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Sample records for case control study

  1. Case-Control Study of Writer's Cramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, E.; Soumare, A.; Pironneau, I.; Sangla, S.; de Cock, V. Cochen; Teixeira, A.; Astorquiza, A.; Bonnet, C.; Bleton, J. P.; Vidailhet, M.; Elbaz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Task-specific focal dystonias are thought to be due to a combination of individual vulnerability and environmental factors. There are no case-control studies of risk factors for writer's cramp. We undertook a case-control study of 104 consecutive patients and matched controls to identify risk factors for the condition. We collected detailed data…

  2. Case-control studies in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvick, Cody L; Thompson, Clinton J; Boop, Frederick A; Klimo, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Observational studies, such as cohort and case-control studies, are valuable instruments in evidence-based medicine. Case-control studies, in particular, are becoming increasingly popular in the neurosurgical literature due to their low cost and relative ease of execution; however, no one has yet systematically assessed these types of studies for quality in methodology and reporting. The authors performed a literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE to identify all studies that explicitly identified themselves as "case-control" and were published in the JNS Publishing Group journals (Journal of Neurosurgery, Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, and Neurosurgical Focus) or Neurosurgery. Each paper was evaluated for 22 descriptive variables and then categorized as having either met or missed the basic definition of a case-control study. All studies that evaluated risk factors for a well-defined outcome were considered true case-control studies. The authors sought to identify key features or phrases that were or were not predictive of a true case-control study. Those papers that satisfied the definition were further evaluated using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. The search detected 67 papers that met the inclusion criteria, of which 32 (48%) represented true case-control studies. The frequency of true case-control studies has not changed with time. Use of odds ratios (ORs) and logistic regression (LR) analysis were strong positive predictors of true case-control studies (for odds ratios, OR 15.33 and 95% CI 4.52-51.97; for logistic regression analysis, OR 8.77 and 95% CI 2.69-28.56). Conversely, negative predictors included focus on a procedure/intervention (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.13-0.998) and use of the word "outcome" in the Results section (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.082-0.65). After exclusion of nested case-control studies, the negative correlation between focus on a procedure

  3. Robust control systems theory and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Mackenroth, Uwe

    2004-01-01

    "Robust Control Systems" gives a self-contained introduction to modern Control Theory. It thus adds a textbook to the existing research-oriented literature on Robust Control. The author lays emphasis on the modern aspects of the design of controllers with prescribed performance and robustness properties. Different to the classical engineering approach, a rigorous mathematical treatment is essential for the full understanding and applicability of the modern methods such as H2 or H8 control or methods based on the structured singular value µ. Nevertheless, no prior knowledge of Control Theory is required as the classical fundamentals are introduced within the first few chapters. Subsequently a large part of the text provides elementary examples and industrial case studies, which are developed in full detail to show how modern methods can be applied to advanced problems. They make intensive use of MATLAB, especially the Control Systems Toolbox and the µ-Analysis and Synthesis Toolbox.

  4. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen......Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly...... collection. To our knowledge, the GICC Study is the largest glioma study to date that includes collection of blood samples, which will allow for genetic analysis and interrogation of gene-environment interactions....

  5. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemann, Boris; Lavolé, Armelle; Naccache, Jean-Marc; Nunes, Hilario; Benzakin, Sylvain; Lefevre, Marine; Kambouchner, Marianne; Périé, Sophie; Valeyre, Dominique; Cadranel, Jacques

    2014-10-20

    We undertook a study on a series of laryngeal sarcoidosis (LS), a very rare and often threatening localization to better specify laryngeal manifestations, sarcoidosis clinical expression and long-term follow-up. This was a retrospective case-control study. All LS patients from two French centers were included and compared to sarcoidosis patients without laryngeal localization with two controls for one patient. Twelve consecutive LS patients were recruited between 1993 and 2011. LS revealed sarcoidosis in eight cases (67%). The most common symptoms were hoarseness (77%), inspiratory dyspnea (38%) and dysphagia (38%). Epidemiological characterisics were not different. Extrapulmonary localizations were significantly more common in LS patients than in controls (92% vs. 54%, p=0.02), particularly lupus pernio (25% vs. 0%, p=0.03) and nasosinusal involvement (83% vs. 4%, p<0.01) while thoracic involvement was less frequent (58% vs 100%, p < 0.01). Treatment rates were higher in the LS group (92% vs. 58%, p=0.04), and treatment duration was longer (median: 81 vs. 13 months, p=0.04), with frequent long-term treatment (67%, N=8/12). Two patients underwent surgery. One patient needed temporary tracheostomy during the course of the disease; Remission rates were lower in LS patients (9% vs. 58% at 2 years p<0.01). Eventually, there was no death nor definitive tracheotomy. LS is a rare condition that is often associated to other loco-regional localizations. LS are often difficult to manage. Survival is good but may require a medico-surgical approach.

  6. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  7. Case Study: Tobacco Economics Control Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tobacco Control Economics Project is a project that seeks to gather evidence on tobacco use and economics in southern Africa. It is a project of the University of Cape Town with support from the DataFirst repository based at the University of Cape Town. Its aim is to gather data that already exists, sometimes in digital form, frequently in offline records or in some cases paper records, and bring them together as an open resource. The project faces challenges of data gathering as well as permissions. Frequently data is or should be “available” in some form but control over the data is relinquished only unreluctantly. In many cases the legal standing of data is unclear. Many of the challenges relating to the bringing together of the data involve ascertaining what the legal standing of a dataset is or gaining permissions for its re-use. DataFirst is a longstanding data sharing infrastructure with professional and experienced data management staff. Challenges of ensuring continued funding and maintenance are similar to those of data infrastructures globally. The infrastructure meets international standards and provides leadership to other services and platforms in this space.

  8. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies: Preparation, design, and enrollment of cases and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R; Baqui, Abdullah H; Broome, Claire V; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Cheryl; Farrar, Jennifer L; Feikin, Daniel R; Groome, Michelle J; Hajjeh, Rana A; Johnson, Hope L; Madhi, Shabir A; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santosham, Mathuram; Scott, J Anthony; Smith, Peter G; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tate, Jacqueline E; Victor, J Chris; Whitney, Cynthia G; Zaidi, Anita K; Zell, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-05

    Case-control studies are commonly used to evaluate effectiveness of licensed vaccines after deployment in public health programs. Such studies can provide policy-relevant data on vaccine performance under 'real world' conditions, contributing to the evidence base to support and sustain introduction of new vaccines. However, case-control studies do not measure the impact of vaccine introduction on disease at a population level, and are subject to bias and confounding, which may lead to inaccurate results that can misinform policy decisions. In 2012, a group of experts met to review recent experience with case-control studies evaluating the effectiveness of several vaccines; here we summarize the recommendations of that group regarding best practices for planning, design and enrollment of cases and controls. Rigorous planning and preparation should focus on understanding the study context including healthcare-seeking and vaccination practices. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies are best carried out soon after vaccine introduction because high coverage creates strong potential for confounding. Endpoints specific to the vaccine target are preferable to non-specific clinical syndromes since the proportion of non-specific outcomes preventable through vaccination may vary over time and place, leading to potentially confusing results. Controls should be representative of the source population from which cases arise, and are generally recruited from the community or health facilities where cases are enrolled. Matching of controls to cases for potential confounding factors is commonly used, although should be reserved for a limited number of key variables believed to be linked to both vaccination and disease. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies can provide information useful to guide policy decisions and vaccine development, however rigorous preparation and design is essential. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Case and control recruitment, and validation of cases for the MICA case-control study in England, Scotland and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, N R; Arscott, A; Thorogood, M; Thomas, S; Davison, H; Richardson, J

    1999-07-01

    To describe the processes involved in the selection of cases and controls, and the validation of case diagnosis, in a large case-control study on the association between myocardial infarction (MI) and oral contraceptives. Community case-control study in England, Scotland and Wales. Cases were women aged 16-44 with a diagnosis of MI. Controls were age and general practice matched women without a diagnosis of MI. The proportion of interviewed cases per number eligible was 19% (95% CI 12-26%) lower in England and Wales than in Scotland. The kappa score for agreement between three cardiologists on diagnostic categories of the potential cases was 0.52 overall ('moderate' agreement). For the 35 cases resubmitted for categorization, the kappa scores for agreement between the first and second classification for the two national committee cardiologists were 0.32 and 0.23 ('fair' agreement). Age matching of controls was better in Scotland than England and Wales, the proportion of the first choice controls being 14% (95% CI 8-19%) higher in Scotland. The mean time to complete a cluster of interviews (one case and four controls) was 36 days in Scotland and 63 days in England and Wales. Very close age-matching was achieved overall, although the process was more efficient in Scotland than in England and Wales. Some suggestions for improvement in the case validation process are made. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Dyslipidemia and Psoriasis: A Case Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. U.; Aqil, M.; Hussain, A.; Zahrani, T. A.; Hillis, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol and famotidine on gastric secretions pH and volume in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Study Design:Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anaesthesia, King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from August 2011 to June 2013. Methodology:Ninety adult, ASA-I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive pre-operatively either placebo (Group-C, n=30), oral tramadol 100 mg (Group-T, n=30) or famotidine 40 mg (Group-F, n=30). After induction of general anaesthesia, gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric secretions volume and pH was measured using pH meter. Results: There was no statistically difference between groups in age, weight and gender. The gastric secretions mean pH was 2.06 ± 0.22,2.04 ± 0.20, 5.79 ± 0.77 and volume was 0.59 ± 0.17, 0.59 ± 0.14 and 0.28 ± 0.16 ml/kg in Group-C, Group-T and Group-F respectively. There was a significant statistical difference in the mean pH values between Group-C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). Statistically significant difference was also found in the mean gastric secretions volume between Group - C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean gastric fluid pH values (p=0.99) and mean gastric secretions volume (p=0.99) between Group-T and Group-C. Conclusion:As compared to famotidine, pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric fluid pH (less than 2.5) and decrease in gastric secretions volume (greater than 0.4ml/kg). (author)

  11. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sabroe, Svend

    2004-01-01

    are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors....... METHODS: The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428) aged 35-69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583) were selected. Altogether 254 (59%) of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55%) of the population controls were interviewed...... to pesticides among colon cancer controls. CONCLUSIONS: Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming....

  12. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria

    not identified as cases in the case extraction period. We aimed at a case-control ratio of 1:4 and intend to match on graduation year. Ten different performance measures relating to medical school admission, first year performance and overall program performances will be examined, such as: pre-university exam...... in medical school, and program completion time. At the present we have identified 90 cases and 343 controls. We expect the study to be completed in the spring of 2014. To the best of our knowledge, nobody has examined this particular question before, though a few studies have examined the relationships...

  13. Pilot case-control study of paediatric falls from windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian D; Quistberg, D Alexander; Shandro, Jamie R; Partridge, Rebecca L; Song, Hyun Rae; Ebel, Beth E

    2011-12-01

    Unintentional falls from windows are an important cause of paediatric morbidity. There have been no controlled studies to identify modifiable environmental risk factors for window falls in young children. The authors have piloted a case-control study to test procedures for case identification, subject enrolment, and environmental data collection. Case windows were identified when a child 0-9 years old presented for care after a fall from that window. Control windows were identified (1) from the child's home and (2) from the home of an age- and gender-matched child seeking care for an injury diagnosis not related to a window fall. Study staff visited enrolled homes to collect window measurements and conduct window screen performance tests. The authors enrolled and collected data on 18 case windows, 18 in-home controls, and 14 matched community controls. Six potential community controls were contacted for every one enrolled. Families who completed the home visit viewed study procedures positively. Case windows were more likely than community controls to be horizontal sliders (100% vs 50%), to have deeper sills (6.28 vs 4.31 inches), to be higher above the exterior surface (183 vs 82 inches), and to have screens that failed below a threshold derived from the static pressure of a 3-year-old leaning against the mesh (60.0% vs 16.7%). Case windows varied very little from in-home controls. Case-control methodology can be used to study risk factors for paediatric falls from windows. Recruitment of community controls is challenging but essential, because in-home controls tend to be over-matched on important variables. A home visit allows direct measurement of window type, height, sill depth, and screen performance. These variables should all be investigated in subsequent, larger studies covering major housing markets.

  14. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sabroe, Svend

    2004-01-01

    . METHODS: The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428) aged 35-69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583) were selected. Altogether 254 (59%) of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55%) of the population controls were interviewed...... about occupational, medical and life style conditions. RESULTS: No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure......BACKGROUND: Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients...

  15. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  16. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria

    ), or transferred (i.e. had unplanned changes in place of training/ward due to failure to thrive or due to inadequate development of competences), or dropped out (i.e. were dismissed from, had resigned from, or changed their speciality). Controls were a random sample of doctors in the source population, who were......Abstract summary The aim of this cummulative incidence case-control study was to examine: if struggling trainees in medical specialist training (cases) tended to struggle already in medical school or not compared to non-struggling controls, and which performance indicators during medical school...... seemed to predict struggling in postgraduate education if any. The study design is rooted in epidemiological methodology. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case-control study. It has been reported in the international literature, that around 3-10% of doctors in post-garduate specialist...

  17. Bridging case-control studies and randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosendaal Frits R

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Randomized trials and observational studies, such as case-control studies, are often seen as opposing approaches. However, in many instances results obtained by different designs may complement each other. For instance, case-control studies on aetiology of disease may help to give the direction of future trials. In this commentary, the author discusses the purpose of randomization and observation, and under which conditions one design may be preferred to another. Randomization is useful to combat 'confounding by indication', and is therefore the design of choice for most therapeutic trials. When this confounding is not an issue, as in studies of genetic risk factors or side-effects, then case-control studies are preferred.

  18. Association between diabetes and tuberculosis: case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Martins Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. METHODS It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection occurred between 2008 and 2010. The instruments used were structured interview, including clinical data, capillary blood glucose (during fasting or postprandial, and the CAGE questionnaire for screening of abusive consumption of alcohol. Descriptive, exploratory, and multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS The average age of the cases was 38.5 (SD = 14.2 years and of the controls, 38.5 (SD = 14.3 years. Among cases and controls, most subjects (61% were male. In univariate analysis we found association between the occurrence of diabetes and tuberculosis (OR = 2.37; 95%CI 1.04–5.42, which remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.12–7.94. CONCLUSIONS The association between diabetes and tuberculosis can hinder the control of tuberculosis, contributing to the maintainance of the disease burden. The situation demands increasing early detection of diabetes among people with tuberculosis, in an attempt to improve disease control strategies.

  19. Drug and alcohol crash risk : a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This study used a case-control design to estimate the risk of crashes involving drivers using drugs, alcohol or both. Data was collected in Virginia Beach, Virginia, for 20 months. The study obtained biological measures on more than 3,000 crash...

  20. Determinants of podoconiosis, a case control study | Feleke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Podoconiosis is a non-filarial swelling of lower extremity endemic in tropical regions, North America and India. The etiology and pathophysiology of the disease remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of Podoconiosis. Methods: Unmatched case control study design was ...

  1. Risk factors for gonorrhoea: case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bjekić, M; Vlajinac, H; Sipetić, S; Marinković, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define risk factors for gonococcal infection. METHODS: A case-control study comparing 200 gonorrhoea cases with 400 patients with non-gonococcal genitourinary infections and 400 patients with various skin diseases, all of them attending City Department for Skin and Venereal Diseases In Belgrade (Yugoslavia) from October 1993 to December 1994. RESULTS: According to multivariate logistic regression analysis the following factors were significantly related to gonorrhoea in men: edu...

  2. Personality profile in essential tremor: A case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenganatt, Mary Ann; Louis, Elan D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric findings described in essential tremor (ET) include depression and anxiety. There may be personality features as well; in 2004, we demonstrated higher harm avoidance (HA) scores in ET patients than controls. We now (1) determined whether this finding could be replicated in a new sample of cases and controls, and (2) analyzed HA sub-scores (HA1–HA4) to further understand case-control differences. Design/Methods 60 ET cases and 35 controls were evaluated using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), which assesses three domains of personality: HA, novelty seeking (NS), and reward dependence (RD). Results Total HA and total NS scores were marginally higher in cases than controls (14.8 ± 7.6 vs. 12.4 ± 5.3, p = 0.09) and (13.8 ± 5.4 vs. 11.8 ± 4.9, p = 0.09), respectively. When adjusted for age and gender, cases and controls differed with respect to total HA score (p = 0.03) but not total NS score (p = 0.10). Further analysis of HA subscores demonstrated that HA1 (anticipatory worry and pessimism) and HA4 (fatigability and asthenia) were most robustly elevated in cases vs. controls (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively). Conclusions This study suggests that ET cases have a personality profile characterized by a greater HA, with certain domains of HA most affected. It is unclear whether this personality profile is pre-morbid or is a co-morbid feature of the illness, nor it is known whether the greater tendency towards HA in ET lessens receptivity to deep brain stimulation surgery and other therapies. PMID:22703869

  3. A case control study of ophthalmia Neonatorum in Kaduna II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lated in this study was Staphylococcus aureus, both in cases. (69.7%) and in ... mitted disease agents in pregnant women.3 Incidence of 1 -. 24 per 100 live births .... Kanamycin (30ug) 78 70 33. Gentamicin (30ug) 77 62 67. Table 3 Percentage sensitivity of isolated bacteria from eyes of control babies. Staph. aureus E.coli.

  4. Perinatal mortality and associated risk factors: a case control study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality is reported to be five times higher in developing than in developed nations. Little is known about the commonly associated risk factors for perinatal mortality in Southern Nations National Regional State of Ethiopia. METHODS: A case control study for perinatal mortality was conducted in ...

  5. Aetiology of handball injuries : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirx, M.; Bouter, L. M.; de Geus, G. H.

    This article presents the results of a case-control study regarding the background to handball injuries among players of 12 years and older. Data were collected by means of a written questionnaire on the nature, location and direct causes of the injuries as well as information on risk factors.

  6. Risk factors associated with lipomyelomeningocele: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Arash; Hanaei, Sara; Fadakar, Kaveh; Dadkhah, Sahar; Arjipour, Mahdi; Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    In general, it seems that both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the induction of neural tube defects. Lipomyelomeningocele (LipoMMC) is a rather common type of closed neural tube defect, but only limited studies have investigated the potential risk factors of this anomaly. Therefore, the purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors involved in LipoMMC formation. Various risk factors were evaluated in 35 children between 1 month and 10 years of age with LipoMMC in a hospital-based case-control study. The 2 control arms consisted of 35 children with myelomeningocele (MMC group) and 35 children with congenital anomalies other than central nervous system problems (control group). All groups were matched for age and visited the same hospital. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of all data, including the mothers' weight and height during pregnancy, education, reproductive history, previous abortions, and socioeconomic status, as well as the parents' consanguinity and family history of the same anomalies. Univariate analysis of the children with LipoMMC compared to the control group showed that the use of periconceptional folic acid supplementation was significantly lower in the MMC and LipoMMC groups compared to the control group. In addition, comparison of the MMC and control groups revealed statistically significant differences regarding the use of folic acid and maternal obesity. In multivariate analysis, use of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester was an independent risk factor for LipoMMC and MMC. Furthermore, maternal obesity was a significantly positive risk factor for MMC. The probable risk factors for LipoMMC were investigated in this case-control study. Consumption of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester is an independent protective factor against LipoMMC. It seems that larger studies are needed to examine other possible

  7. Violence against women and gastroschisis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Cánovas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomaríz-Peñalver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E; Cárceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Martínez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

    2013-10-17

    Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20-24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, 'green sheet' questionnaire on environmental exposures. Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional 'gender-related violence' (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7) and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3). Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  8. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ruiz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7 and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3. Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  9. Anxiety during pregnancy and preeclampsia: a case - control study

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Kordi; Azra Vahed; Fariborz Rezaee Talab; Seyed Reza Mazloum; Marzieh Lotfalizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:  Preeclampsia is the common and dangerous complication of pregnancy with unknown reason. Multiple causes such as depression, psychological and physical stress may be involved in its development. This study was performed to determine the relationship between anxiety during pregnancy and the incidence of preeclampsia. Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 150 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 150 healthy pregnant women referred to health centers and academic hospita...

  10. Abortion and breast cancer: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Milena; Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if certain aspects of a woman's experience of abortion might be associated with the risk of breast cancer. The case-control study was conducted in Kragujevac (Serbia) during the period 2004-2005. The case group (191 women) consisted of patients with newly diagnosed first primary breast cancer, which was histologically confirmed. The control group (191 women), individually matched by age (± 2 years), hospital admittance and place of residence (rural/urban) to the respective cases, was selected from female patients admitted for other diseases. The analysis was restricted to parous women (168 cases and 171 controls). Breast cancer risk was reduced among women who had a history of any abortion (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.88). The protective effect was found for both induced abortion (adjusted OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25-0.90) and spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.98). It seems that these associations did not depend on the number of abortions, age at first abortion, or gestational age at first aborted pregnancy. Our study suggests that even short pregnancies ending in abortion add to the protection against breast cancer.

  11. Cooking with biomass stoves and tuberculosis: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Padilla, R; Pérez-Guzmán, C; Báez-Saldaña, R; Torres-Cruz, A

    2001-05-01

    To search for an association between tuberculosis and use of biomass stoves found recently in a cross sectional study. In a case-control study based in a chest referral hospital, the cases were 288 patients with active smear-positive or culture-positive tuberculosis, and the controls were 545 patients with ear nose and throat ailments with no evidence of chest disease studied at the same time as the cases. Exposure to present or previous biomass smoke by history of cooking with traditional wood stoves was assessed by positive or negative response. Exposure to biomass smoke was significantly higher in cases than in controls. Crude odds ratios for tuberculosis and biomass smoke exposure were 5.2 (95%CI 3.1-8.9) for current exposure, 3.4 (95%CI 2.4-5.0) for past or present exposure and 1.8 (95%CI 1.1-3.0) for past exposure. The association was observed only for patients living in Metropolitan Mexico City and urban or suburban areas in the center of Mexico providing most cases and controls. For rural areas, the power of the study was low and the origin of the patients heterogeneous. Odds ratio for Mexico City Metropolitan area and the center of Mexico was 2.4 (95%CI 1.04-5.6), adjusted for age, sex, level of education, crowding, smoking, socio-economic level, zone of residence and state of birth. In the same model smoking had an OR of 1.5 (95%CI 1.0-2.3) for tuberculosis. Our results support a causal role of current domestic biomass smoke exposure in tuberculosis.

  12. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  13. Cancer preceding Wegener's granulomatosis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Sorensen, Inge J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with WG have an increased risk of malignancies prior to and/or around the time of the vasculitis diagnosis, as suggested by previous studies. METHODS: A total of 293 WG patients were included in the study. Ten gender- and age-matched controls were selected...... randomly for each patient from the Danish Central Population Register. Information on malignancies was obtained through the Danish Cancer Registry. Occurrence of malignancies before WG diagnosis among patients and before WG diagnosis of their matched case among controls (reference date) was compared...

  14. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

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    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer.DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively.Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  15. A case-control study of Alzheimer's disease in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broe, G A; Henderson, A S; Creasey, H; McCusker, E; Korten, A E; Jorm, A F; Longley, W; Anthony, J C

    1990-11-01

    We conducted a case-control study of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) on 170 cases aged 52 to 96 years, and 170 controls matched for age, sex and, where possible, the general practice of origin. Trained lay interviewers naive to the hypotheses and to the clinical status of the elderly person carried out risk-factor interviews with informants. Significant odds ratios were found for 4 variables: a history of either dementia, probable AD, or Down's syndrome in a 1st-degree relative, and underactivity as a behavioral trait in both the recent and more distant past. Previously reported or suggested associations not confirmed by this study include head injury, starvation, thyroid disease, analgesic abuse, antacid use (aluminum exposure), alcohol abuse, smoking, and being left-handed.

  16. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Garc?a, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P.; S?nchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; C?novas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomar?z-Pe?alver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E.; C?rceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Mart?nez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident...

  17. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  18. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679

  19. Delirium markers in older fallers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kelly; Archambault, Elizabeth; Kelly, Brittany; Rudolph, James L

    2014-01-01

    When a hospitalized older patient falls or develops delirium, there are significant consequences for the patient and the health care system. Assessments of inattention and altered consciousness, markers for delirium, were analyzed to determine if they were also associated with falls. This retrospective case-control study from a regional tertiary Veterans Affairs referral center identified falls and delirium risk factors from quality databases from 2010 to 2012. Older fallers with complete delirium risk assessments prior to falling were identified. As a control, non-fallers were matched at a 3:1 ratio. Admission risk factors that were compared in fallers and non-fallers included altered consciousness, cognitive performance, attention, sensory deficits, and dehydration. Odds ratio (OR) was reported (95% confidence interval [CI]). After identifying 67 fallers, the control population (n=201) was matched on age (74.4±9.8 years) and ward (83.6% medical; 16.4% intensive care unit). Inattention as assessed by the Months of the Year Backward test was more common in fallers (67.2% versus 50.8%, OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.7). Fallers tended to have altered consciousness prior to falling (28.4% versus 12.4%, OR=2.8; 95% CI: 1.3-5.8). In this case-control study, alterations in consciousness and inattention, assessed prior to falling, were more common in patients who fell. Brief assessments of consciousness and attention should be considered for inclusion in fall prediction.

  20. Case-control study of a gastroschisis cluster in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Leslie; Loomis, Dana; Lottritz, Lisa; Slotnick, Robert Nathan; Oki, Earle; Todd, Randall

    2009-11-01

    To identify potential risk factors associated with a sudden increase in gastroschisis cases in northern Nevada. Case-control study. Medical centers and a pregnancy care center in Reno, Nevada. Participants (n = 14) were women who gave birth to infants with gastroschisis at either of the 2 medical centers in Reno, Nevada, from April 5, 2007, through April 4, 2008. Controls (n = 57) were selected from the same pregnancy center providing perinatal care to the cases and were matched 4:1 to the case mothers by maternal date of birth within 1 year. Environmental exposures and illnesses during pregnancy. Association of gastroschisis with illnesses, medications, or environmental exposures. Gastroschisis was associated with the use of methamphetamine (odds ratio [OR], 7.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-37.99) or any vasoconstrictive recreational drug (methamphetamine, amphetamine, cocaine, ecstasy) (OR, 4.46; 95% CI, 1.21-16.44) before pregnancy. When we limited self-reported illnesses to those occurring during the first trimester of pregnancy, chest colds (OR, 16.77; 95% CI, 1.88-150.27) and sore throats (OR, 12.72; 95% CI, 1.32-122.52) were associated with gastroschisis. These findings add strength to the hypothesis that use of methamphetamine and related drugs is a risk factor for gastroschisis and raise questions about the risks associated with infections.

  1. Association between diabetes and tuberculosis: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susan Martins; Araújo, Gleide Santos de; Santos, Carlos Antônio de Souza Teles; Oliveira, Maeli Gomes de; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2016-12-22

    To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection occurred between 2008 and 2010. The instruments used were structured interview, including clinical data, capillary blood glucose (during fasting or postprandial), and the CAGE questionnaire for screening of abusive consumption of alcohol. Descriptive, exploratory, and multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. The average age of the cases was 38.5 (SD = 14.2) years and of the controls, 38.5 (SD = 14.3) years. Among cases and controls, most subjects (61%) were male. In univariate analysis we found association between the occurrence of diabetes and tuberculosis (OR = 2.37; 95%CI 1.04-5.42), which remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.12-7.94). The association between diabetes and tuberculosis can hinder the control of tuberculosis, contributing to the maintainance of the disease burden. The situation demands increasing early detection of diabetes among people with tuberculosis, in an attempt to improve disease control strategies. Testar a associação entre diabetes e tuberculose. Trata-se de estudo caso-controle, pareado por idade e sexo. Foram incluídos 323 casos novos de tuberculose com resultados positivos à baciloscopia. Os controles foram 323 sintomáticos respiratórios com baciloscopia negativa, oriundos dos mesmos serviços de saúde dos casos: ambulatórios de três hospitais de referência e seis unidades básicas de saúde responsáveis pelas notificações dos casos novos de

  2. Hypothyroidism among SLE patients: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watad, Abdulla; Mahroum, Naim; Whitby, Aaron; Gertel, Smadar; Comaneshter, Doron; Cohen, Arnon D; Amital, Howard

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of hypothyroidism in SLE patients varies considerably and early reports were mainly based on small cohorts. To investigate the association between SLE and hypothyroidism. Patients with SLE were compared with age and sex-matched controls regarding the proportion of hypothyroidism in a case-control study. Chi-square and t-tests were used for univariate analysis and a logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit Health Services. The study included 5018 patients with SLE and 25,090 age and sex-matched controls. The proportion of hypothyroidism in patients with SLE was increased compared with the prevalence in controls (15.58% and 5.75%, respectively, Phypothyroidism (odds ratio 2.644, 95% confidence interval 2.405-2.908). Patients with SLE have a greater proportion of hypothyroidism than matched controls. Therefore, physicians treating patients with SLE should be aware of the possibility of thyroid dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ruseva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy controls. Cases are divided into three groups according to the localization of the tumor. We conduct case-control study, using questionnaires about reproductive factors. We use the following statistical methods – descriptive, variational analysis, binary logistic regression. Results: We observed that only the age at menopause is associated with colorectal cancer risk, and this factor has strongest protective effect in the proximal colon (95% CI - 0,051-0,781, OR – 0,200, p – 0,021. Conclusion: Analyzing our data we observed that among Bulgarian women the only reproductive factor that show association with the risk of colorectal cancer is the age at menopause.

  4. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

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    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  5. [Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children.

  6. A case study on occupant controlled lighting in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Asta

    2015-01-01

    to the LED luminairs and the use of task light was registered by continuously measuring their power consumption. The test was performed from January to March 2014 and the weather conditions were mostly overcast sky. The occupants were informed that the lighting in their offices was being tested......Occupant controlled lighting is known to present opportunity for energy savings1,2,3,4 and can increase occupant satisfaction with the lit environment5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Scale model and Laboratory studies suggest that the illuminance interval and the starting value provided to occupants to adjust from...... controlled lighting in offices with focus on energy savings and occupant satisfaction. The case study was performed in a pharmaceutical company in Måløv, Denmark where the lighting installation was renovated in a two person office and a four person office in 2013. The fluorescent tubes were replaced...

  7. The Keith Edward scoring system: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Supriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The World health organization (WHO has accepted Keith Edward scoring system for the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis (TB. In the present study, we evaluated this scoring system. Methods and Results: We included 53 children with confirmed TB involving different organs, admitted in NB Medical College, during two years period as cases; and 50 randomly selected, age, sex, and organ matched confirmed non-TB cases as controls. We noticed 15.1% false negative and 22% false positive results in our study, and the scoring system had 84.9% sensitivity, 78% specificity, and 80.36% positive predictive value. Likelihood ratio positive (LR+ was 3.86, likelihood ratio negative (LR- was 0.19, and overall agreement was 81.55%. We observed that Keith Edward scoring system was less effective in children suffering from non-TB chronic diseases (false positive rate: 45.5%. We found no significant difference in nutritional status between study and control groups (P = 0.65. We noticed that more than 15-mm indurations for tuberculin test were specific for TB in children. Conclusion: We concluded that Keith Edward scoring system is good for public health purpose, but there is a scope for improvement, and further study is required for this purpose.

  8. Preeclampsia and depression: a case-control study in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaghani, Roghieh; Geranmaye, Mehrnaz; Janani, Leila; Hantooshzade, Sedighe; Arbabi, Mohammad; Rahmani Bilandi, Roghieh; Bagheri, Fereshteh

    2012-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the correlation between preeclampsia and depression. Participants in this study included 156 cases with preeclampsia and 156 controls without any history of preeclampsia who were all newly admitted to antepartum wards, emergency room wards, and labor and delivery wards of the study hospitals (Valieasr, Shariatti, Mirza Koochak Khan, Shahid Akbar Abadi, Baharloo and Arash). They consented and completed a questionnaire on demographic characteristics, obstetric, delivery and infant information and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess their depression status. Data were analyzed through independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and multiple regression by SPSS and STATA. Moderate to severe depression was found in 31.2% of the cases and 24.8% of the controls. Women with no depression in comparison with women with mild depression had a 1.81-fold (95% CI 1.05-3.14; P = 0.03) increased risk of preeclampsia, while moderate to severe depression correlated with a 2.52-fold increase (95% CI 1.05-6.02; P = 0.03) after adjustment of the probable confounding variables. With regard to the high prevalence of moderate to severe depression and its association with preeclampsia, our findings support and suggest efforts for screening depression among pregnant women and appropriate educational studies for mental and psychological problems during pregnancy.

  9. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour - A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow......-up was between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n = 86) and Asperger's syndrome (n = 114) the percentages were 8...

  10. Case-control study on infant mortality in Southern Brazil

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    Mendes Karina Giane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with infant mortality and, more specifically, with neonatal mortality. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in the municipality of Caxias do Sul, Southern Brazil. Characteristics of prenatal care and causes of mortality were assessed for all live births in the 2001-2002 period with a completed live-birth certificate and whose mothers lived in the municipality. Cases were defined as all deaths within the first year of life. As controls, there were selected the two children born immediately after each case in the same hospital, who were of the same sex, and did not die within their first year of life. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a reduction in infant mortality, the greatest reduction was observed in the post-neonatal period. The variables gestational age (<36 weeks, birth weight (<2,500 g, and 5-minute Apgar (<6 remained in the final model of the multivariate analysis, after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal conditions comprise almost the totality of neonatal deaths, and the majority of deaths occur at delivery. The challenge for reducing infant mortality rate in the city is to reduce the mortality by perinatal conditions in the neonatal period.

  11. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

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    Vilma Costa de Macêdo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02, lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4, catholic religion (OR = 1.70 , four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2, three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1, use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0, and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7. Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5 and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7 were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability.

  12. Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in

  13. Sensory impairments and wrist fractures: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergthora Baldursdottir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate vestibular function, foot sensation, postural control and functional abilities, and to evaluate whether these variables are associated with fall-related wrist fracture. Methods: A case-control study was conducted with 98 subjects, age range 50–75 years, who had sustained a fall-related wrist fracture. Forty-eight sex-, age- and physical activity-matched individuals, with no previous history of wrist fracture, served as controls. Measurements included: head-shake test (HST, tuning fork, biothesiometer, Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments (MF, Sensory Organization Test (SOT, Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand Test (FTSTS, 10-m walk test (10MWT, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC, and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI scales. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations of variables with a fall-related wrist fracture. Results: Vestibular asymmetry was apparent in 82% of wrist fracture subjects and 63% of controls (p = 0.012. Plantar pressure sensation (p <0.001, SOT composite scores (p < 0.001, 10MWT (p <0.001, FTSTS (p <0.001, ABC (p <0.001 and DHI (p <0.005 were significantly poorer among cases than controls. A positive HST (odds ratio (OR 5.424; p = 0.008 and monofilament sensation (OR 3.886; p = 0.014 showed the strongest associations with having a fall-related wrist fracture. Conclusion: Asymmetrical vestibular function and reduced plantar pressure sensation are associated with fall-related wrist fractures among the ageing population. These factors are potential targets for future interventions.

  14. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Prospective case-control study. Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. N/A. Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study. SLEEP 2013;36(3):345-351.

  15. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  16. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Holman, D'Arcy

    2011-12-15

    Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93). For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83) and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74) for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61) and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47) for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94) and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82) for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63) and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79) for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  17. Psychiatric morbidity in psoriasis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psoriasis is a chronic, relapsing and disfiguring dermatological disorder with a significant effect on occupational, social, and other areas of functioning. Psychological stress has been known to have a significant role in the onset and exacerbation of this illness. To study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in psoriasis and the influence of specified demographic, psychological, social and illness-related variables. Methods: The study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in a large urban setup. In this case–control study, 100 cases of psoriasis were studied in comparison with healthy controls who were matched for sociodemographic profile. The participants were given a sociodemographic questionnaire, clinical profile sheet, and psoriasis area and severity index (PASI. General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12 was used to screen for psychological distress, and subsequently, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for screening for depression and anxiety and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF scale for assessing the quality of life (QOL were administered. The results obtained were analyzed for evaluating the psychiatric morbidity and its various correlates. Appropriate statistical analysis was done using SPSS 21. Results: Using GHQ-12 cutoff score (≥3 for psychological distress, the overall prevalence of psychological distress was significantly more in cases of in comparison to healthy controls with an odds ratio of 8.54 (95% confidence interval 3.16–23.07, P < 0.0001. Statistical analysis showed a statistically significant correlation of educational status with QOL and severity of skin lesions (PASI with anxiety level. Severe skin lesions, more so on visible body parts were associated more commonly with psychological distress. Conclusions: All patients of psoriasis should be educated about the nature of the illness and screened for psychological distress. Dermatologists and family members should be educated to

  18. Behavioral Problems in Iranian Epileptic Children; A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aludari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders in childhood, prevalence of which is increasing. Unpredictable and chronic nature of the disease affects physical, social and mental functions of the children and their family. This study was aimed to compare behavioral problems in epileptic children group versus healthy control group. Materials and Methods This study is a case-control one conducted from January 2013 to June 2016 in Tehran, Iran. The epileptic children in age of 7-10 years old that were diagnosed by neurologist referred to the researcher for further process. Their parents were provided with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL to be completed. For matching by age and gender, the healthy group was sampled after the epilepsy group. Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used for statistical analysis. Results In this study 94 children with epilepsy and 83 healthy children in age of 7-10 years old were studied. The results indicated that there were significantly higher behavioral problems in the children with epilepsy than in control group in nine categories of seclusiveness, physical complaints, anxiety and depression, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and other problems. Comparison of two generalized and partial epilepsy groups indicated that there was a significant difference only in attention problems (p = 0.024. Conclusion The present study indicates that the children with epilepsy have more behavioral problems as compared to control group. Therefore, educational and psychological interventions are necessary for supporting desirable psychosocial growth and development of such children.

  19. Trachoma and Relative Poverty: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmael Habtamu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma is widely considered a disease of poverty. Although there are many epidemiological studies linking trachoma to factors normally associated with poverty, formal quantitative data linking trachoma to household economic poverty within endemic communities is very limited.Two hundred people with trachomatous trichiasis were recruited through community-based screening in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. These were individually matched by age and gender to 200 controls without trichiasis, selected randomly from the same sub-village as the case. Household economic poverty was measured through (a A broad set of asset-based wealth indicators and relative household economic poverty determined by principal component analysis (PCA, (b Self-rated wealth, and (c Peer-rated wealth. Activity participation data were collected using a modified 'Stylised Activity List' developed for the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Survey. Trichiasis cases were more likely to belong to poorer households by all measures: asset-based analysis (OR = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.06-3.78; p<0.0001, self-rated wealth (OR, 4.41, 95%CI, 2.75-7.07; p<0.0001 and peer-rated wealth (OR, 8.22, 95% CI, 4.59-14.72; p<0.0001. Cases had less access to latrines (57% v 76.5%, p = <0.0001 and higher person-to-room density (4.0 v 3.31; P = 0.0204 than the controls. Compared to controls, cases were significantly less likely to participate in economically productive activities regardless of visual impairment and other health problems, more likely to report difficulty in performing activities and more likely to receive assistance in performing productive activities.This study demonstrated a strong association between trachomatous trichiasis and relative poverty, suggesting a bidirectional causative relationship possibly may exist between poverty and trachoma. Implementation of the full SAFE strategy in the context of general improvements might lead to a virtuous cycle of improving health and wealth

  20. Patterned genital injury in cases of rape - A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Ravn, Pernille; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange

    2013-01-01

    A pattern of genital injury that separates trauma seen in sexual assault cases from trauma seen following consensual sexual intercourse has been a matter of debate. This study aimed at clarifying the question by eliminating as many confounders as possible in a prospective, case-control setup...... for detection of genital lesions using the three most commonly used techniques is provided. These results will aid in the interpretation of findings seen when examining sexual assault victims....

  1. Case-control study of leukemia and diagnostic radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuasa, Hidemichi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Ryuzo

    1997-01-01

    A case-control study of leukemia and diagnostic X-ray exposure was conducted by a multi-institution co-operative study group. The subjects were 134 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia, 57 with chronic myelogenous leukemia, 56 with acute lymphocytic leukemia and 50 with myelodysplasia syndrome, who were between 15 and 79 years old, and diagnosed at one of 27 hospitals between September 1993 and August 1995. The controls were 479 first-visit patients seen at eight of these 27 hospitals. History of diagnostic X-ray tests between 1982 and 1991 was determined by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. The total relative dose of radiation exposure was calculated by summing the products of given weights and frequencies of each test. The relative risk was 0.83 (95% confidence interval (C.I.), 0.58-1.19) for relative dose of 10-30 (equivalent to 4-11 times of UGI series), 0.76 (0.48-1.20) for relative dose of 30 or more (more than 12 times of UGI series), when compared with relative dose of 0-10 (0-3 times of UGI series). Analysis according to type of leukemia revealed that only acute myelogenous leukemia had an estimated relative risk above unity (1.08, 95%, C.I. 0.69-1.69, for relative dose 10-30). This study did not support the hypothesis that diagnostic X-ray tests increases leukemia risk. (author)

  2. Case studies in control putting theory to work

    CERN Document Server

    Juričić, Đani

    2013-01-01

    Case Studies in Control presents a framework to facilitate the use of advanced control concepts in real systems based on two decades of research and over 150 successful applications for industrial end-users from various backgrounds. In successive parts the text approaches the problem of putting the theory to work from both ends, theoretical and practical. The first part begins with a stress on solid control theory and the shaping of that theory to solve particular instances of practical problems. It emphasizes the need to establish by experiment whether a model-derived solution will perform properly in reality. The second part focuses on real industrial applications based on the needs and requirements of end-users. Here, the engineering approach is dominant but with theoretical input of varying degree depending on the particular process involved. Following the illustrations of the progress that can be made from either extreme of the well-known theory–practice divide, the text proceeds to a third part relate...

  3. Case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deapen, D.M.; Henderson, B.E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors conducted a study of 518 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients identified between 1977 and 1979 and 518 controls to investigate putative risk factors for this disease. Occupations at risk of electrical exposure were reported more often by patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-13.0) as were electrical shocks producing unconsciousness (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0-9.9). Although an overall excess of physical trauma associated with unconsciousness was observed in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.4), the effect was inversely associated with duration of the unconscious episodes, suggesting an effect of recall bias. Only slight differences were found for surgical traumata to the nervous system. Parkinsonism was reported more often among first degree relatives of cases (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-7.6). The frequencies of prior poliomyelitis or other central nervous system diseases were similar for patients and controls. Occupational exposure to selected toxic substances was similar for patients and controls except for the manufacture of plastics (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.0-20.5), although few details of these exposures were provided. No differences in occupations with exposure to animal skins or hides were observed.

  4. A case-control study of visual acuity in onychocryptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many theories surrounding the etiology of ingrown toenails (IGTN). Few factors have been formally assessed, but it is widely accepted that a poor nail cutting technique has a causative role. AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that decreased visual acuity may lead to inadequate nail cutting and the formation of IGTN. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed. Near and distance visual acuity were tested on a population with IGTN (n = 19) and compared with that of an age- and sex-matched control cohort (n = 24) who underwent epidermal cyst excision in the same tertiary referral center. Comparisons of visual acuity were made between groups by Mann-Whitney U-test. Differences were taken to be significant if P < 0.05. Institutional Review Board approval was sought and granted. RESULTS: No significant difference in visual acuity (near or distance) was demonstrated between patients with IGTN and the control group (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: Visual acuity does not appear to play a significant role in the development of IGTN.

  5. A case study on occupant controlled lighting in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Asta

    2015-01-01

    controlled lighting in offices with focus on energy savings and occupant satisfaction. The case study was performed in a pharmaceutical company in Måløv, Denmark where the lighting installation was renovated in a two person office and a four person office in 2013. The fluorescent tubes were replaced......=0.5. The starting values were the minimum and the maximum of each interval and every interval with the different starting values was presented to the occupants in a randomized order for a total of one week. The CCT was 3000 K and the illuminance settings data was monitored online by collecting the DALI signals...... to the LED luminairs and the use of task light was registered by continuously measuring their power consumption. The test was performed from January to March 2014 and the weather conditions were mostly overcast sky. The occupants were informed that the lighting in their offices was being tested...

  6. Trachoma and Relative Poverty: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtamu, Esmael; Wondie, Tariku; Aweke, Sintayehu; Tadesse, Zerihun; Zerihun, Mulat; Zewdie, Zebideru; Callahan, Kelly; Emerson, Paul M; Kuper, Hannah; Bailey, Robin L; Mabey, David C W; Rajak, Saul N; Polack, Sarah; Weiss, Helen A; Burton, Matthew J

    2015-11-01

    Trachoma is widely considered a disease of poverty. Although there are many epidemiological studies linking trachoma to factors normally associated with poverty, formal quantitative data linking trachoma to household economic poverty within endemic communities is very limited. Two hundred people with trachomatous trichiasis were recruited through community-based screening in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. These were individually matched by age and gender to 200 controls without trichiasis, selected randomly from the same sub-village as the case. Household economic poverty was measured through (a) A broad set of asset-based wealth indicators and relative household economic poverty determined by principal component analysis (PCA, (b) Self-rated wealth, and (c) Peer-rated wealth. Activity participation data were collected using a modified 'Stylised Activity List' developed for the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Survey. Trichiasis cases were more likely to belong to poorer households by all measures: asset-based analysis (OR = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.06-3.78; ppoverty, suggesting a bidirectional causative relationship possibly may exist between poverty and trachoma. Implementation of the full SAFE strategy in the context of general improvements might lead to a virtuous cycle of improving health and wealth. Trachoma is a good proxy of inequality within communities and it could be used to target and evaluate interventions for health and poverty alleviation.

  7. Inpatient pediatric consultation-liaison: a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Bryan D; Kronenberger, William G; Baker, Janet; Grimes, Laurie M; Crabtree, Valerie M; Smith, Courtney; McGraw, Kelly

    2003-09-01

    To conduct a prospective case-controlled study of pediatric inpatients referred for consultation in a tertiary care children's medical center. Referrals (n = 104) were matched with nonreferrals (n = 104) for age (4 to 18 years), gender, and illness type/severity and completed parent- and self-report (dependent on age) behavioral rating scales to assess for adjustment/functioning. Nurses completed in-hospital ratings of behavioral/adjustment difficulties. Goal attainment and satisfaction ratings were obtained from the referring physicians, parents/guardians, and the consultant. Referrals exhibited more behavior/adjustment/coping difficulties than nonreferrals by parent, nurse, and self report. Frequently employed interventions included coping-strategies intervention, cognitive and behavioral therapies, and case management. Referring physician and consultant ratings of goal attainment were high, as were physician ratings of satisfaction and parent/guardian ratings of overall helpfulness. Pediatric inpatients referred by their physicians had significantly more internalizing and externalizing disturbances than their nonreferred hospitalized peers. Many of the behavioral and adjustment problems that lead to in-hospital consultation referral were evident in global behavior difficulties prior to hospitalization. Referring pediatricians, parents/guardians, and consultants rate the outcome as benefiting the patients via assisting in the overall management of their health concerns, coping, and adjustment.

  8. Androgens and hyperemesis gravidarum: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, Ragnhild; Ravlo, Merethe; Carlsen, Sven M; Vanky, E Eszter

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is probably multifactorial, involving several hormones. Androgen concentrations are reported to correlate positively with emesis gravidarum. Hypothesizing a continuum between emesis gravidarum and HG, we investigated androgen concentrations in women with HG. In a case-control study, 32 women hospitalized for HG were compared with 29 control women scheduled for elective surgical abortion. Control women were matched for age, gestational length, body mass index (BMI) and parity. Patient characteristics and concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), androstenedione, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone index (FTI), androstanediol glucuronide (ADG), progesterone, TSH, free T3 and T4, beta-hCG, ferritin, insulin, estradiol and estriol were compared using Mann-Whitney tests and multivariate linear regression analyses. Women with HG had higher concentrations of ADG (8.49±4.19 vs. 6.19±1.77pmol/L; p=0.015), estradiol (2.39±1.36 vs. 1.60±9.30nmol/L; p=0.009) and ferritin (186±138 vs. 117±94pmol/L; p=0.040) compared with control women. Androstenedione (5.34±2.82 vs. 6.86±2.67; p=0.004) and insulin (63.7±35.0 vs. 75.3±25.8; p=0.050) concentrations were lower in women with HG. DHEAS, testosterone, FTI, SHBG, estriol, progesterone, beta-hCG, TSH, free T3 and free T4 concentrations did not differ between the groups. In multivariate regression analyses HG was associated with high concentrations of ADG (p=0.026) and low concentrations of androstenedione (p=0.018). Steroid hormone homeostasis may be altered in women with HG. HG may be associated with high ADG and low androstenedione concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endocrine disruptors and spontaneous premature labor: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaby Cheryl

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature labor is a poorly understood condition. Estrogen is thought to play a key role and therefore the labor process may be affected by endocrine disruptors. We sought to determine whether or not an environmental toxicant, DDE, or dietary derived endocrine disruptors, daidzein and genistein, are associated with spontaneous preterm labor. Methods Cases were defined as primiparous patients having a preterm delivery at or before 35 weeks following the spontaneous onset of labor. Controls were defined as primiparous women who delivered on the same day as the cases but at term gestation. Over approximately 1 year, 26 cases and 52 controls were recruited. Subjects agreed to have blood tests on day one postpartum for DDE and for the phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein. Results The mean concentration of DDE was similar in the case and control groups: 4.29 vs 4.32 ng/g lipid p = .85. In the case group, 13/26 had detectable levels of daidzein (range 0.20 – 1.56 ng/ml compared to 25/52 controls (range 0.21 – 3.26 ng/ml. The mean concentration of daidzein was similar in cases compared to controls: 0.30 vs .34 ng/ml p = 0.91. Of the case group,14/26 had detectable levels of genistein (range 0.20 – 2.19 ng/ml compared to 32/52 controls (range 0.21 – 2.55 ng/ml. The mean concentration of genistein was similar in cases compared to controls: 0.39 vs 0.31 ng/ml, p = 0.61. Conclusion The serum levels of DDE in this population were found to be low. There appears to be no relationship between serum concentrations of DDE, daidzein, and genistein and spontaneous preterm labor in our population. The inability to identify an effect may be related to the comparatively low concentrations of DDE in our population and the rapid and variable reduction of phytoestrogens from women in labor.

  10. A case control study of ophthalmia Neonatorum in Kaduna II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giemsa staining carried out in only 3 out of the 6 hospitals yielded 9 and 3 isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis in cases and controls respectively. The percentage sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to penicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were 3, 73, 37, 59 and 77 respectively.

