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Sample records for case based reasoning

  1. Case-based reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodner, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is one of the fastest growing areas in the field of knowledge-based systems and this book, authored by a leader in the field, is the first comprehensive text on the subject. Case-based reasoning systems are systems that store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched out to help solve these problems. Problems are understood and inferences are made by finding the closest cases in memory, comparing and contrasting the problem with those cases, making inferences based on those comparisons, and asking questions whe

  2. Case-based reasoning a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    López, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is a methodology with a long tradition in artificial intelligence that brings together reasoning and machine learning techniques to solve problems based on past experiences or cases. Given a problem to be solved, reasoning involves the use of methods to retrieve similar past cases in order to reuse their solution for the problem at hand. Once the problem has been solved, learning methods can be applied to improve the knowledge based on past experiences. In spite of being a broad methodology applied in industry and services, case-based reasoning has often been forgotten in

  3. Integrated Agent-based and Case-based Reasoning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the complexity of the modern systems drives to use multiple case bases in the case based reasoning (CBR) system to solve a single problem. Sometimes, it is difficult and unman gable task to store the knowledge of the domain of these complex systems in a single case base. On the other hand, usually these multiple case bases having different structures that cause main limitation for solving the problem. This research introduces integrating the case based systems using multiple case bases with agent-based technique. This enables the system to use different case base structures. The proposed system has been applied for designing the radiotherapy of the kidney, liver and skin cancers. It is found that, the suggested system has simplified, managed the complexity, increasing the accuracy of the of CBR systems. Therefore, it can be applied with a good performance for the practical sites

  4. Case Based Reasoning in Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-30

    Physics Based on Confluences. Artificial Intelligence 24:7-83, 1984. [7] Didier Dubois and Henri Prade . Possibility Theory: An Approach to...in Design. PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982. [53] Rosenauer, N. and A.H. Willis . Kinematics of Mechanisms. Associated General

  5. A Case-Based Reasoning Method with Rank Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinhua; Du, Jiao; Hu, Jian

    2018-03-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper addresses a new CBR framework with the basic principle of rank aggregation. First, the ranking methods are put forward in each attribute subspace of case. The ordering relation between cases on each attribute is got between cases. Then, a sorting matrix is got. Second, the similar case retrieval process from ranking matrix is transformed into a rank aggregation optimal problem, which uses the Kemeny optimal. On the basis, a rank aggregation case-based reasoning algorithm, named RA-CBR, is designed. The experiment result on UCI data sets shows that case retrieval accuracy of RA-CBR algorithm is higher than euclidean distance CBR and mahalanobis distance CBR testing.So we can get the conclusion that RA-CBR method can increase the performance and efficiency of CBR.

  6. Temperament and Mood Detection Using Case-Based Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo Kolawole John; Adekoya Adewale M.; Ekwonna Chinnasa

    2014-01-01

    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is a branch of AI that is employed to solving problems which emphasizes the use of previous solutions in solving similar new problems. This work presents TAMDS, a Temperament and Mood Detection system which employs Case-Based Reasoning technique. The proposed system is adapted to the field of psychology to help psychologists solve part of the problems in their complex domain. We have designed TAMDS to detect temperament and moods of individuals. A major aim of our s...

  7. Trust-Guided Behavior Adaptation Using Case-Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    al., 2013]) or offline after all tasks have been completed (e.g., filing out a trust survey [Jian et al., 2000; Muir , 1987]). However, this might not...recom- mender systems. In 5th International Conference on Case- Based Reasoning, pages 276–290, 2003. [ Muir , 1987] Bonnie M. Muir . Trust between humans

  8. Case-Based Reasoning for Human Behavior Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-16

    edition may be used. Case Based Reasoning for Human Behavior Modeling CDRL A002 for Contract N00014-03-C-0178 February 16, 2006 Document...maintaining a useful repository demand that reuse be supported for human behavior modeling even if other model construction aids are also available...et al. (2001). Results of the Common Human Behavior Representation And Interchange System (CHRIS) Workshop. Fall 2001 Simulation Interoperability

  9. Case-based reasoning: The marriage of knowledge base and data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulaski, Kirt; Casadaban, Cyprian

    1988-01-01

    The coupling of data and knowledge has a synergistic effect when building an intelligent data base. The goal is to integrate the data and knowledge almost to the point of indistinguishability, permitting them to be used interchangeably. Examples given in this paper suggest that Case-Based Reasoning is a more integrated way to link data and knowledge than pure rule-based reasoning.

  10. Construction Tender Subcontract Selection using Case-based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Due Luu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining competitive quotations from suitably qualified subcontractors at tender tim n significantly increase the chance of w1nmng a construction project. Amidst an increasingly growing trend to subcontracting in Australia, selecting appropriate subcontractors for a construction project can be a daunting task requiring the analysis of complex and dynamic criteria such as past performance, suitable experience, track record of competitive pricing, financial stability and so on. Subcontractor selection is plagued with uncertainty and vagueness and these conditions are difficul_t o represent in generalised sets of rules. DeciSIOns pertaining to the selection of subcontr:act?s tender time are usually based on the mtu1t1onand past experience of construction estimators. Case-based reasoning (CBR may be an appropriate method of addressing the chal_lenges of selecting subcontractors because CBR 1s able to harness the experiential knowledge of practitioners. This paper reviews the practicality and suitability of a CBR approach for subcontractor tender selection through the development of a prototype CBR procurement advisory system. In this system, subcontractor selection cases are represented by a set of attributes elicited from experienced construction estimators. The results indicate that CBR can enhance the appropriateness of the selection of subcontractors for construction projects.

  11. Case-based reasoning support for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Brian; Hamza, Meer; Irgens, Chris

    2000-10-01

    The potential application of case-based reasoning (CBR) in design support is illustrated through examples drawn from research at the University of Paisley, demonstrating the suitability of CBR for different aspects of design, different problem areas, and different design goals. A quality advisory system has been developed for the early stages of mechanical engineering design, the aim of which is to provide quality advice in a variant design situation. In the domain of software engineering CBR has been applied to advise on which metrics are appropriate fora assessing the quality of the software currently under design. The system integrates CBR with concepts from quality function deployment (QFD) and incorporates a case library holding past software quality histories. CBR has been applied in support of conceptual design: to capture detailed design histories by monitoring designer actions, and thereby support design reuse through the evaluation of designs, through the provision of query, browsing and replay facilities. The resulting system is aimed to support the design of safety critical systems, by assisting in the construction of safety arguments, and cooperative design.

  12. Case-based reasoning emulation of persons for wheelchair navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peula, Jose Manuel; Urdiales, Cristina; Herrero, Ignacio; Fernandez-Carmona, Manuel; Sandoval, Francisco

    2012-10-01

    Testing is a key stage in system development, particularly in systems such as a wheelchair, in which the final user is typically a disabled person. These systems have stringent safety requirements, requiring major testing with many different individuals. The best would be to have the wheelchair tested by many different end users, as each disability affects driving skills in a different way. Unfortunately, from a practical point of view it is difficult to engage end users as beta testers. Hence, testing often relies on simulations. Naturally, these simulations need to be as realistic as possible to make the system robust and safe before real tests can be accomplished. This work presents a tool to automatically test wheelchairs through realistic emulation of different wheelchair users. Our approach is based on extracting meaningful data from real users driving a power wheelchair autonomously. This data is then used to train a case-based reasoning (CBR) system that captures the specifics of the driver via learning. The resulting case-base is then used to emulate the driving behavior of that specific person in more complex situations or when a new assistive algorithm needs to be tested. CBR returns user's motion commands appropriate for each specific situation to add the human component to shared control systems. The proposed system has been used to emulate several power wheelchair users presenting different disabilities. Data to create this emulation was obtained from previous wheelchair navigation experiments with 35 volunteer in-patients presenting different degrees of disability. CBR was trained with a limited number of scenarios for each volunteer. Results proved that: (i) emulated and real users returned similar paths in the same scenario (maximum and mean path deviations are equal to 23 and 10cm, respectively) and similar efficiency; (ii) we established the generality of our approach taking a new path not present in the training traces; (iii) the emulated user

  13. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Case Based Reasoning Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The success of a CBR system largely depen ds on an effective retrieval of useful prior case for the problem. Nearest neighbor and induction are the main CBR retrieval algorithms. Each of them can be more suitable in different situations. Integrated the two retrieval algorithms can catch the advantages of both of them. But, they still have some limitations facing the induction retrieval algorithm when dealing with a noisy data, a large number of irrelevant features, and different types of data. This research utilizes a hybrid approach using genetic algorithms (GAs) to case-based induction retrieval of the integrated nearest neighbor - induction algorithm in an attempt to overcome these limitations and increase the overall classification accuracy. GAs can be used to optimize the search space of all the possible subsets of the features set. It can deal with the irrelevant and noisy features while still achieving a significant improvement of the retrieval accuracy. Therefore, the proposed CBR-GA introduces an effective general purpose retrieval algorithm that can improve the performance of CBR systems. It can be applied in many application areas. CBR-GA has proven its success when applied for different problems in real-life

  14. The Effectiveness of Case-Based Reasoning: An Application in Sales Promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.P. Althuizen (Niek); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with Case-based Reasoning (CBR) as a support technology for sales promotion (SP) decisions. CBR-systems try to mimic analogical reasoning, a form of human reasoning that is likely to occur in weakly-structured problem solving, such as the design of sales promotions. In

  15. Case-based reasoning as a decision support system for cancer diagnosis: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Bajo Pérez, Javier; Paz Santana, Juan Francisco de; Rodríguez, Sara; Corchado Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    [EN]Microarray technology can measure the expression levels of thousands of genes in an experiment. This fact makes the use of computational methods in cancer research absolutely essential. One of the possible applications is in the use of Artificial Intelligence techniques. Several of these techniques have been used to analyze expression arrays, but there is a growing need for new and effective solutions. This paper presents a Case-based reasoning (CBR) system for automatic classification of...

  16. Integrating association rules and case-based reasoning to predict retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available This study proposes a retinopathy prediction system based on data mining,particularly association rules using Apriori algorithm, and case-based reasoning. The association rules are used to analyse patterns in the data set and to calculate retinopathy probability whereas case-based reasoning is used to retrieve similar cases. This paper discusses the proposed system. It is believed that great improvements can be provided to medical practitioners and also to diabetics with the implementation of this system.

  17. NEST: A Compositional Approach to Rule-Based and Case-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Berka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rule-based reasoning (RBR and case-based reasoning (CBR are two complementary alternatives for building knowledge-based “intelligent” decision-support systems. RBR and CBR can be combined in three main ways: RBR first, CBR first, or some interleaving of the two. The NEST system, described in this paper, allows us to invoke both components separately and in arbitrary order. In addition to the traditional network of propositions and compositional rules, NEST also supports binary, nominal, and numeric attributes used for derivation of proposition weights, logical (no uncertainty and default (no antecedent rules, context expressions, integrity constraints, and cases. The inference mechanism allows use of both rule-based and case-based reasoning. Uncertainty processing (based on Hájek's algebraic theory allows interval weights to be interpreted as a union of hypothetical cases, and a novel set of combination functions inspired by neural networks has been added. The system is implemented in two versions: stand-alone and web-based client server. A user-friendly editor covering all mentioned features is included.

  18. Energy Optimization Using a Case-Based Reasoning Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Briones, Alfonso; Prieto, Javier; De La Prieta, Fernando; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique; Corchado, Juan M

    2018-03-15

    At present, the domotization of homes and public buildings is becoming increasingly popular. Domotization is most commonly applied to the field of energy management, since it gives the possibility of managing the consumption of the devices connected to the electric network, the way in which the users interact with these devices, as well as other external factors that influence consumption. In buildings, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems have the highest consumption rates. The systems proposed so far have not succeeded in optimizing the energy consumption associated with a HVAC system because they do not monitor all the variables involved in electricity consumption. For this reason, this article presents an agent approach that benefits from the advantages provided by a Multi-Agent architecture (MAS) deployed in a Cloud environment with a wireless sensor network (WSN) in order to achieve energy savings. The agents of the MAS learn social behavior thanks to the collection of data and the use of an artificial neural network (ANN). The proposed system has been assessed in an office building achieving an average energy savings of 41% in the experimental group offices.

  19. Energy Optimization Using a Case-Based Reasoning Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Viedma, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    At present, the domotization of homes and public buildings is becoming increasingly popular. Domotization is most commonly applied to the field of energy management, since it gives the possibility of managing the consumption of the devices connected to the electric network, the way in which the users interact with these devices, as well as other external factors that influence consumption. In buildings, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems have the highest consumption rates. The systems proposed so far have not succeeded in optimizing the energy consumption associated with a HVAC system because they do not monitor all the variables involved in electricity consumption. For this reason, this article presents an agent approach that benefits from the advantages provided by a Multi-Agent architecture (MAS) deployed in a Cloud environment with a wireless sensor network (WSN) in order to achieve energy savings. The agents of the MAS learn social behavior thanks to the collection of data and the use of an artificial neural network (ANN). The proposed system has been assessed in an office building achieving an average energy savings of 41% in the experimental group offices. PMID:29543729

  20. Energy Optimization Using a Case-Based Reasoning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso González-Briones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the domotization of homes and public buildings is becoming increasingly popular. Domotization is most commonly applied to the field of energy management, since it gives the possibility of managing the consumption of the devices connected to the electric network, the way in which the users interact with these devices, as well as other external factors that influence consumption. In buildings, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems have the highest consumption rates. The systems proposed so far have not succeeded in optimizing the energy consumption associated with a HVAC system because they do not monitor all the variables involved in electricity consumption. For this reason, this article presents an agent approach that benefits from the advantages provided by a Multi-Agent architecture (MAS deployed in a Cloud environment with a wireless sensor network (WSN in order to achieve energy savings. The agents of the MAS learn social behavior thanks to the collection of data and the use of an artificial neural network (ANN. The proposed system has been assessed in an office building achieving an average energy savings of 41% in the experimental group offices.

  1. Improving the Reliability of Case-Based Reasoning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xu

    2010-09-01

    also discussed in this paper, especially the property that whether inter-feature of case exists redundancy. After that, the reliability of an individual suggested solution is studied. To illustrate these ideas, some experiments and their results are discussed in this paper. The results of experiments show a new route concerning on how to improve the reliability of a CBR system at an overall level.

  2. Case-Based Analogical Reasoning: A Pedagogical Tool for Promotion of Clinical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Timothy E.; Bell, Alexandra; Kehrhahn, Marijke; Casa, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: One of the most common instructional methods utilized to promote learning transfer in health profession education is examination of a single patient case. However, in non-healthcare settings this practice has shown to be less effective in promoting learning than the examination of multiple cases with cueing. Objective(s): The primary…

  3. Planning diagnostic imaging work-up strategies using case-based reasoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    ISIS is a developmental decision support system that helps physicians select diagnostic imaging procedures. It uses case-based reasoning, an artificial-intelligence approach that emphasizes reasoning and planning from prior experience. The development, training, and evaluation of a prototype system were used to guide the development of ISIS. To realize a clinically useful system, particular emphasis has been placed on increasing the depth and breadth of case-based knowledge, enhancing the exp...

  4. Automated Generation of Traffic Incident Response Plan Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Bayesian Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incident response plan, specifying response agencies and their responsibilities, can guide responders to take actions effectively and timely after traffic incidents. With a reasonable and feasible traffic incident response plan, related agencies will save many losses, such as humans and wealth. In this paper, how to generate traffic incident response plan automatically and specially was solved. Firstly, a well-known and approved method, Case-Based Reasoning (CBR, was introduced. Based on CBR, a detailed case representation and R5-cycle of CBR were developed. To enhance the efficiency of case retrieval, which was an important procedure, Bayesian Theory was introduced. To measure the performance of the proposed method, 23 traffic incidents caused by traffic crashes were selected and three indicators, Precision P, Recall R, and Indicator F, were used. Results showed that 20 of 23 cases could be retrieved effectively and accurately. The method is practicable and accurate to generate traffic incident response plans. The method will promote the intelligent generation and management of traffic incident response plans and also make Traffic Incident Management more scientific and effective.

  5. An indexing system of corrosion failures for case-based reasoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberge, P.R. [Royal Military Coll., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Trethewey, K.R. [Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering Materials

    1996-10-01

    The difficulties associated with the committal of human expert knowledge to computers for the development of more effective knowledge-based systems have raised the possibility of mimicking the process of reasoning from previous experiences. Experts are known to make proficient decisions based more upon analogy with similar events and situations than the kind of sequential mechanisms used in many algorithmic approaches. For many years, both law and business schools have used cases as the foundation for knowledge in their respective disciplines. Computer reasoning by analogy, a technique known as Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) has met with tangible success in such diverse human decision-making applications as banking, autoclave loading, tactical decision-making, and foreign trade negotiations. Failure analysts and corrosion engineers also reason by analogy when faced with new situations or problems. The CBR approach is particularly valuable in cases containing ill-structured problems, uncertainty, ambiguity, and missing data. Dynamic environments can also be tackled, or when there are shifting, ill-defined and competing objectives. Cases where there are action feedback loops, multiple human involvement, and multiple and potentially changing organizational goals and norms can also be tackled. This paper describes a method of indexing case histories for use in a case-based reasoning system in support of failure analysis.

  6. Problem-Oriented Corporate Knowledge Base Models on the Case-Based Reasoning Approach Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhih, I. N.; Akhmadulin, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    One of the urgent directions of efficiency enhancement of production processes and enterprises activities management is creation and use of corporate knowledge bases. The article suggests a concept of problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases (PO CKB), in which knowledge is arranged around possible problem situations and represents a tool for making and implementing decisions in such situations. For knowledge representation in PO CKB a case-based reasoning approach is encouraged to use. Under this approach, the content of a case as a knowledge base component has been defined; based on the situation tree a PO CKB knowledge model has been developed, in which the knowledge about typical situations as well as specific examples of situations and solutions have been represented. A generalized problem-oriented corporate knowledge base structural chart and possible modes of its operation have been suggested. The obtained models allow creating and using corporate knowledge bases for support of decision making and implementing, training, staff skill upgrading and analysis of the decisions taken. The universal interpretation of terms “situation” and “solution” adopted in the work allows using the suggested models to develop problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases in different subject domains. It has been suggested to use the developed models for making corporate knowledge bases of the enterprises that operate engineer systems and networks at large production facilities.

  7. A Case-Based Reasoning for Regulation of an Urban Transportation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Bouamrane

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a classification-based approach to case-based reasoning. This approach has been implemented in a decision-making system for regulating an urban transportation network. Planning relies on two classification processes: strong classification to retrieve a similar planning perturbation and smooth classification when the former fails. Smooth classification is an original mechanism that can become of general use in case-based reasoning. We discuss in this paper the two processes from general and applicative point of view.

  8. The role of professional knowledge in case-based reasoning in practical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkus, Rosa Lynn; Gloeckner, Claire; Fortunato, Angela

    2015-06-01

    The use of case-based reasoning in teaching professional ethics has come of age. The fields of medicine, engineering, and business all have incorporated ethics case studies into leading textbooks and journal articles, as well as undergraduate and graduate professional ethics courses. The most recent guidelines from the National Institutes of Health recognize case studies and face-to-face discussion as best practices to be included in training programs for the Responsible Conduct of Research. While there is a general consensus that case studies play a central role in the teaching of professional ethics, there is still much to be learned regarding how professionals learn ethics using case-based reasoning. Cases take many forms, and there are a variety of ways to write them and use them in teaching. This paper reports the results of a study designed to investigate one of the issues in teaching case-based ethics: the role of one's professional knowledge in learning methods of moral reasoning. Using a novel assessment instrument, we compared case studies written and analyzed by three groups of students whom we classified as: (1) Experts in a research domain in bioengineering. (2) Novices in a research domain in bioengineering. (3) The non-research group--students using an engineering domain in which they were interested but had no in-depth knowledge. This study demonstrates that a student's level of understanding of a professional knowledge domain plays a significant role in learning moral reasoning skills.

  9. A model presented for classification ECG signals base on Case-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Sayari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of heart diseases/abnormalities can prolong life and enhance the quality of living through appropriate treatment; thus classifying cardiac signals will be helped to immediate diagnosing of heart beat type in cardiac patients. The present paper utilizes the case base reasoning (CBR for classification of ECG signals. Four types of ECG beats (normal beat, congestive heart failure beat, ventricular tachyarrhythmia beat and atrial fibrillation beat obtained from the PhysioBank database was classified by the proposed CBR model. The main purpose of this article is classifying heart signals and diagnosing the type of heart beat in cardiac patients that in proposed CBR (Case Base Reasoning system, Training and testing data for diagnosing and classifying types of heart beat have been used. The evaluation results from the model are shown that the proposed model has high accuracy in classifying heart signals and helps to clinical decisions for diagnosing the type of heart beat in cardiac patients which indeed has high impact on diagnosing the type of heart beat aided computer.

  10. Case-Based Reasoning and Instructional Design: Using Stories To Support Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.; Hernandez-Serrano, Julian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the increased emphasis on problem solving and problem-based learning in instructional design and the need for new methods for task analysis and models for designing instruction. Defines the rationale and means for analyzing, organizing, and presenting stories to support problem solving by case-based reasoning. (Author/LRW)

  11. Learning material recommendation based on case-based reasoning similarity scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mona; Mokmin, Nur Azlina Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    A personalized learning material recommendation is important in any Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Case-based Reasoning (CBR) is an Artificial Intelligent Algorithm that has been widely used in the development of ITS applications. This study has developed an ITS application that applied the CBR algorithm in the development process. The application has the ability to recommend the most suitable learning material to the specific student based on information in the student profile. In order to test the ability of the application in recommending learning material, two versions of the application were created. The first version displayed the most suitable learning material and the second version displayed the least preferable learning material. The results show the application has successfully assigned the students to the most suitable learning material.

  12. Signal Analysis of Automotive Engine Spark Ignition System using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Case-based Maintenance (CBM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Vong, C. M.; Wong, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    With the development of modern technology, modern vehicles adopt electronic control system for injection and ignition. In traditional way, whenever there is any malfunctioning in an automotive engine, an automotive mechanic usually performs a diagnosis in the ignition system of the engine to check any exceptional symptoms. In this paper, we present a case-based reasoning (CBR) approach to help solve human diagnosis problem. Nevertheless, one drawback of CBR system is that the case library will be expanded gradually after repeatedly running the system, which may cause inaccuracy and longer time for the CBR retrieval. To tackle this problem, case-based maintenance (CBM) framework is employed so that the case library of the CBR system will be compressed by clustering to produce a set of representative cases. As a result, the performance (in retrieval accuracy and time) of the whole CBR system can be improved.

  13. PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM CERDAS MENGGUNAKAN PENALARAN BERBASIS KASUS (CASE BASED REASONING UNTUK DIAGNOSA PENYAKIT AKIBAT VIRUS EKSANTEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sasmito Aribowo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disease caused by a exanthema virus is a common disease in Indonesia. There are many types of diseases caused by this virus. Examples are chicken pox, measles, variola, etc. with symptoms almost similar to each other. To correctly identify the symptoms  need experts. But the problem is very limited number of experts. Then the expert system is needed which has been given by the expert knowledge to assist in the diagnosis. Expert system in this research uses a case-based reasoning approach. If there is a similar case, the reasoning for considering the case of the nearest using Probabilistic Bayes. The result is the system will still be able to provide the best recommendations solution for new cases based on the solution to an old case that the nearest level of similarity.

  14. Case-Based Reasoning Systems: From Automation to Decision-Aiding and Stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dutta (Shantanu); B. Wierenga (Berend); A. Dalebout

    1997-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, case-based reasoning (CBR) has emerged as a major research area within the artificial intelligence research field due to both its widespread usage by humans and its appeal as a methodology for building intelligent systems. Conventional CBR systems have been largely

  15. Breast biopsy prediction using a case-based reasoning classifier for masses versus calcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilska-Wolak, Anna O.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    2002-05-01

    We investigated how the subdivision of breast biopsy cases into masses and calcifications influences breast cancer prediction for a case-based reasoning (CBR) classifier system. Mammographers' BI-RADS (TM) descriptions of mammographic lesions were used as input to predict breast biopsy outcome. The CBR classifier compared the case to be examined to a reference collection of cases and identified similar cases. The decision variable for each case was formed as the ratio of malignant similar cases to all similar cases. The reference data collection consisted of 1433 biopsy-proven mammography cases, and was divided into 3 categories: mass cases, calcification cases, and other. Performance was evaluated using ROC analysis and Round Robin sampling, and variance was estimated using a bootstrap analysis. The best ROC area for masses was 0.92+/- 0.01. At 98% sensitivity, about 209 (51%) patients with benign mass lesions might have been spared biopsy, while missing 5 (2%) malignancies. The best ROC area for calcifications was only 0.64+/- 0.02. At 98% sensitivity, 50 (12%) benign calcification cases could have been spared, while missing 5 (2%) malignancies. The CBR system performed substantially better on the masses than on the calcifications.

  16. Case-based reasoning combined with statistics for diagnostics and prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, T.; Funk, P.

    2012-05-01

    Many approaches used for diagnostics today are based on a precise model. This excludes diagnostics of many complex types of machinery that cannot be modelled and simulated easily or without great effort. Our aim is to show that by including human experience it is possible to diagnose complex machinery when there is no or limited models or simulations available. This also enables diagnostics in a dynamic application where conditions change and new cases are often added. In fact every new solved case increases the diagnostic power of the system. We present a number of successful projects where we have used feature extraction together with case-based reasoning to diagnose faults in industrial robots, welding, cutting machinery and we also present our latest project for diagnosing transmissions by combining Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) with statistics. We view the fault diagnosis process as three consecutive steps. In the first step, sensor fault signals from machines and/or input from human operators are collected. Then, the second step consists of extracting relevant fault features. In the final diagnosis/prognosis step, status and faults are identified and classified. We view prognosis as a special case of diagnosis where the prognosis module predicts a stream of future features.

