on expert judgment based on various cost-engineering standards. This paper compares project stages, accuracy ranges, and cost contingencies recommended by the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering International and the Electric Power Research Institute. It shows that current guidelines are consistent with contingencies equal to the standard deviation of the cost estimate. It suggests how this standard deviation can be derive...

  4. Estimation of cost and value of energy from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Energy Agency expert group on recommended practices for wind turbine testing and evaluation is finalizing a second edition of the Estimation of cost of energy from wind energy conversion systems. This paper summarizes those recommendations. Further, the value of wind energy in terms of the associated savings is discussed, and a case study is undertaken to illustrate wind energy cost/benefit analyses. The paper concludes that while the recommended practices on cost estimation may be useful in connection with wind energy feasibility studies there is still a need for further international agreement upon guidelines on how to assess wind energy benefits. (author)

  5. On Cost Estimate for Decommissioning of one Isotope Central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main scope of this study has been to calculate the future cost for decommission and dismantling the Isotope central at the Studsvik site using the OMEGA CODE. Detailed empirical information is used in the study for 'bench-marking' purposes, in such cases when there is a need to supplement and correct field data from the industry. In the present study, data has been retrieved and organized such that the estimated costs for decommissioning of the Isotope Central become transparent and reliable. This approach gives a preliminary qualitative indication about the accuracy of the cost estimate delivered by the industry

  6. 48 CFR 1852.216-73 - Estimated cost and cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated cost and cost... and Clauses 1852.216-73 Estimated cost and cost sharing. As prescribed in 1816.307-70(a), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost and Cost Sharing (DEC 1991) (a) It is estimated that the total cost...

  7. 48 CFR 1552.216-76 - Estimated cost and cost-sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated cost and cost... 1552.216-76 Estimated cost and cost-sharing. As prescribed in 1516.307(c), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost and Cost-Sharing (APR 1996) (a) The total estimated cost of performing the work under...

  8. Cost estimate of electricity produced by TPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfinger, Günther; Bitnar, Bernd; Durisch, Wilhelm; Mayor, Jean-Claude; Grützmacher, Detlev; Gobrecht, Jens

    2003-05-01

    A crucial parameter for the market penetration of TPV is its electricity production cost. In this work a detailed cost estimate is performed for a Si photocell based TPV system, which was developed for electrically self-powered operation of a domestic heating system. The results are compared to a rough estimate of cost of electricity for a projected GaSb based system. For the calculation of the price of electricity, a lifetime of 20 years, an interest rate of 4.25% per year and maintenance costs of 1% of the investment are presumed. To determine the production cost of TPV systems with a power of 12-20 kW, the costs of the TPV components and 100 EUR kW-1el,peak for assembly and miscellaneous were estimated. Alternatively, the system cost for the GaSb system was derived from the cost of the photocells and from the assumption that they account for 35% of the total system cost. The calculation was done for four different TPV scenarios which include a Si based prototype system with existing technology (etasys = 1.0%), leading to 3000 EUR kW-1el,peak, an optimized Si based system using conventional, available technology (etasys = 1.5%), leading to 900 EUR kW-1el,peak, a further improved system with future technology (etasys = 5%), leading to 340 EUR kW-1el,peak and a GaSb based system (etasys = 12.3% with recuperator), leading to 1900 EUR kW-1el,peak. Thus, prices of electricity from 6 to 25 EURcents kWh-1el (including gas of about 3.5 EURcents kWh-1) were calculated and compared with those of fuel cells (31 EURcents kWh-1) and gas engines (23 EURcents kWh-1).

  9. Support to LANL: Cost estimation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-04

    This report summarizes the activities and progress by ICF Kaiser Engineers conducted on behalf of Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) for the US Department of Energy, Office of Waste Management (EM-33) in the area of improving methods for Cost Estimation. This work was conducted between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993. ICF Kaiser Engineers supported LANL in providing the Office of Waste Management with planning and document preparation services for a Cost and Schedule Estimating Guide (Guide). The intent of the Guide was to use Activity-Based Cost (ABC) estimation as a basic method in preparing cost estimates for DOE planning and budgeting documents, including Activity Data Sheets (ADSs), which form the basis for the Five Year Plan document. Prior to the initiation of the present contract with LANL, ICF Kaiser Engineers was tasked to initiate planning efforts directed toward a Guide. This work, accomplished from June to September, 1992, included visits to eight DOE field offices and consultation with DOE Headquarters staff to determine the need for a Guide, the desired contents of a Guide, and the types of ABC estimation methods and documentation requirements that would be compatible with current or potential practices and expertise in existence at DOE field offices and their contractors.

  10. Support to LANL: Cost estimation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the activities and progress by ICF Kaiser Engineers conducted on behalf of Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) for the US Department of Energy, Office of Waste Management (EM-33) in the area of improving methods for Cost Estimation. This work was conducted between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993. ICF Kaiser Engineers supported LANL in providing the Office of Waste Management with planning and document preparation services for a Cost and Schedule Estimating Guide (Guide). The intent of the Guide was to use Activity-Based Cost (ABC) estimation as a basic method in preparing cost estimates for DOE planning and budgeting documents, including Activity Data Sheets (ADSs), which form the basis for the Five Year Plan document. Prior to the initiation of the present contract with LANL, ICF Kaiser Engineers was tasked to initiate planning efforts directed toward a Guide. This work, accomplished from June to September, 1992, included visits to eight DOE field offices and consultation with DOE Headquarters staff to determine the need for a Guide, the desired contents of a Guide, and the types of ABC estimation methods and documentation requirements that would be compatible with current or potential practices and expertise in existence at DOE field offices and their contractors

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  12. PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT TOTAL ENCLOSURE COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...

  13. Residential outage cost estimation: Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Kong has almost perfect electricity reliability, the result of substantial investments ultimately financed by electricity consumers who may be willing to accept lower reliability in exchange for lower bills. But consumers with high outage costs are likely to reject the reliability reduction. Our ordered-logit regression analysis of the responses by 1876 households to a telephone survey conducted in June 2013 indicates that Hong Kong residents exhibit a statistically-significant preference for their existing service reliability and rate. Moreover, the average residential cost estimate for a 1-h outage is US$45 (HK$350), topping the estimates reported in 10 of the 11 studies published in the last 10 years. The policy implication is that absent additional compelling evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its service reliability. - Highlights: • Use a contingent valuation survey to obtain residential preferences for reliability. • Use an ordered logit analysis to estimate Hong Kong's residential outage costs. • Find high outage cost estimates that imply high reliability requirements. • Conclude that sans new evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its reliability

  14. Applying AHP—Based CBR to Estimate Pavement Maintenance Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jui-Sheng Chou

    2008-01-01

    The cost-efficacy control of maintenance operations in developing countries has become critical to the infrastructure asset management after highway construction.To effectively manage numerous projects annually with limited resources,it is necessary to reasonably estimate costs during the process of making maintenance project selection decisions.This study outlines the modeling of case-based reasoning (CBR) estimation that compares and retrieves the most similar instance across the case library.Four CBR ap- proaches were presented and assessed in terms of their mean absolute prediction error rates.The resulting model demonstrates the ability of estimating the pavement maintenance project costs with the satisfactory accuracy at the early stages.

  15. 48 CFR 1352.216-70 - Estimated and allowable costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Estimated and allowable costs. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1316.307(a), insert the following clause: Estimated and Allowable Costs (APR 2010) (a) Estimated Costs. The estimated cost of this contract is... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated and...

  16. Estimation of 18FDG doses's cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyclotron facility, essentially for medical use, is far from being a simple establishment of a dedicated device to accelerate particles producing a beta plus emitter radioelement. The cyclotron site encompasses more over all necessary equipments for the production and the quality control of considered radiotracer that 18FDG is just one example. This facility is subject to strict standards in terms of radiopharmaceutical production, radiation level, pressure level and airflow resulting in the production of a drug submitted to the MA (Marketing Authorization). These multiple factors directly influence the final cost of the dose that remains to be reachable by the patient. The aim of this work is to estimate the cost of a dose of 18FDG to ensure financial viability of the project while accessible to the patient. The cost of the facility will entail the following: buildings and utilities, equipment and operational cost. This calculation is possible only if we define in advance the type of cyclotron, which is bound to the market needs in particular the number of PET facilities, the number of scans per day and the radioactive decay of radioelement. Our study represents a simulation that considers some hypothesis. We assumed that the cyclotron is installed in Sousse and that the PET facilities number (positon emission tomography) is 6 in which 4 are located 2 hours away. For a PET scan, the average dose per patient is about 350 MBq (5 MBq/kg) and the exam duration is about 45 minutes. Each center performs 10 tests per day. In terms of fees, we considered device and building's cost, facility amortization, consumables (target, marking accessories), maintenance, remuneration expense and the annual electricity consumption. All our calculations have been reported to the number of working days per year. The estimates were made outside the customs duties and technical assistance that may last up to 2 years. Requirements and needs were estimated at 5.4 curies per day. For

  17. Estimating medical costs of gastroenterological diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Fang Chou

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the direct medical costs of gastroenterological diseases within the universal health insurance program among the population of local residents in Taiwan.METHODS: The data sources were the first 4 cohort datasets of 200 000 people from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taipei. The ambulatory,inpatient and pharmacy claims of the cohort in 2001 were analyzed. Besides prevalence and medical costs of diseases,both amount and costs of utilization in procedures and drugs were calculated.RESULTS: Of the cohort with 183 976 eligible people, 44.2% had ever a gastroenterological diagnosis during the year.The age group 20-39 years had the lowest prevalence rate(39.2%) while the elderly had the highest (58.4%). The prevalence rate was higher in women than in men (48.5%vs. 40.0%). Totally, 30.4% of 14 888 inpatients had ever a gastroenterological diagnosis at discharge and 18.8% of 51 359 patients at clinics of traditional Chinese medicine had such a diagnosis there. If only the principal diagnosis on each daim was considered, 16.2% of admissions, 8.0% of outpatient visits, and 10.1% of the total medical costs (8 469 909 US dollars/83 830 239 US dollars) were attributed to gastroenterological diseases. On average, 46.0 US dollars per insured person in a year were spent in treating gastroenterological diseases.Diagnostic procedures related to gastroenterological diseases accounted for 24.2% of the costs for all diagnostic procedures and 2.3% of the total medical costs. Therapeutic procedures related to gastroenterological diseases accounted for 4.5% of the costs for all therapeutic procedures and 1.3% of thetotal medical costs. Drugs related to gastroenterological diseases accounted for 7.3% of the costs for all drugs and 1.9% of the total medical costs.CONCLUSION: Gastroenterological diseases are prevalent among the population of local residents in Taiwan, account ingfor a tenth of the total medical costs. Further investigations are needed to

  18. Estimating the social costs of nitrogen pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourevitch, J.; Keeler, B.; Polasky, S.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural expansion can degrade water quality and related ecosystem services through increased export of nutrients. Such damages to water quality can negatively affect recreation, property values, and human health. While the relationship between agricultural production and nitrogen export is well-studied, the economic costs of nitrogen loss are less well understood. We present a comprehensive assessment of the full costs associated with nitrate pollution from agricultural sources in Minnesota. We found that the most significant economic costs are likely from groundwater contamination of nitrate in public and private wells. For example, we estimated that loss of grassland to corn cultivation in Minnesota between 2007 and 2012 is expected to increase the future number of domestic wells exceeding nitrate concentrations of 10 ppm by 31%. This increase in contamination is estimated to cost well owners $1.4 to 19 million (present values over a 20 year horizon) through remediation, avoidance, and replacement. Our findings demonstrate linkages between changes in land use, water quality, and human well-being.

  19. 48 CFR 1852.216-81 - Estimated cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated cost. 1852.216-81... Estimated cost. As prescribed in 1816.307-70(d), insert the following clause: Estimated cost (DEC 1988) The total estimated cost for complete performance of this contract is $ . See FAR clause 52.216-11,...

  20. 48 CFR 252.215-7002 - Cost estimating system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applied; (2) Produces verifiable, supportable, and documented cost estimates that are an acceptable basis... the cost estimating system to the ACO on a timely basis. (e) Estimating system deficiencies. (1) The... historical costs, and other analyses used to generate cost estimates. (b) General. The Contractor...

  1. A Pragmatic Approach to Product Costing Based on Standard Time Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yuan-yuan; HAN Wen-xiu; DU Jun

    2001-01-01

    The major drawbacks of traditional approaches to product costing include lack of manufacturing knowledge, reliance on the detailed design description, poor cost function approximation and inability to update estimation algorithms by using actual cost data. Adopting the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) concept and based on estimated processing time, this paper proposes a pragmatic approach to product costing. The approach involves two stages, namely the preparatory stage and the estimation stage. A case study conducted in a refrigerator company is reported.

  2. Estimation of traffic accident costs: a prompted model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Rokhshad; Shamsudin, Mad Nasir; Radam, Alias; Rahim, Khalid Abdul; Ibrahim, Zelina Zaitun; Yazdani, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Traffic accidents are the reason for 25% of unnatural deaths in Iran. The main objective of this study is to find a simple model for the estimation of economic costs especially in Islamic countries (like Iran) in a straightforward manner. The model can show the magnitude of traffic accident costs with monetary equivalent. Data were collected from different sources that included traffic police records, insurance companies and hospitals. The conceptual framework, in our study, was based on the method of Ayati. He used this method for the estimation of economic costs in Iran. We promoted his method via minimum variables. Our final model has only three available variables which can be taken from insurance companies and police records. The running model showed that the traffic accident costs were US$2.2 million in 2007 for our case study route.

  3. AES, Automated Construction Cost Estimation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A - Description of program or function: AES (Automated Estimating System) enters and updates the detailed cost, schedule, contingency, and escalation information contained in a typical construction or other project cost estimates. It combines this information to calculate both un-escalated and escalated and cash flow values for the project. These costs can be reported at varying levels of detail. AES differs from previous versions in at least the following ways: The schedule is entered at the WBS-Participant, Activity level - multiple activities can be assigned to each WBS-Participant combination; the spending curve is defined at the schedule activity level and a weighing factor is defined which determines percentage of cost for the WBS-Participant applied to the schedule activity; Schedule by days instead of Fiscal Year/Quarter; Sales Tax is applied at the Line Item Level- a sales tax codes is selected to indicate Material, Large Single Item, or Professional Services; a 'data filter' has been added to allow user to define data the report is to be generated for. B - Method of solution: Average Escalation Rate: The average escalation for a Bill of is calculated in three steps. 1. A table of quarterly escalation factors is calculated based on the base fiscal year and quarter of the project entered in the estimate record and the annual escalation rates entered in the Standard Value File. 2. The percentage distribution of costs by quarter for the Bill of Material is calculated based on the schedule entered and the curve type. 3. The percent in each fiscal year and quarter in the distribution is multiplied by the escalation factor for the fiscal year and quarter. The sum of these results is the average escalation rate for that Bill of Material. Schedule by curve: The allocation of costs to specific time periods is dependent on three inputs, starting schedule date, ending schedule date, and the percentage of costs allocated to each quarter. Contingency Analysis: The

  4. A case-control study to estimate the effects of acute clinical infection with the Schmallenberg virus on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in Swiss dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, M; Lechner, I; Aebi, M; Vögtlin, A; Posthaus, H; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was first detected in Switzerland in July 2012 and many Swiss dairy farmers reported acute clinical signs in dairy cattle during the spread of the virus until December 2012. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of an acute infection with SBV on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in dairy farms with clinical signs of SBV infection (case farms), and to compare those farms to a matched control group of dairy farms in which cattle did not show clinical signs of SBV infection. Herd size was significantly (pcase farms (33 cows, n=77) than in control farms (25 cows, n=84). Within case herds, 14.8% (median) of the cows showed acute clinical signs. Managers from case farms indicated to have observed a higher abortion rate during the year with SBV (6.5%) than in the previous year (3.7%). Analysis of fertility parameters based on veterinary bills and data from the breeding associations showed no significant differences between case and control farms. The general veterinary costs per cow from July to December 2012 were significantly higher (p=0.02) in case (CHF 19.80; EUR 16.50) than in control farms (CHF 15.90; EUR 13.25). No differences in milk yield were found between groups, but there was a significant decrease in milk production in case farms in the second half year in 2012 compared to the same period in 2011 (pclinical signs (n=461) were treated by a veterinarian. The average calculated loss after SBV infection for a standardized farm was CHF 1606 (EUR 1338), which can be considered as low at the national level, but the losses were subject to great fluctuations between farms, so that individual farms could have very high losses (>CHF 10,000, EUR 8333).

  5. Fuel Cost Estimation for Sumatra Grid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liun, Edwaren

    2010-06-01

    Sumatra has a high growth rate electricity energy demand from the first decade in this century. At the medium of this decade the growth is 11% per annum. On the other side capability of Government of Indonesia cq. PLN authority is limited, while many and most old existing power plants will be retired. The electricity demand growth of Sumatra is increasing the fuel consumption for several next decades. Based on several cases by vary growth scenarios and economic parameters, it shown that some kinds of fossil fuel keep to be required until next several decades. Although Sumatra has abundant coal resource, however, the other fuel types such as fuel oil, diesel, gas and nuclear are needed. On the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%, the Sumatra System will require 11.6 million tones of coal until 2030 producing 866 TWh with cost of US10558 million. Nuclear plants produce about 501 TWh or 32% by cost of US3.1 billion. On the High Scenario and discount rate 10%, the coal consumption becomes 486.6 million tones by fuel cost of US12.7 billion producing 1033 TWh electricity energy. Nuclear fuel cost required in this scenario is US7.06 billion. The other fuel in large amount consumed is natural gas for combined cycle plants by cost of US1.38 billion producing 11.7 TWh of electricity energy on the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%. In the High Scenario and discount rate 10% coal plants take role in power generation in Sumatra producing about 866 TWh or 54% of electricity energy. Coal consumption will be the highest on the Base Scenario with discount rate of 12% producing 756 TWh and required cost of US17.1 billion. Nuclear plants will not applicable in this scenario due to its un-competitiveness. The fuel cost will depend on nuclear power role in Sumatra system. Fuel cost will increase correspond to the increasing of coal consumption on the case where nuclear power plants not appear.

  6. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-29

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  7. A Framework for Statewide Analysis of Site Suitability, Energy Estimation, Life Cycle Costs, Financial Feasibility and Environmental Assessment of Wind Farms: A Case Study of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Indraneel

    In the last decade, Midwestern states including Indiana have experienced an unprecedented growth in utility scale wind energy farms. For example, by end of 2013, Indiana had 1.5 GW of wind turbines installed, which could provide electrical energy for as many as half-a-million homes. However, there is no statewide systematic framework available for the evaluation of wind farm impacts on endangered species, required necessary setbacks and proximity standards to infrastructure, and life cycle costs. This research is guided to fill that gap and it addresses the following questions. How much land is suitable for wind farm siting in Indiana given the constraints of environmental, ecological, cultural, settlement, physical infrastructure and wind resource parameters? How much wind energy can be obtained? What are the life cycle costs and economic and financial feasibility? Is wind energy production and development in a state an emission free undertaking? The framework developed in the study is applied to a case study of Indiana. A fuzzy logic based AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) spatial site suitability analysis for wind energy is formulated. The magnitude of wind energy that could be sited and installed comprises input for economic and financial feasibility analysis for 20-25 years life cycle of wind turbines in Indiana. Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for uncertainty and nonlinearity in various costs and price parameters. Impacts of incentives and cost variables such as production tax credits, costs of capital, and economies of scale are assessed. Further, an economic input-output (IO) based environmental assessment model is developed for wind energy, where costs from financial feasibility analysis constitute the final demand vectors. This customized model for Indiana is used to assess emissions for criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) across life cycle events of wind turbines. The findings of the case study include

  8. Statistical Cost Estimation in Higher Education: Some Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Paul T.; Niwa, Shelley

    Recent developments in econometrics that are relevant to the task of estimating costs in higher education are reviewed. The relative effectiveness of alternative statistical procedures for estimating costs are also tested. Statistical cost estimation involves three basic parts: a model, a data set, and an estimation procedure. Actual data are used…

  9. 28 CFR 19.4 - Cost and percentage estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and percentage estimates. 19.4... RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 19.4 Cost and percentage estimates. It is estimated that this program will cost DOJ $78,000 during the initial year. This figure is based on estimates of printing, inserting,...

  10. Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application, client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These inaccurate estimations lead to late delivery, less profit or in worst case complete failure. Software requirement gathering, development, maintenance, quality assurance and cost of poor quality are major groups responsible for overall cost in software production process. The exact proportion among them varies significantly in consecutive software releases, which is caused by many factors. The ever increasing need for the reliability of the software systems, especially mission critical applications in the public safety domain, raises the bar for the accuracy of prediction and estimation techniques. The accuracy of estimations in many areas brings about more concerns regarding techniques already used in the software industry. Widely deployed techniques, such as Wideband Delphi method, stress the engineering and technical aspects of the process of how estimates are prepared.

  11. An Approach to Cost Estimation of Steel Products by Using Case-Based Reasoning%一种基于实例推理的钢铁产品成本估算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓冰; 王雅君; 蒙秋男; 张哲

    2009-01-01

    Because of customization and complexity of production processes for steel products,it lacks effective method to estimate production cost of steel products. By analyzing the production processes,activities are identified. With the activities identified,method is developed to describe cases and case-base is designed. Then,algorithms for case retrieving,case modification,and learning are presented. Based on the case-base and the algorithms,a case-based reasoning (CBR) approach is proposed to estimate production cost of steel products. It is implemented in a steel company.%针对钢铁企业生产过程复杂和现有定制产品的成本估算方法存在的缺陷和不足,提出了基于实例推理技术的钢铁产品成本估算方法,分析了钢铁产品生产流程,据此认定了钢铁产品生产过程中的各项作业.详细阐述了实例库中实例的描述方法和实例库的组织结构,给出了实例匹配检索算法、实例调整和学习评价,并以在某钢铁企业的实际工程应用进行了验证说明.

  12. Estimating Military Aircraft Cost Using Least Squares Support Vector Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jia-yuan; ZHANG Xi-bin; ZHANG Heng-xi; REN Bo

    2004-01-01

    A multi-layer adaptive optimizing parameters algorithm is developed for improving least squares support vector machines(LS-SVM),and a military aircraft life-cycle-cost(LCC)intelligent estimation model is proposed based on the improved LS-SVM.The intelligent cost estimation process is divided into three steps in the model.In the first step,a cost-drive-factor needs to be selected,which is significant for cost estimation.In the second step,military aircraft training samples within costs and cost-drive-factor set are obtained by the LS-SVM.Then the model can be used for new type aircraft cost estimation.Chinese military aircraft costs are estimated in the paper.The results show that the estimated costs by the new model are closer to the true costs than that of the traditionally used methods.

  13. Estimated Annual Maintenance Costs for Educational Facilities in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    Global estimated annual costs for undertaking basic maintenance of all educational facilities in Eritrea.......Global estimated annual costs for undertaking basic maintenance of all educational facilities in Eritrea....

  14. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  15. Development of a simple estimation tool for LMFBR construction cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Izumi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab

    1999-05-01

    A simple tool for estimating the construction costs of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), 'Simple Cost' was developed in this study. Simple Cost is based on a new estimation formula that can reduce the amount of design data required to estimate construction costs. Consequently, Simple cost can be used to estimate the construction costs of innovative LMFBR concepts for which detailed design has not been carried out. The results of test calculation show that Simple Cost provides cost estimations equivalent to those obtained with conventional methods within the range of plant power from 325 to 1500 MWe. Sensitivity analyses for typical design parameters were conducted using Simple Cost. The effects of four major parameters - reactor vessel diameter, core outlet temperature, sodium handling area and number of secondary loops - on the construction costs of LMFBRs were evaluated quantitatively. The results show that the reduction of sodium handling area is particularly effective in reducing construction costs. (author)

  16. Estimation of immunization providers' activities cost, medication cost, and immunization dose errors cost in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-lela, Omer Qutaiba B; Bahari, Mohd Baidi; Al-abbassi, Mustafa G; Salih, Muhannad R M; Basher, Amena Y

    2012-06-01

    The immunization status of children is improved by interventions that increase community demand for compulsory and non-compulsory vaccines, one of the most important interventions related to immunization providers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activities of immunization providers in terms of activities time and cost, to calculate the immunization doses cost, and to determine the immunization dose errors cost. Time-motion and cost analysis study design was used. Five public health clinics in Mosul-Iraq participated in the study. Fifty (50) vaccine doses were required to estimate activities time and cost. Micro-costing method was used; time and cost data were collected for each immunization-related activity performed by the clinic staff. A stopwatch was used to measure the duration of activity interactions between the parents and clinic staff. The immunization service cost was calculated by multiplying the average salary/min by activity time per minute. 528 immunization cards of Iraqi children were scanned to determine the number and the cost of immunization doses errors (extraimmunization doses and invalid doses). The average time for child registration was 6.7 min per each immunization dose, and the physician spent more than 10 min per dose. Nurses needed more than 5 min to complete child vaccination. The total cost of immunization activities was 1.67 US$ per each immunization dose. Measles vaccine (fifth dose) has a lower price (0.42 US$) than all other immunization doses. The cost of a total of 288 invalid doses was 744.55 US$ and the cost of a total of 195 extra immunization doses was 503.85 US$. The time spent on physicians' activities was longer than that spent on registrars' and nurses' activities. Physician total cost was higher than registrar cost and nurse cost. The total immunization cost will increase by about 13.3% owing to dose errors.

  17. Estimation of immunization providers' activities cost, medication cost, and immunization dose errors cost in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-lela, Omer Qutaiba B; Bahari, Mohd Baidi; Al-abbassi, Mustafa G; Salih, Muhannad R M; Basher, Amena Y

    2012-06-01

    The immunization status of children is improved by interventions that increase community demand for compulsory and non-compulsory vaccines, one of the most important interventions related to immunization providers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activities of immunization providers in terms of activities time and cost, to calculate the immunization doses cost, and to determine the immunization dose errors cost. Time-motion and cost analysis study design was used. Five public health clinics in Mosul-Iraq participated in the study. Fifty (50) vaccine doses were required to estimate activities time and cost. Micro-costing method was used; time and cost data were collected for each immunization-related activity performed by the clinic staff. A stopwatch was used to measure the duration of activity interactions between the parents and clinic staff. The immunization service cost was calculated by multiplying the average salary/min by activity time per minute. 528 immunization cards of Iraqi children were scanned to determine the number and the cost of immunization doses errors (extraimmunization doses and invalid doses). The average time for child registration was 6.7 min per each immunization dose, and the physician spent more than 10 min per dose. Nurses needed more than 5 min to complete child vaccination. The total cost of immunization activities was 1.67 US$ per each immunization dose. Measles vaccine (fifth dose) has a lower price (0.42 US$) than all other immunization doses. The cost of a total of 288 invalid doses was 744.55 US$ and the cost of a total of 195 extra immunization doses was 503.85 US$. The time spent on physicians' activities was longer than that spent on registrars' and nurses' activities. Physician total cost was higher than registrar cost and nurse cost. The total immunization cost will increase by about 13.3% owing to dose errors. PMID:22521848

  18. 40 CFR 267.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate for closure. 267.142... PERMIT Financial Requirements § 267.142 Cost estimate for closure. (a) The owner or operator must have at the facility a detailed written estimate, in current dollars, of the cost of closing the facility...

  19. 40 CFR 265.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate for closure. 265.142... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Financial Requirements § 265.142 Cost estimate for closure. (a) The owner or operator must have a detailed written estimate, in current dollars, of the cost of closing the facility...

  20. 40 CFR 264.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate for closure. 264.142... Financial Requirements § 264.142 Cost estimate for closure. (a) The owner or operator must have a detailed written estimate, in current dollars, of the cost of closing the facility in accordance with...

  1. A generic framework for cost estimation and cost control in product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weustink, I.F.; Brinke, ten E.; Streppel, A.H.; Kals, H.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, cost estimation was performed after the design process, though most opportunities of cost reduction have already passed. Therefore, it is advantageous to be able to estimate the product costs early in the product development cycle. By changing the way cost estimation is dealt with, it

  2. IDC RP2 & 3 US Industry Standard Cost Estimate Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, using a commercial software cost estimation tool calibrated to US industry performance parameters. This is not a cost estimate for Sandia to perform the project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  3. 15 CFR 23.4 - Cost and percentage estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and percentage estimates. 23.4... LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 23.4 Cost and percentage estimates. It is estimated that this... estimate that 9% of its penalty mail will transmit missing children photographs and information when...

  4. Cost estimations for deep disposal of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    a deep repository. The subsequent main study comprised a cost estimate based on the findings of the feasibility study. In conducting the study, BERGAB hired PEAB Berg AB as a subcontractor to perform the calculations. An important part of the study was to closely study the cost of variations in the deep repository concept relating to an alternative repository layout, disposal method, site, time-schedule etc. This report is a summary of the feasibility study and the main study which confirmed BERGAB/PEAB's evaluation of SKB's cost estimate. On the basis of SKB's reference scenario in SKB PLAN 98 and the calculation based on this scenario, BERGAB/PEAB has reached the conclusion that it is possible to site, construct and operate a deep repository for the spent nuclear fuel within the framework of the total cost that SKB has estimated. The results of BERGAB/PEAB's evaluation shows that their estimate is about 4 % or SEK 500 million lower than SKB's estimate. However, the evaluation of the individual underlying items in the estimate shows considerable differences in SKB's and BERGAB/PEAB's calculations, which should be explained and investigated in detail by SKB. Some of the findings of BERGAB/PEAB's study are summarized: descriptions and background data concerning the content of the different items in the cost estimate were found to be very difficult to penetrate due to the lack of clarity concerning the costs which SKB assigned to the different items. One condition which should be fulfilled in order for SKI to form an opinion of the accuracy of the cost estimate submitted by SKB every year is that the calculations can be presented to SKI in a comprehensible and accessible manner. In its reference case, BERGAB/PEAB concludes that a larger site investigation area is required, compared with that postulated by SKB. BERGAB/PEAB's assumptions are based on the reports that SKB itself refers to in its background reports for site investigations. Similarly, both the transport

  5. Cost of equity estimation techniques used by valuation experts

    OpenAIRE

    Kolouchová, Petra; Novák, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Cost of equity is crucial information that enters business valuation. Yet, even after decades of academic research, consensus has not been reached regarding the appropriate cost of equity estimation. The aim of our paper is to investigate the cost of equity estimation in practice. In other words, we aim to provide data on the popularity of individual cost of equity models and evidence on what techniques are used for the estimation of parameters entering the models. For this purpose, we use a ...

  6. Lifetime costs of lung transplantation : Estimation of incremental costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanEnckevort, PJ; Koopmanschap, MA; Tenvergert, EM; VanderBij, W; Rutten, FFH

    1997-01-01

    Despite an expanding number of centres which provide lung transplantation, information about the incremental costs of lung transplantation is scarce. From 1991 until 1995, in The Netherlands a technology assessment was performed which provided information about the incremental costs of lung transpla

  7. AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

    2012-01-30

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  8. An Overview Of Tool For Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel(regsign) workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  9. Thorium fuel cycle studies: fuel fabrication process and cost estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early in 1976 a study was made to assess the relative economics and fuel utilization of thorium and uranium fuel cycles in various types of reactors. It was to be completed in approximately two months, so all component parts had to be developed in a short time with a high degree of dependence on existing information. One of the components required for the study was a consistent set of relatively accurate fuel fabrication costs for the various reactor-fuel combinations. A report documents the rationale used in generating these cost estimates and presents in some detail the basis and methodology employed. Since three types of thermal flux reactors (LWR, HWR, and HTGR) and two types of fast flux reactors (liquid metal and gas cooled) together with three fuel forms (oxides, carbides, and metal) were included in the study with various combinations of the fissionable metals U, Th, and Pu, it was necessary to define a methodology that would permit a rapid relative estimate for each case. Existing cost studies were chosen for a Light-Water Reactor with low-enriched uranium fuel and for a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with highly enriched uranium and thorium fuel as the reference cases which could be compared with other reactor-fuel combinations

  10. Modern practice of cost estimates for the NPP units decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of analysis of current practices of cost estimates for decommissioning of nuclear power units with different reactor types present is reviewed. Cost estimates intervals are shown for decommissioning of units with PWR,BWR and AP1000 reactors and the main factors influencing the cost amount are analyzed

  11. Assuring Software Cost Estimates: Is it an Oxymoron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihn, Jarius; Tregre, Grant

    2013-01-01

    The software industry repeatedly observes cost growth of well over 100% even after decades of cost estimation research and well-known best practices, so "What's the problem?" In this paper we will provide an overview of the current state oj software cost estimation best practice. We then explore whether applying some of the methods used in software assurance might improve the quality of software cost estimates. This paper especially focuses on issues associated with model calibration, estimate review, and the development and documentation of estimates as part alan integrated plan.

  12. BIM-Based Cost Estimation/ Monitoring For Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Elbeltagi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Proper Cost Estimate, Monitor and Control (CEM&C are vital for the success of construction projects. Starting from preliminary design to project closing, CEM&C progressively becomes more complex and challenging. Visualization can add another dimension to monitor and control where major deviations can be visually detected and analyzed. However, literature related to visualization in construction and integrating it with cost control is still in its early stages. Building Information Modeling (BIM can have promising impact in that domain. In this paper, a comprehensive cost estimating and monitoring model is presented. The model is integrated with BIM to provide the user with the capability of visualizing actual cost expended in different building elements and compare it with that budgeted at different time intervals. It provides construction practitioners with vital data that help them in taking appropriate corrective actions in case of any deviation from the budget. An example application is presented to demonstrate the capability and applicability of the model.

  13. 48 CFR 36.203 - Government estimate of construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... simplified acquisition threshold. The contracting officer may require an estimate when the cost of required... the associated cost breakdown figures in the Government estimate, but only to the extent deemed... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government estimate...

  14. A generic tool for cost estimating in aircraft design

    OpenAIRE

    Castagne, S.; Curran, R.; Rothwell, A.; Price, M.; Benard, E.; Raghunathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    A methodology to estimate the cost implications of design decisions by integrating cost as a design parameter at an early design stage is presented. The model is developed on a hierarchical basis, the manufacturing cost of aircraft fuselage panels being analysed in this paper. The manufacturing cost modelling is original and relies on a genetic-causal method where the drivers of each element of cost are identified relative to the process capability. The cost model is then extended to life cyc...

  15. Estimation of the social costs of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Lemon, J.R.

    1979-12-01

    This study determines the extent to which it is possible to develop monetary estimates of the marginal social cost of fuels, using natural gas to test a methodology that could be applied to other fuels. This requires review of previous estimates of both market and nonmarket costs to the extent that such are available. For some components of social cost, calculation of estimates from secondary data is required. The feasibility of using these estimates to develop marginal social-cost estimates for the country and for states or regions must then be evaluated. In order to develop estimates of marginal social cost for use in determining minimum life-cycle costs of building space conditioning, economic theory is used to develop a conceptual model of the market cost of fuel extraction and conversion. Then, estimation methodologies for each component of nonmarket costs are examined to assess the applicability and validity of each methodology. On the basis of this analysis, empirical estimates of both market and nonmarket components of social cost are aggregated to calculate a social-cost estimate for natural gas. 38 references.

  16. Estimating the costs of AECB regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive analysis of the costs to the Canadian nuclear industry of the present Atomic Energy Control Board regulatory activities was carried out to provide a framework for a socio-economic impact analysis of AECB regulations. Regulaory costs in uranium mining and milling, fuel fabrication, power generation, the nuclear fuel cycle as a whole, and radioisotope use are studied. The cost of safety measures which industry would still undertake in the absence of government regulations ('prudent operator' costs) are not included. (L.L.)

  17. Aircraft bi-level life cycle cost estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curan, R.

    2015-01-01

    n an integrated aircraft design and analysis practice, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is essential for decision making. The LCC of an aircraft is ordinarily partially estimated by emphasizing a specific cost type. However, an overview of the LCC including design and development cost, production cost, operati

  18. A generic tool for cost estimating in aircraft design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castagne, S.; Curran, R.; Rothwell, A.; Price, M.; Benard, E.; Raghunathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    A methodology to estimate the cost implications of design decisions by integrating cost as a design parameter at an early design stage is presented. The model is developed on a hierarchical basis, the manufacturing cost of aircraft fuselage panels being analysed in this paper. The manufacturing cost

  19. Space tug economic analysis study. Volume 3: Cost estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Cost estimates for the space tug operation are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) research and development costs, (2) investment costs, (3) operations costs, and (4) funding requirements. The emphasis is placed on the single stage tug configuration using various types of liquid propellants.