  11. Trachoma and Relative Poverty: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtamu, Esmael; Wondie, Tariku; Aweke, Sintayehu; Tadesse, Zerihun; Zerihun, Mulat; Zewdie, Zebideru; Callahan, Kelly; Emerson, Paul M.; Kuper, Hannah; Bailey, Robin L.; Mabey, David C. W.; Rajak, Saul N.; Polack, Sarah; Weiss, Helen A.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trachoma is widely considered a disease of poverty. Although there are many epidemiological studies linking trachoma to factors normally associated with poverty, formal quantitative data linking trachoma to household economic poverty within endemic communities is very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings Two hundred people with trachomatous trichiasis were recruited through community-based screening in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. These were individually matched by age and gender to 200 controls without trichiasis, selected randomly from the same sub-village as the case. Household economic poverty was measured through (a) A broad set of asset-based wealth indicators and relative household economic poverty determined by principal component analysis (PCA, (b) Self-rated wealth, and (c) Peer-rated wealth. Activity participation data were collected using a modified ‘Stylised Activity List’ developed for the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Survey. Trichiasis cases were more likely to belong to poorer households by all measures: asset-based analysis (OR = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.06–3.78; pimpairment and other health problems, more likely to report difficulty in performing activities and more likely to receive assistance in performing productive activities. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrated a strong association between trachomatous trichiasis and relative poverty, suggesting a bidirectional causative relationship possibly may exist between poverty and trachoma. Implementation of the full SAFE strategy in the context of general improvements might lead to a virtuous cycle of improving health and wealth. Trachoma is a good proxy of inequality within communities and it could be used to target and evaluate interventions for health and poverty alleviation. PMID:26600211

  12. Weighing the causal pies in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Fen; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2010-07-01

    Epidemiologists are familiar with the concepts of Rothman's causal pies. Using real data the Hoffman study showed recently how to calculate the "proportion of diseased subjects who develop the disease due to classes of sufficient causes" (PDCs). The PDC is actually an attributable-fraction index. It may be specific to a particular risk factor profile but it does not correspond to any given class of causal pies. In this study, we show how to estimate the "causal-pie weights" (CPWs), so that each and every class of causal pies has one and only one CPW attached to it. To conform to Rothman's model, we apply a non-negative linear odds model to constrain all the odds ratios (ORs) to be equal to or greater than one, and the interactions between them to be additive or superadditive. Based on these constrained ORs, we calculate the population attributable fractions, and then the CPWs. We used a published case-control data to show the methodology. The CPWs succinctly quantify the relative importance of different classes of causal pies. The proposed method helps to clarify the multi-factorial and complex interactive effects in disease causation. It also provides important information for designing an efficient public health intervention strategy. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anxiety during pregnancy and preeclampsia: a case - control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Kordi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Preeclampsia is the common and dangerous complication of pregnancy with unknown reason. Multiple causes such as depression, psychological and physical stress may be involved in its development. This study was performed to determine the relationship between anxiety during pregnancy and the incidence of preeclampsia. Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 150 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 150 healthy pregnant women referred to health centers and academic hospitals of Mashhad in 2014. The diagnosis of preeclampsia was made by systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg accompanied with urinary protein excretion more than 300 mg per 24 hours. The cutoff point for the presence of anxiety was the score of ≥8; the score of 8-9 was mild anxiety and the score of 20 was very severe anxiety. Data collection tools included the form of demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory signs of preeclampsia, and depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS 21. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 16 and independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and logistic regressions model. P Results: We found significant relationship between anxiety and preeclampsia (P

  14. BNSF San Bernardino case study : positive train control risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration funded the BNSF San Bernardino Case Study to verify its Generalized Train Movement : Simulator (GTMS) risk assessment capabilities on a planned implementation of the I-ETMS PTC system. The analysis explicitly : sim...

  15. The use of the bootstrap in the analysis of case-control studies with missing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study......nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study...

  16. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, Vilma Costa de; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Frias, Paulo Germano de; Romaguera, Luciana Maria Delgado; Caires, Silvana de Fátima Ferreira; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2017-08-17

    To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls) with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02), lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4), catholic religion (OR = 1.70 ), four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2), three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1), use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0), and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7). Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5) and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7) were also identified as determinant factors. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability. Determinar os fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais e de assistência à sa

  17. Contingency for Cost Control in Project Management: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Jackson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of the application of cost management techniques for project management of capital works within a major Australian electricity corporation. Historical data was collected from the corporation's archived files to establish the performance status of completed capital works projects. A survey of the corporation's project staff was also conducted to determine the current usage of cost management techniques and further explore the findings of the historical data search.The research indicates a reluctance to utilise formal cost management procedures on minor projects, estimated to cost less than $1 million. The time constraints allocated to project management planning and the perceived cost to implement procedures were identified as contributing to the limited use of formal cost management on minor projects.The paper concludes that increased risk of poor budget performance is inevitable if formal cost control is not applied to capital works projects, and recommends informal risk assessment and cost contingency measures to address this issue.

  18. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: a multicenter case--control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Sohr, Mandy; Lang, Anthony E; Potenza, Marc N; Siderowf, Andrew D; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Weintraub, Daniel; Wunderlich, Glen R; Stacy, Mark

    2011-06-01

    To assess factors associated with impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson disease (PD) using a multicenter case--control design. Patients enrolled in the DOMINION study, a multicenter study assessing the cross-sectional frequency of ICDs in PD, were eligible to participate in the case--control study. PD patients with and without an ICD (n = 282 each) (compulsive gambling, buying, sexual behavior, and eating) were matched individually on age, gender, and dopamine agonist treatment. Subjects were assessed with a comprehensive neurological, psychiatric, and cognitive assessment battery. ICD patients reported more functional impairment (p compulsive symptoms (p cognitive impairments, including affective and anxiety symptoms, as well as elevated obsessionality, novelty seeking, and impulsivity. These results highlight the importance of assessing multiple mental health domains in individuals with PD and ICDs, and suggest possible pathophysiological mechanisms and risk indicators for these disorders. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  19. Should Controls With Respiratory Symptoms Be Excluded From Case-Control Studies of Pneumonia Etiology? Reflections From the PERCH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Melissa M; Hammitt, Laura L; Deloria Knoll, Maria; Baggett, Henry C; Brooks, W Abdullah; Howie, Stephen R C; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Orin S; Madhi, Shabir A; Murdoch, David R; Scott, J Anthony G; Thea, Donald M; Driscoll, Amanda J; Karron, Ruth A; Park, Daniel E; Prosperi, Christine; Zeger, Scott L; O'Brien, Katherine L; Feikin, Daniel R

    2017-06-15

    Many pneumonia etiology case-control studies exclude controls with respiratory illness from enrollment or analyses. Herein we argue that selecting controls regardless of respiratory symptoms provides the least biased estimates of pneumonia etiology. We review 3 reasons investigators may choose to exclude controls with respiratory symptoms in light of epidemiologic principles of control selection and present data from the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study where relevant to assess their validity. We conclude that exclusion of controls with respiratory symptoms will result in biased estimates of etiology. Randomly selected community controls, with or without respiratory symptoms, as long as they do not meet the criteria for case-defining pneumonia, are most representative of the general population from which cases arose and the least subject to selection bias. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight; Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW (defined as a birth weight of less than 2500 grams is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development, and the advent of chronic diseases in later life. The global incidence of LBW is around 15,5%. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight in the centre of Denizli province. A case-control study was carried out and mothers of 295 newborns with birthweight between 1500-2499 g (cases and 302 newborns with birthweight between 2500-4000 g (controls were analyzed. The questionnare was applied to women using face to face technics between July,2009 and June,2010 . The questionnare included birth weight and birth lenght of newborn, the date of last pregnacy and type of last delivery, profile of mother, anthropometric measures, life styles, habits, addictions, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and father of newborn. Analysis included frequency and percent distributions, means, standart deviations. In group comparisions for categorical variable, chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Logistic regression model was performed for some selected risk factors. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program, Version 10 was used for data entry and analysis. When backward logistic regression model was performed for some selected factors in relation to low birth weight, there was a positive relationship between multiple pregnancy [OR(95%CI 18.50 (8.54, 40.39], BMI lower than 20 kg/m2 of mother before pregnancy andemployment status [OR(95%CI 1.98 (1.23, 3.19], weight gain of 7 kg and under during pregnanacy [OR(95%CI 2.49 (1.56, 3.96], a history of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 3.44 (1.69, 7.02], first- degree and second- degree relative’s histories of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 4.28 (2.61, 6.94], X- ray exposure in the three months before and

  1. Factors Influencing Non-albicans Candidemia: A Case-Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Valachis, Antonis; Dimopoulou, Dimitra; Andrianaki, Angeliki M; Christidou, Athanasia; Maraki, Sofia; Spernovasilis, Nikolaos A; Samonis, George

    2017-08-01

    The study identified factors predisposing to non-albicans candidemia with special interest to prior antimicrobial treatment. A retrospective, case-case-control study was performed at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Greece, from November 2007 through September 2011 including adult patients. The study had three groups. The first included 58 patients with non-albicans candidemia, the second 48 with C. albicans candidemia, while the third (control) 104 without candidemia. Each of the two candidemia groups was compared with the control using multivariate logistic regression model. The mean (SD) age of the non-albicans, the albicans and the control patients was 67 (12), 67 (18) and 59 (19) years, respectively. The most common non-albicans Candida spp. isolated were C. parapsilosis in 19 patients (33%), C. glabrata in 17 (29%) and C. tropicalis in 15 (26%). Independent risk factors for non-albicans candidemia were prior treatment with quinolones (p candidemia were prior treatment with quinolones (p candidemia groups. The study reveals the role of antimicrobial exposure as a risk factor for candidemia caused by different species. Prior treatment with b-lactam-b-lactamase inhibitors was associated with non-albicans, while with carbapenems with C. albicans candidemia. Prior use of quinolones was associated with candidemia in general.

  2. Quantity and quality of retrograde menstruation: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drijkoningen Maria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that menstruation is associated with a higher concentration of endometrial cells in peritoneal fluid(PF and with increased white and red blood cell concentration in PF when compared to nonmenstrual phases of the cycle. Methods PF was obtained at laparoscopy from 107 women with endometriosis (n = 59 and controls with a normal pelvis (n = 48 during the luteal (n = 46, follicular (n = 38 or menstrual (n = 23 phase of the cycle. Endometriosis was classified according to the classification of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (rAFS into minimal (n = 25, mild(n = 20, moderate(n = 6 and severe(n = 8 disease. Cell counts (leucocytes, erythrocytes, thrombocytes were determined on a cell counter. In a subset of 32 patients (13 controls and 19 women with endometriosis, PF was fixed, processed and thinlayers were prepared and stained with Papanicolaou method and with immunocytochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against cytokeratin 7(CK 7, CK 8/18, Ber-Ep4, vimentin, calretinin and CD68. Ber-Ep4 is a marker for cells with epithelial origin (in some cases for mesothelial cells as well. CD68 is specific for cells from monocyte/macrophage lineage; CK7 and CK8/18 are markers for both endometrial epithelial and mesothelial cells, whereas calretinin and vimentin are markers for both endometrial stromal and mesothelial cells. Results In comparison with the nonmenstrual phase of the cycle, analysis of PF during menstruation showed an increased concentration of leucocytes (3.3 × 109/L vs 0.8 × 109/L, P = 0.03, erythrocytes (0.3 × 1012/L vs 0.02 × 1012/L, P = 0.006, hematocrit (0.03 L/L vs 0.003 L/L, P = 0.01 and hemoglobin (0.8 g/dL vs 0.1 g/dL, P = 0.01. Mesothelial cells stained positively with CK7, CK8/18, vimentin, and calretinin. Cells positive for Ber-Ep4 were not observed, except in 2 patients with endometriosis investigated during menses. In all patients 50-98% of

  3. Dysregulated behaviors in bulimia nervosa: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara Freire Brito César; Martins, C.; Brandão, Isabel; Torres, António Roma; Machado, Paulo P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is often related to self-control difficulties and to dysregulated behaviours. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of self-injurious behaviour, suicide attempts, and other dysregulated behaviours in BN, using two control groups (a healthy group and a general psychiatric group), and also to examine the association between these behaviours and alleged sexual abuse in BN.Method: Women (N = 233) aged between 13 and 38 years old were evaluated using a semi-st...

  4. The Misconception of Case-Control Studies in the Plastic Surgery Literature: A Literature Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchell, Alexandra C; Farrokhyar, Forough; Choi, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Case-control study designs are commonly used. However, many published case-control studies are not true case-controls and are in fact mislabeled. The purpose of this study was to identify all case-control studies published in the top three plastic surgery journals over the past 10 years, assess which were truly case-control studies, clarify the actual design of the articles, and address common misconceptions. MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for case-control studies in the three highest-impact factor plastic surgery journals (2005 to 2015). Two independent reviewers screened the resulting titles, abstracts, and methods, if applicable, to identify articles labeled as case-control studies. These articles were appraised and classified as true case-control studies or non-case-control studies. The authors found 28 articles labeled as case-control studies. However, only six of these articles (21 percent) were truly case-control designs. Of the 22 incorrectly labeled studies, one (5 percent) was a randomized controlled trial, three (14 percent) were nonrandomized trials, two (9 percent) were prospective comparative cohort designs, 14 (64 percent) were retrospective comparative cohort designs, and two (9 percent) were cross-sectional designs. The mislabeling was worse in recent years, despite increases in evidence-based medicine awareness. The majority of published case-control studies are not in fact case-control studies. This misunderstanding is worsening with time. Most of these studies are actually comparative cohort designs. However, some studies are truly clinical trials and thus a higher level of evidence than originally proposed.

  5. Impact of waning acquired immunity and asymptomatic infections on case-control studies for enteric pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, Arie H; Swart, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies of outbreaks and of sporadic cases of infectious diseases may provide a biased estimate of the infection rate ratio, due to selecting controls that are not at risk of disease. We use a dynamic mathematical model to explore biases introduced in results drawn from case-control

  6. Contingency for Cost Control in Project Management: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of the application of cost management techniques for project management of capital works within a major Australian electricity corporation. Historical data was collected from the corporation's archived files to establish the performance status of completed capital works projects. A survey of the corporation's project staff was also conducted to determine the current usage of cost management techniques and further explore the findings of the historical data sea...

  7. A case control study of fowl pox in southeastern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D M; Martin, S W

    1990-06-01

    An outbreak of fowl pox, which occurred in south-eastern Ontario between July 1988 and April 1989, was investigated in the spring of 1989 to determine factors associated with the spread of the disease. Clinical fowl pox was confirmed on five farms (cases). Twenty-seven farms, out of 35 egg producers with quota from Durham region to Northumberland county, provided information as controls. Bivariate analyses were performed on mail survey data using Fisher's exact test and odds ratios. Although the tests of hypotheses lacked statistical power because of the small number of case farms, and barns, a number of significant associations were found. At the farm level, fowl pox infection was associated with pullets purchased from a particular pullet grower. At the barn level, fowl pox infection was associated with pullets from a particular grower, mixing different groups of pullets, and a trend towards having birds early in the laying period, and higher numbers of birds placed. Fowl pox-infected barns had higher mortality and lower egg production postoutbreak. The results may indicate that the virus enters the laying barn at, or near, the time new birds are placed. Better communication among producers, catch-and-fill crews, and others associated with the egg industry, as well as more complete records of dates, sources, and persons involved with pullet placements, are recommended.

  8. Homocyst(e)ine and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of the evidence with special emphasis on case-control studies and nested case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Smith, S Jay; Stroup, Donna F; Steinberg, Karen K; Mueller, Patricia W; Thacker, Stephen B

    2002-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of homocyst(e)ine are thought to increase the risk of vascular diseases including coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. We searched MEDLINE (1966-1999), EMBASE (1974-1999), SciSearch (1974- 1999), and Dissertation Abstracts (1999) for articles and theses about homocyst(e)ine concentration and coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. We included 57 publications (3 cohort studies, 12 nested case-control studies, 42 case-control studies) that reported results on 5518 people with coronary heart disease (11,068 control subjects) and 1817 people with cerebrovascular disease (4787 control subjects) in our analysis. For coronary heart disease, the summary odds ratios (OR) for a 5-micromol/l increase in homocyst(e)ine concentration were 1.06 (95% CI : 0.99-1.13) for 2 publications of cohort studies, 1.23 (95% CI : 1.07-1.41) for 10 publications of nested case-control studies, and 1.70 (95% CI : 1.50-1.93) for 26 publications of case-control studies. For cerebrovascular disease, the summary OR for a 5-micromol/l increase in homocyst(e)ine concentration were 1.10 (95% CI : 0.94-1.28) for 2 publications of cohort studies, 1.58 (95% CI : 1.35-1.85) for 5 publications of nested case-control studies, and 2.16 (95% CI : 1.65-2.82) for 17 publications of case-control studies. Prospective studies offer weaker support than case-control studies for an association between homocyst(e)ine concentration and cardiovascular disease. Although other lines of evidence support a role for homocyst(e)ine in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, more information from prospective epidemiological studies or clinical trials is needed to clarify this role.

  9. Case studies on design, simulation and visualization of control and measurement applications using REX control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Stepan; Pies, Martin; Docekal, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    REX Control System is a professional advanced tool for design and implementation of complex control systems that belongs to softPLC category. It covers the entire process starting from simulation of functionality of the application before deployment, through implementation on real-time target, towards analysis, diagnostics and visualization. Basically it consists of two parts: the development tools and the runtime system. It is also compatible with Simulink environment, and the way of implementation of control algorithm is very similar. The control scheme is finally compiled (using RexDraw utility) and uploaded into a chosen real-time target (using RexView utility). There is a wide variety of hardware platforms and real-time operating systems supported by REX Control System such as for example Windows Embedded, Linux, Linux/Xenomai deployed on SBC, IPC, PAC, Raspberry Pi and others with many I/O interfaces. It is modern system designed both for measurement and control applications, offering a lot of additional functions concerning data archiving, visualization based on HTML5, and communication standards. The paper will sum up possibilities of its use in educational process, focused on control of case studies of physical models with classical and advanced control algorithms.

  10. Case studies on design, simulation and visualization of control and measurement applications using REX control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozana, Stepan; Pies, Martin; Docekal, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    REX Control System is a professional advanced tool for design and implementation of complex control systems that belongs to softPLC category. It covers the entire process starting from simulation of functionality of the application before deployment, through implementation on real-time target, towards analysis, diagnostics and visualization. Basically it consists of two parts: the development tools and the runtime system. It is also compatible with Simulink environment, and the way of implementation of control algorithm is very similar. The control scheme is finally compiled (using RexDraw utility) and uploaded into a chosen real-time target (using RexView utility). There is a wide variety of hardware platforms and real-time operating systems supported by REX Control System such as for example Windows Embedded, Linux, Linux/Xenomai deployed on SBC, IPC, PAC, Raspberry Pi and others with many I/O interfaces. It is modern system designed both for measurement and control applications, offering a lot of additional functions concerning data archiving, visualization based on HTML5, and communication standards. The paper will sum up possibilities of its use in educational process, focused on control of case studies of physical models with classical and advanced control algorithms.

  11. Case studies on design, simulation and visualization of control and measurement applications using REX control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozana, Stepan, E-mail: stepan.ozana@vsb.cz; Pies, Martin, E-mail: martin.pies@vsb.cz; Docekal, Tomas, E-mail: docekalt@email.cz [VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Cybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, 17. listopadu 15/2172, Ostrava-Poruba, 700 30 (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-08

    REX Control System is a professional advanced tool for design and implementation of complex control systems that belongs to softPLC category. It covers the entire process starting from simulation of functionality of the application before deployment, through implementation on real-time target, towards analysis, diagnostics and visualization. Basically it consists of two parts: the development tools and the runtime system. It is also compatible with Simulink environment, and the way of implementation of control algorithm is very similar. The control scheme is finally compiled (using RexDraw utility) and uploaded into a chosen real-time target (using RexView utility). There is a wide variety of hardware platforms and real-time operating systems supported by REX Control System such as for example Windows Embedded, Linux, Linux/Xenomai deployed on SBC, IPC, PAC, Raspberry Pi and others with many I/O interfaces. It is modern system designed both for measurement and control applications, offering a lot of additional functions concerning data archiving, visualization based on HTML5, and communication standards. The paper will sum up possibilities of its use in educational process, focused on control of case studies of physical models with classical and advanced control algorithms.

  12. Management of linear quadratic regulator optimal control with full-vehicle control case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigue Tchamna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Linear quadratic regulator is a powerful technique for dealing with the control design of any linear and nonlinear system after linearization of the system around an operating point. For small systems, which have fewer state variables, the transformation of the performance index from scalar to matrix form can be straightforward. On the other hand, as the system becomes large with many state variables and controllers, appropriate design and notations should be defined to make it easy to automatically implement the technique for any large system without the need to redesign from scratch every time one requires a new system. The main aim of this article was to deal with this issue. This article shows how to automatically obtain the matrix form of the performance index matrices from the scalar version of the performance index. Control of a full-vehicle in cornering was taken as a case study in this article.

  13. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  14. Nutrition and lung cancer: a case control study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Naghan, Parisa Adimi; Jafari, Ali Moghadas; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Taslimi, Shervin; Khodadad, Kian; Mohammadi, Forouzan; Sadr, Makan; Rezaei, Mansour; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-11-21

    Despite many prospective and retrospective studies about the association of dietary habit and lung cancer, the topic still remains controversial. So, this study aims to investigate the association of lung cancer with dietary factors. In this study 242 lung cancer patients and their 484 matched controls on age, sex, and place of residence were enrolled between October 2002 to 2005. Trained physicians interviewed all participants with standardized questionnaires. The middle and upper third consumer groups were compared to the lower third according to the distribution in controls unless the linear trend was significant across exposure groups. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association with lung cancer. In a multivariate analysis fruit (Ptrend bread (Ptrend = 0.04), liver (P = 0.004), butter (Ptrend = 0.04), white cheese (Ptrend cancer. Generally, we found positive trend between consumption of beef (P = 0.002), bread (P cancer. In contrast, only fruits were inversely related to lung cancer (P bread, rice, beef, liver, dairy products, vegetable ghee, and animal ghee found to be possible risk factors for the development of lung cancer in Iran.

  15. [Post-abortion depression: study of cases and controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arturo Roizblatt, S; Ruby Baño, A; Germán Cueto, U

    1983-01-01

    The MMPI depression scale and a subjective depression test were administered to 80 patients who had aborted between 1 and 5 days before they were interviewed at 2 hospitals in Chile. A higher level of depression was found among patients who aborted, particularly in patients who had self inflicted abortions, than in the control group. Abortion is illegal in Chile and is condemned by the church; therefore, the study results may have been influenced by the cultural environment. Psychotherapy for women who abort is recommended. (author's modified)

  16. Somatosensory abnormalities in atypical odontalgia: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Thomas; Leijon, Göran; Svensson, Peter

    2008-10-15

    Somatosensory function in patients with persistent idiopathic types of orofacial pain like atypical odontalgia (AO) is not well described. This study tested the hypothesis that AO patients have significantly more somatosensory abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Forty-six AO patients and 35 controls participated. Inclusion criteria for AO were pain in a region where a tooth had been endodontically or surgically treated, persistent pain >6 months, and lack of clinical and radiological findings. The examination included qualitative tests and a battery of intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST). Most AO patients (85%) had qualitative somatosensory abnormality compared with few controls (14%). The most common qualitative abnormalities in AO patients were found with pin-prick 67.4%, cold 47.8%, and touch 46.5% compared with 11.4%, 8.6%, and 2.9%, respectively, in the control group (P<0.001). Between-group differences were seen for many intraoral QST: mechanical detection threshold, mechanical pain threshold (pinprick), dynamic mechanical allodynia (brush), dynamic mechanical allodynia (vibration), wind-up ratio, and pressure pain threshold (P<0.01). In the trigeminal area, between-group differences in thermal thresholds were nonsignificant while differences in cold detection at the thenar eminence were significant. Individual somatosensory profiles revealed complex patterns with hyper- and hyposensitivity to intraoral QST. Between-group differences in pressure pain thresholds (P<0.02) were observed at the thenar eminence. In conclusion, significant abnormalities in intraoral somatosensory function were observed in AO, which may reflect peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal pathways. More generalized sensitization of the nociceptive system may also be part of AO pathophysiology.

  17. Myocardial infarction and oral contraceptives, a retrospective case control study in England and Scotland ('MICA' Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, N R; Thorogood, M; de Caestecker, L; Mann, R D

    1997-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that modern (third generation), oral contraceptives (OC) are associated with an increased incidence of venous thromboembolic disease compared to older (second generation), OC. It is not known, however, whether this association is also true for arterial thrombosis, in particular myocardial infarction. In fact, it has been suggested that third generation OC may even be protective against myocardial infarction (MI), compared to second generation OC. The protocol for a multicentre case-control study, involving the whole of England and Scotland, is described. Cases will be female patients aged 16-44 years, who suffered an MI between 1.10.93 and 1.10.95. Controls will be drawn from the community, using the GP list, to which the case belonged. Odds ratios will be calculated primarily to compare current users of third generation OC with current users of second generation OC. Copyright 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Integration of management control tools. Analysis of a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Comas Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to design and to implement a procedure that integrates management control tools focusing on process, to improve the efficiency and the efficacy. It was carried out an experimental study where is defined a procedure, based in the Balanced Scorecard, which integrates the process management into the strategic planning and their evaluation. As results of this work, we define the key factors of success associated with the four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard that are linked through the cause-effect relations obtaining the strategic map that allows visualizing and communicating the enterprise strategy. The indicators evaluate the key factor of success, integrating the process with the assistance of a software. The implementation of the procedure in a commercialization enterprise contributed to integrate the process definition into the strategic planning. The alignment was evaluated and the efficiency and efficacy indicators improved the company´s performance.

  19. Rosacea and Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Case-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balbeesi, Amal O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between rosacea, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and the clinical presentation of rosacea. Subjects and Method Twenty-eight female Saudi patients diagnosed with rosacea at the Dermatology Clinic, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between September 2011 and September 2012 and 20 age- and sex-matched control patients were included in the study. Paranasal sinus X-rays and assessments of the serum concentration of IgE (ImmunoCAP test; Phadia Laboratory Systems) were performed in both groups. Result The rosacea patients had significantly more radiological evidence of CRS than the patients without rosacea [19 (67.9%) vs. 4 (20%), p = 0.003]. The median IgE concentration was similar in both groups (225.4 vs. 223.1 kU/l). Nine rosacea patients (32.1%) without radiological evidence of CRS did not have a significantly different median concentration of IgE compared with those who had radiological evidence of CRS (190.5 vs. 111.5 kU/l, p = 0.859). Erythematotelangiectatic severity was significantly associated with CRS (p = 0.038). Serum IgE did not correlate with the severity of the facial condition. Conclusion Patients with rosacea and CRS manifested severe erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. There was enough evidence to suggest an association between rosacea and CRS. Clinical and radiological assessments of the paranasal sinuses are recommended. PMID:25060422

  20. A case-control study of risk factors for male infertility in Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between selected potential socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors and infertility in Nigeria males. Methods: The study consisted of cases and controls. The cases were 150 males with proven male infertility, while the controls were 150 fertile males with ...

  1. Power-based control of physical systems : Two case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Canseco, E.; Jeltsema, D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.; Ortega, R.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that energy-balancing control is stymied by the presence of pervasive dissipation. To overcome this problem in electrical circuits, the alternative paradigm of power-shaping control was introduced in (Ortega et al., 2003)-where, as suggested by its name, stabilization is achieved

  2. Corruption and internal control weaknesses. Case study Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Corruption represents one of the major causes of poverty all over the world and European Union is fighting against it. In the last few years, the corruption phenomenon registered a high level in some European countries and became one of the most problematic factors for doing business, due to the evolution of the perceived top five global risks: interstate conflict and regional consequences, extreme weather events, failure of national governance, state collapse or crises, high structural unemployment or underemployment              (WEF-Global Risk Report 2015, p. 14. One of the modalities in combating corruption is implementing the internal control and most of the governments and organizations adopted strong control techniques. Most of the control weaknesses are related to the financial procedures and the number of controllers. Some of the controllers do not have enough financial expertise or do not understand the importance of informatics systems.

  3. Power electronic converters modeling and control with case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bacha, Seddik; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    Modern power electronic converters are involved in a very broad spectrum of applications: switched-mode power supplies, electrical-machine-motion-control, active power filters, distributed power generation, flexible AC transmission systems, renewable energy conversion systems and vehicular technology, among them. Power Electronics Converters Modeling and Control teaches the reader how to analyze and model the behavior of converters and so to improve their design and control. Dealing with a set of confirmed algorithms specifically developed for use with power converters, this text is in two parts: models and control methods. The first is a detailed exposition of the most usual power converter models: ·        switched and averaged models; ·        small/large-signal models; and ·        time/frequency models. The second focuses on three groups of control methods: ·        linear control approaches normally associated with power converters; ·        resonant controllers b...

  4. CASE STUDY ON WATER QUALITY CONTROL IN AN AQUAPONIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mihai Filep

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponic systems are integrated systems that combine fish farming and different types of plants. It involves a dynamic interaction between fish plants and bacteria. Fish and plants are dependent the equilibrium of dissolved nutrients and water quality. Only by striking a balance between dissolved nutrients and water quality we can achieve a large production of plants and healthy fish. Thus, control of water quality in an aquaponic system is essential in order to obtain performance in raising fish and plants. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Fisheries and Aquaculture of the Faculty of Animal Science of the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest within a period of 30 days. The system used for the experiment was designed and developed in the laboratory mentioned above. The plant used for water treatment in the system was basil (Ocimum basilicum. Fish species grown in the system was culture carp (Cyprinus carpio. Indicators measured to assess water quality in the system were: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and phosphates. The values determined pH 7.4-7.6, dissolved oxygen 8-10 mg / l, NH4 0.05-05 mg/ l, NO2 0.1-3.2 mg / l, NO3 0-80 mg / l, 0.02-0.3 mg, PO4 0.02-0.3 mg/l were not too high. In conclusion it was demonstrated that water quality in the aquaponic system studied is propitious to the growth and welfare of fish the registered values are not to be harmful.

  5. Active inference and robot control: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio-Lopez, Léo; Nizard, Ange; Friston, Karl; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Active inference is a general framework for perception and action that is gaining prominence in computational and systems neuroscience but is less known outside these fields. Here, we discuss a proof-of-principle implementation of the active inference scheme for the control or the 7-DoF arm of a (simulated) PR2 robot. By manipulating visual and proprioceptive noise levels, we show under which conditions robot control under the active inference scheme is accurate. Besides accurate control, our analysis of the internal system dynamics (e.g. the dynamics of the hidden states that are inferred during the inference) sheds light on key aspects of the framework such as the quintessentially multimodal nature of control and the differential roles of proprioception and vision. In the discussion, we consider the potential importance of being able to implement active inference in robots. In particular, we briefly review the opportunities for modelling psychophysiological phenomena such as sensory attenuation and related failures of gain control, of the sort seen in Parkinson's disease. We also consider the fundamental difference between active inference and optimal control formulations, showing that in the former the heavy lifting shifts from solving a dynamical inverse problem to creating deep forward or generative models with dynamics, whose attracting sets prescribe desired behaviours. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. New Zealand pathologists: a case study in occupational control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, N; Lawrence, S; Smith, J F

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the progressive exertion of external managerial control over New Zealand pathologists as the country's New Public Management health reforms were implemented during the 1990s. Perspectives on professionalism, and its role in the effective use of resources, are discussed as part of the examination of this shift in decision-making power from pathologists to external management. Our analysis, based on a range of archived and interview data collected over the period 1997-2000, suggests that publicly unacceptable compromises in pathology service quality were risked by the pursuit of tight bureaucratic and free market controls over pathology practice. The paper concludes with suggestions for a health professional control model facilitative of maximal health gain.

  7. Operational and Strategic Controlling Tools in Microenterprises - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsek-Ciechońska, Justyna

    2017-12-01

    Globalisation and increasing requirements of the environment cause the executives and supervisors to search for more and more perfect solutions, allowing them to streamline and improve the effectiveness of company operations. One of such tools, used more and more often, is controlling, the role of which has substantially increased in the recent years. It is already implemented not only in large companies with foreign capital, but also in increasingly smaller entities, which begin to notice the positive effects of the implications of the principles and tools of controlling - both operational and strategic. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the practical side of controlling tools that can be used for the purposes of operations conducted by microenterprises.

  8. OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC CONTROLLING TOOLS IN MICROENTERPRISES – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna KONSEK-CIECHOŃSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation and increasing requirements of the environment cause the executives and supervisors to search for more and more perfect solutions, allowing them to streamline and improve the effectiveness of company operations. One of such tools, used more and more often, is controlling, the role of which has substantially increased in the recent years. It is already implemented not only in large companies with foreign capital, but also in increasingly smaller entities, which begin to notice the positive effects of the implications of the principles and tools of controlling - both operational and strategic. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the practical side of controlling tools that can be used for the purposes of operations conducted by microenterprises.

  9. Tracking control of mobile robots: a case study in backstepping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Zhong-Ping; Nijmeijer, Henk

    1997-01-01

    A tracking control methodology via time-varying state feedback based on the backstepping technique is proposed for both a kinematic and simplified dynamic model of a two-degrees-of-freedom mobile robot. We first address the local tracking problem where initial tracking errors are sufficiently small.

  10. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour - A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    -up was between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n = 86) and Asperger's syndrome (n = 114) the percentages were 8.......1% and 18.4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (P = .0009) Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  11. An Epidemiological Study of Accidents in a Construction Industry: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakouti J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Despite science and technology development and their application in various industries, accidents continue to occur in many workplaces. This study was designed and carried out with the aim of epidemiological survey of accident among workers of a tunneling industry.Methods: This study was conducted on 144 out of a total of 440 employees of a tunneling project who were at risk of occupational accidents. 48 workers with a history of occupational accident over the past two years were selected as case group and 96 workers of the same project were selected as control group. The data were collected through a designed checklist and analyzed using logistic regression, chi-square and independent t tests.Results: A significant association was observed between accident rate and different age groups (p<0.05. There was a significant relationship (p=0.016 in the case of sport activities between case and control groups, and significant relationships were observed between two groups regarding education (p=0.057 and smoking (p=0.06, but there was no significant relationships between accident occurrence with marital status, residence in workplace, job related education, job experience, chronic diseases and obesity.Conclusion: The results of this study clarify the necessity of the use of epidemiological data in preventive and control measures in workplaces. Therefore, Developing programs for determination of physical and mental capacity of workers are essential to employ them in jobs commensurate with their abilities, especially in older workers.

  12. Integrating commercial software in accelerator control- case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, Alberto

    1994-01-01

    Using existing commercial software is the dream of any control system engineer for the development cost reduction that can reach one order of magnitude. This dream often vanishes when appears the requirement to have a uniform and consistent architecture through a wide number of components and applications. This makes it difficult to integrate several commercial packages that often impose different user interface and communication standards. This paper will describe the approach and standards that have been chosen for the CERN ISOLDE control system that have allowed several commercial packages to be integrated in the system as-they-are permitting the software development cost to be reduced to a minimum. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  13. A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer. Design. A population-based case-control study of breast cancer risk in relation to the use of IPes among coloured and black women. Setting. The Western Cape ... tertiary care hospitals in the Western Cape are recruited. Controls are a .... are obtained to confirm the diagnosis for all cases and to determine ...

  14. Arms Control and National Security: Revealed through Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    approach can only be helpful in gaining a picture of what the military is tasked to come to grips with. West Churchman is an advocate of the systems... Charles Sorrels, in his book U.S. Cruise Missile Programs: Development, Deployment and Implications for Arms Control, points out that SALT II severely...OBJECTIVES OF A STRATEGIC C-CUBED SYSTEM It might be helpful to build on a basis of .. definitions to arrive at what Churchman would consider * the system’s

  15. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry A. Hawash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls, followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls. Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value ≤ 0.05. Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study’s population, particularly those with CRF.

  16. Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

  17. NOISE CONTROL IN GAS STATIONS – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Eduardo Amaral Herzer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The high noise level in urban has changed, in the last decades, in some way of pollution that has worried the health agents. The value registered accused levels of so high discomfort that the urban sound pollution passed to be considered as a kind of pollution that hit the outnumbered people. There are efficient measures in its control, but still there are few companies that adopt measure control and auditive conservation program. This way, the objective of the work was to evaluate the noise level in which the employees and users of the gas station are daily exposed. The survey of quantitative datum was done measuring the noise level right in the emission source and making arithmetic means with the gotten sample. The average obtained revealed that the working environment isn’t appropriate, that means the noise can affect straight to communication and working production. With the prevention objective or stabilizing the auditive lost in witch the workers and the frequenters are submitted to the referred place were proposed measures to the implantation of a Auditive Conservation Program (ACP.

  18. Diabetes and Oral Health: A Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Bharateesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus, according to World Health Organization (WHO is a silent epidemic which affects large number of people around the world and is directly related to the oral health status of the patients. Objectives: To know the prevalence of common dental diseases such as dental caries, periodontal diseases (pyorrhea, and treatment needs in a group of adult diabetic patients in private medical establishments of Tumkur city, south India, in comparison with non-diabetic patients. To create awareness among general medical practitioners about the common oral manifestations of diabetes and the importance of periodical dental check up for diabetics. Methods: A group of 300 diabetic patients (males = 186, females = 114 and a control group of 300 non-diabetics (males = 180, females = 120 matched by age and sex were examined according to WHO criteria, for a period of eight months. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was comparatively more in non-diabetics (32.3% than in diabetics (13.6%. However, the prevalence of periodontal diseases (pyorrhea was more in diabetics (92.6% when compared to non-diabetics (83%. Conclusions: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Though dental caries was comparatively low in diabetics, periodontal status was compromised. Complex treatment needs was more in the diabetics (58% when compared to controls (41%. Regular follow-up of dental problems of the diabetics and oral health education is much required.

  19. Healthcare utilization by abused women: a case control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosman, G.J.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Bulte, E.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies observed an association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and increased health problems. Early detection of IPV by general practitioners (GPs) is required to prevent further harm and provide appropriate support. In general practice, a limited number of studies are

  20. Comparison of two control groups for estimation of oral cholera vaccine effectiveness using a case-control study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Molly F; Jerome, J Gregory; Matias, Wilfredo R; Ternier, Ralph; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Harris, Jason B; Ivers, Louise C

    2017-10-13

    Case-control studies to quantify oral cholera vaccine effectiveness (VE) often rely on neighbors without diarrhea as community controls. Test-negative controls can be easily recruited and may minimize bias due to differential health-seeking behavior and recall. We compared VE estimates derived from community and test-negative controls and conducted bias-indicator analyses to assess potential bias with community controls. From October 2012 through November 2016, patients with acute watery diarrhea were recruited from cholera treatment centers in rural Haiti. Cholera cases had a positive stool culture. Non-cholera diarrhea cases (test-negative controls and non-cholera diarrhea cases for bias-indicator analyses) had a negative culture and rapid test. Up to four community controls were matched to diarrhea cases by age group, time, and neighborhood. Primary analyses included 181 cholera cases, 157 non-cholera diarrhea cases, 716 VE community controls and 625 bias-indicator community controls. VE for self-reported vaccination with two doses was consistent across the two control groups, with statistically significant VE estimates ranging from 72 to 74%. Sensitivity analyses revealed similar, though somewhat attenuated estimates for self-reported two dose VE. Bias-indicator estimates were consistently less than one, with VE estimates ranging from 19 to 43%, some of which were statistically significant. OCV estimates from case-control analyses using community and test-negative controls were similar. While bias-indicator analyses suggested possible over-estimation of VE estimates using community controls, test-negative analyses suggested this bias, if present, was minimal. Test-negative controls can be a valid low-cost and time-efficient alternative to community controls for OCV effectiveness estimation and may be especially relevant in emergency situations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Case control study of episiotomy in the University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and identify the factors influencing the practice of episiotomy during delivery in the University Teaching Hospital, Yaounde. It is a retrospective review of all vaginal deliveries conducted in this hospital between January 2001 and December 2002 was undertaken to identify ...

  2. Selection of controls in case-control studies on maternal medication use and risk of birth defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.K.; de Walle, H.E.; Dequito, A.; van den Berg, P.B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    BACKGROUND:: In case-control studies on teratogenic risks of maternal drug use during pregnancy, the use of normal or malformed controls may lead to recall-bias or selection bias. This can be avoided by using controls with a genetic disorder. However, researchers are hesitant to use these as

  3. CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Nikhil

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, there is a movement to understand mental health, not solely based on behaviors and subjective report, but also based on objective markers of illness. Several studies have focused on a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and aggressive behaviors including suicide. AIM: To identify a potential link between cholesterol and suicidal behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with psychiatry diagnosis were divided into three equal g...

  4. Risk factors for measles among adults in Tianjin, China: Who should be controls in a case-control study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Abram L; Boulton, Matthew L; Gillespie, Brenda W; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Yaxing; Carlson, Bradley F; Luo, Xiaoyan; Montgomery, JoLynn P; Wang, Xiexiu

    2017-01-01

    Control groups in previous case-control studies of vaccine-preventable diseases have included people immune to disease. This study examines risk factors for measles acquisition among adults 20 to 49 years of age in Tianjin, China, and compares findings using measles IgG antibody-negative controls to all controls, both IgG-negative and IgG-positive. Measles cases were sampled from a disease registry, and controls were enrolled from community registries in Tianjin, China, 2011-2015. Through a best subsets selection procedure, we compared which variables were selected at different model sizes when using IgG-negative controls or all controls. We entered risk factors for measles in two separate logistic regression models: one with measles IgG-negative controls and the other with all controls. The study included 384 measles cases and 1,596 community controls (194 IgG-negative). Visiting a hospital was an important risk factor. For specialty hospitals, the odds ratio (OR) was 4.53 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28, 16.03) using IgG-negative controls, and OR = 5.27 (95% CI: 2.73, 10.18) using all controls. Variables, such as age or length of time in Tianjin, were differentially selected depending on the control group. Individuals living in Tianjin ≤3 years had 2.87 (95% CI: 1.46, 5.66) times greater odds of measles case status compared to all controls, but this relationship was not apparent for IgG-negative controls. We recommend that case-control studies examining risk factors for infectious diseases, particularly in the context of transmission dynamics, consider antibody-negative controls as the gold standard.

  5. Allium vegetable intake and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Pelucchi, Claudio; Guercio, Valentina; La Vecchia, Carlo; Galeone, Carlotta

    2015-01-01

    To provide new epidemiological data and summarize evidence on the association between allium vegetable intake and gastric cancer risk. Data were from an Italian case-control study including 230 cases and 547 controls. Odds ratios were derived using multiple logistic regression. We combined results from all published studies using random-effect models. In our case-control study, the odds ratios were 0.59 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.25-1.41) for ≥2 portions of onion per week, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.41-1.15) for high garlic intake, and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.39-1.28) for frequent use of both onion and garlic. Besides our study, 22 case-control and four cohort studies were included in the meta-analyses (>10 000 cases). The pooled relative risks for the highest versus lowest intake category were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67-0.91) for allium vegetables (ten case-control and four cohort studies), 0.60 (95% CI, 0.47-0.76) for garlic (12 case-control studies), and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.41-0.73) for onion (13 case-control studies). The pooled relative risk for high allium vegetable intake from the four cohorts was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.88-1.18). High allium vegetable consumption is likely to reduce gastric cancer risk. This evidence is derived mainly from case-control studies. Further data from large cohorts are desirable for conclusive confirmation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Multiple sclerosis and dental amalgam: case-control study in Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetta, I; Invernizzi, M; Granieri, E

    2001-05-01

    Dental amalgam fillings containing mercury have been suggested as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). In the context of a wider program of investigation into environmental risk factors and MS, we conducted a case-control comparison to investigate the alleged association between MS, dental caries, and amalgam fillings. We included 132 MS patients with onset during the last 16 years and 423 controls, matched to cases for sex, age and residence. Data were collected by a personal interview conducted by trained doctors. Cases and controls gave informed consent. Although we report a trend toward a higher number of dental fillings in cases than controls, odds ratios for subjects with exposures of different duration and with different numbers of amalgam fillings were not statistically significant. This case-control study failed to demonstrate an association between either the number of dental amalgam fillings or the duration of exposure to mercury amalgam and MS. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Arcmon for Process Control in Silicomanganese Production: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Joalet Dalene; Hockaday, Christopher James; Gous, Johan Petrus; Clark, Wilma; Corfield, Archie

    2017-12-01

    Arcmon is a device that is used to quantify the amount of arcing (expressed as arc power fraction) that takes place in submerged-arc furnaces (SAFs). During a trial installation on a 48-MVA SAF used for the production of SiMn, differences in arcing behavior between the three different electrodes were observed, with the amount of arcing on one electrode being significantly higher than on the other two. During the subsequent excavation of the SAF, the increased amount of arcing had been attributed to the presence of a hard build-up below the electrode. Phase chemical analysis of the hard build-up indicated that it consisted primarily of portlandite (a reaction product of calcium carbide that probably reacted with the water used to cool down the burden during excavation) and silicon carbide. In comparison, the coke-bed below one of the other electrodes consisted mainly of graphite, silicon carbide, and phases which will typically precipitate from slag upon cooling, i.e. phases expected to be present in a coke-bed. The presence of such a large build-up of carbide material is undesirable as it effectively reduces the volume of coke-bed available for the reduction reactions to occur. The study indicated that Arcmon could potentially be applied as an early warning system to identify the presence of such a build-up.

  8. Idiopathic epistaxis and meteorological factors: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelavic, B; Majstorovic, Z; Kordić, M; Leventić, M; Grgić, M V; Baudoin, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the occurrence of idiopathic epistaxis and daily values of air pressure, temperature, and humidity. We also investigated whether biometeorological forecasts should be addressed to persons with a history of nosebleed diathesis. We analyzed consecutive idiopathic epistaxis events over a 3-year period. Patients were included if they had been in the municipality of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina at least 24 hours before the epistaxis occurrence. The monthly variation in epistaxis events was determined. Epistaxis days (Days "0", 0 = day with epistaxis occurrence) and selected nonepistaxis days (Days "-1", -1 = each first single day without epistaxis prior to Day 0) were compared according to daily values of mean, minimum, and maximum temperature; diurnal temperature range; minimum and maximum atmospheric pressure; diurnal pressure range; and mean relative humidity. The greatest and smallest percentage of epistaxis events occurred in the months of March and August, respectively. There were no significant differences between Days 0 and Days -1 with respect to the examined meteorological factors. In this region with a Mediterranean climate, we found a seasonal variation with an incidence peak during the spring transition months, but we did not identify any meteorological trigger factors for epistaxis. Thus, there is no need for biometeorological forecasts to be addressed to persons with a history of nosebleed diathesis.

  9. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Renier, W.O.; Furer, J.W.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. Design: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment

  10. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Renier, W.O.; Furer, J.W.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. DESIGN: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in

  11. Effectiveness of oral polio vaccination against paralytic poliomyelitis: a matched case-control study in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud, Abdirahman; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Webeck, Jenna; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Birungi, Julianne; Nurbile, Yassin; Ehrhardt, Derek; Shukla, Hemant; Chatterjee, Anirban; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    After the last case of type 1 wild poliovirus (WPV1) was reported in 2007, Somalia experienced another outbreak of WPV1 (189 cases) in 2013. We conducted a retrospective, matched case-control study to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of oral polio vaccine (OPV). We retrieved information from the Somalia Surveillance Database. A case was defined as any case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with virological confirmation of WPV1. We selected two groups of controls for each case: non-polio AFP cases ("NPAFP controls") matched to WPV1 cases by age, date of onset of paralysis and region; and asymptomatic "neighborhood controls," matched by age. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated the VE of OPV as (1-odds ratio)×100. We matched 99 WPV cases with 99 NPAFP controls and 134 WPV1 cases with 268 neighborhood controls. Using NPAFP controls, the overall VE was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37-86), 59% (2-83) among 1-3 dose recipients, 77% (95% CI, 46-91) among ≥4 dose recipients. In neighborhood controls, the overall VE was 95% (95% CI, 84-98), 92% (72-98) among 1-3 dose recipients, and 97% (89-99) among ≥4 dose recipients. When the analysis was limited to cases and controls ≤24 months old, the overall VE in NPAFP and neighborhood controls was 95% (95% CI, 65-99) and 97% (95% CI, 76-100), respectively. Among individuals who were fully vaccinated with OPV, vaccination was effective at preventing WPV1 in Somalia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Depression in Parkinson's disease: A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Wu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the association between Parkinson's disease (PD prognosis and the patient's onset of depression.A total of 353 patients with newly-diagnosed PD and a history of depression were enrolled. On the basis of the onset of depression before or after PD diagnosis, we divided participants into PD patients with pre- or post-diagnostic depression. Cox's regression analysis was used to detect risks between the onset of depression and outcomes (including death, accidental injury, dementia, and aspiration pneumonia. The association between the onset of depression and levodopa equivalent dosage (LED and cumulative equivalent dosage of antidepressants were assessed.PD patients with post-diagnostic depression were associated with significantly higher risks of dementia (adjusted HR = 2·01, p = 0·015, and were older (58·5 ± 17·7 vs. 53·7 ± 18·6, p = 0·020 at the time of PD diagnosis than PD patients with pre-diagnostic depression. The higher incident rate of accidental injury was also noted in PD patients with post-diagnostic depression (48·1 vs. 31·3/1000 person-years, HR = 1·60, p = 0·041, but no statistical significance was observed in the adjusted hazard ratio (HR (HR = 1·52, p = 0·069. Otherwise, mortality, motor condition and severity of depression revealed no significant difference between PD patients with pre-diagnostic and post-diagnostic depression.PD patients with post-diagnostic depression had higher incidence of dementia, implying different onset time of depression could be associated with different subtypes and spreading routes which should be examined in follow-up studies.

  13. Predictors for failure of vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Corine J M; Nuij, Chelly; Janssen-Rolf, Christel R M; Schuit, Ewoud|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341652385; Bais, Joke M J; Oei, S. Guid; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify potential predictors for failed vacuum-assisted delivery. Study design Retrospective case-control study conducted in two perinatal centers in the Netherlands. Cases were women who underwent a failed vacuum-assisted delivery between 1997 and 2011. A failed vacuum extraction was

  14. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niven DJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Niven1, Luc R Berthiaume2, Gordon H Fick1, Kevin B Laupland11Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peter Lougheed Centre, Calgary, 2Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods.Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis.Results: Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%. Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02. They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08. In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001.Conclusion: The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature.Keywords: case-control, matched, dependent data, statistics

  15. Case-control study on uveal melanoma (RIFA: rational and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt-Pokrzywniak Andrea

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a rare disease, uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence rate of up to 1.0 per 100,000 persons per year in Europe. Only a few consistent risk factors have been identified for this disease. We present the study design of an ongoing incident case-control study on uveal melanoma (acronym: RIFA study that focuses on radiofrequency radiation as transmitted by radio sets and wireless telephones, occupational risk factors, phenotypical characteristics, and UV radiation. Methods/Design We conduct a case-control study to identify the role of different exposures in the development of uveal melanoma. The cases of uveal melanoma were identified at the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Essen, a referral centre for tumours of the eye. We recruit three control groups: population controls, controls sampled from those ophthalmologists who referred cases to the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Duisburg-Essen, and sibling controls. For each case the controls are matched on sex and age (five year groups, except for sibling controls. The data are collected from the study participants by short self-administered questionnaire and by telephone interview. During and at the end of the field phase, the data are quality-checked. To estimate the effect of exposures on uveal melanoma risk, we will use conditional logistic regression that accounts for the matching factors and allows to control for potential confounding.

  16. A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable progestogen contraceptives. R. Bailie, J Katzenellenbogen, M. Hoffman, G Schierhout, H Truter, D Dent, A Gudgeon, J van Zyl, L Rosenberg, S Shapiro ...

  17. Spironolactone and risk of upper gastrointestinal events: population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); G. Mosis (Georgio); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To confirm and quantify any association between spironolactone and upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: A primary care information database in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All people on the

  18. Risk factors for severe hand foot mouth disease in Singapore: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, So-Phia; Chong, Shu-Ling; Barbier, Sylvaine; Matthew, Aji; Lee, Jan Hau; Chan, Yoke Hwee

    2015-01-01

    Background Hand foot mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood infection that can potentially lead to serious complications. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors of acquiring severe HFMD in our population. Methods We performed a case control study using patients admitted to our hospital from August 2004 to July 2014. Cases were patients with severe HFMD disease while controls were age-matched patients obtained from the same year, in a 2:1 ratio. Data comprising demographic chara...