  17. Case-based reasoning combined with statistics for diagnostics and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, T; Funk, P

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches used for diagnostics today are based on a precise model. This excludes diagnostics of many complex types of machinery that cannot be modelled and simulated easily or without great effort. Our aim is to show that by including human experience it is possible to diagnose complex machinery when there is no or limited models or simulations available. This also enables diagnostics in a dynamic application where conditions change and new cases are often added. In fact every new solved case increases the diagnostic power of the system. We present a number of successful projects where we have used feature extraction together with case-based reasoning to diagnose faults in industrial robots, welding, cutting machinery and we also present our latest project for diagnosing transmissions by combining Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) with statistics. We view the fault diagnosis process as three consecutive steps. In the first step, sensor fault signals from machines and/or input from human operators are collected. Then, the second step consists of extracting relevant fault features. In the final diagnosis/prognosis step, status and faults are identified and classified. We view prognosis as a special case of diagnosis where the prognosis module predicts a stream of future features.

  18. Retrieval with Clustering in a Case-Based Reasoning System for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khussainova, Gulmira; Petrovic, Sanja; Jagannathan, Rupa

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy treatment planning aims to deliver a sufficient radiation dose to cancerous tumour cells while sparing healthy organs in the tumour surrounding area. This is a trial and error process highly dependent on the medical staff's experience and knowledge. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is an artificial intelligence tool that uses past experiences to solve new problems. A CBR system has been developed to facilitate radiotherapy treatment planning for brain cancer. Given a new patient case the existing CBR system retrieves a similar case from an archive of successfully treated patient cases with the suggested treatment plan. The next step requires adaptation of the retrieved treatment plan to meet the specific demands of the new case. The CBR system was tested by medical physicists for the new patient cases. It was discovered that some of the retrieved cases were not suitable and could not be adapted for the new cases. This motivated us to revise the retrieval mechanism of the existing CBR system by adding a clustering stage that clusters cases based on their tumour positions. A number of well-known clustering methods were investigated and employed in the retrieval mechanism. Results using real world brain cancer patient cases have shown that the success rate of the new CBR retrieval is higher than that of the original system. (paper)

  19. Retrieval with Clustering in a Case-Based Reasoning System for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khussainova, Gulmira; Petrovic, Sanja; Jagannathan, Rupa

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy treatment planning aims to deliver a sufficient radiation dose to cancerous tumour cells while sparing healthy organs in the tumour surrounding area. This is a trial and error process highly dependent on the medical staff's experience and knowledge. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is an artificial intelligence tool that uses past experiences to solve new problems. A CBR system has been developed to facilitate radiotherapy treatment planning for brain cancer. Given a new patient case the existing CBR system retrieves a similar case from an archive of successfully treated patient cases with the suggested treatment plan. The next step requires adaptation of the retrieved treatment plan to meet the specific demands of the new case. The CBR system was tested by medical physicists for the new patient cases. It was discovered that some of the retrieved cases were not suitable and could not be adapted for the new cases. This motivated us to revise the retrieval mechanism of the existing CBR system by adding a clustering stage that clusters cases based on their tumour positions. A number of well-known clustering methods were investigated and employed in the retrieval mechanism. Results using real world brain cancer patient cases have shown that the success rate of the new CBR retrieval is higher than that of the original system.

  20. An Intuitionistic Fuzzy Stochastic Decision-Making Method Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Prospect Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the case-based reasoning method and prospect theory, this paper mainly focuses on finding a way to obtain decision-makers’ preferences and the criterion weights for stochastic multicriteria decision-making problems and classify alternatives. Firstly, we construct a new score function for an intuitionistic fuzzy number (IFN considering the decision-making environment. Then, we aggregate the decision-making information in different natural states according to the prospect theory and test decision-making matrices. A mathematical programming model based on a case-based reasoning method is presented to obtain the criterion weights. Moreover, in the original decision-making problem, we integrate all the intuitionistic fuzzy decision-making matrices into an expectation matrix using the expected utility theory and classify or rank the alternatives by the case-based reasoning method. Finally, two illustrative examples are provided to illustrate the implementation process and applicability of the developed method.

  1. Case-based Reasoning for Automotive Engine Performance Tune-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vong, C. M.; Huang, H.; Wong, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    The automotive engine performance tune-up is greatly affected by the calibration of its electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU calibration is traditionally done by trial-and-error method. This traditional method consumes a large amount of time and money because of a large number of dynamometer tests. To resolve this problem, case based reasoning (CBR) is employed, so that an existing and effective ECU setup can be adapted to fit another similar class of engines. The adaptation procedure is done through a more sophisticated step called case-based adaptation (CBA)[1, 2]. CBA is an effective knowledge management tool, which can interactively learn the expert adaptation knowledge. The paper briefly reviews the methodologies of CBR and CBA. Then the application to ECU calibration is described via a case study. With CBR and CBA, the efficiency of calibrating an ECU can be enhanced. A prototype system has also been developed to verify the usefulness of CBR in ECU calibration.

  2. Case-based clinical reasoning in feline medicine: 3: Use of heuristics and illness scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Martin L; Canfield, Paul J; Johnson, Robert; O'Brien, Carolyn R; Malik, Richard

    2016-05-01

    This is Article 3 of a three-part series on clinical reasoning that encourages practitioners to explore and understand how they think and make case-based decisions. It is hoped that, in the process, they will learn to trust their intuition but, at the same time, put in place safeguards to diminish the impact of bias and misguided logic on their diagnostic decision-making. Article 1, published in the January 2016 issue of JFMS, discussed the relative merits and shortcomings of System 1 thinking (immediate and unconscious) and System 2 thinking (effortful and analytical). In Article 2, published in the March 2016 issue, ways of managing cognitive error, particularly the negative impact of bias, in making a diagnosis were examined. This final article explores the use of heuristics (mental short cuts) and illness scripts in diagnostic reasoning. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Wind Power Forecasting by Case-Based Reasoning Using Big-Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio De Caro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The massive penetration of wind generators in electrical power systems asks for effective wind power forecasting tools, which should be high reliable, in order to mitigate the effects of the uncertain generation profiles, and fast enough to enhance power system operation. To address these two conflicting objectives, this paper advocates the role of knowledge discovery from big-data, by proposing the integration of adaptive Case Based Reasoning models, and cardinality reduction techniques based on Partial Least Squares Regression, and Principal Component Analysis. The main idea is to learn from a large database of historical climatic observations, how to solve the windforecasting problem, avoiding complex and time-consuming computations. To assess the benefits derived by the application of the proposed methodology in complex application scenarios, the experimental results obtained in a real case study will be presented and discussed.

  4. A fuzzy-ontology-oriented case-based reasoning framework for semantic diabetes diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sappagh, Shaker; Elmogy, Mohammed; Riad, A M

    2015-11-01

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a problem-solving paradigm that uses past knowledge to interpret or solve new problems. It is suitable for experience-based and theory-less problems. Building a semantically intelligent CBR that mimic the expert thinking can solve many problems especially medical ones. Knowledge-intensive CBR using formal ontologies is an evolvement of this paradigm. Ontologies can be used for case representation and storage, and it can be used as a background knowledge. Using standard medical ontologies, such as SNOMED CT, enhances the interoperability and integration with the health care systems. Moreover, utilizing vague or imprecise knowledge further improves the CBR semantic effectiveness. This paper proposes a fuzzy ontology-based CBR framework. It proposes a fuzzy case-base OWL2 ontology, and a fuzzy semantic retrieval algorithm that handles many feature types. This framework is implemented and tested on the diabetes diagnosis problem. The fuzzy ontology is populated with 60 real diabetic cases. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated with a set of experiments and case studies. The resulting system can answer complex medical queries related to semantic understanding of medical concepts and handling of vague terms. The resulting fuzzy case-base ontology has 63 concepts, 54 (fuzzy) object properties, 138 (fuzzy) datatype properties, 105 fuzzy datatypes, and 2640 instances. The system achieves an accuracy of 97.67%. We compare our framework with existing CBR systems and a set of five machine-learning classifiers; our system outperforms all of these systems. Building an integrated CBR system can improve its performance. Representing CBR knowledge using the fuzzy ontology and building a case retrieval algorithm that treats different features differently improves the accuracy of the resulting systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Physiological sensor signals classification for healthcare using sensor data fusion and case-based reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahina; Barua, Shaibal; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin

    2014-07-03

    Today, clinicians often do diagnosis and classification of diseases based on information collected from several physiological sensor signals. However, sensor signal could easily be vulnerable to uncertain noises or interferences and due to large individual variations sensitivity to different physiological sensors could also vary. Therefore, multiple sensor signal fusion is valuable to provide more robust and reliable decision. This paper demonstrates a physiological sensor signal classification approach using sensor signal fusion and case-based reasoning. The proposed approach has been evaluated to classify Stressed or Relaxed individuals using sensor data fusion. Physiological sensor signals i.e., Heart Rate (HR), Finger Temperature (FT), Respiration Rate (RR), Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) are collected during the data collection phase. Here, sensor fusion has been done in two different ways: (i) decision-level fusion using features extracted through traditional approaches; and (ii) data-level fusion using features extracted by means of Multivariate Multiscale Entropy (MMSE). Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is applied for the classification of the signals. The experimental result shows that the proposed system could classify Stressed or Relaxed individual 87.5% accurately compare to an expert in the domain. So, it shows promising result in the psychophysiological domain and could be possible to adapt this approach to other relevant healthcare systems.

  6. Cost-sensitive case-based reasoning using a genetic algorithm: application to medical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon-Joo; Chun, Se-Hak; Kim, Byung-Chun

    2011-02-01

    The paper studies the new learning technique called cost-sensitive case-based reasoning (CSCBR) incorporating unequal misclassification cost into CBR model. Conventional CBR is now considered as a suitable technique for diagnosis, prognosis and prescription in medicine. However it lacks the ability to reflect asymmetric misclassification and often assumes that the cost of a positive diagnosis (an illness) as a negative one (no illness) is the same with that of the opposite situation. Thus, the objective of this research is to overcome the limitation of conventional CBR and encourage applying CBR to many real world medical cases associated with costs of asymmetric misclassification errors. The main idea involves adjusting the optimal cut-off classification point for classifying the absence or presence of diseases and the cut-off distance point for selecting optimal neighbors within search spaces based on similarity distribution. These steps are dynamically adapted to new target cases using a genetic algorithm. We apply this proposed method to five real medical datasets and compare the results with two other cost-sensitive learning methods-C5.0 and CART. Our finding shows that the total misclassification cost of CSCBR is lower than other cost-sensitive methods in many cases. Even though the genetic algorithm has limitations in terms of unstable results and over-fitting training data, CSCBR results with GA are better overall than those of other methods. Also the paired t-test results indicate that the total misclassification cost of CSCBR is significantly less than C5.0 and CART for several datasets. We have proposed a new CBR method called cost-sensitive case-based reasoning (CSCBR) that can incorporate unequal misclassification costs into CBR and optimize the number of neighbors dynamically using a genetic algorithm. It is meaningful not only for introducing the concept of cost-sensitive learning to CBR, but also for encouraging the use of CBR in the medical area

  7. Model Based Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Marla J.; Spinrad, Paul R.; Fall, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Systems that assess the real world must cope with evidence that is uncertain, ambiguous, and spread over time. Typically, the most important function of an assessment system is to identify when activities are occurring that are unusual or unanticipated. Model based temporal reasoning addresses both of these requirements. The differences among temporal reasoning schemes lies in the methods used to avoid computational intractability. If we had n pieces of data and we wanted to examine how they were related, the worst case would be where we had to examine every subset of these points to see if that subset satisfied the relations. This would be 2n, which is intractable. Models compress this; if several data points are all compatible with a model, then that model represents all those data points. Data points are then considered related if they lie within the same model or if they lie in models that are related. Models thus address the intractability problem. They also address the problem of determining unusual activities if the data do not agree with models that are indicated by earlier data then something out of the norm is taking place. The models can summarize what we know up to that time, so when they are not predicting correctly, either something unusual is happening or we need to revise our models. The model based reasoner developed at Advanced Decision Systems is thus both intuitive and powerful. It is currently being used on one operational system and several prototype systems. It has enough power to be used in domains spanning the spectrum from manufacturing engineering and project management to low-intensity conflict and strategic assessment.

  8. Using case-based reasoning for the reconstitution and manipulation of voxelized phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriet, J.; Fontaine, E.; Bopp, M.; Makovicka, L.; Farah, J.; Broggio, D.; Franck, D.; Chebel-Morello, B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors reports the development of the EquiVox platform, the aim of which is to allow a radioprotection expert (physician, biologist or other) to work with a phantom which will be the closest possible to the examined person in order to make an as precise as possible dosimetric assessment. The objective is to help to select the best phantom among those the expert knows depending on the assessment type he wants to make. First, they present the general principles of the case-based reasoning, and then the EquiVox platform which proposes all the steps: formalization, elaboration, comparison, and so on. Based on typical numerical values associated with different morphological characteristics, they present and discuss graphical results obtained by the platform. They also discuss their validity and reliability

  9. Learning and case-based reasoning for faults diagnosis-aiding in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, C.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the design of a faults diagnosis-aiding system in a nuclear facility of the Cea. Actually the existing system allows the optimization of the production processes in regular operating conditions. Meanwhile during accidental events, the alarms, managed by threshold, are bringing no relevant information. To increase the reliability and the safety, the human operator needs a faults diagnosis-aiding system. The developed system, SECAPI, combines problem solving techniques and automatic learning techniques, that allow the diagnosis and the the simulation of various faults happening on nuclear facilities. Its reasoning principle uses case-based and rules-based techniques. SECAPI owns a learning module which reads out knowledge connected with faults. It can then simulate various faults, using the inductive logical computing. SECAPI has been applied on a radioactive tritium treatment operating channel, at the Cea with good results. (A.L.B.)

  10. A Case-based Reasoning Approach to Validate Grammatical Gender and Number Agreement in Spanish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bacca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Across Latin America 420 indigenous languages are spoken. Spanish is considered a second language in indigenous communities and is progressively introduced in education. However, most of the tools to support teaching processes of a second language have been developed for the most common languages such as English, French, German, Italian, etc. As a result, only a small amount of learning objects and authoring tools have been developed for indigenous people considering the specific needs of their population. This paper introduces Multilingual–Tiny as a web authoring tool to support the virtual experience of indigenous students and teachers when they are creating learning objects in indigenous languages or in Spanish language, in particular, when they have to deal with the grammatical structures of Spanish. Multilingual–Tiny has a module based on the Case-based Reasoning technique to provide recommendations in real time when teachers and students write texts in Spanish. An experiment was performed in order to compare some local similarity functions to retrieve cases from the case library taking into account the grammatical structures. As a result we found the similarity function with the best performance

  11. Novel Agent Based-approach for Industrial Diagnosis: A Combined use Between Case-based Reasoning and Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zohra Benkaddour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In spunlace nonwovens industry, the maintenance task is very complex, it requires experts and operators collaboration. In this paper, we propose a new approach integrating an agent- based modelling with case-based reasoning that utilizes similarity measures and preferences module. The main purpose of our study is to compare and evaluate the most suitable similarity measure for our case. Furthermore, operators that are usually geographically dispersed, have to collaborate and negotiate to achieve mutual agreements, especially when their proposals (diagnosis lead to a conflicting situation. The experimentation shows that the suggested agent-based approach is very interesting and efficient for operators and experts who collaborate in INOTIS enterprise.

  12. A case-based reasoning approach for estimating the costs of pump station projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective estimation of costs is crucial to the success of construction projects. Cost estimates are used to evaluate, approve and/or fund projects. Organizations use some form of classification system to identify the various types of estimates that may be prepared during the lifecycle of a project. This research presents a parametric-cost model for pump station projects. Fourteen factors have been identified as important to the influence of the cost of pump station projects. A data set that consists of forty-four pump station projects (fifteen water and twenty-nine waste water are collected to build a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR library and to test its performance. The results obtained from the CBR tool are processed and adopted to improve the accuracy of the results. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the development of the effectiveness of the tool.

  13. Knowledge-light adaptation approaches in case-based reasoning for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Sanja; Khussainova, Gulmira; Jagannathan, Rupa

    2016-03-01

    Radiotherapy treatment planning aims at delivering a sufficient radiation dose to cancerous tumour cells while sparing healthy organs in the tumour-surrounding area. It is a time-consuming trial-and-error process that requires the expertise of a group of medical experts including oncologists and medical physicists and can take from 2 to 3h to a few days. Our objective is to improve the performance of our previously built case-based reasoning (CBR) system for brain tumour radiotherapy treatment planning. In this system, a treatment plan for a new patient is retrieved from a case base containing patient cases treated in the past and their treatment plans. However, this system does not perform any adaptation, which is needed to account for any difference between the new and retrieved cases. Generally, the adaptation phase is considered to be intrinsically knowledge-intensive and domain-dependent. Therefore, an adaptation often requires a large amount of domain-specific knowledge, which can be difficult to acquire and often is not readily available. In this study, we investigate approaches to adaptation that do not require much domain knowledge, referred to as knowledge-light adaptation. We developed two adaptation approaches: adaptation based on machine-learning tools and adaptation-guided retrieval. They were used to adapt the beam number and beam angles suggested in the retrieved case. Two machine-learning tools, neural networks and naive Bayes classifier, were used in the adaptation to learn how the difference in attribute values between the retrieved and new cases affects the output of these two cases. The adaptation-guided retrieval takes into consideration not only the similarity between the new and retrieved cases, but also how to adapt the retrieved case. The research was carried out in collaboration with medical physicists at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, City Hospital Campus, UK. All experiments were performed using real-world brain cancer

  14. Case based reasoning applied to medical diagnosis using multi-class classifier: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viveros-Melo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Case-based reasoning (CBR is a process used for computer processing that tries to mimic the behavior of a human expert in making decisions regarding a subject and learn from the experience of past cases. CBR has demonstrated to be appropriate for working with unstructured domains data or difficult knowledge acquisition situations, such as medical diagnosis, where it is possible to identify diseases such as: cancer diagnosis, epilepsy prediction and appendicitis diagnosis. Some of the trends that may be developed for CBR in the health science are oriented to reduce the number of features in highly dimensional data. An important contribution may be the estimation of probabilities of belonging to each class for new cases. In this paper, in order to adequately represent the database and to avoid the inconveniences caused by the high dimensionality, noise and redundancy, a number of algorithms are used in the preprocessing stage for performing both variable selection and dimension reduction procedures. Also, a comparison of the performance of some representative multi-class classifiers is carried out to identify the most effective one to include within a CBR scheme. Particularly, four classification techniques and two reduction techniques are employed to make a comparative study of multiclass classifiers on CBR

  15. A case-based reasoning tool for breast cancer knowledge management with data mining concepts and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demigha, Souâd.

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents a Case-Based Reasoning Tool for Breast Cancer Knowledge Management to improve breast cancer screening. To develop this tool, we combine both concepts and techniques of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Data Mining (DM). Physicians and radiologists ground their diagnosis on their expertise (past experience) based on clinical cases. Case-Based Reasoning is the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems and structured as cases. CBR is suitable for medical use. On the other hand, existing traditional hospital information systems (HIS), Radiological Information Systems (RIS) and Picture Archiving Information Systems (PACS) don't allow managing efficiently medical information because of its complexity and heterogeneity. Data Mining is the process of mining information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use. Combining CBR to Data Mining techniques will facilitate diagnosis and decision-making of medical experts.

  16. A case-based reasoning system for genotypic prediction of HIV-1 co-receptor tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark C; Paquet, Agnes C; Huang, Wei; Napolitano, Laura; Frantzell, Arne; Toma, Jonathan; Stawiski, Eric W; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Petropoulos, Christos J; Whitcomb, Jeannette; Coakley, Eoin; Haddad, Mojgan

    2013-08-01

    Accurate co-receptor tropism (CRT) determination is critical for making treatment decisions in HIV management. We created a genotypic tropism prediction tool by utilizing the case-based reasoning (CBR) technique that attempts to solve new problems through applying the solution from similar past problems. V3 loop sequences from 732 clinical samples with diverse characteristics were used to build a case library. Additional sequence and molecular properties of the V3 loop were examined and used for similarity assessment. A similarity metric was defined based on each attribute's frequency in the CXCR4-using viruses. We implemented three other genotype-based tropism predictors, support vector machines (SVM), position specific scoring matrices (PSSM), and the 11/25 rule, and evaluated their performance as the ability to predict CRT compared to Monogram's enhanced sensitivity Trofile(®) assay (ESTA). Overall concordance of the CBR based tropism prediction algorithm was 81%, as compared to ESTA. Sensitivity to detect CXCR4 usage was 90% and specificity was at 73%. In comparison, sensitivity of the SVM, PSSM, and the 11/25 rule were 85%, 81%, and 36% respectively while achieving a specificity of 90% by SVM, 75% by PSSM, and 97% by the 11/25 rule. When we evaluated these predictors in an unseen dataset, higher sensitivity was achieved by the CBR algorithm (87%), compared to SVM (82%), PSSM (76%), and the 11/25 rule (33%), while maintaining similar level of specificity. Overall this study suggests that CBR can be utilized as a genotypic tropism prediction tool, and can achieve improved performance in independent datasets compared to model or rule based methods.

  17. The Effect of a Case-Based Reasoning Instructional Model on Korean High School Students' Awareness in Climate Change Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Hyoungbum; Chae, Dong-hyun; Kim, Eunjeong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the case-based reasoning instructional model on learning about climate change unit. Results suggest that students showed interest because it allowed them to find the solution to the problem and solve the problem for themselves by analogy from other cases such as crossword puzzles in an…

  18. Classification of melanomas in situ using knowledge discovery with explained case-based reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Eva

    2011-02-01

    Early diagnosis of melanoma is based on the ABCD rule which considers asymmetry, border irregularity, color variegation, and a diameter larger than 5mm as the characteristic features of melanomas. When a skin lesion presents these features it is excised as prevention. Using a non-invasive technique called dermoscopy, dermatologists can give a more accurate evaluation of skin lesions, and can therefore avoid the excision of lesions that are benign. However, dermatologists need to achieve a good dermatoscopic classification of lesions prior to extraction. In this paper we propose a procedure called LazyCL to support dermatologists in assessing the classification of skin lesions. Our goal is to use LazyCL for generating a domain theory to classify melanomas in situ. To generate a domain theory, the LazyCL procedure uses a combination of two artificial intelligence techniques: case-based reasoning and clustering. First LazyCL randomly creates clusters and then uses a lazy learning method called lazy induction of descriptions (LID) with leave-one-out on them. By means of LID, LazyCL collects explanations of why the cases in the database should belong to a class. Then the analysis of relationships among explanations produces an understandable clustering of the dataset. After a process of elimination of redundancies and merging of clusters, the set of explanations is reduced to a subset of it describing classes that are "almost" discriminant. The remaining explanations form a preliminary domain theory that is the basis on which experts can perform knowledge discovery. We performed two kinds of experiments. First ones consisted on using LazyCL on a database containing the description of 76 melanomas. The domain theory obtained from these experiments was compared on previous experiments performed using a different clustering method called self-organizing maps (SOM). Results of both methods, LazyCL and SOM, were similar. The second kind of experiments consisted on using Lazy

  19. Case-Based Reasoning as a Heuristic Selector in a Hyper-Heuristic for Course Timetabling Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovic, Sanja; Qu, Rong

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies Knowledge Discovery (KD) using Tabu Search and Hill Climbing within Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) as a hyper-heuristic method for course timetabling problems. The aim of the hyper-heuristic is to choose the best heuristic(s) for given timetabling problems according to the knowledge stored in the case base. KD in CBR is a 2-stage iterative process on both case representation and the case base. Experimental results are analysed and related research issues for future work are dis...

  20. Systematizing Scaffolding for Problem-Based Learning: A View from Case-Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Andrew A.; Kolodner, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    Current theories and models of education often argue that instruction is best administered when knowledge is situated within a context. Problem-based learning (PBL) provides an approach to education that has particularly powerful affordances for learning disciplinary content and practices by solving authentic problems within a discipline. However,…

  1. Systematizing Scaffolding for Problem-Based Learning: A View from Case-Based Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, Andrew A; Kolodner, Janet L

    2016-01-01

    Current theories and models of education often argue that instruction is best administered when knowledge is situated within a context. Problem-based learning (PBL) provides an approach to education that has particularly powerful affordances for learning disciplinary content and practices by solving authentic problems within a discipline. However, not all implementations of PBL have been equally successful at fostering such learning, and some argue that this form of instruction is beyond the ...

  2. Multivariate Principal Component Analysis and Case-Based Reasoning for monitoring, fault detection and diagnosis in a WWTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Magda; Sin, Gürkan; Berjaga, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The main idea of this paper is to develop a methodology for process monitoring, fault detection and predictive diagnosis of a WasteWater Treatment Plant (WWTP). To achieve this goal, a combination of Multiway Principal Component Analysis (MPCA) and Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is proposed. First...

  3. Case-based knowledge formalization and reasoning method for digital terrain analysis - application to extracting drainage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Wu, Xue-Wei; Jiang, Jing-Chao; Zhu, A.-Xing

    2016-08-01

    Application of digital terrain analysis (DTA), which is typically a modeling process involving workflow building, relies heavily on DTA domain knowledge of the match between the algorithm (and its parameter settings) and the application context (including the target task, the terrain in the study area, the DEM resolution, etc.), which is referred to as application-context knowledge. However, existing DTA-assisted tools often cannot use application-context knowledge because this type of DTA knowledge has not been formalized to be available for inference in these tools. This situation makes the DTA workflow-building process difficult for users, especially non-expert users. This paper proposes a case-based formalization for DTA application-context knowledge and a corresponding case-based reasoning method. A case in this context consists of a series of indices that formalize the DTA application-context knowledge and the corresponding similarity calculation methods for case-based reasoning. A preliminary experiment to determine the catchment area threshold for extracting drainage networks has been conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. In the experiment, 124 cases of drainage network extraction (50 for evaluation and 74 for reasoning) were prepared from peer-reviewed journal articles. Preliminary evaluation shows that the proposed case-based method is a suitable way to use DTA application-context knowledge to achieve a marked reduction in the modeling burden for users.