  20. 28 CFR 100.16 - Cost estimate submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... utilized in the carrier's efforts to meet CALEA requirements. (v) Other costs. List all other costs not... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate submission. 100.16 Section 100.16 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY...

  1. Estimating the costs of AECB regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to answer questions relating to the feasibility of determining costs imposed by regulatory activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board, and to provide a conceptual and methodological framework for an actual cost study of existing AECB requirments. (L.L.)

  2. Long-term costs of inflated self-estimate on academic performance among adolescent students: a case of second-language achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu-Li; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Past studies suggest that the adaptive or maladaptive consequences of inflated self-estimate, one form of positive illusions, require further investigation. 308 freshmen at a junior college (164 women, 144 men; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.1) participated in a longitudinal study during a 2-yr. period. There were three assessments of short- and long-term effects of overly positive self-estimates on second-language achievement. Students' overestimation of subsequent performance appears to be associated with lower achievement. Those students with apparently inflated self-estimates performed marginally better on the first assessment but worse in the second and final assessments. Students with more accurate self-estimates showed improvement on all assessments. The findings suggested that overinflated self-estimates, i.e., positive illusions, among adolescent students might lead to a lower achievement over the long-term.

  3. Product Assembly Cost Estimation Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for assembly cost estimation in actual manufacture during the design phase using artificial neural networks (ANN). It can support the de signers in cost effectiveness, then help to control the total cost. The method was used in the assembly cost estimation of the crucial parts of some railway stock products. As a compari son, we use the linear regression (LR) model in the same field. The result shows that ANN model performs better than the LR model in assembly cost estimation.

  4. Cost estimating relationships for nuclear power plant operationa and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revised cost estimating relationships for 1987 are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for light-water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants, which update guidelines published previously in 1982. The purpose of these cost estimating relationships is for use in long range planning and evaluations of the economics of nuclear energy for electric power generation. A listing of a computer program, LWROM, implementing the cost estimating relationships and written in advanced BASIC for IBM personal computers, is included

  5. Pros, Cons, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and cons of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.

  6. General Approach and Element for Estimating Decommissioning Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will briefly introduce the general approach and element for developing the decommissioning cost. The ultimate objective of the estimate is to assure adequate funding for decommissioning. The decommissioning cost estimating is highly dependent on the strategies and cost methodologies. The method most widely adopted internationally in estimating is the bottom-up technique, based on a building block approach known as the WBS. Therefore, cost estimator should consider various approaches and elements of cost estimation to achieve the ascension of accuracy. Cost estimation for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities has tended to vary considerably in format and content reflecting a variety of approaches both within and between countries. These differences do not facilitate the process of reviewing estimates and make comparisons between different estimates more complicated. The joint study of OECD/NEA, IAEA and EU was undertaken to propose a standard itemization of decommissioning costs either directly for the production of cost estimates or for mapping estimates onto a standard, common structure for purposes of comparison

  7. A new approach for product cost estimation using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Salam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation of new products has always been difficult as only few design, manufacturing and operational features will be known. In these situations, parametric or non-parametric methods are commonly used to estimate the cost of a product given the corresponding cost drivers. The parametric models use priori determined cost function where the parameters of the function are evaluated from historical data. Non-parametric methods, on the other hand, attempt to fit curves to the historic data without predetermined function. In both methods, it is assumed that the historic data used in the analysis is a true representation of the relation between the cost drivers and the corresponding costs. However, because of efficiency variations of the manufacturers and suppliers, changes in supplier selections, market fluctuations, and several other reasons, certain costs in the historic data may be too high whereas other costs may represent better deals for their corresponding cost drivers. Thus, it may be important to rank the historic data and identify benchmarks and estimate the target costs of the product based on these benchmarks. In this paper, a novel adaptation of cost drivers and cost data is introduced in order to use data envelopment analysis for the purpose of ranking cost data and identify benchmarks, and then estimate the target costs of a new product based on these benchmarks. An illustrative case study has been presented for the cost estimation of landing gears of an aircraft manufactured by an aerospace company located in Montreal, CANADA.

  8. Satellite servicing mission preliminary cost estimation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The cost model presented is a preliminary methodology for determining a rough order-of-magnitude cost for implementing a satellite servicing mission. Mission implementation, in this context, encompassess all activities associated with mission design and planning, including both flight and ground crew training and systems integration (payload processing) of servicing hardward with the Shuttle. A basic assumption made in developing this cost model is that a generic set of servicing hardware was developed and flight tested, is inventoried, and is maintained by NASA. This implies that all hardware physical and functional interfaces are well known and therefore recurring CITE testing is not required. The development of the cost model algorithms and examples of their use are discussed.

  9. Handbook for cost estimating. A method for developing estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides overall guidance to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required by the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines and to assist in the assignment of priorities in resolving generic safety issues. The Handbook presents an overall cost model that allows the cost analyst to develop a chronological series of activities needed to implement a specific regulatory requirement throughout all applicable commercial LWR power plants and to identify the significant cost elements for each activity. References to available cost data are provided along with rules of thumb and cost factors to assist in evaluating each cost element. A suitable code-of-accounts data base is presented to assist in organizing and aggregating costs. Rudimentary cost analysis methods are described to allow the analyst to produce a constant-dollar, lifetime cost for the requirement. A step-by-step example cost estimate is included to demonstrate the overall use of the Handbook

  10. A Survey of Cost Estimating Methodologies for Distributed Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Veronica; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; de Weck, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Satellite constellations present unique capabilities and opportunities to Earth orbiting and near-Earth scientific and communications missions, but also present new challenges to cost estimators. An effective and adaptive cost model is essential to successful mission design and implementation, and as Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM) become more common, cost estimating tools must become more representative of these types of designs. Existing cost models often focus on a single spacecraft and require extensive design knowledge to produce high fidelity estimates. Previous research has examined the shortcomings of existing cost practices as they pertain to the early stages of mission formulation, for both individual satellites and small satellite constellations. Recommendations have been made for how to improve the cost models for individual satellites one-at-a-time, but much of the complexity in constellation and DSM cost modeling arises from constellation systems level considerations that have not yet been examined. This paper constitutes a survey of the current state-of-the-art in cost estimating techniques with recommendations for improvements to increase the fidelity of future constellation cost estimates. To enable our investigation, we have developed a cost estimating tool for constellation missions. The development of this tool has revealed three high-priority weaknesses within existing parametric cost estimating capabilities as they pertain to DSM architectures: design iteration, integration and test, and mission operations. Within this paper we offer illustrative examples of these discrepancies and make preliminary recommendations for addressing them. DSM and satellite constellation missions are shifting the paradigm of space-based remote sensing, showing promise in the realms of Earth science, planetary observation, and various heliophysical applications. To fully reap the benefits of DSM technology, accurate and relevant cost estimating capabilities

  11. Estimated SW Costing by using FPA in Early Phase of SW Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Amber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Costing of software is a critical activity that is performed by project manager or in some case by Business analyst. Projects are overrun due to erroneous estimation and budget. Therefore, its result is the cancellation or failure of in time project delivery. SW costing is done according to size, effort and schedule (time. These parameter has been changed throughout in the development cycle therefore it is difficult to measure exact/actual cost at the starting of the sw development. Actual software costing depends on the right estimated cost of project that should be estimated at early phases of SDLC. This research focus on the methodologies that can help to estimate right costing on the basis of functional requirements of the project during early phases of SW development. A survey is performed that make sure that how software estimation can be done in early stage of software development

  12. The Practice of Cost Estimation for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of both commercial and R and D nuclear facilities is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, and the largest of such industrial decommissioning projects could command considerable budgets. Several approaches are currently being used for decommissioning cost estimations, with an international culture developing in the field. The present cost estimation practice guide was prepared in order to offer international actors specific guidance in preparing quality cost and schedule estimates to support detailed budgeting for the preparation of decommissioning plans, for the securing of funds and for decommissioning implementation. This guide is based on current practices and standards in a number of NEA member countries and aims to help consolidate the practice and process of decommissioning cost estimation so as to make it more widely understood. It offers a useful reference for the practitioner and for training programmes. The remainder of report is divided into the following chapters: - Chapter 2 covers the purpose and nature of decommissioning cost estimates, approaches to cost estimation and the major elements of a cost estimate. - Chapter 3 examines the development of the integrated schedule of the activity-dependent work scope and the determination of the project critical path. - Chapter 4 describes the attributes of a quality assurance programme applicable to cost estimation and the use and cautions of benchmarking the estimate from other estimates or actual costs. - Chapter 5 describes the pyramidal structure of the report, and the scope and content that should be included in the cost study report to ensure consistency and transparency in the estimate underpinnings. - Chapter 6 provides some observations, conclusions and recommendations on the use of this guide

  13. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs

  14. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  15. 48 CFR 1336.203 - Government estimate of construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government estimate of construction costs. 1336.203 Section 1336.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Contracting for Construction 1336.203 Government estimate of construction costs. After award, the...

  16. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies

  17. Standardized cost estimation for new technology (SCENT) - methodology and tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ereev, S.Y.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a methodology and tool (called SCENT) to prepare preliminary economic estimates of the total production costs related to manufacturing in the process industries. The methodology uses the factorial approach – cost objects are estimated using factors and percenta

  18. Monitored Geologic Repository Life Cycle Cost Estimate Assumptions Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA), License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance

  19. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE ASSUMPTIONS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost (LCC) estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA) , License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance

  20. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  1. Estimating management costs of protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Jonathan M.H.; Burgess, Neil David; Green, Rhys E.;

    2012-01-01

    Despite chronic underfunding for conservation and the recognition that funds must be invested wisely, few studies have analysed the direct costs of managing protected areas at the spatial scales needed to inform local site management. Using a questionnaire survey we collected data from protected ...

  2. Computerized cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated approach to performing and cataloging cost estimates has been developed at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), wherein the cost estimate record is stored in the LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet on an IBM personal computer. The cost estimation spreadsheet is based on the cost coefficient/cost algorithm approach and incorporates a detailed generic code of cost accounts for both tokamak and tandem mirror devices. Component design parameters (weight, surface area, etc.) and cost factors are input, and direct and indirect costs are calculated. The cost data base file derived from actual cost experience within the fusion community and refined to be compatible with the spreadsheet costing approach is a catalog of cost coefficients, algorithms, and component costs arranged into data modules corresponding to specific components and/or subsystems. Each data module contains engineering, equipment, and installation labor cost data for different configurations and types of the specific component or subsystem. This paper describes the assumptions, definitions, methodology, and architecture incorporated in the development of the cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base, along with the type of input required and the output format

  3. On the estimation of hospital cost: the approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kurup, Hari K K

    2010-01-01

    There has been a huge interest during the last decade on modelling hospital cost. Now that there is a fare amount of clarity achieved in estimating cost functions of hospitals, it is time to take stock of the existing methodologies. This article through a brief review of the past studies attempts to bring to light the issues and methodology related to cost estimation in health care provision, keeping in mind the increasing interest towards health insurance in developing countries. These inclu...

  4. How Many Bucks in a Bang: On the Estimation of the Economic Costs of Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Olaf J. de Groot; Brück, Tilman; Bozzoli, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of the costs of conflict is currently receiving a lot of attention in the literature. This paper aims to give a thorough overview of the existing literature, first by addressing the history of case studies that address conflict costs and second by looking at the existing body of cross-country analyses for conflict costs. In addition to the existing cross-country literature, a number of studies that only concern themselves with particular elements of conflict costs are included ...

  5. Development of computer program for estimating decommissioning cost - 59037

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programs for estimating the decommissioning cost have been developed for many different purposes and applications. The estimation of decommissioning cost is required a large amount of data such as unit cost factors, plant area and its inventory, waste treatment, etc. These make it difficult to use manual calculation or typical spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel. The cost estimation for eventual decommissioning of nuclear power plants is a prerequisite for safe, timely and cost-effective decommissioning. To estimate the decommissioning cost more accurately and systematically, KHNP, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd, developed a decommissioning cost estimating computer program called 'DeCAT-Pro', which is Decommission-ing Cost Assessment Tool - Professional. (Hereinafter called 'DeCAT') This program allows users to easily assess the decommissioning cost with various decommissioning options. Also, this program provides detailed reporting for decommissioning funding requirements as well as providing detail project schedules, cash-flow, staffing plan and levels, and waste volumes by waste classifications and types. KHNP is planning to implement functions for estimating the plant inventory using 3-D technology and for classifying the conditions of radwaste disposal and transportation automatically. (authors)

  6. Nuclear fuel fabrication and refabrication cost estimation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Olsen, A.R.

    1979-11-01

    The costs for construction and operation of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities for several reactor types and fuels were estimated, and the unit costs (prices) of the fuels were determined from these estimates. The techniques used in estimating the costs of building and operating these nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are described in this report. Basically, the estimation techniques involve detailed comparisons of alternative and reference fuel fabrication plants. Increases or decreases in requirements for fabricating the alternative fuels are identified and assessed for their impact on the capital and operating costs. The impact on costs due to facility size or capacity was also assessed, and scaling factors for the various captial and operating cost categories are presented. The method and rationale by which these scaling factors were obtained are also discussed. By use of the techniques described herein, consistent cost information for a wide variety of fuel types can be obtained in a relatively short period of time. In this study, estimates for 52 fuel fabrication plants were obtained in approximately two months. These cost estimates were extensively reviewed by experts in the fabrication of the various fuels, and, in the opinion of the reviewers, the estimates were very consistent and sufficiently accurate for use in overall cycle assessments.

  7. Nuclear fuel fabrication and refabrication cost estimation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The costs for construction and operation of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities for several reactor types and fuels were estimated, and the unit costs (prices) of the fuels were determined from these estimates. The techniques used in estimating the costs of building and operating these nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are described in this report. Basically, the estimation techniques involve detailed comparisons of alternative and reference fuel fabrication plants. Increases or decreases in requirements for fabricating the alternative fuels are identified and assessed for their impact on the capital and operating costs. The impact on costs due to facility size or capacity was also assessed, and scaling factors for the various captial and operating cost categories are presented. The method and rationale by which these scaling factors were obtained are also discussed. By use of the techniques described herein, consistent cost information for a wide variety of fuel types can be obtained in a relatively short period of time. In this study, estimates for 52 fuel fabrication plants were obtained in approximately two months. These cost estimates were extensively reviewed by experts in the fabrication of the various fuels, and, in the opinion of the reviewers, the estimates were very consistent and sufficiently accurate for use in overall cycle assessments

  8. Cost estimates for nuclear power in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current UK Government support for nuclear power has in part been informed by cost estimates that suggest that electricity from new nuclear power stations will be competitive with alternative low carbon generation options. The evidence and analysis presented in this paper suggests that the capital cost estimates for nuclear power that are being used to inform these projections rely on costs escalating over the pre-construction and construction phase of the new build programme at a level significantly below those that have been experienced by past US and European programmes. This paper applies observed construction time and cost escalation rates to the published estimates of capital costs for new nuclear plant in the UK and calculates the potential impact on levelised cost per unit of electricity produced. The results suggest that levelised cost may turn out to be significantly higher than expected which in turn has important implications for policy, both in general terms of the potential costs to consumers and more specifically for negotiations around the level of policy support and contractual arrangements offered to individual projects through the proposed contract for difference strike price. -- Highlights: •Nuclear power projects costs can rise substantially during the construction period. •Pre-construction and construction time can be much longer than anticipated. •Adjusting estimates for observed experience increases levelised costs significantly. •Higher costs suggest that more policy support than envisaged may be required

  9. Cost estimates for removal of orbital debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew; Ashley, Howard

    1989-01-01

    While there are currently no active measures for the removal of nonfunctional satellites or spent rocket stages from earth orbit, it has been deemed prudent to begin to identify and economically evaluate potential approaches for such orbital decluttering. The methods presently considered encompass retrieval with an OMV, forcible deorbiting via attached propulsive devices, and deorbiting via passive, drag-augmentation devices; the increases in payload-delivery costs they represent are respectively $15-20 million/object, $7.8 million/vehicle, and $5.5-15.5 million/unit. OMV removal appears the least economically feasible method.

  10. Early cost estimation for additive manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Additive Manufacture (AM) is a novel manufacturing method; it is a process of forming components by adding materials. Owing to material saving and manufacturing cost saving, more and more research has been focused on metal AM technologies. WAAM is one AM technology, using arc as the heat sources and wire as the material to create parts with weld beads on a layer-by-layer basis. The process can produce components in a wide range of materials, including aluminum, titanium and steel. High deposi...

  11. 48 CFR 836.203 - Government estimate of construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government estimate of... Contracting for Construction 836.203 Government estimate of construction costs. The overall amount of the Government estimate must not be disclosed until after award of the contract. After award, the...

  12. 48 CFR 236.203 - Government estimate of construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government estimate of...-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.203 Government estimate of construction costs. Follow the procedures at PGI 236.203 for handling the Government estimate of...

  13. Estimating the Life Cycle Cost of Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    A space system's Life Cycle Cost (LCC) includes design and development, launch and emplacement, and operations and maintenance. Each of these cost factors is usually estimated separately. NASA uses three different parametric models for the design and development cost of crewed space systems; the commercial PRICE-H space hardware cost model, the NASA-Air Force Cost Model (NAFCOM), and the Advanced Missions Cost Model (AMCM). System mass is an important parameter in all three models. System mass also determines the launch and emplacement cost, which directly depends on the cost per kilogram to launch mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The launch and emplacement cost is the cost to launch to LEO the system itself and also the rockets, propellant, and lander needed to emplace it. The ratio of the total launch mass to payload mass depends on the mission scenario and destination. The operations and maintenance costs include any material and spares provided, the ground control crew, and sustaining engineering. The Mission Operations Cost Model (MOCM) estimates these costs as a percentage of the system development cost per year.

  14. A Neural Network Model for Construction Projects Site Overhead Cost Estimating in Egypt

    CERN Document Server

    ElSawy, Ismaail; Razek, Mohammed Abdel

    2011-01-01

    Estimating of the overhead costs of building construction projects is an important task in the management of these projects. The quality of construction management depends heavily on their accurate cost estimation. Construction costs prediction is a very difficult and sophisticated task especially when using manual calculation methods. This paper uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to develop a parametric cost-estimating model for site overhead cost in Egypt. Fifty-two actual real-life cases of building projects constructed in Egypt during the seven year period 2002-2009 were used as training materials. The neural network architecture is presented for the estimation of the site overhead costs as a percentage from the total project price.

  15. Area-Specific Marginal Costing for Electric Utilities: a Case Study of Transmission and Distribution Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orans, Ren

    1990-10-01

    Existing procedures used to develop marginal costs for electric utilities were not designed for applications in an increasingly competitive market for electric power. The utility's value of receiving power, or the costs of selling power, however, depend on the exact location of the buyer or seller, the magnitude of the power and the period of time over which the power is used. Yet no electric utility in the United States has disaggregate marginal costs that reflect differences in costs due to the time, size or location of the load associated with their power or energy transactions. The existing marginal costing methods used by electric utilities were developed in response to the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) in 1978. The "ratemaking standards" (Title 1) established by PURPA were primarily concerned with the appropriate segmentation of total revenues to various classes-of-service, designing time-of-use rating periods, and the promotion of efficient long-term resource planning. By design, the methods were very simple and inexpensive to implement. Now, more than a decade later, the costing issues facing electric utilities are becoming increasingly complex, and the benefits of developing more specific marginal costs will outweigh the costs of developing this information in many cases. This research develops a framework for estimating total marginal costs that vary by the size, timing, and the location of changes in loads within an electric distribution system. To complement the existing work at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) on estimating disaggregate generation and transmission capacity costs, this dissertation focuses on the estimation of distribution capacity costs. While the costing procedure is suitable for the estimation of total (generation, transmission and distribution) marginal costs, the empirical work focuses on the geographic disaggregation of marginal costs related to electric

  16. Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 3: Program cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The approach used to estimate costs for the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is based on a computer program developed internally at Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE). The program produces time-phased estimates of cost elements for each hardware component, based on experience with similar components. Engineering estimates of the degree of similarity or difference between the current project and the historical data is then used to adjust the computer-produced cost estimate and to fit it to the current project Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). The SSFF Concept as presented at the Requirements Definition Review (RDR) was used as the base configuration for the cost estimate. This program incorporates data on costs of previous projects and the allocation of those costs to the components of one of three, time-phased, generic WBS's. Input consists of a list of similar components for which cost data exist, number of interfaces with their type and complexity, identification of the extent to which previous designs are applicable, and programmatic data concerning schedules and miscellaneous data (travel, off-site assignments). Output is program cost in labor hours and material dollars, for each component, broken down by generic WBS task and program schedule phase.

  17. Commercial Crew Cost Estimating - A Look at Estimating Processes, Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Rick; Cole, Lance

    2015-01-01

    To support annual PPBE budgets and NASA HQ requests for cost information for commercial crew transportation to the International Space Station (ISS), the NASA ISS ACES team developed system development and per flight cost estimates for the potential providers for each annual PPBE submit from 2009-2014. This paper describes the cost estimating processes used, challenges and lessons learned to develop estimates for this key NASA project that diverted from the traditional procurement approach and used a new way of doing business

  18. Econometric estimation of country-specific hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Taghreed; Evans, David B; Murray, Christopher JL

    2003-02-26

    Information on the unit cost of inpatient and outpatient care is an essential element for costing, budgeting and economic-evaluation exercises. Many countries lack reliable estimates, however. WHO has recently undertaken an extensive effort to collect and collate data on the unit cost of hospitals and health centres from as many countries as possible; so far, data have been assembled from 49 countries, for various years during the period 1973-2000. The database covers a total of 2173 country-years of observations. Large gaps remain, however, particularly for developing countries. Although the long-term solution is that all countries perform their own costing studies, the question arises whether it is possible to predict unit costs for different countries in a standardized way for short-term use. The purpose of the work described in this paper, a modelling exercise, was to use the data collected across countries to predict unit costs in countries for which data are not yet available, with the appropriate uncertainty intervals.The model presented here forms part of a series of models used to estimate unit costs for the WHO-CHOICE project. The methods and the results of the model, however, may be used to predict a number of different types of country-specific unit costs, depending on the purpose of the exercise. They may be used, for instance, to estimate the costs per bed-day at different capacity levels; the "hotel" component of cost per bed-day; or unit costs net of particular components such as drugs.In addition to reporting estimates for selected countries, the paper shows that unit costs of hospitals vary within countries, sometimes by an order of magnitude. Basing cost-effectiveness studies or budgeting exercises on the results of a study of a single facility, or even a small group of facilities, is likely to be misleading. PMID:12773218

  19. Econometric estimation of country-specific hospital costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Christopher JL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Information on the unit cost of inpatient and outpatient care is an essential element for costing, budgeting and economic-evaluation exercises. Many countries lack reliable estimates, however. WHO has recently undertaken an extensive effort to collect and collate data on the unit cost of hospitals and health centres from as many countries as possible; so far, data have been assembled from 49 countries, for various years during the period 1973–2000. The database covers a total of 2173 country-years of observations. Large gaps remain, however, particularly for developing countries. Although the long-term solution is that all countries perform their own costing studies, the question arises whether it is possible to predict unit costs for different countries in a standardized way for short-term use. The purpose of the work described in this paper, a modelling exercise, was to use the data collected across countries to predict unit costs in countries for which data are not yet available, with the appropriate uncertainty intervals. The model presented here forms part of a series of models used to estimate unit costs for the WHO-CHOICE project. The methods and the results of the model, however, may be used to predict a number of different types of country-specific unit costs, depending on the purpose of the exercise. They may be used, for instance, to estimate the costs per bed-day at different capacity levels; the "hotel" component of cost per bed-day; or unit costs net of particular components such as drugs. In addition to reporting estimates for selected countries, the paper shows that unit costs of hospitals vary within countries, sometimes by an order of magnitude. Basing cost-effectiveness studies or budgeting exercises on the results of a study of a single facility, or even a small group of facilities, is likely to be misleading.

  20. Software cost estimation using class point metrics (CPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghode, Aditi; Periyasamy, Kasilingam

    2011-12-01

    Estimating cost for the software project is one of the most important and crucial task to maintain the software reliability. Many cost estimation models have been reported till now, but most of them have significant drawbacks due to rapid changes in the technology. For example, Source Line Of Code (SLOC) can only be counted when the software construction is complete. Function Point (FP) metric is deficient in handling Object Oriented Technology, as it was designed for procedural languages such as COBOL. Since Object-Oriented Programming became a popular development practice, most of the software companies started applying the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The objective of this research is to develop a new cost estimation model with the application of class diagram for the software cost estimation.

  1. Estimating the Costs of Educating Handicapped Children: A Resource-Cost Model Approach-Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.

    1981-01-01

    The resource cost model approach makes the programmatic aspects of special education explicit and links these with associated costs. It facilitates planning for education of handicapped children. An effective cost estimation plan was necessary because of recent political and legal mandates which established the educational rights of the…

  2. Computerized cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Component design parameters (weight, surface area, etc.) and cost factors are input and direct and indirect costs are calculated. The cost data base file derived from actual cost experience within the fusion community and refined to be compatible with the spreadsheet costing approach is a catalog of cost coefficients, algorithms, and component costs arranged into data modules corresponding to specific components and/or subsystems. Each data module contains engineering, equipment, and installation labor cost data for different configurations and types of the specific component or subsystem. This paper describes the assumptions, definitions, methodology, and architecture incorporated in the development of the cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base, along with the type of input required and the output format

  3. Estimating the costs of intensity-modulated and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, J.H.E.; McGowan, T.; Redmond-Misner, R.; Beca, J.; Warde, P.; Gutierrez, E.; Hoch, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy is a common treatment for many cancers, but up-to-date estimates of the costs of radiotherapy are lacking. In the present study, we estimated the unit costs of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt) in Ontario. Methods An activity-based costing model was developed to estimate the costs of imrt and 3D-crt in prostate cancer. It included the costs of equipment, staff, and supporting infrastructure. The framework was subsequently adapted to estimate the costs of radiotherapy in breast cancer and head-and-neck cancer. We also tested various scenarios by varying the program maturity and the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (vmat) alongside imrt. Results From the perspective of the health care system, treating prostate cancer with imrt and 3D-crt respectively cost $12,834 and $12,453 per patient. The cost of radiotherapy ranged from $5,270 to $14,155 and was sensitive to analytic perspective, radiation technique, and disease site. Cases of head-and-neck cancer were the most costly, being driven by treatment complexity and fractions per treatment. Although imrt was more costly than 3D-crt, its cost will likely decline over time as programs mature and vmat is incorporated. Conclusions Our costing model can be modified to estimate the costs of 3D-crt and imrt for various disease sites and settings. The results demonstrate the important role of capital costs in studies of radiotherapy cost from a health system perspective, which our model can accommodate. In addition, our study established the need for future analyses of imrt cost to consider how vmat affects time consumption. PMID:27330359

  4. 48 CFR 436.203 - Government estimate of construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government estimate of... Contracting for Construction 436.203 Government estimate of construction costs. For acquisitions using sealed bid procedures, the contracting officer may disclose the overall amount of the Government's...

  5. Contributions of case mix and intensity change to hospital cost increases

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, TB; Kominski, GF

    1992-01-01

    The 28-percent change in average Medicare inpatient cost per case between 1984 and 1987 is decomposed into three components: input price inflation, changes in average cost within diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) (intensity), and changes in the distribution of cases across DRGs (case mix). We estimate the contributions of technology diffusion and outpatient shifts to within- DRG and across-DRG cost changes. We also use California data to estimate the contribution of changes in the quantity of s...

  6. Cost Estimation in Engineer-to-Order Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Yousef; Köhler, Peter; Korff-Krumm, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    In Engineer-to-Order (ETO) manufacturing the price of products must be defined during early stages of product design and during the bidding process, thus an overestimation of product development (PD) costs may lead to the loss of orders and an underestimation causes a profit loss. What many ETO systems have in common is that the products have to be developed based on different customer requirements so that each order usually results in a new variant. Furthermore, many customer requirement change-requests may arise in different phases of the PD, which is to be considered properly. Thus it is utmost important for ETO systems to have an accurate cost estimation in first stages of the product design and to be able to determine the cost of customer requirement changes in different phases of PD. This paper aims to present a cost estimation methodology as well as a cost estimation model, which estimate the cost of products by relative comparison of the attributes of new product variants with the attributes of standard product variants. In addition, as a necessity in ETO manufacturing, the cost calculation of customer requirement changes in different phases of PD is integrated in the presented method.

  7. Estimation and comparability of nuclear facility decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most countries have established requirements for cost estimates and reporting. For nuclear power plants and other commercial facilities, legal requirements include the preparation of a decommissioning plan and associated cost estimates, with periodic updates every three to five years. The most important considerations in ensuring stable and more accurate decommissioning cost estimates include: avoiding changes in project scope, fixing regulatory standards during the planning phase to avoid delays during active decommissioning and ensuring the accurate characterisation of materials and soil. Ultimately, it is difficult to compare cost estimates for entire projects, and the proposed figures should not be taken at face value unless all boundary conditions and assumptions have been made clear; in the end, it would appear that benchmarking the costs of specific activities is preferable to benchmarking those of entire projects. An International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations is now available and allows for better comparability of the costs of specific activities. Industry, governments and regulators are invited to make use of the ISDC and to participate in improving guidelines, for example, through the activities of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling

  8. Cost and Benefit of Control Strategies - Estimation of Benefit functions, enforcement-probability function and enforcement-cost function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Jensen, Frank

    levels and 4) the connection between different enforcement levels and costs. The purpose of estimating the functional relationships are for future application in the COBECOS computer modeling in order to carry out an cost-benefit analysis of control strategies and thereby find the optimal mix and level...... on fishery enforcement from the COBECOS project to a specific case. It is done by estimations of functional relationships' for describing 1) the fisheries benefit function 2) the shadow value of biomass 3) the connection between the probability of being detected and apprehended for different enforcement...

  9. Estimating the costs of implementing the rotavirus vaccine in the national immunisation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lizell B; Ustrup, Marte; Hansen, Kristian S;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Worldwide, rotavirus infections cause approximately 453,000 child deaths annually. Two licensed vaccines could be life- and cost-saving in low-income countries where the disease burden is highest. The aim of our study was to estimate the total cost of implementing the rotavirus vaccine...... in the national immunisation programme of a low-income country. Furthermore, the aim was to examine the relative contribution of different components to the total cost. METHODS: Following the World Health Organization guidelines, we estimated the resource use and costs associated with rotavirus vaccine...... implementation, using Malawi as a case. The cost analysis was undertaken from a governmental perspective. All costs were calculated for a 5-years period (2012-2016) and discounted at 5%. The value of key input parameters was varied in a sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: The total cost of rotavirus vaccine...

  10. Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of

  11. Estimating costs associated with a community outbreak of meningococcal disease in a colombian Caribbean city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Redondo, Hernando; Coronell-Rodriguez, Wilfrido; Díaz-Martinez, Inés; Guzmán-Corena, Angel; Constenla, Dagna; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson

    2014-09-01

    Meningococcal disease is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), and it can cause meningitis, meningococcaemia outbreaks and epidemics. The disease is fatal in 9-12% of cases and with a death rate of up to 40% among patients with meningococcaemia. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of a meningococcal outbreak that occurred in a Caribbean city of Colombia. We contacted experts involved in the outbreak and asked them specific questions about the diagnosis and treatment for meningococcal cases during the outbreak. Estimates of costs of the outbreak were also based on extensive review of medical records available during the outbreak. The costs associated with the outbreak were divided into the cost of the disease response phase and the cost of the disease surveillance phase. The costs associated with the outbreak control and surveillance were expressed in US$ (2011) as cost per 1,000 inhabitants. The average age of patients was 4.6 years (SD 3.5); 50% of the cases died; 50% of the cases were reported to have meningitis (3/6); 33% were diagnosed with meningococcaemia and myocarditis (2/6); 50% of the cases had bacteraemia (3/6); 66% of the cases had a culture specimen positive for Neisseria meningitidis; 5 of the 6 cases had RT-PCR positive for N. meningitidis. All N. meningitidis were serogroup B; 50 doses of ceftriaxone were administered as prophylaxis. Vaccine was not available at the time. The costs associated with control of the outbreak were estimated at US$ 0.8 per 1,000 inhabitants, disease surveillance at US$ 4.1 per 1,000 inhabitants, and healthcare costs at US$ 5.1 per 1,000 inhabitants. The costs associated with meningococcal outbreaks are substantial, and the outbreaks should be prevented. The mass chemoprophylaxis implemented helped control the outbreak.

  12. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  13. Ontology-Based Representation and Reasoning in Building Construction Cost Estimation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation is one of the most critical tasks for building construction project management. The existing building construction cost estimation methods of many countries, including China, require information from several sources, including material, labor, and equipment, and tend to be manual, time-consuming, and error-prone. To solve these problems, a building construction cost estimation model based on ontology representation and reasoning is established, which includes three major components, i.e., concept model ontology, work item ontology, and construction condition ontology. Using this model, the cost estimation information is modeled into OWL axioms and SWRL rules that leverage the semantically rich ontology representation to reason about cost estimation. Based on OWL axioms and SWRL rules, the cost estimation information can be translated into a set of concept models, work items, and construction conditions associated with the specific construction conditions. The proposed method is demonstrated in Protégé 3.4.8 through case studies based on the Measurement Specifications of Building Construction and Decoration Engineering taken from GB 50500-2013 (the Chinese national mandatory specifications. Finally, this research discusses the limitations of the proposed method and future research directions. The proposed method can help a building construction cost estimator extract information more easily and quickly.

  14. Cost estimation model for advanced planetary programs, fourth edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadoni, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the planetary program cost model is discussed. The Model was updated to incorporate cost data from the most recent US planetary flight projects and extensively revised to more accurately capture the information in the historical cost data base. This data base is comprised of the historical cost data for 13 unmanned lunar and planetary flight programs. The revision was made with a two fold objective: to increase the flexibility of the model in its ability to deal with the broad scope of scenarios under consideration for future missions, and to maintain and possibly improve upon the confidence in the model's capabilities with an expected accuracy of 20%. The Model development included a labor/cost proxy analysis, selection of the functional forms of the estimating relationships, and test statistics. An analysis of the Model is discussed and two sample applications of the cost model are presented.

  15. How utilities can achieve more accurate decommissioning cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of commercial nuclear power plants that are undergoing decommissioning coupled with the economic pressure of deregulation has increased the focus on adequate funding for decommissioning. The introduction of spent-fuel storage and disposal of low-level radioactive waste into the cost analysis places even greater concern as to the accuracy of the fund calculation basis. The size and adequacy of the decommissioning fund have also played a major part in the negotiations for transfer of plant ownership. For all of these reasons, it is important that the operating plant owner reduce the margin of error in the preparation of decommissioning cost estimates. To data, all of these estimates have been prepared via the building block method. That is, numerous individual calculations defining the planning, engineering, removal, and disposal of plant systems and structures are performed. These activity costs are supplemented by the period-dependent costs reflecting the administration, control, licensing, and permitting of the program. This method will continue to be used in the foreseeable future until adequate performance data are available. The accuracy of the activity cost calculation is directly related to the accuracy of the inventory of plant system component, piping and equipment, and plant structural composition. Typically, it is left up to the cost-estimating contractor to develop this plant inventory. The data are generated by searching and analyzing property asset records, plant databases, piping and instrumentation drawings, piping system isometric drawings, and component assembly drawings. However, experience has shown that these sources may not be up to date, discrepancies may exist, there may be missing data, and the level of detail may not be sufficient. Again, typically, the time constraints associated with the development of the cost estimate preclude perfect resolution of the inventory questions. Another problem area in achieving accurate cost

  16. Estimation of cost synergies from mergers without cost data: Application to US radio

    OpenAIRE

    Jeziorski, Przemysław

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a new way to estimate cost synergies from mergers without using actual data on cost. The estimator uses a structural model in which companies play a dynamic game with endogenous mergers and product repositioning decisions. Such a formulation has several benefits over the widespread static merger analysis. In particular, it corrects for sample selection of more profitable mergers and captures follow-up mergers and post-merger product repositioning. The framework is applied ...

  17. Estimation of cost synergies from mergers without cost data: Application to U.S. radio

    OpenAIRE

    Przemyslaw Jeziorski

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a new way to estimate cost synergies from mergers without using actual data on cost. The estimator uses a structural model in which companies play a dynamic game with endogenous mergers and product repositioning decisions. Such a formulation has several benefits over the widespread static merger analysis. In particular, it corrects for sample selection of more profitable mergers and captures follow-up mergers and post-merger product repositioning. The framework is applied ...