  19. Circulating folate levels and colorectal adenoma: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeong Mi; Youn, Jiyoung; Cho, Chang Ho; Kim, Sung Hi; Lee, Jung Eun

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between folate and colorectal neoplasia remains controversial. We examined the association between serum folate concentrations and colorectal adenomas in a case-control study of Korean adults and conducted a meta-analysis. Our case-control study included 113 pairs of case and control who underwent colonoscopy and provided blood samples. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression models to obtain the odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CIs). For meta-analysis, we identified the relevant studies by searching the PubMed database up to February 2017, included our case-control study and combined the study-specific relative risks (RRs) using a random-effects model. In this case-control study, we included 58 men and 55 women with colorectal adenomas and sex and fasting status matched the controls. We did not find any significant association between the serum folate levels and colorectal adenomas in either men or women. For meta-analysis, a total of eleven studies were included in our analysis and classified into two groups; polyp clearance group (PC) for the studies that included participants who underwent endoscopies and had their polyps removed at baseline; and no polyp clearance group (NPC) for the studies that included participants whose histories of endoscopies were unknown or who underwent their first endoscopies. Four PC (1,311 cases and 1,672 non-cases) and eight NPC studies (3,501 cases and 11,347 non-cases) were included. The combined RRs (95% CIs) comparing the bottom with the top categories of circulating folate levels were 1.07 (0.97-1.18) for the NPC group but 1.45 (1.16-1.74) for the PC group. Low circulating folate levels were associated with new adenoma formation.

  20. Using full-cohort data in nested case-control and case-cohort studies by multiple imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Ruth H; White, Ian R

    2013-10-15

    In many large prospective cohorts, expensive exposure measurements cannot be obtained for all individuals. Exposure-disease association studies are therefore often based on nested case-control or case-cohort studies in which complete information is obtained only for sampled individuals. However, in the full cohort, there may be a large amount of information on cheaply available covariates and possibly a surrogate of the main exposure(s), which typically goes unused. We view the nested case-control or case-cohort study plus the remainder of the cohort as a full-cohort study with missing data. Hence, we propose using multiple imputation (MI) to utilise information in the full cohort when data from the sub-studies are analysed. We use the fully observed data to fit the imputation models. We consider using approximate imputation models and also using rejection sampling to draw imputed values from the true distribution of the missing values given the observed data. Simulation studies show that using MI to utilise full-cohort information in the analysis of nested case-control and case-cohort studies can result in important gains in efficiency, particularly when a surrogate of the main exposure is available in the full cohort. In simulations, this method outperforms counter-matching in nested case-control studies and a weighted analysis for case-cohort studies, both of which use some full-cohort information. Approximate imputation models perform well except when there are interactions or non-linear terms in the outcome model, where imputation using rejection sampling works well. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Epilepsy and risk of suicide: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have linked epilepsy with an increased suicide risk, but the association might be modified by psychiatric, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: Suicide cases were identified in the Cause of Death Register in Denmark from 1981 to 1997. Up to 20 controls, matched...... by sex, birth year, and calendar date, were assigned to each suicide case. FINDINGS: We identified 21 169 cases of suicide and 423 128 controls. 492 (2.32%) individuals who committed suicide had epilepsy compared with 3140 (0.74%) controls, corresponding to a three times higher risk (rate ratio [RR] 3.......17 [95% CI 2.88-3.50]; pepilepsy and comorbid psychiatric disease, even after...

  2. Balance among Cognitive Control Processes: A Case Study of A Gifted Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urben, Sébastien; Camos, Valérie; Habersaat, Stéphanie; Constanty, Lauriane; Stéphan, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    This case study analyzed the cognitive strategies of Ethan, a gifted youth, when performing a Stop Signal Task assessing cognitive control processes including response inhibition as well as proactive and reactive adjustments of response. In the case of Ethan, the response inhibition score was biased, revealing that Ethan did not follow the…

  3. Predictors for failure of vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Corine J.; Nuij, Chelly; Janssen-Rolf, Christel R. M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Bais, Joke M. J.; Oei, S. Guid; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2016-01-01

    To identify potential predictors for failed vacuum-assisted delivery. Retrospective case-control study conducted in two perinatal centers in the Netherlands. Cases were women who underwent a failed vacuum-assisted delivery between 1997 and 2011. A failed vacuum extraction was defined as a delivery

  4. Prevalence and Case-Control Study of Cerebral Malaria in Limbe of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West Cameroon. ... Lois E Ikome, Kenneth JN Ndamukong, Helen Kimbi ... Data were obtained using a questionnaire administered to 650 people aged between 6 months and 70 years, and by a case-control study on 90 people (30 cases and 60 ...

  5. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Lenters, M.; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; de Ruiter, C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and

  6. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Lenters, M. de; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; Ruiter, C. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and

  7. A population-based case-control teratologic study of ampicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This was a study of the association between ampicillin treatment during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities. Study Design: The paired analysis of case patients with congenital abnormalities and matched population control subjects was performed in the population......-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. Of 38,151 pregnant women who had babies without any defects (population control group), 2632 (6.9%) had been treated with ampicillin. Of 22,865 pregnant women who had offspring with congenital abnormalities (case patients......), 1643 (7.2%) had been treated with ampicillin (crude odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.2). Of 812 mothers who were delivered of babies affected by Down syndrome (patient control subjects), 61 (7.5%) had ampicillin treatment, and these were also compared with the case group. Results...

  8. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. Methods The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and A...

  9. Implant failure and history of failed endodontic treatment: A retrospective case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios S.; Wolff, Larry F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Residual bacterial biofilm and/or bacteria in planktonic form may be survived in the bone following an extraction of an infected tooth that was endodontically treated unsuccessfully Failed endodontic treatment may be associated with failure of implants to osseointegrate in the same sites. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective case-control study is to examine the risk of implant failure in previous failed endodontic sites. Material and Methods This retrospective case-control stud...

  10. Isoflavone and Soyfood Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced ...

  11. Risk factors for femicide-suicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol-McLain, Jane; Webster, Daniel; McFarlane, Judith; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Ulrich, Yvonne; Glass, Nancy; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2006-02-01

    The killing of women by men who then take their own lives (femicide-suicide) is the most common form of homicide-suicide. This study identified femicide-suicide risk factors in an 11-city case-control study of femicide in the United States. Perpetrator, victim, relationship, and incident characteristics were analyzed for femicide-suicide cases (n = 67) and controls (n = 356, women living in the community with nonfatal physical abuse) using logistic regression modeling. Two risk factors emerged that were unique to femicide-suicides cases compared to overall femicide risk analyses: prior perpetrator suicide threats and victims having ever been married to the perpetrator.

  12. The effects of umbilical cord entanglement upon labor management and fetal health: retrospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukkayaci Duman, Nuriye; Topuz, Senay; Bostanci, Mehmet Omer; Gorkem, Umit; Yuksel Kocak, Derya; Togrul, Cihan; Gungor, Tayfun

    2018-03-01

    This retrospective study aimed at determining prognostic factors that paved the way for umbilical cord entanglement (UCE) and the effects of UCE upon labor management and fetal health. Sixty women who gave term birth with head presentation and received UCE diagnosis following birth composed the case group while another 60 women with the same characteristics who were selected with randomized sampling method and who did not develop UCE comprised the control group. The data obtained were processed with SPSS 22.0 statistical program. T test was used for comparing demographic and obstetric data and mean birth weight of babies in the case group and control group. For comparing data on active labor management and fetal health, numbers, percentages and chi-square test were used. Also for comparing values case: 58.3.0%; control: 21.7%), vacuum assisted vaginal delivery (case: 20.0%; control: 3.3%), forceps assisted vaginal delivery (case: 8.3%; control: 1.7%), fetal distress (case: 60.0%; control: 25.0%), amniotic fluid meconium (case: 58.3%; control: 21.7%), APGAR score less than 7 at the 1st minute (case: 58.3%; control: 21.7%) and APGAR score less than 7 at the 5th minute were higher in the women in the case group than the women in the control group (p < 0.05). UCE increased rates of interventional birth, emergent cesarean delivery, vacuum assisted vaginal delivery, forceps assisted vaginal delivery, amniotic fluid meconium and fetal distress.

  13. A Study of Alcohol Consumption and Obesity as Main Risk Factor for Symptomatic Gallbladder Stone: a Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Byung Hyo; Lee, Ban Seok; Lee, Sang Hyub; Kang, Seung Joo; Park, Min Jung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gallbladder stone (GBS) is a common gastrointestinal disease that can progress to severe cholecystitis and is a strong risk factor for gallbladder cancer (GBC). The present study was conducted to evaluate region-specific causes of GBS which was proved as major risk factor for GBC in Jeju Island, Korea. Methods: Age and sex match case-control study was performed among 171 pairs of case and controls. The cases were patients who were diagnosed with GBS, had definite clinical symptoms...

  14. Poor oral health and coronary artery disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Javed; Hussain Bokhari, Syed Akhtar; Manzoor, Sobia; Khan, Ayyaz Ali

    2012-11-01

    There is insufficient research on the relationship of oral health and coronary artery disease (CAD) from developing countries, such as Pakistan. This study observes the status of oral health in the CAD population. A case-control study was conducted on 145 cases and 145 controls. Otherwise healthy patients with CAD (cases) and individuals free from previous/current history of CAD (controls), having ≥14 remaining teeth, were examined for oral health status through missing teeth, plaque index (PI), and community periodontal index (CPI). Student t test, χ2 test, and multivariate regression analysis were applied at significance level of 95% (P ≤ 0.05) to compare study parameters between cases and controls. A significant difference between cases and controls was observed in this study sample with respect to missing teeth (P = 0.027) and periodontal parameters of PI and CPI (P poor periodontal status: OR = 4.59, 95% CI = 1.81 to 11.61) scores was noted; cases were at odds of 1.20 (95% CI = 0.93 to 15.68, P = 0.017) for having poor oral health after adjusting age, sex, and education. Poor oral health was significantly associated with CAD in this study sample matched for sociodemographic characteristics.

  15. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90......-income countries is inadequate, where a very large burden of stroke occurs. Accordingly, a similar epidemiological study is required for stroke, to inform effective population-based strategies to reduce the risk of stroke. Methods: INTERSTROKE is an international, multicenter case-control study. Cases are patients...... years). A questionnaire (cases and controls) is used to acquire information on known and proposed risk factors for stroke. Cardiovascular (e.g. blood pressure) and anthropometric (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio) measurements are obtained at the time of interview. Nonfasting blood samples and random urine...

  16. A case-control study of risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaem Maghami Noori F

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is second prevalent cancer among gynecologic malignancies and the most common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial form (85-90 percent. To detect the risk factors for the epithelial ovarian cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Valieasr hospital in 1988. In this study, 118 cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (according histological records and 240 controls without any gynecological cancer in gynecologic clinic had been interviewed. For data analysis, T-test, Chi2 test and logistic regression have been used at a =0.05 as level of significance. The mean age in cases was 50±13 and in controls was 49.9±12 years, without significant different. The mean number of pregnancies and parity in cases was less than controls, significantly (P<0.03. The mean months of breast feeding in cases was less than controls (54.9±71.2 versus 82.4±62.7 (P<0.001. The cases had a lower mean age of menarch than controls (P=0.03. 58 percent of cases and 21.3 percent of controls hadn't used any contraception methods (P=0.00001. The mean years of contraception was significantly less in cases versus controls (P<0.001. The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer was 0.24 (95 percent CI: 0.13-0.48 in OCP users, 0.47 (95 percent CI: 0.005-0.43 in TL method, and was 0.41 (95 percent CI: 0.22-0.76 in other contraception methods, relative to women who hadn't used any contraception methods. This study reveals that epithelial ovarian cancer risk increases significantly with earlier menarch, decreasing number of pregnancy, deliveries duration of breast feeding and use of contraception methods. Use of contraception pill and tubal ligation method decreases risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  17. Multiple sclerosis and exposure to house pets during childhood and adolescence : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Zwanikken, C

    1997-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) might be triggered by an infectious agent early in life. In a case-control study, we compared exposure to household pets for the age periods 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 and 16-20 years in 100 patients with MS and 100 controls. Exposure to household dogs between the ages of 0-10 years

  18. Risk factors for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reanalysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P.W.M. Wientjens (Dorothee); Z. Davanipour; K. Kondo; W.B. Matthews; R.G. Will (Robert); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo review the evidence for risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we pooled and reanalyzed the raw data of three case-control studies. The pooled data set comprised 178 patients and 333 control subjects. The strength of association between CJD and putative risk factors was

  19. Medical and environmental risk factors for sporadic frontotemporal dementia: a retrospective case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Rosso (Sonia); E.J. Landweer; M. Houterman; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.C. van Swieten (John); L. Donker Kaat (Laura)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA retrospective case-control study was carried out on 80 patients with sporadic frontotemporal dementia and 124 age, sex, and surrogate informant matched controls with respect to various medical and environmental risk factors. Head trauma was associated with an odds ratio of 3.3 (95%

  20. Differences in treatment approach between Dutch paediatric dentists and general practitioners, a case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuin, D.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: This case control study was to assess whether paediatric dentists perform significantly more diagnostic, preventive and curative care in a clinical setting then do general dental practitioners. METHODS: 16 paediatric dentists were approached and a matching control group of 16 general dental

  1. Cancer of the Cervix in Nigeria: A CaseControl Study of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A casecontrol study to establish possible aetiological factor of carcinoma of the cervix was undertaken. Data were collected from 206 patients with carcinoma of cervix and 206 controls using a standardized questionnaire. Risk factors assessed included sociodemographic characteristics, sexual history, personal habit and ...

  2. Response rates in case-control studies of cancer by era of fieldwork and by characteristics of study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengting; Richardson, Lesley; Campbell, Sally; Pintos, Javier; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2018-04-09

    The purpose of this study was to describe time trends in response rates in case-control studies of cancer and identify study design factors that influence response rate. We reviewed 370 case-control studies of cancer published in 12 journals during indicator years in each of the last four decades. We estimated time trends of response rates and reasons for nonresponse in each of the following types of study subjects: cases, medical source controls, and population controls. We also estimated response rates according to characteristics of study context. Median response rates among cases and population controls were between 75% and 80% in the 1970s. Between 1971 and 2010, study response rates declined by 0.31% per year for cases and 0.78% for population controls. Only a minority of studies reported reasons for nonparticipation; subject refusal was the most common reported reason. Studies conducted in North America had lower median response rates than studies conducted in Europe. In-person and telephone interviews elicited higher response rates than mail questionnaires. Response rates from case-control studies of cancer have declined, and this could threaten the validity of results derived from these studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomarkers and bacterial pneumonia risk in patients with treated HIV infection: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja M Bjerk

    Full Text Available Despite advances in HIV treatment, bacterial pneumonia continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Studies of biomarker associations with bacterial pneumonia risk in treated HIV-infected patients do not currently exist.We performed a nested, matched, case-control study among participants randomized to continuous combination antiretroviral therapy (cART in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy trial. Patients who developed bacterial pneumonia (cases and patients without bacterial pneumonia (controls were matched 1∶1 on clinical center, smoking status, age, and baseline cART use. Baseline levels of Club Cell Secretory Protein 16 (CC16, Surfactant Protein D (SP-D, C-reactive protein (hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and d-dimer were compared between cases and controls.Cases (n = 72 and controls (n = 72 were 25.7% female, 51.4% black, 65.3% current smokers, 9.7% diabetic, 36.1% co-infected with Hepatitis B/C, and 75.0% were on cART at baseline. Median (IQR age was 45 (41, 51 years with CD4+ count of 553 (436, 690 cells/mm(3. Baseline CC16 and SP-D were similar between cases and controls, but hsCRP was significantly higher in cases than controls (2.94 µg/mL in cases vs. 1.93 µg/mL in controls; p = 0.02. IL-6 and d-dimer levels were also higher in cases compared to controls, though differences were not statistically significant (p-value 0.06 and 0.10, respectively.In patients with cART-treated HIV infection, higher levels of systemic inflammatory markers were associated with increased bacterial pneumonia risk, while two pulmonary-specific inflammatory biomarkers, CC16 and SP-D, were not associated with bacterial pneumonia risk.

  4. Systemic inflammation in acute intermittent porphyria: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storjord, E; Dahl, J A; Landsem, A; Fure, H; Ludviksen, J K; Goldbeck-Wood, S; Karlsen, B O; Berg, K S; Mollnes, T E; W Nielsen, E; Brekke, O-L

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to examine whether acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is associated with systemic inflammation and whether the inflammation correlates with disease activity. A case-control study with 50 AIP cases and age-, sex- and place of residence-matched controls was performed. Plasma cytokines, insulin and C-peptide were analysed after an overnight fast using multiplex assay. Long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) and complement activation products (C3bc and TCC) were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Urine porphobilinogen ratio (U-PBG, µmol/mmol creatinine), haematological and biochemical tests were performed using routine methods. Questionnaires were used to register AIP symptoms, medication and other diseases. All 27 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors investigated were increased significantly in symptomatic AIP cases compared with controls (P inflammation. Decreased C-peptide levels in symptomatic AIP cases indicate that reduced insulin release is associated with enhanced disease activity and reduced kidney function. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  5. Reducing selection bias in case-control studies from rare disease registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistry Pramod K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical research of rare diseases, where small patient numbers and disease heterogeneity limit study design options, registries are a valuable resource for demographic and outcome information. However, in contrast to prospective, randomized clinical trials, the observational design of registries is prone to introduce selection bias and negatively impact the validity of data analyses. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the utility of case-control matching and the risk-set method in order to control bias in data from a rare disease registry. Data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG Gaucher Registry were used as an example. Methods A case-control matching analysis using the risk-set method was conducted to identify two groups of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease in the ICGG Gaucher Registry: patients with avascular osteonecrosis (AVN and those without AVN. The frequency distributions of gender, decade of birth, treatment status, and splenectomy status were presented for cases and controls before and after matching. Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each variable before and after matching. Results The application of case-control matching methodology results in cohorts of cases (i.e., patients with AVN and controls (i.e., patients without AVN who have comparable distributions for four common parameters used in subject selection: gender, year of birth (age, treatment status, and splenectomy status. Matching resulted in odds ratios of approximately 1.00, indicating no bias. Conclusions We demonstrated bias in case-control selection in subjects from a prototype rare disease registry and used case-control matching to minimize this bias. Therefore, this approach appears useful to study cohorts of heterogeneous patients in rare disease registries.

  6. Anorexia nervosa versus bulimia nervosa : differences based on retrospective correlates in a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Barbara C.; Goncalves, Sonia F.; Martins, Carla; Brandao, Isabel; Roma-Torres, Antonio; Hoek, Hans W.; Machado, Paulo P.

    This study is the result of two Portuguese case-control studies that examined the replication of retrospective correlates and preceding life events in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) development. This study aims to identify retrospective correlates that distinguish AN and BN A

  7. A matched case-control study to identify risk determinants of tuberculosis in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarker, M.; Homayra, F.; Barua, M.; Paul, S.; Saha, A.; Akter, R.; Latif, A.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem in Bangladesh. The present study focused on identifying TB risk determinants in Bangladesh. An age-sex matched casecontrol study was conducted with each stratum consisting of one case and two controls. This study covered six divisions of

  8. Risk factors for noma disease: a 6-year, prospective, matched case-control study in Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Baratti, Denise; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Francois, Patrice; Pittet Cuenod, Brigitte Maud; Huyghe, Antoine; Bornand, Jacques-Etienne; Gervaix, Alain; Montandon, Denys; Schrenzel, Jacques; Mombelli, Andrea; Pittet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Background: Noma is a poorly studied disease that leads to severe facial tissue destruction in children in developing countries, but the cause remains unknown. We aimed to identify the epidemiological and microbiological risk factors associated with noma disease. Methods: We did a prospective, matched, case-control study in Niger between Aug 1, 2001, and Oct 31, 2006, in children younger than 12 years to assess risk factors for acute noma. All acute noma cases were included and four contro...

  9. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Effectiveness of reactive oral cholera vaccination in rural Haiti: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Louise C; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Teng, Jessica E; Almazor, Charles P; Jerome, J Gregory; Ternier, Ralph; Boncy, Jacques; Buteau, Josiane; Murray, Megan B; Harris, Jason B; Franke, Molly F

    2015-01-01

    Background Between April and June 2012, a reactive cholera vaccination campaign was conducted in Haiti using an oral inactivated bivalent whole-cell vaccine (BivWC). Methods We conducted a case-control study to estimate field effectiveness of the vaccine. Cases had acute watery diarrhea, sought treatment at one of three participating cholera treatment units from October 24, 2012 through March 9, 2014, and had a stool sample positive for cholera by culture. For each case, four controls (individuals who did not seek treatment for acute watery diarrhea) were matched by location of residence, calendar time, and age. We also conducted a bias-indicator case-control study to assess the likelihood of bias in the vaccine effectiveness (VE) study. Findings During the study period, 114 eligible individuals presented with acute watery diarrhea and were enrolled. 47 were analyzed as cases in the VE case-control study and 42 as cases in the bias-indicator study. In multivariable analyses, VE was 63% [95% confidence interval (CI): 8%–85%] by self-reported vaccination and 58% [95% CI: 13%–80%] for verified vaccination. Neither self-reported nor verified vaccination was significantly associated with non-cholera diarrhea (VE: 18% [95% CI: −208%–−78%] by self-report and −21% [95%CI: −238%–57%] for verified vaccination). Interpretation BivWC oral cholera vaccine was effective in protecting against cholera in Haiti during the study period –from 4 through 24 months after vaccination. Vaccination is an important component of epidemic cholera control efforts. Funding National Institutes of Health, Delivering Oral Vaccines Effectively project, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. PMID:25701994

  11. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is associated with asthma: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Huang, Chung-Chien; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kao, Li-Ting

    2018-02-14

    Although asthma and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) are considered to share similar pathophysiological pathways, the relationship between asthma and BPS/IC is uncertain. This case-control study aimed to investigate the relationship between prior asthma and BPS/IC using a large database in Taiwan. This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We identified 500 female patients with BPS/IC as cases and 500 propensity score-matched females without BPS/IC as controls. We conducted logistic regressions to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for prior asthma between cases and controls. Results indicated that 143 (14.30%) of the total sampled patients had received a prior diagnosis of asthma. Moreover, prior asthma was found in 86 (17.20%) cases and 57 (11.40%) controls. The OR of prior asthma for cases was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.13-2.32) compared to propensity score-matched controls. Additionally, the ORs of prior asthma for females with BPS/IC aged 18-59 and ≥60 years were 1.72 (95%CI: 1.11-2.69) and 1.40 (95%CI: 0.74-2.62), respectively, compared to controls. We concluded that prior asthma was significantly associated with BPS/IC in a female Taiwanese population. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluating psychiatric case-control studies using the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Domingues Goi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:Case-control studies are important in developing clinical and public health knowledge. The STROBE statement (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology was developed to establish a checklist of items that should be included in articles reporting observational studies. Our aim was to analyze whether the psychiatric case-control articles published in Brazilian journals with CAPES Qualis rating B1/B2 in 2009 conformed with the STROBE statement.DESIGN AND SETTING:Descriptive study on psychiatric papers published in Brazilian journals, within the Postgraduate Medical Program on Psychiatry, at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.METHODS:All psychiatric case-control studies from Brazilian Qualis B1/B2 journals of psychiatry, neurology and public health in 2009 were analyzed. The four most specific items of the STROBE statement were used to evaluate whether these studies fitted within the case-control parameters: 1 selection of cases and controls; 2 controlling for bias; 3 statistical analysis; and 4 presentation of results.RESULTS:Sixteen case-control studies were identified, of which eleven (68.75% were in psychiatry-focused journals. From analysis using the STROBE statement, all of the articles conformed with item 1; two (12.5% completely conformed with item 2; none completely conformed with item 3; and only three (18.8% conformed with item 4.CONCLUSION:The case-control studies analyzed here did not completely conform with the four STROBE statement items for case-control design. In view of the inadequate methodology of the published studies, these findings justify focusing on research and methodology and expanding the investigations on adherence of studies to their designs.

  13. Evaluating psychiatric case-control studies using the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology) statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goi, Pedro Domingues; Goi, Julia Domingues; Cordini, Kariny Larissa; Ceresér, Keila Mendes; Rocha, Neusa Sica da

    2014-01-01

    Case-control studies are important in developing clinical and public health knowledge. The STROBE statement (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology) was developed to establish a checklist of items that should be included in articles reporting observational studies. Our aim was to analyze whether the psychiatric case-control articles published in Brazilian journals with CAPES Qualis rating B1/B2 in 2009 conformed with the STROBE statement. Descriptive study on psychiatric papers published in Brazilian journals, within the Postgraduate Medical Program on Psychiatry, at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. All psychiatric case-control studies from Brazilian Qualis B1/B2 journals of psychiatry, neurology and public health in 2009 were analyzed. The four most specific items of the STROBE statement were used to evaluate whether these studies fitted within the case-control parameters: 1) selection of cases and controls; 2) controlling for bias; 3) statistical analysis; and 4) presentation of results. Sixteen case-control studies were identified, of which eleven (68.75%) were in psychiatry-focused journals. From analysis using the STROBE statement, all of the articles conformed with item 1; two (12.5%) completely conformed with item 2; none completely conformed with item 3; and only three (18.8%) conformed with item 4. The case-control studies analyzed here did not completely conform with the four STROBE statement items for case-control design. In view of the inadequate methodology of the published studies, these findings justify focusing on research and methodology and expanding the investigations on adherence of studies to their designs.

  14. Impact of urate level on cardiovascular risk in allopurinol treated patients. A nested case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Søltoft; Pottegård, Anton; Lindegaard, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    is required to reduce cardiovascular risk is not known. Objectives: We sought to investigate the effect of achieving target plasma urate with allopurinol on cardiovascular outcomes in a case control study nested within long-term users of allopurinol. Methods: We identified all long-term users of allopurinol......Background: Gout gives rise to increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Gout attacks can be effectively prevented with urate lowering drugs such as allopurinol, and allopurinol further potentially reduces the cardiovascular risk. Whether treatment to a target level of uric acid...... in Funen County, Denmark. Among these, we identified all cases of cardiovascular events (Antiplatelet trialist's Collaboration composite endpoint) and sampled 4 controls to each case from the same population. The cases and controls were compared with respect to whether they reached a urate target below 0...

  15. Qat use and esophageal cancer in Ethiopia: A pilot case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Leon

    Full Text Available Qat (Catha edulis chewing is reported to induce lesions in the buccal mucosa, irritation of the esophagus, and esophageal reflux. Case series suggest a possible etiological role in oral and esophageal cancers. This pilot study aimed to generate preliminary estimates of the magnitude and direction of the association between qat use and esophageal cancer (EC risk and to inform the logistics required to conduct a multi-center case-control study.Between May 2012 and May 2013, 73 EC cases (including 12 gastro-esophageal junction cases and 133 controls matched individually on sex, age, and residence were enrolled at two endoscopy clinics and a cancer treatment hospital in Addis Ababa. A face-to-face structured questionnaire was administered. Qat use was defined as ever having chewed qat once a week or more frequently for at least one year. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression.Only 8% of cases resided in Addis Ababa. Qat use was more frequent in cases (36% than in controls (26%. A 2-fold elevation in EC risk was observed in ever qat chewers compared with never users in unadjusted conditional logistic regression (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 0.94, 4.74, an association that disappeared after adjusting for differences in tobacco use, consumption of alcohol and green vegetables, education level, and religion (OR = 0.95; 0.22, 4.22. Among never tobacco users, however, a non-significant increase in EC risk was suggested in ever qat users also after adjustment. Increases in EC risk were observed with ever tobacco use, alcohol consumption, low consumption of green vegetables, a salty diet, illiteracy, and among Muslims; the four latter associations were significant.This pilot study generated EC risk estimates in association with a habit practiced by millions of people and never before studied in a case-control design. Results must be interpreted cautiously in light of possible selection bias, with some demographics such as education level

  16. Evaluation of Risk factors for Ectopic Pregnancy in Yazd city: Case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jafarizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ectopic pregnancy is a public health problem and their risk factors are unknown. This study was performed to identify risk factors for better diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Methods: A case-control study on 195 cases of ectopic pregnancy (Case group and 197 normal pregnancies (control group were performed in Shahid Sadoughi and mother hospitals in Yazd city as representatives of public and private sectors. Cases of control group were pregnant women who entered immediately before and after the cases for delivery (normal or cesarean. Results: The mean age was 28.2±5.6, ranged from 14 to 45, and marriage age varied from 12 to 33 years. There was no significant difference between cases and controls according to body mass index (P=0.72. Inunivariate analysis, history of infertility (OR: 3.18, 95% CI= 1.9-5.2,  P= 0.001, history of infections (OR: 1.67,  95%  CI= 1.10-2.53,  P= 0.01, use of intrauterine device (IUD (OR:2.78,  95% CI= 1.08-7.16,  P= 0.03 and tobacco smoking (OR: 2.96,  95%  CI= 1.21-7.21,  P= 0.01 were determined as risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that history of infertility; use of IUD and oral contraceptive use are associated with ectopic pregnancy.

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular risk factor: results of a case-control study (CONSISTE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falola M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael FalolaDepartment of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAI read with interest the article "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular risk factor. Results of a case-control study (CONSISTE study" by de Lucas-Ramos et al.1 In my opinion, the study did not use case-control design, despite its title.View original paper by de Lucas-Ramos and colleagues.

  18. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Alfonso; Ortega, Sara; Del Olmo, Lourdes; Vidal, Xavier; Aguirre, Carmelo; Ruiz, Borja; Conforti, Anita; Leone, Roberto; López-Vázquez, Paula; Figueiras, Adolfo; Ibáñez, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. Methods We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months) and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day). Results 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57–1.96) or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. Conclusions The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2. PMID:21625637

  19. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and gastrointestinal bleeding: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Carvajal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day. RESULTS: 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.96 or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2.

  20. Rubella outbreak investigation, Gokwe North District, Midlands province, Zimbabwe, 2014 - a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Annamercy Chenaimoyo; Chemhuru, Milton; Bangure, Donewell; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta

    2015-01-01

    Rubella is a contagious disease, caused by rubella virus and transmitted via the respiratory route. Rubella in pregnancy may cause Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS), characterized by multiple defects to the brain, heart, eyes and ears. Gokwe North experienced an increase in rubella cases from 6 cases (24 June 2014) to 374 cases (12 August 2014). The study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with contracting rubella. A 1:1 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was a child rubella specific IgM or was linked epidemiologically to a laboratory confirmed case. Blood was collected for laboratory diagnosis. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Epi Info™ was used to analyze data. Eighty eight cases and 88 controls were recruited, median age for cases was 7 years (Q1 = 4, Q3 = 8) and 6 years (Q1 = 3, Q3 = 9) for controls. Independent risk factors for contracting rubella were; classmate contact (AOR 9.44; (95% CI 4.29-20.77)) and having >3 children in a household (AOR 2.59; 95%CI (1.23-5.42)). Only 10.2% and 6.8% of the caregivers' cases and controls respectively, knew rubella is spread through contact with an infected person (p = 0.57). Majority of caregivers (97.8%) reported to the health facility within two days of onset of rash. Outbreak was driven by contact at school and was spread into the community through school children. Screening and isolation of the sick controlled the outbreak. Routine rubella vaccination could be considered to prevent similar outbreaks.

  1. Application of a self-controlled case series study to a database study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Hanae; Hinotsu, Shiro; Tanaka, Shiro; Urushihara, Hisashi; Nakamura, Masaki; Nakamura, Yuji; Kawakami, Koji

    2014-04-01

    Post-marketing surveillance activities are particularly important for safety issues in children, the elderly, and patients with severe comorbidities since these populations are usually excluded from clinical trials. In addition, using electronic databases for monitoring of safety of marketed products has been of considerable interest. This study aimed to clarify the advantages and difficulties of the self-controlled case series method relative to cohort studies in pharmacoepidemiological studies in children, using an administrative database, and to explore the impact on results of handling the period eligible for analysis and recurrent events in different ways. Datasets of only individuals who had the outcome of interest were derived from an anonymized hospital administrative database in Japan from April 2003 through August 2011. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the risks of diarrhea, bronchitis, and eczema related to palivizumab treatment in young children. The analysis included 'first diagnosed' events or 'multiple' events during an eligible period. An eligible period was defined in two ways: first-time inpatient periods of more than 3 continuous days (EPA); and a continuous period in cases where the interval between visits was below the 75th percentile of the interval between visits for patients with the same diagnosis (EPB). We extracted data for 70,771 patients and identified 641 who were exposed to palivizumab. The age-adjusted IRRs for diarrhea, bronchitis, and eczema were 3.0 (95 % CI 1.7-5.4), 10.3 (95 % CI 8.0-13.2), and 16.9 (95 % CI 12-23), respectively, in multiple events and the EPB eligible period. The IRRs varied greatly between the two eligible periods. This method could be a useful tool in pharmacoepidemiological studies in children. Careful consideration in the handling of inpatient and outpatient periods, including sensitivity analyses, is necessary because this method is a within

  2. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillon Bertil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports, which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA. The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the

  3. [Application of nested case-control study on safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yubin; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The nested case-control study design (or the case-control in a cohort study) is described here as a new study design used in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. In the nested case-control study, cases of a disease that occur in a defined cohort are identified and, for each, a specified number of matched controls is selected from among those in the cohort who have not developed the disease by the time of disease occurrence in the case. For many research questions, the nested case-control design potentially offers impressive reductions in costs and efforts of data collection and analysis compared with the full cohort approach, with relatively minor loss in statistical efficiency. The nested case-control design is particularly advantageous for studies in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. Some examples of the application of nested case-control study were given.

  4. Waterparks are high risk for cryptosporidiosis: A case-control study in Victoria, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gooyer, Tanyth E; Gregory, Joy; Easton, Marion; Stephens, Nicola; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2017-06-30

    An increase in notifications of cryptosporidiosis was observed in Victoria between March and April 2015. Cases mostly resided in one metropolitan region and hypothesis-generating interviews identified common exposures to aquatic facilities. We conducted a case-control study to determine exposure source(s) and facilitate control measures. Laboratory-confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis from the region of interest notified between 1 March and 23 April 2015 were included. Controls residing in the same region were recruited from participants in a population health survey and frequency matched (2 per case) by age group. Details of exposure to potential risk factors were collected using a standardised telephone questionnaire for the 14-days prior to illness for cases, and an analogous exposure period for controls. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to determine risk factors associated with illness using STATA SE 13.1. Thirty cases and 66 controls were included in the study. Half the cases were less than 12 years of age and 62% were female. Illness was most strongly associated with recreational water exposure at any waterpark (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=73.5; 95% confidence interval (CI):6.74-802), and specifically at Victorian waterparks (aOR=45.6; 95% CI:5.20-399). Cases were linked with attendance at either a waterpark in the region or an adjacent region. As a result of this investigation, hyperchlorination was completed at identified facilities and swim hygiene information distributed. This study reinforces the potential for recreational water facilities, particularly waterparks, to act as a transmission source of Cryptosporidium infections. Continued communication to patrons is required to ensure healthy swimming practice in Victorian aquatic facilities.

  5. A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer. Design. A population-based case-control study of breast cancer risk in relation to the use of IPes among coloured and black women. Setting. The Western Cape, including the Cape metropole and surrounding rural areas. Study subjects. All coloured and black women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, ...

  6. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth: A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A. J.; van Vliet, Elvira O. G.; Benders, Manon J. N.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; Oudijk, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. A case control study was performed at the University

  7. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A J; van Vliet, Elvira O G; Benders, Manon J N; Mol, Ben Willem J; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G J; Oudijk, Martijn A

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. METHODS: A case control study was performed

  8. National Case-Control Study of Homicide Offending and Methamphetamine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretesky, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between methamphetamine use and homicide. To carry out this study, data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities were combined to create a case-control design. The main exposure measure is methamphetamine use and the…

  9. Intrauterine exposure to carbamazepine and specific congenital malformations : systematic review and case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, Janneke; Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria A.; Morris, Joan K.; Wellesley, Diana; Garne, Ester; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify specific major congenital malformations associated with use of carbamazepine in the first trimester of pregnancy. Design A review of all published cohort studies to identify key indications and a population based case-control study to test these indications. Setting Review of

  10. Agreement between oral contraceptive users and prescribers: implications for case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. van Leeuwen; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.H. Camps; B.A. Kempers; M.F. Mentjens; H.B. Mulder; E.G. Schouten (Evert); R.M.L. Zwijsen; M.A. Rookus (Matti)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractCase-control studies examining the effects of oral contraceptives (OC) are prone to misclassification bias due to errors in assessment of OC use. Concern about inaccurate exposure histories has increased since current studies require women to recall OC use over prolonged periods of time.

  11. Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Freitag, Christine; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Rothenberger, Aribert; Hawi, Ziarih; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases…

  12. Macrosomia: a case-control study of risk factors and outcome | Anya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Macrosomia is associated with increased risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and assess impact of macrosomia on maternal and perinatal outcome. Methods: A five-year retrospective case-control study was undertaken at a referral centre. Macrosomia was ...

  13. Behavioural Comorbidity in Tanzanian Children with Epilepsy: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kathryn; Rogathe, Jane; Hunter, Ewan; Burton, Matthew; Swai, Mark; Todd, Jim; Neville, Brian; Walker, Richard; Newton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. Method: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12y) with active epilepsy (at least two…

  14. Optimized Real-Time Control of Combined Sewerage Systems: Two Case Studies (Proceedings Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents results of two case studies of Real-Time Control (RTC) alternatives evaluations that were conducted on portions of sewerage systems near Paris, France and in Quebec City, Canada, respectively. The studies were performed at real-scale demonstration sites. RTC al...

  15. OPTIMIZED REAL-TIME CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWERAGE SYSTEMS: TWO CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents results of two case studies of Real-Time Control (RTC) alternatives evaluations that were conducted on portions of sewerage systems near Paris, France and in Quebec City, Canada, respectively. The studies were performed at real-scale demonstration sites. RTC ...

  16. Antipsychotic drugs and risks of myocardial infarction: a self-controlled case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Ruth; Smeeth, Liam; Anaya-Izquierdo, Karim; Timmis, Adam; Denaxas, Spiros C; Farrington, C Paddy; Whitaker, Heather; Hemingway, Harry; Douglas, Ian

    2015-04-21

    Antipsychotics increase the risk of stroke. Their effect on myocardial infarction remains uncertain because people prescribed and not prescribed antipsychotic drugs differ in their underlying vascular risk making between-person comparisons difficult to interpret. The aim of our study was to investigate this association using the self-controlled case series design that eliminates between-person confounding effects. All the patients with a first recorded myocardial infarction and prescription for an antipsychotic identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project were selected for the self-controlled case series. The incidence ratio of myocardial infarction during risk periods following the initiation of antipsychotic use relative to unexposed periods was estimated within individuals. A classical case-control study was undertaken for comparative purposes comparing antipsychotic exposure among cases and matched controls. We identified 1546 exposed cases for the self-controlled case series and found evidence of an association during the first 30 days after the first prescription of an antipsychotic, for first-generation agents [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-3.99] and second-generation agents (IRR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.18-5.32). Similar results were found for the case-control study for new users of first- (OR: 3.19, 95% CI: 1.9-5.37) and second-generation agents (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 0.93-7.01) within 30 days of their myocardial infarction. We found an increased risk of myocardial infarction in the period following the initiation of antipsychotics that was not attributable to differences between people prescribed and not prescribed antipsychotics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  17. Impact of waning acquired immunity and asymptomatic infections on case-control studies for enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelaar, Arie H; Swart, Arno

    2016-12-01

    Case-control studies of outbreaks and of sporadic cases of infectious diseases may provide a biased estimate of the infection rate ratio, due to selecting controls that are not at risk of disease. We use a dynamic mathematical model to explore biases introduced in results drawn from case-control studies of enteric pathogens by waning and boosting of immunity, and by asymptomatic infections, using Campylobacter jejuni as an example. Individuals in the population are either susceptible (at risk of infection and disease), fully protected (not at risk of either) or partially protected (at risk of infection but not of disease). The force of infection is a function of the exposure frequency and the exposure dose. We show that the observed disease odds ratios are indeed strongly biased towards the null, i.e. much lower than the infection rate ratio, and furthermore even not proportional to it. The bias could theoretically be controlled by sampling controls only from the reservoir of susceptible individuals. The population at risk is in a dynamic equilibrium, and cannot be identified as those who are not and have never experienced disease. Individual-level samples to measure protective immunity would be required, complicating the design, cost and execution of case-control studies. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Case-control Study of Diphtheria in the High Incidence City of Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramesh Reddy; Uthappa, Chengappa Kechamada; Duerst, Rebecca; Sorley, Evan; Udaragudi, Prasada Rao; Kampa, Shankar; Dworkin, Mark S

    2016-03-01

    India accounts for approximately 72% of reported diphtheria cases globally, the majority of which occur in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The aim of this study is to better understand lack of knowledge on diphtheria vaccination and to determine factors associated with diphtheria and low knowledge and negative attitudes. We performed a 1:1 case-control study of hospitalized diphtheria cases in Hyderabad. Eligible case patients were 10 years of age or older, resided within the city of Hyderabad and were diagnosed with diphtheria per the case definition. Patients admitted to the hospital for nonrespiratory communicable diseases and residing in the same geographic region as that of cases were eligible for enrolment as controls : There were no statistical differences in disease outcome by gender, education, economic status and mean room per person sleeping in the house in case and control subjects. Not having heard of diphtheria (adjusted odds ratio: 3.56; 95% confidence intervals: 1.58-8.04] and not believing that vaccines can prevent people from getting diseases (adjusted odds ratio: 3.99; 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-13.45) remained significantly associated with diphtheria on multivariate analysis. To reduce the burden of diphtheria in India, further efforts to educate the public about diphtheria should be considered.

  19. Fibromyalgia: epidemiology and risk factors, a population-based case-control study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukaddem, Afaf; Chaaya, Monique; Slim, Zeinab F N; Jaffa, Miran; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Uthman, Imad

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) and assess its risk factors. Using data from the 2009 Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) study conducted in Lebanon, a population-based case control study was performed. The sample included 34 FM patients, frequency matched with 136 controls free from any musculoskeletal complaints and randomly sampled from the population. The controls were frequency matched with cases by age and gender. The 34 female FM cases were prevalent cases which existed for a long period of time and all those who consulted a doctor were previously misdiagnosed. Family history of joint problems (OR = 4.93, 95% CI: 1.56-15.58) and working status (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.04-6.93) were significant risk factors for FM, after adjusting for body mass index, distress level, smoking status and residence location. This was the first study to address the epidemiology of FM in Lebanon and the region. The chronic nature of FM that is characterized by frequent bouts of intense disabling pain and symptoms constitutes a significant health and economic burden. Clustering of cases in coastal areas was partially explained by other factors such as body mass index, distress level, smoking and work status. The high burden of FM found in our study calls for further investigation of potential risk factors of this condition. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and the risk of osteoporotic fractures: nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, I; Nicolau, B; Eimar, H; Arekunnath Madathil, S; Kezouh, A; Karp, I; Tamimi, F

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) on the risk of osteoporotic fractures in Alzheimer patients. A nested case-control study was conducted on 1190 cases and 4760 controls. The use of AChEIs was found to decrease the risk of osteoporotic fractures in these patients. The objective of this study is to estimate the extent to which the use of AChEIs is associated with a reduction in the risk of osteoporotic fractures. A nested case-control study was conducted using data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database (1998-2013). The study cohort consisted of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients aged ≥ 65 years with no previous history of osteoporotic fractures at cohort baseline. Cases were individuals who suffered an osteoporotic fracture during the study period, whereas controls were subject who did not experience any osteoporotic fractures during the same period. Controls were drawn from the population time at risk while being matched to the cases in respect to age, sex, up-to-standard follow-up in the CPRD, calendar time, and duration of AD (control-to-case ratio: 4-to-1). Information on the use of AChEIs and the relevant potential confounders was ascertained from the CPRD database for all the cases and controls. We identified 1190 cases and 4760 controls. Compared to non-users, any use of AChEIs prior to the fracture was associated with a reduction in the fracture risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.80 (confidence interval (CI) 95%, 0.70-0.91)]. The use of AChEIs corresponding to a proportion of days covered of 0.8-1.0 was associated with a lower osteoporotic fracture risk compared to non-use [adjusted OR 0.76 (CI 95%, 0.66-0.87)]. In this study using large primary care databases, the use and treatment adherence to AChEIs were associated with a decreased risk of osteoporotic fractures in elderly AD patients.

  1. Birth outcomes of cases with isolated atrial septal defect type II--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Urbán, Róbert; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2013-07-01

    In general, epidemiological studies have evaluated cases with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities together. The aim of this study is to describe the birth outcomes of cases with isolated/single atrial septal defect type II (ASD-II, i.e. only a fossa ovalis defect) after surgical correction or lethal outcome in the light of maternal sociodemographic data. Comparison of birth outcomes and maternal characteristics of cases with ASD-II and controls without defect. The population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. Hungarian newborn infants with or without ASD-II. Medically recorded birth outcomes, maternal age and birth order were evaluated. Marital and employment status was based on maternal information. The lifestyle factors were analyzed in a subsample of mothers visited at home based on a personal interview with mothers and their close relatives, and the family consensus was accepted. Mean gestational age at delivery and birthweight, rate of preterm birth and low birthweight, maternal age, birth order, marital and employment status. The evaluation of 471 cases with ASD-II and 38,151 controls without any defects showed a female excess in cases with ASD-II, having shorter gestational age and lower mean birthweight, and thus a higher rate of preterm births and low birthweight. Intrauterine growth restriction and shorter gestational age were found in cases with ASD-II, particularly in female children. These factors may have a general developmental process in which there was not closure of the foramen ovale, thus echocardiographic screening of these babies might be of value. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Risk factors for human brucellosis in Iran: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofian, Masomeh; Aghakhani, Arezoo; Velayati, Ali Akbar; Banifazl, Mohammad; Eslamifar, Ali; Ramezani, Amitis

    2008-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. Despite its control in many countries, it remains endemic in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for brucellosis acquisition in the central province of Iran. A matched case-control study was conducted in the central part of Iran. A total of 300 subjects (150 cases and 150 controls) were enrolled in the investigation. Brucellosis cases were defined on the basis of epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory criteria. Subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain risk factor information. We used odds ratios and conditional logistic regression models to explore the association between the disease and the variables studied. Significant risk factors for infection were related to the existence of another case of brucellosis in the home (OR=7.55, p=0.0001) and consumption of unpasteurized dairy products (OR=3.7, p=0.014). Keeping cattle and cattle vaccination were also important risk factors. Pasteurization of dairy products and education regarding fresh cheese must be pursued for eradication of brucellosis. A major risk factor for acquiring brucellosis is the existence of another infected family member. Therefore screening family members of an index case of brucellosis may lead to the detection of additional cases.

  3. External radiotherapy prior to thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallquist, A.; Loefroth, P.O.; Hardell, L.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study previous radiotherapy of malignant diseases as a risk factor for thyroid cancer. By using the Swedish Cancer Registry all cases of thyroid cancer with another malignant disease at least one year previously and living within the catchment area of the hospital were traced. During 1959-1989 a total of 1056 cases of thyroid cancer were identified. Of these, 37 had had another previous malignant disease and they constituted the cases in this study. As controls four persons with at least two malignant diseases, thyroid cancer excluded, were selected for each case from the same cancer registry. Ten (27.0%) of the 37 patients with thyroid cancer as a second tumor had earlier been irradiated with the treatment dose including the thyroid gland as compared with 34 (24.5%) of the 139 control patients. Eight of the ten cases with previous irradiation of the thyroid gland had papillary cancer. The median latency was 13 years. The estimated radiation dose in the thyroid varied between 3 and 40 Gy. External radiotherapy gave a crude odds ratio of 1.1 with 95% confidence interval = 0.5-2.8 for thyroid cancer. The weighted odds ratio was calculated to 2.3 with confidence interval = 0.5-8.9. This case-control study gave a nonsignificantly increased odds ratio for thyroid cancer in patients with external radiotherapy including the thyroid gland. 26 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Dietary and lifestyle characteristics of colorectal cancer in Jordan: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Mostafa A; Waly, Mostafa I; Jriesat, Sahar; Al Khafajei, Ahmed; Sallam, Sunny

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated dietary pattern and lifestyle characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan. The case-control study included 220 recently diagnosed CRC cases and 220 age and gender matched healthy subjects as a control group. The participating CRC cases had lower dietary intake of fibre, folate, vitamin B12, β-carotene, vitamin C and selenium as compared to controls (P<0.05). The frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was also lower among CRC cases, while the frequency of consumption of red meat and saturated fat was higher and positively associated with CRC risk. Furthermore, family history for CRC played a positive role and the majority of CRC cases and controls had a low physical activity level. A sedentary lifestyle and a diet low in fruits and vegetables, and high in animal red meat and saturated fat, appeared associated with CRC among the studied Jordanian subjects. This is consistent with the reported CRC studies in developed nations indicating global causal effects for this tumour type.

  5. Using cumulative sums of martingale residuals for model checking in nested case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgan, Ørnulf; Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Standard use of Cox regression requires collection of covariate information for all individuals in a cohort even when only a small fraction of them experiences the event of interest (fail). This may be very expensive for large cohorts. Further in biomarker studies, it will imply a waste of valuable biological material that one may want to save for future studies. A nested case-control study offers a useful alternative. For this design, covariate information is only needed for the failing individuals (cases) and a sample of controls selected from the cases' at-risk sets. Methods based on martingale residuals are useful for checking the fit of Cox's regression model for cohort data. But similar methods have so far not been developed for nested case-control data. In this article, it is described how one may define martingale residuals for nested case-control data, and it is shown how plots and tests based on cumulative sums of martingale residuals may be used to check model fit. The plots and tests may be obtained using available software. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  6. Control selection and confounding factors: A lesson from a Japanese case-control study to examine acellular pertussis vaccine effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohfuji, Satoko; Okada, Kenji; Nakano, Takashi; Ito, Hiroaki; Hara, Megumi; Kuroki, Haruo; Hirota, Yoshio

    2017-08-24

    When using a case-control study design to examine vaccine effectiveness, both the selection of control subjects and the consideration of potential confounders must be the important issues to ensure accurate results. In this report, we described our experience from a case-control study conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids (DTaP vaccine). Newly diagnosed pertussis cases and age- and sex-matched friend-controls were enrolled, and the history of DTaP vaccination was compared between groups. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of vaccination for development of pertussis. After adjustment for potential confounders, four doses of DTaP vaccination showed a lower OR for pediatrician-diagnosed pertussis (OR=0.11, 95% CI, 0.01-0.99). In addition, the decreasing OR of four doses vaccination was more pronounced for laboratory-confirmed pertussis (OR=0.07, 95%CI, 0.01-0.82). Besides, positive association with pertussis was observed in subjects with a history of steroid treatment (OR=5.67) and those with a recent contact with a lasting cough (OR=4.12). When using a case-control study to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccines, particularly those for uncommon infectious diseases such as pertussis, the use of friend-controls may be optimal due to the fact that they shared a similar experience for exposure to the pathogen as the cases. In addition, to assess vaccine effectiveness as accurately as possible, the effects of confounding should be adequately controlled with a matching or analysis technique. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Elucidation of dietary risk factors in osteoarthritis knee—a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghi, Divya; Mishra, Abhishek; Sharma, Amar Chandra; Raj, Saloni; Mishra, Rachna; Kumari, Reema; Natu, S M; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Srivastava, Rajeshwar Nath

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional imbalance, combined with endocrine abnormalities, may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). This study was conducted to determine the association of OA with dietary factors, such as quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This case-control study enrolled 180 knee osteoarthritis (KOA) subjects who met the American College of Rheumatology definition of KOA, with an equal number of matched controls. Outcome measures, such as dietary nutrient intake and its frequency, were recorded using a food frequency questionnaire. Compared to controls, cases were older individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI). Physical activity scores were lower in female cases compared to male cases and controls. A significantly higher intake of phosphorus and fat was observed in overall cases (fat in females only). A significantly lower intake of vitamin C and vitamin D was observed in overall cases and the significance of vitamin D persisted on gender-wise bifurcation. On multiple logistic regression analysis, the intake of vitamin D (odds ratio [OR] = 0.79) and vitamin C (OR = 0.97) was inversely associated with the presence of KOA in the observation group, especially in females. Generally, the intake of food servings/day, green leafy vegetables (GLVs), and fats/oils was higher, whereas the intake of fruits, milk/milk products, and meat/poultry was lower in cases compared to controls. Low intake of vitamin D and vitamin C is a possible risk factor for KOA. Certain food groups, such as fruits, milk/milk products, and meat/poultry are beneficial for KOA. Further studies are needed to elucidate the associations between diet and KOA.