  4. Reasoning based in cases applied to diagnosis of electric generators; Razonamiento basado en casos aplicado al diagnostico de generadores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre Vega, H. Octavio; Garcia Tevillo, Arturo; Campuzano Martinez, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Lopez Azamar, Ernesto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The development of a system for the diagnosis of electrical generators that apply techniques of artificial intelligence, is presented, as it is the reasoning based on cases, to support the work of the diagnosis engineer. This system is part of a system called CADIS, dedicated to the diagnosis of electrical generators out of line and reason of previous articles. In this occasion the characteristics of the reasoning module based on experiences (SirBE) are emphasized, indicating how to make a diagnosis using similar cases and how to edit the system base of experience, using the interactive editor of cases. It is included, in addition, a summarized example which represents a case for SirBE and how the system helps to make a diagnosis. [Spanish] Se presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de diagnostico de generadores electricos que aplica tecnicas de inteligencia artificial, como es el razonamiento basado en casos, para apoyar la labor del ingeniero de diagnostico. Este sistema es parte de un sistema denominado CADIS, dedicado al diagnostico de generadores electricos fuera de linea y motivo de articulos anteriores. En esta ocasion se resaltan las caracteristicas del modulo de razonamiento basado en experiencias (SirBE), indicando como realizar un diagnostico utilizando casos similares y como editar la base de experiencia del sistema utilizando el editor interactivo de casos. Se incluye, ademas, un ejemplo resumido de lo que representa un caso para SiRBE y como el sistema ayuda a realizar un diagnostico.

  5. Reason-based choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, E; Simonson, I; Tversky, A

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the role of reasons and arguments in the making of decisions. It is proposed that, when faced with the need to choose, decision makers often seek and construct reasons in order to resolve the conflict and justify their choice, to themselves and to others. Experiments that explore and manipulate the role of reasons are reviewed, and other decision studies are interpreted from this perspective. The role of reasons in decision making is considered as it relates to uncertainty, conflict, context effects, and normative decision rules.

  6. Fuzzy Case-Based Reasoning in Product Style Acquisition Incorporating Valence-Arousal-Based Emotional Cellular Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqian Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional cellular (EC, proposed in our previous works, is a kind of semantic cell that contains kernel and shell and the kernel is formalized by a triple- L = , where P denotes a typical set of positive examples relative to word-L, d is a pseudodistance measure on emotional two-dimensional space: valence-arousal, and δ is a probability density function on positive real number field. The basic idea of EC model is to assume that the neighborhood radius of each semantic concept is uncertain, and this uncertainty will be measured by one-dimensional density function δ. In this paper, product form features were evaluated by using ECs and to establish the product style database, fuzzy case based reasoning (FCBR model under a defined similarity measurement based on fuzzy nearest neighbors (FNN incorporating EC was applied to extract product styles. A mathematical formalized inference system for product style was also proposed, and it also includes uncertainty measurement tool emotional cellular. A case study of style acquisition of mobile phones illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  7. Use of case-based reasoning to enhance intensive management of patients on insulin pump therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Frank L; Shubrook, Jay H; Marling, Cynthia R

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to develop case-based decision support software to improve glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) on insulin pump therapy. While the benefits of good glucose control are well known, achieving and maintaining good glucose control remains a difficult task. Case-based decision support software may assist by recalling past problems in glucose control and their associated therapeutic adjustments. Twenty patients with T1DM on insulin pumps were enrolled in a 6-week study. Subjects performed self-glucose monitoring and provided daily logs via the Internet, tracking insulin dosages, work, sleep, exercise, meals, stress, illness, menstrual cycles, infusion set changes, pump problems, hypoglycemic episodes, and other events. Subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring system at weeks 1, 3, and 6. Clinical data were interpreted by physicians, who explained the relationship between life events and observed glucose patterns as well as treatment rationales to knowledge engineers. Knowledge engineers built a prototypical system that contained cases of problems in glucose control together with their associated solutions. Twelve patients completed the study. Fifty cases of clinical problems and solutions were developed and stored in a case base. The prototypical system detected 12 distinct types of clinical problems. It displayed the stored problems that are most similar to the problems detected, and offered learned solutions as decision support to the physician. This software can screen large volumes of clinical data and glucose levels from patients with T1DM, identify clinical problems, and offer solutions. It has potential application in managing all forms of diabetes.

  8. DALI - drilling advisor with logic interpretations: methodological issues for designing underbalanced drilling operations. Improving efficiency using case-based reasonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Gustavo A.; Velazquez C, David [Mexican Oil Institute, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A system that applies a method of knowledge-intensive case-based reasoning, for repair and prevention of unwanted events in the domain of offshore oil well drilling, has been developed in cooperation with an oil company. From several reoccurring problems during oil well drilling the problem of 'lost circulation', i.e. loss of circulating drilling fluid into the geological formation, was picked out as a pilot problem. An extensive general knowledge model was developed for the domain of oil well drilling. Different cases were created on the basis of information from one Mexican Gulf operator. When the completed CBR-system was tested against a new case, cases with descending similarity were selected by the tool. In an informal evaluation, the two best fitting cases proved to give the operator valuable advise on how to go about solving the new case (author)

  9. Implementation of Case-Based Reasoning System for Knowledge Management of Power Plant Construction Projects in a Korean Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Gil-Sang

    Recently, plant construction industries are enjoying a favorable business climate centering around developing countries and oil producing countries rich in oil money. This paper proposes a methodology of implementing corporation-wide case-based reasoning (CBR) system for effectively managing lessons learned knowledge like experiences and know-how obtained in performing power plant construction projects. Our methodology is consisted of 10 steps: user requirement analysis, information modeling, case modeling, case base design, similarity function design, user interface design, case base building, CBR module development, user interface development, integration test. Also, to illustrate the usability of proposed methodology, the practical CBR system is implemented for the plant construction business division of ’H’ company which has international competitiveness in the field of plant construction industry. At present, our CBR system is successfully utilizing as storing, sharing, and reusing the knowledge which is accumulated in performing power plant construction projects in the target enterprise.

  10. Safety Early Warning Research for Highway Construction Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Variable Fuzzy Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR, this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The present study provides solutions to three key issues, index selection, accident cause association analysis, and warning degree forecasting implementation, through the use of association rule mining, support vector machine classifiers, and variable fuzzy qualitative and quantitative change criterion modes, which fully cover the needs of safe early warning systems. Using a detailed description of the principles and advantages of each method and by proving the methods’ effectiveness and ability to act together in safe early warning applications, effective means and intelligent technology for a safe highway construction early warning system are established.

  11. Enhancements to knowledge discovery framework of SOPHIA textual case-based reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Elhalwany

    2014-11-01

    This paper contributes to propose enhancements to SOPHIA approach that aims to enhance the retrieval efficiency and increase the precision degree. It also aimed to grantee that all results will have the same subject of the user query. The enhancements include performing an automatic classification to the case-base before the clustering step in the indexing stage, and include performing an automatic classification to the user query before the retrieval stage. Moreover, proofing that SOPHIA approach is a domain and language independent by applying it in the domain of Islamic jurisprudence in Arabic language.

  12. How to use contextual knowledge in medical case-based reasoning systems: a survey on very recent trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, Stefania

    2011-02-01

    This paper aims at systematizing the ways in which the contextual knowledge embedded in the case library can support decision making, within case-based reasoning (CBR) systems. In particular, CBR applications to the medical domain are considered. After a quick survey on the definition and on the role of context in artificial intelligence research, we have focused on CBR, with a particular emphasis on medical applications. In this field, we have identified a number of very recent contributions, which strongly recognize context per se as a major knowledge source. These contributions propose to maintain and to rely on contextual information, in order to support human reasoning in different fashions. We have distinguished three main directions in which contextual knowledge can be resorted to, in order to optimize physicians' decision making. Such directions can be summarized as follows: (1) to reduce the search space in the case retrieval step; (2) to maintain the overall knowledge content always valid and up to date, and (3) to adapt knowledge application and reasoning to local/personal constraints. We have also properly categorized the surveyed works within these three clusters, and identified the most significant ones, able to exploit contextual knowledge along more than one direction. Innovative applications of the contextual knowledge recorded in the case library, described and systematized in this paper, can trace promising research directions for the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using a Recommendation System to Support Problem Solving and Case-Based Reasoning Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Andrew A.; Alhoori, Hamed; Keene, Charles Wayne; Bailey, Christian; Hogan, Maureen

    2018-01-01

    In case library learning environments, learners are presented with an array of narratives that can be used to guide their problem solving. However, according to theorists, learners struggle to identify and retrieve the optimal case to solve a new problem. Given the challenges novice face during case retrieval, recommender systems can be embedded…

  14. AN INTERVENTION-BASED CLINICAL REASONING FRAMEWORK TO GUIDE THE MANAGEMENT OF THORACIC PAIN IN A DANCER: A CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaracchio, Michael; Kirker, Kaitlin; Collins, Cristiana Kahl; Hanney, William; Liu, Xinliang

    2016-12-01

    As a result of the anatomical proximity of the thoracic spine to the cervical, lumbar, and shoulder regions, dysfunction in the thoracic spine can influence pain, mobility, and stability across these areas. Currently, a paucity of evidence exists addressing treatment of individuals with primary thoracic pain, especially in young, athletic patients. Furthermore, current research discussing clinical reasoning frameworks focus on the differential diagnostic process. The purpose of this case report was to present a framework that describes the clinical reasoning process for the implementation and sequencing of procedural interventions for the management of a dancer with thoracic pain. A 21-year-old female dancer presented to physical therapy with a medical diagnosis of thoracic pain. The patient reported exacerbation of left thoracic pain with prolonged sitting, twisting/arching her back during dance, and lifting >15 lbs overhead. Examination revealed hypomobility with positive pain provocation during mobility testing of T1-T3 and the sternocostal junction of ribs 2-4, with associated muscle guarding palpated in the left iliocostalis thoracis and levator scapulae. Following 10 visits, the patient had no pain, no functional deficits, and a Global Rating of Change (GROC) of + 6. She returned to full competition, and a 3-month follow-up revealed continued success with dancing and a GROC of +7. This case report described the successful management of a dancer with primary thoracic pain using a clinical reasoning framework for the sequencing of procedural interventions, while incorporating Olson's impairment-based classification system. A combination of manual therapy techniques and neuromuscular control exercises were incorporated to address mobility, stability, mobility on stability, and skill level impairments, which allowed the patient to return to dance activities safely. Future studies should consider the development of further treatment-based clinical reasoning

  15. Case Studies of Secondary School Teachers Designing Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction and Their Students' Socioscientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Engin

    Addressing socioscientific issues (SSI) has been one of the main focuses in science education since the Science, Technology, and Society (STS) movement in the 1970s (Levinson, 2006); however, teaching controversial socioscientific issues has always been challenging for teachers (Dillon, 1994; Osborne, Duschl, & Fairbrother, 2002). Although teachers exhibit positive attitudes for using controversial socioscientific issues in their science classrooms, only a small percentage of them actually incorporate SSI content into their science curricula on a regular basis (Sadler, Amirshokoohi, Kazempour, & Allspaw, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009). The literature in science education has highlighted the signi?cant relationships among teacher beliefs, teaching practices, and student learning (Bryan & Atwater, 2002; King, Shumow, & Lietz, 2001; Lederman, 1992). Despite the fact that the case studies present a relatively detailed picture of teachers' values and motivations for teaching SSI (e.g. Lee, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009; Reis & Galvao, 2004), these studies still miss the practices of these teachers and potential outcomes for their students. Therefore, there is a great need for in-depth case studies that would focus on teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based learning environments, their deeper beliefs and motivations for teaching SSI, and their students' response to these practices (Lee, 2006). This dissertation is structured as three separate, but related, studies about secondary school teachers' experiences of designing and teaching SSI-based classes and their students' understanding of science and SSI reasoning. The case studies in this dissertation seek answers for (1) teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based instruction, as well as its relation to their deeper personal beliefs and motivations to teach SSI, and (2) how their students respond to their approaches of teaching SSI in terms of their science understanding and SSI reasoning. The first paper

  16. A Cold Start Context-Aware Recommender System for Tour Planning Using Artificial Neural Network and Case Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahramian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of tourism information and services are available over the Web. This makes it difficult for the user to search for some specific information such as selecting a tour in a given city as an ordered set of points of interest. Moreover, the user rarely knows all his needs upfront and his preferences may change during a recommendation process. The user may also have a limited number of initial ratings and most often the recommender system is likely to face the well-known cold start problem. The objective of the research presented in this paper is to introduce a hybrid interactive context-aware tourism recommender system that takes into account user’s feedbacks and additional contextual information. It offers personalized tours to the user based on his preferences thanks to the combination of a case based reasoning framework and an artificial neural network. The proposed method has been tried in the city of Tehran in Iran. The results show that the proposed method outperforms current artificial neural network methods and combinations of case based reasoning with k-nearest neighbor methods in terms of user effort, accuracy, and user satisfaction.

  17. Query Expansion: Is It Necessary In Textual Case-Based Reasoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions (FAQs). FAQs are documents of question and answer pairs used to provide basic information to users in an organization. A recurring question can be solved once and stored, and for its subsequent recurrence, its already stored answer can be reused instead of treating the question as a new problem. The Case.

  18. Context based support for Clinical Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Intelligence, Knowledge Management Systems and Business Intelligence to make context sensitive, patient case specific analysis and knowledge management. The knowledge base consists of patient health records, reasoning process information and clinical guidelines. Patient specific information and knowledge...... is continually enhanced by adding results of analysis. Context sensitive analysis is done by retrieving similar patient cases and guidelines from the knowledge base in a case based fashion........ In this paper a framework for a Clinical Reasoning Knowledge Warehouse (CRKW) is presented, intended to support the reasoning process, by providing the decision participants with an analysis platform that captures and enhances information and knowledge. The CRKW mixes theories and models from Artificial...

  19. Physiological Sensor Signals Classification for Healthcare Using Sensor Data Fusion and Case-Based Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Begum, Shahina; Barua, Shaibal; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Today, clinicians often do diagnosis and classification of diseases based on information collected from several physiological sensor signals. However, sensor signal could easily be vulnerable to uncertain noises or interferences and due to large individual variations sensitivity to different physiological sensors could also vary. Therefore, multiple sensor signal fusion is valuable to provide more robust and reliable decision. This paper demonstrates a physiological sensor signal classificati...

  20. Designing Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Personalization Strategy using Case-Based Reasoning and Multi-Agent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina GONZÁLEZ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs are educational systems that use artificial intelligence techniques for representing the knowledge. ITSs design is often criticized for being a complex and challenging process. In this article, we propose a framework for the ITSs design using Case Based Reasoning (CBR and Multiagent systems (MAS. The major advantage of using CBR is to allow the intelligent system to propose smart and quick solutions to problems, even in complex domains, avoiding the time necessary to derive those solutions from scratch. The use of intelligent agents and MAS architectures supports the retrieval of similar students models and the adaptation of teaching strategies according to the student profile. We describe deeply how the combination of both technologies helps to simplify the design of new ITSs and personalize the e-learning process for each student

  1. Reasoning by cases in Default Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, N.; Roos, Nico

    1998-01-01

    Reiter's Default Logic is one of the most popular formalisms for describing default reasoning. One important defect of Default Logic is, however, the inability to reason by cases. Over the years, several solutions for this problem have been proposed. All these proposals deal with deriving new

  2. Integrated case learning: teaching clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, Natalie; Russell, John

    2010-05-01

    Learning how to 'think like doctors' can be difficult for undergraduate medical students in their early clinical years. Our model of collaborative Integrated Case Learning (ICL) and simulated clinical reasoning aims to address these issues. Taking a socio-cultural perspective, this study investigates the reflective learning interactions and practices of clinical thinking that emerged in the ICL environment. We also explore how third year medical students perceived their ICL experiences in relation to the clinical situations encountered in the hospital setting. The context for the inquiry is a rural Clinical School in North West Victoria, Australia. We used a qualitative case study methodology following eight third-year medical students over an academic year. Individual and group interviews were conducted, together with observations and document/artefact analysis. Data was analysed using content and narrative methods. The ICL program was well received. Findings suggest that the group-based, simulated clinical reasoning process appears to help undergraduate medical students to rehearse, articulate and question their clinical decision-making pathways. We argue that the ICL process offers a professionally challenging, but supportive group learning 'space' for students to practise what it might mean to 'think', 'talk' and 'perform' like doctors in real settings. The ICL environment also appears to create a connective bridge between the 'classroom' and clinical practice.

  3. A Framework of Combining Case-Based Reasoning with a Work Breakdown Structure for Estimating the Cost of Online Course Production Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Currently, a work breakdown structure (WBS) approach is used as the most common cost estimation approach for online course production projects. To improve the practice of cost estimation, this paper proposes a novel framework to estimate the cost for online course production projects using a case-based reasoning (CBR) technique and a WBS. A…

  4. Irrelevance Reasoning in Knowledge Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, A. Y.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation considers the problem of reasoning about irrelevance of knowledge in a principled and efficient manner. Specifically, it is concerned with two key problems: (1) developing algorithms for automatically deciding what parts of a knowledge base are irrelevant to a query and (2) the utility of relevance reasoning. The dissertation describes a novel tool, the query-tree, for reasoning about irrelevance. Based on the query-tree, we develop several algorithms for deciding what formulas are irrelevant to a query. Our general framework sheds new light on the problem of detecting independence of queries from updates. We present new results that significantly extend previous work in this area. The framework also provides a setting in which to investigate the connection between the notion of irrelevance and the creation of abstractions. We propose a new approach to research on reasoning with abstractions, in which we investigate the properties of an abstraction by considering the irrelevance claims on which it is based. We demonstrate the potential of the approach for the cases of abstraction of predicates and projection of predicate arguments. Finally, we describe an application of relevance reasoning to the domain of modeling physical devices.

  5. The Milling Assistant, Case-Based Reasoning, and machining strategy: A report on the development of automated numerical control programming systems at New Mexico State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Culler, D.; Eskridge, T.; Cox, L.; Slater, T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The Milling Assistant (MA) programming system demonstrates the automated development of tool paths for Numerical Control (NC) machine tools. By integrating a Case-Based Reasoning decision processor with a commercial CAD/CAM software, intelligent tool path files for milled and point-to-point features can be created. The operational system is capable of reducing the time required to program a variety of parts and improving product quality by collecting and utilizing ``best of practice`` machining strategies.

  6. Integration of Semantic Web Reasoning and Argument-based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakaki, Toshiko; Sawamura, Hajime; Fukumoto, Taro; Mukai, Takanori; Nitta, Katsumi

    Though many kinds of multi-agent systems based on argumentation have been proposed where only rule-based knowledge is taken into account, they have been unable to handle the ontological knowledge so far. In our daily life, however, there are a lot of human argumentation where both ontological and rule knowledges are used. For example, in e-commerce, a seller and a buyer usually use ontologies about products along with their respective strategic rules for buying and selling. Recent progress of the Semantic Web technology provides expressive ontology languages. In this paper, we demonstrate integration of the Semantic Web reasoning and argument-based reasoning. We have implemented the integrated system such that Logic of Multiple-valued Argumentation-based agent system (specialized to two values {f, t }) can be accessible to the Semantic Web reasoning established as the description logic reasoning system, given ontologies expressed by OWL DL or its notational variant the DL SHOIN(D). An interesting argumentation result using both ontologies and rules about the university curriculum is shown as an example executed by our system.

  7. Similarity based approximate reasoning: fuzzy control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raha, S.; Hossain, A.; Ghosh, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to similarity based approximate reasoning that elucidates the connection between similarity and existing approaches to inference in approximate reasoning methodology. A set of axioms is proposed to get a reasonable measure of similarity between two fuzzy sets. The

  8. Risk Factors Analysis and Death Prediction in Some Life-Threatening Ailments Using Chi-Square Case-Based Reasoning (χ2 CBR) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, D A; Wei, Z; Yang, Y

    2018-01-30

    A wealth of data are available within the health care system, however, effective analysis tools for exploring the hidden patterns in these datasets are lacking. To alleviate this limitation, this paper proposes a simple but promising hybrid predictive model by suitably combining the Chi-square distance measurement with case-based reasoning technique. The study presents the realization of an automated risk calculator and death prediction in some life-threatening ailments using Chi-square case-based reasoning (χ 2 CBR) model. The proposed predictive engine is capable of reducing runtime and speeds up execution process through the use of critical χ 2 distribution value. This work also showcases the development of a novel feature selection method referred to as frequent item based rule (FIBR) method. This FIBR method is used for selecting the best feature for the proposed χ 2 CBR model at the preprocessing stage of the predictive procedures. The implementation of the proposed risk calculator is achieved through the use of an in-house developed PHP program experimented with XAMP/Apache HTTP server as hosting server. The process of data acquisition and case-based development is implemented using the MySQL application. Performance comparison between our system, the NBY, the ED-KNN, the ANN, the SVM, the Random Forest and the traditional CBR techniques shows that the quality of predictions produced by our system outperformed the baseline methods studied. The result of our experiment shows that the precision rate and predictive quality of our system in most cases are equal to or greater than 70%. Our result also shows that the proposed system executes faster than the baseline methods studied. Therefore, the proposed risk calculator is capable of providing useful, consistent, faster, accurate and efficient risk level prediction to both the patients and the physicians at any time, online and on a real-time basis.

  9. Agent Based Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    to launch the MFM Workbench into an agent based environment, which can complement disadvantages of the original software. The agent-based MFM Workbench is centered on a concept called “Blackboard System” and use an event based mechanism to arrange the reasoning tasks. This design will support the new...

  10. Emotional reasoning and parent-based reasoning in normal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Muris, P.; Kindt, M.

    2004-01-01

    A previous study by Muris, Merckelbach, and Van Spauwen demonstrated that children display emotional reasoning irrespective of their anxiety levels. That is, when estimating whether a situation is dangerous, children not only rely on objective danger information but also on their own

  11. Reasons For Cancellation of Elective Paediatric Surgery Cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many factors have contributed to incessant cancellation of elective cases in paediatric surgery. The objective of this study was to review the reasons for cancellation of such cases in our centre and to suggest solutions to these problems. Prospective collation of information on all cancelled elective paediatric surgical cases ...

  12. MANAGEMENT OF A GUILLAIN BARRE SYNDROME PATIENT THROUGH THREE TRACK REASONING: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Islam Nipa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical reasoning is a thinking and decision making process which occur in clinical practice. It helps the health care providers to solve the clinical problem by using their reasoning process in an effective and efficient manner. Three track reasoning in one of the clinical reasoning process which includes the procedural, interactive and conditional reasoning to diagnose as well as ensure proper rehabilitation service according to patient and patient’s family members’ needs. Methods: A single case based study through the three track reasoning process. The purpose of this study was to explore the management strategies of a Gullian Barrie Syndrome (GBS patient through three track reasoning. We have tried to show how the basic idea behind the reasoning process helped to determine the reasoning process and diagnosis. However it has performed through theory and observation. We have also showed how we used the reasoning process through with the common sense reasoning. However it was the part of procedural reasoning in three track clinical reasoning. In three track reasoning, there is also interactive and procedural reasoning part through which we told patient story about his condition, identified his and his family members expectations and to establish hypothesis as GBS. So three track reasoning also supported us to do reasoning process rather than selecting another reasoning process. Results: After analyzing the reasoning process it was identified that to be strict in a single reasoning process is very difficult. Clinical reasoning is the clinician’s ability through which they can consider the interpretation of different clinical findings. An expert clinician must have critical thinking skill rather than ignoring any symptoms or overemphasize the symptoms. In addition, patient’s knowledge, believes and reasoning was found an important part of clinical reasoning process in this study. Conclusion: We have been practicing clinical

  13. Conceptualizing Rolling Motion through an Extreme Case Reasoning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasovic, Elvedin; Mešic, Vanes; Erceg, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we are going to show how learning about some counterintuitive aspects of rolling motion can be facilitated by combining the use of analogies with extreme case reasoning. Specifically, the intuitively comprehensible examples of "rolling" polygonal prisms are used as an analogical anchor that is supposed to help the students…

  14. Diagnosis by integrating model-based reasoning with knowledge-based reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylander, Tom

    1988-01-01

    Our research investigates how observations can be categorized by integrating a qualitative physical model with experiential knowledge. Our domain is diagnosis of pathologic gait in humans, in which the observations are the gait motions, muscle activity during gait, and physical exam data, and the diagnostic hypotheses are the potential muscle weaknesses, muscle mistimings, and joint restrictions. Patients with underlying neurological disorders typically have several malfunctions. Among the problems that need to be faced are: the ambiguity of the observations, the ambiguity of the qualitative physical model, correspondence of the observations and hypotheses to the qualitative physical model, the inherent uncertainty of experiential knowledge, and the combinatorics involved in forming composite hypotheses. Our system divides the work so that the knowledge-based reasoning suggests which hypotheses appear more likely than others, the qualitative physical model is used to determine which hypotheses explain which observations, and another process combines these functionalities to construct a composite hypothesis based on explanatory power and plausibility. We speculate that the reasoning architecture of our system is generally applicable to complex domains in which a less-than-perfect physical model and less-than-perfect experiential knowledge need to be combined to perform diagnosis.

  15. Machine Learning-based Intelligent Formal Reasoning and Proving System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengqing; Huang, Xiaojian; Fang, Jiaze; Liang, Jia

    2018-03-01

    The reasoning system can be used in many fields. How to improve reasoning efficiency is the core of the design of system. Through the formal description of formal proof and the regular matching algorithm, after introducing the machine learning algorithm, the system of intelligent formal reasoning and verification has high efficiency. The experimental results show that the system can verify the correctness of propositional logic reasoning and reuse the propositional logical reasoning results, so as to obtain the implicit knowledge in the knowledge base and provide the basic reasoning model for the construction of intelligent system.

  16. Development of abstract mathematical reasoning: The case of algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eSusac

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Algebra typically represents the students’ first encounter with abstract mathematical reasoning and it therefore causes significant difficulties for students who still reason concretely. The aim of the present study was to investigate the developmental trajectory of the students’ ability to solve simple algebraic equations. 311 participants between the ages of 12 and 17 were given a computerized test of equation rearrangement. Equations consisted of an unknown and two other elements (numbers or letters, and the operations of multiplication/division. The obtained results showed that younger participants are less accurate and slower in solving equations with letters (symbols than those with numbers. This difference disappeared for older participants (16-17 years, suggesting that they had reached an abstract reasoning level, at least for this simple task. A corresponding conclusion arises from the analysis of their strategies which suggests that younger participants mostly used concrete strategies such as inserting numbers, while older participants typically used more abstract, rule-based strategies. These results indicate that the development of algebraic thinking is a process which unfolds over a long period of time. In agreement with previous research, we can conclude that, on average, children at the age of 15-16 transition from using concrete to abstract strategies while solving the algebra problems addressed within the present study. A better understanding of the timing and speed of students’ transition from concrete arithmetic reasoning to abstract algebraic reasoning might help in designing better curricula and teaching materials that would ease that transition.