  18. Fusion reactor design studies: standard accounts for cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fusion reactor design studies--standard accounts for cost estimates provides a common format from which to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept costs estimates and also provide policymakers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concept may be economically promising. The format sets forth a categorization and accounting procedure to be used when estimating fusion reactor busbar energy cost that can be easily and consistently applied. Reasons for developing the procedure, explanations of the procedure, justifications for assumptions made in the procedure, and the applicability of the procedure are described in this document. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising design concepts thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  19. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Savory

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part.  This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop.  This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members.  The simulation model generates detailed Bills of Activity for each part type and includes specific information about the cost drivers and cost pools.  The enhanced model output can be used for cost estimation and analysis, manufacturing cell design, part scheduling and other manufacturing decision processes that involve economic considerations. Although the scope of this effort is restricted to a small scale manufacturing cell, the costing concepts have general applicability to manufacturing operations at all levels.

  20. Reliability of the cost estimates on the subterranean parts of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory of Construction Economics and Management in Helsinki University of Technology has evaluated the credibility of cost estimates for the underground part of the nuclear waste storage facility. The assignment was given by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Evaluated topics are: The coverage of cost estimates; the suitability of the used cost estimating method for the purpose; the credibility of cost information; the validity of cost estimate at the moment; the briefing has also noted attention to some other factors concerning the credibility of cost estimates and made suggestions to improve the credibility of the calculations. The main results concerning the evaluation are: The coverage of the cost estimate is coherent with the facility design; cost estimating methods used in the calculations are suited to the design degree of preparedness and represent the best practice used in the field; the used cost information is based on a case-specific cost information; the grouping of the cost estimating results and transparency demand improvement measures; the made cost estimate is in the right magnitude, but concerning the changes to the design, scope and quality level, there should be a cost reserve of 2-3 %. (orig.)

  1. Estimating the Costs of Educating Handicapped Children: A Resource-Cost Model Approach. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.

    The research described in this report attempts to estimate the costs of providing an appropriate education to all school-aged handicapped children by 1980-81. The study begins by addressing the aspects of special education that will help to predict future costs--patterns of growth to the present, legal and political mandates, the nature of various…

  2. Preliminary Hydrogen Production Cost Estimation based on the HEEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HEEP software is appropriate to perform economic analysis for comparative studies not only hydrogen production using nuclear or fossil fuel but also only hydrogen production or cogeneration with electricity. The HEEP software requires basic input data to calculate hydrogen production cost such as chronological data, finance data, and technical data related to nuclear power plant and hydrogen generation plant. In this paper, we present preliminary hydrogen production cost estimation based on the HEEP. In order to get more concrete and accurate cost calculations, we need to consider many parameters and input values in details including hydrogen storage cost and hydrogen transportation cost. The estimated costs presented in this paper show that hydrogen production by VHTR coupled to SI plant system could be competitive with current techniques of hydrogen production from fossil fuels if CO2 capture and sequestration is required. This favorable situation is expected to further improve as the cost of natural gas rises. Nuclear hydrogen production would allow large-scale production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding the release of CO2. Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy

  3. Measuring system complexity to support development cost estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Wolfarth, L.

    Systems and System-of-Systems (SoS) are being used more frequently either as a design element of stand alone systems or architectural frameworks. Consequently, a programmatic need has arisen to understand and measure systems complexity in order to estimate more accurately development plans and life-cycle costs. In a prior paper, we introduced the System Readiness Level (SRL) concept as a composite function of both Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and Integration Readiness Levels (IRLs) and touched on system complexity. While the SRL approach provides a repeatable, process-driven method to assess the maturity of a system or SoS, it does not capture all aspects of system complexity. In this paper we assess the concept of cyclomatic complexity as a system complexity metric and consider its utility as an approach for estimating the life-cycle costs and cost growth of complex systems. We hypothesize that the greater the number of technologies and integration tasks, the more complex the system and the higher its cost to develop and maintain. We base our analysis on historical data from DoD programs that have experienced significant cost growth, including some that have been cancelled due to unsustainable cost (and schedule) growth. We begin by describing the original implementation of the cyclomatic method, which was developed to estimate the effort to maintain system software. We then describe how the method can be generalized and applied to systems. Next, we show how to estimate the cyclomatic number (CN) and show the statistical significance between a system's CN metric and its cost. We illustrate the method with an example. Last, we discuss opportunities for future research.

  4. An Instructional Cost Estimation Model for the XYZ Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, William F.

    An enrollment-driven model for estimating instructional costs is presented in this paper as developed by the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE). After stating the principles of the WICHE planning system (i.e., various categories of data are gathered, segmented, and then cross-tabulated against one another to yield certain…

  5. Stochastic Estimation of Cost Frontier: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Shamsul Arifeen Khan

    2012-01-01

    In the literature of higher education cost function study, enough knowledge is created in the area of economy scale in the context of developed countries but the knowledge of input demand is lacking. On the other hand, empirical knowledge in the context of developing countries is very meagre. The paper fills up the knowledge gap, estimating a…

  6. Cost Estimation for Cross-organizational ERP Projects: Research Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, M.; Wieringa, R.J.; Bieman, J.

    2008-01-01

    There are many methods for estimating size, effort, schedule and other cost aspects of IS projects, but only one specifically developed for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) [67] and none for simultaneous, interdependent ERP projects in a cross-organizational context. The objective of this paper is

  7. An Application of Data Mining Algorithms for Shipbuilding Cost Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaluzny, B.L.; Barbici, S.; Berg, G.; Chiomento, R.; Derpanis,D.; Jonsson, U.; Shaw, R.H.A.D.; Smit, M.C.; Ramaroson, F.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a novel application of known data mining algorithms to the problem of estimating the cost of ship development and construction. The work is a product of North Atlantic Treaty Organization Research and Technology Organization Systems Analysis and Studies 076 Task Group “NATO Ind

  8. Design and cost estimation of the ASACUSA dipole magnets (PXMCXAFWAC)

    CERN Document Server

    Newborough, Antony

    2011-01-01

    This note describes the design and cost estimation for two horizontal bending magnets (PXMCXAFWAC) needed upstream of the ASACUSA experiment of the CERN AD (Antiproton Decelerator) Machine. These magnets are to replace the two corrector magnets (PXMCCAVWAP) which do not fulfil the requirements in terms of free horizontal aperture and field quality.

  9. 24 CFR 886.330 - Work write-ups and cost estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cost estimate to complete rehabilitation. The cost of any necessary relocation, as determined by HUD as... costs allowable by HUD will be included in the cost estimate. The work write-up and cost estimate shall... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work write-ups and cost...

  10. Review of cost estimates for uranium recovery from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 4.5 billion tonnes of uranium in seawater is sufficient to power the world's reactor fleet for 13,000 years. For decades, the transformative potential of this enormous resource has prompted interest in technologies for recovering uranium from seawater. Since the 1960s, though, cost analyses of such technologies have failed to convincingly demonstrate a cost-competitive alternative to conventional uranium recovery from terrestrial mining. Hence, uranium from seawater has come to be considered as a backstopping technology that has the potential to establish a price ceiling for the uranium resource. Such an upper bound is valuable because it removes uncertainty surrounding uranium prices when developing and deploying nuclear power systems. This paper reviews cost estimates as the technology has evolved over the past five decades. During this time, systems that actively moved seawater gave way to those where the adsorbent sits passively in seawater. The adsorbent material changed from hydrous titanium oxide to the higher-capacity amidoxime ligand. Early efforts used amidoxime grafted onto an acrylic substrate, which was later replaced by polyethylene because of its increased durability and lower cost. The review shows that capacity, in grams of U per kilogram of adsorbent, is a strong driver of cost along with reusability of the adsorbent. The most recent estimates reviewed are seen to place the U production cost at $400–$1000/kg of U, several times higher than the 2014 spot market price, which has remained near or below $100/kg of U. - Highlights: • Adsorption capacity was the largest driver of cost. • A higher capacity did not necessarily mean a lower cost. • Many substrates were employed: polyethylene was the most widely and recently used. • Passive mooring systems were more economical than pumping seawater systems

  11. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically

  12. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven times larger than average costs and dependent on the response in the WtE plant. Marginal cost of diversion were between 39 and 287 € Mg(-1) target fraction when biomass was added in a CHP (from 34 to 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case), between -2 and 300 € Mg(-1) target fraction when RDF was added in a CHP (from -2 to 294 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case) and between 40 and 303 € Mg(-1) target fraction when no reaction happened in a CHP (from 35 to 296 € Mg(-1) target fraction in the only Power case). Although average costs at WtE facilities were highly influenced by energy selling prices, marginal costs were not (provided a response was initiated at the WtE to keep constant the utilized thermal capacity). Failing to systematically

  13. Logistics opportunity costs: A mining case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leani van Jaarsveld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study highlighted the importance of determining the impact that an ineffective mode of transport has on a firm’s transportation model and costs. The main focus of this study was to determine the logistics opportunity costs of using road transport within a mining firm. A case study approach was followed, as the investigation aimed to analyse a complex problem experienced by one company and present it in an easily understandable format. From the results of this study, it was apparent that the logistics opportunity costs associated with the mode of transport was substantial. This highlighted the need for firms to revise their choice of transport mode on a regular basis, as it has a major impact not only on their transportation costs, but also on their inventory holding and carbon emissions. The results also have implications for South Africa’s only freight railway, Transnet Freight Rail, which should not only focus on expanding its existing capacity, but also on improving its customer service delivery whilst containing tariff increases.

  14. Periocular basal cell carcinoma: cost of topical immunotherapy versus estimated cost of surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Marcet Santiago de Macedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare the estimated cost of clinical and surgical treatment for basl cell carcinoma of the eyelid. METHODS: This was a pilot study of 12 patients with basal cell carcinoma receiving treatment with 5% imiquimod cream at the ocular plastic surgery center, medical school University of São Paulo (HC-FMUSP, Brazil. The cost of clinical treatment was estimated based on the time of treatment and amount of medication consumed by patients in the home setting. The cost of surgical treatment was estimated by ophthalmologists with experience in reconstructive plastic surgery based on analysis of images of the same patients. Surgeons responded to a questionnaire with four questions about surgical technique, surgical materials required, estimated duration of surgery and type of anesthesia. RESULTS: Immunotherapy lasted from 8 to 12 weeks.All patients reported each coldstored sachet with 5% imiquimod cream lasted 3 days.According to the institution, a box with 12 sachets costs BRL 480.00. Patients required 1.58-3.11 boxes for complete treatment, corresponding to a total cost of BRL 758.401,492.80. Based on image analysis, surgeons evaluated surgery would require 1-3 hours. The estimated cost of surgery room and staff was BRL 263.00, to which the cost of supplies was added. Thus, the total cost of surgical treatment was BRL 272.61-864.82. On the average, immunotherapy was 57,64% more costly than surgical treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Malignant eyelid tumors are a common finding in clinical ophthalmology. Surgery is still the treatment of choice at our institution, but immunotherapy with 5% imiquimod cream may be indicated for patients with multiple lesions or high surgical risk and for patients declining surgery for reasons of fear or esthetic concerns.The ability to estimate costs related to the treatment of malignant eyelid tumors is an important aid in the financial planning of health care institutions. Further

  15. Cost Estimation. Chapter 6. [Disposal costs by analysing the estimated costs of geological disposal of CO2 and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and disposal (CCD) are key greenhouse gas mitigation options, which are currently under consideration in several countries. Both technologies entail long term waste management challenges, and both options are based on geological disposal. These technologies and the related economic calculations have much in common, and valuable lessons can be learnt from their intercomparison. To compare these technologies, economic, social and environmental criteria need to be selected and expressed in terms of indicators. This chapter analyses the costs of the geological disposal of CO2 and radioactive waste in several countries. The range of countries considered in this chapter includes those that contributed to the Coordinated Research Project as partners. Due to the lack of information on CO2 disposal costs, only radioactive waste disposal costs were assessed for India, the Republic of Korea and Switzerland. Only CO2 disposal costs were assessed for Cuba because the country is only considering low level radioactive waste disposal. For Lithuania, both CO2 and radioactive waste disposal costs were assessed and compared. The costs of CO2 and radioactive waste disposal are evaluated and compared in US cent/kW·h. This chapter also compares the characteristics and locations of disposal options for CO2 and radioactive waste in selected countries based on a comprehensive literature review

  16. A Modified Cost Estimation Formulae for Calculating Manufacturing Cost of Injection Part/Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In modern society, a plastic part has its own important position. To the managers and decision-makers in the field of plastic component, how to decide the manufacturing cost of the injection part or injection mold as quickly as possible is most valuable. Cost estimation formulae (CEF) are the most common method to evaluate the cost of injection part/mold, which is similar to our ordinary thinking. In this paper, a CEF method used by Dr. Weiyi Hu in Massachusetts University is first discussed. To the problems existed in the formulae, we propose an improved algorithm. This algorithm can be used to estimate the manufacturing cost of injection part/mold accurately in the early design stage.

  17. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VIII. Capital cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of the Initial Effort for the Breckinridge Project is to develop engineering to the point where realistic economics for the construction and operation of the plant can be made. The plant is designed to process 23,000 tons per day of run-of-mine coal to produce a nominal 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products using the H-COAL and standard industry technology. The plant will be located in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. Considerable preliminary engineering has been performed for this estimate. This work uses a single-point design based on the Process Demonstration Unit (PDU) data from run 5, period 29 of the pilot plant. The design basis is discussed in Volume II of this report. Many aspects of plant construction and cost have been considered that were not taken into account in the past studies. Ashland and Bechtel believe the accuracy of the capital estimate to be +19%, -17%. This accuracy is postulated on January 1981 dollars, the as-spent dollar amount naturally depending upon the inflation rate through the construction period. Considerable attention has been devoted to reliability of operation, and redundant equipment has been used where it was deemed necessary to assure reasonable onstream time. This equipment is included in the capital estimate. The capital is summarized by total plant cost on Table 1. The subtotal plant cost, excluding contingency, fee, and adjustment is $2,710,940,000. Adding the contingency, fee and adjustment, the total depreciable cost of the plant is $3,167,430,000. Adding the working capital to the total plant cost results in total capital requirements of $3,258,430,000 as shown on the individual plant cost summary Table 2.

  18. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill

  19. Periocular basal cell carcinoma: cost of topical immunotherapy versus estimated cost of surgical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Marcet Santiago de Macedo; Rachel Camargo Carneiro; Pedro Carlos Carricondo; Suzana Matayoshi

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare the estimated cost of clinical and surgical treatment for basl cell carcinoma of the eyelid. METHODS: This was a pilot study of 12 patients with basal cell carcinoma receiving treatment with 5% imiquimod cream at the ocular plastic surgery center, medical school University of São Paulo (HC-FMUSP, Brazil). The cost of clinical treatment was estimated based on the time of treatment and amount of medication consumed by patients in the home sett...

  20. Cost Estimation of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piili, Heidi; Happonen, Ari; Väistö, Tapio; Venkataramanan, Vijaikrishnan; Partanen, Jouni; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a layer wise fabrication method in which a laser beam melts metallic powder to form solid objects. Although 3D printing has been invented 30 years ago, the industrial use is quite limited whereas the introduction of cheap consumer 3D printers, in recent years, has familiarized the 3D printing. Interest is focused more and more in manufacturing of functional parts. Aim of this study is to define and discuss the current economic opportunities and restrictions of LAM process. Manufacturing costs were studied with different build scenarios each with estimated cost structure by calculated build time and calculating the costs of the machine, material and energy with optimized machine utilization. All manufacturing and time simulations in this study were carried out with a research machine equal to commercial EOS M series equipment. The study shows that the main expense in LAM is the investment cost of the LAM machine, compared to which the relative proportions of the energy and material costs are very low. The manufacturing time per part is the key factor to optimize costs of LAM.

  1. Decommissioning cost estimates based on the international structure for decommissioning costing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning cost estimates is essential part of decommissioning planning in all stages of nuclear installation lifetime. It has been recognized that there is a variety of formats, content and practice in decommissioning costing, due to the specific national requirement or to different assumptions. These differences make the process of decommissioning costing less transparent and more complicated to review. To solve these issues the document: 'A Proposed Standardised List of Items for Costing Purposes in the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installation' (known as 'Yellow Book') was jointly published by IAEA, OECD/NEA and EC in 1999. After a decade, the document was revised and issued by same organizations under the title: 'International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installation. ISDC as the list of typical decommissioning activities (could be used also a check-list) provides s general cost structure suitable for use for all types of nuclear installations i.e. power plants, research reactors, fuel cycle facilities or laboratories. The purpose of the ISDC, is to facilitate the communication and to promote uniformity and to provide a common platform in presenting the decommissioning costs. Clear definition of ISDC items supports the common understanding of cost items, i.e. what is behind the cost. ISDC decommissioning activities are organised in a hierarchical structure, with the 1st and 2nd levels being aggregations of basic activities identified at the 3rd level. At (author)

  2. Man power/cost estimation model: Automated planetary projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A manpower/cost estimation model is developed which is based on a detailed level of financial analysis of over 30 million raw data points which are then compacted by more than three orders of magnitude to the level at which the model is applicable. The major parameter of expenditure is manpower (specifically direct labor hours) for all spacecraft subsystem and technical support categories. The resultant model is able to provide a mean absolute error of less than fifteen percent for the eight programs comprising the model data base. The model includes cost saving inheritance factors, broken down in four levels, for estimating follow-on type programs where hardware and design inheritance are evident or expected.

  3. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs: A user`s manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierschbach, M.C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review their decommissioning cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning boiling water reactor (BWR) power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  4. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs. A user`s manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software: Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierschbach, M.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the U.S. Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning BWR power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  5. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs. A user's manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software: Draft report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the U.S. Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user's manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning BWR power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning

  6. Reliability/Cost Evaluation on Power System connected with Wind Power for the Reserve Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Cha, Seung-Tae; Shin, Je-Seok;

    2012-01-01

    Wind power is ideally a renewable energy with no fuel cost, but has a risk to reduce reliability of the whole system because of uncertainty of the output. If the reserve of the system is increased, the reliability of the system may be improved. However, the cost would be increased. Therefore...... the reserve needs to be estimated considering the trade-off between reliability and economic aspects. This paper suggests a methodology to estimate the appropriate reserve, when wind power is connected to the power system. As a case study, when wind power is connected to power system of Korea, the effects...

  7. Estimating Economic Health Costs of Not Controlling Toxic Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Easter, K. William; Konishi, Yoshifumi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine what types of information may be important in determining the welfare benefits of preventing toxic water contamination when a given type of toxification occurs (or is likely to occur) in a given setting. It attempts to identify information and behavior issues that need to be considered when policy makers and others wish to obtain reasonable estimates of welfare benefits and weigh them against the economic costs of removing toxins. This paper also prov...

  8. Methods for cost estimation in software project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, C. V.; Filip, I.; Indries, I. I.

    2016-02-01

    The speed in which the processes used in software development field have changed makes it very difficult the task of forecasting the overall costs for a software project. By many researchers, this task has been considered unachievable, but there is a group of scientist for which this task can be solved using the already known mathematical methods (e.g. multiple linear regressions) and the new techniques as genetic programming and neural networks. The paper presents a solution for building a model for the cost estimation models in the software project management using genetic algorithms starting from the PROMISE datasets related COCOMO 81 model. In the first part of the paper, a summary of the major achievements in the research area of finding a model for estimating the overall project costs is presented together with the description of the existing software development process models. In the last part, a basic proposal of a mathematical model of a genetic programming is proposed including here the description of the chosen fitness function and chromosome representation. The perspective of model described it linked with the current reality of the software development considering as basis the software product life cycle and the current challenges and innovations in the software development area. Based on the author's experiences and the analysis of the existing models and product lifecycle it was concluded that estimation models should be adapted with the new technologies and emerging systems and they depend largely by the chosen software development method.

  9. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  10. Methodology for estimating reprocessing costs for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technological and economic evaluation of reprocessing requirements for alternate fuel cycles requires a common assessment method and a common basis to which various cycles can be related. A methodology is described for the assessment of alternate fuel cycles utilizing a side-by-side comparison of functional flow diagrams of major areas of the reprocessing plant with corresponding diagrams of the well-developed Purex process as installed in the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). The BNFP treats 1500 metric tons of uranium per year (MTU/yr). Complexity and capacity factors are determined for adjusting the estimated facility and equipment costs of BNFP to determine the corresponding costs for the alternate fuel cycle. Costs of capacities other than the reference 1500 MT of heavy metal per year are estimated by the use of scaling factors. Unit costs of reprocessed fuel are calculated using a discounted cash flow analysis for three economic bases to show the effect of low-risk, typical, and high-risk financing methods

  11. 48 CFR 1852.216-85 - Estimated cost and award fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated cost and award... and Clauses 1852.216-85 Estimated cost and award fee. As prescribed in 1816.406-70(e), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost and Award Fee (SEP 1993) The estimated cost of this contract is $___....

  12. 48 CFR 1852.216-74 - Estimated cost and fixed fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated cost and fixed... and Clauses 1852.216-74 Estimated cost and fixed fee. As prescribed in 1816.307-70(b), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost and Fixed Fee (DEC 1991) The estimated cost of this contract...

  13. Estimated costs of treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haylton J. Suaid

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH presents 2 options: medical or surgical, and there are doubts about what is the best treatment since 80% of patients who undergo surgery become asymptomatic and 10 to 40% of those under medical regimen undergo surgery within a 5 years period. It is difficult to assess the actual costs of treating BPH in Brazil due to several factors, among them regional particularities and the scarcity of current statistical data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Recently, in the Ribeirão Preto area, São Paulo, Brazil, the IPSS (International Prostatic Symptoms Score and quality of life were verified in 934 volunteers. It was determined the percentage of individuals with ages ranging from 40 to 79 years with moderate symptoms (score 8-19 and with severe symptoms (score 20-35, values for which are indicated medical and surgical treatment, respectively, according to the Brazilian Society of Urology consensus on BPH. Data on Brazilian population in that age range were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics referent to the year of 2000. It was determined the number of patients, according to the criteria above, subjected to either one of the treatments mentioned. Surgical costs of prostate transurethral resection were researched according to Unified Health System - SUS tables (US$ 173 and of Brazilian Medical Society - AMB with a mean cost in 3 hospitals of US$ 933. Drug costs were calculated by the annual mean price (US$ 355 of 4 alpha-blockers (tamsulosin, alfuzosin, doxazosin and terazosin. RESULTS: The estimated population for medical treatment was 5,397,321 individuals, with a cost corresponding to US$ 1,916,489,055.00. The estimated population for surgical treatment was 2,040,299 men, what would represent a cost of US$ 353,291,204.00 based on the SUS table and of US$ 1,904,279,066.00 based on AMB with hospital expenses included. CONCLUSION: All theses facts induce us to predict

  14. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    This investigation aims at providing an improved basis for assessing economic consequences of alternative Solid Waste Management (SWM) strategies for existing waste facilities. A bottom-up methodology was developed to determine marginal costs in existing facilities due to changes in the SWM system......, based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power...... a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven...

  15. An Online Cost Calculator for Estimating the Economic Cost of Illness Due to Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) 0157 Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Frenzen, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157 is a significant cause of foodborne illness in the United States. ERS estimated the economic cost of illness due to this pathogen— $405.2 million (in 2003 dollars)—using the most recent estimate (1997) of the annual number of STEC O157 cases by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and medical and cost data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network. CDC is currently updating its estimate of annual cases. As new information...

  16. Introduction to the methods of estimating nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report prepared by the Agency with the guidance and assistance of a panel of experts from Member States, the names of whom will be found at the end of this report, represents the first step in the methods of cost evaluation. The main objectives of the report are: (1) The preparation of a full list of the cost items likely to be encountered so that the preliminary estimates for a given nuclear power system can be relied upon in deciding on its economic merits. (2) A survey of the methods currently used for the estimation of the generating costs of the power produced by a nuclear station. The survey is intended for a wide audience ranging from engineers to public officials with an interest in the prospects of nuclear power. An attempt has therefore been made to refrain from detailed technical discussions in order to make the presentation easily understandable to readers with only a very general knowledge of the principles of nuclear engineering. 3 figs, tabs

  17. AN IMPROVED MODEL FOR ESTIMATING RUNWAY ACCIDENT COST IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi Olasunkanmi Oriola

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes an improved model for estimating runway accident cost in the aviation industry in Nigeria. Bayesian Network was used to model the probability of consequences of runway accidents and subsequently the cost of the potential consequences. The Bayesian Network was also used to implement causal and diagnostic inference. Market interest rate which incorporates the effect of inflation was included to relax the assumption of constant economic value. The three classes of consequences of runway accidents identified in this study were fatal, serious, and minor. Domain experts were used to obtain relevant Bayesian causes and evidences related to the occurrence of consequence of runway accident. A mathematical equation was developed to solve the Bayesian Network influence diagram to obtain the probability of minor runway accident, serious runway accident and fatal runway accident as 0.7603, 0.1547 and 0.0850 respectively. Consequently, the estimated cost of runway accident (minor, serious and fatal was $23, 813.52, $20, 052.64 and $772, 856.06 respectively. The Bayesian Network diagnostic inference reveals the close relation of runway accidents in Nigeria aviation sector with aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures, human factors, weather conditions and collision risk.

  18. IVF cycle cost estimation using Activity Based Costing and Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassettari, Lucia; Mosca, Marco; Mosca, Roberto; Rolando, Fabio; Costa, Mauro; Pisaturo, Valerio

    2016-03-01

    The Authors present a new methodological approach in stochastic regime to determine the actual costs of an healthcare process. The paper specifically shows the application of the methodology for the determination of the cost of an Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in Italy. The reason of this research comes from the fact that deterministic regime is inadequate to implement an accurate estimate of the cost of this particular treatment. In fact the durations of the different activities involved are unfixed and described by means of frequency distributions. Hence the need to determine in addition to the mean value of the cost, the interval within which it is intended to vary with a known confidence level. Consequently the cost obtained for each type of cycle investigated (in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection), shows tolerance intervals around the mean value sufficiently restricted as to make the data obtained statistically robust and therefore usable also as reference for any benchmark with other Countries. It should be noted that under a methodological point of view the approach was rigorous. In fact it was used both the technique of Activity Based Costing for determining the cost of individual activities of the process both the Monte Carlo simulation, with control of experimental error, for the construction of the tolerance intervals on the final result.

  19. IVF cycle cost estimation using Activity Based Costing and Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassettari, Lucia; Mosca, Marco; Mosca, Roberto; Rolando, Fabio; Costa, Mauro; Pisaturo, Valerio

    2016-03-01

    The Authors present a new methodological approach in stochastic regime to determine the actual costs of an healthcare process. The paper specifically shows the application of the methodology for the determination of the cost of an Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in Italy. The reason of this research comes from the fact that deterministic regime is inadequate to implement an accurate estimate of the cost of this particular treatment. In fact the durations of the different activities involved are unfixed and described by means of frequency distributions. Hence the need to determine in addition to the mean value of the cost, the interval within which it is intended to vary with a known confidence level. Consequently the cost obtained for each type of cycle investigated (in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection), shows tolerance intervals around the mean value sufficiently restricted as to make the data obtained statistically robust and therefore usable also as reference for any benchmark with other Countries. It should be noted that under a methodological point of view the approach was rigorous. In fact it was used both the technique of Activity Based Costing for determining the cost of individual activities of the process both the Monte Carlo simulation, with control of experimental error, for the construction of the tolerance intervals on the final result. PMID:24752546

  20. Key issues for estimating the impact and cost-effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Newall, Anthony T; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Many countries have considered or are considering modifying their seasonal influenza immunization policies. Estimating the impact of such changes requires understanding the existing clinical and economic burden of influenza, as well as the potential impact of different vaccination options. Previous studies suggest that vaccinating clinical risk groups, health care workers, children and the elderly may be cost-effective. However, challenges in such estimation include: (1) potential cases are not usually virologically tested; (2) cases have non-specific symptoms and are rarely reported to surveillance systems; (3) endpoints for influenza proxies (such as influenza-like illness) need to be matched to case definitions for treatment costs, (4) disease burden estimates vary from year to year with strain transmissibility, virulence and prior immunity, (5) methods to estimate productivity losses due to influenza vary, (6) vaccine efficacy estimates from trials differ due to variation in subtype prevalence, vaccine match and case ascertainment, and (7) indirect (herd) protection from vaccination depends on setting-specific variables that are difficult to directly measure. Given the importance of knowing the impact of changes to influenza policy, such complexities need careful treatment using tools such as population-based trial designs, meta-analyses, time-series analyses and transmission dynamic models.

  1. Improved Recharge Estimation from Portable, Low-Cost Weather Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländer, Hartmut M; Wang, Zijian; Assefa, Kibreab A; Woodbury, Allan D

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater recharge estimation is a critical quantity for sustainable groundwater management. The feasibility and robustness of recharge estimation was evaluated using physical-based modeling procedures, and data from a low-cost weather station with remote sensor techniques in Southern Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada. Recharge was determined using the Richards-based vadose zone hydrological model, HYDRUS-1D. The required meteorological data were recorded with a HOBO(TM) weather station for a short observation period (about 1 year) and an existing weather station (Abbotsford A) for long-term study purpose (27 years). Undisturbed soil cores were taken at two locations in the vicinity of the HOBO(TM) weather station. The derived soil hydraulic parameters were used to characterize the soil in the numerical model. Model performance was evaluated using observed soil moisture and soil temperature data obtained from subsurface remote sensors. A rigorous sensitivity analysis was used to test the robustness of the model. Recharge during the short observation period was estimated at 863 and 816 mm. The mean annual recharge was estimated at 848 and 859 mm/year based on a time series of 27 years. The relative ratio of annual recharge-precipitation varied from 43% to 69%. From a monthly recharge perspective, the majority (80%) of recharge due to precipitation occurred during the hydrologic winter period. The comparison of the recharge estimates with other studies indicates a good agreement. Furthermore, this method is able to predict transient recharge estimates, and can provide a reasonable tool for estimates on nutrient leaching that is often controlled by strong precipitation events and rapid infiltration of water and nitrate into the soil.

  2. Improved Recharge Estimation from Portable, Low-Cost Weather Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländer, Hartmut M; Wang, Zijian; Assefa, Kibreab A; Woodbury, Allan D

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater recharge estimation is a critical quantity for sustainable groundwater management. The feasibility and robustness of recharge estimation was evaluated using physical-based modeling procedures, and data from a low-cost weather station with remote sensor techniques in Southern Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada. Recharge was determined using the Richards-based vadose zone hydrological model, HYDRUS-1D. The required meteorological data were recorded with a HOBO(TM) weather station for a short observation period (about 1 year) and an existing weather station (Abbotsford A) for long-term study purpose (27 years). Undisturbed soil cores were taken at two locations in the vicinity of the HOBO(TM) weather station. The derived soil hydraulic parameters were used to characterize the soil in the numerical model. Model performance was evaluated using observed soil moisture and soil temperature data obtained from subsurface remote sensors. A rigorous sensitivity analysis was used to test the robustness of the model. Recharge during the short observation period was estimated at 863 and 816 mm. The mean annual recharge was estimated at 848 and 859 mm/year based on a time series of 27 years. The relative ratio of annual recharge-precipitation varied from 43% to 69%. From a monthly recharge perspective, the majority (80%) of recharge due to precipitation occurred during the hydrologic winter period. The comparison of the recharge estimates with other studies indicates a good agreement. Furthermore, this method is able to predict transient recharge estimates, and can provide a reasonable tool for estimates on nutrient leaching that is often controlled by strong precipitation events and rapid infiltration of water and nitrate into the soil. PMID:26011672

  3. Cost of Hospitalization for Foodborne Diarrhea: A Case Study from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Minh; Tran, Tuan Anh; Ha, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Viet Hung

    2015-11-01

    Vietnam is undergoing a rapid social and economic developments resulting in speedy urbanization, changes in methods for animal production, food marketing systems, and food consumption habits. These changes will have major impacts on human exposures to food poisoning. The present case study aimed to estimate hospitalization costs of foodborne diarrhea cases in selected health facilities in Vietnam. This is a facility-based cost-of-illness study conducted in seven health facilities in Northern Vietnam. All suspect cases of foodborne diarrhea, as diagnosed by doctors, who admitted to the studied health facilities during June-August, 2013 were selected. Costs associated with hospitalization for foodborne diseases were estimated from societal perspective using retrospective approach. We included direct and indirect costs of hospitalization of foodborne diarrhea cases. During the study period, 87 foodborne diarrhea cases were included. On average, the costs per treatment episode and per hospitalization day for foodborne diarrhea case were US$ 106.9 and US$ 33.6 respectively. Indirect cost (costs of times to patient, their relatives due to the patient's illness) made up the largest share (51.3%). Direct medical costs accounted for 33.8%; direct non-medical costs (patient and their relatives) represented 14.9%. Cost levels and compositions varied by level of health facilities. More attentions should be paid on prevention, control of foodborne diarrhea cases in Vietnam. Ensuring safety of food depends on efforts of everyone involved in food chain continuum, from production, processing, and transport to consumption. PMID:26617452

  4. Cost of Hospitalization for Foodborne Diarrhea: A Case Study from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Minh; Tran, Tuan Anh; Ha, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Viet Hung

    2015-11-01

    Vietnam is undergoing a rapid social and economic developments resulting in speedy urbanization, changes in methods for animal production, food marketing systems, and food consumption habits. These changes will have major impacts on human exposures to food poisoning. The present case study aimed to estimate hospitalization costs of foodborne diarrhea cases in selected health facilities in Vietnam. This is a facility-based cost-of-illness study conducted in seven health facilities in Northern Vietnam. All suspect cases of foodborne diarrhea, as diagnosed by doctors, who admitted to the studied health facilities during June-August, 2013 were selected. Costs associated with hospitalization for foodborne diseases were estimated from societal perspective using retrospective approach. We included direct and indirect costs of hospitalization of foodborne diarrhea cases. During the study period, 87 foodborne diarrhea cases were included. On average, the costs per treatment episode and per hospitalization day for foodborne diarrhea case were US$ 106.9 and US$ 33.6 respectively. Indirect cost (costs of times to patient, their relatives due to the patient's illness) made up the largest share (51.3%). Direct medical costs accounted for 33.8%; direct non-medical costs (patient and their relatives) represented 14.9%. Cost levels and compositions varied by level of health facilities. More attentions should be paid on prevention, control of foodborne diarrhea cases in Vietnam. Ensuring safety of food depends on efforts of everyone involved in food chain continuum, from production, processing, and transport to consumption.

  5. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... A of Part 1924—Estimated Breakdown of Dwelling Costs for Estimating Partial Payments With slab...

  6. Architects and Design-Phase Cost Estimates: Design Professionals Should Reconsider the Value of Third-Party Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, John

    2010-01-01

    Professional cost estimators are widely used by architects during the design phases of a project to provide preliminary cost estimates. These estimates may begin at the conceptual design phase and are prepared at regular intervals through the construction document phase. Estimating professionals are frequently tasked with "selling" the importance…

  7. Fast Conceptual Cost Estimating of Aerospace Projects Using Historical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates can be created in less than a minute by applying powerful techniques and algorithms to create an Excel-based parametric cost model. In five easy steps you will learn how to normalize your company 's historical cost data to the new project parameters. This paper provides a complete, easy-to-understand, step by step how-to guide. Such a guide does not seem to currently exist. Over 2,000 hours of research, data collection, and trial and error, and thousands of lines of Excel Visual Basic Application (VBA) code were invested in developing these methods. While VBA is not required to use this information, it increases the power and aesthetics of the model. Implementing all of the steps described, while not required, will increase the accuracy of the results.

  8. The Software Costs Estimation Based on UML Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaopingYang; LuJun; YuefengZhao

    2004-01-01

    UML is a standard modeling language used in object-oriented analysis and design. Function point analysis is a method used to measure the size of an application, It is independent of the implementation programming language. Its measuring result can be compared between different development processes. This paper presents a method to use the requirements analysis model of UML to analysis the application's function points, so software developer can use it to estimate the project's size and cost. An improved method is given at the end of this paper.

  9. An evolutionary morphological approach for software development cost estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ricardo de A; Oliveira, Adriano L I; Soares, Sergio; Meira, Silvio

    2012-08-01

    In this work we present an evolutionary morphological approach to solve the software development cost estimation (SDCE) problem. The proposed approach consists of a hybrid artificial neuron based on framework of mathematical morphology (MM) with algebraic foundations in the complete lattice theory (CLT), referred to as dilation-erosion perceptron (DEP). Also, we present an evolutionary learning process, called DEP(MGA), using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA) to design the DEP model, because a drawback arises from the gradient estimation of morphological operators in the classical learning process of the DEP, since they are not differentiable in the usual way. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the proposed model using five complex SDCE problems and three well-known performance metrics, demonstrating good performance of the DEP model to solve SDCE problems.