  8. Patient outcomes from lung cancer and diabetes mellitus: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Nina J; Amin, Shailja B; Buras, Matthew R; Kosiorek, Heidi E; Verona, Patricia M; Cook, Curtiss B

    2018-01-01

    This case-control study examined the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on survival in lung cancer patients and lung cancer on glycemic control in DM. Patients with a new lung cancer diagnosis and DM (n = 124) were matched to 124 lung cancer patients without DM. Laboratory results and DM and cancer therapies were obtained from electronic records. Five-year overall survival for lung cancer patients with and without DM was 20 versus 29% (p = .12). Glycemic control among DM patients did not change significantly with time. DM does not cause adverse impact on lung cancer survival. Lung cancer does not affect glycemic control.

  9. Risk Factors for Invasive Cryptococcus neoformans Diseases: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Shiau, Stephanie; Fang, Chi-Tai

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous environmental fungus that can cause life-threatening meningitis and fungemia, often in the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, or other medical conditions. To distinguish risk factors from comorbidities, we performed a hospital-based, density-sampled, matched case-control study. Methods All new-onset cryptococcal meningitis cases and cryptococcemia cases at a university hospital in Taiwan from 2002–2010 were retrospectively identified from the computerized inpatient registry and were included in this study. Controls were selected from those hospitalized patients not experiencing cryptococcal meningitis or cryptococcemia. Controls and cases were matched by admission date, age, and gender. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors. Results A total of 101 patients with cryptococcal meningitis (266 controls) and 47 patients with cryptococcemia (188 controls), of whom 32 patients had both cryptococcal meningitis and cryptococcemia, were included in this study. Multivariate regression analysis showed that AIDS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 181.4; p cryptococcal meningitis. Moreover, AIDS (aOR = 216.3, p cryptococcal meningitis or cryptococcemia. Conclusions The findings confirm AIDS, decompensated liver cirrhosis, CMI-suppressive regimens without CAs, and autoimmune diseases are risk factors for invasive C. neoformans diseases. PMID:25747471

  10. Anemia or low hemoglobin levels preceding Parkinson disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, R; Grossardt, B R; Carlin, J M; Icen, M; Bower, J H; Ahlskog, J E; Maraganore, D M; Steensma, D P; Rocca, W A

    2009-10-27

    It has been suggested that anemia may be a risk factor for dementia, for restless legs syndrome, and for Parkinson disease (PD). Thus, we investigated the association of anemia with the subsequent risk of PD using a case-control study design. We used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control. We reviewed the complete medical records of cases and controls in the system to detect anemia defined using the World Health Organization criteria. Anemia was more common in the history of cases than of controls (odds ratio 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.31-3.06, p = 0.001). The association remained significant after adjustment for cigarette smoking, exposure to pesticides, or hysterectomy (in women). The association was not significantly different between men and women, or between PD patients with or without rest tremor. Analyses stratified by time of onset of anemia showed a greater association for anemia that started 20 to 29 years before the onset of PD. Hemoglobin levels were slightly but consistently lower in cases than in controls across all ages. Our results support an association between anemia experienced early in life and the later development of Parkinson disease. The interpretation of this association remains uncertain.

  11. Adaptation of Chain Event Graphs for use with Case-Control Studies in Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeble, Claire; Thwaites, Peter Adam; Barber, Stuart; Law, Graham Richard; Baxter, Paul David

    2017-09-26

    Case-control studies are used in epidemiology to try to uncover the causes of diseases, but are a retrospective study design known to suffer from non-participation and recall bias, which may explain their decreased popularity in recent years. Traditional analyses report usually only the odds ratio for given exposures and the binary disease status. Chain event graphs are a graphical representation of a statistical model derived from event trees which have been developed in artificial intelligence and statistics, and only recently introduced to the epidemiology literature. They are a modern Bayesian technique which enable prior knowledge to be incorporated into the data analysis using the agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm, used to form a suitable chain event graph. Additionally, they can account for missing data and be used to explore missingness mechanisms. Here we adapt the chain event graph framework to suit scenarios often encountered in case-control studies, to strengthen this study design which is time and financially efficient. We demonstrate eight adaptations to the graphs, which consist of two suitable for full case-control study analysis, four which can be used in interim analyses to explore biases, and two which aim to improve the ease and accuracy of analyses. The adaptations are illustrated with complete, reproducible, fully-interpreted examples, including the event tree and chain event graph. Chain event graphs are used here for the first time to summarise non-participation, data collection techniques, data reliability, and disease severity in case-control studies. We demonstrate how these features of a case-control study can be incorporated into the analysis to provide further insight, which can help to identify potential biases and lead to more accurate study results.

  12. Case-control study of gadodiamide-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Skov, Lone; Rossen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    .02). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing cumulative gadodiamide exposure, high-dose epoietin-beta treatment, and higher serum concentrations of ionized calcium and phosphate increase the risk of gadodiamide-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in renal failure patients. Severe cases seem to develop primarily among patients......BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis may be caused by gadolinium (Gd)-containing magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. Most reported cases were associated with one particular agent, gadodiamide. Yet, unidentified cofactors might explain why only a minority of renal failure patients...... exposed to gadodiamide develop nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 19 histologically verified cases and 19 sex- and age-matched controls. All subjects had chronic renal failure when exposed to gadodiamide. Clinical, biochemical and pharmacological data were...

  13. Serum Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Women with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer; Eklund, Elizabeth E; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Palomaki, Glenn E; Butterfield, Kristen; Curran, Patrizia; Bourjeily, Ghada

    2017-03-01

    Pregnancy is a risk factor for sleep disordered breathing, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Progesterone, one of the key hormones in pregnancy, a known respiratory drive stimulant, increases ventilation and may protect against OSA. We aimed to examine the relationship between circulating progesterone and OSA, after accounting for body weight and gestational age. A case control study was conducted of pregnant women with OSA and those at low risk for the disorder. Cases were identified by ICD-9 code and review of medical record. Controls were identified if they scored zero (never) for snoring, apnea, and gasping on the multivariable apnea prediction index questionnaire immediately following delivery. Subjects with available stored first and/or second trimester residual serum samples were then included in this study and serum analyzed for progesterone. Raw progesterone levels were adjusted for the effects of gestational age and maternal weight. Twenty-seven cases and 64 controls with available serum were identified. Women with OSA had greater maternal weight and higher rates of related comorbidities, compared to controls. Progesterone levels correlated positively with gestational age and negatively with greater weight. Progesterone levels, adjusted for gestational age and maternal weight and expressed as multiples of median (MoM), were significantly lower in OSA cases compared to controls in both the first trimester (MoM = 0.71, confidence interval [95% CI] 0.60-0.83) relative to the MoM in controls of 1.00. In the second trimester levels were also lower in OSA cases (MoM = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96) compared to the MoM of 1.00 in controls. Progesterone levels, after accounting for weight and gestational age, were lower in women with OSA than controls. Progesterone may play a protective role against OSA.

  14. Factors associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a case-control study of Belgrade women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgurevic, Anita; Gledovic, Zorana; Vujasinovic-Stupar, Nada

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors related to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in Belgrade. A case-control study was conducted during 2006-2007. The study group consisted of 100 newly diagnosed osteoporosis patients and 100 age-matched controls (± 2 years). The inclusion criteria for the case group were newly diagnosed osteoporosis confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and being menopausal (at least 2 years of amenorrhea). The inclusion criteria for the control group were postmenopausal women with confirmed normal bone mineral density of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All study participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. The following factors were significantly independently related to osteoporosis: low body weight (P menopause at age osteoporosis.

  15. Exposure to antiepileptic drugs and the risk of hip fracture: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Andersen, Morten; Nymark, Tine

    2008-01-01

    with a hip fracture during the period 1996-2004. Controls (n = 27,575) were frequency matched by age and gender. Information on use of AEDs, other drugs, and hospital contacts was available from local registers. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for hip fracture were estimated......PURPOSE: To investigate whether the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of hip fracture. METHODS: We performed a case-control study using data from the Funen County (population 2004: 475,000) hip fracture register. Cases (n = 7,557) were all patients admitted to county hospitals...

  16. HPV and cofactors for invasive cervical cancer in Morocco: a multicentre case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Berraho, Mohamed; Amarti-Riffi, Afaf; El-Mzibri, Mohammed; Bezad, Rachid; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Benideer, Abdelatif; Matar, Noureddine; Qmichou, Zinab; Abda, Naima; Attaleb, Mohammed; Znati, Kaoutar; El Fatemi, Hind; Bendahhou, Karima; Obtel, Majdouline; Filali Adib, Abdelhai

    2017-01-01

    Background Limited national information is available in Morocco on the prevalence and distribution of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer and the role of other risk factors. The aim was to determine the frequency of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer in Morocco and investigate risk factors for this disease. Methods Between November 2009 and April 2012 a multicentre case-control study was carried out. A total of 144 cases of cervical cancer and 288 age-matched controls were included. Odds-ratios an...

  17. Gut microbiota diversity and T1DM onset: Preliminary data of a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Traversi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type-1 diabetes incidence is increasing during the last decades. Recently, a role of microbiota alteration is proposed as pre-diabetic and diabetic risk factor. A bicentric case-control study is in progress in Northern Italy. Here preliminary results are shown. The microbiome clusterization showed a division between cases and controls even if fingerprint profiles are heterogenic. Methanobrevibacter smithii is highly present only in few patients. The diversity index and the microorganism sequenced in cases and controls, seems to be quite dissimilar. The conclusive results could show a significant predictive value for the bio-indicators evaluated. Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Microbiota, Children, Methanobrevibacter smithii, qRT-PCR

  18. Rheumatoid Arthritis - Neuropsychology, Depression and Anxiety. A case - control study -120 Portuguese Female subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Maia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Impact of Rheumatoid Arthritis in cognitive functions has not been well acknowledged in Portugal. With this original article we intended to elucidate this problem in this specific country. Methods: We measured the results of 60 Rheumatoid Arthritis female patients (study group), comparing every patient in a case control paired plan (years in school and age), with control subjects (n = 60, in a total of 120 subjects). All participants were evaluated with Paced Auditory Selective At...

  19. Risk factors for candidemia in cancer patients: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Karabinis, A; Hill, C; Leclercq, B; Tancrède, C; Baume, D; Andremont, A

    1988-01-01

    Risk factors for candidemia were analyzed in a case-control study of 30 cancer patients with candidemia and 58 controls. In a univariate analysis, previous surgery, neutropenia, central catheterization, chemotherapy, specific antibiotic treatments, and peripheral cultures positive for Candida spp. were associated with a significantly increased risk of candidemia. In a multivariate logistic model, the significant risk factors for candidemia were positive peripheral cultures for Candida spp. (P...

  20. Soy consumption and risk of COPD and respiratory symptoms: a case-control study in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hirayama, Fumi; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Zhao, Yun; Hiramatsu, Tetsuo; Tanikawa, Yoshimasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate the relationship between soy consumption, COPD risk and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, a case-control study was conducted in Japan. Methods A total of 278 eligible patients (244 men and 34 women), aged 50–75 years with COPD diagnosed within the past four years, were referred by respiratory physicians, while 340 controls (272 men and 68 women) were recruited from the community. All participants underwent spirometric measurements of respiratory functi...

  1. Physical activity in People with High Blood Pressure: A Casecontrol Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Momayyezi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regular physical activity is one of the main factors in maintaining and improving health throughout life. International studies have shown that regular exercise can increase life expectancy and reduce morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. This study was conducted to determine the amount of physical activity in people with high blood pressure and comparing them with healthy people. Methods: The present study was a case-control study on 160 people (80 patients with hypertension (case group and 80 healthy individuals (control group. People with normal blood pressure were in the case group and the control group (systolic 140 mmHg or above and diastolic 90 mmHg or above were in the case group. Data were collected using a questionnaire with the simple random sampling. The first part of questionnaire included background characteristics and socio-economic status; the second part of the questionnaire measured physical activity level using international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ. The statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, the Mann–Whitney test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis using SPSS/16. Assessment of physical activity in case and control groups showed that 13.8% of cases and 27.5% of controls had physical activity in the last week; this difference was statistically significant. Based on the results, the risk of hypertension in people without physical activity was 37.2 times more than the people who had physical activity in the last week. The results of logistic regression showed that physical activity, education level and income were effective factors on hypertension. The results showed that physical activity with moderate and severe levels have a protective effect against hypertension. Also, people with less income and less education had a greater chance of hypertension than others. The results indicated physical activity reduces the risk of hypertension. These findings emphasize

  2. Passive fault tolerant control of a double inverted pendulum - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    A passive fault tolerant control scheme is suggested, in which a nominal controller is augmented with an additional block, which guarantees stability and performance after the occurrence of a fault. The method is based on the YJBK parameterization, which requires the nominal controller to be impl...... to be implemented in observer based form. The proposed method is applied to a double inverted pendulum system, for which an H_inf controller has been designed and verified in a lab setup. In this case study, the fault is a degradation of the tacho loop.......A passive fault tolerant control scheme is suggested, in which a nominal controller is augmented with an additional block, which guarantees stability and performance after the occurrence of a fault. The method is based on the YJBK parameterization, which requires the nominal controller...

  3. Power for genetic association study of human longevity using the case-control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of the popular case-control design in gene-longevity association studies needs to be verified because, different from a binary trait, longevity represents only the extreme end of the continuous life span distribution without a clear cutoff for defining the phenotype. In this paper...

  4. Combinations of SNP genotypes from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Study of bipolar patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Dam, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Combinations of genetic variants are the basis for polygenic disorders. We examined combinations of SNP genotypes taken from the 446 729 SNPs in The Wellcome Trust Case Control Study of bipolar patients. Methods: Parallel computing by graphics processing units, cloud computing, and data...

  5. Microbial Characteristics of Peri-Implantitis : A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Y C M; Eijsbouts, H V L C; Winkel, E G; van Winkelhoff, A J

    BACKGROUND: Aim of this case-control study was to compare oral microbiological characteristics of subjects with healthy peri-implant conditions and subjects with peri-implantitis and to explore the influence of various patient-related and implant-related factors on the microbiological

  6. Human papillomavirus infection, cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Honduras: a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrera, A.B.; Velema, J.P.; Figueroa, M.; Bulnes, R.; Toro, L.A.; Claros, J.M.; Barahona, O. de; Melchers, W.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence has confirmed human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as the central etiological agents in human cervical carcinogenesis. In Honduras, cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women, with a high annual incidence. We conducted a population-based, case-control study

  7. DNA fingerprinting: a quality control case study for human biospecimen authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofanova, Olga A; Mathieson, William; Thomas, Gerry A; Betsou, Fotini

    2014-04-01

    This case study illustrates the usefulness of the DNA fingerprinting method in biobank quality control (QC) procedures and emphasizes the need for detailed and accurate record keeping during processing of biological samples. It also underlines the value of independent third-party assessment to identify points at which errors are most likely to have occurred when unexpected results are obtained from biospecimens.

  8. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…

  9. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  10. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body

  11. Lichen planus and Hepatitis C: A case-control study | Elagraa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The exact cause of LP is not known. However, the association of lichen planus with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been reported in literature. A wide variation in the reported prevalence of HCV infection in patients with lichen planus in different geographical areas was observed. This casecontrol study ...

  12. Case-Control Study Of Risk Factors For Breast Cancer In Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the risk factors for breast cancer among women in Midwestern and Southeastern Nigeria. Design: A case control study. Setting: University of Benin Teaching hospital, Benin City and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt in Nigeria. Subjects: Fifty one women with diagnosis of ...

  13. Risk factors for abdominal wound dehiscence in children: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Ramshorst (Gabrielle); N.E. Salu (Nathalie); N.M.A. Bax (Klaas); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van Heurn (Ernst); D.C. Aronson (Daniel); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In the limited literature concerning abdominal wound dehiscence after laparotomy in children, reported incidences range between 0.2-1.2% with associated mortality rates of 8-45%. The goal of this retrospective case-control study was to identify major risk factors for

  14. Risk Factors for Abdominal Wound Dehiscence in Children: A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ramshorst, Gabriëlle H.; Salu, Nathalie E.; Bax, Nikolaas M. A.; Hop, Wim C. J.; van Heurn, Ernst; Aronson, Daniel C.; Lange, Johan F.

    2009-01-01

    In the limited literature concerning abdominal wound dehiscence after laparotomy in children, reported incidences range between 0.2-1.2% with associated mortality rates of 8-45%. The goal of this retrospective case-control study was to identify major risk factors for abdominal wound dehiscence in

  15. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90% ...

  16. Breast cancer risk and genetic ancestry: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Bertoni, Bernardo; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Artagaveytia, Nora; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Barreto, Isabel; Cancela, Paula; Cappetta, Mónica; Egaña, Ana; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Heinzen, Silvina; Hooker, Stanley; Román, Estela; Sans, Mónica; Kittles, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay exhibits one of the highest rates of breast cancer in Latin America, similar to those of developed nations, the reasons for which are not completely understood. In this study we investigated the effect that ancestral background has on breast cancer susceptibility among Uruguayan women. We carried out a case-control study of 328 (164 cases, 164 controls) women enrolled in public hospitals and private clinics across the country. We estimated ancestral proportions using a panel of nuclear and mitochondrial ancestry informative markers (AIMs) and tested their association with breast cancer risk. Nuclear individual ancestry in cases was (mean ± SD) 9.8 ± 7.6% African, 13.2 ± 10.2% Native American and 77.1 ± 13.1% European, and in controls 9.1 ± 7.5% African, 14.7 ± 11.2% Native American and 76.2 ± 14.2% European. There was no evidence of a difference in nuclear or mitochondrial ancestry between cases and controls. However, European mitochondrial haplogroup H was associated with breast cancer (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5). We have not found evidence that overall genetic ancestry differs between breast cancer patients and controls in Uruguay but we detected an association of the disease with a European mitochondrial lineage, which warrants further investigation.

  17. Adolescent suicide and household access to firearms in Colorado: results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S; Hoffman, R E; Wake, L; Marine, W M

    2000-03-01

    To determine whether, compared with age- and sex-matched controls who did not commit suicide, adolescents who committed suicide by firearms were more likely to have had household access to firearms (after adjusting for significant risk factors for adolescent suicide). A case-control study design was used; case subjects were Colorado adolescents who committed suicide between 1991 and 1993; controls were sex- and age-matched adolescents who were randomly selected from the same school the subjects had attended. Interviews were conducted with the parent or guardian of cases and controls. Of the 36 case subjects in this study, 67% committed suicide using a gun obtained from their home. Adolescent suicide victims who committed suicide by firearms were significantly more likely to have a firearm in their home (72%) than age- and sex-matched community controls (50%), after adjusting for significant risk factors. Conduct disorder and previous mental health treatment were also found to be independent risk factors for adolescent firearm suicide. Two types of public health interventions to prevent adolescent firearm suicides are likely to be successful: (a) limiting household access to firearms, and (b) identifying adolescents at high risk of firearm suicide.

  18. Control mechanisms in the third-generation planning. Case study: Control to realize sustainable cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, A. D.

    2017-06-01

    Since the last few years, Indonesia has experienced important events that bring significant changes to the social, political and economic life. The changes directly or indirectly impact the field of planning. With the challenging condition which grows fast and is more complex ahead, and the greater demands on the role of planning, it is required that planning should have higher quality. This paper seeks to answer some questions as follows: (i) How are changes in paradigm and also the development of planning model for the current transition era?, (ii) What is the best way to improve the quality of planning control on the last generation planning model to realize sustainable city?. Analysis steps that will be used to achieve the paper objectives are: (i) Review of planning and sustainable cities theory, (ii) Pattern recognition, (iii) Identifying control mechanisms and sustainable urban forms, (iv) conceptualization. Based on discussion about sustainable cities and control mechanism, some conclusions can be generated as follows: (i) The third generation planning model is based on the theory of expanded system, emphasizing on the constraint of capacity and the ability of planners within the context of larger environment, (ii) There are various theoretical studies that recommend prescriptive model or solution for sustainable urban form and structure. The concepts of Sustainable Cities can be grouped in Neotraditional Development, Urban Containment, Compact City and The Eco-City. The four models above have criteria, namely (i) high density; (ii) a high level of diversity; (iii) mixed land use; (iv) compactness; (5) sustainable transport; (6) passive solar design; (7) Greening Ecological Design. The three main activities in control mechanisms are: Monitoring and Recommendation; a comparative review of the facts (conditions that exist or are developing) with the purpose (expected conditions, set out in urban planning) and recommendations; Evaluation, a review on the

  19. A case-control study: occupational cooking and the risk of uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marr Anja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A European-wide population based case-control study (European rare cancer study undertaken in nine European countries examined risk factors for uveal melanoma. They found a positive association between cooks and the risk of uveal melanoma. In our study we examine whether cooks or people who worked in cook related jobs have an increased uveal melanoma risk. Methods We conducted a case-control study during 2002 and 2005. Overall, 1653 eligible subjects (age range: 20-74 years, living in Germany participated. Interviews were conducted with 459 incident uveal melanoma cases, 827 population controls, 180 ophthalmologist controls and 187 sibling controls. Data on occupational exposure were obtained from a self-administered postal questionnaire and a computer-assisted telephone interview. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios adjusting for the matching factors. Results Overall, we did not observe an increased risk of uveal melanoma among people who worked as cooks or who worked in cook related jobs. When we restricted the source population of our study to the population of the Federal State of Northrhine-Westphalia, we observed an increased risk among subjects who were categorized as cooks in the cases-control analysis. Conclusion Our results are in conflict with former results of the European rare cancer study. Considering the rarity of the disease laboratory in vitro studies of human uveal melanoma cell lines should be done to analyze potential exposure risk factors like radiation from microwaves, strong light from incandescent ovens, or infrared radiation.

  20. Association between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Appendicitis: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Li-Ting; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2016-01-01

    Appendicitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are both prevalent diseases and might share similar pathological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between GERD and appendicitis using a large population-based dataset. This study used administrative claims data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We identified 7113 patients with appendicitis as cases, and 28452 matched patients without appendicitis as controls. This study revealed that GERD was found in 359 (5.05%) cases and 728 (2.56%) controls (p appendicitis were 1.96 (95% CI: 1.56~2.47), 2.36 (95% CI: 1.94~2.88), and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.31~2.22) than controls, respectively. We concluded that patients with appendicitis had higher odds of prior GERD than those without appendicitis regardless of age group. PMID:26932391

  1. A case-control study assessing bone mineral density in severe haemophilia A in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, A J; McLaughlin, P; Simmonds, J V; Prouse, P J; Prelevic, G; Gill, S; Chowdary, P

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that bone mineral density (BMD) may be lower in patients with haemophilia (PWH). A comparison to control subjects is required to thoroughly assess current BMD in PWH in the UK. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that BMD is lower in PWH than in controls, and in patients with more severely affected joints or lower activity levels. In this case-control study, 37 patients with severe haemophilia A were recruited from two haemophilia centres in the UK. A group of 37 age, gender and ethnicity-matched control participants were recruited. All participants had a bone density scan, a musculoskeletal assessment, a blood test for vitamin D and completed a functional activity questionnaire. Of the case group, 5% had osteoporosis and 24% had BMD lower than expected for age. No control participants had osteoporosis, 3% had osteopenia and 14% had BMD lower than expected for age. Ninety one per cent of case participants and 92% of control participants had reduced 25(OH)D levels. Case participants had significantly lower BMD than control participants, and case participants with more severely affected joints, lower activity levels, HIV, history of hepatitis C or lower BMI had significantly lower BMD. Patients with severe haemophilia have a higher risk of low BMD than men without haemophilia. Patients with more severely affected joints and lower activity levels have lower BMD. It remains unclear whether patients with low BMD reached adequate peak bone mass. Low vitamin D may be present in the majority of PWH. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Allergies and diabetes as risk factors for dengue hemorrhagic fever: results of a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida A Figueiredo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The physiopathology of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, a severe form of Dengue Fever, is poorly understood. We are unable to identify patients likely to progress to DHF for closer monitoring and early intervention during epidemics, so most cases are sent home. This study explored whether patients with selected co-morbidities are at higher risk of developing DHF. METHODS: A matched case-control study was conducted in a dengue sero-positive population in two Brazilian cities. For each case of DHF, 7 sero-positive controls were selected. Cases and controls were interviewed and information collected on demographic and socio-economic status, reported co-morbidities (diabetes, hypertension, allergy and use of medication. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the strength of the association between the co-morbidities and occurrence of DHF. RESULTS: 170 cases of DHF and 1,175 controls were included. Significant associations were found between DHF and white ethnicity (OR = 4.70; 2.17-10.20, high income (OR = 6.84; 4.09-11.43, high education (OR = 4.67; 2.35-9.27, reported diabetes (OR = 2.75; 1.12-6.73 and reported allergy treated with steroids (OR = 2.94; 1.01-8.54. Black individuals who reported being treated for hypertension had 13 times higher risk of DHF then black individuals reporting no hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to find an association between DHF and diabetes, allergy and hypertension. Given the high case fatality rate of DHF (1-5%, we believe that the evidence produced in this study, when confirmed in other studies, suggests that screening criteria might be used to identify adult patients at a greater risk of developing DHF with a recommendation that they remain under observation and monitoring in hospital.

  3. Adipokines as Possible New Predictors of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The secretion of several adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aFABP, and visfatin, is altered in subjects with abdominal adiposity; these endocrine alterations could contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship among adiponectin, RBP4, aFABP, and visfatin, and incident cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results. A case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort, on 2945 subjects enrolled for a diabetes screening program was performed. We studied 18 patients with incident fatal or nonfatal IHD (Ischemic Heart Disease or CVD (Cerebrovascular Disease, compared with 18 matched control subjects. Circulating adiponectin levels were significantly lower in cases of IHD with respect to controls. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD and decreased in IHD with respect to controls. Circulating aFABP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD, while no difference was associated with IHD. Circulating visfatin levels were significantly lower in cases of both CVD and IHD with respect to controls, while no difference was associated with CVD. Conclusions. The present study confirms that low adiponectin is associated with increased incidents of IHD, but not CVD, and suggests, for the first time, a major effect of visfatin, aFABP, and RBP4 in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  4. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK, Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations.

  5. Excess relative risk as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk. The excess relative risk (ERR used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.

  6. Pesticide Exposure and Head and Neck Cancers: A Case-Control Study in an Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Causes of head and neck cancers (HNCs are multifactorial, and few studies have investigated the association between chemical exposure and HNCs. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between HNCs, agricultural occupations, and pesticide exposure. The potential for the accumulation of pesticides in the adipose tissue of patients was also investigated.   Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, occupation, and exposure to pesticides in a hospital-based case-control study. Pesticide residue in the adipose tissue of the neck in both cases and controls was also monitored via gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy.   Results: Thirty-one HNC cases were included in this study as well as 32 gender-, age-, and smoking-matched controls. An agricultural occupation was associated with HNC (odds ratio [OR], 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–9.43 after controlling for age, sex, and smoking. Pesticide exposure was associated with total HNC cases (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.78–3.07 and larynx cancer (OR, 9.33; 95% CI, 1.65–52.68. A dose-response pattern was observed for HNC cases (P=0.06 and larynx cancer (P=0.01. In tracing the pesticide residue, five chlorinated pesticides, namely dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodipheny-ldichloroethane (DDD, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, dieldrin, and lindane, were identified in the adipose tissue. Chlorinated pesticide detection was significantly associated with HNC (OR, 3.91; 95% CI 0.9–0.16.9.   Conclusion: HNCs were found to be associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. A high education level was identified as a modifying factor decreasing the risk of HNCs. Further studies with larger number of subjects are recommended to assess these relationships in greater detail.

  7. Rheumatoid Arthritis Was Negatively Associated with Alzheimer's Disease: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting Kao

    Full Text Available Some of the prior literature investigated the potential association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA and Alzheimer's disease (AD because these two diseases may share similar inflammatory mechanisms. Nevertheless, to date, findings of the previous literature are still controversial, and some methodological limitations were observed in those studies. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between prior RA and AD using a large population-based dataset. This study used the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We included 2271 patients with AD who had received prescriptions for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs as cases and 6813 patients without AD as controls in this study. In addition, we performed a conditional logistic regression to examine the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for prior RA between cases and controls. The study found that 330 (3.63% of the total sampled patients had an RA diagnosis before the index date. Additionally, prior RA was found in 60 (2.64% cases and in 270 (3.96% controls. The conditional logistic regression analysis showed that the crude OR of prior RA for cases was 0.66 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.49~0.87 compared to controls. After adjusting for patients' geographic location, urbanization level, and comorbidities, the adjusted OR of prior RA for patients with AD was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.55~0.98 compared to those without AD. We concluded that there was an inverse association between prior RA and AD even after adjusting for potential confounders.

  8. Dietary factors and pediatric multiple sclerosis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpoor, Julia; Seminatore, Brandon; Graves, Jennifer S; Schreiner, Teri; Waldman, Amy T; Lotze, Timothy E; Belman, Anita; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Aaen, Gregory; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; McDonald, Jamie C; Hart, Janace; Ness, Jayne M; Harris, Yolanda; Rubin, Jennifer; Candee, Meghan; Krupp, Lauren; Gorman, Mark; Benson, Leslie; Rodriguez, Moses; Chitnis, Tanuja; Mar, Soe; Kahn, Ilana; Rose, John; Carmichael, Suzan L; Roalstad, Shelly; Waltz, Michael; Casper, T Charles; Waubant, Emmanuelle

    2017-06-01

    The role of diet in multiple sclerosis (MS) is largely uncharacterized, particularly as it pertains to pediatric-onset disease. To determine the association between dietary factors and MS in children. Pediatric MS patients and controls were recruited from 16 US centers (MS or clinically isolated syndrome onset before age 18, least 2 silent lesions on magnetic resonance imaging). The validated Block Kids Food Screener questionnaire was administered 2011-2016. Chi-squared test compared categorical variables, Kruskal-Wallis test compared continuous variables, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. In total, 312 cases and 456 controls were included (mean ages 15.1 and 14.4 years). In unadjusted analyses, there was no difference in intake of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, sugars, fruits, or vegetables. Dietary iron was lower in cases ( p = 0.04), and cases were more likely to consume below recommended guidelines of iron (77.2% of cases vs 62.9% of controls, p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, iron consumption below recommended guidelines was associated with MS (odds ratio = 1.80, p < 0.01). Pediatric MS cases may be less likely to consume sufficient iron compared to controls, and this warrants broader study to characterize a temporal relationship. No other significant difference in intake of most dietary factors was found.

  9. MMR vaccination and pervasive developmental disorders: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeth, Liam; Cook, Claire; Fombonne, Eric; Heavey, Lisa; Rodrigues, Laura C; Smith, Peter G; Hall, Andrew J

    Concern that measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination might cause autism has led to a fall in vaccine coverage. We investigated whether MMR vaccination is associated with an increased risk of autism or other pervasive developmental disorders. We did a matched case-control study using the UK General Practice Research Database. Cases were people born in 1973 or later who had first recorded diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder while registered with a contributing general practice between 1987 and 2001. Controls were matched on age, sex, and general practice. 1294 cases and 4469 controls were included. 1010 cases (78.1%) had MMR vaccination recorded before diagnosis, compared with 3671 controls (82.1%) before the age at which their matched case was diagnosed. After adjustment for age at joining the database, the odds ratio for association between MMR and pervasive developmental disorder was 0.86 (95% CI 0.68-1.09). Findings were similar when restricted to children with a diagnosis of autism, to those vaccinated with MMR before the third birthday, or to the period before media coverage of the hypothesis linking MMR with autism. Our findings suggest that MMR vaccination is not associated with an increased risk of pervasive developmental disorders.

  10. Antidepressant drug therapy and suicide in severely depressed children and adults: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Marcus, Steven C; Shaffer, David

    2006-08-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has issued a boxed warning concerning increased suicidal ideation and behavior associated with antidepressant drug treatment in children and adolescents. It is unknown whether antidepressant agents increase the risk of suicide death in children or adults. To estimate the relative risk of suicide attempt and suicide death in severely depressed children and adults treated with antidepressant drugs vs those not treated with antidepressant drugs. Matched case-control study. Outpatient treatment settings in the United States. Medicaid beneficiaries from all 50 states who received inpatient treatment for depression, excluding patients treated for pregnancy, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or other psychoses, mental retardation, dementia, or delirium. Controls were matched to cases for age, sex, race or ethnicity, state of residence, substance use disorder, recent suicide attempt, number of days since hospital discharge, and recent treatment with antipsychotic, anxiolytic/hypnotic, mood stabilizer, and stimulant medications. Suicide attempts and suicide deaths. In adults (aged 19-64 years), antidepressant drug treatment was not significantly associated with suicide attempts (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86-1.39 [521 cases and 2394 controls]) or suicide deaths (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.52-1.55 [86 cases and 396 controls]). However, in children and adolescents (aged 6-18 years), antidepressant drug treatment was significantly associated with suicide attempts (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.12-2.07 [263 cases and 1241 controls]) and suicide deaths (OR, 15.62; 95% CI, 1.65-infinity [8 cases and 39 controls]). In these high-risk patients, antidepressant drug treatment does not seem to be related to suicide attempts and death in adults but might be related in children and adolescents. These findings support careful clinical monitoring during antidepressant drug treatment of severely depressed young people.

  11. Use of oral cholera vaccines in an outbreak in Vietnam: a case control study.

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    Dang Duc Anh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Killed oral cholera vaccines (OCVs are available but not used routinely for cholera control except in Vietnam, which produces its own vaccine. In 2007-2008, unprecedented cholera outbreaks occurred in the capital, Hanoi, prompting immunization in two districts. In an outbreak investigation, we assessed the effectiveness of killed OCV use after a cholera outbreak began. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 16 to 28 January 2008, vaccination campaigns with the Vietnamese killed OCV were held in two districts of Hanoi. No cholera cases were detected from 5 February to 4 March 2008, after which cases were again identified. Beginning 8 April 2008, residents of four districts of Hanoi admitted to one of five hospitals for acute diarrhea with onset after 5 March 2008 were recruited for a matched, hospital-based, case-control outbreak investigation. Cases were matched by hospital, admission date, district, gender, and age to controls admitted for non-diarrheal conditions. Subjects from the two vaccinated districts were evaluated to determine vaccine effectiveness. 54 case-control pairs from the vaccinated districts were included in the analysis. There were 8 (15% and 16 (30% vaccine recipients among cases and controls, respectively. The vaccine was 76% protective against cholera in this setting (95% CI 5% to 94%, P = 0.042 after adjusting for intake of dog meat or raw vegetables and not drinking boiled or bottled water most of the time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of the reactive use of killed OCVs during a cholera outbreak. Our findings suggest that killed OCVs may have a role in controlling cholera outbreaks.

  12. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis: a clinic-based case control study in The Gambia

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    Adegbola Richard A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB epidemic in Africa is on the rise, even in low-HIV prevalence settings. Few studies have attempted to identify possible reasons for this. We aimed to identify risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in those attending a general outpatients clinic in The Gambia, a sub-Saharan African country with relatively low HIV prevalence in the community and in TB patients. Methods We conducted a case control study at the Medical Research Council Outpatients' clinic in The Gambia. Pulmonary TB cases were at least 15 years old, controls were age and sex matched clinic attendees. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results 100 sputum smear positive TB cases and 200 clinic controls were recruited. HIV prevalence was 6.1% in cases and 3.3% in controls. Multivariable assessment of host factors showed that risk of TB was increased among the Jola ethnic group and smokers, and decreased in those in a professional occupation. Assessment of environmental factors showed an increased risk with household crowding, history of household exposure to a known TB case, and absence of a ceiling in the house. In a combined multivariable host-environment model, the risk of TB increased with crowding, exposure to a known TB case, as well as amongst the Jola ethnic group. Conclusion In The Gambia, household crowding and past household exposure to a known TB case are the standout risk factors for TB disease. Further research is needed to identify why risk of TB seems to differ according to ethnicity.

  13. Association between smoking habits and acne vulgaris. A case-control study

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    Alice Mannocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: acne vulgaris, is one of the most common skin disorder. Previous studies about the role of smoke in the pathogenesis of acne reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study investigating the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne.

    Methods: a case-control study was performed during the period September 2009 - February 2010. A questionnaire was administrated to each participant, to assess the association acne - smoke. Cases were outpatients of the Dermatologic Ambulatory of the “Fiorini” Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy. Controls were age and gender-matched to the cases. The ratio cases-controls was 1:2. A univariate and a multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted; Odds Ratio (OR and the relative 95% confidence interval (95%CI were assessed. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: crude OR for the association acne - smoke was 7.26 (IC=2.27-23.18; adjusted OR for sex and age was 5.47 (IC=1.67-17.97. Of 93 cases, 6 had a severe grade of acne (6.5%, 19 had an intermediate grade of acne (20.4%, and 68 had a mild grade of acne (73.1%. No one of the smokers had a severe grade of acne, one had an intermediate grade of acne and 11 had mild acne; these differences are not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: the association between acne and smoke shows an increased risk (OR=7.26 with a statistically significant CI. Moreover, people ≥ 18 years of age have twice the risk compared to persons < 18 years of age (OR=2.31.

  14. Ischaemic stroke in HIV-infected patients: a case-control study.

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    Silva-Pinto, A; Costa, A; Serrão, R; Sarmento, A; Abreu, P

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide insights into the contributions of HIV infection stage, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and vascular risk factors to the occurrence of ischaemic stroke in HIV-infected patients. We performed a case-control study of HIV-infected patients followed in our clinic. We compared patients hospitalized between January 2006 and June 2014 with an ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack to age- and gender-matched controls without stroke. Of 2146 patients followed in our clinic, we included 23 cases (20 men and three women; mean age 51.3 years) and 23 controls. Eighty-three per cent of cases had had a stroke and 17% a transient ischaemic attack. According to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification, small-vessel occlusion was the most frequent aetiology, followed by large-artery atherosclerosis and cardioembolism. Compared with controls, stroke was statistically significantly associated with diabetes, smoking and low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Illegal drug use, a low CD4 count and a high viral load were also associated with ischaemic cerebral events. There were no statistically significant differences between cases and controls in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV stage, CD4 count nadir and HIV infection time-to-event. No statistically significant differences were found concerning ART or treatment compliance. In our single centre study, we found associations of illegal drug use, HIV replication and some traditional vascular risk factors with the occurrence of ischaemic cerebral events. The paradigm of the care of HIV-infected patients is changing. Concomitant diseases in the ageing patient with HIV infection, including cerebrovascular disease, must also be addressed in view of their impacts on morbidity and mortality. Apart from controlling the HIV infection and immunosuppression with ART, vascular risk factors must also be addressed. © 2016 British HIV

  15. A Case Study on Cyber-security Program for the Programmable Logic Controller of Modern NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, S. H.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H.; Park, C. H.; Park, S. P.; Kim, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    As instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been digitalized to cope with their growing complexity, the cyber-security has become an important issue. To protect the I and C systems adequately from cyber threats, such as Stuxnet that attacked Iran's nuclear facilities, regulations of many countries require a cyber-security program covering all the life cycle phases of the system development, from the concept to the retirement. This paper presents a case study of cyber-security program that has been performed during the development of the programmable logic controller (PLC) for modern NPPs of Korea. In the case study, a cyber-security plan, including technical, management, and operational controls, was established through a security risk assessment. Cyber-security activities, such as development of security functions and periodic inspections, were conducted according to the plan: the security functions were applied to the PLC as the technical controls, and periodic inspections and audits were held to check the security of the development environment, as the management and operational controls. A final penetration test was conducted to inspect all the security problems that had been issued during the development. The case study has shown that the systematic cyber-security program detected and removed the vulnerabilities of the target system, which could not be found otherwise, enhancing the cyber-security of the system

  16. A case-control study on the association between bladder cancer and prior bladder calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Ching-Chun; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2013-03-15

    Bladder calculus is associated with chronic irritation and inflammation. As there is substantial documentation that inflammation can play a direct role in carcinogenesis, to date the relationship between stone formation and bladder cancer (BC) remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the association between BC and prior bladder calculus using a population-based dataset. This case-control study included 2,086 cases who had received their first-time diagnosis of BC between 2001 and 2009 and 10,430 randomly selected controls without BC. Conditional logistic regressions were employed to explore the association between BC and having been previously diagnosed with bladder calculus. Of the sampled subjects, bladder calculus was found in 71 (3.4%) cases and 105 (1.1%) controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) of having been diagnosed with bladder calculus before the index date for cases was 3.42 (95% CI = 2.48-4.72) when compared with controls after adjusting for monthly income, geographic region, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and renal disease, tobacco use disorder, obesity, alcohol abuse, and schistosomiasis, bladder outlet obstruction, and urinary tract infection. We further analyzed according to sex and found that among males, the OR of having been previously diagnosed with bladder calculus for cases was 3.45 (95% CI = 2.39-4.99) that of controls. Among females, the OR was 3.05 (95% CI = 1.53-6.08) that of controls. These results add to the evidence surrounding the conflicting reports regarding the association between BC and prior bladder calculus and highlight a potential target population for bladder cancer screening.

  17. Basal Plate Myometrial Fibers and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ann A; Ernst, Linda M; Miller, Emily S

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Basal plate myometrium (BPMYO), the pathological presence of myometrial fibers in the basal plate, is a common finding on pathological examination of the placenta, yet its clinical correlates are not well studied. As myometrial fibers are frequently located in proximity to poorly converted maternal spiral arteries, our objective was to determine whether BPMYO is associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), a well-known clinical sequela of abnormal maternal artery remodeling. Methods This case-control study included women who delivered a live-born singleton gestation whose placentas were sent for pathological examination. Cases were women with HDP (gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, or HELLP syndrome) as defined by American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Controls were women without HDP. Women with chronic hypertension were excluded. The primary outcome was the presence of BPMYO. Secondary outcomes included the pathologic stage of BPMYO and the incidence of pathologically defined accreta. Each outcome was compared between cases and controls in bivariable and multivariable analyses. Results Of the 306 women who met inclusion criteria, 230 (75%) had HDP. BPMYO was present in 99 (32%) of placentas. Compared to controls, cases were younger, had higher body mass index, and were more likely to have diabetes, be nulliparous, deliver preterm, and have had a prior cesarean. There were no differences in the incidence of BPMYO, stage of BPMYO, or incidence of pathologically defined accreta between cases and controls. These findings persisted after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions Although BPMYO may be more common in the setting of abnormal placental vasculature, there is no significant association between BPMYO and HDP.

  18. A Case Control Study Reveals that Polyomaviruria Is Significantly Associated with Interstitial Cystitis and Vesical Ulceration.

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    Benjamin J Winter

    Full Text Available To investigate whether polyomaviruses contribute to interstitial cystitis pathogenesis.A prospective study was performed with 50 interstitial cystitis cases compared with 50 age-matched, disease-free controls for the frequency of polyomaviruria. Associations between polyomaviruria and disease characteristics were analysed in cases. Polyomavirus in urine and bladder tissue was detected with species (JC virus vs. BK virus specific, real-time PCR.Case patients were reflective of interstitial cystitis epidemiology with age range from 26-88 years (median 58 and female predominance (41/50 F. There was a significant increase in the frequency of polyomavirus shedding between cases and controls (p<0.02. Polyomavirus shedding, in particular BK viruria, was associated with vesical ulceration, a marker of disease severity, among interstitial cystitis cases after adjustment for age and sex (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.89-24.4. There was a significant association among cases between the presence of BK viruria and response to intravesical Clorpactin therapy (OR 4.50, 95% CI 1.17-17.4.The presence of polyomaviruria was found to be associated with the ulcerative form of interstitial cystitis. Clorpactin, which has anti-DNA virus activity, was more likely to improve symptoms in the presence of BK viruria. These data from this pilot study suggest associations between polyomaviruria and interstitial cystitis warranting further investigation.

  19. A Case Control Study Reveals that Polyomaviruria Is Significantly Associated with Interstitial Cystitis and Vesical Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Benjamin J; O'Connell, Helen E; Bowden, Scott; Carey, Marcus; Eisen, Damon P

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether polyomaviruses contribute to interstitial cystitis pathogenesis. A prospective study was performed with 50 interstitial cystitis cases compared with 50 age-matched, disease-free controls for the frequency of polyomaviruria. Associations between polyomaviruria and disease characteristics were analysed in cases. Polyomavirus in urine and bladder tissue was detected with species (JC virus vs. BK virus) specific, real-time PCR. Case patients were reflective of interstitial cystitis epidemiology with age range from 26-88 years (median 58) and female predominance (41/50 F). There was a significant increase in the frequency of polyomavirus shedding between cases and controls (pinterstitial cystitis cases after adjustment for age and sex (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.89-24.4). There was a significant association among cases between the presence of BK viruria and response to intravesical Clorpactin therapy (OR 4.50, 95% CI 1.17-17.4). The presence of polyomaviruria was found to be associated with the ulcerative form of interstitial cystitis. Clorpactin, which has anti-DNA virus activity, was more likely to improve symptoms in the presence of BK viruria. These data from this pilot study suggest associations between polyomaviruria and interstitial cystitis warranting further investigation.

  20. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Saeid; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Ghani; Manshoori, Azita; Goujani, Reza; Vazirinejad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4) and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6), respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother's residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers.

  1. Laryngospasm during emergency department ketamine sedation: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Steven M; Roback, Mark G; Krauss, Baruch

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess predictors of emergency department (ED) ketamine-associated laryngospasm using case-control techniques. We performed a matched case-control analysis of a sample of 8282 ED ketamine sedations (including 22 occurrences of laryngospasm) assembled from 32 prior published series. We sequentially studied the association of each of 7 clinical variables with laryngospasm by assigning 4 controls to each case while matching for the remaining 6 variables. We then used univariate statistics and conditional logistic regression to analyze the matched sets. We found no statistical association of age, dose, oropharyngeal procedure, underlying physical illness, route, or coadministered anticholinergics with laryngospasm. Coadministered benzodiazepines showed a borderline association in the multivariate but not univariate analysis that was considered anomalous. This case-control analysis of the largest available sample of ED ketamine-associated laryngospasm did not demonstrate evidence of association with age, dose, or other clinical factors. Such laryngospasm seems to be idiosyncratic, and accordingly, clinicians administering ketamine must be prepared for its rapid identification and management. Given no evidence that they decrease the risk of laryngospasm, coadministered anticholinergics seem unnecessary.

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study

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    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner′s Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16% with PMNE and five controls (5% (P = 0.01. Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P = 0.08 and 15 (15% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P = 0.84, respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE.

  3. Oestrogen receptor α gene haplotype and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedrén, Sara; Stiger, Fredrik; Persson, Ingemar; Baron, John; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lovmar, Lovisa; Humphreys, Keith; Magnusson, Cecilia; Melhus, Håkan; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Kindmark, Andreas; Landegren, Ulf; Fermér, Maria Lagerström

    2004-01-01

    Oestrogen receptor α, which mediates the effect of oestrogen in target tissues, is genetically polymorphic. Because breast cancer development is dependent on oestrogenic influence, we have investigated whether polymorphisms in the oestrogen receptor α gene (ESR1) are associated with breast cancer risk. We genotyped breast cancer cases and age-matched population controls for one microsatellite marker and four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1. The numbers of genotyped cases and controls for each marker were as follows: TA n , 1514 cases and 1514 controls; c.454-397C → T, 1557 cases and 1512 controls; c.454-351A → G, 1556 cases and 1512 controls; c.729C → T, 1562 cases and 1513 controls; c.975C → G, 1562 cases and 1513 controls. Using logistic regression models, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Haplotype effects were estimated in an exploratory analysis, using expectation-maximisation algorithms for case-control study data. There were no compelling associations between single polymorphic loci and breast cancer risk. In haplotype analyses, a common haplotype of the c.454-351A → G or c.454-397C → T and c.975C → G SNPs appeared to be associated with an increased risk for ductal breast cancer: one copy of the c.454-351A → G and c.975C → G haplotype entailed an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.06–1.33) and two copies with an OR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.15–1.77), compared with no copies, under a model of multiplicative penetrance. The association with the c.454-397C → T and c.975C → G haplotypes was similar. Our data indicated that these haplotypes were more influential in women with a high body mass index. Adjustment for multiple comparisons rendered the associations statistically non-significant. We found suggestions of an association between common haplotypes in ESR1 and the risk for ductal breast cancer that is stronger in heavy women

  4. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

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    Nešić Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. Cases and the controls were individually matched by sex, age (±3 years, and place of residence (city-village. Data were gathered about sociodemographic characteristics, occupational exposure to harmful agents, habits, diet, personal history, and family history. In the analysis of the data, conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Results. According to the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis UCNT was significantly positively associated with 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, frequent consumption of industrially manufactured food additives for enhancing flavour and frequent consumption of white bread. UCNT was significantly negatively associated with frequent consumption of margarine, olive oil and cornbread. Conclusion. In our low incidence population, an independent risk factor for the occurrence of UCNT was 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, use of industrially manufactured food with additives for enhancing flavour and consumption of white bread. Multicentric study enrolling a greater number of cases would be desirable.

  5. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Salivary Gland Cancer in Canada

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    Sai Yi Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effect of various lifestyle risk factors on the risk of salivary gland cancer in Canada using data from a population-based case-control study. Methods. Data from a population-based case-control study of 132 incident cases of salivary gland cancer and 3076 population controls were collected through self-administered questionnaire and analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Results. Four or more servings/week of processed meat product was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (OR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.62 (1.02–2.58. Nonsignificantly increased ORs were also related to obesity, >7 drinks/week of alcohol consumption, and occupational exposure to radiation. Furthermore, nonsignificantly decreased ORs were found to be associated with high education level (>12 years (OR=0.65, high consumption of spinach/squash (OR=0.62 and all vegetables/vegetable juices (OR=0.75, and >30 sessions/month of recreational physical activity (OR=0.78. Conclusions. This study suggests positive associations with consumption of processed meat, smoking, obesity, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposure to radiation as well as negative associations with higher education, consumption of spinach/squash, and physical activity, which suggest a role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of salivary gland cancer. However, these findings were based on small number of cases and were nonsignificant. Further larger studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  6. Multilocus Heterozygosity and Coronary Heart Disease: Nested Case-Control Studies in Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Pers, Tune Hannes

    2015-01-01

    genome scans in parallel case-control studies of coronary heart disease (CHD) nested in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Nurses' Health Study. We examined ∼ 700,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 435 men with incident CHD and 878 matched controls and 435 women with incident CHD...... to risk of CHD in either men or women (adjusted odds ratios per 2000 heterozygous SNPs 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.13] in women and 0.94 [0.84-1.06] in men). We also found no consistent associations of genome-wide heterozygosity with levels of lipids, inflammatory markers, adhesion molecules...