  17. Investigating Students' Reasoning about Acid-Base Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Kouyoumdjian, Hovig; Underwood, Sonia M.

    2016-01-01

    Acid-base chemistry is central to a wide range of reactions. If students are able to understand how and why acid-base reactions occur, it should provide a basis for reasoning about a host of other reactions. Here, we report the development of a method to characterize student reasoning about acid-base reactions based on their description of…

  18. Delusional Ideation, Cognitive Processes and Crime Based Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dean J; Caulfield, Laura S

    2017-08-01

    Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p < .05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.

  19. COMPUTER-BASED REASONING SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN CUCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Argumentation is nowadays seen both as skill that people use in various aspects of their lives, as well as an educational technique that can support the transfer or creation of knowledge thus aiding in the development of other skills (e.g. Communication, critical thinking or attitudes. However, teaching argumentation and teaching with argumentation is still a rare practice, mostly due to the lack of available resources such as time or expert human tutors that are specialized in argumentation. Intelligent Computer Systems (i.e. Systems that implement an inner representation of particular knowledge and try to emulate the behavior of humans could allow more people to understand the purpose, techniques and benefits of argumentation. The proposed paper investigates the state of the art concepts of computer-based argumentation used in education and tries to develop a conceptual map, showing benefits, limitation and relations between various concepts focusing on the duality “learning to argue – arguing to learn”.

  20. Promoting student case creation to enhance instruction of clinical reasoning skills: a pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Hamsika; Gesundheit, Neil; Nevins, Andrew B; Pompei, Peter; Bruce, Janine; Merrell, Sylvia Bereknyei

    2018-01-01

    It is a common educational practice for medical students to engage in case-based learning (CBL) exercises by working through clinical cases that have been developed by faculty. While such faculty-developed exercises have educational strengths, there are at least two major drawbacks to learning by this method: the number and diversity of cases is often limited; and students decrease their engagement with CBL cases as they grow accustomed to the teaching method. We sought to explore whether student case creation can address both of these limitations. We also compared student case creation to traditional clinical reasoning sessions in regard to tutorial group effectiveness, perceived gains in clinical reasoning, and quality of student-faculty interaction. Ten first-year medical students participated in a feasibility study wherein they worked in small groups to develop their own patient case around a preassigned diagnosis. Faculty provided feedback on case quality afterwards. Students completed pre- and post-self-assessment surveys. Students and faculty also participated in separate focus groups to compare their case creation experience to traditional CBL sessions. Students reported high levels of team engagement and peer learning, as well as increased ownership over case content and understanding of clinical reasoning nuances. However, students also reported decreases in student-faculty interaction and the use of visual aids ( P study suggest that student-generated cases can be a valuable adjunct to traditional clinical reasoning instruction by increasing content ownership, encouraging student-directed learning, and providing opportunities to explore clinical nuances. However, these gains may reduce student-faculty interaction. Future studies may be able to identify an improved model of faculty participation, the ideal timing for incorporation of this method in a medical curriculum, and a more rigorous assessment of the impact of student case creation on the

  1. A case of seizures induced by abstract reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuzawa, Yasutaka; Yoshino, Aihide; Nomura, Soichiro

    2010-04-01

    We describe a case of reflex seizures induced by abstract reasoning but not other cognitive processes. The patient, a 46-year-old man, experienced myoclonic seizures whenever he played shogi (Japanese chess). To identify the critical thought processes responsible for inducing his seizures, we monitored his clinical seizures and epileptiform discharges while he performed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), spatial working memory, mental rotation, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) tasks. A myoclonic seizure occurred only during the WCST. Generalized 3- to 5-Hz spike-and-slow-wave bursts occurred repeatedly during the Block Design subtest of the WAIS-R and the WCST, whereas no discharges occurred during other subtests of the WAIS-R including the calculation, spatial working memory, and mental rotation tasks. These results indicate that abstract reasoning, independent of other cognitive processes, could induce the patient's epileptiform discharges, suggesting that his reflex seizures might be a distinct subtype of nonverbal thinking-induced seizures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural logical relations with case analysis and equality reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulrik Terp; Filinski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    -style auxiliary assertion logic which is subsequently proved consistent via cut elimination. We demonstrate in this paper an application of the above methodology to proofs of observational equivalence between expressions in a simply typed lambda calculus with a call-by-name operational semantics. Our use case......Formalizing proofs by logical relations in the Twelf proof assistant is known to be notoriously difficult. However, as demonstrated by Schürmann and Sarnat [In Proc. of 23rd Symp. on Logic in Computer Science, 2008] such proofs can be represented and verified in Twelf if done so using a Gentzen...... requires the assertion logic to be extended with reasoning principles not present in the original presentation of the formalization method. We address this by generalizing the assertion logic to include dependent sorts, and demonstrate that the original cut elimination proof continues to apply without...

  3. A Study on Uncertain Reasoning Based on MFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dagui; Yang, Ming; Chen, Wanqing [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2011-08-15

    Dealing with uncertain phenomenon is a challenging problem of fault diagnosis in modern complex industries such as nuclear power plant. Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) is a functional modeling method which can describe the artifacts with design objectives in an explicit way. Many alarm analysis and fault diagnosis methods based on MFM have been proposed. However, these methods are almost based on qualitative analysis. This paper presents a novel uncertain reasoning method based on MFM. Comparing with other uncertain reasoning algorithms, the proposed method processes the uncertainties at different abstract levels which may make a significant improvement on reasoning speed.

  4. A Model-based Avionic Prognostic Reasoner (MAPR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Model-based Avionic Prognostic Reasoner (MAPR) presented in this paper is an innovative solution for non-intrusively monitoring the state of health (SoH) and...

  5. Rule-Based Reasoning Is Fast and Belief-Based Reasoning Can Be Slow: Challenging Current Explanations of Belief-Bias and Base-Rate Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ian R.; Gibb, Maia; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that belief-based reasoning is fast and automatic, whereas rule-based reasoning is slower and more effortful. Dual-Process theories of reasoning rely on this speed-asymmetry explanation to account for a number of reasoning phenomena, such as base-rate neglect and belief-bias. The goal of the current study was to test this…

  6. A knowledge-based system for prototypical reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieto, Antonio; Minieri, Andrea; Piana, Alberto; Radicioni, Daniele P.

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present a knowledge-based system equipped with a hybrid, cognitively inspired architecture for the representation of conceptual information. The proposed system aims at extending the classical representational and reasoning capabilities of the ontology-based frameworks towards the realm of the prototype theory. It is based on a hybrid knowledge base, composed of a classical symbolic component (grounded on a formal ontology) with a typicality based one (grounded on the conceptual spaces framework). The resulting system attempts to reconcile the heterogeneous approach to the concepts in Cognitive Science with the dual process theories of reasoning and rationality. The system has been experimentally assessed in a conceptual categorisation task where common sense linguistic descriptions were given in input, and the corresponding target concepts had to be identified. The results show that the proposed solution substantially extends the representational and reasoning 'conceptual' capabilities of standard ontology-based systems.

  7. Dynamic reasoning in a knowledge-based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anand S.; Foo, Norman Y.

    1988-01-01

    Any space based system, whether it is a robot arm assembling parts in space or an onboard system monitoring the space station, has to react to changes which cannot be foreseen. As a result, apart from having domain-specific knowledge as in current expert systems, a space based AI system should also have general principles of change. This paper presents a modal logic which can not only represent change but also reason with it. Three primitive operations, expansion, contraction and revision are introduced and axioms which specify how the knowledge base should change when the external world changes are also specified. Accordingly the notion of dynamic reasoning is introduced, which unlike the existing forms of reasoning, provide general principles of change. Dynamic reasoning is based on two main principles, namely minimize change and maximize coherence. A possible-world semantics which incorporates the above two principles is also discussed. The paper concludes by discussing how the dynamic reasoning system can be used to specify actions and hence form an integral part of an autonomous reasoning and planning system.

  8. A model of synthesis based on functional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Zavbi, R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model of how to carry out functional reasoning. The model is based on the domain theory, and it links the stepwise determination of the artefact´s characteristics during the design process to different ways of carrying out functional reasoning found in the literature....... The model proposes of a set of the mental objects and a number of ways to carry out functional reasoning available to the engineering designer. The result of the research presented in this paper is the building of a hypothesis "in the form of a model" with explanatory power....

  9. Semantic reasoning with XML-based biomedical information models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Martin J; Das, Amar

    2010-01-01

    The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is increasingly being used for biomedical data exchange. The parallel growth in the use of ontologies in biomedicine presents opportunities for combining the two technologies to leverage the semantic reasoning services provided by ontology-based tools. There are currently no standardized approaches for taking XML-encoded biomedical information models and representing and reasoning with them using ontologies. To address this shortcoming, we have developed a workflow and a suite of tools for transforming XML-based information models into domain ontologies encoded using OWL. In this study, we applied semantics reasoning methods to these ontologies to automatically generate domain-level inferences. We successfully used these methods to develop semantic reasoning methods for information models in the HIV and radiological image domains.

  10. Exploring local plausible reasoning: the case of inequality tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofiki, I.; Nusantara, T.; Subanji; Chandra, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    This study explores local plausible reasoning in solving inequality tasks. The study was conducted to 78 students of mathematics education major from a university in Surabaya, Indonesia. Data were collected through written tasks and interviews. The data were analysed by a constant comparative method. The results of the study were the characteristics of local plausible reasoning shown by these behaviours: (1) students applied plausible reasoning in the local part of task solving or (2) students involved a conceptual understanding or a relational understanding in a few part of entirely argumentations. Educators can overcome the students’ behaviours by designing a meaningful learning strategy which develops students’ plausible reasoning in the whole of task solving.

  11. Promoting student case creation to enhance instruction of clinical reasoning skills: a pilot feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekar H

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hamsika Chandrasekar,1 Neil Gesundheit,2 Andrew B Nevins,3 Peter Pompei,4 Janine Bruce,5 Sylvia Bereknyei Merrell6 1Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Division of Primary Care and Population Health, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 5Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Background: It is a common educational practice for medical students to engage in case-based learning (CBL exercises by working through clinical cases that have been developed by faculty. While such faculty-developed exercises have educational strengths, there are at least two major drawbacks to learning by this method: the number and diversity of cases is often limited; and students decrease their engagement with CBL cases as they grow accustomed to the teaching method. We sought to explore whether student case creation can address both of these limitations. We also compared student case creation to traditional clinical reasoning sessions in regard to tutorial group effectiveness, perceived gains in clinical reasoning, and quality of student–faculty interaction. Methods: Ten first-year medical students participated in a feasibility study wherein they worked in small groups to develop their own patient case around a preassigned diagnosis. Faculty provided feedback on case quality afterwards. Students completed pre- and post-self-assessment surveys. Students and faculty also participated in separate focus groups to compare their case creation experience to traditional CBL sessions. Results: Students reported high levels of team engagement

  12. Delusional Ideation, Cognitive Processes and Crime Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean J. Wilkinson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009, however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011, and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011. 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p < .05, which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.

  13. Stimulating Scientific Reasoning with Drawing-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnes, Dewi; van Joolingen, Wouter; Leenaars, Frank

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the way students' reasoning about evolution can be supported by drawing-based modeling. We modified the drawing-based modeling tool SimSketch to allow for modeling evolutionary processes. In three iterations of development and testing, students in lower secondary education worked on creating an evolutionary model. After each…

  14. Fuzzy Reasoning Based on First-Order Modal Logic,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xiaoru; Zhang, Z.; Sui, Y.; Huang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    As an extension of traditional modal logics, this paper proposes a fuzzy first-order modal logic based on believable degree, and gives out a description of the fuzzy first-order modal logic based on constant domain semantics. In order to make the reasoning procedure between the fuzzy assertions

  15. Model-Based Reasoning in Humans Becomes Automatic with Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Economides

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Model-based and model-free reinforcement learning (RL have been suggested as algorithmic realizations of goal-directed and habitual action strategies. Model-based RL is more flexible than model-free but requires sophisticated calculations using a learnt model of the world. This has led model-based RL to be identified with slow, deliberative processing, and model-free RL with fast, automatic processing. In support of this distinction, it has recently been shown that model-based reasoning is impaired by placing subjects under cognitive load--a hallmark of non-automaticity. Here, using the same task, we show that cognitive load does not impair model-based reasoning if subjects receive prior training on the task. This finding is replicated across two studies and a variety of analysis methods. Thus, task familiarity permits use of model-based reasoning in parallel with other cognitive demands. The ability to deploy model-based reasoning in an automatic, parallelizable fashion has widespread theoretical implications, particularly for the learning and execution of complex behaviors. It also suggests a range of important failure modes in psychiatric disorders.

  16. Model-Based Reasoning in Humans Becomes Automatic with Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbert, Annika; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Model-based and model-free reinforcement learning (RL) have been suggested as algorithmic realizations of goal-directed and habitual action strategies. Model-based RL is more flexible than model-free but requires sophisticated calculations using a learnt model of the world. This has led model-based RL to be identified with slow, deliberative processing, and model-free RL with fast, automatic processing. In support of this distinction, it has recently been shown that model-based reasoning is impaired by placing subjects under cognitive load—a hallmark of non-automaticity. Here, using the same task, we show that cognitive load does not impair model-based reasoning if subjects receive prior training on the task. This finding is replicated across two studies and a variety of analysis methods. Thus, task familiarity permits use of model-based reasoning in parallel with other cognitive demands. The ability to deploy model-based reasoning in an automatic, parallelizable fashion has widespread theoretical implications, particularly for the learning and execution of complex behaviors. It also suggests a range of important failure modes in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26379239

  17. Effectual Reasoning and Causal Reasoning in Creating New Businesses: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Rosa González

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the process of new business creation, considering the effectuation approach, which explains the phenomenon of entrepreneurship in a different perspective than the traditional causal approach. Beginning with a description of the effectual approach assumptions, a case study about the subject is presented in order to explore the logic of the business creation process. The case discusses a Brazilian organization created in 1980 to produce materials and services in steel industry. Through structured interview with the entrepreneur who idealized the business, the main events in the early stages of the project are described. The results show the relationship between entrepreneur’s means available at the time of the enterprise creation and the new business design. In addition, the entrepreneur preferred a strategy of drawing instead of a decision one, and gave priority to strategic partnerships as a substitute of formal market research. All these aspects are covered by the effectual approach.

  18. From qualitative reasoning models to Bayesian-based learner modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milošević, U.; Bredeweg, B.; de Kleer, J.; Forbus, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the knowledge of a student is a fundamental part of intelligent learning environments. We present a Bayesian network based approach to dealing with uncertainty when estimating a learner’s state of knowledge in the context of Qualitative Reasoning (QR). A proposal for a global architecture

  19. Stimulating Scientific Reasoning with Drawing-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnes, Dewi; van Joolingen, Wouter; Leenaars, Frank

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the way students' reasoning about evolution can be supported by drawing-based modeling. We modified the drawing-based modeling tool SimSketch to allow for modeling evolutionary processes. In three iterations of development and testing, students in lower secondary education worked on creating an evolutionary model. After each iteration, the user interface and instructions were adjusted based on students' remarks and the teacher's observations. Students' conversations were analyzed on reasoning complexity as a measurement of efficacy of the modeling tool and the instructions. These findings were also used to compose a set of recommendations for teachers and curriculum designers for using and constructing models in the classroom. Our findings suggest that to stimulate scientific reasoning in students working with a drawing-based modeling, tool instruction about the tool and the domain should be integrated. In creating models, a sufficient level of scaffolding is necessary. Without appropriate scaffolds, students are not able to create the model. With scaffolding that is too high, students may show reasoning that incorrectly assigns external causes to behavior in the model.

  20. Model-based reasoning and the control of process plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaelisuo, Heikki

    1993-02-01

    In addition to feedback control, safe and economic operation of industrial process plants requires discrete-event type logic control like for example automatic control sequences, interlocks, etc. A lot of complex routine reasoning is involved in the design and verification and validation (VandV) of such automatics. Similar reasoning tasks are encountered during plant operation in action planning and fault diagnosis. The low-level part of the required problem solving is so straightforward that it could be accomplished by a computer if only there were plant models which allow versatile mechanised reasoning. Such plant models and corresponding inference algorithms are the main subject of this report. Deep knowledge and qualitative modelling play an essential role in this work. Deep knowledge refers to mechanised reasoning based on the first principles of the phenomena in the problem domain. Qualitative modelling refers to knowledge representation formalism and related reasoning methods which allow solving problems on an abstraction level higher than for example traditional simulation and optimisation. Prolog is a commonly used platform for artificial intelligence (Al) applications. Constraint logic languages like CLP(R) and Prolog-III extend the scope of logic programming to numeric problem solving. In addition they allow a programming style which often reduces the computational complexity significantly. An approach to model-based reasoning implemented in constraint logic programming language CLP(R) is presented. The approach is based on some of the principles of QSIM, an algorithm for qualitative simulation. It is discussed how model-based reasoning can be applied in the design and VandV of plant automatics and in action planning during plant operation. A prototype tool called ISIR is discussed and some initial results obtained during the development of the tool are presented. The results presented originate from preliminary test results of the prototype obtained

  1. AUTOMATIC MULTILEVEL IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON FUZZY REASONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An automatic multilevel image segmentation method based on sup-star fuzzy reasoning (SSFR is presented. Using the well-known sup-star fuzzy reasoning technique, the proposed algorithm combines the global statistical information implied in the histogram with the local information represented by the fuzzy sets of gray-levels, and aggregates all the gray-levels into several classes characterized by the local maximum values of the histogram. The presented method has the merits of determining the number of the segmentation classes automatically, and avoiding to calculating thresholds of segmentation. Emulating and real image segmentation experiments demonstrate that the SSFR is effective.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF AN ATYPICAL ANKLE SPRAIN PATIENT THROUGH HYPOTHETICO DEDUCTIVE REASONING MODEL OF CLINICAL REASONING IMPLEMENTED BY INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONING DISABILITY AND HEALTH A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Habibur Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical reasoning is a process by which physiotherapists interacted with patients, their family and other health- care professionals. It is the thinking process that professionals tend to apply in clinical practice. Given that novice as well as expert practitioners prefer to go through some steps while they were dealing with unfamiliar cases. This process is known as hypothetico deductive reasoning. This reasoning approach involved the generation of hypothesis based on clinical data and knowledge and testing of hypothesis through further inquiry. We are expert in musculoskeletal physiotherapy treatment and favoring the atypical history of patient we went through step by step from assessment to discharge Methods: A case based study through hypothetico deductive reasoning model of clinical reasoning. The objective of the study was to investigate the physiotherapy management strategies of an atypical ankle sprain patient through hypothetico deductive reasoning which comprised of cue acquisition, hypothesis generation, cue interpretation and hypothesis evaluation by implementing International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Results: The patient responded well to treatment as patient reported that 100% swelling decreased, could bear more weight (95% on foot, decrease pain (1 cm on 10 cm VAS scale, improved muscle strength by manual muscle testing by grade V in ankle planter flexors (PF as well as dorsiflexors (DF, invertors as well as evertors and the functional status of patient was improved by 80% according to lower extremity functional scale. Conclusion: Clinical reasoning is an important approach in physiotherapy. It helps the practitioners in decision making and choosing the best alternative options for the well being of patients. We think it is necessary for all practitioners to have sound propositional and non-propositional knowledge in order to provide effective management protocol for patients focusing

  3. MTK: An AI tool for model-based reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, William K.; Schwartz, Mary R.

    1987-01-01

    A 1988 goal for the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project Office of the NASA Ames Research Center is to apply model-based representation and reasoning techniques in a knowledge-based system that will provide monitoring, fault diagnosis, control and trend analysis of the space station Thermal Management System (TMS). A number of issues raised during the development of the first prototype system inspired the design and construction of a model-based reasoning tool called MTK, which was used in the building of the second prototype. These issues are outlined, along with examples from the thermal system to highlight the motivating factors behind them. An overview of the capabilities of MTK is given.

  4. Longitudinal Assessment of Progress in Reasoning Capacity and Relation with Self-Estimation of Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Anne; Mélot, France; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate progress in reasoning capacity and knowledge base appraisal in a longitudinal analysis of data from summative evaluation throughout a medical problem-based learning curriculum. The scores in multidisciplinary discussion of a clinical case and multiple choice questionnaires (MCQs) were studied longitudinally…

  5. Reasons for Discharge against Medical Advice: A Case Study of Emergency Departments in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Kaveh; Komsari, Samaneh; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid

    2013-08-01

    Incomplete hospitalization is the cause of disease relapse, readmission, and increase in medical costs. Discharge Against Medical Advice (DAMA) in emergency department (ED) is critical for hospitals. This paper aims to explore the underlying reasons behind DAMA in ED of four teaching hospitals in Kerman, Iran. This was a cross-sectional study in which the samples were drawn from the patients who chose to leave against medical advice from the ED of teaching hospitals in Kerman from February to March 2011. The sampling was based on census. Data were gathered by a self-constructed questionnaire. The reasons for DAMA were divided into three parts: reasons related to patient, medical staff, and hospital environment. The questionnaire was filled out by a face-to-face interview with patient or a reliable companion. There were 121 cases (5.6%) of DAMA out of the total admissions. The main reason of AMA discharges was related to patient factors in 43.9% of cases, while two other factors (i.e., hospital environment and medical staff) constituded 41.2% and 35.2% of cases, respectively. The majority of patients 65.9% (80 cases) were either uninformed or less informed of the entailing side effects and outcomes of their decision to DAMA. In comparison to studies conducted in other countries, the rate of DAMA is markedly higher in Iran. The results revealed that patients awareness of the consequences of their decisions is evidently inadequate. The study suggests a number of recommendations. These include, increasing patient awareness of the potential side effects of DAMA and creating the necessary culture for this, improving hospital facilities, and a more careful supervision of medical staff performance.

  6. Reasoning about Use Cases using Logic Grammars and Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Have, Christian Theil; Tveitane, Knut

    2007-01-01

    We consider automated transition from Use Cases in a restricted natural language syntax into UML models, by trying to capture the semantics of the natural language and map it into building blocks of the object oriented programming paradigm. Syntax and semantic analysis is done in a framework...

  7. Probabilistic reasoning for assembly-based 3D modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Chaudhuri, Siddhartha

    2011-01-01

    Assembly-based modeling is a promising approach to broadening the accessibility of 3D modeling. In assembly-based modeling, new models are assembled from shape components extracted from a database. A key challenge in assembly-based modeling is the identification of relevant components to be presented to the user. In this paper, we introduce a probabilistic reasoning approach to this problem. Given a repository of shapes, our approach learns a probabilistic graphical model that encodes semantic and geometric relationships among shape components. The probabilistic model is used to present components that are semantically and stylistically compatible with the 3D model that is being assembled. Our experiments indicate that the probabilistic model increases the relevance of presented components. © 2011 ACM.

  8. A new incomplete pattern classification method based on evidential reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhun-Ga; Pan, Quan; Mercier, Gregoire; Dezert, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The classification of incomplete patterns is a very challenging task because the object (incomplete pattern) with different possible estimations of missing values may yield distinct classification results. The uncertainty (ambiguity) of classification is mainly caused by the lack of information of the missing data. A new prototype-based credal classification (PCC) method is proposed to deal with incomplete patterns thanks to the belief function framework used classically in evidential reasoning approach. The class prototypes obtained by training samples are respectively used to estimate the missing values. Typically, in a c -class problem, one has to deal with c prototypes, which yield c estimations of the missing values. The different edited patterns based on each possible estimation are then classified by a standard classifier and we can get at most c distinct classification results for an incomplete pattern. Because all these distinct classification results are potentially admissible, we propose to combine them all together to obtain the final classification of the incomplete pattern. A new credal combination method is introduced for solving the classification problem, and it is able to characterize the inherent uncertainty due to the possible conflicting results delivered by different estimations of the missing values. The incomplete patterns that are very difficult to classify in a specific class will be reasonably and automatically committed to some proper meta-classes by PCC method in order to reduce errors. The effectiveness of PCC method has been tested through four experiments with artificial and real data sets.

  9. Problem Solving Reasoning and Problem Based Instruction in Geometry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, F.; Budiyono, B.; Slamet, I.

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to analyze the comparison Problem Solving Reasoning (PSR) and Problem Based Instruction (PBI) on problem solving and mathematical communication abilities viewed from Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). Learning was given to grade 8th junior high school students. This research uses quasi experimental method, and then with descriptive analysis. Data were analyzed using two-ways multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with different cells. The result of data analysis were learning model gives different effect, level of SRL gives the same effect, and there is no interaction between the learning model with the SRL on the problem solving and mathematical communication abilities. The t-test statistic was used to find out more effective learning model. Based on the test, regardless of the level of SRL, PSR is more effective than PBI for problemsolving ability. The result of descriptive analysis was PSR had the advantage in creating learning that optimizing the ability of learners in reasoning to solve a mathematical problem. Consequently, the PSR is the right learning model to be applied in the classroom to improve problem solving ability of learners.