  10. 48 CFR 2452.216-70 - Estimated cost, base fee and award fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated cost, base fee... Provisions and Clauses 2452.216-70 Estimated cost, base fee and award fee. As prescribed in 2416.406(e)(1), insert the following clause in all cost-plus-award-fee contracts: Estimated Cost, Base Fee and Award...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.216-84 - Estimated cost and incentive fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Estimated cost and... Provisions and Clauses 1852.216-84 Estimated cost and incentive fee. As prescribed in 1816.406-70(d), insert the following clause: Estimated Cost and Incentive Fee (OCT 1996) The target cost of this contract...

  12. 40 CFR 265.144 - Cost estimate for post-closure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate for post-closure care..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Financial Requirements § 265.144 Cost estimate for post-closure care. (a....280, and 265.310. (1) The post-closure cost estimate must be based on the costs to the owner...

  13. Early-Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Biorefinery Processes: A Comparative Study of Heuristic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkari, Mirela; Couturier, Jean-Luc; Kokossis, Antonis; Dubois, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-01

    Biorefineries offer a promising alternative to fossil-based processing industries and have undergone rapid development in recent years. Limited financial resources and stringent company budgets necessitate quick capital estimation of pioneering biorefinery projects at the early stages of their conception to screen process alternatives, decide on project viability, and allocate resources to the most promising cases. Biorefineries are capital-intensive projects that involve state-of-the-art technologies for which there is no prior experience or sufficient historical data. This work reviews existing rapid cost estimation practices, which can be used by researchers with no previous cost estimating experience. It also comprises a comparative study of six cost methods on three well-documented biorefinery processes to evaluate their accuracy and precision. The results illustrate discrepancies among the methods because their extrapolation on biorefinery data often violates inherent assumptions. This study recommends the most appropriate rapid cost methods and urges the development of an improved early-stage capital cost estimation tool suitable for biorefinery processes. PMID:27484398

  14. Why Don't They Just Give Us Money? Project Cost Estimating and Cost Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Douglas A.; Van Wychen, Kristin; Zimmerman, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Successful projects require an integrated approach to managing cost, schedule, and risk. This is especially true for complex, multi-year projects involving multiple organizations. To explore solutions and leverage valuable lessons learned, NASA's Virtual Project Management Challenge will kick off a three-part series examining some of the challenges faced by project and program managers when it comes to managing these important elements. In this first session of the series, we will look at cost management, with an emphasis on the critical roles of cost estimating and cost reporting. By taking a proactive approach to both of these activities, project managers can better control life cycle costs, maintain stakeholder confidence, and protect other current and future projects in the organization's portfolio. Speakers will be Doug Comstock, Director of NASA's Cost Analysis Division, Kristin Van Wychen, Senior Analyst in the GAO Acquisition and Sourcing Management Team, and Mary Beth Zimmerman, Branch Chief for NASA's Portfolio Analysis Branch, Strategic Investments Division. Moderator Ramien Pierre is from NASA's Academy for Program/Project and Engineering Leadership (APPEL).

  15. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 5: Cost estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The costing approach, methodology, and rationale utilized for generating cost data for composite IUS and space tug orbital operations are discussed. Summary cost estimates are given along with cost data initially derived for the IUS program and space tug program individually, and cost estimates for each work breakdown structure element.

  16. An activity-based-parametric hybrid cost model to estimate the unit cost of a novel gas turbine component

    OpenAIRE

    Langmaak, Stephan; Wiseall, Stephen; Bru, Christophe; Adkins, Russell; Scanlan, James; Sóbester, András

    2013-01-01

    The first tool presented in this paper is a generic factory cost model that can estimate various costs at multiple levels of any manufacturing plant. The model is activity based which means that the cost of each manufacturing operation is calculated and then summed up so that the true £-per-hour factory cost rate as well as the exact unit cost (i.e. manufacturing cost) of an unlimited number of different components can be estimated. The second tool is a scalable cost model that predicts t...

  17. Application of Korean Specific Data to Economic Cost Estimation by KOSCA-MACCS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Default values for various data provided by MACCS2(MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2) such as population, weather, food, and economic cost are far from current domestic condition. In the case of economic cost data, related default values came from MACCS and WASH-1400. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been developed a Korean-specific level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) code package based on MACCS2 to reflect domestic condition for off-site consequence analysis. To this end, we performed a study on the domestic specific technical issues for level 3 PSA, which are a dose conversion factor, food chain model, atmospheric dispersion model, and domestic-specific economic effect model. Based on the study, we developed a level 3 PSA code, so-called KOSCAMACCS2 (Korean-specific Off-Site Consequence Analysis based on MACCS2). The purpose of this paper is to introduce economic cost variable provided by KOSCA-MACCS2 and application of Korean-specific data to the related economic cost estimation with KOSCA-MACCS2. In this paper, we introduced economic cost variable provided by KOSCA-MACCS2 and suggested the application plan of Korean-specific data to the related economic cost estimation. To this end, we considered data sources for those economic cost variables to reflect Korea-specific features such as data by Statistics Korea or Bank of Korea etc. For the decontamination related variables, we applied foreign literatures to apply data, which are Extern-E and UNESCO Chernobyl Forum data. Based on the data resources we estimated data for input variables related to economic cost estimation

  18. Application of Korean Specific Data to Economic Cost Estimation by KOSCA-MACCS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Default values for various data provided by MACCS2(MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2) such as population, weather, food, and economic cost are far from current domestic condition. In the case of economic cost data, related default values came from MACCS and WASH-1400. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been developed a Korean-specific level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) code package based on MACCS2 to reflect domestic condition for off-site consequence analysis. To this end, we performed a study on the domestic specific technical issues for level 3 PSA, which are a dose conversion factor, food chain model, atmospheric dispersion model, and domestic-specific economic effect model. Based on the study, we developed a level 3 PSA code, so-called KOSCAMACCS2 (Korean-specific Off-Site Consequence Analysis based on MACCS2). The purpose of this paper is to introduce economic cost variable provided by KOSCA-MACCS2 and application of Korean-specific data to the related economic cost estimation with KOSCA-MACCS2. In this paper, we introduced economic cost variable provided by KOSCA-MACCS2 and suggested the application plan of Korean-specific data to the related economic cost estimation. To this end, we considered data sources for those economic cost variables to reflect Korea-specific features such as data by Statistics Korea or Bank of Korea etc. For the decontamination related variables, we applied foreign literatures to apply data, which are Extern-E and UNESCO Chernobyl Forum data. Based on the data resources we estimated data for input variables related to economic cost estimation.

  19. Identifying costs for capitation in psychiatric case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J J; Chiverton, P; Hines, V

    1998-01-01

    This article presents an example of how one hospital identified costs for capitation in psychiatric case management. An 18-month postacute case management pilot project collected data on a nurse-specific and patient-specific basis. Costs were identified using activity-based costing methodology. PMID:9502055

  20. Cost benchmarking of railway projects in Europe – dealing with uncertainties in cost estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabo, Inara

    , Italian projects have productive experiences in constructing and operating high-speed railway lines. The case study for this research is the first Danish high-speed railway line “The New Line Copenhagen-Ringsted”. The project’s aim is to avoid cost overruns and even make lower the final budget outcomes...... results show that the cost values of the projects located in the same geographical zone are slightly the same, e.g. this is explained by the use of the same construction companies presented in the market. However there are still many uncertainties included into received information from the other projects...

  1. Activity Based Costing and Product Pricing Decision: the Nigerian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Ebipanipre Gabriel Mieseigha

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined activity based costing and product pricing decisions in Nigeria so as to ascertain whether activity based costing have the ability to enhance profitability and control cost of manufacturing firms. Towards this end, a multiple correlation and regression estimation technique was used in analyzing the data obtained in the study. The study found that activity based costing affects product costing and pricing decision. In addition, the results showed that improved profitability...

  2. Environmental external cost estimation of a major power plant type in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for coal, LNG, and nuclear power plant, environmental external costs were estimated. The estimation covered health and/or crops impacts caused by ambient pollutants such as PM10, SO2, sulfates, nitrates, and radioactive isotopes, for one year operation basis. According to the results, in the case of without installation of FDG and DE-NOx to coal and LNG, nuclear power(0.48mills/kWh) has economic competitiveness over coal (30.2mills/kWh) ad LNG(2.4 mills/kWh) power plant, And also, in the case of installation of FDG and DE-NOx to coal power plant and DE-NOx for LNG power plant, nuclear power appears to be the most economical option. Further study is required in the field of environmental external costs of global impact, water impact, and accident impact in order to properly capture the whole impacts on public health and agricultural crops

  3. A General Model for Cost Estimation in an Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzion Barlev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP state that the cost of an asset acquired for cash is the fair value (FV of the amount surrendered, and that of an asset acquired in a non-monetary exchange is the FV of the asset surrendered or, if it is more “clearly evident,” the FV of the acquired asset. The measurement method prescribed for a non-monetary exchange ignores valuable information about the “less clearly evident” asset. Thus, we suggest that the FV in any exchange be measured by the weighted average of the exchanged assets’ FV estimations, where the weights are the inverse of the variances’ estimations. This alternative valuation process accounts for the uncertainty involved in estimating the FV of each of the asset in the exchange. The proposed method suits all types of exchanges: monetary and non-monetary. In a monetary transaction, the weighted average equals the cash paid because the variance of its FV is nil.

  4. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 3, book 1: Program cost estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peffley, Al F.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Concepts and Requirements Study cost estimate and program planning analysis is presented. The cost estimating technique used to support STV system, subsystem, and component cost analysis is a mixture of parametric cost estimating and selective cost analogy approaches. The parametric cost analysis is aimed at developing cost-effective aerobrake, crew module, tank module, and lander designs with the parametric cost estimates data. This is accomplished using cost as a design parameter in an iterative process with conceptual design input information. The parametric estimating approach segregates costs by major program life cycle phase (development, production, integration, and launch support). These phases are further broken out into major hardware subsystems, software functions, and tasks according to the STV preliminary program work breakdown structure (WBS). The WBS is defined to a low enough level of detail by the study team to highlight STV system cost drivers. This level of cost visibility provided the basis for cost sensitivity analysis against various design approaches aimed at achieving a cost-effective design. The cost approach, methodology, and rationale are described. A chronological record of the interim review material relating to cost analysis is included along with a brief summary of the study contract tasks accomplished during that period of review and the key conclusions or observations identified that relate to STV program cost estimates. The STV life cycle costs are estimated on the proprietary parametric cost model (PCM) with inputs organized by a project WBS. Preliminary life cycle schedules are also included.

  5. Fuzzy/Neural Software Estimates Costs of Rocket-Engine Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Freddie; Bourgeois, Edit Kaminsky

    2005-01-01

    The Highly Accurate Cost Estimating Model (HACEM) is a software system for estimating the costs of testing rocket engines and components at Stennis Space Center. HACEM is built on a foundation of adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) a hybrid software concept that combines the adaptive capabilities of neural networks with the ease of development and additional benefits of fuzzy-logic-based systems. In ANFIS, fuzzy inference systems are trained by use of neural networks. HACEM includes selectable subsystems that utilize various numbers and types of inputs, various numbers of fuzzy membership functions, and various input-preprocessing techniques. The inputs to HACEM are parameters of specific tests or series of tests. These parameters include test type (component or engine test), number and duration of tests, and thrust level(s) (in the case of engine tests). The ANFIS in HACEM are trained by use of sets of these parameters, along with costs of past tests. Thereafter, the user feeds HACEM a simple input text file that contains the parameters of a planned test or series of tests, the user selects the desired HACEM subsystem, and the subsystem processes the parameters into an estimate of cost(s).

  6. Estimating the marginal cost of reducing global fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper estimates the marginal, total, and average cost and effectiveness of carbon taxes applied either by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) members alone, or as part of a global cooperative strategy, to reduce potential future emissions and their direct implications for employment in the US coal industry. Two sets of cases are examined, one set in which OECD members acts alone, and another set in which the world acts in concert. In each case set taxes are examined which achieve four alternative levels of emissions reduction: halve the rate of emissions growth, no emissions growth, 20% reduction from 1988 levels, and 50% reduction from 1988 levels. For the global cooperation case, carbon tax rates of $32, $113, $161, and $517 per metric ton of carbon (mtC) were needed in the year 2025 to achieve the objectives. Total costs were respectively $40, $178, $253, and $848 billions of 1990 US dollars per year in the year 2025. Average costs were $32, $55, $59, and $135 per mtC. Costs were significantly higher in the cases in which the OECD members states acted alone. OECD member states, acting alone, could not reduce global emissions by 50% or 20% relative to 1988, given reference case assumptions regarding developing and recently planned nations economic growth

  7. An integrated model for estimating energy cost of a tidal current turbine farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Naval Architecture and Offshore Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 1051-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lence, Barbara J. [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2002-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Calisal, Sander M. [Naval Architecture and Offshore Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 1051-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Piri Reis University Turkey, 34940 Tuzla Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-03-15

    A tidal current turbine is a device for harnessing energy from tidal currents and functions in a manner similar to a wind turbine. A tidal current turbine farm consists of a group of tidal current turbines distributed in a site where high-speed current is available. The accurate prediction of energy cost of a tidal current turbine farm is important to the justification of planning and constructing such a farm. However, the existing approaches used to predict energy cost of tidal current turbine farms oversimplify the hydrodynamic interactions between turbines in energy prediction and oversimplify the operation and maintenance strategies involved in cost estimation as well as related fees. In this paper, we develop a model, which integrates a marine hydrodynamic model with high accuracy for predicting energy output and a comprehensive cost-effective operation and maintenance model for estimating the cost that may be incurred in producing the energy, to predict energy cost from a tidal current turbine farm. This model is expected to be able to simulate more complicated cases and generate more accurate results than existing models. As there is no real tidal current turbine farm, we validate this model with offshore wind studies. Finally, case studies about Vancouver are conducted with a scenario-based analysis. We minimize the energy cost by minimizing the total cost and maximizing the total power output under constraints related to the local conditions (e.g., geological and labor information) and the turbine specifications. The results suggest that tidal current energy is about ready to penetrate the electricity market in some major cities in North America if learning curve for the operational and maintenance is minimum. (author)

  8. An integrated model for estimating energy cost of a tidal current turbine farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ye, E-mail: ye.li@nrel.go [Naval Architecture and Offshore Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 1051-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4 (Canada); Lence, Barbara J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2002-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4 (Canada); Calisal, Sander M. [Naval Architecture and Offshore Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 1051-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4 (Canada); Piri Reis University Turkey, 34940 Tuzla Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-03-15

    A tidal current turbine is a device for harnessing energy from tidal currents and functions in a manner similar to a wind turbine. A tidal current turbine farm consists of a group of tidal current turbines distributed in a site where high-speed current is available. The accurate prediction of energy cost of a tidal current turbine farm is important to the justification of planning and constructing such a farm. However, the existing approaches used to predict energy cost of tidal current turbine farms oversimplify the hydrodynamic interactions between turbines in energy prediction and oversimplify the operation and maintenance strategies involved in cost estimation as well as related fees. In this paper, we develop a model, which integrates a marine hydrodynamic model with high accuracy for predicting energy output and a comprehensive cost-effective operation and maintenance model for estimating the cost that may be incurred in producing the energy, to predict energy cost from a tidal current turbine farm. This model is expected to be able to simulate more complicated cases and generate more accurate results than existing models. As there is no real tidal current turbine farm, we validate this model with offshore wind studies. Finally, case studies about Vancouver are conducted with a scenario-based analysis. We minimize the energy cost by minimizing the total cost and maximizing the total power output under constraints related to the local conditions (e.g., geological and labor information) and the turbine specifications. The results suggest that tidal current energy is about ready to penetrate the electricity market in some major cities in North America if learning curve for the operational and maintenance is minimum.

  9. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Water heaters—§ 430.23(e). (5) Room air conditioners—§ 430.23(f). (6) Clothes washers—§ 430.23(j). (7) Central air conditioners and heat pumps—§ 430.23(m). (8) Furnaces—§ 430.23(n). (9) Pool Heaters—§ 430.23(p... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate....

  10. Maximum likelihood estimation for Cox's regression model under nested case-control sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas Harder; Juul, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Nested case-control sampling is designed to reduce the costs of large cohort studies. It is important to estimate the parameters of interest as efficiently as possible. We present a new maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for nested case-control sampling in the context of Cox's proportional hazard...

  11. FASTSim: A Model to Estimate Vehicle Efficiency, Cost and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Wang, L.; Wood, E.; Lopp, S.; Ramroth, L.

    2015-05-04

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is a high-level advanced vehicle powertrain systems analysis tool supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office. FASTSim provides a quick and simple approach to compare powertrains and estimate the impact of technology improvements on light- and heavy-duty vehicle efficiency, performance, cost, and battery batches of real-world drive cycles. FASTSim’s calculation framework and balance among detail, accuracy, and speed enable it to simulate thousands of driven miles in minutes. The key components and vehicle outputs have been validated by comparing the model outputs to test data for many different vehicles to provide confidence in the results. A graphical user interface makes FASTSim easy and efficient to use. FASTSim is freely available for download from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s website (see www.nrel.gov/fastsim).

  12. Cost estimation of HVDC transmission system of Bangka's NPP candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liun, Edwaren; Suparman

    2014-09-01

    Regarding nuclear power plant development in Bangka Island, it can be estimated that produced power will be oversupply for the Bangka Island and needs to transmit to Sumatra or Java Island. The distance between the regions or islands causing considerable loss of power in transmission by alternating current, and a wide range of technical and economical issues. The objective of this paper addresses to economics analysis of direct current transmission system to overcome those technical problem. Direct current transmission has a stable characteristic, so that the power delivery from Bangka to Sumatra or Java in a large scale efficiently and reliably can be done. HVDC system costs depend on the power capacity applied to the system and length of the transmission line in addition to other variables that may be different.

  13. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Domian, H.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Madson, A.A. [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs

  15. "Estimation of Fatigue Cost of Commuting Congestion and Optimal Congestion Fare" (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Hisaki Yamaga; Tatsuo Hatta

    2000-01-01

    This paper has three aims. First, we estimate a hedonic housing rent function along the Chuo Line in Tokyo with (i) commuting time distance and (ii) congestion degree as explanatory variables. Second, from the hedonic rent function thus estimated, we measure time cost and fatigue cost of commuting in terms of Equivalent Variation. We show that the fatigue cost of commuting is 5-29% of total commuting cost. Third, from the fatigue cost thus estimated, we measure marginal external congestion co...

  16. Comparative cost estimates of five coal utilization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Detailed capital and operating cost estimates were prepared for the generation of electric power in a new, net 500 MW (e), coal-burning facility by five alternative processes: conventional boiler with no control of SO/sub 2/ emissions, atmospheric fluidized bed steam generator (AFB), conventional boiler equipped with a limestone FGD system, conventional boiler equipped with magnesia FGD system, and coal beneficiation followed by a conventional boiler quipped with limestone FGD for part of the flue gas stream. For a coal containing 3.5% sulfur, meeting SO/sub 2/ emission limits of 1.2 pounds per million Btu fired was most economical with the limestone FGD system. This result was unchanged for a coal containing 5% sulfur; however, for 2% sulfur, limestone FGD and AFB were competitive methods of controlling SO/sub 2/ emissions. Brief consideration of 90% reduction of SO/sub 2/ emissions led to the choice of limestone FGD as the most economical method. Byproduct credit for the sulfuric acid produced in regenerating the magnesia could make that system competitive with the limestone FGD system, depending upon local markets. The cost of sludge fixation and disposal would make limestone FGD noneconomic in many situations, if these steps are necessary.

  17. Cost Estimates of Electricity from a TPV Residential Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfinger, Günther; Bitnar, Bernd; Durisch, Wilhelm; Mayor, Jean-Claude; Grützmacher, Detlev; Gobrecht, Jens

    2003-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system was built using a 12 to 20 kWth methane burner which should be integrated into a conventional residential heating system. The TPV system is cylindrical in shape and consists of a selective Yb2O3 emitter, a quartz glass tube to prevent the exhaust gases from heating the cells and a 0.2 m2 monocrystalline silicon solar cell module which is water cooled. The maximum system efficiency of 1.0 % was obtained at a thermal input power of 12 kWth. The electrical power suffices to run a residential heating system in the full power range (12 to 20 kWth) independently of the grid. The end user costs of the TPV components - emitter, glass tube, photocells and cell cooling circuit - were estimated considering 4 different TPV scenarios. The existing technique was compared with an improved system currently under development, which consists of a flexible photocell module that can be glued into the boiler housing and with systems with improved system efficiency (1.5 to 5 %) and geometry. Prices of the electricity from 2.5 to 22 EURcents/kWhel (excl. gas of about 3.5 EURcents/kWh), which corresponds to system costs of 340 to 3000 EUR/kWel,peak, were calculated. The price of electricity by TPV was compared with that of fuel cells and gas engines. While fuel cells are still expensive, gas engines have the disadvantage of maintenance, noise and bulkiness. TPV, in contrast, is a cost efficient alternative to produce heat and electricity, particularly in small peripheral units.

  18. Calculation of the Average Cost per Case of Dengue Fever in Mexico Using a Micro-Costing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The increasing burden of dengue fever (DF) in the Americas, and the current epidemic in previously unaffected countries, generate major costs for national healthcare systems. There is a need to quantify the average cost per DF case. In Mexico, few data are available on costs, despite DF being endemic in some areas. Extrapolations from studies in other countries may prove unreliable and are complicated by the two main Mexican healthcare systems (the Secretariat of Health [SS] and the Mexican Social Security Institute [IMSS]). The present study aimed to generate specific average DF cost-per-case data for Mexico using a micro-costing approach. Methods Expected medical costs associated with an ideal management protocol for DF (denoted ´ideal costs´) were compared with the medical costs of current treatment practice (denoted ´real costs´) in 2012. Real cost data were derived from chart review of DF cases and interviews with patients and key personnel from 64 selected hospitals and ambulatory care units in 16 states for IMSS and SS. In both institutions, ideal and real costs were estimated using the program, actions, activities, tasks, inputs (PAATI) approach, a micro-costing technique developed by us. Results Clinical pathways were obtained for 1,168 patients following review of 1,293 charts. Ideal and real costs for SS patients were US$165.72 and US$32.60, respectively, in the outpatient setting, and US$587.77 and US$490.93, respectively, in the hospital setting. For IMSS patients, ideal and real costs were US$337.50 and US$92.03, respectively, in the outpatient setting, and US$2,042.54 and US$1,644.69 in the hospital setting. Conclusions The markedly higher ideal versus real costs may indicate deficiencies in the actual care of patients with DF. It may be necessary to derive better estimates with micro-costing techniques and compare the ideal protocol with current practice when calculating these costs, as patients do not always receive optimal care

  19. Taking the Evolutionary Road to Developing an In-House Cost Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacintho, David; Esker, Lind; Herman, Frank; Lavaque, Rodolfo; Regardie, Myma

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process and some of the problems and challenges of developing an In-House Cost Estimate (IHCE). Using as an example the Space Network Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) project, the presentation reviews the phases for developing a Cost estimate within the project to estimate government and contractor project costs to support a budget request.

  20. 78 FR 61227 - Public Assistance Cost Estimating Format for Large Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 206 RIN 1660-AA73 Public Assistance Cost... implementation of the Cost Estimating Format (CEF) as the standard estimating procedure for large permanent work.... The CEF provides a uniform method of estimating costs for large projects. In this rule, FEMA...

  1. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost estimate for plugging and... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or operator must prepare a written estimate, in current dollars, of the cost of plugging the injection well...

  2. 48 CFR 36.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government cost estimate... Architect-Engineer Services 36.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. (a) An independent Government estimate of the cost of architect-engineer services shall be prepared and furnished to...

  3. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government cost estimate... Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The contracting officer may release the Government's total cost estimate in accordance with FAR 36.605(b)....

  4. An estimate of the global health care and lost productivity costs of dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selck, Frederic W; Adalja, Amesh A; Boddie, Crystal R

    2014-11-01

    Contemporary cost estimates of dengue fever are difficult to attain in many countries in which the disease is endemic. By applying publicly available health care costs and wage data to recently available country-level estimates of dengue incidence, we estimate the total cost of dengue to be nearly 40 billion dollars in 2011. PMID:25409275

  5. Handbook for quick cost estimates. A method for developing quick approximate estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a supplement to a ''Handbook for Cost Estimating'' (NUREG/CR-3971) and provides specific guidance for developing ''quick'' approximate estimates of the cost of implementing generic regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants. A method is presented for relating the known construction costs for new nuclear power plants (as contained in the Energy Economic Data Base) to the cost of performing similar work, on a back-fit basis, at existing plants. Cost factors are presented to account for variations in such important cost areas as construction labor productivity, engineering and quality assurance, replacement energy, reworking of existing features, and regional variations in the cost of materials and labor. Other cost categories addressed in this handbook include those for changes in plant operating personnel and plant documents, licensee costs, NRC costs, and costs for other government agencies. Data sheets, worksheets, and appropriate cost algorithms are included to guide the user through preparation of rough estimates. A sample estimate is prepared using the method and the estimating tools provided

  6. The cost of treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer: estimates from the chinese experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because of the potentially significant economic burden of healthcare costs associated with many diseases, it is critical that regulatory and medical insurance organisations collect and utilise data on the cost-effectiveness of care provision to make rational policy decisions. However, little is known about healthcare costs in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on health expenditure data for 253 cases of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC registered at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University in China between 2006 and 2010, the cost of care provision was analysed. The monthly and aggregate annual medical costs were estimated for patients who were in either a progression-free state (PFS or a disease-progression state (DPS. Monthly healthcare costs accumulated during the terminal 3 months were collected separately. The mean cost of treatment for PFS and DPS patients over one year was approximately US$11,566 and $14,519, respectively. The monthly costs for all patients were higher initially than in the subsequent months (PFS: $2,490; DPS: $2,503. For PFS patients, healthcare expenditures stabilised after the 7th month, with a mean monthly medical expenditure of $82.49. For DPS patients, expenditures stabilised after the 9th month, and the mean expenditure during the 9th month was $307.9. Medical care costs in the three successive months prior to death were $3,754, $5,829 and $7,372, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The economic evaluation of health care technologies is becoming ever more important in China, especially in disease areas for which new and expensive therapies are being introduced on a regular basis. This is first paper to present empirically estimated China-specific costs associated with the treatment of NSCLC. The cost estimates are presented in a format that is specifically intended to inform cost-effectiveness analyses of treatments for NSCLC, and hence, contribute to the more

  7. Wide Differences in the Estimation of Cost in Endovenous Laser Therapy for Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, Christopher R.; Piper, Stephen; Kalodiki, Evi; Trueman, Paul; Geroulakos, George

    2011-08-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate differences in cost of endovenous laser therapy (EVLT) using a top-down approach derived from the Annual Report versus a clinically orientated, bottom-up approach at a single hospital. METHODS: Information was obtained from: the day-case activity Service Line Report (SLR) income statement for general surgery, comparative data from the National Audit Commission, reference costs from the hospital finance department on 69 patients and calculations on individual treatment times and session slots (2 EVLT's per 3.5 hr session) on 37 consecutive patients. Duration of treatment, consumables (over £3) and staff pay were also recorded. Overheads were estimated at 15% and adjustments were made based on location and length of stay. RESULTS: Using a top-down approach with SLR data the total cost of EVLT was estimated at £963.78 per treatment after adjustments for services and consumables. This compares with £1,073.34 using national data. The hospital reference costs per treatment ranged from £767.56 overall by local procedure code (HRG-QZ10B) to £2,353.79 with individual samples. In the bottom-up approach median duration of EVLT was 86 mins (95% CI: 82-95, IQR: 26). With timed treatments median cost per individual treatment was £597.68 (95% CI: 587.65-621.25, IQR: 67.87) compared to £647.28 per session slot. CONCLUSION: Cost estimations of EVLT demonstrate an up to 4-fold difference. Lack of clinical engagement in the top-down approach leads to overestimations. Overheads are underestimated with a bottom-up approach. This variability should be accounted when comparing treatments or interpreting cost-effectiveness analyses.

  8. DD-EbA: An algorithm for determining the number of neighbors in cost estimation by analogy using distance distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Kosti, Makrina Viola; Angelis, Lefteris

    2010-01-01

    Case Based Reasoning and particularly Estimation by Analogy, has been used in a number of problem-solving areas, such as cost estimation. Conventional methods, despite the lack of a sound criterion for choosing nearest projects, were based on estimation using a fixed and predetermined number of neighbors from the entire set of historical instances. This approach puts boundaries to the estimation ability of such algorithms, for they do not take into consideration that every project under estimation is unique and requires different handling. The notion of distributions of distances together with a distance metric for distributions help us to adapt the proposed method (we call it DD-EbA) each time to a specific case that is to be estimated without loosing in prediction power or computational cost. The results of this paper show that the proposed technique achieves the above idea in a very efficient way.

  9. IDC reengineering Phase 2 & 3 US industry standard cost estimate summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huelskamp, Robert M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, using a commercial software cost estimation tool calibrated to US industry performance parameters. This is not a cost estimate for Sandia to perform the project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  10. Cost estimation: An expert-opinion approach. [cost analysis of research projects using the Delphi method (forecasting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalano, C.; Fogleman, S.; Gielecki, M.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology is outlined which can be used to estimate the costs of research and development projects. The approach uses the Delphi technique a method developed by the Rand Corporation for systematically eliciting and evaluating group judgments in an objective manner. The use of the Delphi allows for the integration of expert opinion into the cost-estimating process in a consistent and rigorous fashion. This approach can also signal potential cost-problem areas. This result can be a useful tool in planning additional cost analysis or in estimating contingency funds. A Monte Carlo approach is also examined.

  11. Estimated cost of a health visitor-led protocol for perinatal mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluboyede, Yemi; Lewis, Anne; Ilott, Irene; Lekka, Chrysanthi

    2010-06-01

    Anecdotally, protocols, care pathways and clinical guidelines are time consuming to develop and sustain, but there is little research about the actual costs of their development, use and audit.This is a notable gap considering the pervasiveness of such documents that are intended to reduce unacceptable variations in practice by standardising care processes. A case study research design was used to calculate the resource use costs of a protocol for perinatal mental health, part of the core programme for health visitors in a primary care trust in the west of England. The methods were in-depth interviews with the operational lead for the protocol (a health visitor) and documentary analysis. The total estimated cost of staff time over a five-year period (2004 to 2008) was Euro 73,598, comprising Euro 36,162 (49%) for development and Euro 37,436 (51%) for implementation. Although these are best estimates dependent upon retrospective data, they indicate the opportunity cost of staff time for a single protocol in one trust over five years. When new protocols, care pathways or clinical guidelines are proposed, the costs need to be considered and weighed against the benefits of engaging frontline staff in service improvements. PMID:20586374

  12. Expanding ART for treatment and prevention of HIV in South Africa: estimated cost and cost-effectiveness 2011-2050.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Granich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral Treatment (ART significantly reduces HIV transmission. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of the impact of expanded ART in South Africa. METHODS: We model a best case scenario of 90% annual HIV testing coverage in adults 15-49 years old and four ART eligibility scenarios: CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3 (current practice, CD4 count <350, CD4 count <500, all CD4 levels. 2011-2050 outcomes include deaths, disability adjusted life years (DALYs, HIV infections, cost, and cost per DALY averted. Service and ART costs reflect South African data and international generic prices. ART reduces transmission by 92%. We conducted sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Expanding ART to CD4 count <350 cells/mm(3 prevents an estimated 265,000 (17% and 1.3 million (15% new HIV infections over 5 and 40 years, respectively. Cumulative deaths decline 15%, from 12.5 to 10.6 million; DALYs by 14% from 109 to 93 million over 40 years. Costs drop $504 million over 5 years and $3.9 billion over 40 years with breakeven by 2013. Compared with the current scenario, expanding to <500 prevents an additional 585,000 and 3 million new HIV infections over 5 and 40 years, respectively. Expanding to all CD4 levels decreases HIV infections by 3.3 million (45% and costs by $10 billion over 40 years, with breakeven by 2023. By 2050, using higher ART and monitoring costs, all CD4 levels saves $0.6 billion versus current; other ART scenarios cost $9-194 per DALY averted. If ART reduces transmission by 99%, savings from all CD4 levels reach $17.5 billion. Sensitivity analyses suggest that poor retention and predominant acute phase transmission reduce DALYs averted by 26% and savings by 7%. CONCLUSION: Increasing the provision of ART to <350 cells/mm3 may significantly reduce costs while reducing the HIV burden. Feasibility including HIV testing and ART uptake, retention, and adherence should be evaluated.

  13. A DCM Based Attitude Estimation Algorithm for Low-Cost MEMS IMUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Hyyti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An attitude estimation algorithm is developed using an adaptive extended Kalman filter for low-cost microelectromechanical-system (MEMS triaxial accelerometers and gyroscopes, that is, inertial measurement units (IMUs. Although these MEMS sensors are relatively cheap, they give more inaccurate measurements than conventional high-quality gyroscopes and accelerometers. To be able to use these low-cost MEMS sensors with precision in all situations, a novel attitude estimation algorithm is proposed for fusing triaxial gyroscope and accelerometer measurements. An extended Kalman filter is implemented to estimate attitude in direction cosine matrix (DCM formation and to calibrate gyroscope biases online. We use a variable measurement covariance for acceleration measurements to ensure robustness against temporary nongravitational accelerations, which usually induce errors when estimating attitude with ordinary algorithms. The proposed algorithm enables accurate gyroscope online calibration by using only a triaxial gyroscope and accelerometer. It outperforms comparable state-of-the-art algorithms in those cases when there are either biases in the gyroscope measurements or large temporary nongravitational accelerations present. A low-cost, temperature-based calibration method is also discussed for initially calibrating gyroscope and acceleration sensors. An open source implementation of the algorithm is also available.

  14. Energetic costs of mange in wolves estimated from infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Almberg, Emily S.; Haase, Catherine G; Hudson, Peter J.; Maloney, Shane K; Metz, Matthew C; Munn, Adam J; Nugent, Paul; Putzeys, Olivier; Stahler, Daniel R.; Stewart, Anya C; Smith, Doug W.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites, by definition, extract energy from their hosts and thus affect trophic and food web dynamics even when the parasite may have limited effects on host population size. We studied the energetic costs of mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) in wolves (Canis lupus) using thermal cameras to estimate heat losses associated with compromised insulation during the winter. We combined the field data of known, naturally infected wolves with data set on captive wolves with shaved patches of fur as a positive control to simulate mange-induced hair loss. We predict that during the winter in Montana, more severe mange infection increases heat loss by around 5.2 to 12 MJ per night (1240 to 2850 kcal, or a 65% to 78% increase) for small and large wolves, respectively accounting for wind effects. To maintain body temperature would require a significant proportion of a healthy wolf's total daily energy demands (18-22 MJ/day). We also predict how these thermal costs may increase in colder climates by comparing our predictions in Bozeman, Montana to those from a place with lower ambient temperatures (Fairbanks, Alaska). Contrary to our expectations, the 14°C differential between these regions was not as important as the potential differences in wind speed. These large increases in energetic demands can be mitigated by either increasing consumption rates or decreasing other energy demands. Data from GPS-collared wolves indicated that healthy wolves move, on average, 17 km per day, which was reduced by 1.5, 1.8 and 6.5 km for light, medium, and severe hair loss. In addition, the wolf with the most hair loss was less active at night and more active during the day, which is the converse of the movement patterns of healthy wolves. At the individual level mange infections create significant energy demands and altered behavioral patterns, this may have cascading effects on prey consumption rates, food web dynamics, predator-prey interactions, and scavenger communities.