  7. Method for mapping population-based case-control studies: an application using generalized additive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence and risk can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Disease registry data are often mapped by town or county of diagnosis and contain limited data on covariates. These maps often possess poor spatial resolution, the potential for spatial confounding, and the inability to consider latency. Population-based case-control studies can provide detailed information on residential history and covariates. Results Generalized additive models (GAMs provide a useful framework for mapping point-based epidemiologic data. Smoothing on location while controlling for covariates produces adjusted maps. We generate maps of odds ratios using the entire study area as a reference. We smooth using a locally weighted regression smoother (loess, a method that combines the advantages of nearest neighbor and kernel methods. We choose an optimal degree of smoothing by minimizing Akaike's Information Criterion. We use a deviance-based test to assess the overall importance of location in the model and pointwise permutation tests to locate regions of significantly increased or decreased risk. The method is illustrated with synthetic data and data from a population-based case-control study, using S-Plus and ArcView software. Conclusion Our goal is to develop practical methods for mapping population-based case-control and cohort studies. The method described here performs well for our synthetic data, reproducing important features of the data and adequately controlling the covariate. When applied to the population-based case-control data set, the method suggests spatial confounding and identifies statistically significant areas of increased and decreased odds ratios.

  8. Individual correlates of podoconiosis in areas of varying endemicity: a case-control study.

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    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial form of elephantiasis resulting in lymphedema of the lower legs. Previous studies have suggested that podoconiosis arises from the interplay of individual and environmental factors. Here, our aim was to understand the individual-level correlates of podoconiosis by comparing 460 podoconiosis-affected individuals and 707 unaffected controls.This was a case-control study carried out in six kebeles (the lowest governmental administrative unit in northern Ethiopia. Each kebele was classified into one of three endemicity levels: 'low' (prevalence 5%. A total of 142 (30.7% households had two or more cases of podoconiosis. Compared to controls, the majority of the cases, especially women, were less educated (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.2, were unmarried (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.6-4.6 and had lower income (t = -4.4, p<0.0001. On average, cases started wearing shoes ten years later than controls. Among cases, age of first wearing shoes was positively correlated with age of onset of podoconiosis (r = 0.6, t = 12.5, p<0.0001. Among all study participants average duration of shoe wearing was less than 30 years. Between both cases and controls, people in 'high' and 'medium' endemicity kebeles were less likely than people in 'low' endemicity areas to 'ever' have owned shoes (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.7.Late use of shoes, usually after the onset of podoconiosis, and inequalities in education, income and marriage were found among cases, particularly among females. There were clustering of cases within households, thus interventions against podoconiosis will benefit from household-targeted case tracing. Most importantly, we identified a secular increase in shoe-wearing over recent years, which may give opportunities to promote shoe-wearing without increasing stigma among those at high risk of podoconiosis.

  9. Risk and protective factors for falls from furniture in young children: multicenter case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Maula, Asiya; Reading, Richard; Hindmarch, Paul; Coupland, Carol; Watson, Michael; Hayes, Mike; Deave, Toity

    2015-02-01

    Falls from furniture are common in young children but there is little evidence on protective factors for these falls. To estimate associations for risk and protective factors for falls from furniture in children aged 0 to 4 years. Multicenter case-control study at hospitals, minor injury units, and general practices in and around 4 UK study centers. Recruitment commenced June 14, 2010, and ended April 27, 2012. Participants included 672 children with falls from furniture and 2648 control participants matched on age, sex, calendar time, and study center. Thirty-five percent of cases and 33% of control individuals agreed to participate. The mean age was 1.74 years for cases and 1.91 years for control participants. Fifty-four percent of cases and 56% of control participants were male. Exposures included safety practices, safety equipment use, and home hazards. Falls from furniture occurring at the child's home resulting in attendance at an emergency department, minor injury unit, or hospital admission. Compared with parents of control participants, parents of cases were significantly more likely not to use safety gates in the home (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.65; 95% CI, 1.29-2.12) and not to have taught their children rules about climbing on kitchen objects (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.16-2.15). Cases aged 0 to 12 months were significantly more likely to have been left on raised surfaces (AOR, 5.62; 95% CI, 3.62-8.72), had their diapers changed on raised surfaces (AOR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.24-2.88), and been put in car/bouncing seats on raised surfaces (AOR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.29-3.27). Cases 3 years and older were significantly more likely to have played or climbed on furniture (AOR, 9.25; 95% CI, 1.22-70.07). Cases were significantly less likely to have played or climbed on garden furniture (AOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.97). If estimated associations are causal, some falls from furniture may be prevented by incorporating advice into child health contacts, personal child health

  10. Case-control study on factors associated with crown fractures in the primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors associated with dental trauma in preschool children. This case-control study was nested in a population-based cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 301 children one to five years of age in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. The case group was made up of children with at least one fractured deciduous tooth, and the control group was made up of children with no deciduous tooth fracture. The two groups were matched for age in a proportion of one control for every case. The dependent variable was “dental trauma,” diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Andreasen and Andreasen. The independent variables were overjet, measured and considered accentuated when surpassing 3 mm, and lip coverage, classified as adequate or inadequate. Clinical oral examinations were performed by calibrated dentists. The parents provided information on the socioeconomic indicators. Statistical analysis involved the McNemar test and logistic regression. Each group (case and control was composed of 92 children. In the bivariate analysis, traumatic dental injury (TDI was associated with overjet > 3 mm (p = 0.001, inadequate lip coverage (p < 0.001, mother's schooling (p = 0.028 and household income (p < 0.001. In the multivariate analysis, only inadequate lip coverage was associated with TDI (OR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.37-20.85. In conclusion, the case group children had a 5.3 - fold more likely chance of presenting inadequate lip coverage, compared with the control children.

  11. A random forest approach to the detection of epistatic interactions in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Tang, Wanwan; Wu, Xuebing; Fu, Wenhui

    2009-01-30

    The key roles of epistatic interactions between multiple genetic variants in the pathogenesis of complex diseases notwithstanding, the detection of such interactions remains a great challenge in genome-wide association studies. Although some existing multi-locus approaches have shown their successes in small-scale case-control data, the "combination explosion" course prohibits their applications to genome-wide analysis. It is therefore indispensable to develop new methods that are able to reduce the search space for epistatic interactions from an astronomic number of all possible combinations of genetic variants to a manageable set of candidates. We studied case-control data from the viewpoint of binary classification. More precisely, we treated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers as categorical features and adopted the random forest to discriminate cases against controls. On the basis of the gini importance given by the random forest, we designed a sliding window sequential forward feature selection (SWSFS) algorithm to select a small set of candidate SNPs that could minimize the classification error and then statistically tested up to three-way interactions of the candidates. We compared this approach with three existing methods on three simulated disease models and showed that our approach is comparable to, sometimes more powerful than, the other methods. We applied our approach to a genome-wide case-control dataset for Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and successfully identified two SNPs that were reported to be associated with this disease. Besides existing pure statistical approaches, we demonstrated the feasibility of incorporating machine learning methods into genome-wide case-control studies. The gini importance offers yet another measure for the associations between SNPs and complex diseases, thereby complementing existing statistical measures to facilitate the identification of epistatic interactions and the understanding of epistasis in

  12. COMPEREHENSIVE TECHNICAL STUDIES OF FLOOD CONTROL OVER SOLO CITY AREA (CASE STUDY IN DEMANGAN BARRAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Trusharyanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available City of Surakarta, known as Solo City is one of cities in Central Java Province traversed by Bengawan Solo River. Heavy rainfall in upstream area of Bengawan Solo River causes increase in high water level at downstream. Bengawan Solo River will be higher than water level in drainage system which may induce a backwater flow. Since Colonization era, the government has built dikes and barrages against backwater flow and inundation problem. One of the barrages was Demangan Barrage dividing river flow into Bengawan Solo River and Pepe River. It was equipped with total capacity pump of 12,3 m3/s. The inundation is not only caused by the backwater flow coming from Bengawan Solo River, but also surface runoff as the result of the excess rainfall which cannot be drained gravitationally to the main river if the gate was closed. Therefore, comprehensive study combining hydrology and hydraulics analysis is highly needed in order to achieve more effective flood control management. Hydrology analysis was done to estimate the direct runoff hydrograph from catchment area in Solo City to downstream of Pepe River. While in hydraulics case, hydraulic parameter in downstream of Pepe River influenced by Bengawan Solo River stream was analyzed. Both studies were simulated using software HEC-RAS 4.1.0 version. The simulation considered drainage channel, gate, pump system and dike in Pepe River downstream. Simulation using 10 years of return period in Solo City and average annual water level in Bengawan Solo River showed that Pepe River can flow through the gate, while the highest water level is still below the dike. Simulation considering 10 years of return period, water level hydrograph of Bengawan Solo River, existing pump, and gate operation inferred that Pepe River surpassed top of dike. Capacity of required pump should be more than 168,3 m3/s in order to pass 10 years of return period. By combining operational of existing pump and dike elevated up to +87,63 m

  13. Factors associated with tuberculosis cases in Semarang District, Indonesia: case-control study performed in the area where case detection rate was extremely low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Sri Ratna; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Demura, Masashi; Katsuyama, Midori; Ota, Yoko; Tanii, Hideji; Higashi, Tomomi; Semadi, Ngakan Putu Djaja; Saijoh, Kiyofumi

    2015-07-01

    Indonesia is ranked as the 4th highest contributor to tuberculosis (TB) in the world. Semarang District in Central Java displays extremely low case detection rate (CDR), possibly contributing to the local prevalence of TB. A case-control study was performed to explore the factors that cause such low CDR. We recruited 129 TB cases and 83 controls that visited the same centers and were not diagnosed with TB. The cases had 7.5 ± 2.3 symptoms/person on average, indicating the delay in diagnosis because the controls only displayed 1.0 ± 1.7. The multiple logistic regression analysis comparing the cases/controls extracted following factors as a risk to have TB: farmer, close contact with TB patients, ignorance of whether Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was accepted or no, smoking, low income, a lot of people living in the same room, irregular hand wash before meals, not wash hands after blow, soil floor, and no sunlight and no ventilation in the house. Neither the cases nor the controls knew the symptoms and how to avoid TB infection, which probably caused the delay in diagnosis. It is difficult to change the current living conditions. Thus, the amendment of the community-based education program of TB seems to be required.

  14. Mental illness, poverty and stigma in India: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Kuhlberg, Jill; Narayanan, Sreelatha S; Venkataraman, Hemalatha; Mishra, Nagendra N; Groce, Nora E; Jadhav, Sushrut; Deshpande, Smita

    2015-02-23

    To assess the effect of experienced stigma on depth of multidimensional poverty of persons with severe mental illness (PSMI) in Delhi, India, controlling for gender, age and caste. Matching case (hospital)-control (population) study. University Hospital (cases) and National Capital Region (controls), India. A case-control study was conducted from November 2011 to June 2012. 647 cases diagnosed with schizophrenia or affective disorders were recruited and 647 individuals of same age, sex and location of residence were matched as controls at a ratio of 1:2:1. Individuals who refused consent or provided incomplete interview were excluded. Higher risk of poverty due to stigma among PSMI. 38.5% of PSMI compared with 22.2% of controls were found poor on six dimensions or more. The difference in multidimensional poverty index was 69% between groups with employment and income of the main contributors. Multidimensional poverty was strongly associated with stigma (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.27 to 5.31), scheduled castes/scheduled tribes/other backward castes (2.39, 1.39 to 4.08), mental illness (2.07, 1.25 to 3.41) and female gender (1.87, 1.36 to 2.58). A significant interaction between stigma, mental illness and gender or caste indicates female PSMI or PSMI from 'lower castes' were more likely to be poor due to stigma than male controls (ppoverty linked to SMI are pervasive and intertwined. In particular for low caste and women, it is a strong predictor of poverty. Exclusion from employment linked to negative attitudes and lack of income are the highest contributors to multidimensional poverty, increasing the burden for the family. Mental health professionals need to be aware of and address these issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. The Application of Linear and Nonlinear Water Tanks Case Study in Teaching of Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangshun; Li, Zhiang

    2018-02-01

    In the traditional process control teaching, the importance of passing knowledge is emphasized while the development of creative and practical abilities of students is ignored. Traditional teaching methods are not very helpful to breed a good engineer. Case teaching is a very useful way to improve students’ innovative and practical abilities. In the traditional case teaching, knowledge points are taught separately based on different examples or no examples, thus it is very hard to setup the whole knowledge structure. Though all the knowledge is learned, how to use the knowledge to solve engineering problems keeps challenging for students. In this paper, the linear and nonlinear tanks are taken as illustrative examples which involves several knowledge points of process control. The application method of each knowledge point is discussed in detail and simulated. I believe the case-based study will be helpful for students.

  16. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is a zoonotic, parasitic infection in cattle. Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcass from all bovines above 6 weeks of age is examined for BC. This method is costly and makes more sense in countries with higher number of BC-infected animals...... than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards...... the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from...

  17. Association of Serum Uric Acid with Preeclampsia: A Case Control Study

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    Razia Sultana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia (PE is still one of the important causes of maternal and fetal mortality in Bangladesh. Many researches have been done to identify a unique screening test that would predict the risk of developing PE before the classic symptoms appear. One of the most accessible and easiest screening tests is serum uric acid measurement. Numerous studies have demonstrated a relation between elevated maternal serum uric acid levels and adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Among several pathophysiologic factors the most commonly accepted explanation for hyperuricemia in PE is increased reabsorption and decreased excretion of uric acid.Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the association of serum uric acid with preeclampsia.Materials and method: A case control study was conducted in the department of Biochemistry, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2010 to June 2011. A total number of 100 pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy attending in Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of Dhaka Medical College Hospital were selected purposively as study subjects. Among them 50 pregnant women with preeclampsia were selected as cases and 50 normal healthy pregnant women as controls.Results: Most of the study subjects were within 21 – 30 years of age group and mean age in case and control was 24.06±3.71 and 24.66±3.22 years respectively, which was not statistically different. Mean gestational age in case and control was 33.50±2.55 weeks and 33.60±2.95 weeks respectively, which was also not statistically different. Among the study subjects majority was primi in both groups (case 76%, contol 58% showing no statistical significance. Majority of the subjects in both groups were irregular in their antenatal checkup (case 52%, contol 40%. Uric acid concentration was measured in all the study subjects. The mean serum uric acid concentration in cases and controls were 7.01±1.90 mg/dl and 4.55±1.63 mg/dl respectively. This

  18. Analgesics use and ESRD in younger age: a case-control study

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    Moehner Sabine

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ad hoc peer-review committee was jointly appointed by Drug Authorities and Industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 1999/2000 to review the evidence for a causal relation between phenacetin-free analgesics and nephropathy. The committee found the evidence as inconclusive and requested a new case-control study of adequate design. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study with incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD under the age of 50 years and four age and sex-matched neighborhood controls in 170 dialysis centers (153 in Germany, and 17 in Austria from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2004. Data on lifetime medical history, risk factors, treatment, job exposure and intake of analgesics were obtained in a standardized face-to-face interview using memory aids to enhance accuracy. Study design, study performance, analysis plan, and study report were approved by an independent international advisory committee and by the Drug Authorities involved. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The analysis included 907 cases and 3,622 controls who had never used phenacetin-containing analgesics in their lifetime. The use of high cumulative lifetime dose (3rd tertile of analgesics in the period up to five years before dialysis was not associated with later ESRD. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 0.8 (0.7 – 1.0 and 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3 for ever- compared with no or low use and high use compared with low use, respectively. The same results were found for all analgesics and for mono-, and combination preparations with and without caffeine. No increased risk was shown in analyses stratifying for dose and duration. Dose-response analyses showed that analgesic use was not associated with an increased risk for ESRD up to 3.5 kg cumulative lifetime dose (98 % of the cases with ESRD. While the large subgroup of users with a lifetime dose up to 0.5 kg (278 cases and

  19. Intrapartum electrocardiogram alteration in fetuses with congenital heart disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Estelle; Bornallet, Géraldine; Gaucherand, Pascal; Doret, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    To assess if the fetal electrocardiogram especially ST segment is modified by congenital heart diseases: modifications in frequencies of the different ST events and modifications in signal quality. A retrospective case-control study, comparing frequencies of the different ST events and the quality of the signal between fetuses with congenital heart diseases and fetuses without congenital heart disease. From 2000 to 2011, fifty-eight fetuses with congenital heart disease had their heart rate recording using a STAN device during labor. Control group was fetuses who were born just before a case and had a STAN as a second line for intrapartum surveillance. Cases and controls were matched on parity, gestational age at birth, presence of growth restriction and umbilical artery pH. Frequencies of the different ST event and quality of the signal were first analyzed for the global labor recording, and then separately for the first and the second phase of labor. No statistically significant difference in ST event frequencies between fetuses with congenital heart disease and the control group was found. Regarding the quality of the signal, 11.49% (±18.82) of recording time is a signal loss for fetus with congenital heart disease whereas only 5.18% (±10.67) for the control group (p=0.028). This is the first study investigating for intrapartum electrocardiogram modification in fetus with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases do not modify frequencies of ST events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Juvenile Perpetrators of Homicides and Attempted Homicides – A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Britvić, Dolores; Urlić, Ivan; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of certain aspects of family dynamics, as well as some behavior and psychological development disorders on the occurrence of homicides and attempted homicides among juveniles in the Split Dalmatian County over a period of 10 years (1989–1998). A retrospective case-control study was performed to compare juvenile murderers and attempted murderers with minors who committed other offences, i.e. property crimes. The subjects were paired according ...

  1. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer in Tehran Province: a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Akram; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Fereidooni, Foroozandeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third and fourth leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality among men and women, respectively in Iran. However, the role of dietary factors that could contribute to this high cancer incidence remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and its relationship with colorectal cancer. Methods This case?control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tehran city of Iran. A total of 71 patients (35 men and 36 women, aged 40...

  2. A Survey on Some of the Effective Factors in Premature Birth: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Esmailnasab; Hossein Amirian; Batoul Eskandai; Mina Zarei

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives : Preterm birth (birth that occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy) is the major factor affecting a child's health and survival. Compared with term infants, these infants are at higher risk of mortality and incidence of health problems. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with preterm birth. Material and Methods : A case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Fatemieh hospital, Iran, between 23rd October 2011 and 21st June 2012. Convenie...

  3. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

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    Maha M. Al-Khaduri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results: Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51% was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%. Conclusion: Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results.

  4. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaduri, Maha M.; Abudraz, Rania Mohammed; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51%) was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%). Conclusion Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further p rospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results. PMID:25337307

  5. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of pregnancy associated breast cancer - a matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaras, Lilla; Kovács, Kristóf Attila; Szász, Attila Marcell; Kenessey, István; Tőkés, Anna-Mária; Székely, Borbála; Baranyák, Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Orsolya; Dank, Magdolna; Kulka, Janina

    2014-07-01

    Pregnancy Associated Breast Cancer (PABC) manifests during pregnancy or within a year following delivery. We sought to investigate differences in management, outcome, clinical, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) characteristics of PABC and matched controls in a retrospective case control study. PABC and control patients were selected from breast cancer cases of women ≤45 years, diagnosed in the 2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary between 1998 and 2012. Histopathology information on tumor type, grade, size, T, N, lympho-vascular invasion (LVI), Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI), associated in situ lesions and IHC charcteristics: ER, PgR, HER2, Ki67, p53 were recorded, IHC-based subtype was assessed, clinical, management and outcome data were analysed. Thirty-one breast cancer cases were pregnancy related. Clinical management data did not differ in cases and controls. Histopathology of disease at presentation was not significantly different, but NPI assessed the PABC group as having poor, whereas controls as having intermediate prognosis. Associated in situ lesion was more often high grade Extensive Intraductal Carcinoma Component (EIC) in PABC. Triple negative and LuminalB prol tumors predominated in PABC. Disease-free and overall survival was inferior compared to controls. PABC patients with LuminalB prol and Triple negative tumors had inferior outcomes. On multivariate analysis inferior prognosis of PABC was associated with pregnancy. Our study has demonstrated inferior outcome of PABC. Difference in tumor biology is reflected by the predominance of triple negative and LuminalB tumors in PABC. The strength of the study is the analysis of complete pathology and IHC data.

  6. Association between bullous pemphigoid and neurologic diseases: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-de-la-Asunción, E; Ruano-Ruiz, J; Rodríguez-Martín, A M; Vélez García-Nieto, A; Moreno-Giménez, J C

    2014-11-01

    In the past 10 years, bullous pemphigoid has been associated with other comorbidities and neurologic and psychiatric conditions in particular. Case series, small case-control studies, and large population-based studies in different Asian populations, mainland Europe, and the United Kingdom have confirmed this association. However, no data are available for the Spanish population. This was an observational, retrospective, case-control study with 1:2 matching. Fifty-four patients with bullous pemphigoid were selected. We compared the percentage of patients in each group with concurrent neurologic conditions, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and solid tumors using univariate logistic regression. An association model was constructed with conditional multiple logistic regression. The case group had a significantly higher percentage of patients with cerebrovascular accident and/or transient ischemic attack (odds ratio [OR], 3.06; 95% CI, 1.19-7.87], dementia (OR, 5.52; 95% CI, 2.19-13.93), and Parkinson disease (OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.57-15.94). A significantly higher percentage of cases had neurologic conditions (OR, 6.34; 95% CI, 2.89-13.91). Dementia and Parkinson disease were independently associated with bullous pemphigoid in the multivariate analysis. Patients with bullous pemphigoid have a higher frequency of neurologic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropsychiatric manifestation of celiac disease: A case-control study in North India

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    Mahendra Nimel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated disease dependent on gluten. Prevalence of CD is about 1% and beside gastrointestinal complaints, neuropsychiatric symptoms may represent an atypical feature of CD. Some studies suggest that a gluten-free diet is effective in treating them. Settings and Design: This case-control study of 49 cases was done during the period of January to March 2013. Aim: To know the spectrum of psychiatric manifestations and cognitive functions in children with CD. Materials and Methods: We took 49 diagnosed cases of CD (based on the demonstration of IgA tissue transglutaminase antibodies and duodenal biopsy and compared with demographically matched control group (n = 50 on Seguin Form Board Test for cognitive functions and Behavioral Summarized Evaluation-Revised scale for assessment of psychiatric and behavior disturbances. All possible psychiatric diagnosis was made on the basis of International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems-Tenth Revision criteria. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analyses were done by using Chi-square test and two-tailed P-values. Results: Neuropsychiatric manifestations were seen in 29% of cases as against 4% of controls which was statistically significant (P=0.001. Only four cases and 1 control fount to be mild mental retardation (P = 0.16. Autism, dyslexia, developmental delay, disruptive behavior disorder, and tic disorder present in cases were not found. Conclusion: Clinical manifestations of CD vary from typical malabsorption syndrome to neuropsychiatric manifestations. Those psychiatric patients who are not responding to standard pharmacological modalities, a diagnosis of CD should be taken into consideration. Only behavioral problem can be the sole clinical manifestation of CD.

  8. Smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption preceding Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M D; Bower, J H; Maraganore, D M; McDonnell, S K; Peterson, B J; Ahlskog, J E; Schaid, D J; Rocca, W A

    2000-11-14

    To study the association of PD with preceding smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption using a case-control design. The authors used the medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, during the years 1976 to 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control subject. The authors reviewed the complete medical records of cases and control subjects to abstract exposure information. For coffee consumption, the authors found an OR of 0.35 (95% CI = 0.16 to 0.78, p = 0.01), a dose-effect trend (p = 0.003), and a later age at PD onset in cases who drank coffee compared with those who never did (median 72 versus 64 years; p = 0.0002). The inverse association with coffee remained significant after adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol drinking and was restricted to PD cases with onset at age coffee drinking and PD; however, this association does not imply that coffee has a direct protective effect against PD. Alternative explanations for the association should be considered.

  9. Perceived discrimination and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have reported a very high incidence of schizophrenia for immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. The explanation of these findings is unknown, but is likely to involve social stress inherent to the migrant condition. A previous study reported that the incidence of schizophrenia in ethnic groups was higher when these groups perceived more discrimination. We conducted a case-control study of first-episode schizophrenia, and investigated whether perceived discrimination at the individual level is a risk factor for schizophrenia. Cases included all non-western immigrants who made first contact with a physician for a psychotic disorder in The Hague, the Netherlands, between October 2000 and July 2005, and received a diagnosis of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (DSM IV: schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder) (N = 100). Two matched control groups were recruited, one among immigrants who made contact with non-psychiatric secondary health care services (N = 100), and one among siblings of the cases (N = 63). Perceived discrimination in the year before illness onset was measured with structured interviews, assessing experiences of prejudice, racist insults or attacks, and perception of discrimination against one's ethnic group. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to predict schizophrenia as a function of perceived discrimination. Cases reported somewhat higher rates of perceived discrimination in the year prior to illness onset than their siblings and the general-hospital controls, but these differences were not statistically significant; 52% of the cases and 42% of both control groups had perceived any discrimination. Perceived discrimination at the individual level was not a risk factor for schizophrenia in these data. Perceived discrimination was positively correlated with cultural distance and cannabis use, and negatively with ethnic identity, self-esteem, and mastery. The relationship between racial

  10. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine's main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women's Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59-1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69-1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3-126.6, 126.7-152.9, and 153.0-308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37-1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26-0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS.

  11. The art and science of flow control - case studies using flow visualization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, F. S.; Cattafesta, L. N., III

    2010-04-01

    Active flow control (AFC) has been the focus of significant research in the last decade. This is mainly due to the potentially substantial benefits it affords. AFC applications range from the subsonic to the supersonic (and beyond) regime for both internal and external flows. These applications are wide and varied, such as controlling flow transition and separation over various external components of the aircraft to active management of separation and flow distortion in engine components and over turbine and compressor blades. High-speed AFC applications include control of flow oscillations in cavity flows, supersonic jet screech, impinging jets, and jet-noise control. In this paper we review some of our recent applications of AFC through a number of case studies that illustrate the typical benefits as well as limitations of present AFC methods. The case studies include subsonic and supersonic canonical flowfields such as separation control over airfoils, control of supersonic cavity flows and impinging jets. In addition, properties of zero-net mass-flux (ZNMF) actuators are also discussed as they represent one of the most widely studied actuators used for AFC. In keeping with the theme of this special issue, the flowfield properties and their response to actuation are examined through the use of various qualitative and quantitative flow visualization methods, such as smoke, shadowgraph, schlieren, planar-laser scattering, and Particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results presented here clearly illustrate the merits of using flow visualization to gain significant insight into the flow and its response to AFC.

  12. Fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrazo-Antelo, Ana Marina; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Abal Arca, José; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer has multiple risk factors and tobacco is the main one. Diet plays a role, but no clear effect has been consistently observed for different fruit and vegetable consumption. We aim to assess the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk through a hospital-based case-control study in Spanish population. We recruited incident lung cancer cases in 2 Spanish hospitals from 2004 to 2008. Controls were individuals attending hospital for trivial surgery. Cases and controls were older than 30 and did not have a neoplasic history. We collected information on lifestyle with special emphases on tobacco and dietary habits. We included 371 cases and 496 controls. We found no protective effect for overall fruit consumption. For green leafy vegetables, the odds ratio (OR) was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.32-2.69), and for other vegetables the OR was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.40-1.48) for the categories compared. We observed a reduced risk for broccoli and pumpkin intake. Although fruit consumption does not seem to be associated with a lower lung cancer risk, only the frequent consumption of specific green leafy vegetables and other vegetables might be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer.

  13. HPV and cofactors for invasive cervical cancer in Morocco: a multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraho, Mohamed; Amarti-Riffi, Afaf; El-Mzibri, Mohammed; Bezad, Rachid; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Benideer, Abdelatif; Matar, Noureddine; Qmichou, Zinab; Abda, Naima; Attaleb, Mohammed; Znati, Kaoutar; El Fatemi, Hind; Bendahhou, Karima; Obtel, Majdouline; Filali Adib, Abdelhai; Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone; Nejjari, Chakib

    2017-06-20

    Limited national information is available in Morocco on the prevalence and distribution of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer and the role of other risk factors. The aim was to determine the frequency of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer in Morocco and investigate risk factors for this disease. Between November 2009 and April 2012 a multicentre case-control study was carried out. A total of 144 cases of cervical cancer and 288 age-matched controls were included. Odds-ratios and corresponding confidence-intervals were computed by conditional logistic regression models. Current HPV infection was detected in 92.5% of cases and 13.9% of controls. HPV16 was the most common type for both cases and controls. Very strong associations between HPV-sub-types and cervical cancer were observed: total-HPV (OR = 39), HPV16 (OR = 49), HPV18 (OR = 31), and multiple infections (OR = 13). Education, high parity, sexual intercourse during menstruation, history of sexually transmitted infections, and husband's multiple sexual partners were also significantly associated with cervical cancer in the multivariate analysis. Our results could be used to establish a primary prevention program and to prioritize limited screening to women who have specific characteristics that may put them at an increased risk of cervical cancer.

  14. Corrective eyeglasses and medial canthal basal cell carcinoma: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, M; Hercos, A C; Miot, H A

    2012-07-01

    Corrective eyeglasses are frequently worn by adults, particularly at older ages. Their lenses and frames provide ultraviolet protection. Medial canthal basal cell carcinomas are infrequent (3-8%), and their relation with the use of corrective glasses was not yet investigated. To assess the prevalence of corrective eyeglasses use in individuals with medial canthal basal cell carcinoma. Case-control study using two controls matched by age, gender, and ethnicity for each case. Cases were patients with medial canthal basal cell carcinoma, and controls were patients with basal cell carcinoma elsewhere on the face. The prevalence of major risk variables was estimated and adjusted by conditional multiple logistic regression. Fifty cases and 100 controls were assessed. The mean patient age was 69.7 years, and 54% of the subjects were females. No difference regarding the eyeglasses use or use duration was found between groups. However, when visual defects were separately evaluated, eyeglasses for myopia correction were independently associated with lower risk of medial canthal basal cell carcinoma development (OR=0.26; P=0.03), what can be related to long term local photoprotection. The use of eyeglasses for myopia correction is associated with lower prevalence of medial cantal basal cell carcinoma. Risk-reducing mechanisms should be elucidated. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Fructose malabsorption in people with and without gout: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Caitlin; Fanning, Niamh; Drake, Jill; Frampton, Christopher; Gearry, Richard B; Stamp, Lisa K

    2017-10-01

    Higher fructose intake has been associated with hyperuricaemia and gout. Some individuals malabsorb fructose in the small intestine. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of fructose malabsorption and the effects of gout and fructose malabsorption on serum urate in people with and without gout. A total of 100 people with gout (cases) were age and gender matched with one control without gout. After a low fructose diet, fructose malabsorption was measured using a hydrogen and methane breath test with a 35g fructose load. In a subgroup of 35 cases and 35 controls, serum urate response to the fructose load over 240 minutes was measured. There was no significant difference in the rate of fructose malabsorption between cases and controls (48% vs. 52%; p = 0.67). Cases had a significantly lower mean (SEM) serum urate cumulative incremental concentration from baseline-240 minutes (iAUC 0-240 ) compared to controls 0.97 (0.56) vs. 4.78 (0.55); p fructose malabsorption are similar in people with and without gout. Allopurinol inhibits the increase in serum urate induced by a fructose load suggesting that people with gout receiving allopurinol may not need to restrict dietary intake of fructose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hyperemesis gravidarum affects maternal sanity, thyroid hormones and fetal health: a prospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukkayaci Duman, Nuriye; Ozcan, Oguzhan; Bostanci, M Ömer

    2015-08-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a condition of severe nausea or vomiting accompanied by various complications during pregnancy. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the effects of HG on mother and fetus health. Control and case group were arranged from 50 healthy pregnant women and 50 pregnant women with HG. Information about the participant women was gathered with data collection form and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) were administered to the women. Following an abortion or delivery, the data about birth complications and neonatal health were collected. All laboratory results (blood count, thyroid hormones, electrolyte values and biochemical parameters) were gathered from the laboratory information system used in the hospital. It was found that in the case group, mean postpartum weight, serum hemoglobin, hematocrit and thyroid stimulant hormone levels were lower than control group (p < 0.01). Conversely, case group women have higher T3 and T4 levels than control group (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight and abortion but it was observed that women with HG had often delivered prematurely. The mean scores of BDI and SAI in the case group were higher than those of control group. These results suggested that HG may have adverse effects on both mother and baby's health. Pregnant women with HG should be provided with training and consultancy services and be closely monitored in terms of anemia and thyroid hormones.

  17. CRONE control system design toolbox for the control engineering community: tutorial and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, Patrick; Malti, Rachid; Melchior, Pierre

    2013-05-13

    Fractional-order differentiation offers new degrees of freedom that simplify the design of high-performance dynamic controllers. The CRONE control system design (CSD) methodology proposes the design of robust controllers by using fractional-order operators. A software toolbox has been developed based on this methodology and is freely available for the international scientific and industrial communities. This paper presents both the CRONE CSD methodology and its implementation using the toolbox. The design of two robust controllers for irrigation canals shows how to use the toolbox.

  18. Screening for impulse control symptoms in patients with de novo Parkinson disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Daniel; Papay, Kimberly; Siderowf, Andrew

    2013-01-08

    To determine the frequency and correlates of impulse control and related behavior symptoms in patients with de novo, untreated Parkinson disease (PD) and healthy controls (HCs). The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative is an international, multisite, case-control clinical study conducted at 21 academic movement disorders centers. Participants were recently diagnosed, untreated PD patients (n = 168) and HCs (n = 143). The outcome measures were presence of current impulse control and related behavior symptoms based on recommended cutoff points for the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease (QUIP)-Short Form. There were 311 participants with complete QUIP data. Frequencies of impulse control and related behavior symptoms for patients with PD vs HCs were as follows: gambling (1.2% vs. 0.7%), buying (3.0% vs. 2.1%), sexual behavior (4.2% vs. 3.5%), eating (7.1% vs. 10.5%), punding (4.8% vs. 2.1%), hobbyism (5.4% vs. 11.9%), walkabout (0.6% vs. 0.7%), and any impulse control or related behavior (18.5% vs. 20.3%). In multivariable models, a diagnosis of PD was not associated with symptoms of any impulse control or related behavior (p ≥ 0.10 in all cases). PD itself does not seem to confer an increased risk for development of impulse control or related behavior symptoms, which further reinforces the reported association between PD medications and impulse control disorders in PD. Given that approximately 20% of patients with newly diagnosed PD report some impulse control or related behavior symptoms, long-term follow-up is needed to determine whether such patients are at increased risk for impulse control disorder development once PD medications are initiated.

  19. Characteristics of patients readmitted to intensive care unit: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, O Y; Lam, S M; Shum, H P; Lau, C W; Chan, Kenny K C; Yan, W W

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the pattern of unplanned readmissions to the intensive care unit and identify patients at risk of readmission. Nested case-referent study. Tertiary hospital, Hong Kong. A total of 146 patients with unplanned intensive care unit readmission were compared with 292 control patients who were discharged from the intensive care unit alive and never readmitted. Cases and controls were matched for age, gender, and disease severity. Patient demographics, initial and pre-discharge clinical parameters, reasons for readmission, and outcomes were studied. During the 30-month study period, the readmission rate was 5.1%. Readmitted patients had significantly higher mortality and longer mean hospital lengths of stay (both Pintensive care unit readmission. Incomplete resolution of respiratory conditions remained an important reason for potentially preventable intensive care unit readmission. Attention to fluid balance and sputum quantity before intensive care unit discharge might prevent unplanned intensive care unit readmission.

  20. Bioactive prolactin levels and risk of breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworoger, Shelley S.; Rice, Megan S.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V.; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolactin is a lactogenic hormone associated with breast cancer risk in prospective studies, which used immunoassays. The immunoassay captures multiple isoforms and may not fully reflect the biological activity of prolactin relevant to breast carcinogenesis. Methods We considered plasma bioactive prolactin levels measured by the Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay, which is sensitive to the somatolactogenic activity of prolactin and growth hormone, within a nested case-control study of invasive breast cancer in the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS/NHSII). We also considered associations with breast cancer risk factors. Results We had bioassay measures on 1329 cases and 1329 controls. Bioassay levels were inversely associated with parity (4+ vs. 0 children=−18%, p=0.01), body mass index (30+ vs. prolactin levels measured by bioassay and by immunoassay with both breast cancer risk factors and risk. Impact Future work examining risk prediction model of breast cancer can use the immunoassay to accurately characterize risk. PMID:25315962

  1. Nutritional variables and work-related accidents: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, M A T; Zangirolani, Lia Thieme Oikawa; Cordeiro, Ricardo Carlos; da Costa, Proença Rossana Pacheco; Diez-Garcia, Rosa Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional aspects are important for the prevention of diseases and disorders, and few studies have focused on the relationship between risk of work injury and nutritional variables. This study aimed to verify whether nutritional variables constitute risk factors for work-related accidents. 1,422 industrial workers (600 cases plus 822 controls). A case-control study was carried out in an industrial city in south-east Brazil. A multiple logistic regression model was adjusted using work-related accidents as the response variable and nutritional variables as predictors. The associations were assessed by Odds Ratio (OR), with a p-value work-related accidents were (a) attending formal education for an above average number of years (OR=0.91, pwork-related accidents. This indicates the need, during the formulation of policies for these kinds of government benefits, to include nutrition aspects in order to minimize work-related accidents risks.

  2. Two-stage case-control association study of dopamine-related genes and migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo Julio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported risk haplotypes for two genes related with serotonin and dopamine metabolism: MAOA in migraine without aura and DDC in migraine with aura. Herein we investigate the contribution to migraine susceptibility of eight additional genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission. Methods We performed a two-stage case-control association study of 50 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, selected according to genetic coverage parameters. The first analysis consisted of 263 patients and 274 controls and the replication study was composed by 259 cases and 287 controls. All cases were diagnosed according to ICHD-II criteria, were Spanish Caucasian, and were sex-matched with control subjects. Results Single-marker analysis of the first population identified nominal associations of five genes with migraine. After applying a false discovery rate correction of 10%, the differences remained significant only for DRD2 (rs2283265 and TH (rs2070762. Multiple-marker analysis identified a five-marker T-C-G-C-G (rs12363125-rs2283265-rs2242592-rs1554929-rs2234689 risk haplotype in DRD2 and a two-marker A-C (rs6356-rs2070762 risk haplotype in TH that remained significant after correction by permutations. These results, however, were not replicated in the second independent cohort. Conclusion The present study does not support the involvement of the DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD5, DBH, COMT, SLC6A3 and TH genes in the genetic predisposition to migraine in the Spanish population.

  3. Implant failure and history of failed endodontic treatment: A retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Wolff, Larry F

    2017-11-01

    Residual bacterial biofilm and/or bacteria in planktonic form may be survived in the bone following an extraction of an infected tooth that was endodontically treated unsuccessfully Failed endodontic treatment may be associated with failure of implants to osseointegrate in the same sites. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective case-control study is to examine the risk of implant failure in previous failed endodontic sites. This retrospective case-control study is based on 94 dental records of implants placed at the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry. Dental records of patients who received an implant in sites with previously failed endodontic therapy in the dental school were identified from the electronic database, while control subjects were obtained from the same pool of patients with the requirement to have received an implant in a site that was not endodontically treated. The mean age of the population was 62.89±14.17 years with 57.4% of the sample being females and 42.6% of them being males. In regards to the socio-economic status and dental insurance, 84.0% of this population was classified as low socio-economic status and 68.1% had dental insurance. Tobacco use was self-reported by 9.6% and hypercholesterolemia was the most prevalent systemic medical condition. Dental implant failure was identified in two of the included records (2.1%), both of which were placed in sites with a history of failed endodontic treatment. Within the limitations of this retrospective case-control study, further investigation with a larger population group into implant failure of sites that previously had unsuccessful endodontic treatment would be warranted. Implant failure may be associated with a history of failed endodontic treatment. Key words: Implantology, endodontics, osseointegration, treatment outcome, case-control study.

  4. Medical illness, medication use and suicide in seniors: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voaklander, D C; Rowe, B H; Dryden, D M; Pahal, J; Saar, P; Kelly, K D

    2008-02-01

    Suicide among seniors is a significant health problem in north America, particularly for men in whom the rates rise steadily after 50 years of age. The goal of this study was to examine elder suicides identified from a large population-based database using case-control methods to determine disease and medication factors related to suicide. A population-based 1 : 5 case-control study was conducted comparing seniors aged 66 years and older who had died by suicide with age and sex-matched controls. Case data were obtained through British Columbia (BC) Vital Statistics, whereas controls were randomly selected from the BC Health Insurance Registry. Cases and controls were linked to the provincial PharmaCare database to determine medication use and the provincial Physician Claims and Inpatient Hospitalization databases to determine co-morbidity. Between 1993 and 2002 a total of 602 seniors died by suicide in BC giving an annual rate of 13.2 per 100,000. Firearms were the most common mechanism (28%), followed by hanging/suffocation (25%), self-poisoning (21%), and jumping from height (7%). In the adjusted logistic model, variables related to suicide included: lower socioeconomic status, depression/psychosis, neurosis, stroke, cancer, liver disease, parasuicide, benzodiazepine use, narcotic pain killer use and diuretic use. There was an elevated risk for those prescribed inappropriate benzodiazepines and for those using strong narcotic pain killers. This study is consistent with previous studies that have identified a relationship between medical or psychiatric co-morbidity and suicide in seniors. In addition, new and potentially useful information confirms that certain types and dosages of benzodiazepines are harmful to seniors and their use should be avoided.

  5. Asthma Status and Risk of Incident Myocardial Infarction: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Duk Won; Wi, Chung-Il; Kim, Eun Na; Hagan, John; Roger, Veronique; Manemann, Sheila; Lahr, Brian; Ryu, Euijung; Juhn, Young J

    2016-01-01

    The role of asthma status and characteristics of asthma in the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) are poorly understood. We determined whether asthma and its characteristics are associated with risk of MI. The study was designed as a population-based retrospective case-control study, which included all eligible incident MI cases between November 1, 2002, and May 31, 2006, and their matched controls. Asthma was ascertained using predetermined criteria. Active (current) asthma was defined as the occurrence of asthma-related episodes (asthma symptoms, use of asthma medications, unscheduled medical or emergency department visit, or hospitalization for asthma) within 1 year before MI index date. There were 543 eligible incident MI cases during the study period. Of the 543 MI cases, 81 (15%) had a history of asthma before index date of MI, whereas 52 of 543 controls (10%) had such a history (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.06-2.66) adjusting for risk factors for MI and comorbid conditions (excluding chronic obstructive lung disease). Although inactive asthma did not increase the risk of MI, individuals with active asthma had a higher odds of MI, compared with those without asthma (adjusted OR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.57-6.44) without controlling for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). After adjusting for COPD, although asthma overall was no longer statistically significant (adjusted OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.84-2.15), active asthma still was associated (adjusted OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.12-4.82). Active asthma is an unrecognized risk factor for MI. Further studies are needed to assess the role of asthma control and medications in the risk of MI. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced Risk of Barrett's Esophagus in Statin Users: Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, Ian L P; Dearman, Leanne; Vardi, Inna; Loke, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Use of statins has been associated with a reduced incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in population-based studies. However there are few studies examining statin use and the development of Barrett's esophagus. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between statin use and the presence of Barrett's esophagus in patients having their first gastroscopy. We have performed a case-control study comparing statin use between patients with, and without, an incident diagnosis of non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Male Barrett's cases (134) were compared to 268 male age-matched controls in each of two control groups (erosive gastro-esophageal reflux and dyspepsia without significant upper gastrointestinal disease). Risk factor and drug exposure were established using standardised interviews. Logistic regression was used to compare statin exposure and correct for confounding factors. We performed a meta-analysis pooling our results with three other case-control studies. Regular statin use was associated with a significantly lower incidence of Barrett's esophagus compared to the combined control groups [adjusted OR 0.62 (95 % confidence intervals 0.37-0.93)]. This effect was more marked in combined statin plus aspirin users [adjusted OR 0.43 (95 % CI 0.21-0.89)]. The inverse association between statin or statin plus aspirin use and risk of Barrett's was significantly greater with longer duration of use. Meta-analysis of pooled data (1098 Barrett's, 2085 controls) showed that statin use was significantly associated with a reduced risk of Barrett's esophagus [pooled adjusted OR 0.63 (95 % CI 0.51-0.77)]. Statin use is associated with a reduced incidence of a new diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus.

  7. Severe Sepsis in Severely Malnourished Young Bangladeshi Children with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available In developing countries, there is no published report on predicting factors of severe sepsis in severely acute malnourished (SAM children having pneumonia and impact of fluid resuscitation in such children. Thus, we aimed to identify predicting factors for severe sepsis and assess the outcome of fluid resuscitation of such children.In this retrospective case-control study SAM children aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh from April 2011 through July 2012 with history of cough or difficult breathing and radiologic pneumonia, who were assessed for severe sepsis at admission constituted the study population. We compared the pneumonic SAM children with severe sepsis (cases = 50 with those without severe sepsis (controls = 354. Severe sepsis was defined with objective clinical criteria and managed with fluid resuscitation, in addition to antibiotic and other supportive therapy, following the standard hospital guideline, which is very similar to the WHO guideline.The case-fatality-rate was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (40% vs. 4%; p<0.001. In logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders, lack of BCG vaccination, drowsiness, abdominal distension, acute kidney injury, and metabolic acidosis at admission remained as independent predicting factors for severe sepsis in pneumonic SAM children (p<0.05 for all comparisons.We noted a much higher case fatality among under-five SAM children with pneumonia and severe sepsis who required fluid resuscitation in addition to standard antibiotic and other supportive therapy compared to those without severe sepsis. Independent risk factors and outcome of the management of severe sepsis in our study children highlight the importance for defining optimal fluid resuscitation therapy aiming at reducing the case fatality in such children.

  8. Periostin - A Novel Systemic Biomarker for Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emprm, Viswanathan; Rajanandh, M G; Nageswari, A D

    2016-02-01

    Chronic airway inflammation and remodelling are fundamental features of asthma. The molecular phenotypes in asthma are Th2 high and Th2 low. Serum periostin is a biomarker which aid in understanding Th2 high eosinophilic asthma. The present study aimed to identify whether or not serum periostin is a systemic biomarker for eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatics. The study was designed as a prospective, case control study. Patients who presented with consistent symptoms of asthma and confirmed by spirometry with reversibility were the cases. The controls were healthy subjects who had no history of lung disease with normal lung function. The sputum and blood samples were collected from both the groups. Sputum eosinophils, Absolute Eosinophil Counts (AEC) and serum periostin levels were compared between the groups. The study comprised of 101 participants in which 30 were controls and 71 were cases. In the study group, mean post FEV1 was 64.45. There was a positive correlation of sputum eosinophils with severity of obstruction. The ROC curve analysis showed the cut-off value of 24.556 for serum periostin with the p-value of limitation in asthmatic patients with a Th2 high eosinophilic phenotype when compared to AEC and sputum eosinophils.

  9. Risk factors for severe hand foot mouth disease in Singapore: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, So-Phia; Chong, Shu-Ling; Barbier, Sylvaine; Matthew, Aji; Lee, Jan Hau; Chan, Yoke Hwee

    2015-10-31

    Hand foot mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood infection that can potentially lead to serious complications. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors of acquiring severe HFMD in our population. We performed a case control study using patients admitted to our hospital from August 2004 to July 2014. Cases were patients with severe HFMD disease while controls were age-matched patients obtained from the same year, in a 2:1 ratio. Data comprising demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms and signs, and lab findings were collected. Conditional univariable logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors for severe disease. A total of 24 cases of severe HFMD were identified and matched with 48 controls. Seventeen (70.8%) cases had central nervous system complications. Seven (29.2%) had cardiovascular complications without evidence of myocarditis. One patient died of encephalitis. The overall mortality of severe disease is 4%. Evidence of hypoperfusion, seizure, altered mentation, meningeal irritation, tachycardia, tachypnea, raised absolute neutrophil count and EV-A71 (Enterovirus A71) positivity were significantly associated with a severe course of HFMD. In managing children with HFMD, physicians should consider these factors to help identify patients at risk for severe disease.

  10. Case-control study of pleural mesothelioma in workers with social security in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Robles-Pérez, Eduardo; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc Arturo; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Rico-Méndez, Flavio Gerardo; Javier, Kelly-García

    2010-03-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos in Mexico in the past has been a cause of deaths and health damages. Its magnitude is unknown to date. Our objective was to identify the proportion of cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) that can be attributed to and occupational exposure to asbestos. We carried out a case-control study of MPM in 472 workers insured by the Mexican Institute of Social Security, all Valley of Mexico residents, with 119 incident cases and 353 controls. Cases were histologically confirmed. Participants were questioned concerning their occupational history and sociodemographic data. Assignment to one of the four exposures was performed qualitatively by an expert hygienist. Odds ratios (ORs) and attributable risks (ARs) were calculated using a non-conditional logistic regression model. A total of 80.6% of cases and 31.5% of controls had occupational exposure to asbestos. ORs were adjusted for age and gender and by exposure category, and exhibited an increase with probability of exposure as follows: 3.7(95% CI 1.3-10.4) for the likely category and 14.3(95% CI 8-26) for the certain category; AR in the group occupationally exposed to asbestos was 83.2%, and the population AR was 44%. Our results show that the relationship between industrial uses of all forms of asbestos is generating an increase in mesothelioma-related diseases and deaths among Mexican workers. As a public health policy, Mexico should prohibit the use of asbestos in all production processes with the aim of controlling the epidemic and preventing the occurrence of new cases of MPM. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Cannabis use and genetic predisposition for schizophrenia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, W; Mackenbach, J P; van Os, J; Hoek, H W

    2008-09-01

    Cannabis use may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. Part of this association may be explained by genotype-environment interaction, and part of it by genotype-environment correlation. The latter issue has not been explored. We investigated whether cannabis use is associated with schizophrenia, and whether gene-environment correlation contributes to this association, by examining the prevalence of cannabis use in groups with different levels of genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. Case-control study of first-episode schizophrenia. Cases included all non-Western immigrants who made first contact with a physician for schizophrenia in The Hague, The Netherlands, between October 2000 and July 2005 (n=100; highest genetic predisposition). Two matched control groups were recruited, one among siblings of the cases (n=63; intermediate genetic predisposition) and one among immigrants who made contact with non-psychiatric secondary health-care services (n=100; lowest genetic predisposition). Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to predict schizophrenia as a function of cannabis use, and cannabis use as a function of genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. Cases had used cannabis significantly more often than their siblings and general hospital controls (59, 21 and 21% respectively). Cannabis use predicted schizophrenia [adjusted odds ratio (OR) cases compared to general hospital controls 7.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7-22.6; adjusted OR cases compared to siblings 15.9 (95% CI 1.5-167.1)], but genetic predisposition for schizophrenia did not predict cannabis use [adjusted OR intermediate predisposition compared to lowest predisposition 1.2 (95% CI 0.4-3.8)]. Cannabis use was associated with schizophrenia but there was no evidence for genotype-environment correlation.

  12. Residents in difficulty—just slower learners? A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria

    2014-01-01

    were matched for graduation year. Medical school exam failures, grades, completion time, and academic dispensations as predictors of case status were examined with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS In total 89 cases and 343 controls were identified. The total number of medical school re...... during medical school; however, they needed more exam attempts and longer time to complete their studies, and so seemed to be slower learners. A change from “fixed-length variable-outcome programmes” to “fixed-outcome variable-length programmes” has been proposed as a way of dealing with the fact...