  10. Case-based medical informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arocha José F

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "applied" nature distinguishes applied sciences from theoretical sciences. To emphasize this distinction, we begin with a general, meta-level overview of the scientific endeavor. We introduce the knowledge spectrum and four interconnected modalities of knowledge. In addition to the traditional differentiation between implicit and explicit knowledge we outline the concepts of general and individual knowledge. We connect general knowledge with the "frame problem," a fundamental issue of artificial intelligence, and individual knowledge with another important paradigm of artificial intelligence, case-based reasoning, a method of individual knowledge processing that aims at solving new problems based on the solutions to similar past problems. We outline the fundamental differences between Medical Informatics and theoretical sciences and propose that Medical Informatics research should advance individual knowledge processing (case-based reasoning and that natural language processing research is an important step towards this goal that may have ethical implications for patient-centered health medicine. Discussion We focus on fundamental aspects of decision-making, which connect human expertise with individual knowledge processing. We continue with a knowledge spectrum perspective on biomedical knowledge and conclude that case-based reasoning is the paradigm that can advance towards personalized healthcare and that can enable the education of patients and providers. We center the discussion on formal methods of knowledge representation around the frame problem. We propose a context-dependent view on the notion of "meaning" and advocate the need for case-based reasoning research and natural language processing. In the context of memory based knowledge processing, pattern recognition, comparison and analogy-making, we conclude that while humans seem to naturally support the case-based reasoning paradigm (memory of past experiences

  11. Computer-Based Assessment of School Readiness and Early Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapó, Beno; Molnár, Gyöngyvér; Nagy, József

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the potential of using online tests for the assessment of school readiness and for monitoring early reasoning. Four tests of a face-to-face-administered school readiness test battery (speech sound discrimination, relational reasoning, counting and basic numeracy, and deductive reasoning) and a paper-and-pencil inductive…

  12. Monitoring progression of clinical reasoning skills during health sciences education using the case method - a qualitative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Kristina; Ekelin, Maria; Edgren, Gudrun; Sandgren, Olof; Hovbrandt, Pia; Persson, Eva K

    2017-09-11

    Outcome- or competency-based education is well established in medical and health sciences education. Curricula are based on courses where students develop their competences and assessment is also usually course-based. Clinical reasoning is an important competence, and the aim of this study was to monitor and describe students' progression in professional clinical reasoning skills during health sciences education using observations of group discussions following the case method. In this qualitative study students from three different health education programmes were observed while discussing clinical cases in a modified Harvard case method session. A rubric with four dimensions - problem-solving process, disciplinary knowledge, character of discussion and communication - was used as an observational tool to identify clinical reasoning. A deductive content analysis was performed. The results revealed the students' transition over time from reasoning based strictly on theoretical knowledge to reasoning ability characterized by clinical considerations and experiences. Students who were approaching the end of their education immediately identified the most important problem and then focused on this in their discussion. Practice knowledge increased over time, which was seen as progression in the use of professional language, concepts, terms and the use of prior clinical experience. The character of the discussion evolved from theoretical considerations early in the education to clinical reasoning in later years. Communication within the groups was supportive and conducted with a professional tone. Our observations revealed progression in several aspects of students' clinical reasoning skills on a group level in their discussions of clinical cases. We suggest that the case method can be a useful tool in assessing quality in health sciences education.

  13. Rule-based reasoning is fast and belief-based reasoning can be slow: Challenging current explanations of belief-bias and base-rate neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ian R; Gibb, Maia; Thompson, Valerie A

    2017-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that belief-based reasoning is fast and automatic, whereas rule-based reasoning is slower and more effortful. Dual-Process theories of reasoning rely on this speed-asymmetry explanation to account for a number of reasoning phenomena, such as base-rate neglect and belief-bias. The goal of the current study was to test this hypothesis about the relative speed of belief-based and rule-based processes. Participants solved base-rate problems (Experiment 1) and conditional inferences (Experiment 2) under a challenging deadline; they then gave a second response in free time. We found that fast responses were informed by rules of probability and logical validity, and that slow responses incorporated belief-based information. Implications for Dual-Process theories and future research options for dissociating Type I and Type II processes are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. CAD Parts-Based Assembly Modeling by Probabilistic Reasoning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kai-Ke

    2016-04-11

    Nowadays, increasing amount of parts and sub-assemblies are publicly available, which can be used directly for product development instead of creating from scratch. In this paper, we propose an interactive design framework for efficient and smart assembly modeling, in order to improve the design efficiency. Our approach is based on a probabilistic reasoning. Given a collection of industrial assemblies, we learn a probabilistic graphical model from the relationships between the parts of assemblies. Then in the modeling stage, this probabilistic model is used to suggest the most likely used parts compatible with the current assembly. Finally, the parts are assembled under certain geometric constraints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework through a variety of assembly models produced by our prototype system. © 2015 IEEE.

  15. Knowledge representation to support reasoning based on multiple models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, April; Seidel, Jorge P.; Parker, Alice C.

    1990-01-01

    Model Based Reasoning is a powerful tool used to design and analyze systems, which are often composed of numerous interactive, interrelated subsystems. Models of the subsystems are written independently and may be used together while they are still under development. Thus the models are not static. They evolve as information becomes obsolete, as improved artifact descriptions are developed, and as system capabilities change. Researchers are using three methods to support knowledge/data base growth, to track the model evolution, and to handle knowledge from diverse domains. First, the representation methodology is based on having pools, or types, of knowledge from which each model is constructed. In addition information is explicit. This includes the interactions between components, the description of the artifact structure, and the constraints and limitations of the models. The third principle we have followed is the separation of the data and knowledge from the inferencing and equation solving mechanisms. This methodology is used in two distinct knowledge-based systems: one for the design of space systems and another for the synthesis of VLSI circuits. It has facilitated the growth and evolution of our models, made accountability of results explicit, and provided credibility for the user community. These capabilities have been implemented and are being used in actual design projects.

  16. A case study on the investigation of reasoning skills in geometry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the reasoning skills in geometry-related subjects of six 8th Grade students. The study data were obtained at the end of the 2011-2012 spring period in a public elementary school. The study uses a case study with qualitative research techniques to investigate how students use reasoning ...

  17. OWL-based reasoning methods for validating archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2013-04-01

    Some modern Electronic Healthcare Record (EHR) architectures and standards are based on the dual model-based architecture, which defines two conceptual levels: reference model and archetype model. Such architectures represent EHR domain knowledge by means of archetypes, which are considered by many researchers to play a fundamental role for the achievement of semantic interoperability in healthcare. Consequently, formal methods for validating archetypes are necessary. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in exploring how semantic web technologies in general, and ontologies in particular, can facilitate the representation and management of archetypes, including binding to terminologies, but no solution based on such technologies has been provided to date to validate archetypes. Our approach represents archetypes by means of OWL ontologies. This permits to combine the two levels of the dual model-based architecture in one modeling framework which can also integrate terminologies available in OWL format. The validation method consists of reasoning on those ontologies to find modeling errors in archetypes: incorrect restrictions over the reference model, non-conformant archetype specializations and inconsistent terminological bindings. The archetypes available in the repositories supported by the openEHR Foundation and the NHS Connecting for Health Program, which are the two largest publicly available ones, have been analyzed with our validation method. For such purpose, we have implemented a software tool called Archeck. Our results show that around 1/5 of archetype specializations contain modeling errors, the most common mistakes being related to coded terms and terminological bindings. The analysis of each repository reveals that different patterns of errors are found in both repositories. This result reinforces the need for making serious efforts in improving archetype design processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nurses' ethical reasoning in cases of physical restraint in acute elderly care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Sabine; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-11-01

    In their practice, nurses make daily decisions that are ethically informed. An ethical decision is the result of a complex reasoning process based on knowledge and experience and driven by ethical values. Especially in acute elderly care and more specifically decisions concerning the use of physical restraint require a thoughtful deliberation of the different values at stake. Qualitative evidence concerning nurses' decision-making in cases of physical restraint provided important insights in the complexity of decision-making as a trajectory. However a nuanced and refined understanding of the reasoning process in terms of ethical values is still lacking. A qualitative interview design, inspired by the Grounded Theory approach, was carried out to explore nurses' reasoning process in terms of ethical values. We interviewed 21 acute geriatric nurses from 12 hospitals in different regions in Flanders, Belgium in the period October 2009-April 2011. The Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven was used to analyse interview data. Nurses' decision-making is characterized as an ethical deliberation process where different values are identified and where the process of balancing these values forms the essence of ethical deliberation. Ethical decision-making in cases of physical restraint implies that nurses have to choose which values receive priority in the process, which entails that not all values can be respected to the same degree. As a result, decision making can be experienced as difficult, even as a dilemma. Driven by the overwhelming goal of protecting physical integrity, nurses took into account the values of dignity and justice more implicitly and less dominantly.

  19. Algebraic Reasoning in Solving Mathematical Problem Based on Learning Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraswari, N. F.; Budayasa, I. K.; Ekawati, R.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to describe algebraic reasoning of secondary school’s pupils with different learning styles in solving mathematical problem. This study begins by giving the questionnaire to find out the learning styles and followed by mathematical ability test to get three subjects of 8th-grade whereas the learning styles of each pupil is visual, auditory, kinesthetic and had similar mathematical abilities. Then it continued with given algebraic problems and interviews. The data is validated using triangulation of time. The result showed that in the pattern of seeking indicator, subjects identified the things that were known and asked based on them observations. The visual and kinesthetic learners represented the known information in a chart, whereas the auditory learner in a table. In addition, they found the elements which makes the pattern and made a relationship between two quantities. In the pattern recognition indicator, they created conjectures on the relationship between two quantities and proved it. In the generalization indicator, they were determining the general rule of pattern found on each element of pattern using algebraic symbols and created a mathematical model. Visual and kinesthetic learners determined the general rule of equations which was used to solve problems using algebraic symbols, but auditory learner in a sentence.

  20. Performance-based assessment of scientific reasoning in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, A.W.; Janssen, N.

    2017-01-01

    Recent longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have examined how scientific reasoning skills such as experimenting, making inferences and evaluating evidence develop in young science learners. Results, although informative, likely underestimate children’s true capabilities because data in these

  1. Data science in R a case studies approach to computational reasoning and problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Nolan, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Effectively Access, Transform, Manipulate, Visualize, and Reason about Data and ComputationData Science in R: A Case Studies Approach to Computational Reasoning and Problem Solving illustrates the details involved in solving real computational problems encountered in data analysis. It reveals the dynamic and iterative process by which data analysts approach a problem and reason about different ways of implementing solutions. The book's collection of projects, comprehensive sample solutions, and follow-up exercises encompass practical topics pertaining to data processing, including: Non-standar

  2. Episodic Reasoning for Vision-Based Human Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Santofimia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart Spaces, Ambient Intelligence, and Ambient Assisted Living are environmental paradigms that strongly depend on their capability to recognize human actions. While most solutions rest on sensor value interpretations and video analysis applications, few have realized the importance of incorporating common-sense capabilities to support the recognition process. Unfortunately, human action recognition cannot be successfully accomplished by only analyzing body postures. On the contrary, this task should be supported by profound knowledge of human agency nature and its tight connection to the reasons and motivations that explain it. The combination of this knowledge and the knowledge about how the world works is essential for recognizing and understanding human actions without committing common-senseless mistakes. This work demonstrates the impact that episodic reasoning has in improving the accuracy of a computer vision system for human action recognition. This work also presents formalization, implementation, and evaluation details of the knowledge model that supports the episodic reasoning.

  3. Reasons For Preference Of Delivery In Spiritual Church-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Various reasons for preferring church delivery included: Spiritual protection against satanic attacks and safe delivery in 975 (36.8%) lack of funds in 629(30.5%), harsh attitude of health workers in 249 (12.1%), convenience in 212 (10.3%), faith in God and previous delivery in church 83 (4.0%) each help and good ...

  4. Sustainable Production Line Evaluation Based on Evidential Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhexuan Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many production line imbalances have been observed in the pursuit of higher profits. A sustainable production line, also called balanced, leads to lower costs, good production environments, and green manufacturing. A decision analysis method, such as production line evaluation, is often employed to help decision makers make sustainable decisions. In this study, a sustainable decision-making model is proposed for the evaluation of engine manufacturing. To solve uncertainties in manufacturing industries while maintaining lower costs and an efficient production environment, evidential reasoning is used in order to evaluate the sustainable production line effectively. First, uncertainties in the engine production line and deficiencies in the existing methods for evaluating the sustainable production line are analyzed. Then, evidential reasoning evaluation of the sustainable engine production line model is proposed and an example is presented; to be specific, the analysis of three production line plans is conducted using evidential reasoning, and plan P3 is found to be the best. Finally, a FlexSim simulation is used to prove the feasibility of evidential reasoning evaluation, verifying its suitability for achieving sustainable production line evaluation.

  5. Evidence in clinical reasoning: a computational linguistics analysis of 789,712 medical case summaries 1983-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bastian M; Campbell, Steven; Bell, Erica

    2015-03-21

    Better understanding of clinical reasoning could reduce diagnostic error linked to 8% of adverse medical events and 30% of malpractice cases. To a greater extent than the evidence-based movement, the clinical reasoning literature asserts the importance of practitioner intuition—unconscious elements of diagnostic reasoning. The study aimed to analyse the content of case report summaries in ways that explored the importance of an evidence concept, not only in relation to research literature but also intuition. The study sample comprised all 789,712 abstracts in English for case reports contained in the database PUBMED for the period 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. It was hypothesised that, if evidence and intuition concepts were viewed by these clinical authors as essential to understanding their case reports, they would be more likely to be found in the abstracts. Computational linguistics software was used in 1) concept mapping of 21,631,481 instances of 201 concepts, and 2) specific concept analyses examining 200 paired co-occurrences for 'evidence' and research 'literature' concepts. 'Evidence' is a fundamentally patient-centred, intuitive concept linked to less common concepts about underlying processes, suspected disease mechanisms and diagnostic hunches. In contrast, the use of research literature in clinical reasoning is linked to more common reasoning concepts about specific knowledge and descriptions or presenting features of cases. 'Literature' is by far the most dominant concept, increasing in relevance since 2003, with an overall relevance of 13% versus 5% for 'evidence' which has remained static. The fact that the least present types of reasoning concepts relate to diagnostic hunches to do with underlying processes, such as what is suspected, raises questions about whether intuitive practitioner evidence-making, found in a constellation of dynamic, process concepts, has become less important. The study adds support to the existing corpus of

  6. The death of argument fallacies in agent based reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, John

    2004-01-01

    This book is a sequel to the classic work, Fallacies Selected Papers 1972 - 1982 (1989), coauthored with Douglas Walton, and is a further major contribution to the Woods-Walton Approach to the logic of fallacious reasoning No one disputes the formitable accomplishments of modern mathematical logic; but equally no one seriously believes that classical logic is much good for the analysis of real-life argument and reasoning, or that it is the best place in which to transact the business of fallacy theory One of the principal innovations of the book is its adaptation of systems of logic to the particular requirements of fallacy theory The book develops logical analyses which take into account such features of real-life cognitive agency as resource- availability and computational complexity The book is also an invitation to interdisciplinary cooperation, linking the relevant branches of logic with computer science, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, forensic science, linguistics, (including conversational analysi...

  7. Network Forensics Method Based on Evidence Graph and Vulnerability Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the Internet becomes larger in scale, more complex in structure and more diversified in traffic, the number of crimes that utilize computer technologies is also increasing at a phenomenal rate. To react to the increasing number of computer crimes, the field of computer and network forensics has emerged. The general purpose of network forensics is to find malicious users or activities by gathering and dissecting firm evidences about computer crimes, e.g., hacking. However, due to the large volume of Internet traffic, not all the traffic captured and analyzed is valuable for investigation or confirmation. After analyzing some existing network forensics methods to identify common shortcomings, we propose in this paper a new network forensics method that uses a combination of network vulnerability and network evidence graph. In our proposed method, we use vulnerability evidence and reasoning algorithm to reconstruct attack scenarios and then backtrack the network packets to find the original evidences. Our proposed method can reconstruct attack scenarios effectively and then identify multi-staged attacks through evidential reasoning. Results of experiments show that the evidence graph constructed using our method is more complete and credible while possessing the reasoning capability.

  8. It's not all about moral reasoning: Understanding the content of Moral Case Deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svantesson, Mia; Silén, Marit; James, Inger

    2018-03-01

    Moral Case Deliberation is one form of clinical ethics support described as a facilitator-led collective moral reasoning by healthcare professionals on a concrete moral question connected to their practice. Evaluation research is needed, but, as human interaction is difficult to standardise, there is a need to capture the content beyond moral reasoning. This allows for a better understanding of Moral Case Deliberation, which may contribute to further development of valid outcome criteria and stimulate the normative discussion of what Moral Case Deliberation should contain. To explore and compare the content beyond moral reasoning in the dialogue in Moral Case Deliberation at Swedish workplaces. A mixed-methods approach was applied for analysing audio-recordings of 70 periodic Moral Case Deliberation meetings at 10 Swedish workplaces. Moral Case Deliberation facilitators and various healthcare professions participated, with registered nurses comprising the majority. Ethical considerations: No objection to the study was made by an Ethical Review Board. After oral and written information was provided, consent to be recorded was assumed by virtue of participation. Other than 'moral reasoning' (median (md): 45% of the spoken time), the Moral Case Deliberations consisted of 'reflections on the psychosocial work environment' to a varying extent (md: 29%). Additional content comprised 'assumptions about the patient's psychosocial situation' (md: 6%), 'facts about the patient's situation' (md: 5%), 'concrete problem-solving' (md: 6%) and 'process' (md: 3%). The findings suggest that a restorative function of staff's wellbeing in Moral Case Deliberation is needed, as this might contribute to good patient care. This supports outcome criteria of improved emotional support, which may include relief of moral distress. However, facilitators need a strategy for how to proceed from the participants' own emotional needs and to develop the use of their emotional knowing to focus on

  9. Undermining Reasonableness: Expert Testimony in a Case Involving a Battered Woman Who Kills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrance, Cheryl; Matheson, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    Student participants (N = 316) viewed a videotaped simulated case involving a woman who had entered a self-defense plea in the shooting death of her abusive husband. As successful claims of self-defense rest on the portrayal of a defendant who has responded reasonably to his/her situation, the implications of various forms of expert testimony in…

  10. A Target Advertisement System Based on TV Viewer's Profile Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeongyeon; Kim, Munjo; Lee, Bumshik; Kim, Munchurl; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Han-Kyu

    With the rapidly growing Internet, the Internet broadcasting and web casting service have been one of the well-known services. Specially, it is expected that the IPTV service will be one of the principal services in the broadband network [2]. However, the current broadcasting environment is served for the general public and requires the passive attitude to consume the TV programs. For the advanced broadcasting environments, various research of the personalized broadcasting is needed. For example, the current unidirectional advertisement provides to the TV viewers the advertisement contents, depending on the popularity of TV programs, the viewing rates, the age groups of TV viewers, and the time bands of the TV programs being broadcast. It is not an efficient way to provide the useful information to the TV viewers from customization perspective. If a TV viewer does not need particular advertisement contents, then information may be wasteful to the TV viewer. Therefore, it is expected that the target advertisement service will be one of the important services in the personalized broadcasting environments. The current research in the area of the target advertisement classifies the TV viewers into clustered groups who have similar preference. The digital TV collaborative filtering estimates the user's favourite advertisement contents by using the usage history [1, 4, 5]. In these studies, the TV viewers are required to provide their profile information such as the gender, job, and ages to the service providers via a PC or Set-Top Box (STB) which is connected to digital TV. Based on explicit information, the advertisement contents are provided to the TV viewers in a customized way with tailored advertisement contents. However, the TV viewers may dislike exposing to the service providers their private information because of the misuse of it. In this case, it is difficult to provide appropriate target advertisement service.

  11. RPD-based Hypothesis Reasoning for Cyber Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, John; McNeese, Michael; Mullen, Tracy; Hall, David; Fan, Xiaocong; Liu, Peng

    Intelligence workers such as analysts, commanders, and soldiers often need a hypothesis reasoning framework to gain improved situation awareness of the highly dynamic cyber space. The development of such a framework requires the integration of interdisciplinary techniques, including supports for distributed cognition (human-in-the-loop hypothesis generation), supports for team collaboration (identification of information for hypothesis evaluation), and supports for resource-constrained information collection (hypotheses competing for information collection resources). We here describe a cognitively-inspired framework that is built upon Klein’s recognition-primed decision model and integrates the three components of Endsley’s situation awareness model. The framework naturally connects the logic world of tools for cyber situation awareness with the mental world of human analysts, enabling the perception, comprehension, and prediction of cyber situations for better prevention, survival, and response to cyber attacks by adapting missions at the operational, tactical, and strategic levels.

  12. Improving the learning of clinical reasoning through computer-based cognitive representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical reasoning is usually taught using a problem-solving approach, which is widely adopted in medical education. However, learning through problem solving is difficult as a result of the contextualization and dynamic aspects of actual problems. Moreover, knowledge acquired from problem-solving practice tends to be inert and fragmented. This study proposed a computer-based cognitive representation approach that externalizes and facilitates the complex processes in learning clinical reasoning. The approach is operationalized in a computer-based cognitive representation tool that involves argument mapping to externalize the problem-solving process and concept mapping to reveal the knowledge constructed from the problems. Methods: Twenty-nine Year 3 or higher students from a medical school in east China participated in the study. Participants used the proposed approach implemented in an e-learning system to complete four learning cases in 4 weeks on an individual basis. For each case, students interacted with the problem to capture critical data, generate and justify hypotheses, make a diagnosis, recall relevant knowledge, and update their conceptual understanding of the problem domain. Meanwhile, students used the computer-based cognitive representation tool to articulate and represent the key elements and their interactions in the learning process. Results: A significant improvement was found in students’ learning products from the beginning to the end of the study, consistent with students’ report of close-to-moderate progress in developing problem-solving and knowledge-construction abilities. No significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores with the 4-week period. The cognitive representation approach was found to provide more formative assessment. Conclusions: The computer-based cognitive representation approach improved the learning of clinical reasoning in both problem solving and knowledge

  13. Improving the learning of clinical reasoning through computer-based cognitive representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Johnson, Janice M; Grotzer, Tina A

    2014-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is usually taught using a problem-solving approach, which is widely adopted in medical education. However, learning through problem solving is difficult as a result of the contextualization and dynamic aspects of actual problems. Moreover, knowledge acquired from problem-solving practice tends to be inert and fragmented. This study proposed a computer-based cognitive representation approach that externalizes and facilitates the complex processes in learning clinical reasoning. The approach is operationalized in a computer-based cognitive representation tool that involves argument mapping to externalize the problem-solving process and concept mapping to reveal the knowledge constructed from the problems. Twenty-nine Year 3 or higher students from a medical school in east China participated in the study. Participants used the proposed approach implemented in an e-learning system to complete four learning cases in 4 weeks on an individual basis. For each case, students interacted with the problem to capture critical data, generate and justify hypotheses, make a diagnosis, recall relevant knowledge, and update their conceptual understanding of the problem domain. Meanwhile, students used the computer-based cognitive representation tool to articulate and represent the key elements and their interactions in the learning process. A significant improvement was found in students' learning products from the beginning to the end of the study, consistent with students' report of close-to-moderate progress in developing problem-solving and knowledge-construction abilities. No significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores with the 4-week period. The cognitive representation approach was found to provide more formative assessment. The computer-based cognitive representation approach improved the learning of clinical reasoning in both problem solving and knowledge construction.

  14. Mechanism-based diagnostic reasoning: thoughts on teaching introductory clinical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Holly S.; Lockee, Barbara B.; Danielson, Jared A.; Mills, Eric M.; Boon, G. Daniel; Burton, John K.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Zimmerman, Kurt L.; Hilmer, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    Teaching introductory clinical pathology to veterinary students is a challenging endeavor that requires a shift in learning strategies from rote memorization to diagnostic reasoning. Educational research has identified discrete cognitive stages required to achieve the automated, unconscious thinking process used by experts. Building on this knowledge, we developed a case-based approach to clinical pathology instruction that actively engages students in the learning process and links performance with positive reward. Simulated cases provide context and create a structure, or "schema", which enhances the learning process by enabling students to synthesize facts and link them with their causal mechanism to reach a defensible diagnostic conclusion. Web-based tools, including the "Problem List Generator" and tutorials, have been developed to facilitate this process. Through the collaborative Biomedical Informatics Research Group, we are working to further develop and evaluate Web-based instructional tools and new educational methods, to clarify the diagnostic reasoning processes used by experienced clinical pathologists, and, ultimately, to better educate our future students to be effective diagnosticians.

  15. Problem based learning to improve proportional reasoning of students in mathematics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnasanti, Utami, Ratna Widianti; Suwanto, Fevi Rahmawati

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews about the using of Problem Based Learning (PBL) to improve proportional reasoning of students in mathematics learning. Mathematics is one of the subjects at school which generally has a goal to help students preparing themselves in this growth century. To achieve the goal of mathematics learning, student's good reasoning is needed as the base of mathematics itself. This reasoning is an ability to think through logic ideas about mathematics concept. One of reasoning mathematics ability is the proportional reasoning. Proportional reasoning is knowing the multiplicative relationship between the base ratio and the proportional situation to which it's applied. Proportional reasoning is important to have by students in learning mathematics. Many topics within the school mathematics require knowledge and understanding of ratio and proportion, for examples problem solving and calculation activities in domains involving scale, probability, percent, rate, trigonometry, equivalence, measurement, the geometry of plane shapes, algebra are assisted through ratio and proportion knowledge. But, the mastership of proportional reasoning ability, of course, can't be apart from teacher's role. In learning, a teacher has to choose and apply the right model so that it can improve the proportional reasoning ability of students. One of the alternative ways which could be applied to improve proportional reasoning ability of students is by applying PBL Model. Applying PBL which based on problem indirectly has trained students to solve every problem in front of them. Thus, applying PBL can improve mathematics proportional reasoning of students in mathematics learning.

  16. Simulation-Based Dysphagia Training: Teaching Interprofessional Clinical Reasoning in a Hospital Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Anna; Friary, Philippa; Jackson, Bianca; Sekula, Julia; Braakhuis, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated hospital readiness and interprofessional clinical reasoning in speech-language pathology and dietetics students following a simulation-based teaching package. Thirty-one students participated in two half-day simulation workshops. The training included orientation to the hospital setting, part-task skill learning and immersive simulated cases. Students completed workshop evaluation forms. They filled in a 10-question survey regarding confidence, knowledge and preparedness for working in a hospital environment before and immediately after the workshops. Students completed written 15-min clinical vignettes at 1 month prior to training, immediately prior to training and immediately after training. A marking rubric was devised to evaluate the responses to the clinical vignettes within a framework of interprofessional education. The simulation workshops were well received by all students. There was a significant increase in students' self-ratings of confidence, preparedness and knowledge following the study day (p training with the greatest increase in clinical reasoning (p training has benefits in developing hospital readiness and clinical reasoning in allied health students.

  17. An evidence-based approach to working-memory based training in secondary education to improve reasoning test achievements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, Roel J.F.