  15. Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-12-01

    This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation

  16. Using Linked Electronic Health Records to Estimate Healthcare Costs: Key Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaria, Miqdad; Grasic, Katja; Walker, Simon

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses key challenges and opportunities that arise when using linked electronic health records (EHR) in health economics and outcomes research (HEOR), with a particular focus on estimating healthcare costs. These challenges and opportunities are framed in the context of a case study modelling the costs of stable coronary artery disease in England. The challenges and opportunities discussed fall broadly into the categories of (1) handling and organising data of this size and sensitivity; (2) extracting clinical endpoints from datasets that have not been designed and collected with such endpoints in mind; and (3) the principles and practice of costing resource use from routinely collected data. We find that there are a number of new challenges and opportunities that arise when working with EHR compared with more traditional sources of data for HEOR. These call for greater clinician involvement and intelligent use of sensitivity analysis. PMID:26645571

  17. Computational cost estimates for parallel shared memory isogeometric multi-frontal solvers

    KAUST Repository

    Woźniak, Maciej

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we present computational cost estimates for parallel shared memory isogeometric multi-frontal solvers. The estimates show that the ideal isogeometric shared memory parallel direct solver scales as O( p2log(N/p)) for one dimensional problems, O(Np2) for two dimensional problems, and O(N4/3p2) for three dimensional problems, where N is the number of degrees of freedom, and p is the polynomial order of approximation. The computational costs of the shared memory parallel isogeometric direct solver are compared with those corresponding to the sequential isogeometric direct solver, being the latest equal to O(N p2) for the one dimensional case, O(N1.5p3) for the two dimensional case, and O(N2p3) for the three dimensional case. The shared memory version significantly reduces both the scalability in terms of N and p. Theoretical estimates are compared with numerical experiments performed with linear, quadratic, cubic, quartic, and quintic B-splines, in one and two spatial dimensions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The case for implementing activity based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Paul H; Bolinger-Perez, Nicole; Boysen, Kent

    2012-01-01

    ABC identifies profitable volumes to give managers information to better manage volumes. Managers must balance the demand for service while maintaining a reasonable profit margin. Disparate systems work extremely well for their intended purposes, but they do not communicate with one another. The strength of the data they hold individually may be leveraged when implementing ABC methodology. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota implemented a pilot of ABC to evaluate CT services where there is a high volume, multiple service location for cost comparison, variety of patient acuity and service mix, and large capital investments.The goal was to reveal the actual cost of CT services at the procedural level. PMID:23270120

  19. Estimating an Ex Ante Cost Function for Belgian Arable Crop Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kristiana; Baudry, Alexandre; De Blander, Rembert; Frahan, Bruno Henry de; Polome, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We estimate a farm-level cost function for Belgian crop farms using FADN data over the study period 1996-2006. We rely on an estimation of farmers' expected yields at the time cropping decisions are made rather than actual yields observed in the FADN data. The use of an ex ante cost function improves the cost function estimation. We subsequently suggest how our cost function can be used in simulations to analyze farmer response to changes in output price risk.

  20. Comparison of Cost Estimation Methods using Hybrid Artificial Intelligence on Schematic Design Stage: RANFIS and CBR-GA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WisnuIsvara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimating at schematic design stage as the basis of project evaluation, engineering design, and cost management, plays an important role in project decision under a limited definition of scope and constraints in available information and time, and the presence of uncertainties. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of cost estimation models of two different hybrid artificial intelligence approaches: regression analysis-adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (RANFIS and case based reasoning-genetic algorithm (CBRGA techniques. The models were developed based on the same 50 low-cost apartment project datasets in Indonesia. Tested on another five testing data, the models were proven to perform very well in term of accuracy. A CBR-GA model was found to be the best performer but suffered from disadvantage of needing 15 cost drivers if compared to only 4 cost drivers required by RANFIS for on-par performance.

  1. ABC estimation of unit costs for emergency department services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R L; Schroeder, R E

    1996-04-01

    Rapid evolution of the health care industry forces managers to make cost-effective decisions. Typical hospital cost accounting systems do not provide emergency department managers with the information needed, but emergency department settings are so complex and dynamic as to make the more accurate activity-based costing (ABC) system prohibitively expensive. Through judicious use of the available traditional cost accounting information and simple computer spreadsheets. managers may approximate the decision-guiding information that would result from the much more costly and time-consuming implementation of ABC. PMID:10156656

  2. 48 CFR 9904.401 - Cost accounting standard-consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401 Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost accounting...

  3. What Would It Cost to Coach Every New Principal? An Estimate Using Statewide Personnel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, Chad R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I use Levin and McEwan's (2001) cost feasibility approach and personnel data obtained from the Superintendent of Public Instruction to estimate the cost of providing coaching support to every newly hired principal in Washington State. Based on this descriptive analysis, I estimate that the cost to provide leadership coaching to…

  4. Estimating the Cost of Product Recycling with the Use of Ecodesign Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Karwasz Anna; Dostatni Ewa; Diakun Jacek; Grajewski Damian; Wichniarek Radosław; Stachura Marek

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on issues associated with the ecodesign of household appliances. The authors describe the estimation of recycling cost of end-of-life products using their original system supporting ecodesign. The cost estimate was conducted during product design stage using the information stored in CAD 3D system. A sample estimate was made for a washing machine, fridge, kettle, and a hairdryer.

  5. Estimating dietary costs of low-income women in California: A comparison of two approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Compare two approaches for estimating individual daily diet costs in a population of low-income women in California. Design: Cost estimates based on time-intensive Method 1 (three 24-h recalls and associated food prices on receipts) were compared with estimates using a lesser intensive M...

  6. Cost estimates for flat plate and concentrator collector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1982-01-01

    The current module and installation costs for the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program's grid-connected systems are significantly higher than required for economic viability of this alternative. Attention is accordingly given to the prospects for installed module cost reductions in flat plate, linear focus Fresnel concentrator, and point focus Fresnel concentrator candidate systems. Cost projections indicate that all three systems would meet near-term and midterm goals, provided that module costs of $2.80/W(p) and $0.70/W(p), respectively, are met. The point focus Fresnel system emerges as the most viable for the near term.

  7. Healthcare costs associated with prostate cancer : estimates from a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahn, Murray D.; Zagorski, Brandon; Laporte, Audrey; Alibhai, Shabbir M. H.; Bremner, Karen E.; Tomlinson, George; Warde, Padraig; Naglie, Gary

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the total healthcare costs and costs attributable to prostate cancer across all stages of disease, and to determine the predictors of those costs, as describing the cost of care for patients with prostate cancer is useful to understand the economic burden of illness, explore pa

  8. The estimated economic burden of genital herpes in the United States. An analysis using two costing approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisman David N

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data exist on the costs of genital herpes (GH in the USA. We estimated the economic burden of GH in the USA using two different costing approaches. Methods The first approach was a cross-sectional survey of a sample of primary and secondary care physicians, analyzing health care resource utilization. The second approach was based on the analysis of a large administrative claims data set. Both approaches were used to generate the number of patients with symptomatic GH seeking medical treatment, the average medical expenditures and estimated national costs. Costs were valued from a societal and a third party payer's perspective in 1996 US dollars. Results In the cross-sectional study, based on an estimated 3.1 million symptomatic episodes per year in the USA, the annual direct medical costs were estimated at a maximum of $984 million. Of these costs, 49.7% were caused by drug expenditures, 47.7% by outpatient medical care and 2.6% by hospital costs. Indirect costs accounted for further $214 million. The analysis of 1,565 GH cases from the claims database yielded a minimum national estimate of $283 million direct medical costs. Conclusions GH appears to be an important public health problem from the health economic point of view. The observed difference in direct medical costs may be explained with the influence of compliance to treatment and possible undersampling of subpopulations in the claims data set. The present study demonstrates the validity of using different approaches in estimating the economic burden of a specific disease to the health care system.

  9. Lunar base scenario cost estimates: Lunar base systems study task 6.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The projected development and production costs of each of the Lunar Base's systems are described and unit costs are estimated for transporting the systems to the lunar surface and for setting up the system.

  10. Systematic methodology for estimating direct capital costs for blanket tritium processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methodology developed for estimating the relative capital costs of blanket processing systems. The capital costs of the nine blanket concepts selected in the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study are presented and compared

  11. A building cost estimation method for inland ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is very little publicly available data about the building cost of inland ships, especially for ships that have dimensions that differ significantly from those of common ships. Also, no methods to determine the building cost of inland ships are described in literature. In this paper, a method t

  12. COST ESTIMATION MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNIT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost models for unit processes typically utilized in a conventional water treatment plant and in package treatment plant technology are compiled in this paper. The cost curves are represented as a function of specified design parameters and are categorized into four major catego...

  13. Cost estimate classification and accuracy for Major Industrial Plant Projects (MIPP) versus building construction in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Erbe, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing pressure on prices for construction projects adds to the significance of cost estimation accuracy in building construction. Due to competition from Asian entrants, main contractors in the plant engineering industry are starting to face a similar situation. In the present paper, the cost estimation standards for Major Industrial Plant Projects (MIPP) are analyzed and compared with the cost estimation standards for Building Construction (BC). The research method uses a literature and st...

  14. Estimating the cost of Emergency Department presentations in NSW. CHERE Working Paper 2014/01

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Reeve; Marion Haas

    2013-01-01

    This brief methods paper explains how to use the NSW Government Health Costs of Care Standards to estimate the cost of presentations to emergency departments (ED) in NSW. We begin with a discussion of the allocation of presentations according to visit type, triage category and mode of separation to urgency disposition group (UDG) class for the purpose of allocating cost weights and how to apply these weights to estimate the cost per presentation. The discussion is then extended to incorporate...

  15. A new approach for product cost estimation using data envelopment analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Adil Salam; Fantahun M. Defersha; Nadia Bhuiyan

    2012-01-01

    Cost estimation of new products has always been difficult as only few design, manufacturing and operational features will be known. In these situations, parametric or non-parametric methods are commonly used to estimate the cost of a product given the corresponding cost drivers. The parametric models use priori determined cost function where the parameters of the function are evaluated from historical data. Non-parametric methods, on the other hand, attempt to fit curves to the historic data ...

  16. Estimating Mean Total Costs in the Presence of Censoring: A Comparative Assessment of Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Tracey A.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Frequently, within economic evaluations, data are subject to censoring, and ignoring censored data will lead to an underestimation of mean total costs. Several techniques have been published that can be used to estimate mean total costs and standard errors, and allow for censoring within cost data. This paper reviews these techniques and compares the mean total costs estimates generated by each method for different types of censoring. Methods: Nine techniques were identified tha...

  17. Improving Space Project Cost Estimating with Engineering Management Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.; Roth, Axel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current space project cost models attempt to predict space flight project cost via regression equations, which relate the cost of projects to technical performance metrics (e.g. weight, thrust, power, pointing accuracy, etc.). This paper examines the introduction of engineering management parameters to the set of explanatory variables. A number of specific engineering management variables are considered and exploratory regression analysis is performed to determine if there is statistical evidence for cost effects apart from technical aspects of the projects. It is concluded that there are other non-technical effects at work and that further research is warranted to determine if it can be shown that these cost effects are definitely related to engineering management.

  18. Estimating the costs of nuclear power: benchmarks and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate on this topic is fairly confusing. Some present electricity production using nuclear power as an affordable solution, others maintain it is too expensive. These widely divergent views prompt fears among consumers and voters that they are being manipulated: each side is just defending its own interests and the true cost of nuclear power is being concealed. Companies and non-government organizations certainly adopt whatever position suits them best. But at the same time, the notion of just one 'true' cost is misleading. As we shall see in this paper there is no such thing as the cost of nuclear power: we must reason in terms of costs and draw a distinction between a private cost and a social cost. The private cost is what an operator examines before deciding whether it is opportune to build a new nuclear power station. This cost varies between different investors, particularly as a function of their attitude to risks. On the other hand the social cost weighs on society, which may take into account the risk of proliferation, or the benefits of avoiding carbon-dioxide emissions, among others. The cost of actually building new plant differs from one country to the next. So deciding whether nuclear power is profitable or not, a benefit for society or not, does not involve determining the real cost, but rather compiling data, developing methods and formulating hypotheses. It is not as easy as inundating the general public with contradictory figures, but it is a more effective way of casting light on economic decisions by industry and government. Without evaluating the costs it is impossible to establish the cost price, required to compare electricity production using nuclear power and rival technologies. Would it be preferable to build a gas-powered plant, a nuclear reactor or a wind farm? Which technology yields the lowest cost per KWh? Under what conditions - financial terms, regulatory framework, carbon pricing - will private investors see an adequate return

  19. Cost of Capital in Price-regulated Companies: the Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Sander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of price-regulated companies it is the role of appropriate government agencies to introduce clear, internally consistent, theoretically sound, and unambiguous methodology for finding the regulative cost of capital. The aim of the paper is to describe and analyze the cost of capital estimation methodology for regulated companies in Estonia and discuss some issues arising in applying this methodology. The current paper focuses on two topical issues associated with the estimation of regulative cost of capital in Estonia: estimation of market risk premium and inclusion of currency risk premium into the cost of capital. Current turmoil in financial markets has increased investors’ risk aversion as well as level of risks.

  20. A Cost Estimation Model for Repair Bridges Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bouabaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the total cost of bridges repair and maintenance with high accuracy is an important components, and points to a need for a cost estimation model. This paper focuses on the development of a more accurate estimation model for repair and maintenance of bridges in developing countries using artificial neural networks. Cost and design data for two categories of repair bridges were used for training and testing our neural network model, with only three main parameters used in estimating the total cost of repairing bridges. An accuracy of 96% was achieved.

  1. Dynamic Programming and Error Estimates for Stochastic Control Problems with Maximum Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokanowski, Olivier, E-mail: boka@math.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Université Paris-Diderot (Paris 7) UFR de Mathématiques - Bât. Sophie Germain (France); Picarelli, Athena, E-mail: athena.picarelli@inria.fr [Projet Commands, INRIA Saclay & ENSTA ParisTech (France); Zidani, Hasnaa, E-mail: hasnaa.zidani@ensta.fr [Unité de Mathématiques appliquées (UMA), ENSTA ParisTech (France)

    2015-02-15

    This work is concerned with stochastic optimal control for a running maximum cost. A direct approach based on dynamic programming techniques is studied leading to the characterization of the value function as the unique viscosity solution of a second order Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation with an oblique derivative boundary condition. A general numerical scheme is proposed and a convergence result is provided. Error estimates are obtained for the semi-Lagrangian scheme. These results can apply to the case of lookback options in finance. Moreover, optimal control problems with maximum cost arise in the characterization of the reachable sets for a system of controlled stochastic differential equations. Some numerical simulations on examples of reachable analysis are included to illustrate our approach.

  2. Dynamic Programming and Error Estimates for Stochastic Control Problems with Maximum Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is concerned with stochastic optimal control for a running maximum cost. A direct approach based on dynamic programming techniques is studied leading to the characterization of the value function as the unique viscosity solution of a second order Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation with an oblique derivative boundary condition. A general numerical scheme is proposed and a convergence result is provided. Error estimates are obtained for the semi-Lagrangian scheme. These results can apply to the case of lookback options in finance. Moreover, optimal control problems with maximum cost arise in the characterization of the reachable sets for a system of controlled stochastic differential equations. Some numerical simulations on examples of reachable analysis are included to illustrate our approach

  3. Social Cost of Leptospirosis Cases Attributed to the 2011 Disaster Striking Nova Friburgo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Pereira; Martha Barata; Aline Trigo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the social cost of the leptospirosis cases that were attributed to the natural disaster of January 2011 in Nova Friburgo (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) through a partial economic assessment. This study utilized secondary data supplied by the Municipal Health Foundation of Nova Friburgo. Income scenarios based on the national and state minimum wages and on average income of the local population were employed. The total social cost of leptospirosis cas...

  4. Does agency cost model explain business fluctuations in Japan? An empirical attempt to estimate agency cost by firm size

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Uchiyama, Hirokuni

    2003-01-01

    An attempt is made to estimate a state space model of investment and borrowing in a Bayesian framework and extract the unobservable agency cost of Japanese firms by firm size. Our estimates of the agency cost exhibited a declining trend in the late 80s and then switched to an increasing trend in the 90s. We pin down the driving force of agency cost to be the market value of land. Furthermore, we find that investment and borrowing behavior of small firms is very much affected by their agency c...

  5. Estimating the Benefits of Bt Corn and Cost of Insect Resistance Management Ex Ante

    OpenAIRE

    Terrance M. Hurley; Langrock, Ines; Ostlie, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates farmer benefits for corn rootworm (CRW) active Bt corn and costs of complying with Environmental Protection Agency insect resistance management requirements. The estimates are obtained from farmer survey data that were collected in Minnesota in 2002, just prior to the commercial releases of CRW Bt corn. Benefit estimates range from $14 to $33.4 million, while compliance cost estimated range from $3.5 to $8.7 million depending on whether or not CRW Bt corn also controlled ...

  6. ESTIMATION OF EXTERNAL COSTS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION USING EXTERNE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar, Sandor; Debrecin, N.; Kovacevic, T; Molnar, Melinda

    2008-01-01

    The external costs of electricity generation can be characterised by the resulting social and environmental impacts. The most significant impacts are the air pollutions impact on health, built in environment, crops, forests, agricultural areas and on global warming. The primary impact considered is the air pollution’s effect on human health. The monetised value of the health impact, the external costs are calculated for two regional coal power plants, the effects are examined on the EU level ...

  7. Estimating cost of road traffic injuries in Iran using willingness to pay (WTP method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Ainy

    Full Text Available We aimed to use the willingness to pay (WTP method to calculate the cost of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of 846 randomly selected road users. WTP data was collected for four scenarios for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, vehicle drivers, and motorcyclists. Final analysis was carried out using Weibull and maximum likelihood method. Mean WTP was 2,612,050 Iranian rials (IRR. Statistical value of life was estimated according to 20,408 fatalities 402,314,106,073,648 IRR (US$13,410,470,202 based on purchasing power parity at (February 27th, 2014. Injury cost was US$25,637,870,872 (based on 318,802 injured people in 2013, multiple daily traffic volume of 311, and multiple daily payment of 31,030 IRR for 250 working days. The total estimated cost of injury and death cases was 39,048,341,074$. Gross national income of Iran was, US$604,300,000,000 in 2013 and the costs of traffic injuries constituted 6·46% of gross national income. WTP was significantly associated with age, gender, monthly income, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, trip mileage, drivers and occupants from road users. The costs of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013 accounted for 6.64% of gross national income, much higher than the global average. Policymaking and resource allocation to reduce traffic-related death and injury rates have the potential to deliver a huge economic benefit.

  8. Probabilistic estimation of numbers and costs of future landslides in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.; Coe, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We used historical records of damaging landslides triggered by rainstorms and a newly developed Probabilistic Landslide Assessment Cost Estimation System (PLACES) to estimate the numbers and direct costs of future landslides in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region. Historical records of damaging landslides in the region are incomplete. Therefore, our estimates of numbers and costs of future landslides are minimal estimates. The estimated mean annual number of future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region is about 65. Santa Cruz County has the highest estimated mean annual number of damaging future landslides (about 18), whereas Napa, San Francisco, and Solano Counties have the lowest estimated mean numbers of damaging landslides (about 1 each). The estimated mean annual cost of future landslides in the entire region is about US $14.80 million (year 2000 $). The estimated mean annual cost is highest for San Mateo County ($3.24 million) and lowest for Solano County ($0.18 million). The annual per capita cost for the entire region will be about $2.10. Santa Cruz County will have the highest annual per capita cost at $8.45, whereas San Francisco County will have the lowest per capita cost at $0.31. Normalising costs by dividing by the percentage of land area with slopes equal to or greater than 17% indicates that San Francisco County will have the highest cost per square km ($7,101), whereas Santa Clara County will have the lowest cost per square km ($229). These results indicate that the San Francisco Bay region has one of the highest levels of landslide risk in the United States. Compared with landslide cost estimates from the rest of the world, the risk level in the Bay region seems high, but not exceptionally high.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Case Management in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Shadi S.; Vaughn, Thomas; Levey, Samuel; Fuortes, Laurence; Uden-Holmen, Tanya; Hall, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study, which is part of a larger clinical trial, was to examine the cost-effectiveness of case management for individuals treated for substance abuse in a residential setting. Method: Clients who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to one of four study groups. Two groups received face-to-face case management…

  10. Cost estimation in software engineering projects with web components development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen multitud de modelos propuestos para la predicción de co stes en proyectos de software, al gunos orientados específicamen te para proyectos Web. Este trabajo analiza si los modelos específicos para proyectos Web están justifi cados, examinando el comportami ento diferencial de los costes entre proyectos de desarrollo softwar e Web y no Web. Se analizan dos aspectos del cálculo de costes: las deseconomías de escala, y el im pacto de algunas características de estos proyectos que son utilizadas como cost drivers. Se en uncian dos hipótesis: (a en estos proyect os las deseconomías de escala so n mayores y (b el incremento de coste que provocan los cost dr ivers es menor para los proyectos Web. Se contrastaron estas hipótesis a nalizando un conjunto de proyectos reales. Los resultados sugie ren que ambas hipótesis se cumplen. Por lo tanto, la principal contribu ción a la literatura de esta inv estigación es que el desarrollo de modelos específicos para los proyectos Web está justificado.

  11. Application of parametric weight and cost estimating relationships to future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, M. N.; Morris, M. A.; Anderson, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A model comprised of system level weight and cost estimating relationships for transport aircraft is presented. In order to determine the production cost of future aircraft its weight is first estimated based on performance parameters, and then the cost is estimated as a function of weight. For initial evaluation CERs were applied to actual system weights of six aircraft (3 military and 3 commercial) with mean empty weights ranging from 30,000 to 300,000 lb. The resulting cost estimates were compared with actual costs. The average absolute error was only 4.3%. Then the model was applied to five aircraft still in the design phase (Boeing 757, 767 and 777, and BAC HS146-100 and HS146-200). While the estimates for the 757 and 767 are within 2 to 3 percent of their assumed break-even costs, it is recognized that these are very sensitive to the validity of the estimated weights, inflation factor, the amount assumed for nonrecurring costs, etc., and it is suggested that the model may be used in conjunction with other information such as RDT&E cost estimates and market forecasts. The model will help NASA evaluate new technologies and production costs of future aircraft.

  12. 31 CFR Appendix I(f) to Part 13 - Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... Pt. 13, App. I(F) Appendix I(F) to Part 13—Estimated Overhead and Administrative Costs Date:...

  13. 48 CFR 1336.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. 1336.605 Section 1336.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Architect-Engineer Services 1336.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. After award,...

  14. 48 CFR 736.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. 736.605 Section 736.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Architect-Engineer Services 736.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. See 736.602-3(c)(5)....

  15. ESTIMATING THE COST OF LEISURE TIME FOR RECREATION DEMAND MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Feather, Peter; Shaw, W. Douglass

    1998-01-01

    The cost of travel time has commonly been incorporated in recreation demand models as some fucntion of the wage rate. This paper proposes a new methodology of determining the value of leisure time. The proposed method is compared to other alternatives and shown to yield more appropriate welfare measures.

  16. Estimating the Costs of Torture: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Hasselgård-Rowe, Jennifer; Tshimungu Kandolo, Félicien; Verloo, Henk; Bukonda, Ngoyi K Zacharie; Chastonay, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Due to its nature, extent and consequences, torture is considered a major public health problem and a serious violation of human rights. Our study aims to set the foundation for a theoretical framework of the costs related to torture. It examines existing challenges and proposes some solutions. Our proposed framework targets policy makers, human rights activists, professionals working in programmes, centres and rehabilitation projects, judges and lawyers, survivors of torture and their families and anyone involved in the prevention and fight against this practice and its consequences. We adopted a methodology previously used in studies investigating the challenges in measuring and valuing productivity costs in health disorders. We identify and discuss conceptual, methodological, political and ethical challenges that studies on the economic and social costs of torture pose and propose alternatives in terms of possible solutions to these challenges. The economic dimension of torture is rarely debated and integrated in research, policies and programmes. Several challenges such as epistemological, methodological, ethical or political ones have often been presented as obstacles to cost studies of torture and as an excuse for not investigating this dimension. In identifying, analysing and proposing solutions to these challenges, we intend to stimulate the integration of the economic dimension in research and prevention of torture strategies. PMID:26385586

  17. Estimated incremental costs for NRC licensees to implement the US/IAEA safeguards agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was recently completed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commision (NRC) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify the incremental cost of implementing the US/IAEA safeguards treaty agreement to eligible NRC licensees. Sources for the study were cost estimates from several licensees who will be affected by the agreement and cost analyses by PNL staff. The initial cost to all eligible licensees to implement the agreement is estimated by PNL to range from $1.9 to $7.2 million. The annual cost to these same licensees for the required accounting and reporting activities is estimated at $0.5 to $1.5 million. Annual inspection costs to the industry for the limited IAEA inspection being assumed is estimated at $80,000 to $160,000

  18. Estimating Resource Costs of Levy Campaigns in Five Ohio School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, W. Kyle; Petroff, Ruth Ann; Johnson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Using Levin and McEwan's (2001) "ingredients method," this study identified the major activities and associated costs of school levy campaigns in five districts. The ingredients were divided into one of five cost categories--human resources, facilities, fees, marketing, and supplies. As to overall costs of the campaigns, estimates ranged from a…

  19. 33 CFR 241.5 - Procedures for estimating the alternative cost-share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternative cost-share. 241.5 Section 241.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL COST-SHARING REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE ABILITY TO PAY PROVISION § 241.5 Procedures for estimating the alternative cost-share. (a) Step one, the benefits...

  20. The social cost of rheumatoid arthritis in Italy: the results of an estimation exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Turchetti, G.; Bellelli, S.; Mosca, M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the mean annual social cost per adult person and the total social cost of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Italy. A literature review was performed by searching primary economic studies on adults in order to collect cost data of RA in Italy in the last decade. The review results were merged with data of institutional sources for estimating - following the methodological steps of the cost of illness analysis - the social cost of RA in Italy. The mean annu...

  1. Nuclear generating station and heavy water plant cost estimates for strategy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear generating station capital, operating and maintenance costs are basic input data for strategy analyses of alternate nuclear fuel cycles. This report presents estimates of these costs for natural uranium CANDU stations, CANDU stations operating on advanced fuel cycles, and liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Cost estimates for heavy water plants are also presented. The results show that station capital costs for advanced fuel cycles are not expected to be significantly greater than those for natural uranium stations. LMFBR capital costs are expected to be 25-30 percent greater than for CANDU's. (auth)

  2. Estimating Development Cost for a Tailored Interactive Computer Program to Enhance Colorectal Cancer Screening Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Lairson, David R.; Chang, Yu-Chia; Bettencourt, Judith L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Greisinger, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The authors used an actual-work estimate method to estimate the cost of developing a tailored interactive computer education program to improve compliance with colorectal cancer screening guidelines in a large multi-specialty group medical practice. Resource use was prospectively collected from time logs, administrative records, and a design and computing subcontract. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the uncertainty of the overhead cost rate and other parameters. The cost of deve...

  3. MONETARY ESTIMATES OF SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS AND BENEFITS IN THE WIND ENERGY SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharia, Alina; Popa, Daniela; Aurelia-Gabriela ANTONESCU

    2014-01-01

    Monetary estimating the social and environmental costs and benefits of energy is a key to the development of truly green projects that would allow first of all presentation of economic, social and environmental benefits and costs to the stakeholders so that they would form a scientific opinion about what really happens in green economy. Through this study we tried to present and monetary estimate a series of social and environmental costs and benefits of wind energy given the challenges which...

  4. Estimating the Cost of Executive Stock Options: Evidence from Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Drobetz, Wolfgang; Pensa, Pascal; Schmid, Markus M.

    2007-01-01

    It is often argued that Black-Scholes (1973) values overstate the subjective value of stock options granted to risk-averse and under-diversified executives. We construct a “representative” Swiss executive and extend the certainty- equivalence approach presented by Hall and Murphy (2002) to assess the value-cost wedge of executive stock options. Even with low coefficients of relative risk aversion, the discount can be above 50% compared to the Black-Scholes values. Regression analysis reveals ...

  5. Estimating Criminal Justice System Costs and Cost-Savings Benefits of Day Reporting Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the net cost-savings benefits (loss) to the criminal justice system of one rural and one urban day reporting center, both of which serve high risk/high need probationers. It also discusses issues of conducting criminal justice system cost studies of community corrections programs. The average DRC participant in the rural…

  6. Estimating the Cost of Product Recycling with the Use of Ecodesign Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karwasz Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on issues associated with the ecodesign of household appliances. The authors describe the estimation of recycling cost of end-of-life products using their original system supporting ecodesign. The cost estimate was conducted during product design stage using the information stored in CAD 3D system. A sample estimate was made for a washing machine, fridge, kettle, and a hairdryer.

  7. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113: Project cost estimate. Preliminary design report. Volume IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains Volume IV of the Preliminary Design Report for the Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113 which is the Project Cost Estimate and construction schedule. The estimate was developed based upon Title 1 material take-offs, budgetary equipment quotes and Raytheon historical in-house data. The W-113 project cost estimate and project construction schedule were integrated together to provide a resource loaded project network

  8. Estimating Power Outage Cost based on a Survey for Industrial Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Matsuhashi, Ryuji

    A survey was conducted on power outage cost for industrial customers. 5139 factories, which are designated energy management factories in Japan, answered their power consumption and the loss of production value due to the power outage in an hour in summer weekday. The median of unit cost of power outage of whole sectors is estimated as 672 yen/kWh. The sector of services for amusement and hobbies and the sector of manufacture of information and communication electronics equipment relatively have higher unit cost of power outage. Direct damage cost from power outage in whole sectors reaches 77 billion yen. Then utilizing input-output analysis, we estimated indirect damage cost that is caused by the repercussion of production halt. Indirect damage cost in whole sectors reaches 91 billion yen. The sector of wholesale and retail trade has the largest direct damage cost. The sector of manufacture of transportation equipment has the largest indirect damage cost.

  9. Wind turbine noise reduction. An indicative cost estimation; Sanering windturbinegeluid. Een indicatieve raming van kosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verheijen, E.N.G.; Jabben, J.

    2011-11-15

    Since the 1st of January 2011 new rules apply for wind turbine noise. The rules include a different calculation method and different noise limits, intended for new wind turbines. In order to tackle noise annoyance from existing wind turbines the government is considering to set up a abatement operation, for which a cost estimate is given in this study. At an abatement limit of 47 decibel L{sub den} (Level day-evening-night) approximately 450 dwellings would be eligible for noise remediation. The costs of this operation are estimated at 4.9 million euro. However, in many of these cases the wind turbine is probably owned by the respective residents. It is possible that public funds for noise remediation will not be allocated to the owners of dwellings that directly profit from the turbines. If these cases are excluded, the abatement operation would cover 165 to 275 dwellings with estimated costs for remediation of 1.6 to 2.6 million euro. A tentative cost-benefit analysis suggests that noise remediation will be cost effective in most situations. This means that the benefits of reduced annoyance or sleep disturbance are in balance with the cost of remediation. Only for the small group of wind turbines that are in use for over fifteen years, remediation will not be cost effective. These wind turbines are nearing the end of their lifespan and are therefore ignored in the above estimates. [Dutch] Sinds 1 januari 2011 zijn nieuwe regels rond windturbinegeluid van kracht. Bij de nieuwe regelgeving hoort een andere berekeningsmethode en normstelling, bedoeld voor nieuw te plaatsen windturbines. Voor de aanpak van de geluidhinder door bestaande windturbines overweegt de overheid een saneringsoperatie op te zetten, waarvoor in dit onderzoek een kostenraming wordt gegeven. Bij een saneringsgrenswaarde van 47 decibel zouden ongeveer 450 woningen voor sanering in aanmerking komen. De kosten voor sanering daarvan worden geschat op 4,9 miljoen euro. Bij een groot deel van deze

  10. Development of a life cycle cost estimating framework for oil refineries

    OpenAIRE

    Okafor, Okechukwu Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study is concerned with the understanding of some vital features of various life cycle costing methodologies and tools. Integrating these features with the refinery technical processes would assist in the development of a life cycle costing framework for oil refineries. The aim of this research is to develop a comprehensive life cycle cost estimating framework for the evaluation of not only the total cost and system effectiveness of new refineries but also the revamping, and maintenance ...

  11. Estimation of the incidence of genital warts and the cost of illness in Germany: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénard Stève

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV is also responsible for benign condylomata acuminata, also known as genital warts. We assessed the incidence of genital warts in Germany and collected information on their management to estimate the annual cost of disease. Methods This was a multi-centre observational (cross-sectional study of genital warts in Germany. Data were collected from gynecologists, dermatologists, and urologists seeing patients with genital warts between February and April 2005. The number of patients with new and recurrent genital warts was used to estimate the incidence in Germany. We assessed resource use for patients with genital warts seen during a two-month period as well as retrospective resource use twelve months prior to the inclusion visit through a chart review. The mean costs of treatment of patients with genital warts from third-party payer and societal perspectives were estimated, and the total annual cost of genital warts was then calculated. Results For the incidence calculation 217 specialists provided information on 848 patients and 214 specialists provided resource use data for 617 patients to assess resource consumption. The incidence of new and recurrent cases of genital warts was 113.7 and 34.7 per 100 000, respectively, for women aged 14–65 years consulting gynecologists. The highest incidence was observed in women aged 14–25 years (171.0 per 100 000 for new cases and in women aged 26–45 years (53.1 per 100 000 for recurrent cases. The sample size for males was too small to allow a meaningful estimate of the incidence. The mean direct cost per patient with new genital warts was estimated at 378 euros (95% CI: 310.8–444.9; for recurrent genital warts at 603 euros (95% CI: 436.5–814.5, and for resistant genital warts at 1,142 euros (95% CI: 639.6–1752.3. The overall cost to third-party payers was estimated at 49.0 million euros, and the total

  12. Development of a framework for obsolescence resolution cost estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Rojo, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    Currently, manufacturing organisations worldwide are shifting their business models towards Product-Service Systems (PSS), which implies the development of new support agreements such as availability-based contracts. This transition is shifting the responsibilities for managing and resolving obsolescence issues from the customer to the prime contractor and industry work share partners. This new scenario has triggered a new need to estimate the Non-Recurring Engineering (NRE)...

  13. The Hospitalization Costs of Diabetes and Hypertension Complications in Zimbabwe: Estimations and Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutowo, Mutsa P; Lorgelly, Paula K; Laxy, Michael; Renzaho, Andre M N; Mangwiro, John C; Owen, Alice J

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Treating complications associated with diabetes and hypertension imposes significant costs on health care systems. This study estimated the hospitalization costs for inpatients in a public hospital in Zimbabwe. Methods. The study was retrospective and utilized secondary data from medical records. Total hospitalization costs were estimated using generalized linear models. Results. The median cost and interquartile range (IQR) for patients with diabetes, $994 (385-1553) mean $1319 (95% CI: 981-1657), was higher than patients with hypertension, $759 (494-1147) mean $914 (95% CI: 825-1003). Female patients aged below 65 years with diabetes had the highest estimated mean costs ($1467 (95% CI: 1177-1828)). Wound care had the highest estimated mean cost of all procedures, $2884 (95% CI: 2004-4149) for patients with diabetes and $2239 (95% CI: 1589-3156) for patients with hypertension. Age below 65 years, medical procedures (amputation, wound care, dialysis, and physiotherapy), the presence of two or more comorbidities, and being prescribed two or more drugs were associated with significantly higher hospitalization costs. Conclusion. Our estimated costs could be used to evaluate and improve current inpatient treatment and management of patients with diabetes and hypertension and determine the most cost-effective interventions to prevent complications and comorbidities. PMID:27403444

  14. Using Intelligent Techniques in Construction Project Cost Estimation: 10-Year Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Osman Elfaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation is the most important preliminary process in any construction project. Therefore, construction cost estimation has the lion’s share of the research effort in construction management. In this paper, we have analysed and studied proposals for construction cost estimation for the last 10 years. To implement this survey, we have proposed and applied a methodology that consists of two parts. The first part concerns data collection, for which we have chosen special journals as sources for the surveyed proposals. The second part concerns the analysis of the proposals. To analyse each proposal, the following four questions have been set. Which intelligent technique is used? How have data been collected? How are the results validated? And which construction cost estimation factors have been used? From the results of this survey, two main contributions have been produced. The first contribution is the defining of the research gap in this area, which has not been fully covered by previous proposals of construction cost estimation. The second contribution of this survey is the proposal and highlighting of future directions for forthcoming proposals, aimed ultimately at finding the optimal construction cost estimation. Moreover, we consider the second part of our methodology as one of our contributions in this paper. This methodology has been proposed as a standard benchmark for construction cost estimation proposals.

  15. Social cost of leptospirosis cases attributed to the 2011 disaster striking Nova Friburgo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos; Barata, Martha; Trigo, Aline

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the social cost of the leptospirosis cases that were attributed to the natural disaster of January 2011 in Nova Friburgo (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) through a partial economic assessment. This study utilized secondary data supplied by the Municipal Health Foundation of Nova Friburgo. Income scenarios based on the national and state minimum wages and on average income of the local population were employed. The total social cost of leptospirosis cases attributed to the 2011 disaster may range between US$21,500 and US$66,000 for the lower income scenario and between US$23,900 and US$100,800 for that of higher income. Empirical therapy represented a total avoided cost of US$14,800, in addition to a reduction in lethality. An estimated 31 deaths were avoided among confirmed cases of the disease, and no deaths resulted from the leptospirosis cases attributed to the natural disaster. There has been a significant post-disaster rise in leptospirosis incidence in the municipality, which illustrates the potential for increased cases--and hence costs--of this illness following natural disasters, which justifies the adoption of preventive measures in environmental health. PMID:24739767

  16. Comparative evaluation of activity-based costing and variable costing: a case study at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims to compare the results with the application of Activity Based Costing and Variable Costing methods in an administrative unit of the Brazilian Federal Government: the Radiopharmacy Facility of IPEN (Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research), which produces radiopharmaceuticals products and develops R and D activities. Faced with the need to adopt a more economical and managerial public administration, this research has provided information to assess which of the two costing methods proves more suitable for cost management in that unit. The research is exploratory and a single-case study. We traced about 80% of material costs by observation 'in loco' of the entire manufacturing process of technetium generator, which represents the main product in terms of production volume and revenues. The results show that the Contribution Margin Variable Costing of 29.12% is very close to the operating income of 28.86%, ahead of support activities, obtained by ABC. It is also noted that the operational result of the product does not change by using either one or another costing method. In the two costing methods the end result is 24.20%. This occurs because the production is on demand. There is no inventory of finished product because it is radioactive. The research has revealed that both methods provide useful information for the management and optimization of costs and results of processes/activities, and that the two methods, in this case, may be used in an integrated and complementary approach, enabling to use the best information content of both. (author)

  17. Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.