  13. An Ecological Flood Control System in Phoenix Island of Huzhou, China: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowen Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional flood control systems always have a conflict with natural ones, i.e., rivers in cities are usually straight and smooth, whereas natural ones are according to ecological mechanisms. Social and economic developments in the modern world require a new system combining ecological needs and traditional flood control system. Ecological flood control systems were put forward and defined as flood control systems with full consideration of ecological demands for sustainable development. In such systems, four aspects are promoted: connectivity of water system, landscapes of river and lakes, mobility of water bodies, and safety of flood control. In Phoenix Island, Huzhou, needs for ecological flood controls were analyzed from the four aspects above. The Water system layout was adjusted with the water surface ratio, which is the ratio of water surface area (including rivers, lakes, and other water bodies to the total drainage area, and connectivity as controlling indicators. The designed water levels provided references for landscape plant selection. Mobility of the adjusted water system was analyzed, including flow direction and residence time. On the bases mentioned above, ecological flood control projects were planned with comprehensive consideration of the ecological requirements. The case study indicates that ecological needs can be integrated with flood control to develop ecological flood control systems that do not only prevent floods but also retain the ecological functions of water bodies.

  14. Telomere length and ischaemic stroke in women: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürks, M; Prescott, J; Dushkes, R; De Vivo, I; Rexrode, K M

    2013-07-01

    Telomere shortening has been implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, prospective data on the association between relative telomere length (RTL) and ischaemic stroke are scarce and inconclusive. We used a nested case-control design among women participating in the prospective Nurses' Health Study. Participants provided blood samples in 1990 and were followed till 2006. Women with confirmed incident ischaemic stroke were matched to controls by age, smoking, postmenopausal status and postmenopausal hormone use. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine RTL in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risk of ischaemic stroke associated with RTL, using RTL quartiles and as dichotomous according to the median. Data on RTL were available from 504 case-control pairs. Results did not suggest an association between RTL and ischaemic stroke. The odds ratio (OR) for ischaemic stroke was 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-1.32] comparing lowest with the highest RTL quartile and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65-1.24) comparing RTL below the median with RTL above the median. Associations were unchanged after additional adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Further analyses suggested an association between RTL and fatal ischaemic stroke (54 case-control pairs; lowest versus highest quartile OR = 1.99, 95%CI 0.26-14.9); however, results were statistically insignificant. In this large nested case-control study among women RTL was not associated with ischaemic stroke. In light of the varying study results in the literature on the association between telomere length and stroke, additional research is warranted. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  15. Risk factors for invasive Cryptococcus neoformans diseases: a case-control study.

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    Ying-Ying Lin

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous environmental fungus that can cause life-threatening meningitis and fungemia, often in the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, or other medical conditions. To distinguish risk factors from comorbidities, we performed a hospital-based, density-sampled, matched case-control study.All new-onset cryptococcal meningitis cases and cryptococcemia cases at a university hospital in Taiwan from 2002-2010 were retrospectively identified from the computerized inpatient registry and were included in this study. Controls were selected from those hospitalized patients not experiencing cryptococcal meningitis or cryptococcemia. Controls and cases were matched by admission date, age, and gender. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors.A total of 101 patients with cryptococcal meningitis (266 controls and 47 patients with cryptococcemia (188 controls, of whom 32 patients had both cryptococcal meningitis and cryptococcemia, were included in this study. Multivariate regression analysis showed that AIDS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 181.4; p < 0.001, decompensated liver cirrhosis (aOR = 8.5; p = 0.008, and cell-mediated immunity (CMI-suppressive regimens without calcineurin inhibitors (CAs (aOR = 15.9; p < 0.001 were independent risk factors for cryptococcal meningitis. Moreover, AIDS (aOR = 216.3, p < 0.001, decompensated liver cirrhosis (aOR = 23.8; p < 0.001, CMI-suppressive regimens without CAs (aOR = 7.3; p = 0.034, and autoimmune diseases (aOR = 9.3; p = 0.038 were independent risk factors for developing cryptococcemia. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus and other medical conditions were not found to be risk factors for cryptococcal meningitis or cryptococcemia.The findings confirm AIDS, decompensated liver cirrhosis, CMI-suppressive regimens without CAs, and autoimmune diseases are risk factors for invasive C. neoformans diseases.

  16. Healthy eating index in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A case-control study

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    Mahbobeh Sadat Hosseini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many effort to identify and control the factors involved in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, there are no available reports indicating the association of healthy eating index (HEI and PCOS. Objective: The present study has been conducted to examine the relationship between HEI and PCOS. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the study population comprised 297 women aged 20-40 yr referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital Clinics, Tehran, Iran in two groups: case group (n=99 and control group (n=198. The usual dietary data were collected using a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Standard anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and waist circumference were also taken. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the PCOS and the HEI. Results: The mean age and body mass index of case and control groups were 29±5.5 vs. 29.5±6 yr and 26.6±4.8 vs. 26±4.2 kg/m², respectively (p=0.752, p=0.822. Mean HEI scores for the case and control groups were found to be 61 and 65, respectively. In final model and after adjustment for confounders, the prevalence of PCOS in subjects in the highest tertile HEI score was significantly (50% less than those in the lowest tertile HEI score (OR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-0.74, p=0.001. Conclusion: Our results suggest that HEI score is inversely associated with the risk of PCOS in adult women

  17. Tooth eruption sequence and dental crowding: a case-control study.

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    Moshkelgosha, Vahid; Khosravifard, Negar; Golkari, Ali

    2014-01-01

    When cases of dental crowding are identified and diagnosed promptly, interceptive orthodontics is particularly successful. To assess the differences in the eruption sequence of the mandibular canine and first premolar teeth in children with and without dental crowding. Children who attended the Shiraz Dental School's orthodontic clinic (Iran) from September to December 2012 were enrolled in this case-control study. Tooth size arch length discrepancy (TSALD) of all 8-10 year olds was calculated from patients' dental models. Thirty-six children were randomly selected from those with TSALD of equal or less than 4mm (those with crowding). Each selected case was matched for sex and age with another child (as control) with TSALD>-4mm attending the same clinic, in the same time period. The existing panoramic radiographs were traced and the eruption percentages were measured for mandibular canine and first premolar teeth. The mean difference between canine and first premolar eruption percentages was compared between the case and control groups using the SPSS (version PASW 18) software and a paired sample t-test. Canine and first premolar eruption percentages in the case group were 65.82±13.00 and 78.92±10.15 percent, respectively. The mean eruption percentages for canines and first premolars of the control group were 74.12±14.55 and 75.47±11.60 percent, respectively. There was a significant difference in pre-eruptive positions of canine and first premolar teeth in those with moderate to severe crowding when compared to the control group (p<0.001). These findings may improve the early diagnosis of children with high risk of developing moderate to severe crowding during mixed dentition.

  18. Community-based case-control study of childhood stroke risk associated with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christine K; Sidney, Stephen; Fullerton, Heather J

    2015-02-01

    A better understanding of the stroke risk factors in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) could inform stroke prevention strategies. We analyzed pediatric stroke associated with CHD in a large community-based case-control study. From 2.5 million children (aged hemorrhagic strokes and randomly selected age- and facility-matched stroke-free controls (3 per case). We determined exposure to CHD (diagnosed before stroke) and used conditional logistic regression to analyze stroke risk factors. CHD was identified in 15 of 412 cases (4%) versus 7 of 1236 controls (0.6%). Cases of childhood stroke (occurring between ages 29 days to 20 years) with CHD had 19-fold (odds ratio, 19; 95% confidence interval 4.2-83) increased stroke risk compared to controls. History of CHD surgery was associated with >30-fold (odds ratio, 31; confidence interval 4-241) increased risk of stroke in children with CHD when compared with controls. After excluding perioperative strokes, the history of CHD surgery still increased the childhood stroke risk (odds ratio, 13; confidence interval 1.5-114). The majority of children with stroke and CHD were outpatients at the time of stroke, and almost half the cases who underwent cardiac surgery had their stroke >5 years after the most recent procedure. An estimated 7% of ischemic and 2% of hemorrhagic childhood strokes in the population were attributable to CHD. CHD is an important childhood stroke risk factor. Children who undergo CHD surgery remain at elevated risk outside the perioperative period and would benefit from optimized long-term stroke prevention strategies. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Psychiatric disorders in male prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Adrienne; Hawton, Keith; Marzano, Lisa; Fazel, Seena

    2010-10-01

    Although male prisoners are five times more likely to die by suicide than men of a similar age in the general population, the contribution of psychiatric disorders is not known. To investigate the association of psychiatric disorders with near-lethal suicide attempts in male prisoners. A matched case-control study of 60 male prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts (cases) and 60 prisoners who had never carried out near-lethal suicide attempts in prison (controls) was conducted. Psychiatric disorders were identified with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and information on sociodemographic characteristics and criminal history was gathered using a semi-structured interview. Psychiatric disorders were present in all cases and 62% of controls. Most current psychiatric disorders were associated with near-lethal suicide attempts, including major depression (odds ratio (OR) = 42.0, 95% CI 5.8-305), psychosis (OR = 15.0, 95% CI 2.0-113), anxiety disorders (OR = 6.0, 95% CI 2.3-15.5) and drug misuse (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.3-6.4). Lifetime psychiatric disorders associated with near-lethal attempts included recurrent depression and psychoses. Although cases were more likely than controls to meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder, the difference was not statistically significant. Comorbidity was also significantly more common among cases than controls for both current and lifetime disorders. In male prisoners, psychiatric disorders, especially depression, psychosis, anxiety and drug misuse, are associated with near-lethal suicide attempts, and hence probably with suicide.

  20. Clinical implications of antiretroviral drug interactions with warfarin: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterly, John S; Darin, Kristin M; Gerzenshtein, Lana; Othman, Fidah; Postelnick, Michael J; Scarsi, Kimberly K

    2013-06-01

    Warfarin, a frequently prescribed anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic index, is susceptible to drug-drug interactions with antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study compared the warfarin maintenance dose (WMD) between patients receiving and not receiving ART and evaluated predictors of warfarin dosage among those on ART. This was a case-control (1:2) study. Cases were HIV-infected patients receiving warfarin and protease inhibitor (PI)- and/or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Controls were randomly selected HIV-uninfected patients receiving warfarin. The WMD was compared between cases and controls and between cases on varying ART regimens. Bivariate comparisons were performed and a linear regression model was developed to identify predictors of WMD. We identified 18 case and 36 control patients eligible for inclusion. Cases were younger than controls (mean age: 45.8 versus 63.1 years, P African American (50.0% versus 22.2%, P=0.04). ART was classified as PI-based (n=9), NNRTI-based (n=7) and PI + NNRTI-based (n=2). The WMD (mean ± SD) differed between cases and controls (8.6  ±  3.4 mg versus 5.1 ± 1.5 mg, P ART regimens (PI: 8.8  ±  4.5 mg; NNRTI: 8.6   ± 1.8 mg; PI + NNRTI: 7.3  ±  3.3 mg; P = 0.86). Race and ritonavir dose were independent predictors of WMD, predicting an increase of 3.9 mg (95% CI: 0.88-6.98, P = 0.02) if a patient was African American or 3.7 mg (95% CI: 0.53-6.89, P = 0.03) if the total daily ritonavir dose was 200 mg. The required WMD was significantly higher in patients receiving ART. Prompt dose titration to achieve a higher WMD with vigilant monitoring may be required due to these drug-drug interactions.

  1. The environmental risk factors in multiple sclerosis susceptibility: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaygannejad, Vahid; Rezaie, Nooshin; Paknahad, Zamzam; Ashtari, Freshteh; Maghzi, Helia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and degenerating disease which involves central nervous system. Environmental risk factors have a key role in MS susceptibility. Here we aim to investigate different risk factors effect on MS susceptibility in a large population of MS patients in Isfahan, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional hospital-based study, which was conducted on a large group of MS patients registered in Kashani hospital and a control group from normal healthy population. Demographic data, age at onset of the disease, history of viral infections, vaccination, history of trauma to head, recent stressful events, alimentation, familial history, method of delivery (caesarean section, normal vaginal delivery), disability score and history of smoking were gathered using a designed questionnaire. Totally 536 MS patient with the mean age of 34.37 ± 9.22 and 399 individuals from healthy population with the mean age of 32.53 ± 9.91 were recruited. Significant difference in history of measles infection (control = 15.5%, case = 22.4%, P = 0.009), consumption of dairy products (case = 56.6%, control = 67.5%, P = 0.01) and major stressful life events (case = 62.2%, control = 52.7%, P < 0.05) between these two groups were demonstrated. A significant relation between stress, history of infection and milk consumption was reached that highlights the importance of environmental risk factors in MS pathogenesis.

  2. ASSOCIATION OF INTESTINAL AMOEBIASIS WITH NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE (NAFLD- A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

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    Amarendra Narayan Choudhary

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been done to show the association of intestinal amoebiasis with the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There are so many factors, which are related with the causation of NAFLD as for example obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesteraemia and sedentary living. Besides these, there are many unknown or little known factors, which should be studied. Amoebiasis is very common infection in North India including Gangetic plain of Bihar. These two conditions are very frequently observed together in a same person; therefore, a case-control study was done to confirm the association between these two conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS In the present study, 120 cases of diagnosed NAFLD were taken of the age group between 30 years to 60 years, both male and female. 130 persons who were not suffering from NAFLD were taken as a control group in the same age and sex composition in the same community. Stool examination of all these 250 persons were done and cases of amoebiasis were diagnosed after getting at least two positive findings out of three examinations. RESULTS Prevalence of amoebiasis was clearly in excess in the NAFLD group in comparison to control group. This difference was tested statistically by calculating standard error of difference between two proportions and Chi-square test. The result showed a positive, strong and statistically significant association between NAFLD and intestinal amoebiasis. CONCLUSION There is a strong association between NAFLD and intestinal amoebiasis and further study is needed to show the biological plausibility to establish the causation.

  3. Pituitary tumor risk in relation to mobile phone use: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Mithila; Raitanen, Jani; Salminen, Tiina; Lahkola, Anna; Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    The number of mobile phone users has grown rapidly, which has generated mounting public concern regarding possible health hazards. This study aims to assess pituitary tumor risk, as it has rarely been investigated. A case-control study was conducted with 80 eligible cases identified from all five university hospitals in Finland and frequency-matched 240 controls from the national population register. Controls were matched to cases by age, sex, region of residence and date of interview. A detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained using a structured interview. Several indicators of mobile phone use were assessed using conditional logistic regression. A reduced odds ratio was seen among regular mobile phone users [OR 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21, 0.72] relative to never/non-regular users, possibly reflecting methodological limitations. Pituitary tumor risk was not increased after 10 or more years since first use (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.25, 1.89). The risk was not increased in relation to duration, cumulative hours of use, or cumulative number of calls. The results were similar for analog and digital phones. We found no excess risk associated with self-reported short- or medium-term use of mobile phones. This is consistent with most of the published studies. However, uncertainties remained for longer duration of use, as a very small proportion of study participants reported use beyond 10 years.

  4. Predictors of Nursing Staff Voluntary Termination in Nursing Homes: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; Gore, Rebecca

    2017-08-01

    Workforce instability in the long-term care sector has raised wide attention about nursing staff turnover. Most attention has been devoted to understanding the relationship between facility's characteristics and organizational turnover. This case-control study examined the contribution of work characteristics to individual staff turnover. Surveys were collected with nursing staff in 18 for-profit nursing homes on up to five occasions between 2006 and 2012. A list of nursing staff voluntarily terminating jobs was provided by the company. Cases and controls (628 of each) were selected from survey respondents by matching on age, job category, and survey occasion. Multiple predictor conditional logistic regression models showed that evening shift work (hazards ratio [HR] = 2.00, p 8 hr (HR = 1.42, p voluntary termination. This study provides different perspectives of nursing staff voluntary termination in nursing homes. Future qualitative research would be valuable to explore and understand nursing staff turnover in the health care industry.

  5. Tobacco chewing and risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qadasi, F A; Shah, S A; Ghazi, H F

    2017-01-23

    This study aimed to assess the risk factors for gastric cancer in Yemen. A hospital-based case-control study of 70 cases and 140 controls was carried out in Sana'a city between May and October 2014. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information through direct interview. Living in rural areas, tobacco chewing and drinking untreated water were significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Frequent consumption of chicken, cheese, milk, starchy vegetables, cucumber, carrots, leeks, sweet pepper, fruit drinks, legumes and olive oil were associated significantly with decreased risk of gastric cancer. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that chewing tobacco and frequent consumption of white bread were associated with increased risk of gastric cancer, whereas frequent consumption of chicken, cooked potatoes and fruit drinks had an inverse association. Risk of gastric cancer can be prevented by health education and increasing community awareness.

  6. A case-controlled study of altered visual art production in Alzheimer's and FTLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Katherine P; Liu, Anli A; Howard, Sara; Slama, Hilary; Hou, Craig E; Shuster, Karen; Miller, Bruce L

    2007-03-01

    To characterize dementia-induced changes in visual art production. Although case studies show altered visual artistic production in some patients with neurodegenerative disease, no case-controlled studies have quantified this phenomenon across groups of patients. Forty-nine subjects [18 Alzheimer disease, 9 frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 9 semantic dementia (SD), 15 healthy older controls (NC)] underwent formal neuropsychologic testing of visuospatial, perceptual, and creative functioning, and produced 4 drawings. Subjective elements of drawings were rated by an expert panel that was blind to diagnosis. Despite equal performance on standard visuospatial tests, dementia groups produced distinct patterns of artistic features that were significantly different from NCs. FTDs used more disordered composition and less active mark-making (Pvisual art.

  7. Cardiovascular drugs and the risk of suicide: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callréus, Torbjörn; Agerskov Andersen, Ulla; Hallas, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During the past 30 years, various cardiovascular drugs have been implicated as causes of depression or suicide. Although the evidence for causal relationships has generally been conflicting, both beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE-inhibitors) have been...... related to depression. Lipid-lowering therapies and calcium-channel blockers have also been linked to an increased risk of suicide. In this study, we investigated the possible association between the use of cardiovascular drugs and suicide using population-based register data. METHODS: We performed...... a nested case-control study in the county of Funen, Denmark, that consisted of 743 cases of completed suicide identified in a Death Registry for the period 1991-1998 and 14,860 age- and sex-matched controls. Information on previous drug use was retrieved from prescription data and the association between...

  8. Use of antidepressants and association with elective termination of pregnancy: population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieler, H; Malm, H; Artama, M; Engeland, A; Furu, K; Gissler, M; Nørgaard, M; Stephansson, O; Valdimarsdottir, U; Zoega, H; Haglund, B

    2015-11-01

    To assess whether the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, mirtazapine, venlafaxine or other antidepressants is associated with late elective termination of pregnancy. Case-control study using data from national registers. Denmark, Finland, and Norway during the period 1996-2007. A total of 14,902 women were included as cases and 148,929 women were included as controls. Cases were women with elective termination of pregnancy at 12-23 weeks of gestation. Controls continued their pregnancy and were matched with cases on key factors. Association between antidepressant use during pregnancy and elective termination of pregnancy at 12-23 weeks of gestation for fetal anomalies, or for maternal ill health or socio-economic disadvantage. At least one prescription of antidepressants was filled by 3.7% of the cases and 2.2% of the controls. Use of any type of antidepressant was associated with elective termination of pregnancy for maternal ill health or socio-economic disadvantage (odds ratio, OR 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 2.0-2.5). Elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies was associated with the use of mirtazapine (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.5). There was no association between the use of any of the other antidepressants and elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The use of any type of antidepressants was associated with elective termination of pregnancy at 12-23 weeks for maternal ill health or socio-economic disadvantage, but not with terminations for fetal anomalies. Further studies need to confirm the findings concerning mirtazapine and termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. © 2014 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after Wenchuan earthquake: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongzhong; Wang, Fang; Wen, Jin; Shi, Yingkang

    2014-01-01

    Few clues were found in the literature about the independent risk factors for PTSD among earthquake survivors in Sichuan province three years after the 2008 earthquake. Ours was the first case-control study with matching factors of age and distance from the epicenter among survivors age 16 years or older, three years after the catastrophe. To identify independent risk factors for PTSD among earthquake survivors. We performed a population-based matched case-control study. The cases were drawn from earthquake areas three years after the Wenchuan earthquake, including 113 cases who met positive criteria for PTSD symptoms according to the PCL-C (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version) score and 452 controls who did not meet the criteria. Cases and controls were matched individually by birth year (+ three years) and the town they lived in when the earthquake occurred. Independent risk factors for PTSD symptoms included two-week disease prevalence (odds ratio [OR],1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.18-3.13), witnessing someone being killed in the earthquake (OR, 2.04;95%CI, 1.17-3.58), having no regular income after the earthquake (OR, 0.52; 95%CI, 0.28-0.98), receiving mental health support only one time after the earthquake (OR, 2.43; 95%CI, 1.09-5.42) and lower social support (lower PSSS score) (OR, 0.95; 95%CI, 0.93-0.97). Earthquake experience, suffering from physical illnesses, lack of stable income, and lower social support were associated with PTSD symptoms.

  10. Variation in dentofacial morphology and occlusion in juvenile idiopathic arthritis subjects: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuqian; Billiau, An D; Verdonck, An; Wouters, Carine; Carels, Carine

    2009-02-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can severely disturb facial growth and affect occlusal development. In this case-control study, facial, functional, and occlusal characteristics of 100 JIA patients (35 males and 65 females; age range: 1.7-19.4 years) comprising all subtypes classified according to the revised classification criteria of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) were studied. They were compared with a mixed orthodontic control group (n=32; 12 males and 20 females) and with a Class II division 1 malocclusion group (n=19; eight males and 11 females). The JIA patients and controls were evaluated using clinical assessment, dental pantomograms, lateral cephalograms (LCGs), and dental casts. Compared with the age- and gender-matched mixed orthodontic controls, JIA patients showed a significantly greater prevalence of anterior open bites (AOBs; Pplane (Pplane, the gonial and the interincisal angles, or total face height. From this case-control study, it can be concluded that although JIA patients share occlusal characteristics with non-JIA patients with a Class II division 1 malocclusion, they are different with regard to the prevalence of condylar lesions and AOBs, as well as SNA and SNB angles and LAFH.

  11. Risk factors for maternal mortality in the west of Iran: a nested case-control study

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    Jalal Poorolajal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: With a gradual decline in maternal mortality in recent years in Iran, this study was conducted to identify the remaining risk factors for maternal death. METHODS: This 8-year nested case-control study was conducted in Hamadan Province, in the west of Iran, from April 2006 to March 2014. It included 185 women (37 cases and 148 controls. All maternal deaths that occurred during the study period were considered cases. For every case, four women with a live birth were selected as controls from the same area and date. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed and the odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence interval (CI were obtained for each risk factor. RESULTS: The majority of cases were aged 20-34 years, died in hospital, and lived in urban areas. The most common causes of death were bleeding, systemic disease, infection, and pre-eclampsia. The OR estimate of maternal death was 8.48 (95% CI=1.26-56.99 for advanced maternal age (≥35 years; 2.10 (95% CI=0.07-65.43 for underweight and 10.99 (95% CI=1.65-73.22 for overweight or obese women compared to those with normal weight; 1.56 (95% CI=1.08-2.25 for every unit increase in gravidity compared to those with one gravidity; 1.73 (95% CI=0.34-8.88 for preterm labors compared to term labors; and 17.54 (95% CI= 2.71-113.42 for women with systemic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, advanced maternal age, abnormal body mass index, multiple gravidity, preterm labor, and systemic disease were the main risk factors for maternal death. However, more evidence based on large cohort studies in different settings is required to confirm our results.

  12. Dermatoglyphic patterns in dementia of the Alzheimer type: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berr, C; Okra-Podrabinek, N; Feteanu, D; Taurand, S; Hervy, M P; Forette, F; Piette, F; Sebag-Lanoe, R; Alperovitch, A

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to compare digital and palmar dermatoglyphics in subjects with dementia of Alzheimer type and in mentally healthy elderly controls. DESIGN--This design was a case-control study. SETTING--The study was carried out in geriatric units and retirement communities in the Paris area. PARTICIPANTS--Cases were women with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer type dementia according to DSM III-R criteria (n = 82), mainly with late onset of the disease. Controls were women aged 85 years or older without cognitive deterioration (n = 76). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Finger and palm prints obtained from both hands by the classical ink method were examined. Fingerprints were classified into four types of figures. On palms, palmar flexion creases, palmar axial triradii, true patterns of the hypothenar area, and main line terminations were described. Examinations were performed by two examiners blind to the subjects's diagnostic category. For the different patterns studied, no major differences between dementia patients and elderly controls were found. Nor was there evidence of high frequencies of features commonly observed in Down's syndrome (trisomy 21), which have previously, though sporadically, been reported. CONCLUSIONS--On one of the largest samples of Alzheimer dementia patients studied, and with evaluation blind to diagnosis, no evidence has been found that particular dermatoglyphic patterns occur like those observed in Down's syndrome, a disease which is related to dementia of the Alzheimer type. PMID:1479321

  13. Risk factors for indigenous Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections in The Netherlands: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduyn, Y.; Brandhof, van den W.E.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.H.P.; Breukink, B.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Pelt, van W.

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study comprising 1315 Campylobacter jejuni cases, 121 Campylobacter coli cases and 3409 frequency-matched controls was conducted in The Netherlands in 2002-2003. Risk factors for both C. jejuni and C. coli enteritis were consumption of undercooked meat and barbecued meat, ownership of

  14. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. METHODS: An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41, consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89, and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks.

  15. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Mohammadi, Parvin; Elahi, Elham; Barati, Hojatollah

    2016-01-01

    A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks.

  16. A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Paula Colette Kuypers

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of having a traffic accident after using alcohol, single drugs, or a combination, and to determine the concentrations at which this risk is significantly increased.A population-based case-control study was carried out, collecting whole blood samples of both cases and controls, in which a number of drugs were detected. The risk of having an accident when under the influence of drugs was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age and time period of accident (cases/sampling (controls. The main outcome measures were odds ratio (OR for accident risk associated with single and multiple drug use. In total, 337 cases (negative: 176; positive: 161 and 2726 controls (negative: 2425; positive: 301 were included in the study.Main findings were that 1 alcohol in general (all the concentrations together caused an elevated crash risk; 2 cannabis in general also caused an increase in accident risk; at a cut-off of 2 ng/mL THC the risk of having an accident was four times the risk associated with the lowest THC concentrations; 3 when ranking the adjusted OR from lowest to highest risk, alcohol alone or in combination with other drugs was related to a very elevated crash risk, with the highest risk for stimulants combined with sedatives.The study demonstrated a concentration-dependent crash risk for THC positive drivers. Alcohol and alcohol-drug combinations are by far the most prevalent substances in drivers and subsequently pose the largest risk in traffic, both in terms of risk and scope.

  17. Hyperglycemia in poor controlled diabetes from crude tamarind herbal pill: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is an important finding in the diabetic patient with poor glycemic control. There are several possible causes of hyperglycemic. Here, the author presents an interesting case study on a female diabetic patient presenting with hyperglycemic due to intake of crude tamarind herbal pill. General practitioner should realize that the use of alternative medicine can be a cause of unexplained hyperglycemic episode in diabetic patient.

  18. The risk of menstrual abnormalities after tubal sterilization: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    shobeiri, Mehri Jafari; AtashKhoii, Simin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Tubal sterilization is the method of family planning most commonly used. The existence of the post-tubal-ligation syndrome of menstrual abnormalities has been the subject of debate for decades. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 112 women with the history of Pomeroy type of tubal ligation achieved by minilaparatomy as the case group and 288 women with no previous tubal ligation as the control group were assessed for menstrual abnormalities. Results Menstrual abnormalities...

  19. Cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome risk among men with and without erectile dysfunction: case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zambon, João Paulo; Mendonça, Rafaela Rosalba de; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Karam Junior, Amir; Santos, Raul D.; Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf de; Wroclawski, Eric Roger

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Erectile dysfunction has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. The aim here was to evaluate cardiovascular risk through the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) criteria, C-reactive protein (CRP) assays and presence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in men with and without erectile dysfunction diagnosed within a healthcare program. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective case-control study was conducted. The patients were selected from a healthcare program at the Hospital Israelita...

  20. A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, Kim Paula Colette; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Ramaekers, Johannes Gerardus; Verstraete, Alain Gaston

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of having a traffic accident after using alcohol, single drugs, or a combination, and to determine the concentrations at which this risk is significantly increased. A population-based case-control study was carried out, collecting whole blood samples of both cases and controls, in which a number of drugs were detected. The risk of having an accident when under the influence of drugs was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age and time period of accident (cases)/sampling (controls). The main outcome measures were odds ratio (OR) for accident risk associated with single and multiple drug use. In total, 337 cases (negative: 176; positive: 161) and 2726 controls (negative: 2425; positive: 301) were included in the study. Main findings were that 1) alcohol in general (all the concentrations together) caused an elevated crash risk; 2) cannabis in general also caused an increase in accident risk; at a cut-off of 2 ng/mL THC the risk of having an accident was four times the risk associated with the lowest THC concentrations; 3) when ranking the adjusted OR from lowest to highest risk, alcohol alone or in combination with other drugs was related to a very elevated crash risk, with the highest risk for stimulants combined with sedatives. The study demonstrated a concentration-dependent crash risk for THC positive drivers. Alcohol and alcohol-drug combinations are by far the most prevalent substances in drivers and subsequently pose the largest risk in traffic, both in terms of risk and scope.

  1. Risk Factors for Abdominal Wound Dehiscence in Children: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    van Ramshorst, Gabri?lle H.; Salu, Nathalie E.; Bax, Nikolaas M. A.; Hop, Wim C. J.; van Heurn, Ernst; Aronson, Daniel C.; Lange, Johan F.

    2009-01-01

    Background In the limited literature concerning abdominal wound dehiscence after laparotomy in children, reported incidences range between 0.2?1.2% with associated mortality rates of 8?45%. The goal of this retrospective case-control study was to identify major risk factors for abdominal wound dehiscence in the pediatric population. Methods Patients younger than aged 18?years who developed abdominal wound dehiscence in three pediatric surgical centers during the period 1985?2005 were identifi...

  2. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  3. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, William G.; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G.; Toms, Andoni P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  4. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, William G.; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G.; Toms, Andoni P. [Cotman Centre, Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  5. Reproductive factors in relation to breast cancer: A hospital based case control study in Jammu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langer Bhavna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: To Study the risk factors of Breast cancer , Setting:All the newly registered cases of Breast cancer in one year from Ist May 2004. Study Design:A Hospital based case control study. Methodology:Data was collected by a face to face interview using the prestructured Questionnaire after taking informed consent. Results: 100 cases of Breast Cancer and 100 controls were analyzed. Mean age of breast cancer cases was 50.20 ± 12.49 years. Income (p >0.39, Educational Status (p>0.35 Age at Marriage (p>0.36 Age at First pregnancy (p>0.32 Total No of live Birth (p>0.09 Duration of Breast Feeding (P>0.07 Showed no statistically significant relationship to the risk of Breast Cancer. Dietary History (p<0.001 Smoking History (p<0.04 Physical Activity (p<0.001 Age at Menarche (p<0.002 History of Breast Feeding (p<0.04 History of Abortion (p<0.003 were shown to be Statistically Significant to the risk of Breast Cancer . Conclusion : The risk factor which are often implicated in the risk of Breast Cancer may not hold true in our settings.

  6. Individual socioeconomic status and breast cancer diagnostic stages: a French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Mattea; Trétarre, Brigitte; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Bessaoud, Faiza

    2016-06-01

    Health inequalities have increased over the last 30 years. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between low individual socioeconomic status and poor breast cancer prognosis. Our hypothesis was: low socioeconomic status patients have a higher risk of being diagnosed with late stage breast cancer than high socioeconomic status ones due to delayed diagnosis. We conducted a matched case-control study on 619 women with breast cancer, living in the Hérault, a French administrative area. Both Cases and Controls were recruited among invasive cases diagnosed in 2011 and 2012 and treated in Hérault care centers. Cases were defined as patients with advanced stages. Controls were composed of early stage patients. Individual socioeconomic status was assessed using a validated individual score adapted to the French population and health care system. We observed that low socioeconomic status patients have a 2-fold risk of having late stage breast cancer regardless of cancer characteristics and detection mode (screening vs. clinical signs). One reason explaining those results could be that low socioeconomic status patients have less regular follow-up which can lead to later and poorer diagnosis. Follow-up is improved for women with a better awareness of breast cancer. Health policy makers could reduce health inequalities by reducing the delay in breast cancer diagnosis for low socioeconomic status women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies and early miscarriages in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulis, Konstantinos A; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Tsolakidou, Konstantina; Hilidis, Ilias; Fragkos, Marios; Polyzos, Stergios A; Gerofotis, Antonios; Kita, Marina; Bili, Helen; Vavilis, Dimitrios; Daniilidis, Michail; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Papadimas, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    We have previously hypothesized that early miscarriage in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis might be the result of a cross-reactivity process, in which blocking autoantibodies against thyrotropin receptor (TSHr-Ab) antagonize hCG action on its receptor on the corpus luteum. To test this hypothesis from the clinical perspective, we investigated the presence of TSHr-Ab in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with apparently unexplained, first-trimester recurrent miscarriages compared to that in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with documented normal fertility. A total of 86 subjects (43 cases and 43 age-matched controls) were finally included in a case-control study. No difference in the prevalence of TSHr-Ab positivity was detected between cases and controls (Fisher's exact test, p value = 1.00). In patients with recurrent miscarriages, TSHr-Ab concentrations did not predict the number of miscarriages (univariate linear regression, p value = 0.08). These results were robust in sensitivity analyses, including only cases with full investigation or those with three or more miscarriages. We conclude that no role could be advocated for TSHr-Ab in the aetiology of recurrent miscarriages in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  8. The Impact of Trachomatous Trichiasis on Quality of Life: A Case Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmael Habtamu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trachomatous trichiasis is thought to have a profound effect on quality of life (QoL, however, there is little research in this area. We measured vision and health-related QoL in a case-control study in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.We recruited 1000 adult trichiasis cases and 200 trichiasis-free controls, matched to every fifth trichiasis case on age (+/- two years, sex and location. Vision-related quality of life (VRQoL and health-related quality of life (HRQoL were measured using the WHO/PBD-VF20 and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Comparisons were made using linear regression adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic status. Trichiasis cases had substantially lower VRQoL than controls on all subscales (overall eyesight, visual symptom, general functioning and psychosocial, p<0.0001, even in the sub-group with normal vision (p<0.0001. Lower VRQoL scores in cases were associated with longer trichiasis duration, central corneal opacity, visual impairment and poor contrast sensitivity. Trichiasis cases had lower HRQoL in all domains (Physical-health, Psychological, Social, Environment, p<0.0001, lower overall QoL (mean, 34.5 v 64.6; p<0.0001 and overall health satisfaction (mean, 38.2 v 71.7; p<0.0001. This association persisted in a sub-group analysis of cases and controls with normal vision. Not having a marriage partner (p<0.0001, visual impairment (p = 0.0068, daily labouring (p<0.0001, presence of other health problems (p = 0.0018 and low self-rated wealth (p<0.0001 were independently associated with lower overall QoL scores in cases. Among cases, trichiasis caused 596 (59% to feel embarrassed, 913 (91.3% to worry they may lose their remaining eyesight and 681 (68.1% to have sleep disturbance.Trachomatous trichiasis substantially reduces vision and health related QoL and is disabling, even without visual impairment. Prompt trichiasis intervention is needed both to prevent vision loss and to alleviate physical and psychological suffering, social

  9. Welding and lung cancer in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Siemiatycki, Jack; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Van Gelder, Rainer; Olsson, Ann; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, H-Erich; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Tardón, Adonina; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Consonni, Dario; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Gustavsson, Per; Marcus, Michael; Fabianova, Eleonora; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Rudnai, Peter; Bencko, Vladimir; Janout, Vladimir; Mates, Dana; Foretova, Lenka; Forastiere, Francesco; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Boffetta, Paolo; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Several epidemiologic studies have indicated an increased risk of lung cancer among welders. We used the SYNERGY project database to assess welding as a risk factor for developing lung cancer. The database includes data on 15,483 male lung cancer cases and 18,388 male controls from 16 studies in Europe, Canada, China, and New Zealand conducted between 1985 and 2010. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals between regular or occasional welding and lung cancer were estimated, with adjustment for smoking, age, study center, and employment in other occupations associated with lung cancer risk. Overall, 568 cases and 427 controls had ever worked as welders and had an odds ratio of developing lung cancer of 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.67) with the odds ratio increasing for longer duration of welding. In never and light smokers, the odds ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval: 1.37, 2.79). The odds ratios were somewhat higher for squamous and small cell lung cancers than for adenocarcinoma. Another 1,994 cases and 1,930 controls had ever worked in occupations with occasional welding. Work in any of these occupations was associated with some elevation of risk, though not as much as observed in regular welders. Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that welding is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.

  10. Serum uric acid level as a determinant of the metabolic syndrome: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khichar, Satyendra; Choudhary, Shyama; Singh, Veer Bahadur; Tater, Priyanka; Arvinda, R V; Ujjawal, Vivek

    To determine whether elevations of uric acid levels are associated with the cluster of disorders described in metabolic syndrome and to evaluate whether hyperuricemia may be considered a component of this syndrome. One year case-control study was conducted in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India from January to December 2013. The study population consisted of 200 subjects, 100 with metabolic syndrome (case) and 100 without metabolic syndrome (control) aged between 18 and 80 years, attending OPD at PBM Hospital were studied. Controls were age and sex matched to the cases. Blood tests and all physical variables were examined using standard methods. Subjects were divided into 6 groups according to their possession of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 components of the metabolic syndrome. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA, linear regression analysis and multivariate linear regression model. Mean serum UA level was significantly associated with all components of metabolic syndrome (pmetabolic factors increased showing a highly significant trend (pmetabolic syndrome. The current multivariate regression analysis clearly infers that uric acid can be considered as a marker and potential modifier of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization under variability and uncertainty: a case study for NOx emissions control for a gasification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjun; Frey, H Christopher

    2004-12-15

    Methods for optimization of process technologies considering the distinction between variability and uncertainty are developed and applied to case studies of NOx control for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle systems. Existing methods of stochastic optimization (SO) and stochastic programming (SP) are demonstrated. A comparison of SO and SP results provides the value of collecting additional information to reduce uncertainty. For example, an expected annual benefit of 240,000 dollars is estimated if uncertainty can be reduced before a final design is chosen. SO and SP are typically applied to uncertainty. However, when applied to variability, the benefit of dynamic process control is obtained. For example, an annual savings of 1 million dollars could be achieved if the system is adjusted to changes in process conditions. When variability and uncertainty are treated distinctively, a coupled stochastic optimization and programming method and a two-dimensional stochastic programming method are demonstrated via a case study. For the case study, the mean annual benefit of dynamic process control is estimated to be 700,000 dollars, with a 95% confidence range of 500,000 dollars to 940,000 dollars. These methods are expected to be of greatest utility for problems involving a large commitment of resources, for which small differences in designs can produce large cost savings.

  12. Splenectomy Correlates With Increased Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Case-Control Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to investigate the association between splenectomy and acute pancreatitis. Methods We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. We included 7666 subjects aged 20–84 years with first-time acute pancreatitis during the period of 1998–2011 as cases and 30 664 randomly selected subjects without acute pancreatitis as controls. Both cases and controls were matched for sex, age, and index year of acute pancreatitis diagnosis. The association of acute pancreatitis with splenectomy was examined using a multivariable unconditional logistic regression model and reported as an odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Results After adjustment for covariables, the adjusted odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 2.90 for subjects with splenectomy (95% CI, 1.39–6.05) compared with subjects without splenectomy. Conclusions Splenectomy is associated with acute pancreatitis. Further studies are necessary to clarify the underlying mechanism. PMID:27087607

  13. [Risk factors for contact lens-related microbial keratitis: A multicenter case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becmeur, P H; Abry, F; Bourcier, T; Meyer, N; Sauer, A

    2017-03-01

    Currently, the most feared complication by ophthalmologists of contact lens (CL) wear is microbial keratitis (MK), even though its incidence remains low. It is also a significant financial burden for society. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for CL-related MK especially with regard to hygiene and pattern of use, in a large, prospective, multicenter, case-control study. A multicenter retrospective case-control study was designed. The CL-related MK subpopulation (case) was compared with healthy CL wearers (control) using a 52-item anonymous questionnaire designed to determine subject demographics, lens wear history, lens type and disinfection solution, fitting, patient education, hygiene and maintenance of contact lenses, and patient history. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare both groups. The study included 497 cases and 364 controls. The risk factors associated with the greatest increased odds of CL-related MK were as follows: extended wear (OR=2.96 [1.65-5.33], P<0.001), occasional overnight lens use (OR=6.37 [4,55-8.90], P<0.001), fitting by an optician (OR=1.97 [1.38-2.83], P<0.001), absence of ophthalmologic exam (OR=6.56 [2-22], P<0.01) or no training in handling the contact lens (OR=4.47 [2.27-8.77], P<0.01), use of optician's disinfection solution (OR=5.55 [3.12-9.85], P<0.001), mixing solutions ("topping off") (OR=4.68 [2.73-8.04], P<0.001), no case replacement (OR=3.95 [2.28-6.82] P<0.01), no compliance with hygiene rules and smoking (OR=2.29 [1.67-3.14], P<0.01). The protective factors associated with the greatest reduction in OR were female gender (OR=0.49 [0.36-0.66], P<0.01), hypermetropia (OR=0.28 [0.16-0.48], P=0.01), rigid contact lens wear, fitting by an ophthalmologist, written and verbal instruction, and daily case maintenance. The knowledge of these risks factors incentivizes action at all levels to reduce the incidence of MK, from the prescriber to the patient, including the type of CL, case and

  14. Building America Case Study: Control Retrofits for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water Recirculation Systems, Brooklyn, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Dentz; E. Ansanelli, H. Henderson, Jr.; K. Varshney

    2016-12-01

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  15. Building America Case Study: Control Retrofits for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water Recirculation Systems, Brooklyn, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7 percent after implementing the demand control technique, 2 percent after implementing temperature modulation, and 15 percent after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8 percent, 1 percent, and 14 percent for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  16. Low control beliefs in relation to school dropout and poor health: findings from the SIODO case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Hans; Theunissen, Marie-José; Verdonk, Petra; Feron, Frans

    2014-11-28

    There is cumulating evidence that health is compromised through adverse socioeconomic conditions negatively affecting how people think, feel, and behave. Low control beliefs might be a key mechanism. The reversed possibility that low control beliefs might set people on a pathway towards adverse socioeconomic and health-related outcomes is much less examined. A case-control design was used, consisting of 330 cases who dropped out of school in the 2010-2011 school year and 330 controls who still attended school at the end of that year. The respondents, aged between 18 and 23, came from Eindhoven and surrounding areas in the south-east of The Netherlands. A questionnaire asked for current health status, recalled socioeconomic and social background, and recalled control beliefs (mastery and general self-efficacy). Logistic regression analyses were used. Recalls of low mastery and low self-efficacy were strongly related to both dropout and less than good health. Low socioeconomic background was also associated to odds of dropout, but did not confound or moderate the associations of low control beliefs with dropout and health. Odds ratios of dropout and less than good health indicated at least twice the odds of a poor outcome with recalls of low control beliefs. Independent of the socioeconomic background, low control beliefs are related to heightened odds of both poor health and school dropout. Individual differences in control beliefs might thus be as fundamental as socioeconomic conditions in generating life-course socioeconomic and health-related pathways. Although the findings should first be cross-validated in prospective studies, public health professionals working with youth might already start considering early interventions in youth with all too fatalistic and powerless mind-sets.

  17. The use of earned value management for initiating directive project control decisions: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkiwane, N. H.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With large infrastructure backlogs in Africa, well-controlled projects will play a significant role in African infrastructure development. In this paper, the monitoring and/or directive use of Earned Value Management (EVM is investigated and linked to project management maturity. This case study also investigates the use of EVM based on the financial and schedule risk distribution among project role players, and the effect of EVM on project performance. The results show minimal use of EVM in the directive control of projects; at best, the directive use of EVM is found to be implied rather than deliberate and methodical.

  18. Female Sexual Victimization Predicts Psychosis: A Case-Control Study Based on the Danish Registry System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, A.; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: An increasing research literature has identified a statistical association between trauma exposure and psychosis. Methodological limitations, primarily relating to failures to establish the temporal ordering of events and relying on retrospective self-reports, have made the argument...... for a causal association difficult to establish. Method: A case-control study was conducted based on data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. All female visitors to a rape center during the index year (2003) were matched with controls based on age and area...

  19. Risk Factors of Congenital Heart Diseases: A Case-Control Study in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghavi-Behzad Mohammad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital heart diseases are of immense importance and also a high prevalence. Contributing factors to developing these defects have not been abundantly studied. Therefore, the current study was conducted aiming at determining the effective factors on Congenital Heart Disease (CHD in newborn infants of Northwest Iran. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in North-West of Iran from 2002 to 2012 and a total of 473 infants entered the study. Required data were obtained through check lists completed by the information of hospital records and interview with mothers of 267 newborn infants with CHD together with medical records of mothers as the case group, and 206 medical records of healthy infants at the same period all together with those of their mothers as the control group. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, T-test, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, and Multi-variable Logistic Regression Model (OR with 95% CI, using SPSS.19. In the present study, P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Based on the results of univariable analyses, the number of previous cesarean sections, past medical history of diseases, gestational age (GA, fetal weight at birth, diastolic blood pressure, fetal heart rate, pulse rate, fetal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and fetal head circumference at birth have significant relationship with incidence of congenital abnormalities (P<0.05. Family history, past cesarean sections history, past medical history and GA had significant relationship with CHD incidence. Conclusion: Based on the results of present study, in order to control and reduce the cases of CHD, it is crucial to make proper decisions and implement policies for reducing cesarean cases, lowering consanguineous marriages, providing proper pre-marriage counseling, prompt treatment of mothers’ illnesses, improving pregnancy health care and mothers

  20. Association of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo with Osteoporosis and Vitamin D Deficiency: A Case Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Abdullah; Acar Yüceant, Gülşah; Yüce, Turgut; Hacı, Cemal; Cebi, Işıl Taylan; Salviz, Mehti

    2017-08-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common type of vertigo caused by the peripheral vestibular system. The majority of cases are accepted as idiopathic. Calcium metabolism also plays a primary role in the synthesis/absorption of otoconia made of calcium carbonate and thus might be an etiological factor in the onset of BPPV. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of osteoporosis and vitamin D in the etiology of BPPV by comparing BPPV patients with hospital-based controls. This is a case-control study comparing the prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency in 78 BPPV patients and 78 hospital-based controls. The mean T-scores and serum vitamin D levels were compared. The risk factors of osteoporosis, physical activity, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and blood pressure were all compared between the groups. To avoid selection bias, the groups were stratified as subgroups according to age, sex, and menopausal status. In this study, the rates of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency detected in BPPV patients were reasonably high. But there was no significant difference in mean T-scores and vitamin D levels, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency prevalence between the BPPV group and controls. The prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency is reasonably high in the general population. Unlike the general tendencies in the literature, our study suggests that osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency are not risk factors for BPPV; we conclude that the coexistence of BPPV with osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency is coincidental.

  1. Leptospira Exposure and Patients with Liver Diseases: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in patients suffering from liver disease has been poorly studied. Information about risk factors associated with infection in liver disease patients may help in the optimal planning of preventive measures. We sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence and patients with liver diseases, and to determine the characteristics of the patients with Leptospira exposure. We performed a case-control study of 75 patients suffering from liver diseases and 150 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Diagnoses of liver disease included liver cirrhosis, steatosis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and amoebic liver abscess. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 17 (22.7%) of 75 patients and in 15 (10.0%) of 150 control subjects (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-4.94; P=0.03). This is the first age- and gender-matched case control study about Leptospira seroprevalence in patients with liver diseases. Results indicate that Leptospira infection is associated with chronic and acute liver diseases. Results warrants for additional studies on the role of Leptospira exposure in chronic liver disease. PMID:27493589

  2. A case control study of risk factors associated with female breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, N.; Waheed, A.; Farhat, K.; Ismail, M.

    2015-01-01

    To find the association of various risk factors with breast cancer. Study Design: It was a case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in NORI Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi between August, 2013 and February, 2014. Material and Methods: Two hundred breast cancer patients and 200 control subjects were inducted. A short approved and planned questionnaire was used to collect data regarding basic demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of participating females. Cases and controls were then interviewed after taking written consent. Results: Breast cancer patients and control subjects did not differ regarding age (p = 0.15), early menarche (OR for menarche at <13 years vs. ?13=1.3, 95% CI = 0.84 - 2.02), and history of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives did not increase breast cancer risk (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.57 - 1.74). Nulliparous women had significantly higher risk than parous women (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.22 - 4.84) and women with late menopause compared to women with early onset of menopause were also at higher risk for breast cancer (OR for menopause at ? 50 vs. < 50 = 5.16, 95% CI = 2.59 - 10.29). Conclusion: Nulliparity and menopausal age of more than 50 years was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Breast feeding and age less than 25 years at first live birth was not protective against breast cancer. (author)

  3. A Case-Control Study on the Oxidative Balance of 50% Autologous Serum Eye Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ioschpe Gus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Autologous serum (AS eye drops are recommended for severe dry eye in patients with ocular surface disease. No description of the antioxidant balance of AS eye drops has been reported in the literature. Objective. This study sought to evaluate the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS in samples of 50% AS eye drops and their correlations with the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of patients with ocular surface disease and healthy controls. Design. This was a case-control study with a 3-month follow-up period. Participants. 16 patients with severe dry eye disease of different etiologies and 17 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and race were included. Results. TRAP and ROS were detected at all evaluated times. There were no differences in the mean ROS (p=0.429 or TRAP (p=0.475 levels between cases and controls. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of ROS or TRAPs were found at 0, 15, or 30 days (p for ROS = 0.087 and p for TRAP = 0.93. Neither the demographic characteristics nor the lifestyle habits were correlated with the oxidative balance of the 50% AS eye drops. Conclusions and Relevance. Both fresh and frozen 50% AS eye drops present antioxidant capacities and ROS in an apparently stable balance. Moreover, patients with ocular surface disease and normal controls produce equivalent AS eye drops in terms of oxidative properties.

  4. Medication and suicide risk in schizophrenia: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutfors, Johan; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Jönsson, Erik G; Brandt, Lena; Bodén, Robert; Ekbom, Anders; Osby, Urban

    2013-11-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at increased risk of suicide, but data from controlled studies of pharmacotherapy in relation to suicide risk is limited. To explore suicide risk in schizophrenia in relation to medication with antipsychotics, antidepressants, and lithium. Of all patients with a first clinical discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in Stockholm County between 1984 and 2000 (n=4000), patients who died by suicide within five years from diagnosis were defined as cases (n=84; 54% male). Individually matched controls were identified from the same population. Information on prescribed medication was retrieved from psychiatric records in a blinded way. Adjusted odds ratios [OR] of the association between medication and suicide were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Lower suicide risk was found in patients who had been prescribed a second generation antipsychotic (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone; 12 cases and 20 controls): OR 0.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.97). When the 6 cases and 8 controls who had been prescribed clozapine were excluded, the OR was 0.23 (95% CI 0.06-0.89). No significant association was observed between suicide and prescription of any antipsychotic, depot injection antipsychotics, antidepressants, SSRI, or lithium. Lower suicide risk for patients who had been prescribed second generation antipsychotics may be related to a pharmacological effect of these drugs, to differences in adherence, or to differences in other patient characteristics associated with lower suicide risk. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated with positive direct antiglobulin tests in pretransfusion patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, P T; Chin, C A; Reid, M E; Burns, M A

    1985-01-01

    During routine pretransfusion testing, the presence of IgG on patient red cells is suggested by a positive autocontrol and confirmed by a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) using monospecific anti-IgG sera. Most IgG on patient red cells detected in this manner are of unknown etiology. We recently showed an association between elevated serum globulin levels and positive DAT with unreactive eluate in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the present study, we wished to determine whether elevated serum globulin levels contribute to some of the positive DAT encountered in pretransfusion testing of patients without AIDS. 76 patients with positive DAT were compared with 90 controls without IgG detected on their red cells during pretransfusion testing. The rate of elevated serum globulin levels was 75% in positive DAT cases versus 29% in controls (p less than 0.001); the odds ratio was 7.6. Elevated blood urea nitrogen levels occurred in 42% of cases versus 19% of controls (p less than 0.025); the odds ratio was 3.1. Cases and controls were not significantly different with regard to age, sex, race, quinidine usage, or hyperalimentation. Elevated serum globulin and blood urea nitrogen levels are significantly associated with a positive DAT with unreactive eluate in pretransfusion patients.