    2018-01-01

    Secondary school teachers regularly observe that adolescent students have insufficient reasoning skills to properly answer reasoning test questions. One potentially effective strategy is developing learning strategies based on working memory training. This thesis contributes to our knowledge and

  18. An evidence-based approach to working memory based training in secondary education to improve reasoning test achievements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, Roel

    2018-01-01

    Secondary school teachers regularly observe that adolescent students have insufficient reasoning skills to properly answer reasoning test questions. One potentially effective strategy is developing learning strategies based on working memory training. This thesis contributes to our knowledge and

  19. Ontology-Based Representation and Reasoning in Building Construction Cost Estimation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation is one of the most critical tasks for building construction project management. The existing building construction cost estimation methods of many countries, including China, require information from several sources, including material, labor, and equipment, and tend to be manual, time-consuming, and error-prone. To solve these problems, a building construction cost estimation model based on ontology representation and reasoning is established, which includes three major components, i.e., concept model ontology, work item ontology, and construction condition ontology. Using this model, the cost estimation information is modeled into OWL axioms and SWRL rules that leverage the semantically rich ontology representation to reason about cost estimation. Based on OWL axioms and SWRL rules, the cost estimation information can be translated into a set of concept models, work items, and construction conditions associated with the specific construction conditions. The proposed method is demonstrated in Protégé 3.4.8 through case studies based on the Measurement Specifications of Building Construction and Decoration Engineering taken from GB 50500-2013 (the Chinese national mandatory specifications. Finally, this research discusses the limitations of the proposed method and future research directions. The proposed method can help a building construction cost estimator extract information more easily and quickly.

  20. A Framework for Analyzing Evidence-Based Reasoning in Science Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtak, Erin Marie; Hardy, Ilonca; Beinbrech, Christina; Shavelson, Richard J.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.

    2010-01-01

    This article adapts the Evidence-Based Reasoning (EBR) Framework (Brown, Furtak, Timms, Nagashima, & Wilson, this issue) to create a coding system for assessing argumentation in science classroom discourse. The instrument, "Evidence-Based Reasoning in Science Classroom Discourse", is intended to provide a means for measuring the quality of EBR in…

  1. Using Computer Simulations for Promoting Model-based Reasoning. Epistemological and Educational Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develaki, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Scientific reasoning is particularly pertinent to science education since it is closely related to the content and methodologies of science and contributes to scientific literacy. Much of the research in science education investigates the appropriate framework and teaching methods and tools needed to promote students' ability to reason and evaluate in a scientific way. This paper aims (a) to contribute to an extended understanding of the nature and pedagogical importance of model-based reasoning and (b) to exemplify how using computer simulations can support students' model-based reasoning. We provide first a background for both scientific reasoning and computer simulations, based on the relevant philosophical views and the related educational discussion. This background suggests that the model-based framework provides an epistemologically valid and pedagogically appropriate basis for teaching scientific reasoning and for helping students develop sounder reasoning and decision-taking abilities and explains how using computer simulations can foster these abilities. We then provide some examples illustrating the use of computer simulations to support model-based reasoning and evaluation activities in the classroom. The examples reflect the procedure and criteria for evaluating models in science and demonstrate the educational advantages of their application in classroom reasoning activities.

  2. Inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Real-time context aware reasoning in on-board intelligent traffic systems: An Architecture for Ontology-based Reasoning using Finite State Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, Arjan; Dalmolen, Simon; Drenth, Eduard; Cornelisse, Erik; Mulder, Wico

    2011-01-01

    In-vehicle information management is vital in intelligent traffic systems. In this paper we motivate an architecture for ontology-based context-aware reasoning for in-vehicle information management. An ontology is essential for system standardization and communication, and ontology-based reasoning

  4. Knowledge engineering tools for reasoning with scientific observations and interpretations: a neural connectivity use case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Thomas A; Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Hovy, Eduard H; Bota, Mihail; Burns, Gully A P C

    2011-08-22

    We address the goal of curating observations from published experiments in a generalizable form; reasoning over these observations to generate interpretations and then querying this interpreted knowledge to supply the supporting evidence. We present web-application software as part of the 'BioScholar' project (R01-GM083871) that fully instantiates this process for a well-defined domain: using tract-tracing experiments to study the neural connectivity of the rat brain. The main contribution of this work is to provide the first instantiation of a knowledge representation for experimental observations called 'Knowledge Engineering from Experimental Design' (KEfED) based on experimental variables and their interdependencies. The software has three parts: (a) the KEfED model editor - a design editor for creating KEfED models by drawing a flow diagram of an experimental protocol; (b) the KEfED data interface - a spreadsheet-like tool that permits users to enter experimental data pertaining to a specific model; (c) a 'neural connection matrix' interface that presents neural connectivity as a table of ordinal connection strengths representing the interpretations of tract-tracing data. This tool also allows the user to view experimental evidence pertaining to a specific connection. BioScholar is built in Flex 3.5. It uses Persevere (a noSQL database) as a flexible data store and PowerLoom® (a mature First Order Logic reasoning system) to execute queries using spatial reasoning over the BAMS neuroanatomical ontology. We first introduce the KEfED approach as a general approach and describe its possible role as a way of introducing structured reasoning into models of argumentation within new models of scientific publication. We then describe the design and implementation of our example application: the BioScholar software. This is presented as a possible biocuration interface and supplementary reasoning toolkit for a larger, more specialized bioinformatics system: the Brain

  5. Knowledge engineering tools for reasoning with scientific observations and interpretations: a neural connectivity use case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bota Mihail

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We address the goal of curating observations from published experiments in a generalizable form; reasoning over these observations to generate interpretations and then querying this interpreted knowledge to supply the supporting evidence. We present web-application software as part of the 'BioScholar' project (R01-GM083871 that fully instantiates this process for a well-defined domain: using tract-tracing experiments to study the neural connectivity of the rat brain. Results The main contribution of this work is to provide the first instantiation of a knowledge representation for experimental observations called 'Knowledge Engineering from Experimental Design' (KEfED based on experimental variables and their interdependencies. The software has three parts: (a the KEfED model editor - a design editor for creating KEfED models by drawing a flow diagram of an experimental protocol; (b the KEfED data interface - a spreadsheet-like tool that permits users to enter experimental data pertaining to a specific model; (c a 'neural connection matrix' interface that presents neural connectivity as a table of ordinal connection strengths representing the interpretations of tract-tracing data. This tool also allows the user to view experimental evidence pertaining to a specific connection. BioScholar is built in Flex 3.5. It uses Persevere (a noSQL database as a flexible data store and PowerLoom® (a mature First Order Logic reasoning system to execute queries using spatial reasoning over the BAMS neuroanatomical ontology. Conclusions We first introduce the KEfED approach as a general approach and describe its possible role as a way of introducing structured reasoning into models of argumentation within new models of scientific publication. We then describe the design and implementation of our example application: the BioScholar software. This is presented as a possible biocuration interface and supplementary reasoning toolkit for a larger

  6. Reliability Assessment of Cloud Computing Platform Based on Semiquantitative Information and Evidential Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliability assessment method based on evidential reasoning (ER rule and semiquantitative information is proposed in this paper, where a new reliability assessment architecture including four aspects with both quantitative data and qualitative knowledge is established. The assessment architecture is more objective in describing complex dynamic cloud computing environment than that in traditional method. In addition, the ER rule which has good performance for multiple attribute decision making problem is employed to integrate different types of the attributes in assessment architecture, which can obtain more accurate assessment results. The assessment results of the case study in an actual cloud computing platform verify the effectiveness and the advantage of the proposed method.

  7. Intertwining evidence- and model-based reasoning in physics sensemaking: An example from electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Odden, Tor Ole B.

    2017-12-01

    Our field has long valued the goal of teaching students not just the facts of physics, but also the thinking and reasoning skills of professional physicists. The complexity inherent in scientific reasoning demands that we think carefully about how we conceptualize for ourselves, enact in our classes, and encourage in our students the relationship between the multifaceted practices of professional science. The current study draws on existing research in the philosophy of science and psychology to advocate for intertwining two important aspects of scientific reasoning: using evidence from experimentation and modeling. We present a case from an undergraduate physics course to illustrate how these aspects can be intertwined productively and describe specific ways in which these aspects of reasoning can mutually reinforce one another in student learning. We end by discussing implications for this work for instruction in introductory physics courses and for research on scientific reasoning at the undergraduate level.

  8. Neural Correlates of Post-Conventional Moral Reasoning: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    OpenAIRE

    Prehn, Kristin; Korczykowski, Marc; Rao, Hengyi; Fang, Zhuo; Detre, John A.; Robertson, Diana C.

    2015-01-01

    Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which mora...

  9. Case-Based Reasoning untuk Diagnosis Penyakit Jantung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Wahyudi

    2017-01-01

                The test results using medical records data validated by expert indicate that the system is able to recognize diseases heart using nearest neighbor similarity method, minskowski distance similarity and euclidean distance similarity correctly respectively of 100%. Using nearest neighbor get accuracy of 86.21%, minkowski 100%, and euclidean 94.83%

  10. Using Case-Based Reasoning in Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-15

    Scaling Up and Shaking Down," Artificial Intelligence Applications (sponsored by The American Defense Preparedness Association) Williamsburg, VA...1992. Hosted a visit by Robert Powell (ONR), April 21, 1992. Keynote Address: "AI in the 90’s: Scaling Up and Shaking Down" at Artificial Intelligence Applications (sponsored

  11. Integrating Case-Based Reasoning with Adaptive Process Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinggera, J.; Zugal, S.; Weber, B.; Wild, W.; Reichert, M.U.

    2008-01-01

    The need for more flexiblity of process-aware information systems (PAIS) has been discussed for several years and different approaches for adaptive process management have emerged. Only few of them provide support for both changes of individual process instances and the propagation of process type

  12. Application of Case Based Reasoning in Strategic Manufacturing Vision Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo

    The thesis consists of three journal articles (one published in Journal of Industrial Management and Data Systems, nine pages, and two accepted for publication in International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, and Journal of Production Planning & Control, 10 and 22 pages respectively...

  13. Weighted Fuzzy Interpolative Reasoning Based on the Slopes of Fuzzy Sets and Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyi-Ming; Hsin, Wen-Chyuan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a new weighted fuzzy interpolative reasoning method for sparse fuzzy rule-based systems based on the slopes of fuzzy sets. We also propose a particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based weights-learning algorithm to automatically learn the optimal weights of the antecedent variables of fuzzy rules for weighted fuzzy interpolative reasoning. We apply the proposed weighted fuzzy interpolative reasoning method using the proposed PSO-based weights-learning algorithm to deal with the computer activity prediction problem, the multivariate regression problems, and the time series prediction problems. The experimental results show that the proposed weighted fuzzy interpolative reasoning method using the proposed PSO-based weights-learning algorithm outperforms the existing methods for dealing with the computer activity prediction problem, the multivariate regression problems, and the time series prediction problems.

  14. Development of Reasoning Test Instruments Based on TIMSS Framework for Measuring Reasoning Ability of Senior High School Student on the Physics Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim; Suhandi, A.; Nugraha, M. G.

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study are to determine the quality of reasoning test instruments that follow the framework of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) as a development results and to analyse the profile of reasoning skill of senior high school students on physics materials. This research used research and development method (R&D), furthermore the subject were 104 students at three senior high schools in Bandung selected by random sampling technique. Reasoning test instruments are constructed following the TIMSS framework in multiple choice forms in 30 questions that cover five subject matters i.e. parabolic motion and circular motion, Newton’s law of gravity, work and energy, harmonic oscillation, as well as the momentum and impulse. The quality of reasoning tests were analysed using the Content Validity Ratio (CVR) and classic test analysis include the validity of item, level of difficulty, discriminating power, reliability and Ferguson’s delta. As for the students’ reasoning skills profiles were analysed by the average score of achievements on eight aspects of the reasoning TIMSS framework. The results showed that reasoning test have a good quality as instruments to measure reasoning skills of senior high school students on five matters physics which developed and able to explore the reasoning of students on all aspects of reasoning based on TIMSS framework.

  15. Leak localization in water distribution networks using model-based bayesian reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Soldevila Coma, Adrià; Fernández Canti, Rosa M.; Blesa Izquierdo, Joaquim; Tornil Sin, Sebastián; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for leak localization in Water Distribution Networks that uses a model-based approach combined with Bayesian reasoning. Probability density functions in model-based pressure residuals are calibrated off-line for all the possible leak scenarios by using a hydraulic simulator, being leak size uncertainty, demand uncertainty and sensor noise considered. A Bayesian reasoning is applied online to the available residuals to determine the location of leaks present in...

  16. The use of multiple models in case-based diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzis, Stamos T.; Feyock, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this paper has as its goal the integration of a number of reasoning techniques into a unified intelligent information system that will aid flight crews with malfunction diagnosis and prognostication. One of these approaches involves using the extensive archive of information contained in aircraft accident reports along with various models of the aircraft as the basis for case-based reasoning about malfunctions. Case-based reasoning draws conclusions on the basis of similarities between the present situation and prior experience. We maintain that the ability of a CBR program to reason about physical systems is significantly enhanced by the addition to the CBR program of various models. This paper describes the diagnostic concepts implemented in a prototypical case based reasoner that operates in the domain of in-flight fault diagnosis, the various models used in conjunction with the reasoner's CBR component, and results from a preliminary evaluation.

  17. Reasons for Mergers and Economic Groups: The Davivienda case - Bansuperior - Bancafé

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Suárez; Yuri Gorbaneff; Jorge Beltrán

    2009-01-01

    The article studies the motives for mergers. It groups them according to their theoretical roots and shows their usefulness in the case of the merger of Colombian banks Davivienda - Bansuperior - Bancafé. The theoretical frame compiles 17 typologies of motives for merger grouped into three blocks: scale and scope economies, transaction costs and resource based approach. We used the case study method. We obtained data from interviews with Davivienda executives and secondary sources. We used th...

  18. A ligand predication tool based on modeling and reasoning with imprecise probabilistic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiru; Yue, Anbu; Timson, David J

    2010-04-01

    Ligand prediction has been driven by a fundamental desire to understand more about how biomolecules recognize their ligands and by the commercial imperative to develop new drugs. Most of the current available software systems are very complex and time-consuming to use. Therefore, developing simple and efficient tools to perform initial screening of interesting compounds is an appealing idea. In this paper, we introduce our tool for very rapid screening for likely ligands (either substrates or inhibitors) based on reasoning with imprecise probabilistic knowledge elicited from past experiments. Probabilistic knowledge is input to the system via a user-friendly interface showing a base compound structure. A prediction of whether a particular compound is a substrate is queried against the acquired probabilistic knowledge base and a probability is returned as an indication of the prediction. This tool will be particularly useful in situations where a number of similar compounds have been screened experimentally, but information is not available for all possible members of that group of compounds. We use two case studies to demonstrate how to use the tool. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Prehn

    Full Text Available Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema, whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2 which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  20. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Kristin; Korczykowski, Marc; Rao, Hengyi; Fang, Zhuo; Detre, John A; Robertson, Diana C

    2015-01-01

    Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA) students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  1. Mapping Variation in Children's Mathematical Reasoning: The Case of "What Else Belongs?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Colleen; Widjaja, Wanty; Herbert, Sandra; Bragg, Leicha A.; Loong, Esther Yoon-Kin

    2017-01-01

    Explaining appears to dominate primary teachers' understanding of mathematical reasoning when it is not confused with problem solving. Drawing on previous literature of mathematical reasoning, we generate a view of the critical aspects of reasoning that may assist primary teachers when designing and enacting tasks to elicit and develop…

  2. Single-Case Analysis to Determine Reasons for Failure of Behavioral Treatment via Telehealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Romani, Patrick W.; Wacker, David P.; Suess, Alyssa N.; Huang, Pei; Berg, Wendy K.; Lindgren, Scott D.; Kopelman, Todd G.

    2018-01-01

    Functional communication training (FCT) is a widely used and effective function-based treatment for problem behavior. The purpose of this article is to present two cases in which FCT was unsuccessful in reducing the occurrence of problem behavior displayed by two young children with an autism spectrum disorder. Both children received the same…

  3. Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.

    1988-01-01

    Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away

  4. Architectural design thinking as a form of model-based reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwels, P.; Bod, R.

    2014-01-01

    Model-based reasoning can be considered central in very diverse domains of practice. Recently considered domains of practice are political discourse, social intercourse, language learning, archaeology, collaboration and conversation, and so forth. In this paper, we explore features of model-based

  5. Global polar geospatial information service retrieval based on search engine and ontology reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nengcheng; E, Dongcheng; Di, Liping; Gong, Jianya; Chen, Zeqiang

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the access precision of polar geospatial information service on web, a new methodology for retrieving global spatial information services based on geospatial service search and ontology reasoning is proposed, the geospatial service search is implemented to find the coarse service from web, the ontology reasoning is designed to find the refined service from the coarse service. The proposed framework includes standardized distributed geospatial web services, a geospatial service search engine, an extended UDDI registry, and a multi-protocol geospatial information service client. Some key technologies addressed include service discovery based on search engine and service ontology modeling and reasoning in the Antarctic geospatial context. Finally, an Antarctica multi protocol OWS portal prototype based on the proposed methodology is introduced.

  6. Reasons for Mergers and Economic Groups: The Davivienda case - Bansuperior - Bancafé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Suárez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the motives for mergers. It groups them according to their theoretical roots and shows their usefulness in the case of the merger of Colombian banks Davivienda - Bansuperior - Bancafé. The theoretical frame compiles 17 typologies of motives for merger grouped into three blocks: scale and scope economies, transaction costs and resource based approach. We used the case study method. We obtained data from interviews with Davivienda executives and secondary sources. We used the Likert scale to capture the attitudes of the respondents. We found in the case the majority of motives studied in the literature. One new motive was identified. Particularly one motive for a horizontal merger of Davivienda was the transaction costs economizing by other firms of the economic group to which belongs Davivienda. The specific weight of the transaction costs vertical motives in an essentially horizontal merger deserves further research.

  7. How does questioning influence nursing students' clinical reasoning in problem-based learning? A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merisier, Sophia; Larue, Caroline; Boyer, Louise

    2018-03-10

    Problem-based learning is an educational method promoting clinical reasoning that has been implemented in many fields of health education. Questioning is a learning strategy often employed in problem-based learning sessions. To explore what is known about the influence of questioning on the promotion of clinical reasoning of students in health care education, specifically in the field of nursing and using the educational method of problem-based learning. A scoping review following Arksey and O'Malley's five stages was conducted. The CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, and PubMed databases were searched for articles published between the years of 2000 and 2017. Each article was summarized and analyzed using a data extraction sheet in relation to its purpose, population group, setting, methods, and results. A descriptive explication of the studies based on an inductive analysis of their findings to address the aim of the review was made. Nineteen studies were included in the analysis. The studies explored the influence of questioning on critical thinking rather than on clinical reasoning. The nature of the questions asked and the effect of higher-order questions on critical thinking were the most commonly occurring themes. Few studies addressed the use of questioning in problem-based learning. More empirical evidence is needed to gain a better understanding of the benefit of questioning in problem-based learning to promote students' clinical reasoning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Scientific reasoning abilities of nonscience majors in physics-based courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopher Moore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on LCTSR score, the majority of non-STEM students can be classified as either concrete operational or transitional reasoners in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, whereas in the STEM population formal operational reasoners are far more prevalent. In particular, non-STEM students demonstrate significant difficulty with proportional and hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Prescores on the LCTSR are correlated with normalized learning gains on various concept inventories. The correlation is strongest for content that can be categorized as mostly theoretical, meaning a lack of directly observable exemplars, and weakest for content categorized as mostly descriptive, where directly observable exemplars are abundant. Although the implementation of research-verified, interactive engagement pedagogy can lead to gains in content knowledge, significant gains in theoretical content (such as force and energy are more difficult with non-STEM students. We also observe no significant gains on the LCTSR without explicit instruction in scientific reasoning patterns. These results further demonstrate that differences in student populations are important when comparing normalized gains on concept inventories, and the achievement of significant gains in scientific reasoning requires a reevaluation of the traditional approach to physics for non-STEM students.

  9. Scientific reasoning abilities of nonscience majors in physics-based courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. Christopher; Rubbo, Louis J.

    2012-06-01

    We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on LCTSR score, the majority of non-STEM students can be classified as either concrete operational or transitional reasoners in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, whereas in the STEM population formal operational reasoners are far more prevalent. In particular, non-STEM students demonstrate significant difficulty with proportional and hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Prescores on the LCTSR are correlated with normalized learning gains on various concept inventories. The correlation is strongest for content that can be categorized as mostly theoretical, meaning a lack of directly observable exemplars, and weakest for content categorized as mostly descriptive, where directly observable exemplars are abundant. Although the implementation of research-verified, interactive engagement pedagogy can lead to gains in content knowledge, significant gains in theoretical content (such as force and energy) are more difficult with non-STEM students. We also observe no significant gains on the LCTSR without explicit instruction in scientific reasoning patterns. These results further demonstrate that differences in student populations are important when comparing normalized gains on concept inventories, and the achievement of significant gains in scientific reasoning requires a reevaluation of the traditional approach to physics for non-STEM students.

  10. Integration of domain and resource-based reasoning for real-time control in dynamic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Keith; Whitebread, Kenneth R.; Kendus, Michael; Cromarty, Andrew S.

    1993-01-01

    A real-time software controller that successfully integrates domain-based and resource-based control reasoning to perform task execution in a dynamically changing environment is described. The design of the controller is based on the concept of partitioning the process to be controlled into a set of tasks, each of which achieves some process goal. It is assumed that, in general, there are multiple ways (tasks) to achieve a goal. The controller dynamically determines current goals and their current criticality, choosing and scheduling tasks to achieve those goals in the time available. It incorporates rule-based goal reasoning, a TMS-based criticality propagation mechanism, and a real-time scheduler. The controller has been used to build a knowledge-based situation assessment system that formed a major component of a real-time, distributed, cooperative problem solving system built under DARPA contract. It is also being employed in other applications now in progress.

  11. INTERNET BANKING ACCEPTANCE IN MALAYSIA BASED ON THE THEORY OF REASONED ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Michael Pearson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The theory of reasoned action originally introduced in the field of Social Psychology has been widely used to explain individuals’ behaviour. The theory postulates that individuals’ behaviour is influenced by their attitude and subjective norm. The purpose of this study was to determine factors that influence an individual’s intention to use a technology based on the theory of reasoned action. We used Internet banking as the target technology and Malaysian subjects as the sampling frame. A principal component analysis was used to validate the constructs and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. As expected, the results supported the theory’s proposition as that an individuals’ behavioural intention to use Internet banking is influenced by their attitude and subjective norm. Based on the findings, theoretical and practical implications were offered. Keywords: theory of reasoned action, Internet banking, technology acceptance

  12. Rule Based Reasoning Untuk Monitoring Distribusi Bahan Bakar Minyak Secara Online dan Realtime menggunakan Radio Frequency Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhamad Iklil Mustofa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of fuel oil in Indonesia often occurs due to delays in delivery caused by natural factors or transportation constraints. Theaim of this  research is to develop systems of fuel distribution monitoring online and realtime using rule base reasoning method and radio frequency identification technology. The rule-based reasoning method is used as a rule-based reasoning model used for monitoring distribution and determine rule-based safety stock. The monitoring system program is run with a web-based computer application. Radio frequency identification technology is used by utilizing radio waves as an media identification. This technology is used as a system of tracking and gathering information from objects automatically. The research data uses data of delayed distribution of fuel from fuel terminal to consumer. The monitoring technique uses the time of departure, the estimated time to arrive, the route / route passed by a fuel tanker attached to the radio frequency Identification tag. This monitoring system is carried out by the radio frequency identification reader connected online at any gas station or specified position that has been designed with study case in Semarang. The results of the research covering  the status of rule based reasoning that sends status, that is timely and appropriate paths, timely and truncated pathways, late and on track, late and cut off, and tank lost. The monitoring system is also used in determining the safety stock warehouse, with the safety stock value determined based on the condition of the stock warehouse rules.

  13. Conveying Clinical Reasoning Based on Visual Observation via Eye-Movement Modelling Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nystrom, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Complex perceptual tasks, like clinical reasoning based on visual observations of patients, require not only conceptual knowledge about diagnostic classes but also the skills to visually search for symptoms and interpret these observations. However, medical education so far has focused very little on how visual observation skills can be…

  14. All Roads Lead to Fault Diagnosis : Model-Based Reasoning with LYDIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldman, A.B.; Pietersma, J.; Van Gemund, A.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Model-Based Reasoning (MBR) over qualitative models of complex, real-world systems has proven succesful for automated fault diagnosis, control, and repair. Expressing a system under diagnosis in a formal model and infering a diagnosis given observations are both challenging problems. In this paper

  15. Modal Change Logic (MCL) : Specifying the reasoning of knowledge-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fensel, D; Groenboom, H.M; Renardel de Lavalette, G.R.

    We investigate the formal specification of the reasoning process of knowledge-based systems in this paper. We analyze the corresponding parts of the KADS specification languages KARL and (ML)(2) and deduce some general requirements. The essence of these languages is that they integrate a declarative

  16. Gaming and the Commodities Market: An Economic-Based Game for Developing Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witschonke, Christopher; Herrera, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe an economics-based game they have developed to instruct student teachers in the value of games and gaming for developing reasoning and decision-making skills in economics in K-12 students (5-18-year-olds). The game is designed to progress through each grade level so that by high school students have a thorough appreciation and…

  17. The Effect of Origami-Based Instruction on Spatial Visualization, Geometry Achievement, and Geometric Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, Sevil; Aslan-Tutak, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the effect of origami-based geometry instruction on spatial visualization, geometry achievement, and geometric reasoning of tenth-grade students in Turkey. The sample ("n" = 184) was chosen from a tenth-grade population of a public high school in Turkey. It was a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design. A…

  18. Midwives' Clinical Reasons for Performing Episiotomies in the Kurdistan Region: Are they evidence-based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hamdia M

    2014-08-01

    An episiotomy is one of the most common obstetric surgical procedures and is performed mainly by midwives. The decision to perform an episiotomy depends on related clinical factors. This study aimed to find out midwives' reasons for performing episiotomies and to identify the relationship between these reasons and the demographic characteristics of the midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1(st) July and 30(th) September 2013 in three governmental maternity teaching hospitals in the three main cities of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. All of the midwives who had worked in the delivery rooms of these hospitals for at least one year were invited to participate in the study (n = 53). Data were collected through interviews with midwives as well as via a questionnaire constructed for the purpose of the study. The questionnaire sought to determine: midwives' demographic characteristics; type of episiotomy performed; authority of the decision to perform the procedure, and reasons for performing episiotomies. THE MAIN CLINICAL REASONS REPORTED BY MIDWIVES FOR PERFORMING AN EPISIOTOMY WERE: macrosomia/large fetus (38, 71.7%), breech delivery (31, 58.5%), shoulder dystocia (29, 54.7%), anticipated perineal tear (27, 50.9%) and fetal distress (27, 50.9%). There was a significant association between the frequency of these reasons and midwives' total experience in delivery rooms as well as their levels of education. Most of the reasons given by the midwives for performing episiotomies were not evidence-based. Age, years of experience, specialties and level of education also had an effect on midwives' reasons for performing episiotomies.