    1998-09-01

    Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author`s previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B {+-} $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author`s engineering judgment.

  18. Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author's previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B ± $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author's engineering judgment

  19. Cost estimates for Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm: a budgetary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J. Andrew.

    1991-01-01

    Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm (DS/DS) presented unique challenges for estimating the cost of that conflict. This analysis reviews the cost estimates and methodologies developed for that purpose by DoD, CBO and GAO. It considers the budget climate and the role of foreign cash and in-kind contributions. Finally, it reviews the budgeting innovations used to provide and monitor DS/DS defense spending. At the outset of the crisis, costs were estimated to determine the defense funding requir...

  20. Adaptation costs for climate change-related cases of diarrhoeal disease, malnutrition, and malaria in 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebi Kristie L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change has begun to negatively affect human health, with larger burdens projected in the future as weather patterns continue to change. The climate change-related health consequences of diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition, and malaria are projected to pose the largest risks to future populations. Limited work has been done to estimate the costs of adapting to these additional health burdens. Methods The costs of treating diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition (stunting and wasting only, and malaria in 2030 were estimated under three climate scenarios using (1 the current numbers of cases; (2 the projected relative risks of these diseases in 2030; and (3 current treatment costs. The analysis assumed that the number of annual cases and costs of treatment would remain constant. There was limited consideration of socioeconomic development. Results Under a scenario assuming emissions reductions resulting in stabilization at 750 ppm CO2 equivalent in 2210, the costs of treating diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition, and malaria in 2030 were estimated to be $4 to 12 billion. This is almost as much as current total annual overseas development assistance for health. Conclusion The investment needs in the health sector to address climate-sensitive health outcomes are large. Additional human and financial resources will be needed to prevent and control the projected increased burden of health outcomes due to climate change.

  1. Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hass, Ulla;

    2015-01-01

    ). Design: A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine...... Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption. Expert panels used the Delphi method to make decisions on the strength of the data. Results: Expert panels achieved consensus at least for probable (>20%) EDC causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual...... of (sic)109 billion that differed modestly from base case probability inputs. Conclusions: EDC exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in the hundreds of billions of Euros per year. These estimates represent only those EDCs...

  2. Bayesian Estimates of Autocorrelations in Single-Case Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R.; Rindskopf, David M.; Hedges, Larry V.; Sullivan, Kristynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the single-case design tradition have debated the size and importance of the observed autocorrelations in those designs. All of the past estimates of the autocorrelation in that literature have taken the observed autocorrelation estimates as the data to be used in the debate. However, estimates of the autocorrelation are subject to…

  3. Technology Cost and Schedule Estimation (TCASE) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jon; Schaffer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    During the 2014-2015 project year, the focus of the TCASE project has shifted from collection of historical data from many sources to securing a data pipeline between TCASE and NASA's widely used TechPort system. TCASE v1.0 implements a data import solution that was achievable within the project scope, while still providing the basis for a long-term ability to keep TCASE in sync with TechPort. Conclusion: TCASE data quantity is adequate and the established data pipeline will enable future growth. Data quality is now highly dependent the quality of data in TechPort. Recommendation: Technology development organizations within NASA should continue to work closely with project/program data tracking and archiving efforts (e.g. TechPort) to ensure that the right data is being captured at the appropriate quality level. TCASE would greatly benefit, for example, if project cost/budget information was included in TechPort in the future.

  4. Cost Estimation of Road Traffic Injuries Among Iranian Motorcyclists Using the Willingness to Pay Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Basirat, Behzad; Haddadi, Mashyaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Motorcycle riders are amongst some of the most vulnerable road users. The burden of motorcycles injuries from low and middle income countries is under-reported. Objectives In this study, the cost of traffic injuries among motorcyclists was calculated using the willingness to pay (WTP) method in Iran in 2013. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 143 motorcyclists were randomly selected. The research questionnaire was prepared based on the standard WTP method [stated preference (SP), contingent value (CV) and revealed preference (RP) models] taking into consideration perceived risks, especially those in Iran. Data were collected by a scenario for motorcyclists. The criteria for inclusion in the study consisted of having at least a high school education and being in the age range of 18 - 65 years. The final analysis of the WTP data was performed using the Weibull model. Results The mean WTP was 888,110 IRR (Iranian Rial) among motorcyclists. The statistical value of life was estimated according to 4694 death cases as 3,146,225,350,943 IRR, which was equivalent to USD 104,874,178 based on the dollar free market rate of 30,000 IRR (purchasing power parity). The cost of injury was 6,903,839,551,000 IRR, equivalent to USD 230,127,985 (based upon 73,325 injured motorcyclists in 2013, a daily traffic volume of 311, and a daily payment of 12,110 IRR for 250 working days). In total, injury and death cases came to 10,050,094,901,943 IRR, equivalent to USD 335,003,163. Willingness to pay had a significant relationship with having experienced an accident, the length of the daily trip (in km), and helmet use (P cost of traffic injuries among motorcyclists shows that this rate is much higher than the global average. Thus, expenditure should be made on effective initiatives such as the safety of motorcyclists.

  5. The social cost of rheumatoid arthritis in Italy: the results of an estimation exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, G; Bellelli, S; Mosca, M

    2014-03-14

    The objective of this study is to estimate the mean annual social cost per adult person and the total social cost of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Italy. A literature review was performed by searching primary economic studies on adults in order to collect cost data of RA in Italy in the last decade. The review results were merged with data of institutional sources for estimating - following the methodological steps of the cost of illness analysis - the social cost of RA in Italy. The mean annual social cost of RA was € 13,595 per adult patient in Italy. Affecting 259,795 persons, RA determines a social cost of € 3.5 billions in Italy. Non-medical direct cost and indirect cost represent the main cost items (48% and 31%) of the total social cost of RA in Italy. Based on these results, it appears evident that the assessment of the economic burden of RA solely based on direct medical costs evaluation gives a limited view of the phenomenon.

  6. The social cost of rheumatoid arthritis in Italy: the results of an estimation exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Turchetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to estimate the mean annual social cost per adult person and the total social cost of rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Italy. A literature review was performed by searching primary economic studies on adults in order to collect cost data of RA in Italy in the last decade. The review results were merged with data of institutional sources for estimating - following the methodological steps of the cost of illness analysis - the social cost of RA in Italy. The mean annual social cost of RA was € 13,595 per adult patient in Italy. Affecting 259,795 persons, RA determines a social cost of € 3.5 billions in Italy. Non-medical direct cost and indirect cost represent the main cost items (48% and 31% of the total social cost of RA in Italy. Based on these results, it appears evident that the assessment of the economic burden of RA solely based on direct medical costs evaluation gives a limited view of the phenomenon.

  7. Twice-weighted multiple interval estimation of a marginal structural model to analyze cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, K S

    2014-03-30

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is an important tool that can be applied to the evaluation of a health treatment or policy. When the observed costs and outcomes result from a nonrandomized treatment, making causal inference about the effects of the treatment requires special care. The challenges are compounded when the observation period is truncated for some of the study subjects. This paper presents a method of unbiased estimation of cost-effectiveness using observational study data that is not fully observed. The method-twice-weighted multiple interval estimation of a marginal structural model-was developed in order to analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatment protocols for advanced dementia residents living nursing homes when they become acutely ill. A key feature of this estimation approach is that it facilitates a sensitivity analysis that identifies the potential effects of unmeasured confounding on the conclusions concerning cost-effectiveness.

  8. Selection of relevant items for decommissioning costing estimation of a PWR using fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Deiglys Borges; Busse, Alexander Lucas; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Maiorino, Jose Rubens, E-mail: deiglys.monteiro@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: alexlucasb@gmail.com, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia e Engenharia da Energia

    2015-07-01

    The decommissioning is an important part of a nuclear power plant life cycle which may occur by technical, economical or safety reasons. Decommissioning requires carrying out a large number of tasks that should be planned in advance, involves cost evaluations, preparation of plans of activity and actual operational actions. Despite the large number of tasks, only part of them is relevant for cost estimation purpose. The technical literature and international regulatory agencies suggest a variety of methods for decommissioning cost estimation. Most of them require a very detailed knowledge of the plant and data available suitable for plants that are starting their decommissioning but not for those in the planning stage. The present work aims to apply fuzzy logic to sort out relevant items to cost estimation in order to reduce the work effort involved. The scheme uses parametric equations for specific cost items, and is applied to specific parts of the process of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (author)

  9. REVIEW ON TRADITIONAL AND AGILE COST ESTIMATION SUCCESS FACTOR IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkefli Mansor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Software development project is one of the important areas in software engineering. Many researches have been conducted and looked into issues in software development project such as methodology used, costing, challenges, type of project and many more. However, the most crucial issues in software development project are costing. Moreover, current trend in software development project is adopting agile as methodology. Therefore, this paper aimed to discuss success factors that influence in traditional and agile cost estimation process for software development project. Literature survey is carried out from the past researches. Then, this paper presents the success factors that bring to the successful of traditional and agile cost estimation in software development project. Realisation these factors will help software development communities contribute positively to the success of traditional or agile cost estimation process in software development project.

  10. Parametric study of the cost estimate for radio frequency system of compact linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Nummela, Antti; Österberg, Kenneth

    In this thesis the cost of so called RF units of CLIC particle collider was examined when RF units’ configuration was considered to be lengthened according to several alternative scenarios. According to current estimates these structures correspond to approximately 20 % of the total cost of CLIC collider and as such the savings achieved in their cost could be significant when total cost of CLIC project is looked into. The unit cost of longer RF units would be greater when compared to the baseline scenario but as smaller quantity would be required cost savings might be achieved. The aim was to find out if cost savings would accumulate and if so, how significant these savings might be. Research material used was mainly internal CERN resources such as earlier cost estimates and tenders received from the industry for production of different components. Based on these cost estimate models were created for three different configurations for lengthening the RF units. The research was limited to the cost of RF unit...

  11. Costs of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in developing countries: Colombia case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    The real burden of occupational diseases, specifically work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), and its impact on workers' productivity is not known. The situation is critical in developing countries where only cases that cause workers' disability are recorded. In this study, the incidence of MSDs in Colombia was estimated by using the age and gender specific double incidence rate of repetitive strain injuries diseases in Finland for 2002. The results showed that the estimated number of MSDs recorded in Colombia during 2005 was 23,477 cases at the rate of 11.6 cases per 10,000 workers. The estimated total cost of these MSD cases relative to workers' productivity was 171.7 million US Dollars, representing around 0.2% of Colombia's Gross Domestic Product for 2005. The systematic appraisal of the incidence of MSDs and their associated cost on workers' productivity are necessary in developing countries to reduce the costly impact on productivity and to increase workers' well-being. PMID:17156613

  12. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbica Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases and patients without CLABSI (controls were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143; 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922. The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Conclusions CLABSI results in considerable and significant increase in utilization of hospital resources. Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

  13. Double robust estimator of average causal treatment effect for censored medical cost data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Beste, Lauren A; Maier, Marissa M; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2016-08-15

    In observational studies, estimation of average causal treatment effect on a patient's response should adjust for confounders that are associated with both treatment exposure and response. In addition, the response, such as medical cost, may have incomplete follow-up. In this article, a double robust estimator is proposed for average causal treatment effect for right censored medical cost data. The estimator is double robust in the sense that it remains consistent when either the model for the treatment assignment or the regression model for the response is correctly specified. Double robust estimators increase the likelihood the results will represent a valid inference. Asymptotic normality is obtained for the proposed estimator, and an estimator for the asymptotic variance is also derived. Simulation studies show good finite sample performance of the proposed estimator and a real data analysis using the proposed method is provided as illustration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Using the Black Scholes method for estimating high cost illness insurance premiums in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Chicaíza; David Cabedo

    2009-01-01

    This article applied the Black-Scholes option valuation formula to calculating high-cost illness reinsurance premiums in the Colombian health system. The coverage pattern used in reinsuring high-cost illnesses was replicated by means of a European call option contract. The option’s relevant variables and parameters were adapted to an insurance market context. The premium estimated by the BlackScholes method fell within the range of premiums estimated by the actuarial method.

  15. The Cost of Universal Health Care in India: A Model Based Estimate

    OpenAIRE

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Andrew D Pinto; Sharma, Atul; Bharaj, Gursimer; Kumar, Vishal; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction As high out-of-pocket healthcare expenses pose heavy financial burden on the families, Government of India is considering a variety of financing and delivery options to universalize health care services. Hence, an estimate of the cost of delivering universal health care services is needed. Methods We developed a model to estimate recurrent and annual costs for providing health services through a mix of public and private providers in Chandigarh located in northern India. Necessar...

  16. Using the Black Scholes method for estimating high cost illness insurance premiums in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chicaíza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article applied the Black-Scholes option valuation formula to calculating high-cost illness reinsurance premiums in the Colombian health system. The coverage pattern used in reinsuring high-cost illnesses was replicated by means of a European call option contract. The option’s relevant variables and parameters were adapted to an insurance market context. The premium estimated by the BlackScholes method fell within the range of premiums estimated by the actuarial method.

  17. Estimating the Environmental Costs of Africa's Massive "Development Corridors".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F; Sloan, Sean; Weng, Lingfei; Sayer, Jeffrey A

    2015-12-21

    In sub-Saharan Africa, dozens of major "development corridors" have been proposed or are being created to increase agricultural production [1-4], mineral exports [5-7], and economic integration. The corridors involve large-scale expansion of infrastructure such as roads, railroads, pipelines, and port facilities and will open up extensive areas of land to new environmental pressures [1, 4, 8]. We assessed the potential environmental impacts of 33 planned or existing corridors that, if completed, would total over 53,000 km in length and crisscross much of the African continent. We mapped each corridor and estimated human occupancy (using the distribution of persistent night-lights) and environmental values (endangered and endemic vertebrates, plant diversity, critical habitats, carbon storage, and climate-regulation services) inside a 50-km-wide band overlaid onto each corridor. We also assessed the potential for each corridor to facilitate increases in agricultural production. The corridors varied considerably in their environmental values, and many were only sparsely populated. Because of marginal soils or climates, some corridors appear to have only modest agricultural potential. Collectively, the corridors would bisect over 400 existing protected areas and could degrade a further ~1,800 by promoting habitat disruption near or inside the reserves. We conclude that many of the development corridors will promote serious and largely irreversible environmental changes and should proceed only if rigorous mitigation and protection measures can be employed. Some planned corridors with high environmental values and limited agricultural benefits should possibly be cancelled altogether. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:26628009

  18. Component Cost Reduction by Value Engineering: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Vinayak; Kodali, Rambabu

    2016-06-01

    The concept value engineering (VE) acts to increase the value of a product through the improvement in existent functions without increasing their costs. In other words, VE is a function oriented, systematic team approach study to provide value in a product, system or service. The authors systematically explore VE through the six step framework proposed by SAVE and a case study is presented to address the concern of reduction in cost without compromising the function of a hydraulic steering cylinder through the aforementioned VE framework.

  19. Costing support and cost control in manufacturing. A cost estimation tool applied in the sheet metal domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinke, ten Erik

    2002-01-01

    In the product development cycle several engineering tasks like design, process planning and production planning have to be executed. The execution of these tasks mainly involves information processing and decision-making. Because costs is an important factor in manufacturing, adequate information a

  20. Estimating the costs of reducing CO2 emission via avoided deforestation with integrated assessment modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, K.P.; Tabeau, A.A.; Stehfest, E.; Meijl, van J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates for deforestation and forest degradation were shown to account for about 17% of greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of REDD is suggested to provide substantial emission reductions at low costs. Proper calculation of such a costs requires integrated modeling approach involving biop

  1. Cost-effectiveness estimates for antenatal HIV testing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, M.H.; Verweel, G.; Folkerts, D.K.F.; Dronkers, F.; van den Hoek, J.A.R.; Hartwig, N.G.; de Groot, R.; Postma, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an estimation of the lifetime health-care cost of HIV-infected children and an update of the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV-screening of pregnant women in Amsterdam (The Netherlands). During 2003-2005, we collected data concerning the prevalence of newly diagnosed HIV-infect

  2. Cost-effectiveness estimates for antenatal HIV testing in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, M.H.; Verweel, G.; Folkerts, D.K.; Dronkers, F.; Hoek, JA van den; Hartwig, N.G.; Groot, R. de; Postma, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an estimation of the lifetime health-care cost of HIV-infected children and an update of the cost-effectiveness of universal HIV-screening of pregnant women in Amsterdam (The Netherlands). During 2003-2005, we collected data concerning the prevalence of newly diagnosed HIV-infect

  3. Thermal and nuclear power generation cost estimates using corporate financial statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two generally accepted methods for estimating power generation costs: so-called 'model plant' method and the method using corporate financial statements. The method using corporate financial statements, though under some constraints, can provide useful information for comparing thermal and nuclear power generation costs. This study used this method for estimating thermal and nuclear power generation costs in Japan for the past five years, finding that the nuclear power generation cost remained stable at around 7 yen per kilowatt-hour (kWh) while the thermal power generation cost moved within a wide range of 9 to 12 yen/kWh in line with wild fluctuations in primary energy prices. The cost of nuclear power generation is expected to increase due to the enhancement of safety measures and accident damage compensation in the future, while there are reactor decommissioning, backend and many other costs that the financial statement-using approach cannot accurately estimate. In the future, efforts should be continued to comprehensively and accurately estimate total costs. (author)

  4. Simple calculator to estimate the medical cost of diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koffi; Alouki; Hélène; Delisle; Stéphane; Besan?on; Naby; Baldé; Assa; Sidibé-Traoré; Joseph; Drabo; Fran?ois; Djrolo; Jean-Claude; Mbanya; Serge; Halimi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To design a medical cost calculator and show that diabetes care is beyond reach of the majority particularlypatients with complications.METHODS: Out-of-pocket expenditures of patients for medical treatment of type-2 diabetes were estimated based on price data collected in Benin,Burkina Faso,Guinea and Mali. A detailed protocol for realistic medical care of diabetes and its complications in the African context was defined. Care components were based on existing guidelines,published data and clinical experience. Prices were obtained in public and private health facilities. The cost calculator used Excel. The cost for basic management of uncomplicated diabetes was calculated per person and per year. Incremental costs were also computed per annum for chronic complications and per episode for acute complications. RESULTS: Wide variations of estimated care costs were observed among countries and between the public and private healthcare system. The minimum estimated cost for the treatment of uncomplicated diabetes(in the public sector) would amount to 21%-34% of the country’s gross national income per capita,26%-47% in the presence of retinopathy,and above 70% for nephropathy,the most expensive complication. CONCLUSION: The study provided objective evidence for the exorbitant medical cost of diabetes considering that no medical insurance is available in the study countries. Although the calculator only estimates the cost of inaction,it is innovative and of interest for several stakeholders.

  5. Preconception care: preliminary estimates of costs and effects of smoking cessation and folic acid supplementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, S. de; Polder, J.J.; Cohen-Overbeek, T.E.; Zimmermann, L.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess costs and effectiveness of preconception counseling for all women planning pregnancy in The Netherlands with regard to folic acid supplementation and smoking cessation counseling. STUDY DESIGN: Costs and effects were estimated based on 200,000 women approached yearly and uptake

  6. Preliminary weight and cost estimates for transport aircraft composite structural design concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary weight and cost estimates have been prepared for design concepts utilized for a transonic long range transport airframe with extensive applications of advanced composite materials. The design concepts, manufacturing approach, and anticipated details of manufacturing cost reflected in the composite airframe are substantially different from those found in conventional metal structure and offer further evidence of the advantages of advanced composite materials.

  7. The Effect of Infrastructure Sharing in Estimating Operations Cost of Future Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Meenakshi

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the aerospace industry are extremely serious about reducing the cost and improving the performance of launch vehicles both manned or unmanned. In the aerospace industry, sharing infrastructure for manufacturing more than one type spacecraft is becoming a trend to achieve economy of scale. An example is the Boeing Decatur facility where both Delta II and Delta IV launch vehicles are made. The author is not sure how Boeing estimates the costs of each spacecraft made in the same facility. Regardless of how a contractor estimates the cost, NASA in its popular cost estimating tool, NASA Air force Cost Modeling (NAFCOM) has to have a method built in to account for the effect of infrastructure sharing. Since there is no provision in the most recent version of NAFCOM2002 to take care of this, it has been found by the Engineering Cost Community at MSFC that the tool overestimates the manufacturing cost by as much as 30%. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a methodology to assess the impact of infrastructure sharing so that better operations cost estimates may be made.

  8. Two Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri, Carlos J.; Corripio, Armando B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two computer programs for use in process design courses: an easy-to-use equipment cost estimation program based on latest cost correlations available and an economic evaluation program which calculates two profitability indices. Comparisons between programed and hand-calculated results are included. (JM)

  9. A model for estimating the cost impact of schedule perturbations on aerospace research and development programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D. F.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of determining the cost impact attributable to perturbations in an aerospace R and D program schedule is discussed in terms of the diminishing availability of funds. The methodology from which a model is presented for updating R and D cost estimates as a function of perturbations in program time is presented.

  10. How Much Does Intellectual Disability Really Cost? First Estimates for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M.; Einfeld, Stewart L.; Madden, Rosamond H.; Otim, Michael; Horstead, Sian K.; Ellis, Louise A.; Emerson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the paucity of relevant data, this study estimates the cost of intellectual disability (ID) to families and the government in Australia. Method: Family costs were collected via the Client Service Receipt Inventory, recording information relating to service use and personal expense as a consequence of ID. Government expenditure on…

  11. Power plant capital investment cost estimates: current trends and sensitivity to economic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes power plant capital investment cost studies that were carried out as part of the activities of the Plans and Analysis Division, Office of Nuclear Energy Programs, US Department of Energy. The activities include investment cost studies prepared by an architect-engineer, including trends, effects of environmental and safety requirements, and construction schedules. A computer code used to prepare capital investment cost estimates under varying economic conditions is described, and application of this code is demonstrated by sensitivity studies

  12. Light-Duty Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Cost Estimates Using a Part-Pricing Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Kling, Catherine; Sperling, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The substantial reductions in motor vehicle emissions that have occurred since the late 1960s have been accompanied by continuous increases in vehicle emission control costs, and cost increases or decreases due to changes in vehicle performance such as driveability, power, fuel economy, and vehicle maintenance. In this paper, a systematic approach has been developed to estimate emission control costs for motor vehicles. The approach accounts for all emission control parts installed on vehicle...

  13. Estimating the Cost of Mining Pollution on Water Resources: Parametric and Nonparametric Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Herrera Catalán; Oscar Millones

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the economic costs of mining pollution on water resources for the years 2008 and 2009 based on the conceptual framework of Environmental Efficiency. This framework identifies such costs as the mining companies’ trade-off between increasing production that is saleable at market prices (desirable output) and reducing the environmental pollution that emerges from the production process (undesirable output). These economic costs were calculated from parametric and non paramet...

  14. Cost estimation for solid waste management in industrialising regions--precedents, problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthan, Shantha R; Milke, Mark W; Wilson, David C; Cocks, John H

    2012-03-01

    The importance of cost planning for solid waste management (SWM) in industrialising regions (IR) is not well recognised. The approaches used to estimate costs of SWM can broadly be classified into three categories - the unit cost method, benchmarking techniques and developing cost models using sub-approaches such as cost and production function analysis. These methods have been developed into computer programmes with varying functionality and utility. IR mostly use the unit cost and benchmarking approach to estimate their SWM costs. The models for cost estimation, on the other hand, are used at times in industrialised countries, but not in IR. Taken together, these approaches could be viewed as precedents that can be modified appropriately to suit waste management systems in IR. The main challenges (or problems) one might face while attempting to do so are a lack of cost data, and a lack of quality for what data do exist. There are practical benefits to planners in IR where solid waste problems are critical and budgets are limited.

  15. Expanding ART for treatment and prevention of HIV in South Africa: Estimated cost and cost-effectiveness 2011-2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Granich (Reuben); J.G. Kahn (James); R.L. Bennett (Robin); C.B. Holmes (Charles ); N. Garg (Navneet); C. Serenata (Celicia); M.L. Sabin (Miriam Lewis); C. Makhlouf-Obermeyer (Carla); C. de Filippo Mack (Christina); J.P. Williams (Jon); L. Jones (Louisa); C. Smyth (Caoimhe); K.A. Kutch (Kerry ); L. Ying-Ru (Lo); M. Vitoria (Marco); Y. Souteyrand (Yves); S. Crowley (Siobhan); E.L. Korenromp (Eline)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) significantly reduces HIV transmission. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of the impact of expanded ART in South Africa. Methods: We model a best case scenario of 90% annual HIV testing coverage in adults 15-49 years old and four ART el

  16. ITER buildings cost estimate and construction plan (D231-B). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As members of the ITER U.S. Home Team Industrial Consortium, Raytheon Engineers ampersand Constructors (RE ampersand C) and Stone ampersand Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) were requested in January, 1996 under ITER Task No. 34 (D23 1 -B) to prepare a Cost Estimate and Construction Plan for fourteen (14) ITER Support Buildings. The Estimate and Plan for each building is based on the conceptual structural steel design and crane report which RE ampersand C/SWEC completed in January 1996 under ITER Task No. 28 (13230, Subtask B) entitled, open-quotes Steel Buildings on Concrete Slab Designclose quotes. Task No. 34 was prepared in accordance with the criteria specified by the ITER- JCT Engineering Design Division. The results of this Task are contained in this Report in the following two sections: Section I Presents the ITER Buildings Cost Estimate, a single workbook in an Excel format, submitted by RE ampersand C. Section II Presents the ITER Buildings Construction Plan (Schedule) in a Primavera format, submitted by SWEC. The Cost Estimate shows a decrease in the cost of the twelve (12) buildings (fourteen (14) structures) by $76 million from $322 million (Cost Estimate prior to Task No. 34) to $246 million. Section I describes the changes implemented in the cost estimate and comments on the results. Appendix CE-1 provides a comprehensive printout of the ten (10) Excel files, linked in a single workbook. In addition to comments on commodities and unit rates, a recommendation is provided as to the future steps that should be taken in order to further upgrade the Cost Estimate and possibly decrease the cost

  17. A well-based cost function and the economics of exhaustible resources: The case of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chermak, J.M. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); Patrick, R.H. [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A cost function for natural gas production is estimated, using a pool of data from 29 wells. Statistically exact tests are performed for parameter stability across locations, formations, wells, and producing firms. Costs are determined to be inversely related to remaining recoverable reserves, and marginal costs of production are decreasing in all cases. Theoretical implications of these cost characteristics on optimal exhaustible resource extraction are analyzed. Although marginal cost is decreasing, production effects on the resource stock imply that an interior production path may be optimal. Conditions under which production optimally occurs at the capacity bound are delineated, and optimal interior production paths are characterized. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Estimating costs of traffic crashes and crime: tools for informed decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streff, F M; Molnar, L J; Cohen, M A; Miller, T R; Rossman, S B

    1992-01-01

    Traffic crashes and crime both impose significant economic and social burdens through injury and loss of life, as well as property damage and loss. Efforts to reduce crashes and crime often result in competing demands on limited public resources. Comparable and up-to-date cost data on crashes and crime contribute to informed decisions about allocation of these resources in important ways. As a first step, cost data provide information about the magnitude of the problems of crashes and crime by allowing us to estimate associated dollar losses to society. More importantly, cost data on crashes and crime are essential to evaluating costs and benefits of various policy alternatives that compete for resources. This paper presents the first comparable comprehensive cost estimates for crashes and crime and applies them to crash and crime incidence data for Michigan to generate dollar losses for the state. An example illustrates how cost estimates can be used to evaluate costs and benefits of crash-reduction and crime-reduction policies in making resource allocation decisions. Traffic crash and selected index crime incidence data from the calendar year 1988 were obtained from the Michigan State Police. Costs for crashes and index crimes were generated and applied to incidence data to estimate dollar losses from crashes and index crimes for the state of Michigan. In 1988, index crimes in Michigan resulted in $0.8 billion in monetary costs and $2.4 billion in total monetary and nonmonetary quality-of-life costs (using the willingness-to-pay approach). Traffic crashes in Michigan resulted in $2.3 billion in monetary costs and $7.1 billion in total monetary and nonmonetary quality-of-life costs, nearly three times the costs of index crimes. Based on dollar losses to the state, the magnitude of the problem of traffic crashes clearly exceeded that of index crimes in Michigan in 1988. From a policy perspective, summing the total dollar losses from crashes or crime is of less

  19. Improving Library Management by Using Cost Analysis Tools: A Case Study for Cataloguing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Siguenza-Guzman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available TTDABC is a relatively new costing management technique, initially developed for manufacturing processes, which is gaining attention in libraries. This is because TDABC is a fast and simple method that only requires two parameters, an estimation of time required to perform an activity and the unit cost per time of supplying capacity. A few case studies have been documented with regard to TDABC in libraries; all of them being oriented to analyse specific library activities such as inter-library loan, acquisition and circulation processes. The primary focus of this paper is to describe TDABC implementation in one of the most important library processes, namely cataloguing. In particular, original and copy cataloguing are analysed through a case study to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of TDABC to perform cost analysis of cataloguing processes.

  20. ESTIMATING THE OPPORTUNITY COST OF RECREATION TIME IN AN INTEGRABLE 2-CONSTRAINT COUNT DEMAND MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Douglas M.; Daniel K Lew; Shaikh, Sabina L.

    2002-01-01

    How researchers treat the opportunity cost of time substantially influences recreation demand parameter and welfare estimates. This paper presents a utility-theoretic and implementable approach, estimating the shadow value of time jointly with recreation demands for coastal activities, using a generalization of the semilog demand system in a two-constraint model.

  1. Estimated hospital costs associated with preventable health care-associated infections if health care antiseptic products were unavailable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmier JK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jordana K Schmier,1 Carolyn K Hulme-Lowe,1 Svetlana Semenova,2 Juergen A Klenk,3 Paul C DeLeo,4 Richard Sedlak,5 Pete A Carlson6 1Health Sciences, Exponent, Inc., Alexandria, VA, 2EcoSciences, Exponent, Inc., Maynard, MA, 3Health Sciences, Exponent, Inc., Alexandria, VA, 4Environmental Safety, 5Technical and International Affairs, American Cleaning Institute, Washington, DC, 6Regulatory Affairs, Ecolab, Saint Paul, MN, USA Objectives: Health care-associated infections (HAIs pose a significant health care and cost burden. This study estimates annual HAI hospital costs in the US avoided through use of health care antiseptics (health care personnel hand washes and rubs; surgical hand scrubs and rubs; patient preoperative and preinjection skin preparations. Methods: A spreadsheet model was developed with base case inputs derived from the published literature, supplemented with assumptions when data were insufficient. Five HAIs of interest were identified: catheter-associated urinary tract infections, central line-associated bloodstream infections, gastrointestinal infections caused by Clostridium difficile, hospital- or ventilator-associated pneumonia, and surgical site infections. A national estimate of the annual potential lost benefits from elimination of these products is calculated based on the number of HAIs, the proportion of HAIs that are preventable, the proportion of preventable HAIs associated with health care antiseptics, and HAI hospital costs. The model is designed to be user friendly and to allow assumptions about prevention across all infections to vary or stay the same. Sensitivity analyses provide low- and high-end estimates of costs avoided. Results: Low- and high-end estimates of national, annual HAIs in hospitals avoided through use of health care antiseptics are 12,100 and 223,000, respectively, with associated hospital costs avoided of US$142 million and US$4.25 billion, respectively. Conclusion: The model presents a novel

  2. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  3. Life cycle cost estimation and systems analysis of waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents general conclusions from application of a system cost analysis method developed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Waste Management Division (WM), Waste Management Facilities Costs Information (WMFCI) program. The WMFCI method has been used to assess the DOE complex-wide management of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. The Idaho Engineering Laboratory, along with its subcontractor Morrison Knudsen Corporation, has been responsible for developing and applying the WMFCI cost analysis method. The cost analyses are based on system planning level life-cycle costs. The costs for life-cycle waste management activities estimated by WMFCI range from bench-scale testing and developmental work needed to design and construct a facility, facility permitting and startup, operation and maintenance, to the final decontamination, decommissioning, and closure of the facility. For DOE complex-wide assessments, cost estimates have been developed at the treatment, storage, and disposal module level and rolled up for each DOE installation. Discussions include conclusions reached by studies covering complex-wide consolidation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, system cost modeling, system costs sensitivity, system cost optimization, and the integration of WM waste with the environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning secondary wastes

  4. [Case management. The nursing business of care or cost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, B K; Duquette, A; Kérouac, S; Rouillier, L

    1992-01-01

    Less money spent on health services, cost-effectiveness, better productivity and more efficiency are some of the driving forces of contemporary "neo-liberalism" and political trends. How can nursing services and the profession's human values adapt in this difficult context? The authors describe the newest modality of patient care delivery system: nursing case management. They examine the factors and assumptions that led up to its development and point out the validity of asking some serious questions before embarking on the euphoria of case management. PMID:1291932

  5. A Project Management Approach to Using Simulation for Cost Estimation on Large, Complex Software Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizell, Carolyn; Malone, Linda

    2007-01-01

    It is very difficult for project managers to develop accurate cost and schedule estimates for large, complex software development projects. None of the approaches or tools available today can estimate the true cost of software with any high degree of accuracy early in a project. This paper provides an approach that utilizes a software development process simulation model that considers and conveys the level of uncertainty that exists when developing an initial estimate. A NASA project will be analyzed using simulation and data from the Software Engineering Laboratory to show the benefits of such an approach.

  6. Procedure for estimating nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revised guidelines are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants, specifically light-water-reactor plants and coal-fired plants. Previous guidelines were published in October 1975 in ERDA 76-37, a Procedure for Estimating Nonfuel Operating and Maintenance Costs for Large Steam-Electric Power Plants. Estimates for coal-fired plants include the option of limestone slurry scrubbing for flue gas desulfurization. A computer program, OMCOST, is also presented which covers all plant options

  7. Regional Cost Estimates for Reclamation Practices on Arid and Semiarid Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler

    2002-02-01

    The U.S. Army uses the Integrated Training Area Management program for managing training land. One of the major objectives of the Integrated Training Area Management program has been to develop a method for estimating training land carrying capacity in a sustainable manner. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology measures training load in terms of Maneuver Impact Miles. One Maneuver Impact Mile is the equivalent impact of an M1A2 tank traveling one mile while participating in an armor battalion field training exercise. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology is also designed to predict land maintenance costs in terms of dollars per Maneuver Impact Mile. The overall cost factor is calculated using the historical cost of land maintenance practices and the effectiveness of controlling erosion. Because land maintenance costs and effectiveness are influenced by the characteristics of the land, Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity cost factors must be developed for each ecological region of the country. Costs for land maintenance activities are presented here for the semiarid and arid regions of the United States. Five ecoregions are recognized, and average values for reclamation activities are presented. Because there are many variables that can influence costs, ranges for reclamation activities are also presented. Costs are broken down into six major categories: seedbed preparation, fertilization, seeding, planting, mulching, and supplemental erosion control. Costs for most land reclamation practices and materials varied widely within and between ecological provinces. Although regional cost patterns were evident for some practices, the patterns were not consistent between practices. For the purpose of estimating land reclamation costs for the Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology, it may be desirable to use the ''Combined Average'' of all provinces found in the last

  8. Regional Cost Estimates for Reclamation Practices on Arid and Semiarid Lands; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Army uses the Integrated Training Area Management program for managing training land. One of the major objectives of the Integrated Training Area Management program has been to develop a method for estimating training land carrying capacity in a sustainable manner. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology measures training load in terms of Maneuver Impact Miles. One Maneuver Impact Mile is the equivalent impact of an M1A2 tank traveling one mile while participating in an armor battalion field training exercise. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology is also designed to predict land maintenance costs in terms of dollars per Maneuver Impact Mile. The overall cost factor is calculated using the historical cost of land maintenance practices and the effectiveness of controlling erosion. Because land maintenance costs and effectiveness are influenced by the characteristics of the land, Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity cost factors must be developed for each ecological region of the country. Costs for land maintenance activities are presented here for the semiarid and arid regions of the United States. Five ecoregions are recognized, and average values for reclamation activities are presented. Because there are many variables that can influence costs, ranges for reclamation activities are also presented. Costs are broken down into six major categories: seedbed preparation, fertilization, seeding, planting, mulching, and supplemental erosion control. Costs for most land reclamation practices and materials varied widely within and between ecological provinces. Although regional cost patterns were evident for some practices, the patterns were not consistent between practices. For the purpose of estimating land reclamation costs for the Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology, it may be desirable to use the ''Combined Average'' of all provinces found in the last row of each table

  9. An Estimation of Private Household Costs to Receive Free Oral Cholera Vaccine in Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittal Mogasale

    Full Text Available Service provider costs for vaccine delivery have been well documented; however, vaccine recipients' costs have drawn less attention. This research explores the private household out-of-pocket and opportunity costs incurred to receive free oral cholera vaccine during a mass vaccination campaign in rural Odisha, India.Following a government-driven oral cholera mass vaccination campaign targeting population over one year of age, a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate private household costs among vaccine recipients. The questionnaire captured travel costs as well as time and wage loss for self and accompanying persons. The productivity loss was estimated using three methods: self-reported, government defined minimum daily wages and gross domestic product per capita in Odisha.On average, families were located 282.7 (SD = 254.5 meters from the nearest vaccination booths. Most family members either walked or bicycled to the vaccination sites and spent on average 26.5 minutes on travel and 15.7 minutes on waiting. Depending upon the methodology, the estimated productivity loss due to potential foregone income ranged from $0.15 to $0.29 per dose of cholera vaccine received. The private household cost of receiving oral cholera vaccine constituted 24.6% to 38.0% of overall vaccine delivery costs.The private household costs resulting from productivity loss for receiving a free oral cholera vaccine is a substantial proportion of overall vaccine delivery cost and may influence vaccine uptake. Policy makers and program managers need to recognize the importance of private costs and consider how to balance programmatic delivery costs with private household costs to receive vaccines.