  6. Herpesvirus-Associated Acute Urticaria: An Age Matched Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareri, Arianna; Adler, Stuart P.; Nigro, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute and recurrent acute urticaria are often associated with multiple factors including infections and recent data suggest a role for herpesviruses. Objective To test the null hypothesis, that is, there is no association of herpesvirus infections with urticaria. Methods Thirty-seven patients between one month and 15 years of age were age matched to 37 controls who were healthy or had mild acute respiratory infections but without urticaria. Patients and controls were followed for 1 to 6 years. Diagnostic studies included DNA detection by real-time PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). Tests for other infections included adenovirus, parvovirus B 19, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A, Group A streptococci, rotavirus, and parasites. Results Specific infections were diagnosed in 26 of 37 cases and among 9 of 37 control children (P=0.0002). Single or concomitant herpesvirus infections occurred in 24 cases and in 4 controls (65% vs 11 %, p=0.0003). Cases had 10 HHV-6 infections, 8 CMV infections, 5 EBV infections, and 4 HSV-1 infections. Conclusion Herpesvirus infections are associated with acute or recurrent acute urticaria. PMID:24386470

  7. Risk factors for mortality in ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Leonilda Giani; de Menezes, Fernando Gatti; Gonçalves, Priscila; Toniolo, Alexandra do Rosário; Silva, Claudia Vallone; Kawagoe, Julia Yaeko; dos Santos, Camila Marques; Castagna, Helena Maria Fernandes; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle; Corrêa, Luci

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe the microbiological characteristics and to assess the risk factors for mortality of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis in a case-control study of intensive care patients. Methods This case-control study was conducted over a 6-year period in a 40-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care, private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Case patients were identified using the Nosocomial Infection Control Committee database. For the analysis of risk factors, matched control subjects were selected from the same institution at a 1:8.8 ratio, between January 2006 and December 2011. Results A total of 40 episodes of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis were evaluated in 40 patients in the intensive care unit, and 354 intensive care patients who did not experience tracheobronchitis were included as the Control Group. During the 6-year study period, a total of 42 organisms were identified (polymicrobial infections were 5%) and 88.2% of all the microorganisms identified were Gram-negative. Using a logistic regression model, we found the following independent risk factors for mortality in ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis patients: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation I score (odds ratio 1.18 per unit of score; 95%CI: 1.05-1.38; p=0.01), and duration of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio 1.09 per day of mechanical ventilation; 95%CI: 1.03-1.17; p=0.004). Conclusion Our study provided insight into the risk factors for mortality and microbiological characteristics of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis. PMID:28444091

  8. Psychiatric comorbidity of adolescents with sleep terrors or sleepwalking: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, S F; Soong, W T

    1999-10-01

    This study investigated the psychiatric comorbidity, personality traits and family history of adolescents with sleep terrors and/or sleepwalking. Thirty students with sleep terrors and/or sleepwalking and 30 classroom controls were selected on the basis of a sleep habit questionnaire. After completing the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory (JEPI), the 60 subjects were interviewed by the first author with the Chinese-version Kiddie-SADS-E (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Children--Epidemiology Version). All subjects and their parents were interviewed for the subjects' sleep habits, sleep disorders, and personality characteristics in the previous year. The case and the control groups were divided based on whether the sleep terrors and/or sleepwalking had occurred in the previous year. There were 21 case and 30 control subjects in the final data analysis. The case group had more psychiatric diagnoses and problems; there were statistically significant differences in overanxious disorder, panic disorder, simple phobia and suicidal thoughts between the two groups. The case group had more sleeptalking and nightmares during the previous year as well as more enuresis in earlier years. From their parents' perspective, the case group was more nervous and pessimistic. The results of the JEPI showed a high neuroticism score in the case group. There was an increased familial occurrence of these two sleep disorders. Adolescents with sleep terrors and sleepwalking were found to have an increased prevalence of other sleep disorders, neurotic traits, and psychiatric disorders and problems. Whereas sleep terrors and sleepwalking in childhood are related primarily to genetic and developmental factors, their persistence and, especially, their onset in adolescence may be related to psychological factors.

  9. Hematological Indices in Children with Non-organic Failure to Thrive: a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Nodoshan, A H; Hashemi, A; Golzar, A; Karami, F; Akhondzaraini, R

    2016-01-01

    Non-organic failure to thrive (NFTT) is the most common cause of failure to thrive (FTT) which is attributed to inadequate nutrition due to economic factors or parental neglect . NFTT can lead to a vicious cycle of poor and inadequate eating and severity of anemia. The aim of this study was to determine the hematological indices in children with NFTT. In a cross sectional case control study, iron status and blood indices of forty five aged 6-60 months children with NFTT were evaluated and compared with 45 healthy control children (with matching of age and sex). In this study, the prevalence of anemia was 48.9% in NFTT compared to 11.4% in the control group (p<0.001). Microcytic anemia was significantly more prevalent among the subjects than the controls (77.8% versus 27.3%; p<0. 001). The serum iron level was 73.2 and 62.8 mcg/dl for the case and control groups (P=0.29). The ferritin level in the study group was 29.8 versus 35.47 ng/ml in the control group (p=0.227). The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia among children with mild, moderate, and severe underweight was 44.4%, 45.5%, and 48%, respectively. The highest prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia was seen between age group of 12 and 24 months (p<0.05). Based on the results of this study, a correlation between malnutrition and anemia was found. However, further studies are needed to assess and confirm the current outcomes.

  10. The Long and Short of Genetic Counseling Summary Letters: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbuck, J; Temme, R; Pond, D; Baker, J; Jarvis, K; Liu, M; Dugan, S; Mendelsohn, N J

    2015-08-01

    Genetic counseling summary letters are intended to reinforce information received during genetic counseling, but little information is available on patient/family responses to these letters. We conducted a case-control study to assess the effectiveness of two different letter formats. Parents of children receiving a new diagnosis were enrolled. The control group (n = 85) received a genetic counseling summary letter in a narrative format, 4-5 pages in length. After the control enrollment period, genetic counselors were trained by a professional medical writer to develop a concise letter format. The case group (n = 64) received a concise letter, approximately 1.5 pages in length, utilizing simple sentences, lay terms, and lists/bullet points. Parents completed a survey 4 weeks after the visit to rate the letter's format, usefulness, and their emotional reaction. Results show that parents in the case group rated the letter more highly (p = 0.023), particularly in the emotional response dimension (rating changes in anxiety, depression, fear, ability to cope, and confidence in response to the letter). Parents in the case group also rated the genetic counseling session more highly (p = 0.039). In the control group, parents without a college degree were more likely to rate the letter as too long and the level of medical detail as too high. In the case group, no significant differences were seen between parents with or without a college degree. These data suggest that a short genetic counseling summary letter is rated higher by parents, and is particularly associated with a more positive emotional reaction. A short letter format highlighting the basic facts related to the genetic condition may be more useful to parents of diverse educational backgrounds, and may support a positive emotional adaptation at the time of a new diagnosis. Genetic counselors may benefit from specific instruction in medical and educational writing.

  11. Phenotype and natural history of elderly onset inflammatory bowel disease: a multicentre, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañosa, M; Calafat, M; de Francisco, R; García, C; Casanova, M J; Huelín, P; Calvo, M; Tosca, J; Fernández-Salazar, L; Arajol, C; Zabana, Y; Bastida, G; Hinojosa, J; Márquez, L; Barreiro-de-Acosta, M; Calvet, X; Monfort, D; Gómez-Garcia, M R; Rodríguez, E; Huguet, J M; Rojas-Feria, M; Hervias, D; Atienza, R; Busquets, D; Zapata, E; Dueñas, C; Charro, M; Martínez-Cerezo, F J; Plaza, R; Vázquez, J M; Gisbert, J P; Cañete, F; Cabré, E; Domènech, E

    2018-03-01

    Onset during old age has been reported in upto 10% of total cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To evaluate phenotypic characteristics and the use of therapeutic resources in patients with elderly onset IBD. Case-control study including all those patients diagnosed with IBD over the age of 60 years since 2000 who were followed-up for >12 months, identified from the IBD databases. Elderly onset cases were compared with IBD patients aged 18 to 40 years at diagnosis, matched by year of diagnosis, gender and type of IBD (adult-onset). One thousand three hundred and seventy-four elderly onset and 1374 adult-onset cases were included (62% ulcerative colitis (UC), 38% Crohn's disease (CD)). Among UC patients, elderly onset cases had a lower proportion of extensive disease (33% vs 39%; P < 0.0001). In CD, elderly onset cases showed an increased rate of stenosing pattern (24% vs 13%; P < 0.0001) and exclusive colonic location (28% vs 16%; P < 0.0001), whereas penetrating pattern (12% vs 19%; P < 0.0001) was significantly less frequent. Regarding the use of therapeutic resources, there was a significantly lower use of corticosteroids (P < 0.0001), immunosuppressants (P < 0.0001) and anti-TNFs agents (P < 0.0001) in elderly onset cases. Regarding surgery, we found a significantly higher surgery rate among elderly onset UC cases (8.3% vs 5.1%; P < 0.009). Finally, elderly onset cases were characterised by a higher rate of hospitalisations (66% vs 49%; P < 0.0001) and neoplasms (14% vs 0.5%; P < 0.0001). Elderly onset IBD shows specific characteristics and they are managed differently, with a lower use of immunosuppressants and a higher rate of surgery in UC. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Association of MALTectomy (appendectomy and tonsillectomy) and inflammatory bowel disease: a familial case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ramos, D; Gabriel, R; Cantero Perona, J; Moreno Otero, R; Fernández Bermejo, M; Maté Jiménez, J

    2001-05-01

    There is some controversy regarding the prevalence of tonsillectomy and appendectomy among patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and a lower rate of appendectomy among patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, some environmental and familial factors that could alter those figures have not been studied. To explore the prevalence of MALTectomy (appendectomy and tonsillectomy) among patients with IBD, stressing those factors that may be significantly associated to it. Age-and-sex matched case-control study in patients with IBD, their relatives and the general population. Two hundred and eighty seven cases were IBD patients (153 UC, and 134 CD), the "family control" group included 203 siblings and the population-based control group included 570 individuals. Potential confounding factors, such as smoking, educational level, oral contraceptive use, place of birth and residence up to the age of 15 years, were ruled out. Appendectomy and UC: 7% of UC patients had undergone appendectomy versus 20% (OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.11-0.5; p disease versus 17% among the control population (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.29-0.95; p < 0.01). The frequency of appendectomy in families with at least one case of CD was 22/221 (10%), which was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than among the control group 45/264 (17%). No differences were found between IBD patients and familial controls. Tonsillectomy and CD: Forty six per cent of CD patients had undergone tonsillectomy versus 39% of control patients (OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 0.92-2.05; p = ns). Tonsillectomy and UC: Twenty eight per cent of UC patients had undergone tonsillectomy versus 39% of the population control group (OR: 1.07; 95 CI: 0.57-1.25: p = ns). In fact, no differences were found regarding the prevalence of tonsillectomies within families with IBD cases as compared to population controls. Appendectomy is not only less frequent among CD and UC patients, but also among their relatives, thus suggesting the existence of environmental and genetic

  13. Salivirus in Children and Its Association with Childhood Acute Gastroenteritis: A Paired Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie-Mei; Ao, Yuan-Yun; Liu, Na; Li, Li-Li; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Salivirus was recently discovered in children with gastroenteritis and in sewage. Though a causative role for salivirus in childhood gastroenteritis was suggested in the previous study, the relationship between salivirus and acute gastroenteritis has not yet been clearly clarified. The sewage strain reported by Ng, although represented by incomplete genome sequencing data, was distinct from previously reported saliviruses, and had not previously been detected in humans. A case-control study examining 461 paired stool samples from children with diarrhea and healthy controls (1:1) was conducted in this study. Also, common diarrheal viruses were detected and complete genome of a salivirus was determined. Results showed that salivirus was detected in 16 (3.5%) and 13 (2.8%) of the case and control samples, respectively; no differences in detection rates (p=0.571) or mean values of viral loads (p=0.400) were observed between the groups. Multivariate Cox regression revealed no association between salivirus and gastroenteritis (p=0.774). The data also demonstrated that salivirus infection did not exacerbate clinical symptoms of gastroenteritis in children. Furthermore, complete genome sequence of a salivirus recovered from the feces of a child with diarrhea (i.e., SaliV-FHB) shared a 99% nucleotide identity with the sewage strain. In conclusion, a paired case-control study did not support a causative role for salivirus strains detected in this study with pediatric gastroenteritis. This study also demonstrated that all known saliviruses can be detected in the feces of children with or without gastroenteritis.

  14. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-10-01

    Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.

  15. Potential of public transit as a transportation control measure: Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillings, M.

    1998-07-01

    This report is the final product of the Clean Air Project of the National Association of Regional Councils/NARC. It documents a nationwide study of transit projects and programs initiated in the wake of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments/CAAA and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991/ISTEA. The study purpose was to assess the experience, limitations, and value of public transit as a potential transportation control measure/TCM, i.e., generates significant air quality benefits by eliminating or reducing emissions from motor vehicles. Four in-depth case studies and six additional projects featured as innovations in transportation are offered as examples investigating the potential of transit as a TCM. These case studies and innovations highlight the efforts of ten metropolitan areas and transit agencies which have succeed in developing and implementing innovative transit strategies.

  16. Tropheryma whipplei DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, J-C; Papazian, L; Fenollar, F; Edouard, S; Melenotte, C; Laroumagne, S; Michel, G; Martin, C; Gainnier, M; Lions, C; Carrieri, P; Stein, A; Brouqui, P; Raoult, D

    2016-10-01

    Tropheryma whipplei, the causative bacterium of Whipple's disease, can cause acute pneumonia. We performed a case-control study including patients with T. whipplei in bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) and controls in order to compare patients' clinical statuses. We tested T. whipplei PCR from January 2013 to December 2014, in all the 1438 BALs in Marseille, France. Controls were hospitalized in the same unit during the same period and were comparable in age and sex. Eighty-eight BALs (6.1%) were positive for T. whipplei and 58 patients had pneumonia. Sixty-four patients were male with a mean age of 50.5 years. T. whipplei was commonly associated with aspiration pneumonia (18/88 patients compared with 6/88 controls, p 0.01) and was detected as a unique pathogen in nine cases. Overall, no difference was observed regarding immunocompromised status. Nevertheless, the six AIDS-infected patients in the T. whipplei group had a significantly lower CD4 level than the five AIDS-infected patients in the control group (49 vs. 320/mm 3 , p 0.01); in addition, five patients were treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (including three treated by monocolonal antibodies and two with soluble receptor) compared with none of the controls (p 0.03). Pneumocystis jirovecii was frequently associated with the T. whipplei group (7/88 vs. 0/88 in control group), Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only detected in the control group (8/88). This study adds evidence for a causative role of T. whipplei in pneumonia. In the future, an experimental model of pneumonia induced by T. whipplei will prove its role in pneumonia. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of glaucoma on quality of life in Ethiopia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, Fisseha A; Zeraye, Banchamelak; Assefa, Yared; Legesse, Kbrom; Azale, Telake; Burton, Matthew J

    2017-12-13

    Glaucoma is a chronic disease characterized by irreversible optic nerve damage and visual field loss that leads to visual impairment and blindness; ultimately limiting personal independence and compromising overall quality of life of affected individuals. There is paucity of information on how glaucoma affects the quality of life of patients in low and middle-income countries where resources for both diagnosis and treatment of such conditions are limited. In this study we investigate the impact of glaucoma on quality of life in Ethiopian patients. The quality of life of 307 glaucoma patients and 76 normal controls that were frequency matched to the age and sex profiles of the cases was assessed using Amharic version of Glaucoma Quality of Life -15 questionnaire. Linear regression models and the t-test were employed to compare significant differences in GQL-15 scores and to generate mean and mean differences between cases and controls respectively. The mean GQL-15 score in the glaucoma cases was substantially higher (indicating poorer quality of life) than the controls [cases 46.3 (95% CI, 28.8-63.8) and controls 18.6 (95% CI, 15.2-22.0), p quality of life was associated with age ≥ 71 years old 51.1 (95%CI, 26.2-75.9), rural residence 55.7 (95%CI, 49.9-61.5), monthly income of quality of life compared to normal controls. Older age, rural residence, low income and more advanced disease were significantly associated with poorer quality of life. There is a need to increase awareness of the impact of glaucoma among clinicians, patients and their families, for a better understanding of the impact this disease has on a person's life.

  18. Anticholinergic Medication Use and Risk of Pneumonia in Elderly Adults: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Satabdi; Carnahan, Ryan M; Chen, Hua; Holmes, Holly M; Johnson, Michael L; Aparasu, Rajender R

    2016-02-01

    To examine the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) associated with the use of anticholinergic medications in elderly adults. Nested case-control study. A regional Medicare Advantage healthcare plan (2009-2010). Participants were Medicare Advantage Plan enrollees aged 65 and older with at least one inpatient and one outpatient claim with no history of CAP between January 1 and June 30, 2009. Cases were identified as enrollees with an incident diagnosis of CAP, between July 1, 2009, and December 31, 2010 (n = 291). Four age- and sex-matched controls (n = 1,164) were identified per case using incidence density sampling. Anticholinergic prescription 30 days preceding the event date was the primary exposure. Anticholinergic exposure was defined based on the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS). A conditional logistic regression model stratified on matched case-control sets was used, with exposure to a Level 1, 2, or 3 anticholinergic on the ADS as the main independent variable; CAP as the main outcome variable; and risk factors for CAP as additional explanatory variables. After controlling for risk factors, overall use of anticholinergic medications was significantly associated with risk of pneumonia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20-2.28). The risk of pneumonia remained significant across the different exposure periods, although use of higher-level (ADS Level 2 or 3) anticholinergics was not associated with pneumonia risk (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.70-1.96). Overall use of anticholinergic medications, but not higher-level drugs, was associated with greater risk of CAP compared to no use after controlling for other factors. More research is needed to better understand the role of potent anticholinergic medications on pneumonia risk in elderly adults. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Foods and risk of bladder cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, J C; Larrinaga, M T; De Stefani, E; Mendilaharsu, M; Ronco, A L; Boffetta, P; Brennan, P

    2001-10-01

    A case-control study on 144 cases of transitional cell bladder carcinoma and 576 hospitalized controls was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. Barbecued meat, salted meat and fried eggs were associated with significant increased risks of bladder cancer (odds ratio (OR) for high intake of salted meat 4.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.24-7.27). On the other hand, all fruits, cooked vegetables, potatoes and cheese were associated with inverse associations (OR for high consumption of potatoes 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.64). The associations with salted and barbecued meat suggest that the way of preserving or cooking meat play a role in bladder carcinogenesis. More precisely, N-nitroso compounds and heterocyclic amines could be involved in this process.

  20. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90......% of population-attributable risk. However, traditional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, cholesterol) appear to exert contrasting risks for stroke compared with coronary heart disease, and the etiology of stroke is far more heterogeneous. In addition, our knowledge of risk factors for stroke in low...... years). A questionnaire (cases and controls) is used to acquire information on known and proposed risk factors for stroke. Cardiovascular (e.g. blood pressure) and anthropometric (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio) measurements are obtained at the time of interview. Nonfasting blood samples and random urine...

  1. [Multicenter case-control study of the relationship between smoking and bladder cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qi-Shan; He, Hui-Chan; Cai, Chao; Chen, Jia-Hong; Han, Zhao-Dong; Qin, Guo-Qiang; Liang, Yu-Xiang; Zhong, Wei-de

    2011-09-13

    To explore the relationship between smoking and bladder cancer in China. A multicenter case-control study was conducted from September 2005 to June 2008. A total of 432 bladder cancer patients, matched with 392 control cases, received a questionnaire including the type of exposure (active vs. passive smoking), the age of beginning and/or quitting smoking, smoking amount and time and depth of smoke inhalation. Both active smoking and passive smoking increased the incidence of bladder cancer (P Smoke amount and time were significantly correlated with bladder cancer risk (P smoking did not affect the bladder cancer risk (P > 0.05). Inhaling smoke into mouth or throat was also a risk factor for bladder cancer (P smoking and bladder cancer. Active and passive smoking, smoke amount and time, and the depth of smoke inhalation are risk factors for bladder cancer. The best way of preventing bladder cancer is never smoking.

  2. The risk of menstrual abnormalities after tubal sterilization: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AtashKhoii Simin

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tubal sterilization is the method of family planning most commonly used. The existence of the post-tubal-ligation syndrome of menstrual abnormalities has been the subject of debate for decades. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 112 women with the history of Pomeroy type of tubal ligation achieved by minilaparatomy as the case group and 288 women with no previous tubal ligation as the control group were assessed for menstrual abnormalities. Results Menstrual abnormalities were not significantly different between the case and control groups (p = 0.824. The abnormal uterine bleeding frequency differences in two different age groups (30–39 and 40–45 years old were statistically significant (p = 0.0176. Conclusion Tubal sterilization does not cause menstrual irregularities.

  3. Autoimmune disease and risk for Parkinson disease A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, K.; Friis, S.; Ritz, B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Inflammatory mediators are increased in autoimmune diseases and may activate microglia and might cause an inflammatory state and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. Thus, we evaluated whether having an autoimmune disease increases the risk for developing Parkinson disease...... (PD). Methods: A population based case-control study was conducted in Denmark of 13,695 patients with a primary diagnosis of PD recorded in the Danish National Hospital Register during the period 1986-2006. Each case was matched on year of birth and sex to 5 population controls selected at random from...... do not support the hypothesis that autoimmune diseases increase the risk for Parkinson disease. The decreased risk observed among patients with rheumatoid arthritis might be explained by underdiagnosis of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease in this patient group or by a protective effect...

  4. A case control study: White-collar defendants compared with defendants charged with other nonviolent theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortinga, Ernest; Lemmen, Craig; Jibson, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    We examined the clinical, criminal, and sociodemographic characteristics of all white-collar crime defendants referred to the evaluation unit of a state center for forensic psychiatry. With 29,310 evaluations in a 12-year period, we found 70 defendants charged with embezzlement, 3 with health care fraud, and no other white-collar defendants (based on the eight crimes widely accepted as white-collar offenses). In a case-control study design, the 70 embezzlement cases were compared with 73 defendants charged with other forms of nonviolent theft. White-collar defendants were found to have a higher likelihood of white race (adjusted odds ratio (adj. OR) = 4.51), more years of education (adj. OR = 3471), and a lower likelihood of substance abuse (adj. OR = .28) than control defendants. Logistic regression modeling showed that the variance in the relationship between unipolar depression and white-collar crime was more economically accounted for by education, race, and substance abuse.

  5. A case control study on the lung cancer risk factors in north of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Dariush; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Safari, Farid

    2011-01-01

    In this case control study, the risk factors of lung cancer was assessed in the north of Iran. Two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). Data were collected from 40 cases and 40 controls attending to hospitals. A public information questionnaire was used for data collection. Incidence odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results showed that in adjusted odd ratio positive family history of cancer (OR = 0/19, 95% CI: 0/04-0/8) was associated with a reduction, and consumption of baked bread in traditional oven (OR = 22/6, 95% CI: 1/9-270), was associated with increase in lung cancer risk. Based on the results, smoking was not correlated with lung cancer. In conclusion, the data offers consumption of traditional oven-baked bread may enhance the risk of lung cancer but positive family history of cancer may reduce it.

  6. Maternal Abortion History and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects. A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na-Na; Chen, Xin-Lin; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiao-Hong; Deng, Ying; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association between maternal abortion history and congenital heart defect (CHD) risk in subsequent pregnancies. A multihospital-based case-control study was conducted. The cases included 370 women whose fetuses were diagnosed with CHDs. The controls were 413 women with fetuses without an apparent malformation in the same hospital. All of the participants were investigated by trained interviewers. Univariate analysis was performed, followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval to evaluate the risk of maternal abortion history on CHD risk. There were no statistically significant positive associations between maternal abortion (induced abortion and spontaneous abortion) occurrence and the risk of CHDs. There were no statistically significant positive associations between the number of maternal abortions (induced and spontaneous) and the risk of congenital heart defects. Maternal abortion history may not be associated with fetal CHDs.

  7. Breast cancer and smoking, vodka drinking and dietary habits. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlega, J

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking, vodka drinking and consumption of 44 food items typical of the Polish diet were analysed in a case-control study in Cracow, Poland, among 127 cases of breast cancer and 250 controls randomly selected from the general population. Cigarette smoking was not significantly influencing the breast cancer risk. Compared with never-drinkers, the habit of vodka drinking 20 years earlier significantly increased breast cancer risk in women below 50 years of age (multivariate OR was 4.4 with 95% CI 1.6-12.4). Frequent consumption of boiled vegetables 20 years earlier (greater than 3 times per week) was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in women aged 50 years and more (multivariate OR was 0.4 with 95% CI 0.2-0.8).

  8. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Pedro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD. Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Methods The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotensive controls. Depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated from logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of moderate depression was 11.5% among cases and 5.3% among controls. The corresponding figures for moderate-severe depression were 3.5% for cases and 2.1% for controls. Compared with non-depressed women, those with moderate depression had a 2.3-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 1.2–4.4, while moderate-severe depression was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.1–9.6 increased risk of preeclampsia. Associations of each of the 9-items of the PHQ-9 depression screening module with preeclampsia risk were also observed. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the only other published report on this topic. Collectively, available data support recent calls for expanded efforts to study and address depression among pregnant women.

  9. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  10. The cost of infection in hip arthroplasty: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vélez, A E; Romero-Martín, M; Villanueva-Orbaiz, R; Díaz-Agero-Pérez, C; Robustillo-Rodela, A; Monge-Jodra, V

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) represents 30% of all causes of health care-associated infection (HAI) and is one of the most dreaded complications in surgical patients. We estimated the excess direct costs of SSI using a matched nested case-control study in acute-term care at Ramon y Cajal University Hospital in Spain. Cases were patients who developed a first episode of SSI according to the criteria established by the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network. Controls were matched to cases in 1:1 ratio taking into account the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, age, sex, surgery date, and principal diagnosis. This study found that infection in hip replacement increased direct costs by 134%. Likewise, the excess cost due to the infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 69% higher than the excess cost attributable to infections caused by other microorganisms. SSI after hip replacement continues to be a costly complication from the hospital perspective. Costs due to SSI can be used to prioritise preventive interventions to monitor and control HAI. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational risk factors for renal cell cancer. An Italian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzio, L; Tondel, M; De Palma, G; Buzio, C; Franchini, I; Mutti, A; Axelson, O

    2002-01-01

    To examine possible associations between occupational and environmental risk factors and renal cell cancer (RCC), a tumour with unclear aetiology and increasing incidence. A questionnaire-based case-control study of 100 histologically verified cases of RCC and 200 controls was conducted at Parma University Hospital. The control group was enrolled from patients attending different outpatient departments and represented the same residential area as the cases. For all exposure variables under study, two levels of duration were defined: "short" and "prolonged" for less than 10 years or more, respectively. The highest risk estimates for RCC were found for "prolonged" exposure to organic solvents with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.2 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.0-4.8). "Prolonged" exposures to pesticides and copper sulphate were also associated with increased risk, OR 2.0 (95% CI: 0.8-4.7) and OR 2.7 (95% CI: 1.3-5.5), respectively. Our data suggests an association between RCC and exposure to organic solvents, pesticides and copper sulphate. A risk gradient as a function of exposure duration was found for organic solvents (p = 0.044) and copper sulphate (p = 0.036), but not for pesticides.

  12. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk in Misasa, Japan. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobue, Tomotaka; Lee, Valerie S.; Ye, Weimin; Tanooka, Hiroshi; Mifune, Masaaki; Suyama, Akihiko; Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Kondo, Sohei

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate an association between residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Misasa Town, Tottori Prefecture, Japan. The case series consisted of 28 people who had died of lung cancer in the years 1976-96 and 36 controls chosen randomly from the residents in 1976, matched by sex and year of birth. Individual residential radon concentrations were measured for 1 year with alpha track detectors. The average radon concentration was 46 Bq/m 3 for cases and 51 Bq/m 3 for controls. Compared to the level of 24 or less Bq/m 3 , the adjusted odds ratios of lung cancer associated with radon levels of 25-49, 50-99 and 100 or more Bq/m 3 , were 1.13 (95% confidence interval; 0.29-4.40), 1.23 (0.16-9.39) and 0.25 (0.03-2.33), respectively. None of the estimates showed statistical significance, due to small sample size. When the subjects were limited to only include residents of more than 30 years, the estimates did not change substantially. This study did not find that the risk pattern of lung cancer, possibly associated with residential radon exposure, in Misasa Town differed from patterns observed in other countries. (author)

  13. Lifetime Physical Activity and Breast Cancer: a Case-Control Study in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Siew Hwa; Knight, A; Krishna, Mbv; Muda, Wmw; Rufai, Aa

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality and is associated with increased breast cancer diagnosis and recurrence. To examine the association between adult lifetime physical activity and breast cancer risk in a case-control analysis. This study involved 122 cases of breast cancer and 121 controls in the state of Kelantan in Malaysia. A comprehensive measure of lifetime physical activity was used to assess occupational, household, and recreational/sports activity. For every type of activity, a metabolic equivalent (MET) score was assigned using the compendium of physical activities. MET-hours/week per year for all types of activities at different levels of intensities for different age groups were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios between various measures of physical activity and breast cancer risk. The mean MET-hours/week per year for all activities were 120.0 and 132.9 of MET-hours/week per year for cases and controls respectively. Household activities accounted for about 70% of the total lifetime physical activities. Only about 2.5% of the total lifetime physical activities were in the form of recreational/sports. This study found no association between lifetime occupational and recreational/sports physical activities with breast cancer risk among Kelantanese women. However, higher intensity lifetime household activities seemed to significantly reduce risk of breast cancer.

  14. Oral Streptococcal Endocarditis, Oral Hygiene Habits, and Recent Dental Procedures: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Xavier; Millot, Sarah; Chirouze, Catherine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Moby, Vanessa; Tattevin, Pierre; Strady, Christophe; Euvrard, Edouard; Agrinier, Nelly; Thomas, Daniel; Hoen, Bruno; Alla, François

    2017-06-15

    We aimed to compare oral hygiene habits, orodental status, and dental procedures in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) according to whether the IE-causing microorganism originated in the oral cavity. We conducted an assessor-blinded case-control study in 6 French tertiary-care hospitals. Oral hygiene habits were recorded using a self-administered questionnaire. Orodental status was analyzed by trained dental practitioners blinded to the microorganism, using standardized clinical examination and dental panoramic tomography. History of dental procedures was obtained through patient and dentist interviews. Microorganisms were categorized as oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens using an expert-validated list kept confidential during the course of the study. Cases and controls had definite IE caused either by oral streptococci or nonoral pathogens, respectively. Participants were enrolled between May 2008 and January 2013. Cases (n = 73) were more likely than controls (n = 192) to be aged calculus, and infectious dental diseases did not significantly differ between groups. Patients with IE caused by oral streptococci differ from patients with IE caused by nonoral pathogens regarding background characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and recent dental procedures, but not current orodental status. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Case-control study of lung cancer among workers at a uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cookfair, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to radiation resulting from the inhalation of uranium dust and the dust of uranium-bearing compounds and death due to lung cancer. Cases and controls were chosen from a cohort of white male workers employed at one uranium processing plant during World War II. The 330 cases consisted of all lung cancer deaths occurring in the cohort between 1943 and 1973. Level of exposure to radiation and other potential workplace carcinogens was determined for each worker using process manuals, industrial hygiene reports, air monitoring data and individual work histories. Smoking status and information regarding medical variables was determined from employee medical records. Cumulative radiation lung dose among study population members ranged from 0 to 75 rads. Data were analyzed using Mantel-Haenszel stratified analysis and logistic regression. Relative risk was found to increase with increasing level of lung dose exposure even after controlling for age, smoking status and other workplace exposures, but only for those who were over the age of 44 when first exposed. A statistically significant excess in risk was found for men in this hire age group with a cumulative lung dose of 20 rads or more. The risk associated with the overall work environment was also investigated using a summary measure of total workplace exposure called chemical rank. A similar relationship existed between chemical rank and lung cancer to that found for cumulative lung dose and lung cancer

  16. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunfang; Sanchez, Sixto E; Lam, Nelly; Garcia, Pedro; Williams, Michelle A

    2007-09-27

    Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotensive controls. Depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from logistic regression models. The prevalence of moderate depression was 11.5% among cases and 5.3% among controls. The corresponding figures for moderate-severe depression were 3.5% for cases and 2.1% for controls. Compared with non-depressed women, those with moderate depression had a 2.3-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 1.2-4.4), while moderate-severe depression was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.1-9.6) increased risk of preeclampsia. Associations of each of the 9-items of the PHQ-9 depression screening module with preeclampsia risk were also observed. Our findings are consistent with the only other published report on this topic. Collectively, available data support recent calls for expanded efforts to study and address depression among pregnant women.

  17. Co-Prevalence of Tremor with Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laura; Klein, Adam; Hapner, Edie; Delgaudio, John; Hanfelt, John; Jinnah, H. A.; Johns, Michael

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS The aim of this study was to define the co-prevalence of tremor with spasmodic dysphonia (SD). STUDY DESIGN A single institution prospective, case-control study was performed from May 2010 to July 2010. METHODS Consecutive patients with SD (cases) and other voice disorders (controls) were enrolled prospectively. Each participant underwent a voice evaluation and an evaluation for tremor. RESULTS 146 voice disorder controls and 128 patients with SD were enrolled. 26% of patients with SD had vocal tremor, 21% had non-vocal tremor. Patients with SD were 2.8 times more likely to have co-prevalent tremor than the control group (OR = 2.81; 95% CI, 1.55 to 5.08) and only 35% of patients with SD had been seen by a neurologist for the evaluation of dystonia and tremor. CONCLUSIONS Tremor is highly prevalent in patients with SD. It is important for each patient diagnosed with SD to undergo an evaluation for tremor, this is especially important in patients diagnosed with vocal tremor. Level of evidence 3b. PMID:21792965

  18. Anorexia nervosa versus bulimia nervosa: differences based on retrospective correlates in a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Bárbara C; Gonçalves, Sónia F; Martins, Carla; Brandão, Isabel; Roma-Torres, António; Hoek, Hans W; Machado, Paulo P

    2016-06-01

    This study is the result of two Portuguese case-control studies that examined the replication of retrospective correlates and preceding life events in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) development. This study aims to identify retrospective correlates that distinguish AN and BN METHOD: A case-control design was used to compare a group of women who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for AN (N = 98) and BN (N = 79) with healthy controls (N = 86) and with other psychiatric disorders (N = 68). Each control group was matched with AN patients regarding age and parental social categories. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing each person with the Oxford Risk Factor Interview. Compared to AN, women with BN reported significantly higher rates of paternal high expectations, excessive family importance placed on fitness/keeping in shape, and negative consequences due to adolescent overweight and adolescent objective overweight. Overweight during adolescence emerged as the most relevant retrospective correlate in the distinction between BN and AN participants. Family expectations and the importance placed on keeping in shape were also significant retrospective correlates in the BN group.

  19. Vitamin D and Fracture Risk in Early Childhood: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laura N; Heong, Sze Wing; Chen, Yang; Thorpe, Kevin E; Adeli, Khosrow; Howard, Andrew; Sochett, Etienne; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2017-06-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of vitamin D intake and serum levels with fracture risk in children under 6 years of age. A case-control study was conducted in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Cases were recruited from the fracture clinic at the Hospital for Sick Children, and matched controls were obtained from the TARGet Kids! primary-care research network. Controls were matched to cases on age, sex, height, and season. Fracture risk was estimated from conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for skin type, fracture history, waist circumference, outdoor free play, neighborhood income, soda consumption, and child's birth weight. A total of 206 cases were recruited during May 2009-April 2013 and matched to 343 controls. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (per 10-nmol/L increment: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88, 1.03) and intake of cow's milk (2 cups/day vs. 2 cups/day: aOR = 1.39 (95% CI: 0.85, 2.23)) were not significantly associated with reduced odds of fracture. A statistically significant association was observed between child use of vitamin D supplements and decreased odds of fracture (yes vs. no: aOR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.69). Vitamin D supplementation, but not serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level or milk intake, was associated with reduced fracture risk among these healthy young children. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Medical records documentation of constipation preceding Parkinson disease: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, R; Carlin, J M; Grossardt, B R; Bower, J H; Ahlskog, J E; Maraganore, D M; Bharucha, A E; Rocca, W A

    2009-11-24

    Parkinson disease (PD) may affect the autonomic nervous system and may cause constipation; however, few studies have explored constipation preceding the motor onset of PD. We investigated constipation preceding PD using a case-control study design in a population-based sample. Using the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we identified 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control. We reviewed the complete medical records of cases and controls in the medical records-linkage system to ascertain the occurrence of constipation preceding the onset of PD (or index year). Constipation preceding PD or the index year was more common in cases than in controls (odds ratio [OR] 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49 to 4.11; p = 0.0005). This association remained significant after adjusting for smoking and coffee consumption (ever vs never), and after excluding constipation possibly induced by drugs. In addition, the association remained significant in analyses restricted to constipation documented 20 or more years before the onset of motor symptoms of PD. Although the association was stronger in women than in men and in patients with PD with rest tremor compared with patients with PD without rest tremor, these differences were not significant. Our findings suggest that constipation occurring as early as 20 or more years before the onset of motor symptoms is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson disease.

  1. Metabolic Markers or Conditions Preceding Parkinson’s Disease: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, Rodolfo; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Rocca, Walter A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several metabolic markers or conditions have been explored as possible risk or protective factors for Parkinson’s disease (PD); however, results remain conflicting. We further investigated these associations using a case-control study design. Methods We used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (± 1 year) and sex to a general population control. We reviewed the complete medical records of cases and controls in the medical records-linkage system to abstract information about body mass index (BMI), cholesterol levels, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus preceding the onset of PD (or the index year). Results There were no significant differences between cases and controls for the metabolic markers or conditions investigated. No significant associations were found using 2 cut-offs for BMI levels (BMI ≥ 25 or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and 3 cut-offs for cholesterol levels (> 200, > 250, or > 300 mg/dl). A diagnosis of hypertension or the documented use of anti-hypertensive medications were not significantly associated with the subsequent risk of PD (odds ratio [OR], 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–1.54; P = .99), nor was a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or the use of glucose-lowering medications (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.37–1.57; P =.47). Conclusions Our study, based on historical information from a records-linkage system, does not support an association between BMI, cholesterol levels, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus and later development of PD. PMID:22674432

  2. Epidural analgesia in labour and neonatal respiratory distress: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Chandra, Sue; Ijaz, Zainab; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2014-03-01

    Epidural analgesia is the commonest mode for providing pain relief in labour, with a combination of bupivacaine and fentanyl most often used in practice. To test whether late-preterm and term neonates exposed to opioids in epidural analgesia in labour are more likely to develop respiratory distress in the immediate neonatal period. A case-control study was conducted of singleton infants born during January 2006 to December 2010. Cases were neonates ≥34 weeks gestation, who developed respiratory distress within 24 h of life requiring supplemental oxygen ≥2 h and/or positive pressure ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Controls were gestation and site-matched neonates who did not develop any respiratory distress within the same period. The information on exposure to epidural analgesia and on potential confounding variables was obtained from the standardised delivery record, routinely filled out on all women admitted to the labour wards. In our study, 206 cases and 206 matched controls were enrolled. Exposure to epidural analgesia was present in 146 (70.9%) cases as compared with 131 (63.6%) of the controls. The association between exposure to epidural analgesia and respiratory distress in neonates was statistically significant upon adjustment for all potential confounders (adjusted OR: 1.75, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.99; p = 0.04). When data was separately analysed for term and late-preterm infants, the results were consistent across these subpopulations, showing no interaction effect. Late-preterm and term infants exposed to maternal epidural analgesia in labour are more likely to develop respiratory distress in the immediate neonatal period.

  3. Case-control study of cancer deaths in high background radiation areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zufan; Cha Yongru; Zhou Shunyuan

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA

  4. Prolonged outbreak of Serratia marcescens in Tartu University Hospital: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Vivika; Mitt, Piret; Pisarev, Heti; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Telling, Kaidi; Naaber, Paul; Maimets, Matti

    2012-10-31

    The aim of our study was to investigate and control an outbreak and identify risk factors for colonization and infection with Serratia marcescens in two departments in Tartu University Hospital. The retrospective case-control study was conducted from July 2005 to December 2006. Molecular typing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis was used to confirm the relatedness of Serratia marcescens strains. Samples from the environment and from the hands of personnel were cultured. The outbreak involved 210 patients, 61 (29%) developed an infection, among them 16 were invasive infections. Multivariate analysis identified gestational age, arterial catheter use and antibiotic treatment as independent risk factors for colonization and infection with Serratia marcescens. Molecular typing was performed on 83 Serratia marcescens strains, 81 of them were identical and 2 strains were different. Given the occasionally severe consequences of Serratia marcescens in infants, early implementation of aggressive infection control measures involving patients and mothers as well as the personnel is of utmost importance.

  5. Sustainability Strategy and Management Control Systems in Family Firms. Evidence from a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caputo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate how the integration of new forms of sustainable control systems (SCSs and traditional management control systems (MCSs, and the use of these control systems affect the integration of sustainability within organizational strategy. A qualitative case study based on a longitudinal investigation of an Italian family firm operating in an environment-sensitive context, the intermodal transport industry, has been used to trace the company’s pathway to sustainability integration based on the Gond et al. framework. The paper enriches the Gond et al. conceptualization providing evidence of the external and internal factors relevant in affecting the organization’s pathway towards sustainability integration. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first analysis that investigates the integration of sustainability into organizational strategy in the context of family firms, from the point of view of performance management systems (PMSs.

  6. Bra wearing not associated with breast cancer risk: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Malone, Kathleen E; Li, Christopher I

    2014-10-01

    Despite the widespread use of bras among U.S. women and concerns in the lay media that bra wearing may increase breast cancer risk, there is a scarcity of credible scientific studies addressing this issue. The goal of the study was to evaluate the relationship between various bra-wearing habits and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in the Seattle-Puget Sound metropolitan area that compared 454 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases and 590 invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 with 469 control women between 55 to 74 years of age. Information on bra-wearing habits and other breast cancer risk factors was collected from study participants through in-person interviews. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. No aspect of bra wearing, including bra cup size, recency, average number of hours/day worn, wearing a bra with an underwire, or age first began regularly wearing a bra, was associated with risks of either IDC or ILC. Our results did not support an association between bra wearing and increased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Bra wearing not associated with breast cancer risk: a population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Malone, Kathleen E.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of bras among U.S. women and concerns in the lay media that bra wearing may increase breast cancer risk, there is a scarcity of credible scientific studies addressing this issue. The goal of the study was to evaluate the relationship between various bra wearing habits and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in the Seattle-Puget Sound metropolitan area that compared 454 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases and 590 invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 to 469 control women between 55 to 74 years of age. Information on bra wearing habits and other breast cancer risk factors were collected from study participants through in-person interviews. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. No aspect of bra wearing including bra cup size, recency, average number of hours/day worn, wearing a bra with an underwire, or age first began regularly wearing a bra, was associated with risks of either IDC or ILC. Our results did not support an association between bra wearing and increased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:25192706

  8. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A

    2003-01-01

    was higher among the original assessors (the assessor from the same country as the subject) than the average prevalence assessed by the other four in the quality control round. The original assessors classified more job situations as exposed than the others. Several reasons for this are plausible: real...... of the assessors, as Cohen's kappa and as overall proportion of the agreements. The reassessment of the exposures changed the exposure statuses significantly, when compared with the original cohort. Harmonization of the exposure criteria increased the conformity of the assessments. The prevalence of exposure...

  9. Association between periodontitis and gestational diabetes mellitus: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves Lima, Rafael Paschoal; Miranda Cota, Luís Otávio; Costa, Fernando Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Some studies have reported an association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and periodontitis. The aim of the present study is to analyze this potential association and the influence of risk variables associated with GDM. This case-control study includes 360 women, 90 with GDM and 270 controls. Participants received a full-mouth periodontal examination with a record of bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Periodontitis is defined as the presence in ≥4 teeth of ≥1 sites with PD ≥4 mm and CAL ≥3 mm associated with BOP. The influence of risk variables in the occurrence of GDM is tested through univariate analysis and multivariate logistic and multinomial regression. Odds ratio (ORs) and respective confidence intervals (CIs) are calculated and reported. The prevalence of periodontitis was 40% in the case group (GDM) and 46.3% in the control group. There was a lack of association between periodontitis and GDM (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.40 to 1.38). The multivariate final logistic regression model retained the following as significant variables associated with GDM: maternal age (OR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.97 to 3.56), chronic hypertension (OR = 3.16; 95% CI = 1.35 to 7.42), and body mass index (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.41 to 2.81). A high prevalence of periodontitis was found among cases and controls, with no association between periodontitis and GDM. The present study suggests the need for implementation of health policies directed to the periodontal care of pregnant women.

  10. Dietary food groups intake and cooking methods associations with pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Zeinab; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Zinab, Hassan Eini; Farrokhzad, Solmaz; Rahimi, Roya; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-05-01

    The role of dietary habits in the etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC) has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of the frequency of different food groups' intake and their cooking methods with PC risk based on a well-designed case-control study. A case-control study including 307 PC patients and 322 controls referred to four tertiary endosonography centers was conducted from January 2011 to January 2014 to compare the frequency intake of different food items and their cooking methods between cases and controls. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, years of education, diabetes and alcohol history, smoking status, and opium use, a significant direct relationship was observed between PC risk and intake frequency (time/week) of bread (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI 1.05-2.13; p-value 0.024), rice (OR = 2.10; 95 % CI 1.15-3.82; p for trend 0.034), and red meat (OR = 2.25; 95 % CI 1.22-4.14; p for trend 0.033) (time/day), when comparing the highest category of intake frequency with the lowest, while increasing frequency of fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of PC (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI0.59-1.47; p for trend 0.009). Increasing consumption of barbecuing red meat and deep fried vegetables was associated with 67 % and 70 % increased risk of PC (p-value 0.025 and 0.006, respectively). Our results indicate that increased frequency of intake of bread, rice, and red meat (especially barbecued) and deep fried vegetables can aggregate PC risk, while increased frequency of fish consumption can protect against PC. However, more studies are still needed.

  11. Risk factors for periodontal diseases among Yemeni type II diabetic patients. A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Shamala

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic periodontal diseases are one of diabetes mellitus complications. The present study aims to compare the periodontal status of type II diabetic patients to a control group and assess the role of risk factors in both groups. Materials and methods: A case-control study was conducted of 270 individuals (132 type II diabetics and 138 non-diabetics. Full mouth periodontal examination including plaque index, gingival bleeding, gingival recession, clinical attachment loss (CAL, tooth mobility, furcation involvement and the number of missing teeth. The case group was subdivided according to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c status (poorly controlled HbA1c >8 and well controlled HbA1c≤8 Likewise, the duration of diabetes mellitus as short or long duration (DM≤10 or >10. The diabetic group was also subdivided according to smoking and Khat chewing habits. Result: The severity of periodontal disease among type II diabetic patients were significantly higher compared to the control group regarding the plaque index 2.6 (1.6-4.3, bleeding on probing 3.5 (2.3-13.0, gingival recession 2.0 (1.2-3.4, furcation involvement 4.0 (2.3-6.7, clinical attachment loss 5.7 (3.1-10.5, tooth mobility 2.0 (1.2-3.4, and number of missing teeth 4.4 (2.3-8.5. In addition, poorly controlled type II DM and long duration had higher CAL and number of missing teeth than well-controlled DM and short duration. No significant differences were found between smokers/nonsmokers and Khat chewers/non-chewers among the diabetic group. Conclusion: Type II diabetic patients have severe periodontal destruction and tooth loss compared to non-diabetic people and there were no differences within the diabetic group in regards to smoking and Khat chewing habits.

  12. Infection prevention and control in home nursing: case study of four organisations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felemban, Ohood; St John, Winsome; Shaban, Ramon Zenel

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this case study was to explore the environmental challenges nurses experience with infection control practice, and the strategies they use to overcome those challenges. An exploratory case study was conducted in four home visiting nursing organisations in southeast Queensland, Australia, using data triangulation (document review, individual interviews, and focus groups). Data were analysed using a framework approach to identify themes. Three major infection prevention and control challenges were experienced in the community context. The first challenge is the nature of the work environment, including: poor cleanliness in clients' home environments, pets or vermin, inadequate hand-washing facilities, and a lack of appropriate storage space for clinical materials. The second challenge occurs when nurses lack access to appropriate infection control equipment, including wound-management materials and sharps containers. The third challenge is dealing with clients' poor personal hygiene and health status. Participants addressed these issues by offering assistance, using clean surfaces at clients' homes, applying an alcohol-based hand rub, providing client education, and reducing the cost of purchasing equipment for clients. It is imperative that policy is developed to support nurses' decision making and practices as they address infection control challenges in the community environment. Ensuring staff are well-supported with resources, education, policy, and guidelines to address these challenges is important for the delivery of safe and high-quality care in community settings.

  13. Colorectal polyps and diet: a case-control study in Marseilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquart-Moulin, G; Riboli, E; Cornée, J; Kaaks, R; Berthezène, P

    1987-08-15

    This study investigates the differences in usual past diet between 252 subjects with newly diagnosed adenomatous or villous polyps of the colon and rectum and a group of 238 hospital controls. Cases and controls were interviewed in hospital by 3 nutritionists using a dietary history questionnaire focused on the diet during the preceding year. Nutrient intake was estimated by means of ad hoc food tables adapted from French and British tables. Out of 16 food groups considered in the analyses, the cases reported lower consumption of oil and potatoes and higher consumption of sugar added to food and drink. Among nutrients, we found that cases had a lower consumption of carbohydrates (not taking into account added sugar), potassium, magnesium and vitamin B6. We found a slightly lower intake of fibre and a slightly higher intake of saturated fat among cases, though neither was statistically significant. Intake values for fibre and for carbohydrates were highly intercorrelated and, due to measurement errors, the effect of one may be masked by the other and vice versa. The hypothesis that some components of carbohydrates (starches, fibre and natural sugars but not added sugar) play a protective role in relation to the biology of tumours of the intestinal tract is considered in further multivariate analyses and in the "Discussion".