  19. Towards Cache-Enabled, Order-Aware, Ontology-Based Stream Reasoning Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Rui; Praggastis, Brenda L.; Smith, William P.; McGuinness, Deborah L.

    2016-08-16

    While streaming data have become increasingly more popular in business and research communities, semantic models and processing software for streaming data have not kept pace. Traditional semantic solutions have not addressed transient data streams. Semantic web languages (e.g., RDF, OWL) have typically addressed static data settings and linked data approaches have predominantly addressed static or growing data repositories. Streaming data settings have some fundamental differences; in particular, data are consumed on the fly and data may expire. Stream reasoning, a combination of stream processing and semantic reasoning, has emerged with the vision of providing "smart" processing of streaming data. C-SPARQL is a prominent stream reasoning system that handles semantic (RDF) data streams. Many stream reasoning systems including C-SPARQL use a sliding window and use data arrival time to evict data. For data streams that include expiration times, a simple arrival time scheme is inadequate if the window size does not match the expiration period. In this paper, we propose a cache-enabled, order-aware, ontology-based stream reasoning framework. This framework consumes RDF streams with expiration timestamps assigned by the streaming source. Our framework utilizes both arrival and expiration timestamps in its cache eviction policies. In addition, we introduce the notion of "semantic importance" which aims to address the relevance of data to the expected reasoning, thus enabling the eviction algorithms to be more context- and reasoning-aware when choosing what data to maintain for question answering. We evaluate this framework by implementing three different prototypes and utilizing five metrics. The trade-offs of deploying the proposed framework are also discussed.

  20. Semantics-based plausible reasoning to extend the knowledge coverage of medical knowledge bases for improved clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians' experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mechanisms apply patterns from human thought processes, such as generalization, similarity and interpolation, based on attributional, hierarchical, and relational knowledge. Plausible reasoning mechanisms include inductive reasoning , which generalizes the commonalities among the data to induce new rules, and analogical reasoning , which is guided by data similarities to infer new facts. By further leveraging rich, biomedical Semantic Web ontologies to represent medical knowledge, both known and tentative, we increase the accuracy and expressivity of plausible reasoning, and cope with issues such as data heterogeneity, inconsistency and interoperability. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based, multi-strategy reasoning approach, which integrates deductive and plausible reasoning and exploits Semantic Web technology to solve complex clinical decision support queries. We evaluated our system using a real-world medical dataset of patients with hepatitis, from which we randomly removed different percentages of data (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to reflect scenarios with increasing amounts of incomplete medical knowledge. To increase the reliability of the results, we generated 5 independent datasets for each percentage of missing values, which resulted in 20 experimental datasets (in addition to the original dataset). The results show that plausibly inferred knowledge extends the coverage of the knowledge base by, on average, 2%, 7%, 12%, and 16% for datasets with, respectively, 5%, 10%, 15

  1. Team-based learning, a learning strategy for clinical reasoning, in students with problem-based learning tutorial experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yumiko; Ishiguro, Naoko; Suganuma, Taiyo; Nishikawa, Toshio; Takubo, Toshio; Kojimahara, Noriko; Yago, Rie; Nunoda, Shinichi; Sugihara, Shigetaka; Yoshioka, Toshimasa

    2012-05-01

    Acquiring clinical reasoning skills in lectures may be difficult, but it can be learnt through problem-solving in the context of clinical practice. Problem finding and solving are skills required for clinical reasoning; however, students who underwent problem-based learning (PBL) still have difficulty in acquiring clinical reasoning skills. We hypothesized that team-based learning (TBL), a learning strategy that provides the opportunity to solve problems by repeatedly taking tests, can enhance the clinical reasoning ability in medical students with PBL experiences during the pre-clinical years. TBL courses were designed for 4(th) year students in a 6-year program in 2008, 2009, and 2010. TBL individual scores, consisting of a combination of individual and group tests, were compared with scores of several examinations including computer-based testing (CBT), an original examination assessing clinical reasoning ability (problem-solving ability test; P-SAT), term examinations, and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). CBT, OSCE and P-SAT scores were compared with those of students who learned clinical reasoning only through PBL tutorials in 2005, 2006, and 2007 (non-TBL students). Individual TBL scores of students did not correlate with scores of any other examination. Assessments on clinical reasoning ability, such as CBT, OSCE, and P-SAT scores, were significantly higher in TBL students compared with non-TBL students. Students found TBL to be effective, particularly in areas of problem solving by both individuals and teams, and feedback from specialists. In conclusion, TBL for clinical reasoning is useful in improving clinical reasoning ability in students with PBL experiences with limited clinical exposure.

  2. Foundations for Reasoning in Cognition-Based Computational Representations of Human Decision Making; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SENGLAUB, MICHAEL E.; HARRIS, DAVID L.; RAYBOURN, ELAINE M.

    2001-01-01

    In exploring the question of how humans reason in ambiguous situations or in the absence of complete information, we stumbled onto a body of knowledge that addresses issues beyond the original scope of our effort. We have begun to understand the importance that philosophy, in particular the work of C. S. Peirce, plays in developing models of human cognition and of information theory in general. We have a foundation that can serve as a basis for further studies in cognition and decision making. Peircean philosophy provides a foundation for understanding human reasoning and capturing behavioral characteristics of decision makers due to cultural, physiological, and psychological effects. The present paper describes this philosophical approach to understanding the underpinnings of human reasoning. We present the work of C. S. Peirce, and define sets of fundamental reasoning behavior that would be captured in the mathematical constructs of these newer technologies and would be able to interact in an agent type framework. Further, we propose the adoption of a hybrid reasoning model based on his work for future computational representations or emulations of human cognition

  3. Developing Teaching Material Based on Realistic Mathematics Andoriented to the Mathematical Reasoning and Mathematical Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Habsah, Fitria

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to produce mathematics textbook for grade VII junior high school students based on realistic mathematics and oriented to the mathematical reasoning and mathematical communication. The quality is determined based on Nieveen criteria, including validity, practicality, and effectiveness.This study was a research and development and used Borg & Gall model. The subject of this research were the students of SMPN 2 Pujon-Kabupaten Malang, that is 30 students in an experimental cla...

  4. Underlying Reasons for Success and Failure of Terrorist Attacks: Selected Case Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCleskey, Edward; McCord, Diana; Leetz, Jennifer; Markey, John

    2007-01-01

    .... This is the second of a two-phased effort: Phase I focused on assessing the underlying reasons for the success and failure of terrorist attacks against targets within the United States and against U.S. interests abroad...

  5. Facilitating progress in health behaviour theory development and modification: the reasoned action approach as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Katharine J; Noar, Seth M

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the question: what are barriers to health behaviour theory development and modification, and what potential solutions can be proposed? Using the reasoned action approach (RAA) as a case study, four areas of theory development were examined: (1) the theoretical domain of a theory; (2) tension between generalisability and utility, (3) criteria for adding/removing variables in a theory, and (4) organisational tracking of theoretical developments and formal changes to theory. Based on a discussion of these four issues, recommendations for theory development are presented, including: (1) the theoretical domain for theories such as RAA should be clarified; (2) when there is tension between generalisability and utility, utility should be given preference given the applied nature of the health behaviour field; (3) variables should be formally removed/amended/added to a theory based on their performance across multiple studies and (4) organisations and researchers with a stake in particular health areas may be best suited for tracking the literature on behaviour-specific theories and making refinements to theory, based on a consensus approach. Overall, enhancing research in this area can provide important insights for more accurately understanding health behaviours and thus producing work that leads to more effective health behaviour change interventions.

  6. A Sarsa(λ Algorithm Based on Double-Layer Fuzzy Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solving reinforcement learning problems in continuous space with function approximation is currently a research hotspot of machine learning. When dealing with the continuous space problems, the classic Q-iteration algorithms based on lookup table or function approximation converge slowly and are difficult to derive a continuous policy. To overcome the above weaknesses, we propose an algorithm named DFR-Sarsa(λ based on double-layer fuzzy reasoning and prove its convergence. In this algorithm, the first reasoning layer uses fuzzy sets of state to compute continuous actions; the second reasoning layer uses fuzzy sets of action to compute the components of Q-value. Then, these two fuzzy layers are combined to compute the Q-value function of continuous action space. Besides, this algorithm utilizes the membership degrees of activation rules in the two fuzzy reasoning layers to update the eligibility traces. Applying DFR-Sarsa(λ to the Mountain Car and Cart-pole Balancing problems, experimental results show that the algorithm not only can be used to get a continuous action policy, but also has a better convergence performance.

  7. Economic costs of recorded reasons for cow mortality and culling in a pasture-based dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, J I; Amer, P R; O'Neill, P L; Wong, S L; Roche, J R; Phyn, C V C

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the economic costs associated with different reasons for cow culling or on-farm mortality in a pasture-based seasonal system. A bioeconomic model was developed to quantify costs associated with the different farmer-recorded reasons and timing of cow wastage. The model accounted for the parity and stage of lactation at which the cows were removed as well as the consequent effect on the replacement rate and average age structure of the herd. The costs and benefits associated with the change were quantified, including animal replacement cost, cull salvage value, milk production loss, and the profitability of altered genetic merit based on industry genetic trends for each parity. The total cost of cow wastage was estimated to be NZ$23,628/100 cows per year (NZ$1 = US$0.69) in a pasture-based system. Of this total cost, NZ$14,300/100 cows worth of removals were for nonpregnancy and unknown reasons, and another NZ$3,631/100 cows was attributed to low milk production, mastitis, and udder problems. The total cost for cow removals due to farmer-recorded biological reasons (excluding unknown, production, and management-related causes) was estimated to be NZ$13,632/100 cows per year. Of this cost, an estimated NZ$10,286/100 cows was attributed to nonpregnancy, mastitis, udder problems, calving trouble, and injury or accident. There is a strong economic case for the pasture-based dairy industries to invest in genetic, herd health, and production management research focused on reducing animal wastage due to reproductive failure, mastitis, udder problems, injuries or accidents, and calving difficulties. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Children's Reasons for Joining Sport Clubs and Staying in Them: A Case Study of a Sydney Soccer Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard; Curry, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Research on youth sport within the sport coaching and physical education literature has tended to overlook the nature of experience and the meanings that sport holds in the lives of children and young people. This paper makes a contribution toward redressing this imbalance by reporting on a close-focus case study on children's reasons for joining…

  9. Intelligent Adaptation Process for Case Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, A.M.; Mohamed, A.H.; Mohamed, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Case Based Reasoning (CBR) Systems is one of the important decision making systems applied in many fields all over the world. The effectiveness of any CBR system based on the quality of the storage cases in the case library. Similar cases can be retrieved and adapted to produce the solution for the new problem. One of the main issues faced the CBR systems is the difficulties of achieving the useful cases. The proposed system introduces a new approach that uses the genetic algorithm (GA) technique to automate constructing the cases into the case library. Also, it can optimize the best one to be stored in the library for the future uses. However, the proposed system can avoid the problems of the uncertain and noisy cases. Besides, it can simply the retrieving and adaptation processes. So, it can improve the performance of the CBR system. The suggested system can be applied for many real-time problems. It has been applied for diagnosis the faults of the wireless network, diagnosis of the cancer diseases, diagnosis of the debugging of a software as cases of study. The proposed system has proved its performance in this field

  10. Danish Majority Children’s Reasoning About Exclusion Based on Gender and Ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Signe Juhl; Tenenbaum, Harriet R.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated 282 eight- to twelve-year-old Danish majority children's judgments and justifications of exclusion based on gender and ethnicity (i.e., Danish majority children and ethnic-minority children of a Muslim background). Children's judgments and reasoning varied with the perpetr...... protagonist. Children were sensitive to status, judging it less acceptable to exclude a less powerful group member. The findings are discussed in relation to intergroup relations in Denmark.......This study investigated 282 eight- to twelve-year-old Danish majority children's judgments and justifications of exclusion based on gender and ethnicity (i.e., Danish majority children and ethnic-minority children of a Muslim background). Children's judgments and reasoning varied...... with the perpetrator of the exclusion and the social identity of the target. Children assessed exclusion based on ethnicity as less acceptable than exclusion based on gender and used more moral reasoning for the former than the latter. Children judged it less acceptable for a teacher than a child to exclude a child...

  11. An Evidential Reasoning-Based CREAM to Human Reliability Analysis in Maritime Accident Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Yan, Xinping; Wang, Yang; Soares, C Guedes

    2017-10-01

    This article proposes a modified cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) for estimating the human error probability in the maritime accident process on the basis of an evidential reasoning approach. This modified CREAM is developed to precisely quantify the linguistic variables of the common performance conditions and to overcome the problem of ignoring the uncertainty caused by incomplete information in the existing CREAM models. Moreover, this article views maritime accident development from the sequential perspective, where a scenario- and barrier-based framework is proposed to describe the maritime accident process. This evidential reasoning-based CREAM approach together with the proposed accident development framework are applied to human reliability analysis of a ship capsizing accident. It will facilitate subjective human reliability analysis in different engineering systems where uncertainty exists in practice. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. An Ontology-Based Reasoning Framework for Querying Satellite Images for Disaster Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Alirezaie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework in which satellite images are classified and augmented with additional semantic information to enable queries about what can be found on the map at a particular location, but also about paths that can be taken. This is achieved by a reasoning framework based on qualitative spatial reasoning that is able to find answers to high level queries that may vary on the current situation. This framework called SemCityMap, provides the full pipeline from enriching the raw image data with rudimentary labels to the integration of a knowledge representation and reasoning methods to user interfaces for high level querying. To illustrate the utility of SemCityMap in a disaster scenario, we use an urban environment—central Stockholm—in combination with a flood simulation. We show that the system provides useful answers to high-level queries also with respect to the current flood status. Examples of such queries concern path planning for vehicles or retrieval of safe regions such as “find all regions close to schools and far from the flooded area”. The particular advantage of our approach lies in the fact that ontological information and reasoning is explicitly integrated so that queries can be formulated in a natural way using concepts on appropriate level of abstraction, including additional constraints.

  13. Evidential Reasoning for Multi-Criteria Analysis based on DSmT-AHP

    OpenAIRE

    Dezert, J.; Tacnet, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present an extension of the multi-criteria decision making based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) which incorporates uncertain knowledge matrices for generating basic belief assignments (bba's). The combination of priority vectors corresponding to bba's related to each (sub)-criterion is performed using the Proportional Conflict Redistribution rule no. 5 proposed in Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) of plausible and paradoxical reasoning. The me...

  14. Esophageal cancer prediction based on qualitative features using adaptive fuzzy reasoning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed I. Hamed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers world-wide and also the most common cause of cancer death. In this paper, we present an adaptive fuzzy reasoning algorithm for rule-based systems using fuzzy Petri nets (FPNs, where the fuzzy production rules are represented by FPN. We developed an adaptive fuzzy Petri net (AFPN reasoning algorithm as a prognostic system to predict the outcome for esophageal cancer based on the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and albumin as a set of input variables. The system can perform fuzzy reasoning automatically to evaluate the degree of truth of the proposition representing the risk degree value with a weight value to be optimally tuned based on the observed data. In addition, the implementation process for esophageal cancer prediction is fuzzily deducted by the AFPN algorithm. Performance of the composite model is evaluated through a set of experiments. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and performance of the proposed algorithms. A comparison of the predictive performance of AFPN models with other methods and the analysis of the curve showed the same results with an intuitive behavior of AFPN models.

  15. Preschoolers’ causal reasoning during shared picture book storytelling: A cross-case comparison descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, Helen; Hurks, Petra; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how shared picture book storytelling within a peer-group setting could stimulate causal reasoning in children aged 4 1/2 to 6 years. Twenty-eight children from preschool classes of three schools were allocated to one of six groups (four to five children per group). Each group

  16. Preschoolers' Causal Reasoning during Shared Picture Book Storytelling: A Cross-Case Comparison Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Helen C.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how shared picture book storytelling within a peer-group setting could stimulate causal reasoning in children aged 4½ to 6 years. Twenty-eight children from preschool classes of three schools were allocated to one of six groups (four to five children per group). Each group participated in six storytelling sessions over a…

  17. Preschoolers’ causal reasoning during shared picture-book storytelling. A cross-case comparison descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, H.C.; Hurks, P.P.M.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jolles, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how shared picture book storytelling within a peer-group setting could stimulate causal reasoning in children aged 4 1/2 to 6 years. Twenty-eight children from preschool classes of three schools were allocated to one of six groups (four to five children per group). Each group

  18. From Exploratory Talk to Abstract Reasoning: A Case for Far Transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Paul; Whitlow, J. W., Jr.; Venter, Danie

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown improvements in science, mathematics, and language scores when classroom discussion is employed in school-level science and mathematics classes. Studies have also shown statistically and practically significant gains in children's reasoning abilities as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices test when employing…

  19. Security Situation Assessment of All-Optical Network Based on Evidential Reasoning Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Nan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to determine the security situations of the all-optical network (AON, which is more vulnerable to hacker attacks and faults than other networks in some cases. A new approach of the security situation assessment to the all-optical network is developed in this paper. In the new assessment approach, the evidential reasoning (ER rule is used to integrate various evidences of the security factors including the optical faults and the special attacks in the AON. Furthermore, a new quantification method of the security situation is also proposed. A case study of an all-optical network is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and the practicability of the new proposed approach.

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AS A STRATEGY TO FOSTER PROBLEM SOLVING AND CRITICAL REASONING SKILLS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Munazza; Iqbal, Khadija; Sabir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is an instructional approach that utilizes problems or cases as a context for students to acquire problem solving skills. It promotes communication skills, active learning, and critical thinking skills. It encourages peer teaching and active participation in a group. It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Al Nafees Medical College, Isra University, Islamabad, in one month duration. This study was conducted on 193 students of both 1st and 2nd year MBBS. Each PBL consists of three sessions, spaced by 2-3 days. In the first session students were provided a PBL case developed by both basic and clinical science faculty. In Session 2 (group discussion), they share, integrate their knowledge with the group and Wrap up (third session), was concluded at the end. A questionnaire based survey was conducted to find out overall effectiveness of PBL sessions. Teaching through PBLs greatly improved the problem solving and critical reasoning skills with 60% students of first year and 71% of 2nd year agreeing that the acquisition of knowledge and its application in solving multiple choice questions (MCQs) was greatly improved by these sessions. They observed that their self-directed learning, intrinsic motivation and skills to relate basic concepts with clinical reasoning which involves higher order thinking have greatly enhanced. Students found PBLs as an effective strategy to promote teamwork and critical thinking skills. PBL is an effective method to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills among medical students.

  1. An improved SWOT evidential reasoning based approach for strategy evaluation under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramooshjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Formulation and evaluation of strategy play important role in the strategy management. Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threats (SWOT is a famous approach to formulate strategy planning, which relies on external and internal factors. Identifying these factors precisely is very critical for any organization and manager. This study aims at providing a quantitative basis to analytically determine the ranking of the factors in SWOT analysis via Evidential Reasoning (ER approach. This paper applies SWOT and Richard Rumelt's criteria to evaluate strategies in Evidential Reasoning approach. The ER approach has been developed to support MADA under uncertainty. It is based on Dempster’s rule for evidence combination and uses belief functions for dealing with probabilistic uncertainty and ignorance. This research is the first study in the ranking the factors of SWOT and Richard Rumelt approach. An illustrative example is also presented to show the efficiency of our model.

  2. Knowledge-based reasoning in the Paladin tactical decision generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    A real-time tactical decision generation system for air combat engagements, Paladin, has been developed. A pilot's job in air combat includes tasks that are largely symbolic. These symbolic tasks are generally performed through the application of experience and training (i.e. knowledge) gathered over years of flying a fighter aircraft. Two such tasks, situation assessment and throttle control, are identified and broken out in Paladin to be handled by specialized knowledge based systems. Knowledge pertaining to these tasks is encoded into rule-bases to provide the foundation for decisions. Paladin uses a custom built inference engine and a partitioned rule-base structure to give these symbolic results in real-time. This paper provides an overview of knowledge-based reasoning systems as a subset of rule-based systems. The knowledge used by Paladin in generating results as well as the system design for real-time execution is discussed.

  3. Developing teaching material based on realistic mathematics andoriented to the mathematical reasoning and mathematical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Habsah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to produce mathematics textbook for grade VII junior high school students based on realistic mathematics and oriented to the mathematical reasoning and mathematical communication. The quality is determined based on Nieveen criteria, including validity, practicality, and effectiveness.This study was a research and development and used Borg & Gall model. The subject of this research were the students of SMPN 2 Pujon-Kabupaten Malang, that is 30 students in an experimental class (using the developed textbook and 29 students in a control class (using BSE book from the government. The teaching material was categorized valid if the expert's judgment at least is categorized as “good”. The teaching material was categorized practical if both of teachers and students assessment at least categorized as “good”. The teaching material was categorized effectively if minimum 75% of student scores at least is categorized as “good” for the mathematical reasoning test and mathematical communication test. This research resulted in a valid, practical, and effective teaching material. The resulted of the validation show that material teaching is valid. The resulted of teachers and students assessment show that the product is practical. The tests scores show that the product is effective. Percentage of students who categorized at least as “good” is 83,33% for the mathematical reasoning and 86,67% for the mathematical communication. The resulted of statistic test shows that the product more effective than the BSE book from the government in terms of mathematical reasoning and mathematical communication.

  4. Reasons for receiving or not receiving HPV vaccination in primary schoolgirls in Tanzania: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Jones, Deborah; Tomlin, Keith; Remes, Pieter; Baisley, Kathy; Ponsiano, Riziki; Soteli, Selephina; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Changalucha, John; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    There are few data on factors influencing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the characteristics of receivers and non-receivers of HPV vaccination in Tanzania and identified reasons for not receiving the vaccine. We conducted a case control study of HPV vaccine receivers and non-receivers within a phase IV cluster-randomised trial of HPV vaccination in 134 primary schools in Tanzania. Girls who failed to receive vaccine (pupil cases) and their parents/guardians (adult cases) and girls who received dose 1 (pupil controls) of the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil™) and their parents/guardians (adult controls) were enrolled from 39 schools in a 1∶1 ratio and interviewed about cervical cancer, HPV vaccine knowledge and reasons why they might have received or not received the vaccine. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with not receiving HPV vaccine. We interviewed 159 pupil/adult cases and 245 pupil/adult controls. Adult-factors independently associated with a daughter being a case were older age, owning fewer household items, not attending a school meeting about HPV vaccine, and not knowing anyone with cancer. Pupil-factors for being a case included having a non-positive opinion about the school de-worming programme, poor knowledge about the location of the cervix, and not knowing that a vaccine could prevent cervical cancer. Reasons for actively refusing vaccination included concerns about side effects and infertility. Most adult and pupil cases reported that they would accept the HPV vaccine if it were offered again (97% and 93% respectively). Sensitisation messages, especially targeted at older and poorer parents, knowledge retention and parent meetings are critical for vaccine acceptance in Tanzania. Vaccine side effects and fertility concerns should be addressed prior to a national vaccination program. Parents and pupils who initially decline vaccination should be

  5. Reasons for receiving or not receiving HPV vaccination in primary schoolgirls in Tanzania: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Watson-Jones

    Full Text Available There are few data on factors influencing human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination uptake in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the characteristics of receivers and non-receivers of HPV vaccination in Tanzania and identified reasons for not receiving the vaccine.We conducted a case control study of HPV vaccine receivers and non-receivers within a phase IV cluster-randomised trial of HPV vaccination in 134 primary schools in Tanzania. Girls who failed to receive vaccine (pupil cases and their parents/guardians (adult cases and girls who received dose 1 (pupil controls of the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil™ and their parents/guardians (adult controls were enrolled from 39 schools in a 1∶1 ratio and interviewed about cervical cancer, HPV vaccine knowledge and reasons why they might have received or not received the vaccine. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with not receiving HPV vaccine.We interviewed 159 pupil/adult cases and 245 pupil/adult controls. Adult-factors independently associated with a daughter being a case were older age, owning fewer household items, not attending a school meeting about HPV vaccine, and not knowing anyone with cancer. Pupil-factors for being a case included having a non-positive opinion about the school de-worming programme, poor knowledge about the location of the cervix, and not knowing that a vaccine could prevent cervical cancer. Reasons for actively refusing vaccination included concerns about side effects and infertility. Most adult and pupil cases reported that they would accept the HPV vaccine if it were offered again (97% and 93% respectively.Sensitisation messages, especially targeted at older and poorer parents, knowledge retention and parent meetings are critical for vaccine acceptance in Tanzania. Vaccine side effects and fertility concerns should be addressed prior to a national vaccination program. Parents and pupils who initially decline vaccination

  6. Advances in Reasoning-Based Image Processing Intelligent Systems Conventional and Intelligent Paradigms

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    The book puts special stress on the contemporary techniques for reasoning-based image processing and analysis: learning based image representation and advanced video coding; intelligent image processing and analysis in medical vision systems; similarity learning models for image reconstruction; visual perception for mobile robot motion control, simulation of human brain activity in the analysis of video sequences; shape-based invariant features extraction; essential of paraconsistent neural networks, creativity and intelligent representation in computational systems. The book comprises 14 chapters. Each chapter is a small monograph, representing resent investigations of authors in the area. The topics of the chapters cover wide scientific and application areas and complement each-other very well. The chapters’ content is based on fundamental theoretical presentations, followed by experimental results and comparison with similar techniques. The size of the chapters is well-ballanced which permits a thorough ...