  10. Accounting for the inaccuracies in demand forecasts and construction cost estimations in transport project evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2014-01-01

    For decades researchers have claimedthat particularly demand forecasts and construction cost estimations are assigned with/affected by a large degree of uncertainty. Massively, articles,research documents and reports agree that there exists a tendencytowards underestimating the costs...... in demand and cost estimations and hence the evaluation of transport infrastructure projects. Currently, research within this area is scarce and scattered with no commonagreement on how to embed and operationalise the huge amount of empiricaldata that exist within the frame of Optimism Bias. Therefore...... convertingdeterministic benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) into stochasticinterval results. A new data collection (2009–2013) forms the empirical basis for any risk simulation embeddedwithin the so-calledUP database (UNITE project database),revealing the inaccuracy of both construction costs and demandforecasts. Accordingly...

  11. Comparing The Databases Used in the Construction Cost Estimate in Turkey with Similar Databases in the World

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Ayşe Yazıcıoğlu

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the structure of cost data bases which are used for building cost estimating in different design stages in Turkey and then to determine the problems of these cost data bases by comparing them with other cost data bases which are used in the world. Besides that, there will be advices to improve the cost data bases for more reliable cost estimating in Turkey.

  12. Query cost estimation through remote system contention states analysis over the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Weiru; Liao, Z; Hong, Jun

    2004-01-01

    Query processing over the Internet involving autonomous data sources is a major task in data integration. It requires the estimated costs of possible queries in order to select the best one that has the minimum cost. In this context, the cost of a query is affected by three factors: network congestion, server contention state, and complexity of the query. In this paper, we study the effects of both the network congestion and server contention state on the cost of a query. We refer to these tw...

  13. Constrained low-cost GPS/INS filter with encoder bias estimation for ground vehicles' applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafez, Mamoun F.; Saadeddin, Kamal; Amin Jarrah, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a constrained, fault-tolerant, low-cost navigation system is proposed for ground vehicle's applications. The system is designed to provide a vehicle navigation solution at 50 Hz by fusing the measurements of the inertial measurement unit (IMU), the global positioning system (GPS) receiver, and the velocity measurement from wheel encoders. A high-integrity estimation filter is proposed to obtain a high accuracy state estimate. The filter utilizes vehicle velocity constraints measurement to enhance the estimation accuracy. However, if the velocity measurement of the encoder is biased, the accuracy of the estimate is degraded. Therefore, a noise estimation algorithm is proposed to estimate a possible bias in the velocity measurement of the encoder. Experimental tests, with simulated biases on the encoder's readings, are conducted and the obtained results are presented. The experimental results show the enhancement in the estimation accuracy when the simulated bias is estimated using the proposed method.

  14. Formulas for estimating the costs averted by sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koski Kathryn

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention programs can mitigate the health and economic burden of STIs. A tool to estimate the economic benefits of STI programs could prove useful to STI program personnel. Methods We developed formulas that can be applied to estimate the direct medical costs and indirect costs (lost productivity averted by STI programs in the United States. Costs and probabilities for these formulas were based primarily on published studies. Results We present a series of formulas that can be used to estimate the economic benefits of STI prevention (in 2006 US dollars, using data routinely collected by STI programs. For example, the averted sequelae costs associated with treating women for chlamydia is given as (Cw(0.16(0.925(0.70($1,995, where Cw is the number of infected women treated for chlamydia, 0.16 is the absolute reduction in the probability of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID as a result of treatment, 0.925 is an adjustment factor to prevent double-counting of PID averted in women with both chlamydia and gonorrhea, 0.70 is an adjustment factor to account for the possibility of re-infection, and $1,995 is the average cost per case of PID, based on published sources. Conclusion The formulas developed in this study can be a useful tool for STI program personnel to generate evidence-based estimates of the economic impact of their program and can facilitate the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of their activities.

  15. Estimating the cost of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldie Sue J

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs can provide useful information to policymakers concerned with the broad allocation of resources as well as to local decision makers choosing between different options for reducing the burden from a single disease. For the latter, it is important to use country-specific data when possible and to represent cost differences between countries that might make one strategy more or less attractive than another strategy locally. As part of a CEA of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries, we supplemented limited primary cost data by developing other estimation techniques for direct medical and non-medical costs associated with alternative screening approaches using one of three initial screening tests: simple visual screening, HPV DNA testing, and cervical cytology. Here, we report estimation methods and results for three cost areas in which data were lacking. Methods To supplement direct medical costs, including staff, supplies, and equipment depreciation using country-specific data, we used alternative techniques to quantify cervical cytology and HPV DNA laboratory sample processing costs. We used a detailed quantity and price approach whose face validity was compared to an adaptation of a US laboratory estimation methodology. This methodology was also used to project annual sample processing capacities for each laboratory type. The cost of sample transport from the clinic to the laboratory was estimated using spatial models. A plausible range of the cost of patient time spent seeking and receiving screening was estimated using only formal sector employment and wages as well as using both formal and informal sector participation and country-specific minimum wages. Data sources included primary data from country-specific studies, international databases, international prices, and expert opinion. Costs were standardized to year 2000 international dollars using inflation adjustment and

  16. Social Cost of Leptospirosis Cases Attributed to the 2011 Disaster Striking Nova Friburgo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pereira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the social cost of the leptospirosis cases that were attributed to the natural disaster of January 2011 in Nova Friburgo (State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil through a partial economic assessment. This study utilized secondary data supplied by the Municipal Health Foundation of Nova Friburgo. Income scenarios based on the national and state minimum wages and on average income of the local population were employed. The total social cost of leptospirosis cases attributed to the 2011 disaster may range between US$21,500 and US$66,000 for the lower income scenario and between US$23,900 and US$100,800 for that of higher income. Empirical therapy represented a total avoided cost of US$14,800, in addition to a reduction in lethality. An estimated 31 deaths were avoided among confirmed cases of the disease, and no deaths resulted from the leptospirosis cases attributed to the natural disaster. There has been a significant post-disaster rise in leptospirosis incidence in the municipality, which illustrates the potential for increased cases—and hence costs—of this illness following natural disasters, which justifies the adoption of preventive measures in environmental health.

  17. The effects of expert selection, elicitation design, and R&D assumptions on experts' estimates of the future costs of photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expert elicitations of future energy technology costs can improve energy policy design by explicitly characterizing uncertainty. However, the recent proliferation of expert elicitation studies raises questions about the reliability and comparability of the results. In this paper, we standardize disparate expert elicitation data from five EU and US studies, involving 65 experts, of the future costs of photovoltaics (PV) and evaluate the impact of expert and study characteristics on the elicited metrics. The results for PV suggest that in-person elicitations are associated with more optimistic 2030 PV cost estimates and in some models with a larger range of uncertainty than online elicitations. Unlike in previous results on nuclear power, expert affiliation type and nationality do not affect central estimates. Some specifications suggest that EU experts are more optimistic about breakthroughs, but they are also less confident in that they provide larger ranges of estimates than do US experts. Higher R&D investment is associated with lower future costs. Rather than increasing confidence, high R&D increases uncertainty about future costs, mainly because it improves the base case (low cost) outcomes more than it improves the worst case (high cost) outcomes. - Highlights: • We standardize 5 expert elicitations for the 2030 costs of photovoltaics. • Elicitations conducted in person are associated with lower costs. • In person elicitations also increase the range of outcomes. • R&D investments lower PV costs but increase uncertainty. • In some models EU experts are more optimistic and less confident

  18. Marginal cost and congestion in the Italian electricity market: An indirect estimation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we construct an indirect measure of the supply marginal cost function for the main generators from the observed bid data in the Italian electricity market in the period 2004–2007. We compute the residual demand function for each generator, taking explicitly into account the issue of transmission line congestion. This procedure allows recovering correct zonal Lerner index and the implied measure of the marginal cost function. We find evidence of a stable U-shaped marginal cost function for three main Italian generators, but a flat function for ENEL, the former national monopolist. The policy relevance of our approach lies in the possibility to offer some empirical knowledge of the marginal cost function of each generator to the regulator to design appropriate policy measures geared to the promotion of competitive market conditions. We propose a new market surveillance mechanism, which is based on the principle of sanctioning excessive deviations from the estimated measure of the marginal cost function presented in this work. -- Highlights: •We construct an indirect measure of the supply marginal cost function. •We compute the residual demand function taking into account transmission line congestion. •We find a general evidence of a stable U-shaped marginal cost function for Italian generators. •We find flat marginal cost function for the former national monopolist. •We use excessive deviations from estimated marginal cost function as a new market surveillance mechanism

  19. A bottom-up approach to estimating cost elements of REDD+ pilot projects in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merger Eduard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several previous global REDD+ cost studies have been conducted, demonstrating that payments for maintaining forest carbon stocks have significant potential to be a cost-effective mechanism for climate change mitigation. These studies have mostly followed highly aggregated top-down approaches without estimating the full range of REDD+ costs elements, thus underestimating the actual costs of REDD+. Based on three REDD+ pilot projects in Tanzania, representing an area of 327,825 ha, this study explicitly adopts a bottom-up approach to data assessment. By estimating opportunity, implementation, transaction and institutional costs of REDD+ we develop a practical and replicable methodological framework to consistently assess REDD+ cost elements. Results Based on historical land use change patterns, current region-specific economic conditions and carbon stocks, project-specific opportunity costs ranged between US$ -7.8 and 28.8 tCOxxxx for deforestation and forest degradation drivers such as agriculture, fuel wood production, unsustainable timber extraction and pasture expansion. The mean opportunity costs for the three projects ranged between US$ 10.1 – 12.5 tCO2. Implementation costs comprised between 89% and 95% of total project costs (excluding opportunity costs ranging between US$ 4.5 - 12.2 tCO2 for a period of 30 years. Transaction costs for measurement, reporting, verification (MRV, and other carbon market related compliance costs comprised a minor share, between US$ 0.21 - 1.46 tCO2. Similarly, the institutional costs comprised around 1% of total REDD+ costs in a range of US$ 0.06 – 0.11 tCO2. Conclusions The use of bottom-up approaches to estimate REDD+ economics by considering regional variations in economic conditions and carbon stocks has been shown to be an appropriate approach to provide policy and decision-makers robust economic information on REDD+. The assessment of opportunity costs is a crucial first step to

  20. Development of hybrid lifecycle cost estimating tool (HLCET) for manufacturing influenced design tradeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirojvisuth, Apinut

    In complex aerospace system design, making an effective design decision requires multidisciplinary knowledge from both product and process perspectives. Integrating manufacturing considerations into the design process is most valuable during the early design stages since designers have more freedom to integrate new ideas when changes are relatively inexpensive in terms of time and effort. Several metrics related to manufacturability are cost, time, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). Yet, there is a lack of structured methodology that quantifies how changes in the design decisions impact these metrics. As a result, a new set of integrated cost analysis tools are proposed in this study to quantify the impacts. Equally important is the capability to integrate this new cost tool into the existing design methodologies without sacrificing agility and flexibility required during the early design phases. To demonstrate the applicability of this concept, a ModelCenter environment is used to develop software architecture that represents Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) methodology used in several aerospace systems designs. The environment seamlessly integrates product and process analysis tools and makes effective transition from one design phase to the other while retaining knowledge gained a priori. Then, an advanced cost estimating tool called Hybrid Lifecycle Cost Estimating Tool (HLCET), a hybrid combination of weight-, process-, and activity-based estimating techniques, is integrated with the design framework. A new weight-based lifecycle cost model is created based on Tailored Cost Model (TCM) equations [3]. This lifecycle cost tool estimates the program cost based on vehicle component weights and programmatic assumptions. Additional high fidelity cost tools like process-based and activity-based cost analysis methods can be used to modify the baseline TCM result as more knowledge is accumulated over design iterations. Therefore, with this

  1. The National Program of Cancer Registries: Explaining State Variations in Average Cost per Case Reported

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah K. Weir, PhD

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Program of Cancer Registries is a federally funded surveillance program that provides support and assistance to state and territorial health departments for the operation of cancer registries. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s costs to report cancer cases during the first 5 years of the National Program of Cancer Registries. Methods Information on expenditures and number of cases reported through the National Program of Cancer Registries was used to estimate the average cost per case reported for each state program. Additional information was obtained from other sources, and regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of each factor. Results Average costs of the National Program of Cancer Registries differed substantially among programs and were inversely associated with the number of cases reported (P < .001. The geographic area of the state was positively associated with the cost (P = .01, as was the regional cost of living (P = .08, whereas the program type (i.e., enhancement or planning was inversely associated with cost (P = .08. Conclusion The apparent existence of economies of scale suggests that contiguous state programs might benefit from sharing infrastructure and other fixed costs, such as database management resources, depending on the geographic area and population size served. Sharing database management resources might also promote uniform data collection and quality control practices, reduce the information-sharing burden among states, and allow more resources to be used for other cancer prevention and control activities.

  2. Application of Boosting Regression Trees to Preliminary Cost Estimation in Building Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonseok Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the recent data mining techniques available, the boosting approach has attracted a great deal of attention because of its effective learning algorithm and strong boundaries in terms of its generalization performance. However, the boosting approach has yet to be used in regression problems within the construction domain, including cost estimations, but has been actively utilized in other domains. Therefore, a boosting regression tree (BRT is applied to cost estimations at the early stage of a construction project to examine the applicability of the boosting approach to a regression problem within the construction domain. To evaluate the performance of the BRT model, its performance was compared with that of a neural network (NN model, which has been proven to have a high performance in cost estimation domains. The BRT model has shown results similar to those of NN model using 234 actual cost datasets of a building construction project. In addition, the BRT model can provide additional information such as the importance plot and structure model, which can support estimators in comprehending the decision making process. Consequently, the boosting approach has potential applicability in preliminary cost estimations in a building construction project.

  3. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) system design study: System cost estimates document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) program was initiated to provide life science investigators relatively inexpensive, frequent access to space for extended periods of time with eventual satellite recovery on earth. The RRS will provide an on-orbit laboratory for research on biological and material processes, be launched from a number of expendable launch vehicles, and operate in Low-Altitude Earth Orbit (LEO) as a free-flying unmanned laboratory. SAIC's design will provide independent atmospheric reentry and soft landing in the continental U.S., orbit for a maximum of 60 days, and will sustain three flights per year for 10 years. The Reusable Reentry Vehicle (RRV) will be 3-axis stabilized with artificial gravity up to 1.5g's, be rugged and easily maintainable, and have a modular design to accommodate a satellite bus and separate modular payloads (e.g., rodent module, general biological module, ESA microgravity botany facility, general botany module). The purpose of this System Cost Estimate Document is to provide a Life Cycle Cost Estimate (LCCE) for a NASA RRS Program using SAIC's RRS design. The estimate includes development, procurement, and 10 years of operations and support (O&S) costs for NASA's RRS program. The estimate does not include costs for other agencies which may track or interface with the RRS program (e.g., Air Force tracking agencies or individual RRS experimenters involved with special payload modules (PM's)). The life cycle cost estimate extends over the 10 year operation and support period FY99-2008.

  4. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutubessy Raymond

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on, social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E. The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015, the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5 in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs and US$31.5 million (with vaccine assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. This is equivalent to a

  5. The economic costs of radiation-induced health effects: Estimation and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This effort improves the quantitative information available for use in evaluating actions that alter health risks due to population exposure to ionizing radiation. To project the potential future costs of changes in health effects risks, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) constructed a probabilistic computer model, Health Effects Costs Model (HECOM), which utilizes the health effect incidence estimates from accident consequences models to calculate the discounted sum of the economic costs associated with population exposure to ionizing radiation. Application of HECOM to value-impact and environmental impact analyses should greatly increase the quality of the information available for regulatory decision making. Three major types of health effects present risks for any population sustaining a significant radiation exposure: acute radiation injuries (and fatalities), latent cancers, and impairments due to genetic effects. The literature pertaining to both incidence and treatment of these health effects was reviewed by PNL and provided the basis for developing economic cost estimates. The economic costs of health effects estimated by HECOM represent both the value of resources consumed in diagnosing, treating, and caring for the patient and the value of goods not produced because of illness or premature death due to the health effect. Additional costs to society, such as pain and suffering, are not included in the PNL economic cost measures since they do not divert resources from other uses, are difficult to quantify, and do not have a value observable in the marketplace. 83 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs

  6. Methodology applied by IRSN for nuclear accident cost estimations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used by IRSN to estimate the cost of potential nuclear accidents in France. It concerns possible accidents involving pressurized water reactors leading to radioactive releases in the environment. These accidents have been grouped in two accident families called: severe accidents and major accidents. Two model scenarios have been selected to represent each of these families. The report discusses the general methodology of nuclear accident cost estimation. The crucial point is that all cost should be considered: if not, the cost is underestimated which can lead to negative consequences for the value attributed to safety and for crisis preparation. As a result, the overall cost comprises many components: the most well-known is offsite radiological costs, but there are many others. The proposed estimates have thus required using a diversity of methods which are described in this report. Figures are presented at the end of this report. Among other things, they show that purely radiological costs only represent a non-dominant part of foreseeable economic consequences

  7. The economic costs of radiation-induced health effects: Estimation and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    This effort improves the quantitative information available for use in evaluating actions that alter health risks due to population exposure to ionizing radiation. To project the potential future costs of changes in health effects risks, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) constructed a probabilistic computer model, Health Effects Costs Model (HECOM), which utilizes the health effect incidence estimates from accident consequences models to calculate the discounted sum of the economic costs associated with population exposure to ionizing radiation. Application of HECOM to value-impact and environmental impact analyses should greatly increase the quality of the information available for regulatory decision making. Three major types of health effects present risks for any population sustaining a significant radiation exposure: acute radiation injuries (and fatalities), latent cancers, and impairments due to genetic effects. The literature pertaining to both incidence and treatment of these health effects was reviewed by PNL and provided the basis for developing economic cost estimates. The economic costs of health effects estimated by HECOM represent both the value of resources consumed in diagnosing, treating, and caring for the patient and the value of goods not produced because of illness or premature death due to the health effect. Additional costs to society, such as pain and suffering, are not included in the PNL economic cost measures since they do not divert resources from other uses, are difficult to quantify, and do not have a value observable in the marketplace. 83 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. The effects of stochastic electricity market modelling on estimating additional costs of intermittent RES-E integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a stochastic fundamental electricity market model is developed. The model's principle is cost minimization by determining the marginal system costs mainly as a function of available generation and transmission capacities, primary energy prices, plant characteristics and electricity demand. In order to obtain appropriate estimates of the costs of intermittent renewable energy sources for electricity production (RES-E) notably reduced efficiencies at part load, start-up costs and reserve power requirements are taken into account. Since hydro storage is of high relevance when analysing intermittent resources, time-coupling constraints are considered. The system is considered to adapt on increasing RES-E over time by endogenous modelling of investment decisions in conventional power plants. To explicitly account for intermittent electricity production the fundamental modeling approach is extended by introducing a stochastic recombining tree. Exemplary results are presented for a German case study. It is shown that the costs of wind's intermittency are underestimated in deterministic models. The proposed stochastic model, however, can give far more realistic estimates as e.g. the decreasing capacity credit with increasing installed wind capacities can sufficiently be modelled. (Author)

  9. An Analysis of the Technological Structure of Refineries and Blenders: Estimation of the Leontief Multiproduct Cost Function and Reservation Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Leontief multiproduct flexible cost function aims to give an approach to the technology used by refineries and blenders. In general, this cost function satisfies rational behavior restrictions imposed by economic theory. The estimated marginal costs are incorporated in a monopolistic competition model to calculate the virtual prices of other products provided by refineries and blenders in the hypothetical situation in which reformulated gasoline is absent in fuel markets. I have found that conventional gasoline and other product prices are greater than those in the mentioned hypothetical case. This result reflects the fact that consumers are being charged with high prices in order to have available a fuel which satisfies the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA regulations. Finally, when all the products become perfect substitutes, i.e. consumers are not interested in the quality of fuels, price differences tend to be negligibly small.

  10. Multigenerational versus single generation studies to estimate herbicide resistance fitness cost in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Fabrice; Camilleri, Christine; Bérard, Aurélie; Reboud, Xavier

    2005-10-01

    The evolution of resistance in response to pesticide selection is expected to be delayed if fitness costs are associated with resistance genes. The estimate of fitness costs usually involves comparing major growth traits of resistant versus susceptible individuals in the absence of pesticide. Ideally, a measure of changes in resistance allele frequency over several generations would allow the best estimate of the overall fitness cost of a resistance gene. In greenhouse conditions, we monitored the dynamics of the evolution of the frequencies of six herbicide-resistant mutations (acetolactate synthase, cellulose synthase, and auxin-induced target genes) in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana in a multigenerational study covering five to seven nonoverlapping generations. The microevolutionary dynamics in experimental populations indicated a mean fitness cost of 38%, 73%, and 94% for the ixr1-2, axr1-3, and axr2-1 resistances, respectively; no fitness cost for the csr1-1, and ixr2-1 resistances; and a transient advantage for the aux1-7 resistance. The result for the csr1-1 resistance contrasts with a cost of 37% based on total seed number in a previous study, demonstrating that single generation studies could have limitation for detecting cost. A positive frequency dependence for the fitness cost was also detected for the ixr1-2 resistance. The results are discussed in relation to the maintenance of polymorphism at resistance loci. PMID:16405169

  11. State estimation and control for low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Yenal Vural, Sıtkı

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses state estimation and control procedures for a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The authors consider the use of robust adaptive Kalman filter algorithms and demonstrate their advantages over the optimal Kalman filter in the context of the difficult and varied environments in which UAVs may be employed. Fault detection and isolation (FDI) and data fusion for UAV air-data systems are also investigated, and control algorithms, including the classical, optimal, and fuzzy controllers, are given for the UAV. The performance of different control methods is investigated and the results compared. State Estimation and Control of Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles covers all the important issues for designing a guidance, navigation and control (GNC) system of a low-cost UAV. It proposes significant new approaches that can be exploited by GNC system designers in the future and also reviews the current literature. The state estimation, control and FDI methods are illustrated by examples and MATLAB...

  12. Cost estimation when time and resources are limited: the Brief DATCAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Roebuck, M Christopher; McLellan, A Thomas

    2004-10-01

    The Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program (DATCAP) was designed in the early 1990s as a research guide to collect and analyze financial data from addiction treatment programs. The addiction research community could clearly benefit from a version of the DATCAP that reduced the time and effort required for its administration without compromising the integrity of its cost estimates. This paper introduces the Brief DATCAP and presents some preliminary findings. Initial feedback from respondents suggests that the Brief DATCAP is understandable, and easier and quicker to complete than the DATCAP. More importantly, preliminary results indicate that cost estimates from the Brief DATCAP differ from those of the longer DATCAP by less than 2%. These results have important research and policy implications because a shorter yet reasonably accurate cost instrument will enhance the feasibility and precision of future economic evaluations of addiction interventions.

  13. Discussion on engineering cost estimation%谈工程中的成本测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Combining with working experience,the paper introduces building engineering cost elements under BOQ background,identifies cost estimation scope and principles,and analyzes cost estimation contents including labor,materials,machineries and measures,which has laid a foundation for cost control.%结合工作经验,介绍了建筑工程中定额及工程量清单计价背景下的成本要素,明确了成本测算的范围与原则,并对成本测算中人、材、机械、措施四大要素中常见的一些情况进行了分析,为成本的控制工作奠定了基础。

  14. Estimation of the cost of treatment by chemotherapy for early breast cancer in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutayeb Saber

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the first cancer in women both in incidence and mortality. The treatment of breast cancer benefited from the progress of chemotherapy and targeted therapies, but there was a parallel increase in treatment costs. Despite a relatively high incidence of many sites of cancer, so far, there is no national register for this disease in Morocco. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the total cost of chemotherapy in the early stages of breast cancer due to its frequency and the chances of patients being cured. This study provides health decision-makers with a first estimate of costs and the opportunity to achieve the optimal use of available data to estimate the needs of antimitotics and trastuzumab in Morocco. Method We start by evaluating the individual cost according to the therapeutic sub-groups, namely: 1. Patients needing chemotherapy with only anthracycline-based therapy. 2. Patients needing chemotherapy with both anthracycline and taxane but without trastuzumab. 3. Patients needing trastuzumab in addition to chemotherapy. For each sub-group, the protocol of treatment is described, and the individual costs per unit, and for the whole cycle, are evaluated. Then we estimate the number of women suffering from breast cancer on the basis of two data bases available in Morocco. Finally, we calculate the total annual cost of treatment of breast cancer in Morocco. Results The total cost of breast cancer in Morocco is given in Moroccan dirhams (MAD, the US dollar at the current exchange rate (MAD 10 = USD 1.30 and in international dollars or purchasing power parity (MAD 10 = PPP 1.95. The cost of a therapy with trastuzumab is 8.4 times the cost of a sequential chemotherapy combining anthracycline and taxane, and nearly 60 times the cost of chemotherapy based on anthracycline alone. Globally, between USD 13.3 million and USD 28.6 million need to be devoted every year by the Moroccan health authorities to treat

  15. Building of an Experimental Cline With Arabidopsis thaliana to Estimate Herbicide Fitness Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Fabrice; Giancola, Sandra; Durand, Stéphanie; Reboud, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Various management strategies aim at maintaining pesticide resistance frequency under a threshold value by taking advantage of the benefit of the fitness penalty (the cost) expressed by the resistance allele outside the treated area or during the pesticide selection “off years.” One method to estimate a fitness cost is to analyze the resistance allele frequency along transects across treated and untreated areas. On the basis of the shape of the cline, this method gives the relative contributi...

  16. The Health and Visibility Cost of Air Pollution: A Comparison of Estimation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark; Murphy, James; McCubbin, Donald

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Air pollution from motor vehicles, electricity-generating plants, industry, and other sources can harm human health, injure crops and forests, damage building materials, and impair visibility. Economists sometimes analyze the social cost of these impacts, in order to illuminate tradeoffs, compare alternatives, and promote efficient use of scarce resource. In this paper, we compare estimates of the health and visibility costs of air pollution derived from a meta-hedonic price analys...

  17. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). PMID:25602550

  18. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

  19. Conceptual capital-cost estimate and facility design of the Mirror-Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains contributions by Bechtel Group, Inc. to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the final report on the conceptual design of the Mirror Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF). Included in this report are the following contributions: (1) conceptual capital cost estimate, (2) structural design, and (3) plot plan and plant arrangement drawings. The conceptual capital cost estimate is prepared in a format suitable for inclusion as a section in the TDF final report. The structural design and drawings are prepared as partial inputs to the TDF final report section on facilities design, which is being prepared by the FEDC

  20. Estimation of Reliability and Cost Relationship for Architecture-based Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Guan; Wei-Ru Chen; Ning Huang; Hong-Ji Yang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to estimate the relationship between software reliability and software development cost taking into account the complexity for developing the software system and the size of software intended to develop during the implementation phase of the software development life cycle. On the basis of estimated relationship, a set of empirical data has been used to validate the correctness of the proposed model by comparing the result with the other existing models. The outcome of this work shows that the method proposed here is a relatively straightforward one in formulating the relationship between reliability and cost during implementation phase.

  1. Conceptual capital-cost estimate and facility design of the Mirror-Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    This report contains contributions by Bechtel Group, Inc. to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the final report on the conceptual design of the Mirror Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF). Included in this report are the following contributions: (1) conceptual capital cost estimate, (2) structural design, and (3) plot plan and plant arrangement drawings. The conceptual capital cost estimate is prepared in a format suitable for inclusion as a section in the TDF final report. The structural design and drawings are prepared as partial inputs to the TDF final report section on facilities design, which is being prepared by the FEDC.

  2. Standard practice: Estimating the cost-effectiveness of coordinated DSM programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.; Brown, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe and illustrate a methodology for estimating the cost-effectiveness of coordinated demand-side management (DSM) programs, extending California {open_quotes}standard practice{close_quotes} to address the special evaluation challenges arising from these programs. A coordinated DSM program is one that is co-administered by a state or local government agency and a gas or electric utility. Although the primary subject of this document is coordinated low-income programs, the principles are easily extended to estimating the cost-effectiveness of all coordinated programs.

  3. Tug fleet and ground operations schedules and controls. Volume 3: Program cost estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cost data for the tug DDT&E and operations phases are presented. Option 6 is the recommended option selected from seven options considered and was used as the basis for ground processing estimates. Option 6 provides for processing the tug in a factory clean environment in the low bay area of VAB with subsequent cleaning to visibly clean. The basis and results of the trade study to select Option 6 processing plan is included. Cost estimating methodology, a work breakdown structure, and a dictionary of WBS definitions is also provided.

  4. Site restoration: Estimation of attributable costs from plutonium-dispersal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear weapons accident is an extremely unlikely event due to the extensive care taken in operations. However, under some hypothetical accident conditions, plutonium might be dispersed to the environment. This would result in costs being incurred by the government to remediate the site and compensate for losses. This study is a multi-disciplinary evaluation of the potential scope of the post-accident response that includes technical factors, current and proposed legal requirements and constraints, as well as social/political factors that could influence decision making. The study provides parameters that can be used to assess economic costs for accidents postulated to occur in urban areas, Midwest farmland, Western rangeland, and forest. Per-area remediation costs have been estimated, using industry-standard methods, for both expedited and extended remediation. Expedited remediation costs have been evaluated for highways, airports, and urban areas. Extended remediation costs have been evaluated for all land uses except highways and airports. The inclusion of cost estimates in risk assessments, together with the conventional estimation of doses and health effects, allows a fuller understanding of the post-accident environment. The insights obtained can be used to minimize economic risks by evaluation of operational and design alternatives, and through development of improved capabilities for accident response

  5. Site restoration: Estimation of attributable costs from plutonium-dispersal accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanin, D.I.; Murfin, W.B. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A nuclear weapons accident is an extremely unlikely event due to the extensive care taken in operations. However, under some hypothetical accident conditions, plutonium might be dispersed to the environment. This would result in costs being incurred by the government to remediate the site and compensate for losses. This study is a multi-disciplinary evaluation of the potential scope of the post-accident response that includes technical factors, current and proposed legal requirements and constraints, as well as social/political factors that could influence decision making. The study provides parameters that can be used to assess economic costs for accidents postulated to occur in urban areas, Midwest farmland, Western rangeland, and forest. Per-area remediation costs have been estimated, using industry-standard methods, for both expedited and extended remediation. Expedited remediation costs have been evaluated for highways, airports, and urban areas. Extended remediation costs have been evaluated for all land uses except highways and airports. The inclusion of cost estimates in risk assessments, together with the conventional estimation of doses and health effects, allows a fuller understanding of the post-accident environment. The insights obtained can be used to minimize economic risks by evaluation of operational and design alternatives, and through development of improved capabilities for accident response.

  6. Estimating the capital costs of energy storage technologies for levelling the output of renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mignard, Dimitri

    2014-01-01

    In remote areas and islands north and west of Scotland and in many other parts of the world, the high cost of connecting wind farms and other renewable energy converters to the grid may make energy storage an attractive alternative. We estimated the installed capital costs of advanced adiabatic compressed air storage (ACAES), vanadium redox flow cells (VRB) and Li-ion batteries inthe range of 0.5–50 MW and 0.7–30 MWh. These costs were all of the order of £1 million per MWh, confirming that th...

  7. Optimal replacement time estimation for machines and equipment based on cost function

    OpenAIRE

    J. Šebo; J. Buša; Demeč, P.; J. Svetlík

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with a multidisciplinary issue of estimating the optimal replacement time for the machines. Considered categories of machines, for which the optimization method is usable, are of the metallurgical and engineering production. Different models of cost function are considered (both with one and two variables). Parameters of the models were calculated through the least squares method. Models testing show that all are good enough, so for estimation of optimal replacement time is ...

  8. A study of Time-varying Cost Parameter Estimation Methods in Traffic Networks for Mobile Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Pragna; Xirgo, Lluís Ribas

    2015-01-01

    Industrial robust controlling systems built using automated guided vehicles (AGVs) requires planning which depends on cost parameters like time and energy of the mobile robots functioning in the system. This work addresses the problem of on-line traversal time identification and estimation for proper mobility of mobile robots on systems' traffic networks. Several filtering and estimation methods have been investigated with respect to proper identification of traversal time of arcs of systems'...

  9. Estimated decommissioning cost for the 23 operating nuclear power reactors in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear power reactors requires considerable funds and is carried out over a long period. In order to forecast the total decommissioning funds needed by the licensee as well as provide a basis for industrial strategy and decommissioning activity planning, hence, this paper estimates the annual costs for decommissioning the 23 nuclear power plants in Korea between 2014 and 2083. For this estimation, 4 scenarios for decommissioning the 23 nuclear power reactors were developed and evaluated. (orig.)

  10. Cost estimates of operating onsite spent fuel pools after final reactor shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents estimates of the annual costs of operating spent fuel pools at nuclear power stations after the final shutdown of one or more onsite reactors. Its purpose is to provide basic spent fuel storage cost information for use in evaluating DOE's reference nuclear waste management system, as well as alternate systems. The basic model of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) used in this study was based on General Electric Corporation's Morris Operation and was modified to reflect mean storage capabilities at an unspecified, or ''generic,'' US reactor site. Cost data for the model came from several sources, including both operating and shutdown nuclear power stations and existing ISFSIs. Duke Power Company has estimated ISFSI costs based on existing spent fuel storage costs at its nuclear power stations. Similarly, nuclear material handling facilities such as the Morris Operation, the West Valley Demonstration Project, and the retired Humbolt Bay nuclear power station have compiled spent fuel storage cost data based on years of operating experience. Consideration was given to the following factors that would cause operating costs to vary among pools: (1) The number of spent fuel pools at a given reactor site; (2) the number of operating and shutdown reactors onsite; (3) geographic location; and (4) pool storage capacity. 10 ref., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Building of an experimental cline with Arabidopsis thaliana to estimate herbicide fitness cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Fabrice; Giancola, Sandra; Durand, Stéphanie; Reboud, Xavier

    2006-06-01

    Various management strategies aim at maintaining pesticide resistance frequency under a threshold value by taking advantage of the benefit of the fitness penalty (the cost) expressed by the resistance allele outside the treated area or during the pesticide selection "off years." One method to estimate a fitness cost is to analyze the resistance allele frequency along transects across treated and untreated areas. On the basis of the shape of the cline, this method gives the relative contributions of both gene flow and the fitness difference between genotypes in the treated and untreated areas. Taking advantage of the properties of such migration-selection balance, an artificial cline was built up to optimize the conditions where the fitness cost of two herbicide-resistant mutants (acetolactate synthase and auxin-induced target genes) in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana could be more accurately measured. The analysis of the microevolutionary dynamics in these experimental populations indicated mean fitness costs of approximately 15 and 92% for the csr1-1 and axr2-1 resistances, respectively. In addition, negative frequency dependence for the fitness cost was also detected for the axr2-1 resistance. The advantages and disadvantages of the cline approach are discussed in regard to other methods of cost estimation. This comparison highlights the powerful ability of an experimental cline to measure low fitness costs and detect sensibility to frequency-dependent variations. PMID:16582450

  12. Cost Estimation of Web Projects inContext with Agile Paradigm: Improvements and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnesh Litoriya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Agile practitioners have expressed concern over their inability to correctly estimate costs associated with Agile web software development. This concern has become even more critical as costs associated with development continue to increase. As a result, significant research attention is now intended for gaining a better understanding of the web based projects in context with Agile software-development process as well as constructing and evaluating calibrated software cost estimating tools. This paper discussed the necessity for new metrics and model to fast predict the size, effort and duration for agile based web development projects. The method called web estimation using COCOMOII for Agile methods AGILEMOW, addresses a need to get effort estimation in a limited period using limited information. In contrast with other existing methods, AGILEMOW uses agile characteristics, raw historical information about development capability and high granularity knowledge about the web system to be developed. This research focuses on development of effort estimation model for agile web projects. Creation and use of the model is enlightenedin detail. The model was calibrated using the empirical data collected from seven completed web projects. The experimental results prove that model has good estimation accuracy in terms of effort and MMRE. The suggested method/model is simple and particularly appropriate for small or medium size web based systems developed by making use of agile methodologies.