  14. Case-control study of congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sever, L.E.; Gilbert, E.S.; Hessol, N.A.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In a case-control study, the authors investigated the association of parental occupational exposure to low-level external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation and risk of congenital malformations in their offspring. Cases and controls were ascertained from births in two counties in southeastern Washington State, where the Hanford Site has been a major employer. A unique feature of this study was the linking of quantitative individual measurement of external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation exposure of employees at the Hanford Site, using personal dosimeters, and the disease outcome, congenital malformations. The study population included 672 malformation cases and 977 matched controls from births occurring from 1957 through 1980. Twelve specific malformation types were analyzed for evidence of association with employment of the parents at Hanford and with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Two defects, congenital dislocation of the hip and tracheoesophageal fistula, showed statistically significant associations with employment of the parents at Hanford, but not with parental radiation exposure. Neural tube defects showed a significant association with parental preconception exposure, on the basis of a small number of cases. Eleven other defects, including Down syndrome, for which an association with radiation was considered most likely, showed no evidence of such an association. When all malformations were analyzed as a group, there was no evidence of an association with employment of the parents at Hanford, but the relation of parental exposure to radiation before conception was in the positive direction (one-tailed p value between 0.05 and 0.10). Given the number of statistical tests conducted, some or all of the observed positive correlations are likely to represent false positive findings. 30 references

  15. Correlation of Tourette syndrome and allergic disease: nationwide population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Tzu; Li, Yu-Fen; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Shih-Chieh; Chin, Zheng-Nan; Kuo, Huang-Tsung; Lin, Hung-Chih; Sung, Fung-Chang; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Chou, I-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Linkage between allergy and increased immune response activation in Tourette syndrome (TS) has been reported. We performed a matched case-control study to evaluate correlation between allergic diseases and TS. Data in this case-control study were from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The sample comprised 845 2- to 18-year-old patients with newly diagnosed TS in 2003–2007 and 3378 controls frequency matched with cases on age, sex, and urbanization level. Unconditional logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between allergic disease (e.g., allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic conjunctivitis), the number of allergic comorbidities, and TS. The majority (76.0%) of incident TS cases were boys; the 4 allergic diseases strongly correlated with higher risk of TS. In a model simultaneously considering all 4 allergic diseases, subjects with allergic rhinitis showed double the risk of TS (adjusted OR = 2.18, 95%CI 1.83–2.59; p < 0.0001); adjusted ORs were 1.82, 1.61, and 1.33, respectively, for asthma (95% CI 1.47–2.24; p < 0.0001), dermatitis (95%CI 1.32–1.95; p < 0.0001), and allergic conjunctivitis (95% CI 1.13–1.57; p < 0.001). Risk increased with number of comorbidities (p < 0.0001); this association was positively modified by age (p < 0.0001). Our data showed significant correlation between allergic diseases and TS. Risk also increased with number of allergic comorbidities and with age. Further studies on the mechanism of neuroimmunology of TS are required.

  16. Exposure to statins and risk of common cancers: a series of nested case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coupland Carol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available 1 Abstract Background Many studies and meta-analyses have investigated the effects of statins on cancer incidence but without showing consistent effects. Methods A series of nested case-control studies was conducted covering 574 UK general practices within the QResearch database. Cases were patients with primary cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2008. The associations between statin use and risk of ten site-specific cancers were estimated with conditional logistic regression adjusted for co-morbidities, smoking status, socio-economic status, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and aspirin. Results 88125 cases and 362254 matched controls were analysed. The adjusted odds ratio for any statin use and cancer at any site were 1.01 (95%CI 0.99 to 1.04. For haematological malignancies there was a significant reduced risk associated with any statin use (odds ratio 0.78, 95%CI 0.71 to 0.86. Prolonged (more than 4 years use of statins was associated with a significantly increased risk of colorectal cancer (odds ratio 1.23, 95%CI 1.10 to 1.38, bladder cancer (odds ratio 1.29, 95%CI 1.08 to 1.54 and lung cancer (odds ratio 1.18, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.34. There were no significant associations with any other cancers. Conclusion In this large population-based case-control study, prolonged use of statins was not associated with an increased risk of cancer at any of the most common sites except for colorectal cancer, bladder cancer and lung cancer, while there was a reduced risk of haematological malignancies.

  17. Determinants of Internet Addiction among Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis Tsitsika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet Addiction (IA is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012 and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001. The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001 and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004 was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001. Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19–12.70, including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022. Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression.

  18. A Case-Control Study of Prenatal Thallium Exposure and Low Birth Weight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Du, Xiaofu; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Xiong, Chao; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal widely present in the environment. Case reports have suggested that maternal exposure to high levels of Tl during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), but epidemiological data are limited. This study was designed to evaluate whether prenatal Tl exposure is associated with an increased risk of LBW. This case-control study involving 816 study participants (204 LBW cases and 612 matched controls) was conducted in Hubei Province, China, in 2012-2014. Tl concentrations were measured in maternal urine collected at delivery, and associations with LBW were evaluated using conditional logistic regression. Higher maternal urinary Tl levels were significantly associated with increased risk of LBW [crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest tertile], and the association was similarly elevated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Stratified analyses showed slightly higher risk estimates for LBW associated with higher Tl levels for mothers thallium exposure and low birth weight in China. Environ Health Perspect 124:164-169; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409202.

  19. Female sexual dysfunction in type 2 diabetes: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifiaghdas, Farzaneh; Azadvari, Mohaddeseh; Shakhssalim, Nasser; Roohi-Gilani, Kobra; Rezaei-Hemami, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to assess sexual dysfunction in women suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Forty-five type 2 diabetic, non-menopausal married women, aged 20-55 years, who were referred to Shahid Labbafinejad Clinics from March 2008 to June 2009 were included in this study. They were compared to 91 non-diabetic volunteers. Sexual function was evaluated by the sexual function questionnaire. Genitourinary examination was performed in all subjects. Blood sample tests were requested for fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A(1c), 2-hour postprandial glucose and lipid profile measurements. Ophthalmologic and neurologic examinations (checking deep tendon reflexes) were done for cases. The mean age of cases and controls was 42.17± 5.91 and 34.96 ± 8.30 years, respectively (p female sexual dysfunction in 6 domains including desire, arousal sensation, arousal lubrication, orgasm, pain and enjoyment was 71.1, 84.4, 55.6, 71.1, 8.9 and 66.7% in the diabetes mellitus women and 56.6, 67.0, 59.3, 57.1, 25.3 and 53.8% in the non-diabetic volunteers, respectively. Differences were statistically significant in the 3 domains of desire, arousal sensation and pain (p 2.5% showed diabetic retinopathy. Sexual dysfunction in cases as well as in controls was high; however, further studies with a higher number of patients are needed to confirm the results. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Decreased placental thickness and impaired Doppler indices in idiopathic polyhydramnios: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgündüz, Engin; Erkılınç, Selçuk; Tokmak, Aytekin; Güzel, Ali İrfan; Özer, İrfan; Danışman, Nuri

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate placental thickness, Doppler velocimetry, biophysical profile and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by idiopathic polyhydramnios. This prospective case-control study was conducted on 139 pregnant women, of these 70 patients with idiopathic polyhydramnios comprised the study group and 60 pregnant women comprised the control group. Risk factors recorded were; age, parity, body mass index (BMI), gestational weeks, amniotic fluid index (AFI), biophysical profiles (BPP), placental thickness, middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI), umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry (Umb A S/D) values and perinatal outcomes. Sixty-nine of the cases had mild-moderate (AFI: 250-450 mm) polyhydramnios (%98.5) and one of the cases had severe polyhydramnios (>450 mm) in study group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, parity, BMI, gestational weeks, fetal birth weights and BPP (p > 0.05). Placental thickness, MCA PI and UA S/D values showed statistically significant difference between the groups (p polyhydramnios is associated with decreased placental thickness, impaired uterine, umbilical and middle cerebral artery flow.

  1. A case-control study of risk of leukaemia in relation to mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R; Laing, S; Swerdlow, A J

    2010-11-23

    Mobile phone use is now ubiquitous, and scientific reviews have recommended research into its relation to leukaemia risk, but no large studies have been conducted. In a case-control study in South East England to investigate the relation of acute and non-lymphocytic leukaemia risk to mobile phone use, 806 cases with leukaemia incident 2003-2009 at ages 18-59 years (50% of those identified as eligible) and 585 non-blood relatives as controls (provided by 392 cases) were interviewed about mobile phone use and other potentially aetiological variables. No association was found between regular mobile phone use and risk of leukaemia (odds ratio (OR)=1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.76, 1.46). Analyses of risk in relation to years since first use, lifetime years of use, cumulative number of calls and cumulative hours of use produced no significantly raised risks, and there was no evidence of any trends. A non-significantly raised risk was found in people who first used a phone 15 or more years ago (OR=1.87, 95% CI=0.96, 3.63). Separate analyses of analogue and digital phone use and leukaemia subtype produced similar results to those overall. This study suggests that use of mobile phones does not increase leukaemia risk, although the possibility of an effect after long-term use, while biologically unlikely, remains open.

  2. Etiology of Diarrhea in Young Children in Denmark: a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Bente; Neimann, Jacob; Böttiger, Blenda; Ethelberg, Steen; Schiellerup, Peter; Jensen, Charlotte; Helms, Morten; Scheutz, Flemming; Olsen, Katharina E. P.; Krogfelt, Karen; Petersen, Eskild; Mølbak, Kåre; Gerner-Smidt, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in young children. To clarify the infectious etiology of diarrhea in Danish children less than 5 years of age, we conducted a 2-year prospective case-control study. Stools from 424 children with diarrhea and 870 asymptomatic age-matched controls were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and norovirus and sapovirus were detected by PCR. Salmonella, thermotolerant Campylobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, and Vibrio spp. were detected by standard methods. Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), attaching-and-effacing (A/EEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were detected by using colony hybridization with virulence gene probes and serotyping. Parasites were detected by microscopy. Overall, a potential pathogen was found in 54% of cases. More cases than controls were infected with rotavirus, Salmonella, norovirus, adenovirus, Campylobacter, sapovirus, STEC, classical EPEC, Yersinia, and Cryptosporidium strains, whereas A/EEC, although common, was not associated with illness. The single most important cause of diarrhea was rotavirus, which points toward the need for a childhood vaccine for this pathogen, but norovirus, adenovirus, and sapovirus were also major etiologies. Salmonella sp. was the most common bacterial pathogen, followed by Campylobacter, STEC, Yersinia, and classical EPEC strains. A/EEC not belonging to the classical EPEC serotypes was not associated with diarrhea, underscoring the importance of serotyping for the definition of EPEC. PMID:16081890

  3. Inverse association between yerba mate consumption and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Emilia Mabel; Melcon, Carlos; Parisi, Virginia L; Bartoloni, Leonardo; Gonzalez, Claudio D

    2015-09-15

    Yerba mate tea is a very common beverage in some countries of South America. We conducted a case-control study on an individual basis using hospital records to investigate the association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and yerba mate intake. A case was defined as an age of ≥ 40 years with ≥ 1 year of PD. Each case was individually matched by two controls. Exposure was measured by yerba mate consumption, coffee, tea, and alcohol intake and smoking status. The sample consisted of 223 PD patients (mean age 68 years and mean disease duration 7.3 years) and 406 controls. There was an inverse association between yerba mate "bombilla" consumption and PD (OR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.54-0.76, p=0.00001). A multivariate analysis with a logistic regression adjusted by sex, alcohol intake and smoking provided the following results: yerba mate (OR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.53-0.76), tea (OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.86), coffee (OR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.35-0.73). We found an inverse association between yerba mate consumption and PD. These results led us to hypothesize that yerba mate may have a potential protective role in the development of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diverticular disease and the risk of colon cancer - a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, J; Svensson, T; Granath, F; Hjern, F; Ekbom, A; Blomqvist, P; Schmidt, P T

    2011-09-01

    Colon cancer and diverticular disease are most common in the Western world and their incidences tend to increase with advancing age. The association between the diseases remains unclear. To analyse the risk of colon cancer after hospitalisation for diverticular disease. Nationwide case-control study. A total of 41,037 patients with colon cancer during 1992-2006, identified from the Swedish Cancer Register were included. Each case was matched with two control subjects. From the Swedish Inpatient Register, cases and control subjects hospitalised for diverticular disease were identified. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals for receiving a diagnosis of colon cancer after hospital discharge for diverticular disease were calculated. Colon cancer mortality was compared between patients with or without diverticular disease. Within 6months after an admission due to diverticular disease, OR of having a colon cancer diagnosis were up to 31.49 (19.00-52.21). After 12 months, there was no increased risk. The number of discharges for diverticular disease did not affect the risk. Colon cancer mortality did not differ between patients with and without diverticular disease. Diverticular disease does not increase the risk of colon cancer in the long term, and a history of diverticular disease does not affect colon cancer mortality. The increased risk of colon cancer within the first 12months after diagnosing diverticular disease is most likely due to surveillance and misclassification. Examination of the colon should be recommended after a primary episode of symptomatic diverticular disease. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Epidemiology and risk factors for ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdag, Kutbettin; Hosoglu, Salih

    2010-11-24

    Increased production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) has become an important issue for treatment of severe Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) infections. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors of infection from ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (ESBL-KP). Risk factors were evaluated using a retrospective case control design. Fifty-two patients admitted to Firat University Hospital (FUH) with invasive infections from ESBL-KP were employed as cases. Patients admitted to FUH with non-ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae invasive infection were chosen as controls. Potential risk factors of the cases and controls were evaluated using hospital charts. Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to show the relatedness of ESBL-KP strains. In univariate analysis, the following factors were found significant for ESBL-KP: pre-infection hospital stay, nosocomial origin, central venous catheterization, surgical intervention, antibiotic use longer than one week, and previous hospitalization. In contrast, stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that two variables, previous antibiotic use (p = 0.000) and surgical intervention (p = 0.006), remained significantly associated with risk for infection with an ESBL-KP. Molecular epidemiology identified several clusters among the ESBL-producing isolates. Antibiotic use and surgical intervention were significant associated factors for infections with ESBL-KP.

  6. [Accidents with biological materials among nurses in a training hospital: case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalarosa, Micheline Gisele; Lautert, Liana

    2009-03-01

    This case-control study aimed at analyzing the association between occupational stress and disagreement between chronotype and the work shift of nurses who suffered accidents with biological materials in a hospital of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A number of 99 workers who suffered accidents (cases) and 232 that had not suffered accidents (controls) were interviewed. Data were collected through the Job Stress Scale according to Karasek's model and the Horne-Ostberg scale The occurrence of accident was not statistically associated with high work requirement scores (p = 0.317), with a chronobiological profile discordant with work shift (p = 0.563), or with other labor variables associated to accidents--overtime, having two jobs (p = 1.000). In addition, there was no significant difference (chi2 Pearson; p = 1.00) among the scores of professionals with high work requirements who work in shifts discordant with their chronotype, both in the case group and in the control group as well.

  7. [A case-control study on the association of RFC-1 polymorphism and cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Juan-juan; Wang, Jin-tao; Ding, Ling; Wang, Zhi-min; Gao, Er-sheng

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the possible association between RFC-1 polymorphism and cervix carcinoma, as well as the interaction between polymorphism and human papilloma virus16 (HPV16). Based on a hospital-based case-control study, 107 cases which were diagnosed as cervical cancer pathematologically and 107 controls with hysteromyoma, were selected by frequency, matched with age and habitation. HPV16 and RFC-1 A80G polymorphism were detected by special PCR and RFLP. (1) HPV16 infection rate in cases (56.07%) was higher than that in controls (31.78%) with the adjusted OR of 3.25 (95% CI: 1.74-6.08). (2) All the genotypes were tested by Hardy-Weinberg balance. (3) Compared with RFC-1 AA,RFC-1 GG had higher risk for cervical cancer with OR of 2.42 (95% CI: 1.01-5.81). (4) No statistical significance was noticed regarding the interaction between RFC-1 polymorphism and HPV16 in logistic regression method. The introduction of RFC-1 80GG gene type could increase the risk of cervical cancer.

  8. Antipsychotic treatment is associated with risk of atrial fibrillation: A nationwide nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ruey-Hsing; Lo, Li-Wei; Liou, Ying-Jay; Shu, Jiah-Hwang; Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liang, Ying; Huang, Chin-Chou; Huang, Po-Hsun; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Chan, Wan-Leong; Leu, Hsin-Bang

    2017-01-15

    Antipsychotic agents are well known for their arrhythmigenic effect on ventricular arrhythmia. Though a few case reports observed the occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after antipsychotic exposure, information about their implication in AF is limited. Based on the National Health Insurance Database in Taiwan, we conducted a nested case-control study to investigate the relationship between antipsychotics and AF. From 2001 to 2010, a total of 34,053 cases of AF and 34,919 matched controls were enrolled. Antipsychotic exposure was measured and binding affinity to neurotransmitter receptors was calculated. Both medical and psychiatric comorbidities were identified and adjusted in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Current antipsychotic use was associated with a 17% increased risk of AF relative to nonusers (adjusted OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10-1.26). A dose-dependent relationship of antipsychotic exposure and AF risk was observed (P for trend Antipsychotics with higher binding affinity to muscarinic M2 receptors were associated with a higher incidence of AF. In subgroup analysis, subjects with preexisting hypertension, diabetes, or coronary artery diseases were at greater risk of developing AF following antipsychotic exposure. Antipsychotic exposure was associated with increased risk of AF, especially for agents with higher cardiac muscarinic receptor binding affinity. Physicians should monitor the occurrence of new-onset AF, and strictly control underlying medical risk factors while prescribing antipsychotic agents to high-risk populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. Results There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59–1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69–1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3–126.6, 126.7–152.9, and 153.0–308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37–1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26–0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS. PMID:26866594

  10. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Drozdovitch, V.; Bouville, A.; Paoaafaite, J.; Teuri, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from t he FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  11. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, INSERM U605, 94 - Villejuif (France); Drozdovitch, V. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Bouville, A. [DHHS/NIH/NCI/Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics EPS (United States); Paoaafaite, J.; Teuri, J. [IRD, Papeete Tahiti (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from the FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  12. Perceived caregiver stress in Alzheimer′s disease and mild cognitive impairment: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljeet Singh Anand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cross sectional studies have reported a tremendous amount of stress in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer′s disease (AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. The present study aimed at evaluating the perceived stress in caregivers of patients with AD and MCI compared to controls. Materials and Methods: Caregivers of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer′s disease/Mild Cognitive Impairment were recruited at the Memory Clinic of Neurology Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Northern India. The controls included caregivers of patients with chronic medical and psychiatric disorders. Caregivers were interviewed using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS and the patients were assessed using The Blessed Activity of Daily Living (ADL, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Clinical Dementia Rating scale. The perceived stress of caregivers was compared amongst both groups and correlated with the severity of illness and activities of daily living of the patients. Results: Caregivers of a total of 31 patients of AD/MCI (Males = 24, Females = 7, and 30 controls (Males = 18, Females = 12 were interviewed. PSS Score was 23.29 ± 7.17 in cases and 7.5 ± 3.12 in controls. ADL Score was 7.97±5.53 in cases and 0.00 in controls. There was a significant difference between the PSS and ADL scores between those with AD and controls (P < 0.0001. Caregivers of patients with MCI had lower PSS scores compared to AD caregivers but significantly higher scores compared to caregivers of other chronic disorders. Similarly, correlation between Perceived Stress and ADL was significant (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Present study shows that caregivers of patients with AD/MCI have a high perceived stress compared to caregivers of patients with other chronic illness.

  13. Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom Thinley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. Methods A review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in Bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control records of the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP. Data triangulation was used to identify trends in epidemiology and key strategies and interventions through analysis of the VDCP surveillance and programme records and the literature review. Enabling and challenging factors were identified through analysis of socio-economic and health indicators, corroborated through a review of national and international reports and peer-review articles. Findings Confirmed malaria cases in Bhutan declined by 98.7% from 1994 to 2010. The majority of indigenous cases were due to Plasmodium vivax (59.9% and adult males are most at-risk of malaria. Imported cases, or those in foreign nationals, varied over the years, reaching 21.8% of all confirmed cases in 2006. Strategies implemented by the VDCP are likely to be related to the decline in cases over the last 10 years. Access to malaria diagnosis in treatment was expanded throughout the country and evidence-based case management, including the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for P. falciparum, increasing coverage of high risk areas with Indoor Residual Spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, and long-lasting insecticidal nets are likely to have contributed to the decline alongside enabling factors such as economic development and increasing access to health services. Conclusion Bhutan has made significant strides towards elimination and has adopted a goal of national elimination. A major

  14. A case-control study of epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, K T; Patel, F; Patel, P B; Nayak, S; Patel, N B; Bansal, R K

    2016-01-01

    The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300). A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007. There was significant association of illiteracy (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.14-2.89), working in waterlogged fields during the reference season (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6-17.9), swimming/bathing in canals, open air defecation practices, storage of cow dung in or surrounding house, residence in the house made up of cow dung walls, households with access of food to rodents, injuries over hands/foot during the endemic season (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.8-4.8), and history of skin disease during the endemic season (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2-8.5), with leptospirosis. Only 10% of individuals had gumboots for protection. A total of 83 (83%) cases and 240 (80%) controls had taken oral doxycycline chemoprophylaxis (P > 0.05). Cases had taken chemoprophylaxis for a median 4 weeks (range: 1-8) while controls had taken the same for median 8 weeks (range = 1-8) (P < 0.002). Although the commonly established factors appear to be associated with leptospirosis, the role of host factors seems to play a more important role in determining susceptibility to leptospirosis in exposed individuals.

  15. Suicide in young adults: psychiatric and socio-economic factors from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Morrell, Stephen; Hobbs, Coletta; Carter, Greg; Dudley, Michael; Duflou, Johan; Taylor, Richard

    2014-03-06

    Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. A population-based case-control study of young adults (18-34 years) compared cases of suicide (n = 84) with randomly selected controls (n = 250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for intervention.

  16. Adolescent depression: social network and family climate--a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, G I; Nordström, M L; Arinell, H; von Knorring, A L

    1999-02-01

    In a study of a total high-school population, 2300 students aged 16-17 years were screened for depression (BDI, CES-DC). Those with a self-evaluation indicating depression, together with controls matched for sex, age, and class were interviewed (DICA-R-A). The 177 pairs, where both individuals were interviewed and the control had no lifetime diagnosis of depression, were analysed in the form of paired differences for psychosocial factors and compared within diagnostic groups. The psychosocial factors were measured with the ISSI subscales and six attitude questions about family climate (KSP). Adolescents with an episode of major depression during part of the last year did not differ from their controls. Those with long-lasting depressive symptoms, i.e. dysthymia with or without episodes of major depression, had a more limited social interaction and were not satisfied with it. They also evaluated their family climate and attachment network as being more inadequate than did their controls. Depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder had a more negative evaluation of availability and adequacy of both social interaction and attachment network than their controls. This group had a very negative view of their family climate. Since this is a case-control study conclusions cannot be drawn about cause and effect.

  17. Development of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh: a case-control study on risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuza Rifat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for developing multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh. METHODS: This case-control study was set in central, district and sub-district level hospitals of rural and urban Bangladesh. Included were 250 multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients as cases and 750 drug susceptible tuberculosis patients as controls. We recruited cases from all three government hospitals treating MDR-TB in Bangladesh during the study period. Controls were selected randomly from those local treatment units that had referred the cases. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and record reviews. Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Previous treatment history was shown to be the major contributing factor to MDR-TB in univariate analysis. After adjusting for other factors in multivariable analysis, age group "18-25" (OR 1.77, CI 1.07-2.93 and "26-45" (OR 1.72, CI 1.12-2.66, some level of education (OR 1.94, CI 1.32-2.85, service and business as occupation (OR 2.88, CI 1.29-6.44; OR 3.71, CI 1.59-8.66, respectively, smoking history (OR 1.58, CI 0.99-2.5, and type 2 diabetes (OR 2.56 CI 1.51-4.34 were associated with MDR-TB. Previous treatment was not included in the multivariable analysis as it was correlated with multiple predictors. CONCLUSION: Previous tuberculosis treatment was found to be the major risk factor for MDR-TB. This study also identified age 18 to 45 years, some education up to secondary level, service and business as occupation, past smoking status, and type 2 diabetes as comorbid illness as risk factors. National Tuberculosis programme should address these risk factors in MDR-TB control strategy. The integration of MDR-TB control activities with diabetes and tobacco control programmes is needed in Bangladesh.

  18. RISK FACTORS FOR GESTATIONAL TROPHOBLASTIC NEOPLASIA: A CASE CONTROL STUDY IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Sreedharan Nair

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gestational trophoblastic disease is a spectrum of proliferative abnormalities of the trophoblast. GTD represents a benign form of the disease while GTN is the malignant often metastatic lesion. 75-80 per cent of patients initially diagnosed as GTD will follow a benign course after dilatation and curettage. 15-20 per cent develop locally invasive disease and 3-5 per cent develop metastatic lesions. The study aims to assess the proportion of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia among women with gestational trophoblastic disease and identify the risk factors for chemotherapy in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case-control study conducted in a tertiary hospital during a 5-year period. Cases are gestational trophoblastic neoplasia diagnosed by either rising beta-HCG levels or plateauing beta-HCG levels or by histological evidence of choriocarcinoma. Controls are cases of gestational trophoblastic disease post evacuation with normal HCG regression at 8 weeks. There were 306 controls and 57 cases. RESULTS Tabulated and analysed using SPSS package. Of the 363 patients of gestational trophoblastic disease, 57 (15.7% needed chemotherapy. 98.2% belonged to the age group of 20-35 years. 63% had gestational age of more than 12 weeks, 56.1% had pre-evacuation HCG of more than 40,000. 15.7% needed combination therapy. CONCLUSION 1. 83.1% of patients belonged to age group of 20-30 years. 2. Blood group distribution of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease did not show any significance. 3. 15.7% of total patients were diagnosed to have gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that necessitated chemotherapy. 4. When uterine size was more than 12 weeks, a statistically significant number of patients needed chemotherapy compared to non-chemotherapy group. 5. When BHCG values were more than 40,000, a statistically significant number of patients needed chemotherapy. 6. A risk score of seven or more was found to

  19. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced hyperkalaemia in elderly patients receiving spironolactone: nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Tony; Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Yao, Zhan; Hellings, Chelsea; Garg, Amit X; Weir, Matthew A; Juurlink, David N

    2011-09-12

    To characterise the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia in elderly patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in combination with spironolactone. Population based nested case-control study. Ontario, Canada, from 1 April 1992 to 1 March 2010. Cases were residents of Ontario aged 66 years or above receiving chronic treatment with spironolactone and admitted to hospital with hyperkalaemia within 14 days of receiving a prescription for either trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, norfloxacin, or nitrofurantoin. Up to four controls for each case were identified from the same cohort, matched on age, sex, and presence or absence of chronic kidney disease and diabetes, and required to have received one of the study antibiotics within 14 days before the case's index date. Odds ratio for association between admission to hospital with hyperkalaemia and receipt of a study antibiotic in the preceding 14 days, adjusted for conditions and drugs that may influence risk of hyperkalaemia. During the 18 year study period, 6903 admissions for hyperkalaemia were identified, 306 of which occurred within 14 days of antibiotic use. Of these, 248 (81%) cases were matched to 783 controls. 10.8% (17,859/165,754) of spironolactone users received at least one prescription for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Compared with amoxicillin, prescription of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a marked increase in the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia (adjusted odds ratio 12.4, 95% confidence interval 7.1 to 21.6). The population attributable fraction was 59.7%, suggesting that approximately 60% of all cases of hyperkalaemia in older patients taking spironolactone and treated with an antibiotic for a urinary tract infection could be avoided if trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was not prescribed. Treatment with nitrofurantoin was also associated with an increase in the risk of hyperkalaemia (adjusted odds ratio 2.4, 1.3 to 4.6), but no such risk was

  20. Quantifying the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a case-control study of mobile phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Richardson, Lesley; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor.......To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor....

  1. The association of dietary pattern and breast cancer in Jiangsu, China: A population-based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.; Qian, Y.; Huang, X.; Yu, H.; Yang, J.; Han, R.; Su, J.; Du, W.; Zhou, J; Dong, M.; Yu, X.; Duijnhoven, F.; Kampman, E.; Wu, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns among Chinese women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Jiangsu, China. Newly diagnosed primary breast cancer patients were recruited as cases (n = 818). Controls (n = 935), selected from the

  2. Case-control study of radon and lung cancer in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, H. B.; Al-Zoughool, M.; Garner, M. J.; Jiang, H.; Klotz, J. B.; Krewski, D.; Nicholson, W. J.; Schoenberg, J. B.; Villeneuve, P. J.; Zielinski, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Radon is known to cause lung cancer in humans; however, there remain uncertainties about the effects associated with residential exposures. This case-control study of residential radon and lung cancer was conducted in five counties in New Jersey and involved 561 cases and 740 controls. A yearlong α-track detector measurement of radon was completed for ∼93% of all residences lived in at the time of interview (a total of 2063). While the odds ratios (ORs) for whole data were suggestive of an increased risk for exposures >75 Bq m -3 , these associations were not statistically significant. The adjusted excess OR (EOR) per 100 Bq m -3 was -0.13 (95% CI: -0.30 to 0.44) for males, 0.29 (95% CI: -0.12 to 1.70) for females and 0.05 (95% CI: -0.14 to 0.56) for all subjects combined. An analysis of radon effects by histological type of lung cancer showed that the OR was strongest for small/oat cell carcinomas in both males and females. There was no statistical heterogeneity of radon effects by demographic factors (age at disease occurrence, education level and type of respondent). Analysis by categories of smoking status, frequency or duration did not modify the risk estimates of radon on lung cancer. The findings of this study are consistent with an earlier population-based study of radon and lung cancer among New Jersey women, and with the North American pooling of case control radon seven studies, including the previous New Jersey study. Several uncertainties regarding radon measurements and assumptions of exposure history may have resulted in underestimation of a true exposure-response relationship. (authors)

  3. Role of calcium deficiency in development of nutritional rickets in Indian children: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Varun; Seth, Anju; Aneja, Satinder; Sharma, Bhawna; Sonkar, Pitamber; Singh, Satveer; Marwaha, Raman K

    2012-10-01

    Nutritional rickets is usually attributed to vitamin D deficiency. Studies from some tropical countries have postulated low dietary intake of calcium as the cause of nutritional rickets. Both vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency are highly prevalent in India. Information on their relative contribution in the development of rickets in Indian children is limited. The aim was to study the role of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in causation of nutritional rickets in young Indian children. In a case-control study, 67 children with nutritional rickets and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were compared for demographic factors, nutritional status, sun exposure (UV score), dietary calcium and phytate intake (for subjects not breast-fed at presentation), and biochemical parameters [serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and PTH]. Mean intake of calcium (204±129 vs. 453±234 mg/d; Pnutrition status.

  4. Mallory Weiss syndrome is not associated with hiatal hernia: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Juan E; Keihanian, Tara; Kröner, Paul T; Dauer, Ryan; Lukens, Frank J; Sussman, Daniel A

    2017-04-01

    Hiatal hernia is considered to be a predisposing factor to develop Mallory-Weiss Syndrome (MWS). No large case-control studies verifying this hypothesis have been conducted. We reviewed all esophagogastroduodenoscopies with findings of MWS (n = 2342) in a national database and compared with age and gender-matched controls (n = 9368). Demographics, endoscopic characteristics and presence of a hiatal hernia were compared between both groups. Average age was 56.7 ± 18.6 years, and 72.4% were male. Hiatal hernia was more common in controls, and no significant difference was seen in a multivariate analysis. Dynamic changes inducing mucosal tension are more relevant determinants to develop MWS than gastro-esophageal junction location alone.

  5. Case-control study of possible causative factors in mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyp, E.; Burgoyne, A.; Aitchison, T.; MacKie, R.

    1987-02-01

    A detailed case control study was carried out on 53 patients (33 males and 20 females) with histologically proven mycosis fungoides and on an age- and sex-matched control population. Possible causative factors investigated included occupation, recreation, and exposure to petrochemicals, pesticides, insecticides, and potential carcinogens. Exposure to plants of the Compositae family, tanning history, and chronic sun exposure were also investigated, as were smoking history, drug ingestion history, and other skin disease. Personal and family histories of other malignancies were also investigated. The only statistically significant difference to emerge was that the patients with mycosis fungoides had significantly more family history of atopic dermatitis. In view of the absence of any significant difference between patients and controls with regard to personal history of atopic dermatitis, this difference may be the result of multiple statistical testing rather than a phenomenon of true biological significance.

  6. Normal endothelial function in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter R; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    -dependent and technically demanding ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. Therefore, we decided to measure endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) using a newer and relatively operator......Evidence is increasing that severe psoriasis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Results from case-control studies of endothelial dysfunction, a marker of early atherosclerosis, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis have been conflicting and were conducted with operator...... blood pressures, and plasma levels of triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycated glucose, compared with controls. This indicates that even mild-to-moderate psoriasis may be regarded as a systemic inflammatory disease, and that an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity may...

  7. Sleep problems and suicide attempts among adolescents: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyawala, Neel; Stevens, Jack; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Cannon, Elizabeth A; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study used a case-control design to compare sleep disturbances in 40 adolescents who attempted suicide with 40 never-suicidal adolescents. Using hierarchical logistic regression analyses, we found that self-reported nighttime awakenings were significantly associated with attempted suicide, after controlling for antidepressant use, antipsychotic use, affective problems, and being bullied. In a separate regression analysis, the parent-reported total sleep problems score also predicted suicide attempt status, controlling for key covariates. No associations were found between suicide attempts and other distinct sleep problems, including falling asleep at bedtime, sleeping a lot during the day, trouble waking up in the morning, sleep duration, and parent-reported nightmares. Clinicians should be aware of sleep problems as potential risk factors for suicide attempts for adolescents.

  8. Intrauterine device use and the risk of pre-eclampsia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, S E; Jick, S S; Werler, M M

    2016-04-01

    To determine the association between intrauterine device (IUD) use, timing of removal prior to pregnancy, and the risk of pre-eclampsia. A case-control study within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, UK. Medical record database in the UK. Cases of pre-eclampsia (n = 2744) were identified among pregnancies resulting in singleton deliveries from 1993 to 2010. Four controls, or pregnancies unaffected by pre-eclampsia, were matched to each case on maternal age, general practice, and year of delivery. Data on IUD use were obtained from patient records. The odds ratios (ORs) for the association between IUD and pre-eclampsia were adjusted for covariates identified a priori, and analyses were stratified by BMI and number of prior deliveries. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals, 95% CIs) of pre-eclampsia in pregnancies among women with a history of IUD use, compared with women without a history of IUD use. Prior IUD use was associated with a reduced risk of pre-eclampsia (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.58-0.98). The timing of removal in relation to the start of pregnancy showed an inverse association, with shorter intervals associated with a larger decrease in risk of pre-eclampsia. IUD removal within a year prior to pregnancy had an OR of 0.68 (95% CI 0.46-1.00). Among women with a prior delivery, the association between IUD use and pre-eclampsia was null. Intrauterine device use is associated with a small decreased risk of pre-eclampsia, specifically if removed within the year prior to conception. A case-control study of pregnancies in the UK suggests a reduced risk of pre-eclampsia for former IUD users. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Risk factors for buruli ulcer: a case control study in Cameroon.

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    Régis Pouillot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. However, the exact mechanism of transmission of the bacillus and the development of the disease through human activities is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case-control study to identify Buruli ulcer risk factors in Cameroon compared case-patients with community-matched controls on one hand and family-matched controls on the other hand. Risk factors identified by the community-matched study (including 163 pairs were: having a low level of education, swamp wading, wearing short, lower-body clothing while farming, living near a cocoa plantation or woods, using adhesive bandages when hurt, and using mosquito coils. Protective factors were: using bed nets, washing clothes, and using leaves as traditional treatment or rubbing alcohol when hurt. The family-matched study (including 118 pairs corroborated the significance of education level, use of bed nets, and treatment with leaves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Covering limbs during farming activities is confirmed as a protective factor guarding against Buruli ulcer disease, but newly identified factors including wound treatment and use of bed nets may provide new insight into the unknown mode of transmission of M. ulcerans or the development of the disease.

  10. Human papillomaviruses in colorectal cancers: A case-control study in western patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuitton, Lucine; Jaillet, Carine; Jacquin, Elise; Monnien, Franck; Heberle, Marine; Mihai, Maria I; Lassabe, Catherine; Raffoul, Johnny; Puyraveau, Marc; Lakkis, Zaher; Lamfichekh, Najib; Picard, Alain; Prétet, Jean-Luc; Mougin, Christiane; Valmary-Degano, Séverine

    2017-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers. As in other cancer locations, the involvement of human papillomaviruses (HPV) has been suggested but remains highly debated with wide differences among reported prevalence of HPV infection in CRCs. To determine the actual prevalence of high risk HPV16 and 18 in a large case-control study. CRC specimens were used for analysis of both tumor and distant healthy tissue. As a non-malignant control group, samples from sigmoid diverticulosis resections were studied. Detection of HPV16 and HPV18 DNA was performed using a real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Ten percent of tumor samples were also randomly subjected to a complete HPV genotyping using the INNO-LiPA technique. 467 samples were analyzed: 217 tumor samples from 210 CRCs, 210 distant healthy tissue samples, and 40 sigmoid samples. HPV18 DNA was never amplified and HPV16 was amplified only three times in tumor tissues with viral loads under or at the limit of quantification. New extraction from the same tumor blocks for these samples revealed no HPV with qPCR and INNO-Lipa assays. With adequate procedures and reliable techniques, no HPV was detected in the largest case-control study so far, bringing more evidence on the absence of involvement of HPV in CRCs. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk Factors for Inhibitor Formation in Hemophilia: A Prevalent Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Margaret V.; Ojeifo, Oluseyi; Feng, Jinong; Yan, Jin; Hill, Kathleen A.; Sommer, Steve S.; Trucco, Massimo N.; Brambilla, Donald J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Inhibitor formation is a major complication of hemophilia treatment. Aim In a prevalent case-control study, we evaluated blood product exposure, genotype, and HLA type on hemophilia A inhibitor formation. Methods Product exposure was extracted from medical records. Genotype was determined on stored DNA samples by detection of virtually all mutations-SSCP (DOVAM-S) and subcycling PCR. HLA typing was performed by PCR amplification and exonuclease-released fluorescence. Results Cases experienced higher intensity factor, 455 vs. 200 U per exposure, p0.100. Genotype was not associated with race. Time to immune tolerance was shorter for titers 0.50. Conclusions Inhibitor formation is associated with high intensity product exposure, CNS bleeding, African-American race, and low frequency of missense mutations. The ideal time to initiate prophylaxis to reduce CNS bleeding and inhibitor formation will require prospective studies. PMID:19563499

  12. Perceived caregiver stress in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Kuljeet Singh; Dhikav, Vikas; Sachdeva, Ankur; Mishra, Pinki

    2016-01-01

    Cross sectional studies have reported a tremendous amount of stress in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The present study aimed at evaluating the perceived stress in caregivers of patients with AD and MCI compared to controls. Caregivers of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease/Mild Cognitive Impairment were recruited at the Memory Clinic of Neurology Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Northern India. The controls included caregivers of patients with chronic medical and psychiatric disorders. Caregivers were interviewed using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the patients were assessed using The Blessed Activity of Daily Living (ADL), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating scale. The perceived stress of caregivers was compared amongst both groups and correlated with the severity of illness and activities of daily living of the patients. Caregivers of a total of 31 patients of AD/MCI (Males = 24, Females = 7), and 30 controls (Males = 18, Females = 12) were interviewed. PSS Score was 23.29 ± 7.17 in cases and 7.5 ± 3.12 in controls. ADL Score was 7.97±5.53 in cases and 0.00 in controls. There was a significant difference between the PSS and ADL scores between those with AD and controls (P PSS scores compared to AD caregivers but significantly higher scores compared to caregivers of other chronic disorders. Similarly, correlation between Perceived Stress and ADL was significant (P stress compared to caregivers of patients with other chronic illness.

  13. Habitual Sleep Deprivation is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study

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    Mohammed A. Al-Abri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is suggested that a minimum of eight hours of sleep per night is needed for metabolism to work normally. The aim of the study was to determine the association of habitual sleep deprivation and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods: We conducted a case-control study comparing patients with T2DM with age and sex matched healthy controls. Standard sleep questionnaires (the Berlin and Epworth Sleepiness Scale and a weekly diary were used by patients to self-report habitual sleep. Results: A total of 172 diabetics and 188 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. There was a significant difference between T2DM and healthy controls in nocturnal sleep duration (p = 0.033. There was a significant association between nocturnal sleep duration of fewer than six hours and T2DM (χ2 = 14.0; p = 0.0001. There was no significant difference in daytime sleepiness and daytime naps between the T2DM and control groups (p = 0.452; p =0.581, respectively. Conclusions: A nocturnal sleep duration < 6 hours is associated with T2DM.

  14. Distribution of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Patients With Keratoconus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderan, Mohammad; Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Shoar, Saeed; Kamaleddin, Mohammad Amin; Naderan, Morteza; Rezagholizadeh, Farzaneh; Zolfaghari, Masoome; Pahlevani, Rozhin

    2015-07-01

    Association of keratoconus (KC) with genetic predisposition and environmental factors has been well documented. However, no single study has investigated the possible relationship between ABO and Rh blood groups and KC. A case-control study was designed in a university hospital enrolling 214 patients with KC in the case group and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects in the control group. Primary characteristics, ABO blood group, and Rh factors were compared between the two groups. Topographic findings of KC eyes and the severity of the diseases were investigated according to the distribution of the blood groups. Blood group O and Rh(+) phenotype were most frequent in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of ABO blood groups or Rh factors. Mean keratometery (K), central corneal thickness, thinnest corneal thickness, flat K, steep K, sphere and cylinder, spherical equivalent, and uncorrected visual acuity were all similar between ABO blood groups and Rh(+) and Rh(-) groups. However, the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had the highest value in AB blood group (0.35 ± 0.22 logMAR, P=0.005). Moreover, the blood group AB revealed the highest frequency for grade 3 KC, followed by grades 1, 2, and 4 (P=0.003). We observed no significant excess of any particular blood group among KC cases compared with healthy subjects. Except BCVA, none of the keratometric or topographic findings was significantly different between blood groups.

  15. Bone Health in Patients with Epilepsy: A Community-based Pilot Nested Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Shweta; Kaushal, Sandeep; Arora, Shalini; Singh, Gagandeep

    2017-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) adversely affect bone health and there are reports describing association of alternations of bone and mineral metabolism in epileptic patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the bone profile (bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density [BMD]) of patients with epilepsy and compare them to their age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-matched healthy controls in a community. This was a nested case-control study conducted in fifty individuals, which included 25 cases (age above 18 years and on AEDs for at least 3 years) for which 25 controls were selected from the same community. Bone mineral parameters (serum calcium, proteins, phosphorous, alkaline phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and Vitamin D) and BMD were measured. There was significant hypocalcemia ( P = 0.003), hypoproteinemia ( P = 0.014), hyperparathyroidism ( P = 0.048), and increased levels of serum alkaline phosphatase ( P = 0.019) in cases as compared to controls. The difference was insignificant in the serum levels of Vitamin D and phosphorous among both the groups. Vitamin D was significantly low in female patients as compared to males ( P = 0.043). There was no significant difference in BMD at the lumbar spine and femur neck among both the groups. Mean duration of epilepsy was longest in patients with osteoporosis (23.6 years), and increasing duration of epilepsy was associated with reduction in age- and sex-corrected total BMD mean Z-score anteroposterior spine. There was negative correlation between cumulative drug load and T-score of patients with epilepsy. Patients on long-term AED treatment have altered bone profile as evident from biochemical parameters and reduced BMD. There is a need for more extensive research and that too on a larger sample size.

  16. Association of HCV with diabetes mellitus: an Egyptian case-control study

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    Esmat Gamal G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest Hepatitis C Virus (HCV prevalence in the world occurs in Egypt. Several studies from different parts of the world have found that 13% to 33% of patients with chronic HCV have associated diabetes, mostly type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM. In Egypt the prevalence of DM is 25.4% among HCV patients. Therefore, it is important to identify the magnitude of the problem of diabetes in order to optimize the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Methods The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the prevalence of DM and other extrahepatic (EH manifestations among patients with different HCV morbidity stages including asymptomatic, chronic hepatic and cirrhotic patients. In this study, 289 HCV patients older than 18 were selected as cases. Also, 289 healthy controls were included. Laboratory investigations including Liver Function tests (LFT and blood glucose level were done. Also serological assays including cryoglobulin profile, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, HCV-PCR were performed. Results Out of 289 HCV cases, 40 (13.84% were diabetic. Out of 289 healthy controls, 12 (4.15% were diabetic. It was found that the diabetic HCV group mean age was [48.1 (± 9.2]. Males and urbanians represented 72.5% and 85% respectively. Lower level of education was manifested in 52.5% and 87.5% were married. In the nondiabetic HCV group mean age was [40.7 (± 10.4]. Males and urbanians represented 71.5% and 655% respectively. secondary and higher level of education was attained in 55.4% and 76.7% were married. Comparing between the diabetic HCV group and the non diabetic HCV group, age, residence and alcohol drinking were the only significant factors affecting the incidence of diabetes between the two groups. There was no significant difference regarding sonar findings although cirrhosis was more prevalent among diabetic HCV cases and the fibrosis score was higher in diabetic HCV patients than among the non diabetic HCV cases

  17. Shigellosis Outbreak in Al Batinah South Governorate, Oman; Case-control study

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    Idris Abaidani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to Shigella flexneri occurred in August 2012 in the catchment area of the Wadi Sahtan Health Center in Rustaq, Al Batinah South Governorate, Oman. The aim of this study was to discover possible causes of this outbreak in the villages of Fassa, Rogh and Amk and to measure the risk of exposure among cases and controls. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in September 2012 in Fassa, Rogh and Amk. All households in the three villages were interviewed. Case and control households were compared to determine possible exposure avenues, including place of residence, source of drinking water, hand hygiene levels and practices related to drinking water, food preparation and environmental sanitation. Results: Residing in Fassa (P <0.0001; odds ratio [OR] = 4.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.22–10.63 and average hand hygiene practices (P = 0.008; OR = 13.97, 95% CI = 1.58–123.36 were associated with an increased risk of contracting shigellosis. No significant differences were found with regards to the other exposure avenues. Conclusion: This was the first study conducted in Oman regarding an outbreak of shigellosis in a community setting. The only variables that significantly impacted the risk of acute gastroenteritis were residing in Fassa and average hand hygiene practices. The source of the outbreak could not be identified. However, septic tank sanitation and water and food consumption practices were not satisfactory in the studied villages. These need to be addressed to prevent similar outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in this region in the future.

  18. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  19. Comparative study of control selection in a national population-based case-control study: Estimating risk of smoking on cancer deaths in Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingmei; Liu, Boqi; Nasca, Philip C; Han, Wei; Zou, Xiaonong; Zeng, Xianjia; Tian, Xiaobing; Wu, Yanping; Zhao, Ping; Li, Junyao

    2009-10-28

    To assess the validation of a novel control selection design by comparing the consistency between the new design and a routine design in a large case-control study that was incorporated into a nationwide mortality survey in China. A nationwide mortality study was conducted during 1989-1991. Surviving spouses or other relatives of all adults who died during 1986-1988 provided detailed information about their own as well as the deceased person's smoking history. In this study, 130,079 males who died of various smoking-related cancers at age 35 or over were taken as cases, while 103,248 male surviving spouses (same age range with cases) of women who died during the same period and 49,331 males who died from causes other than those related to smoking were used as control group 1 and control group 2, respectively. Consistency in the results when comparing cases with each of the control groups was assessed. Consistency in the results was observed in the analyses using different control groups although cancer deaths varied with region and age. Equivalence could be ascertained using a 15% criterion in most cancer deaths which had high death rates in urban areas, but they were uncertain for most cancers in rural areas irrespective of whether the hypothesis testing showed significant differences or not. Sex-matched living spouse control design as an alternative control selection for a case-control study is valid and feasible, and the basic principles of the equivalence study are also supported by epidemiological survey data.

  20. Adherence to a DASH-Style Diet in Relation to Stroke: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, Mahdieh; Saadatnia, Mohammad; Shakeri, Forough; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence from Western societies on the association between dietary patterns and stroke, limited data are available in this regard from developing countries. This study was conducted to examine the association between adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and risk of stroke among the Iranian population. This hospital-based case-control study included 194 stroke patients and 194 controls and was conducted at the Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. The cases were stroke patients who were hospitalized in the neurology ward of the Alzahra University Hospital. Controls were randomly selected from among hospitalized patients in the orthopedic or surgical wards of this center. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the patients' usual dietary intake. We constructed the DASH diet score based on food and nutrients emphasized or minimized in the DASH diet. The prevalence of stroke among those in the top quartile of the DASH diet score was 40%, which was 15% lower than among those in the bottom quartile; this difference was marginally significant (p = 0.10). After controlling for age, sex, and total energy intake, adherence to the DASH diet was inversely associated with the risk of stroke (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28; 0.98). These associations remained significant even after additionally controlling for physical activity, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes, such that individuals in the highest quartile of the DASH diet score had a 58% lower risk of stroke than those in the lowest category (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.96). However, after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), the association disappeared (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.29, 1.31), indicating an obesity-dependent association. We found an inverse relationship between the DASH-style diet and prevalence of stroke. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this association.

  1. Association between protozoa in sputum and asthma: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woerden, Hugo C; Ratier-Cruz, Adriana; Aleshinloye, Olabode B; Martinez-Giron, Rafael; Gregory, Clive; Matthews, Ian P

    2011-06-01

    Atypical infectious agents have been proposed as potential contributors to asthma. A novel set of morphological and staining criteria permit the identification of flagellated protozoa in sputum. This case-control study was designed to use this novel method and to assess: (1) are protozoa more common in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics; (2) is the presence of protozoa associated with the use of steroid inhalers; and (3) is the presence of protozoa associated with living in damp housing? Induced sputum samples were collected from asthma patients and local non-atopic, non-smoking controls. Questionnaires assessed asthma severity and housing conditions. Sputum was examined for flagellated protozoa using a previously described staining technique. 96 participants were recruited for this study; 54 asthma patients and 42 controls, age range 21-62 years, 70% female participants. Limiting results to those who were clearly positive or negative for flagellated protozoa, 66.7% (20/30) of asthmatics and 30.8% (4/13) of controls had protozoa (p = 0.046). Among the asthma patients, prevalence of protozoa was not significantly different between those who had (10/18), and those who had not (10/12), used steroid inhaler in the preceding two weeks (p = 0.11). Similarly, the prevalence of protozoa was not significantly different between those who did (6/11) and those who did not (18/32), live in damp homes (p = 0.92). This case-control study demonstrates an association between flagellated protozoa in sputum and asthma. It is now necessary to confirm and characterise the protozoa using genetic techniques based on 18S ribosomal RNA. Once tis is established it would be worthwhile to determine if asthma symptoms improve when treated by anti-protozoal agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Leukaemia incidence among workers in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry: a case-control study

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    Forand Steven P

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have indicated an excess of leukaemia in Broome County, New York, particularly in the Town of Union. Surveillance of cancer incidence data indicates that a large proportion of these cases occurred among males ages 65 and older. Shoe and boot manufacturing has been the largest single industry in this area throughout much of the past century. Occupational studies from Europe suggest a link between leukaemia and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry. However, researchers have not found a positive association between leukaemia and employment in the shoe industry among workers in the United States. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between leukaemia incidence among males 65 and older and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry. Thirty-six cases of leukaemia occurring between 1981–1990; among males age 65 and older; residing in the town of Union met the study case criteria. Death certificates were obtained for each of the cases. These were matched to death certificates of 144 controls on date of death and date of birth +/- 1 year. Death certificates were then examined to determine the employer and occupation of each study subject. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risk of leukaemia among those working in the industry. Results The risk of both leukaemia (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 0.70, 3.09 and acute myeloid leukaemia (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.33, 4.28 were elevated among those employed in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry, however neither was statistically significant. Conclusion The results, though suggestive of an association between leukaemia and employment in the shoe and boot manufacturing industry, were not statistically conclusive due mainly to limited study power. Several additional limitations may also have prevented the observance of more conclusive findings. Better exposure assessment, information on