  13. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  14. A model to estimate the cost effectiveness of the indoorenvironment improvements in office work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.

    2004-06-01

    Deteriorated indoor climate is commonly related to increases in sick building syndrome symptoms, respiratory illnesses, sick leave, reduced comfort and losses in productivity. The cost of deteriorated indoor climate for the society is high. Some calculations show that the cost is higher than the heating energy costs of the same buildings. Also building-level calculations have shown that many measures taken to improve indoor air quality and climate are cost-effective when the potential monetary savings resulting from an improved indoor climate are included as benefits gained. As an initial step towards systemizing these building level calculations we have developed a conceptual model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of various measures. The model shows the links between the improvements in the indoor environment and the following potential financial benefits: reduced medical care cost, reduced sick leave, better performance of work, lower turn over of employees, and lower cost of building maintenance due to fewer complaints about indoor air quality and climate. The pathways to these potential benefits from changes in building technology and practices go via several human responses to the indoor environment such as infectious diseases, allergies and asthma, sick building syndrome symptoms, perceived air quality, and thermal environment. The model also includes the annual cost of investments, operation costs, and cost savings of improved indoor climate. The conceptual model illustrates how various factors are linked to each other. SBS symptoms are probably the most commonly assessed health responses in IEQ studies and have been linked to several characteristics of buildings and IEQ. While the available evidence indicates that SBS symptoms can affect these outcomes and suspects that such a linkage exists, at present we can not quantify the relationships sufficiently for cost-benefit modeling. New research and analyses of existing data to quantify the financial

  15. Cost-effectiveness of introducing a rotavirus vaccine in developing countries: The case of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Juan-Pablo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea and diarrhoeal deaths in children under 5. Vaccination could greatly alleviate that burden, but in Mexico as in most low- and middle-income countries the decision to add rotavirus vaccine to the national immunisation program will depend heavily on its cost-effectiveness and affordability. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of including the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Mexico's national immunisation program. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was developed from the perspective of the health system, modelling the vaccination of a hypothetical birth cohort of 2 million children monitored from birth through 60 months of age. It compares the cost and disease burden of rotavirus in an unvaccinated cohort of children with one vaccinated as recommended at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results Including the pentavalent vaccine in the national immunisation program could prevent 71,464 medical visits (59%, 5,040 hospital admissions (66%, and 612 deaths from rotavirus gastroenteritis (70%. At US$10 per dose and a cost of administration of US$13.70 per 3-dose regimen, vaccination would cost US$122,058 per death prevented, US$4,383 per discounted life-year saved, at a total net cost of US$74.7 million dollars to the health care system. Key variables influencing the results were, in order of importance, case fatality, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, serotype prevalence, and annual loss of efficacy. The results are also very sensitive to the discount rate assumed when calculated per life-year saved. Conclusion At prices below US $15 per dose, the cost per life-year saved is estimated to be lower than one GNP per capita and hence highly cost effective by the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria. The cost-effectiveness estimates are highly dependent upon the mortality in the absence of the vaccine, which suggests that the vaccine

  16. A model framework to estimate impact and cost of genetics-based sterile insect methods for dengue vector control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Alphey

    Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases impose enormous health and economic burdens and additional methods to control vector populations are clearly needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been successful against agricultural pests, but is not in large-scale use for suppressing or eliminating mosquito populations. Genetic RIDL technology (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal is a proposed modification that involves releasing insects that are homozygous for a repressible dominant lethal genetic construct rather than being sterilized by irradiation, and could potentially overcome some technical difficulties with the conventional SIT technology. Using the arboviral disease dengue as an example, we combine vector population dynamics and epidemiological models to explore the effect of a program of RIDL releases on disease transmission. We use these to derive a preliminary estimate of the potential cost-effectiveness of vector control by applying estimates of the costs of SIT. We predict that this genetic control strategy could eliminate dengue rapidly from a human community, and at lower expense (approximately US$ 2~30 per case averted than the direct and indirect costs of disease (mean US$ 86-190 per case of dengue. The theoretical framework has wider potential use; by appropriately adapting or replacing each component of the framework (entomological, epidemiological, vector control bio-economics and health economics, it could be applied to other vector-borne diseases or vector control strategies and extended to include other health interventions.

  17. Estimation of costs for control of Salmonella in high-risk feed materials and compound feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wierup

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Feed is a potential and major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal-derived food chain. This is given special attention in the European Union (EU efforts to minimize human food-borne Salmonella infections from animal-derived food. The objective of this study was to estimate the total extra cost for preventing Salmonella contamination of feed above those measures required to produce commercial feed according to EU regulation (EC No 183/2005. The study was carried out in Sweden, a country where Salmonella infections in food-producing animals from feed have largely been eliminated. Methods: On the initiative and leadership of the competent authority, the different steps of feed production associated with control of Salmonella contamination were identified. Representatives for the major feed producers operating in the Swedish market then independently estimated the annual mean costs during the years 2009 and 2010. The feed producers had no known incentives to underestimate the costs. Results and discussion: The total cost for achieving a Salmonella-safe compound feed, when such a control is established, was estimated at 1.8–2.3 € per tonne of feed. Of that cost, 25% relates to the prevention of Salmonella contaminated high-risk vegetable feed materials (mainly soybean meal and rapeseed meal from entering feed mills, and 75% for measures within the feed mills. Based on the feed formulations applied, those costs in relation to the farmers’ 2012 price for compound feed were almost equal for broilers and dairy cows (0.7%. Due to less use of protein concentrate to fatten pigs, the costs were lower (0.6%. These limited costs suggest that previous recommendations to enforce a Salmonella-negative policy for animal feed are realistic and economically feasible to prevent a dissemination of the pathogen to animal herds, their environment, and potentially to human food products.

  18. Estimates of the Costs of Kyoto-Marrakesh Versus The McKibbin-Wilcoxen Blueprint

    OpenAIRE

    McKibbin, Warwick J.; Peter J. Wilcoxen

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we update our earlier estimates of the cost of the Kyoto Protocol using the G-Cubed model, taking into account the new sink allowances from recent negotiations as well as allowing for multiple gases and new land clearing estimates. Rather than comparing this to the original Kyoto Protocol as other studies have done, we compare the estimates from the current Kyoto Protocol to a realistic alternative to the Kyoto Protocol outlined by McKibbin and Wilcoxen ( 1197a, 1997b, 2002). A ...

  19. Kentucky Senate Bill 68 Cost Estimate (Adoption/Foster Care Ban)

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Naomi G.; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2009-01-01

    This memo estimates the impact on children and the cost to the State of Kentucky of Senate Bill 68, “The Child Welfare Adoption Act,” which would prohibit unmarried cohabiting couples—including both different-sex couples and same-sex couples— from fostering or adopting children. We use past data to estimate the number of children in foster care who were placed with unmarried couples as a way to estimate the number of impacted children in the first year the proposed legislation would take effe...

  20. Computer software to calculate and map geologic parameters required in estimating coal production costs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honea, R.B.; Petrich, C.H.; Wilson, D.L.; Dillard, C.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Faber, J.A.

    1979-04-01

    This report documents methodologic and computer software developed by Energy Division and Computer Sciences Division personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The software is designed to quantify and automatically map geologic and other cost-related parameters as required to estimate coal mining costs. The software complements the detailed coal production cost models for both underground and surface mines which have been developed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) by NUS, Corp. These models require input variables such as coal seam thickness, coal seam depth, surface slope, etc., to estimate mining costs. This report provides a general overview of the software and methodology developed by ORNL to calculate some of these parameters along with sample map output which indicates the geographical distribution of these geologic characteristics. A detailed user guide for implementing the software has been prepared and is included in the appendixes. (Sample input data which may be used to verify the operation of the software are available from ORNL.) Also included is a brief review of coal production, coal recovery, and coal resource calculation studies. This system will be useful to utilities and coal mine operators alike in estimating costs through comprehensive assessment before mining takes place.

  1. The Medical Cost Attributable to Obesity and Overweight in China: Estimation Based on Longitudinal Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xuezheng; Pan, Jay

    2016-10-01

    With its rapid economic growth and fast changing lifestyle, China witnessed expansionary prevalence of obesity and overweight during the recent decades. This paper provides the first nationally representative estimate of the medical cost attributable to obesity and overweight in China. We improve upon the traditional estimation methodology (two-part model) by jointly adopting the instrumental variable approach and the panel data methods in order to correct for the potential endogeneity of body size and the individual heterogeneity in medical expenditure. Using longitudinal data from 2000-2009 China Health and Nutrition Surveys, we find that body size has a significant impact on the individual expected medical expenditure and the per capita medical cost attributable to obesity and overweight in a single medical event is estimated to be 6.18 Yuan, or 5.29% of the total personal medical expenditure. This translates to 24.35 billion Yuan annual cost on the national scale, accounting for 2.46% of China's national health care expenditure. The subsample analyses also show that such cost is higher for the urban, women, and better educated people and increases over time. Our results contribute to the literature on the economic impact of obesity in developing countries and bear policy implications on controlling the rising health care costs in China. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26223895

  2. Adaptive UAV Attitude Estimation Employing Unscented Kalman Filter, FOAM and Low-Cost MEMS Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia de Marina Peinado, Hector; Espinosa, Felipe; Santos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Navigation employing low cost MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is an uprising challenge. One important part of this navigation is the right estimation of the attitude angles. Most of the existent algorithms handle the sensor readings in a fixed way, le

  3. Revised cost estimate for the decommissioning of the reactor DR3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The report describes a revision of the cost estimate for the decommissioning of the research Reactor DR 3 as described in the report Risø-R-1250(EN). Decommissioning of the Nuclear Facilities at Risø National Laboratory. Edited by Kurt Lauridsen. Therevision has been performed by the planning group...

  4. NATIONAL STORMWATER CALCULATOR: LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT STORMWATER CONTROL COST ESTIMATION PROGRAMMING & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Stormwater Calculator: Low Impact Development Stormwater Control Cost Estimation Programming & Future EnhancementsJason Berner1; Michael Tryby1; Scott Struck2, Dan Pankani2, Marion Deerhake3, Michelle Simon11. USEPA2. GeoSyntec, Inc.3. RTI, Inc.The National Stormwater Ca...

  5. GROUND SYSTEM OF INDEXES ESTIMATION OF COST PREPARATION OF SPECIALISTS IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharenko, N.; Naumenko, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the article the factors which determine the prospects of the educational system of Ukraine at the market of international educational services are considered. Factors are definite, that affect the rise of competitiveness of education. The special attention is spared to estimation of cost of preparation of specialists in higher educational establish.

  6. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis : Estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Van Bergen, J.E.A.M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; Postma, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands. Oppo

  7. 48 CFR 1836.203 - Government estimate of construction costs.(NASA supplements paragraph (c))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Government estimate of construction costs.(NASA supplements paragraph (c)) 1836.203 Section 1836.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS...

  8. Using National Data to Estimate Average Cost Effectiveness of EFNEP Outcomes by State/Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Ranju; Davis, George C.; Blake, Stephanie; You, Wen; Serrano, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This report demonstrates how existing national data can be used to first calculate upper limits on the average cost per participant and per outcome per state/territory for the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). These upper limits can then be used by state EFNEP administrators to obtain more precise estimates for their states,…

  9. An Integrated BIM and Cost Estimating Blended Learning Model--Acceptance Differences between Experts and Novice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Wen, Ming-Hui; Chen, Ching-Ming; Hsu, I-Ting

    2016-01-01

    "Building information technology" and "cost estimating" are two core skills of construction education. However, in traditional education, students learn these two important subjects in separate courses. This study proposes a blended learning environment which can provide students with support for their face-to-face learning…

  10. Economic modelling approaches to cost estimates for the control of carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.X.; Folmer, H.

    1998-01-01

    This article gives an assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of a variety of economic modelling approaches commonly used for cost estimates for limiting carbon emissions, including the ad hoc approach, dynamic optimization approach, input-output approach, macroeconomic approach, computa

  11. Estimated costs of implementation of membrane processes for on-site greywater recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, P; Hourlier, F; Bulteau, G; Massé, A; Jaouen, P; Gérente, C; Faur, C; Le Cloirec, P

    2011-01-01

    Greywater reuse inside buildings is a possible way to preserve water resources and face up to water scarcity. This study is focused on a technical-economic analysis of greywater treatment by a direct nanofiltration (NF) process or by a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) for on-site recycling. The aim of this paper is to analyse the cost of recycled water for two different configurations (50 and 500 inhabitants) in order to demonstrate the relevance of the implementation of membrane processes for greywater recycling, depending on the production capacity of the equipment and the price of drinking water. The first step was to define a method to access the description of the cost of producing recycled water. The direct costs were defined as a sum of fixed costs due to equipment, maintenance and depreciation, and variable costs generated by chemical products and electricity consumptions. They were estimated from an experimental approach and from data found in literature, enabling operating conditions for greywater recycling to be determined. The cost of treated water by a SMBR unit with a processing capacity of 500 persons is close to 4.40 euros m(-3), while the cost is 4.81 euros m(-3) with a NF process running in the same conditions. These costs are similar to the price of drinking water in some European countries.

  12. Cost estimates and economic evaluations for conceptual LLRW disposal facility designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, R.D.; Chau, N. [Rogers & Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Breeds, C.D. [SubTerra, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Total life-cycle costs were estimated in support of the New York LLRW Siting Commission`s project to select a disposal method from four near-surface LLRW disposal methods (namely, uncovered above-grade vaults, covered above-grade vaults, below-grade vaults, and augered holes) and two mined methods (namely, vertical shaft mines and drift mines). Conceptual designs for the disposal methods were prepared and used as the basis for the cost estimates. Typical economic performance of each disposal method was assessed. Life-cycle costs expressed in 1994 dollars ranged from $ 1,100 million (for below-grade vaults and both mined disposal methods) to $2,000 million (for augered holes). Present values ranged from $620 million (for below-grade vaults) to $ 1,100 million (for augered holes).

  13. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  14. Estimation of environmental external costs between coal fired power plant and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power pant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environment impact into monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and Impacts of Atmospheric Release model developed by IAEA were used. The environmental external cost of Samcheonpo coal power plant was estimated about 25 times as much as that of Younggwang nuclear power plant. This result implies that nuclear power plant is a clean technology compared with coal power plant. This study suggests that the external cost should be reflected in the electric system expansion plan in order to allocate energy resources efficiently and to reduce economic impact stemming from the environmental regulation emerged recently on a global level

  15. The energy cost of water independence: the case of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lenouvel; Michel, Lafforgue; Catherine, Chevauché; Pauline, Rhétoré

    2014-01-01

    Finding alternative resources to secure or increase water availability is a key issue in most urban areas. This makes the research of alternative and local water resources of increasing importance. In the context of political tension with its main water provider (Malaysia), Singapore has been implementing a comprehensive water policy for some decades, which relies on water demand management and local water resource mobilisation in order to reach water self-sufficiency by 2060. The production of water from alternative resources through seawater desalination or water reclamation implies energy consumptive technologies such as reverse osmosis. In the context of increasing energy costs and high primary energy dependency, this water self-sufficiency objective is likely to be an important challenge for Singapore. The aim of this paper is to quantify the long-term impact of Singapore's water policy on the national electricity bill and to investigate the impact of Singapore's projects to reduce its water energy footprint. We estimate that 2.0% of the Singaporean electricity demand is already dedicated to water and wastewater treatment processes. If its water-energy footprint dramatically increases in the coming decades, ambitious research projects may buffer the energy cost of water self-sufficiency. PMID:25225924

  16. A vendor managed inventory model using continuous approximations for route length estimates and Markov chain modeling for cost estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Turkensteen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    levels at the vendor’s warehouse and at the retailers are established by modeling the problem as a Joint Replenishment Problem (JRP). This fixed set-up cost ignores the differences in distances, number of retailers visited and vehicle load that may occur, in particular when these retailers are served...... on joint delivery trips. This paper develops a more detailed specification of the transport costs than JRP models. In order to ensure that the complexity of the problem does not become overwhelming, we assume that the retailers are identical and uniformly distributed across an area, which can either...... be a two-dimensional area or a one-dimensional line structure (corresponding to e.g. a major traffic artery). The expected travel distances across a given number of retailers can now be estimated analytically, using results from the field of continuous approxim ation for two-dimensional areas, or using our...

  17. Steam-leak cost estimation using thermographically acquired pipe temperature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madding, Robert P.; MacNamara, Neal A.

    1997-04-01

    Predictive maintenance practitioners readily diagnose steam leaks through drain using infrared thermography, often supplemented with ultrasonic probe verification. Typically, a pipe carries the leaking steam to a flash tank or directly to the condenser. Thus, the energy used to create the steam is what is lost, not the steam itself. However, the cost of steam production is not inexpensive. We have found steam leaks we estimate cost $30 K/year. As a part of the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Boiler, Condenser and Steam Cycle Applications Project, the EPRI M&D (Monitoring & Diagnostic) Centers have begun acquiring steam leak data at several electric utilities. Estimates of steam leak costs are key to evaluating cost savings and recommendation of corrective action, but are hampered by lack of knowledge of the steam flow in the line. These lines are usually not instrumented because typically there is no flow. Consequently, we must derive an indirect method of estimating steam flow. This can be done for uninsulated pipes given knowledge of the pipe surface temperature gradient over a known distance. For single phase conditions, the mass flow of steam equals the heat lost from a length of pipe divided by the temperature drop along the length and the heat capacity of the steam. Pipe heat loss is calculated knowing the pipe diameter, pipe surface temperature, ambient air temperature and using American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) tabulated values. The temperatures are derived from thermographic data. Distances can also be derived from thermal imaging radiometer data, depending on the type of system employed. To facilitate calculation of steam leak cost estimates, we have developed a Microsoft ExcelTM spreadsheet macro. The user can interface directly with the spreadsheet, entering appropriate temperatures, distances, pipe diameter, heat rate, cost of power, etc. Or, the analyst can use thermal imaging radiometer

  18. A Prediction on the Unit Cost Estimation for Decommissioning Activities Using the Experienced Data from DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kook; Park, Hee Seong; Choi, Yoon Dong; Song, Chan Ho; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the DECOMMIS (Decommissioning Information Management System) and have been applied for the decommissioning project of the KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), as the meaning of the first decommissioning project in Korea. All information and data which are from the decommissioning activities are input, saved, output and managed in the DECOMMIS. This system was consists of the web server and the database server. The users could be access through a web page, depending on the input, processing and output, and be modified the permissions to do such activities can after the decommissioning activities have created the initial system-wide data is stored. When it could be used the experienced data from DECOMMIS, the cost estimation on the new facilities for the decommissioning planning will be established with the basic frame of the WBS structures and its codes. In this paper, the prediction on the cost estimation through using the experienced data which were store in DECOMMIS was studied. For the new decommissioning project on the nuclear facilities in the future, through this paper, the cost estimation for the decommissioning using the experienced data which were WBS codes, unit-work productivity factors and annual governmental unit labor cost is proposed. These data were from the KRR and UCP decommissioning project. The differences on the WBS code sectors and facility characterization between new objected components and experienced dismantled components was reduces as scaling factors. The study on the establishment the scaling factors and cost prediction for the cost estimation is developing with the algorithms from the productivity data, now.

  19. Uncertainty quantification metrics for whole product life cycle cost estimates in aerospace innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, O.; Shehab, E.; Erkoyuncu, J.

    2015-08-01

    The lack of defensible methods for quantifying cost estimate uncertainty over the whole product life cycle of aerospace innovations such as propulsion systems or airframes poses a significant challenge to the creation of accurate and defensible cost estimates. Based on the axiomatic definition of uncertainty as the actual prediction error of the cost estimate, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of metrics used for the uncertainty quantification of cost estimates based on a literature review, an evaluation of publicly funded projects such as part of the CORDIS or Horizon 2020 programs, and an analysis of established approaches used by organizations such NASA, the U.S. Department of Defence, the ESA, and various commercial companies. The metrics are categorized based on their foundational character (foundations), their use in practice (state-of-practice), their availability for practice (state-of-art) and those suggested for future exploration (state-of-future). Insights gained were that a variety of uncertainty quantification metrics exist whose suitability depends on the volatility of available relevant information, as defined by technical and cost readiness level, and the number of whole product life cycle phases the estimate is intended to be valid for. Information volatility and number of whole product life cycle phases can hereby be considered as defining multi-dimensional probability fields admitting various uncertainty quantification metric families with identifiable thresholds for transitioning between them. The key research gaps identified were the lacking guidance grounded in theory for the selection of uncertainty quantification metrics and lacking practical alternatives to metrics based on the Central Limit Theorem. An innovative uncertainty quantification framework consisting of; a set-theory based typology, a data library, a classification system, and a corresponding input-output model are put forward to address this research gap as the basis

  20. AN ENHANCED MODEL TO ESTIMATE EFFORT, PERFORMANCE AND COST OF THE SOFTWARE PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pauline

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Authors have proposed a model that first captures the fundamentals of software metrics in the phase 1 consisting of three primitive primary software engineering metrics; they are person-months (PM, function-points (FP, and lines of code (LOC. The phase 2 consists of the proposed function point which is obtained by grouping the adjustment factors to simplify the process of adjustment and to ensure more consistency in the adjustments. In the proposed method fuzzy logic is used for quantifying the quality of requirements and is added as one of the adjustment factor, thus a fuzzy based approach for the Enhanced General System Characteristics to Estimate Effort of the Software Projects using productivity has been obtained. The phase 3 takes the calculated function point from our work and is given as input to the static single variable model (i.e. to the Intermediate COCOMO and COCOMO II for cost estimation. The Authors have tailored the cost factors in intermediate COCOMO and both; cost and scale factors are tailored in COCOMO II to suite to the individual development environment, which is very important for the accuracy of the cost estimates. The software performance indicators are project duration, schedule predictability, requirements completion ratio and post-release defect density, are also measured for the software projects in my work. A comparative study for effort, performance measurement and cost estimation of the software project is done between the existing model and the authors proposed work. Thus our work analyzes the interaction¬al process through which the estimation tasks were collectively accomplished.

  1. Econometric Analysis of Marketing Costs: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Abboah, R.; Amegashie, D.P.K.; Kuiper, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the marketing costs of a pineapple producing and export firm (Bomart Farms) in Ghana. Con­ sistent with the existing literature, we categorize marketing costs into assembling, processing, and distribution costs. The assembling cost comprises of cost of crating and loading fresh f

  2. Experiments, conceptual design, preliminary cost estimates and schedules for an underground research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans for an underground research facility are presented, incorporating techniques to assess the hydrological and thermomechanical response of a rock mass to the introduction and long-term isolation of radioactive waste, and to assess the effects of excavation on the hydrologic integrity of a repository and its subsequent backfill, plugging, and sealing. The project is designed to utilize existing mine or civil works for access to experimental areas and is estimated to last 8 years at a total cost for contruction and operation of $39.0 million (1981 dollars). Performing the same experiments in an existing underground research facility would reduce the duration to 7-1/2 years and cost $27.7 million as a lower-bound estimate. These preliminary plans and estimates should be revised after specific sites are identified which would accommodate the facility

  3. 49 CFR 1111.8 - Procedural schedule in stand-alone cost cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedural schedule in stand-alone cost cases... § 1111.8 Procedural schedule in stand-alone cost cases. (a) Procedural schedule. Absent a specific order by the Board, the following general procedural schedule will apply in stand-alone cost cases: Day...

  4. African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc E Coffeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. METHODS AND FINDINGS: With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. CONCLUSIONS: Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.

  5. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  6. Estimated increases in the cost of electricity under three acid-rain control bills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillsman, E.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Alvic, D.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Several bills were introduced in the past two Congresses to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from electric power plants. The effects of these bills on electricity costs depend on features of the bills, on the mix of generating capacity owned by different electric utilities, on the technologies available for complying with the legislation, and on the time horizon used to calculate the costs. A system of computer software has been developed to make utility-specific estimates of the effects of different legislation on electricity costs. This paper presents sample results from a larger analysis of six pieces of legislation. These results suggest that the emissions trading systems proposed in some legislation, and adopted in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1991, may have less effect than expected on the cost of complying with the legislation. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Fully Bayesian Estimation of Data from Single Case Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindskopf, David

    2013-01-01

    Single case designs (SCDs) generally consist of a small number of short time series in two or more phases. The analysis of SCDs statistically fits in the framework of a multilevel model, or hierarchical model. The usual analysis does not take into account the uncertainty in the estimation of the random effects. This not only has an effect on the…

  8. Cost estimation and control of colorectal cancer screening%大肠癌筛查的成本测算及成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyuan Ma; Qilong Li; Wanli Ma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to estimate the cost of colorectal cancer screening and to provide evidence for the cost control of colorectal cancer screening among general population in rural area of China. Methods: We determined the net cost for colorectal cancer mass-screening in Jiashan County, and evaluated the cost-benefit and cost effectiveness. Results: The compliance rate of primary screening and intensive screening were 84.6% and 78.7%, respectively. In primary screening, the average cost for each individual was 27.2 yuan, and the average cost for identifying one high-risk individual was 180.5 yuan. The mean cost to diagnose one colorectal cancer patient was 42963.3 yuan. As for identification of adenoma, the average cost for each case was 4384.0 yuan. Based on the calculation, the average cost of reducing one colorectal cancer patient was 12768 yuan by conducting the mass-screening protocol. Conclusion: It was beneficial to do the cost-benefit analysis of colorectal cancer screening in area of high incidence. Based on the results of cost-benefit analysis, more efforts should be made to reduce the cost and to improve the efficiency of the colorectal cancer screening.

  9. Internalizing environmental costs: A survey of progress in estimating the external environmental costs of electricity production and a review of market-based policies to incorporate them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of electricity creates environmental insults whose costs are not fully reflected in the prices paid by consumers for electricity services. Failure to incorporate these external costs leads to economically inefficient production and consumption decisions. The present work reviews two related efforts to address this market distortion. The first concerns progress in estimating the uninternalized environmental costs of electricity production. The second concerns market-based approaches to internalizing these costs in electricity production and consumption decisions. 10 tabs.; 41 refs

  10. An Application of UAV Attitude Estimation Using a Low-Cost Inertial Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eure, Kenneth W.; Quach, Cuong Chi; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Hogge, Edward F.; Hill, Boyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are playing an increasing role in aviation. Various methods exist for the computation of UAV attitude based on low cost microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. There has been a recent increase in UAV autonomy as sensors are becoming more compact and onboard processing power has increased significantly. Correct UAV attitude estimation will play a critical role in navigation and separation assurance as UAVs share airspace with civil air traffic. This paper describes attitude estimation derived by post-processing data from a small low cost Inertial Navigation System (INS) recorded during the flight of a subscale commercial off the shelf (COTS) UAV. Two discrete time attitude estimation schemes are presented here in detail. The first is an adaptation of the Kalman Filter to accommodate nonlinear systems, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF returns quaternion estimates of the UAV attitude based on MEMS gyro, magnetometer, accelerometer, and pitot tube inputs. The second scheme is the complementary filter which is a simpler algorithm that splits the sensor frequency spectrum based on noise characteristics. The necessity to correct both filters for gravity measurement errors during turning maneuvers is demonstrated. It is shown that the proposed algorithms may be used to estimate UAV attitude. The effects of vibration on sensor measurements are discussed. Heuristic tuning comments pertaining to sensor filtering and gain selection to achieve acceptable performance during flight are given. Comparisons of attitude estimation performance are made between the EKF and the complementary filter.

  11. Marginal CO2 abatement costs: Findings from alternative shadow price estimates for Shanghai industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanghai, one of the most developed cities in China, is implementing a pilot regional carbon emission trading scheme. Estimating the marginal abatement costs of CO2 emissions for the industrial sectors covered in Shanghai's emission trading scheme provides the government and participating firms useful information for devising compliance policies. This paper employs multiple distance function approaches to estimating the shadow prices of CO2 emissions for Shanghai industrial sectors. Our empirical results show that the overall weighted average of shadow price estimates by different approaches ranges between 394.5 and 1906.1 Yuan/ton, which indicates that model choice truly has a significant effect on the shadow price estimation. We have also identified a negative relationship between the shadow price of CO2 emissions and carbon intensity, and the heavy industries with higher carbon intensities tend to have lower shadow prices. It has been suggested that Shanghai municipal government take various measures to improve its carbon market, e.g. using the marginal abatement costs of participating sectors/firms as a criterion in the initial allocation of carbon emission allowances. - Highlights: • We estimate the shadow prices of CO2 emissions for Shanghai's manufacturing sectors. • Multiple distance function approaches are employed in the empirical analysis. • Model selection indeed has a significant effect on the shadow price estimation. • The CO2 shadow price and the carbon intensity have a negative relationship

  12. Probabilistic Methodology for Estimation of Number and Economic Loss (Cost) of Future Landslides in the San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, Robert A.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    The Probabilistic Landslide Assessment Cost Estimation System (PLACES) presented in this report estimates the number and economic loss (cost) of landslides during a specified future time in individual areas, and then calculates the sum of those estimates. The analytic probabilistic methodology is based upon conditional probability theory and laws of expectation and variance. The probabilistic methodology is expressed in the form of a Microsoft Excel computer spreadsheet program. Using historical records, the PLACES spreadsheet is used to estimate the number of future damaging landslides and total damage, as economic loss, from future landslides caused by rainstorms in 10 counties of the San Francisco Bay region in California. Estimates are made for any future 5-year period of time. The estimated total number of future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region during any future 5-year period of time is about 330. Santa Cruz County has the highest estimated number of damaging landslides (about 90), whereas Napa, San Francisco, and Solano Counties have the lowest estimated number of damaging landslides (5?6 each). Estimated direct costs from future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region for any future 5-year period are about US $76 million (year 2000 dollars). San Mateo County has the highest estimated costs ($16.62 million), and Solano County has the lowest estimated costs (about $0.90 million). Estimated direct costs are also subdivided into public and private costs.

  13. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  14. Cost estimate and economic issues associated with the MOX option (prior to DOE's record of decision)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the January 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) evaluated three technologies for the disposition of ∼50 MT of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs-reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting the ROD, and comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule was conducted by DOE-MD and its national laboratory contractors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This report discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results for the reactor options considered prior to ROD. A secondary intent of the report is to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact cost and schedule. To evaluate the economics of the reactor option and other technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost-estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This report includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs for all nine reactor scenarios

  15. Early cost estimating for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop early cost estimating models for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques, based on 131 sets of data collected in the West Bank in Palestine. As the cost estimates are required at early stages of a project, considerations were given to the fact that the input data for the required regression model could be easily extracted from sketches or scope definition of the project. 11 regression models are developed to estimate the total cost of road construction project in US dollar; 5 of them include bid quantities as input variables and 6 include road length and road width. The coefficient of determination r2 for the developed models is ranging from 0.92 to 0.98 which indicate that the predicted values from a forecast models fit with the real-life data. The values of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of the developed regression models are ranging from 13% to 31%, the results compare favorably with past researches which have shown that the estimate accuracy in the early stages of a project is between ±25% and ±50%.

  16. Impact of work-related cancers in Taiwan-Estimation with QALY (quality-adjusted life year) and healthcare costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Hung, Mei-Chuan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-12-01

    This study estimates the annual numbers of eight work-related cancers, total losses of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and lifetime healthcare expenditures that possibly could be saved by improving occupational health in Taiwan. Three databases were interlinked: the Taiwan Cancer Registry, the National Mortality Registry, and the National Health Insurance Research Database. Annual numbers of work-related cancers were estimated based on attributable fractions (AFs) abstracted from a literature review. The survival functions for eight cancers were estimated and extrapolated to lifetime using a semi-parametric method. A convenience sample of 8846 measurements of patients' quality of life with EQ-5D was collected for utility values and multiplied by survival functions to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancies (QALEs). The loss-of-QALE was obtained by subtracting the QALE of cancer from age- and sex-matched referents simulated from national vital statistics. The lifetime healthcare expenditures were estimated by multiplying the survival probability with mean monthly costs paid by the National Health Insurance for cancer diagnosis and treatment and summing this for the expected lifetime. A total of 3010 males and 726 females with eight work-related cancers were estimated in 2010. Among them, lung cancer ranked first in terms of QALY loss, with an annual total loss-of-QALE of 28,463 QALYs and total lifetime healthcare expenditures of US$36.6 million. Successful prevention of eight work-related cancers would not only avoid the occurrence of 3736 cases of cancer, but would also save more than US$70 million in healthcare costs and 46,750 QALYs for the Taiwan society in 2010. PMID:27413666

  17. Impact of work-related cancers in Taiwan-Estimation with QALY (quality-adjusted life year) and healthcare costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Hung, Mei-Chuan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-12-01

    This study estimates the annual numbers of eight work-related cancers, total losses of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and lifetime healthcare expenditures that possibly could be saved by improving occupational health in Taiwan. Three databases were interlinked: the Taiwan Cancer Registry, the National Mortality Registry, and the National Health Insurance Research Database. Annual numbers of work-related cancers were estimated based on attributable fractions (AFs) abstracted from a literature review. The survival functions for eight cancers were estimated and extrapolated to lifetime using a semi-parametric method. A convenience sample of 8846 measurements of patients' quality of life with EQ-5D was collected for utility values and multiplied by survival functions to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancies (QALEs). The loss-of-QALE was obtained by subtracting the QALE of cancer from age- and sex-matched referents simulated from national vital statistics. The lifetime healthcare expenditures were estimated by multiplying the survival probability with mean monthly costs paid by the National Health Insurance for cancer diagnosis and treatment and summing this for the expected lifetime. A total of 3010 males and 726 females with eight work-related cancers were estimated in 2010. Among them, lung cancer ranked first in terms of QALY loss, with an annual total loss-of-QALE of 28,463 QALYs and total lifetime healthcare expenditures of US$36.6 million. Successful prevention of eight work-related cancers would not only avoid the occurrence of 3736 cases of cancer, but would also save more than US$70 million in healthcare costs and 46,750 QALYs for the Taiwan society in 2010.

  18. Orbital Spacecraft Consumables Resupply System (OSCRS). Volume 3: Program Cost Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    A cost analysis for the design, development, qualification, and production of the monopropellant and bipropellant Orbital Spacecraft Consumable Resupply System (OSCRS) tankers, their associated avionics located in the Orbiter payload bay, and the unique ground support equipment (GSE) and airborne support equipment (ASE) required to support operations is presented. Monopropellant resupply for the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) in calendar year 1991 is the first defined resupply mission with bipropellant resupply missions expected in the early to mid 1990's. The monopropellant program estimate also includes contractor costs associated with operations support through the first GRO resupply mission.

  19. 42 CFR 412.84 - Payment for extraordinarily high-cost cases (cost outliers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... obtains accurate data with which to calculate either an operating or capital cost-to-charge ratio (or both... operating and capital costs of the discharge on the billed charges for covered inpatient services adjusted by the cost to charge ratios applicable to operating and capital costs, respectively, as described...

  20. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li; Mahnken, Andreas [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany); Domroese, Sascha [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Division of Controlling, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 EUR to 294 EUR, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 EUR to 500 EUR, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 EUR. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 EUR. With increased revenue of 10,000 EUR in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 EUR. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. (orig.)