  7. Assessing model-based reasoning using evidence-centered design a suite of research-based design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mislevy, Robert J; Riconscente, Michelle; Wise Rutstein, Daisy; Ziker, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    This Springer Brief provides theory, practical guidance, and support tools to help designers create complex, valid assessment tasks for hard-to-measure, yet crucial, science education standards. Understanding, exploring, and interacting with the world through models characterizes science in all its branches and at all levels of education. Model-based reasoning is central to science education and thus science assessment. Current interest in developing and using models has increased with the release of the Next Generation Science Standards, which identified this as one of the eight practices of science and engineering. However, the interactive, complex, and often technology-based tasks that are needed to assess model-based reasoning in its fullest forms are difficult to develop. Building on research in assessment, science education, and learning science, this Brief describes a suite of design patterns that can help assessment designers, researchers, and teachers create tasks for assessing aspects of model-based...

  8. A framework for providing telecommuting as a reasonable accommodation: some considerations on a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Shelley; Weiss, Sally; Moon, Nathan W; Baker, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Telecommuting, whether full time, part time, or over short periods when the need arises, can be an important accommodation for employees with disabilities. Indeed, telecommuting may be the only form of accommodation that offers employees whose disabilities fluctuate a means to stay consistently and gainfully employed. This article describes one employer's experience in considering a request for telecommuting as a reasonable accommodation for a particular employee. Drawing on real-life examples, both positive and negative, this article provides a win/win framework for decision-making that can help employers evaluate the use of telecommuting as a possible accommodation and facilitates open and ongoing communication between employer and employee.

  9. The Relationship between American Sign Language Vocabulary and the Development of Language-Based Reasoning Skills in Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The language-based analogical reasoning abilities of Deaf children are a controversial topic. Researchers lack agreement about whether Deaf children possess the ability to reason using language-based analogies, or whether this ability is limited by a lack of access to vocabulary, both written and signed. This dissertation examines factors that…

  10. The Moral Reasoning of Public Accountants in the Development of a Code of Ethics: the Case of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. L. Lindawati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore the user’s perceptions of the role of moral reasoning in influencing the implementation of codes of ethics as standards and guidance for professional audit practice by Indonesian public accountants. The study focuses on two important aspects of influence: (i the key factors influencing professional public accountants in implementing a code of ethics as a standard for audit practice, and (ii the key activities performed by public accountants as moral agents for establishing awareness of professional values. Two theoretical approaches/models are used as guides for exploring the influence of moral reasoning of public accountants: first, Kolhberg’s model of moral development (Kolhberg 1982 and, secondly, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA’s Code of Conduct, especially the five principles of the code of ethics (1992, 2004. The study employs a multiple case study model to analyse the data collected from interviewing 15 financial managers of different company categories (as users. The findings indicate that (i moral development is an important component in influencing the moral reasoning of the individual public accountants, (ii the degree of professionalism of public accountants is determined by the degree of the development of their moral reasoning, and (iii moral reasoning of individuals influences both Indonesian public accountants and company financial managers in building and improving the effectiveness of the implementation of codes of conduct. It is concluded that the role of moral reasoning is an important influence on achieving ethical awareness in public accountants and financial managers. The development of a full code of ethics and an effective compliance monitoring system is essential for Indonesia if it is to play a role in the emerging global economy.

  11. Pharmacogenomic knowledge representation, reasoning and genome-based clinical decision support based on OWL 2 DL ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samwald, Matthias; Miñarro Giménez, Jose Antonio; Boyce, Richard D; Freimuth, Robert R; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-02-22

    Every year, hundreds of thousands of patients experience treatment failure or adverse drug reactions (ADRs), many of which could be prevented by pharmacogenomic testing. However, the primary knowledge needed for clinical pharmacogenomics is currently dispersed over disparate data structures and captured in unstructured or semi-structured formalizations. This is a source of potential ambiguity and complexity, making it difficult to create reliable information technology systems for enabling clinical pharmacogenomics. We developed Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontologies and automated reasoning methodologies to meet the following goals: 1) provide a simple and concise formalism for representing pharmacogenomic knowledge, 2) finde errors and insufficient definitions in pharmacogenomic knowledge bases, 3) automatically assign alleles and phenotypes to patients, 4) match patients to clinically appropriate pharmacogenomic guidelines and clinical decision support messages and 5) facilitate the detection of inconsistencies and overlaps between pharmacogenomic treatment guidelines from different sources. We evaluated different reasoning systems and test our approach with a large collection of publicly available genetic profiles. Our methodology proved to be a novel and useful choice for representing, analyzing and using pharmacogenomic data. The Genomic Clinical Decision Support (Genomic CDS) ontology represents 336 SNPs with 707 variants; 665 haplotypes related to 43 genes; 22 rules related to drug-response phenotypes; and 308 clinical decision support rules. OWL reasoning identified CDS rules with overlapping target populations but differing treatment recommendations. Only a modest number of clinical decision support rules were triggered for a collection of 943 public genetic profiles. We found significant performance differences across available OWL reasoners. The ontology-based framework we developed can be used to represent, organize and reason over the growing wealth of

  12. Robotics Vision-based Heuristic Reasoning for Underwater Target Tracking and Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Kia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robotics vision-based heuristic reasoning system for underwater target tracking and navigation. This system is introduced to improve the level of automation of underwater Remote Operated Vehicles (ROVs operations. A prototype which combines computer vision with an underwater robotics system is successfully designed and developed to perform target tracking and intelligent navigation. This study focuses on developing image processing algorithms and fuzzy inference system for the analysis of the terrain. The vision system developed is capable of interpreting underwater scene by extracting subjective uncertainties of the object of interest. Subjective uncertainties are further processed as multiple inputs of a fuzzy inference system that is capable of making crisp decisions concerning where to navigate. The important part of the image analysis is morphological filtering. The applications focus on binary images with the extension of gray-level concepts. An open-loop fuzzy control system is developed for classifying the traverse of terrain. The great achievement is the system's capability to recognize and perform target tracking of the object of interest (pipeline in perspective view based on perceived condition. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by computer and prototype simulations. This work is originated from the desire to develop robotics vision system with the ability to mimic the human expert's judgement and reasoning when maneuvering ROV in the traverse of the underwater terrain.

  13. Reasons and circumstances for the late notification of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) cases in health facilities in Luanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macama, Arciolanda; Okeibunor, Joseph; Grando, Silvia; Djibaoui, Karim; Yameogo, Robert Koudounoaga; Morais, Alda; Gasasira, Alex Ntale; Mbaye, Salla; Mihigo, Richard; Nshimirimana, Deo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As the polio eradication effort enters the end game stage, surveillance for Acute Flaccid Paralysis in children becomes a pivotal tool. Thus given the gaps in AFP surveillance as identified in the cases of late notification, this study was designed to explore the reasons and circumstances responsible for late notification of AFP and collection of inadequate stools (more than 14 days of onset of paralysis until collection of the 2nd stool specimen) of AFP cases in health facilities equipped to manage AFP cases. Methods Eleven AFP cases with inadequate stools were reported from January 2 to July 8, 2012 - Epidemiological Weeks 1-27. The families of these cases were interviewed with an in-depth interview guide. The staff of the seven health units, where they later reported, was also enlisted for the study which used in-depth interview guide in eliciting information from them. Results Ignorance and wrong perception of the etiology of the cases as well as dissatisfaction with the health units as the major reasons for late reporting of AFP cases. The first port of call is usually alternative health care system such as traditional healers and spiritualists because the people hold the belief that the problem is spiritually induced. The few, who make it to health units, are faced with ill equipped rural health workers who wait for the arrival of more qualified staff, who may take days to do so. Conclusion An understanding of the health seeking behavior of the population is germane to effective AFP surveillance. There is thus a need to tailor AFP surveillance to the health seeking behavior of the populations and expand it to community structures. PMID:25426197

  14. Do medical students’ scores using different assessment instruments predict their scores in clinical reasoning using a computer-based simulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Fida,1 Salah Eldin Kassab2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt Purpose: The development of clinical problem-solving skills evolves over time and requires structured training and background knowledge. Computer-based case simulations (CCS have been used for teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning skills. However, previous studies examining the psychometric properties of CCS as an assessment tool have been controversial. Furthermore, studies reporting the integration of CCS into problem-based medical curricula have been limited. Methods: This study examined the psychometric properties of using CCS software (DxR Clinician for assessment of medical students (n=130 studying in a problem-based, integrated multisystem module (Unit IX during the academic year 2011–2012. Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was calculated using Cronbach's alpha statistics. The relationships between students' scores in CCS components (clinical reasoning, diagnostic performance, and patient management and their scores in other examination tools at the end of the unit including multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE, and real patient encounters were analyzed using stepwise hierarchical linear regression. Results: Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was high (α=0.862. Inter-item correlations between students' scores in different CCS components and their scores in CCS and other test items were statistically significant. Regression analysis indicated that OSCE scores predicted 32.7% and 35.1% of the variance in clinical reasoning and patient management scores, respectively (P<0.01. Multiple-choice question scores, however, predicted only 15.4% of the variance in diagnostic performance scores (P<0.01, while

  15. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting Model Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya’nan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy sets theory cannot describe the data comprehensively, which has greatly limited the objectivity of fuzzy time series in uncertain data forecasting. In this regard, an intuitionistic fuzzy time series forecasting model is built. In the new model, a fuzzy clustering algorithm is used to divide the universe of discourse into unequal intervals, and a more objective technique for ascertaining the membership function and nonmembership function of the intuitionistic fuzzy set is proposed. On these bases, forecast rules based on intuitionistic fuzzy approximate reasoning are established. At last, contrast experiments on the enrollments of the University of Alabama and the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index are carried out. The results show that the new model has a clear advantage of improving the forecast accuracy.

  16. Diagrammatic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Stege Bjørndahl, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    are manipulated in order to profile known information in an optimal fashion. At other times diagrams are explored in order to gain new insights, solve problems or discover hidden meaning potentials. The latter cases often entail manipulations that either generate additional information or extract information......Many types of everyday and specialized reasoning depend on diagrams: we use maps to find our way, we draw graphs and sketches to communicate concepts and prove geometrical theorems, and we manipulate diagrams to explore new creative solutions to problems. The active involvement and manipulation...... of representational artifacts for purposes of thinking and communicating is discussed in relation to C.S. Peirce’s notion of diagrammatical reasoning. We propose to extend Peirce’s original ideas and sketch a conceptual framework that delineates different kinds of diagram manipulation: Sometimes diagrams...

  17. Web-Based Immersive Virtual Patient Simulators: Positive Effect on Clinical Reasoning in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Robert; Heiermann, Nadine; Plum, Patrick Sven; Wahba, Roger; Chang, De-Hua; Maus, Martin; Chon, Seung-Hun; Hoelscher, Arnulf H; Stippel, Dirk Ludger

    2015-11-17

    Clinical reasoning is based on the declarative and procedural knowledge of workflows in clinical medicine. Educational approaches such as problem-based learning or mannequin simulators support learning of procedural knowledge. Immersive patient simulators (IPSs) go one step further as they allow an illusionary immersion into a synthetic world. Students can freely navigate an avatar through a three-dimensional environment, interact with the virtual surroundings, and treat virtual patients. By playful learning with IPS, medical workflows can be repetitively trained and internalized. As there are only a few university-driven IPS with a profound amount of medical knowledge available, we developed a university-based IPS framework. Our simulator is free to use and combines a high degree of immersion with in-depth medical content. By adding disease-specific content modules, the simulator framework can be expanded depending on the curricular demands. However, these new educational tools compete with the traditional teaching It was our aim to develop an educational content module that teaches clinical and therapeutic workflows in surgical oncology. Furthermore, we wanted to examine how the use of this module affects student performance. The new module was based on the declarative and procedural learning targets of the official German medical examination regulations. The module was added to our custom-made IPS named ALICE (Artificial Learning Interface for Clinical Education). ALICE was evaluated on 62 third-year students. Students showed a high degree of motivation when using the simulator as most of them had fun using it. ALICE showed positive impact on clinical reasoning as there was a significant improvement in determining the correct therapy after using the simulator. ALICE positively impacted the rise in declarative knowledge as there was improvement in answering multiple-choice questions before and after simulator use. ALICE has a positive effect on knowledge gain and

  18. Design principles for simulation games for learning clinical reasoning: A design-based research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, J-M; Haavisto, E; Niemi, H; Haho, P; Nylund, S; Multisilta, J

    2018-01-01

    Nurses sometimes lack the competence needed for recognising deterioration in patient conditions and this is often due to poor clinical reasoning. There is a need to develop new possibilities for learning this crucial competence area. In addition, educators need to be future oriented; they need to be able to design and adopt new pedagogical innovations. The purpose of the study is to describe the development process and to generate principles for the design of nursing simulation games. A design-based research methodology is applied in this study. Iterative cycles of analysis, design, development, testing and refinement were conducted via collaboration among researchers, educators, students, and game designers. The study facilitated the generation of reusable design principles for simulation games to guide future designers when designing and developing simulation games for learning clinical reasoning. This study makes a major contribution to research on simulation game development in the field of nursing education. The results of this study provide important insights into the significance of involving nurse educators in the design and development process of educational simulation games for the purpose of nursing education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DCBITS: Distributed Case Base Intelligent Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, O. P.; Govil, Rekha

    2008-05-01

    Online learning with Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) is becoming very popular where the system models the student's learning behavior and presents to the student the learning material (content, questions-answers, assignments) accordingly. In today's distributed computing environment, the tutoring system can take advantage of networking to utilize the model for a student for students from other similar groups. In the present paper we present a methodology where using Case Based Reasoning (CBR), ITS provides student modeling for online learning in a distributed environment with the help of agents. Student modeling is a key component in any Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). In today's distributed computing environment, the tutoring system can take advantage of networking to utilize the model for a student for students from other similar group. In the present paper we present a methodology where using Case Based Reasoning (CBR), the ITS provides student modeling for online learning in a distributed environment with the help of agents. The Chapter describes the approach, the architecture, and the agent characteristics for the student modeling in the ITS. This concept can be deployed to develop ITS where the tutor can author and the students can learn locally whereas the ITS can model the students' learning globally in a distributed environment. The advantage of such an approach is that both the learning material (domain knowledge) and students' model can be globally distributed thus enhancing the efficiency of ITS with reducing the bandwidth requirement and complexity of the system.

  20. INTERSECTION DETECTION BASED ON QUALITATIVE SPATIAL REASONING ON STOPPING POINT CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zourlidou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to propose and test a method for detecting intersections by analysing collectively acquired trajectories of moving vehicles. Instead of solely relying on the geometric features of the trajectories, such as heading changes, which may indicate turning points and consequently intersections, we extract semantic features of the trajectories in form of sequences of stops and moves. Under this spatiotemporal prism, the extracted semantic information which indicates where vehicles stop can reveal important locations, such as junctions. The advantage of the proposed approach in comparison with existing turning-points oriented approaches is that it can detect intersections even when not all the crossing road segments are sampled and therefore no turning points are observed in the trajectories. The challenge with this approach is that first of all, not all vehicles stop at the same location – thus, the stop-location is blurred along the direction of the road; this, secondly, leads to the effect that nearby junctions can induce similar stop-locations. As a first step, a density-based clustering is applied on the layer of stop observations and clusters of stop events are found. Representative points of the clusters are determined (one per cluster and in a last step the existence of an intersection is clarified based on spatial relational cluster reasoning, with which less informative geospatial clusters, in terms of whether a junction exists and where its centre lies, are transformed in more informative ones. Relational reasoning criteria, based on the relative orientation of the clusters with their adjacent ones are discussed for making sense of the relation that connects them, and finally for forming groups of stop events that belong to the same junction.

  1. Examining Preservice Teachers' Classroom Management Decisions in Three Case-Based Teaching Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Yasemin Demiraslan; Andre, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the impact of three types of case-based approaches (worked example, faded work example, and case-based reasoning) on preservice teachers' decision making and reasoning skills related to realistic classroom management situations. Participants in this study received a short-term implementation of one of these three…

  2. Radiation therapy using the wildlife medicine: a reasoned obtained study in cases of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vettorato, Michel de Campos; Fernandes, Marco Antonio Rodrigues; Vulcano, Luis Carlos; Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho

    2016-01-01

    The cancer is the kind of tumor that affects both humans and animals and is responsible for more deaths worldwide. In wildlife, cancer is a problem found most often in zoo animals. Thus veterinary oncologists have researched and developed therapeutic approaches to many types of cancer over the years in both curative and palliative therapies including therein the application of radiation. The basic principle of radiotherapy is the effect of ionizing radiation on the tumor cells, causing them to death. However, its application in veterinary medicine for wildlife is not much reported in the literature, especially in Brazil. This study aims to describe and compare some of radiotherapy applications in different species of wildlife looking to improve her knowledge in veterinary medicine through a brief literature review. After the descriptions and comparisons, it is concluded that despite the number of cases taken for this study, all the cases mentioned had satisfactory results using radiation therapy and all the presented cases provided relevant information that can guide future researchers in this area, thus improving knowledge of this therapy and improve the quality of life of animals. (author)

  3. The Role of Argumentation in Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning during Problem-Based Learning in Medical Education: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon

    2018-01-01

    One of the important goals of problem-based learning (PBL) in medical education is to enhance medical students' clinical reasoning--hypothetico-deductive reasoning (HDR) in particular--through small group discussions. However, few studies have focused on explicit strategies for promoting students' HDR during group discussions in PBL. This paper…

  4. A Reasoning And Hypothesis-Generation Framework Based On Scalable Graph Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, Sreenivas Rangan [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Finding actionable insights from data has always been difficult. As the scale and forms of data increase tremendously, the task of finding value becomes even more challenging. Data scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are leveraging unique leadership infrastructure (e.g. Urika-XA and Urika-GD appliances) to develop scalable algorithms for semantic, logical and statistical reasoning with unstructured Big Data. We present the deployment of such a framework called ORiGAMI (Oak Ridge Graph Analytics for Medical Innovations) on the National Library of Medicine s SEMANTIC Medline (archive of medical knowledge since 1994). Medline contains over 70 million knowledge nuggets published in 23.5 million papers in medical literature with thousands more added daily. ORiGAMI is available as an open-science medical hypothesis generation tool - both as a web-service and an application programming interface (API) at http://hypothesis.ornl.gov . Since becoming an online service, ORIGAMI has enabled clinical subject-matter experts to: (i) discover the relationship between beta-blocker treatment and diabetic retinopathy; (ii) hypothesize that xylene is an environmental cancer-causing carcinogen and (iii) aid doctors with diagnosis of challenging cases when rare diseases manifest with common symptoms. In 2015, ORiGAMI was featured in the Historical Clinical Pathological Conference in Baltimore as a demonstration of artificial intelligence to medicine, IEEE/ACM Supercomputing and recognized as a Centennial Showcase Exhibit at the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Conference in Chicago. The final paper will describe the workflow built for the Cray Urika-XA and Urika-GD appliances that is able to reason with the knowledge of every published medical paper every time a clinical researcher uses the tool.

  5. Defining 'reasonable medical certainty' in court: What does it mean to medical experts in child abuse cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mark S; Boehmer, Susan; Johnston-Walsh, Lucy; Levi, Benjamin H

    2015-12-01

    Physicians and others who provide expert testimony in court cases involving alleged child abuse may be instructed to state their conclusions within a 'reasonable medical certainty' (RMC). However, neither judges nor jurors knows what degree of probability constitutes RMC for a given expert, nor whether different experts use different standards to formulate their opinions. We sought to better understand how experts define RMC in the context of court cases. An email survey was sent to members of six list-serves, representing four specialties, whose members testify in child abuse cases. Respondents were asked to define how RMC corresponded to (1) the numerical probability that abuse occurred, (2) the ordinal probability, and (3) how their determinations relate to common legal standards ('preponderance of the evidence', 'clear and convincing', and 'beyond a reasonable doubt'). Participants were also asked how comfortable they were in defining RMC; whether their definition changed according to the charges or type of proceeding; and how they would apply RMC to several hypothetical cases. The 294 list-serve participants who responded included child abuse pediatricians (46%), forensic pathologists (21%), pediatric neurosurgeons (15%), pediatric ophthalmologists (12%), and others (6%). Though 95% of respondents had testified in court, only 45% had received training in the definition of RMC. Only 37% were comfortable defining RMC. Although many responses were highly clustered and paired comparisons showed that 95% of participants' responses were internally consistent, there was variability in respondents' definitions of RMC. There is some variability in how child abuse expert witnesses define and use the term RMC; we provide suggestions about how to more accurately and transparently define RMC to ensure justice in these cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analogical reasoning in handling emerging technologies: the case of umbilical cord blood biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Solbakk, Jan Helge; Holm, Søren

    2006-01-01

    How are we individually and as a society to handle new and emerging technologies? This challenging question underlies much of the bioethical debates of modern times. To address this question we need suitable conceptions of the new technology and ways of identifying its proper management and regulation. To establish conceptions and to find ways to handle emerging technologies we tend to use analogies extensively. The aim of this article is to investigate the role that analogies play or may play in the processes of understanding and managing new technology. More precisely we aim to unveil the role of analogies as analytical devices in exploring the "being" of the new technology as well the normative function of analogies in conceptualizing the characteristics and applications of new technology. Umbilical cord blood biobanking will be used as a case to investigate these roles and functions.

  7. Reasons for Cancellation of Cases on the Day of Surgery-A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2009-01-01

    We believe that many of the on-the-day surgery cancellations of elective surgery were potentially avoidable. We observed that cancellations due to lack of theatre time were not only a scheduling problem but were mainly caused by surgeons underestimating the timeneeded for the operation. The requirement of the instruments necessary for scheduled surgical listshould be discussed a day prior to planned OR list and arranged. The non-availability of the surgeon should be informed in time so that another case is substituted in that slot. All patients who have met PACU discharge criteria must be discharged promptly to prevent delay in shifting out of the operated patient. Day care patients should be counseled adequately to report on time. Computerized scheduling should be utilized to create a realistic elective schedule. Audit should be carried out at regular intervals to find out the effective functioning of the operation theatre.

  8. Reasons and results of endoscopic surgery for prolactinomas: 142 surgical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Safak; Isikay, Ilkay; Soylemezoglu, Figen; Yucel, Taskin; Gurlek, Alper; Berker, Mustafa

    2016-05-01

    We report herein a retrospective analysis of the results of 142 consecutive prolactinoma cases operated upon using an endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal approach over a period of 6 years. Medical records of 142 cases were analysed with respect to indications for surgery, duration of hospital stay, early remission rates, failures and recurrence rates during a median follow-up of 36 months. On the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, 19 patients (13.4 %) had microadenoma, 113 (79.6 %) had macroadenoma, and the remaining 10 (7.0 %) had giant adenomas. Cavernous sinus invasion was identified in 25 patients by MRI and confirmed during surgery. Atypical adenoma was diagnosed in 16 patients. Sparsely granulated prolactin adenoma was identified in 99 patients (69.7 %). Our results demonstrate that male sex and higher preoperative prolactin levels are independent factors predicting persistent disease. The post-surgical complications are as follows: 2.8 % patients had meningitis, 2.1 % patients had postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak and 2.1 % patients had panhypopituitarism. At the end of follow-up, 74.6 % patients went into remission. During follow-up period, five patients who had initial remission developed recurrence. Our series together with literature data suggest that an endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal approach in the treatment of proloctinomas has a favourable rate of remission. According to the findings of this study, endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal surgery might be an appropriate therapy choice for patients with prolactinoma who could not have been managed with recommended therapeutic modalities.

  9. Towards a Conceptual Model for Enhancing Reasoning about Clinical Guidelines: A case-study on Comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carretta Zamborlini, Veruska; Da Silveira, Marcos; Pruski, Cedric; ten Teije, Annette; van Harmelen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Computer-Interpretable Guidelines (CIGs) are representations of Clinical Guidelines (CGs) in computer interpretable languages. CIGs have been pointed as an alternative to deal with the various limitations of paper based CGs to support healthcare activities. Although the improvements offered by

  10. Reasons for placement of restorations on previously unrestored tooth surfaces by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nascimento, Marcelle M; Gordan, Valeria V; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted a study to identify and quantify the reasons used by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) for placing restorations on unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and the dental materials they used in doing so....

  11. [Reason for a medical visit in the diagnosis of lung cancer. A review of 481 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil Cajoto, I; García Prim, J M; González Barcala, F J; Pose Reino, A; Paredes Vila, S; Calvo Alvarez, U; Valdés Cuadrado, L

    2009-02-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer death related cause in the world. Its clinical presentation usually corresponds to advanced stages. The indication of screening programs for the diagnosis in early phases has been debated for years. To know the clinical characteristics in the presentation of the lung cancer in our health care area. All of the incident lung cancer cases for 3 years (January 1, 1997 to December 31, 1999) among those patients with usual residence in the Santiago de Compostela health care area were retrospectively collected from the available information in the Codification Service. The histological type was graded according to the World Health Organization classification. Date of death was obtained from the patient's clinical history, mortality record, or telephonic calls to the patient's home. The rest of the information was obtained from the clinical records of the patient and Pathology Service. Four-hundred and eighty-one lung cancer cases were diagnosed (incident gross rate of 41.79 per 100,000 inhabitants and year). Median age was 66.9 years (interquartile range 60.5-74.4), 92.77% being males and 94.1% corresponding to smokers or former smokers. The most prevalent symptoms motivating the visit were general syndrome (20%), thoracic pain (19%) and hemoptisis (17%). A group of patients (56), fundamentally males, had an incidental diagnosis. The incidence of lung cancer seems to be high in our health care area. The standard patient with lung cancer in this health care area is a 67-year-old, male, who smokes, diagnosed in advanced stages, who consults due to a general syndrome and/or chest pain. Some of the symptoms appear with significant gender differences. Likewise, there are differences between histologies, the high frequency of chest pain in adenocarcinoma being outstanding, although it is also the first cause for consultation in small cell lung cancer. On the contrary, hemoptisis, the most frequent consultation cause in squamous cell

  12. Auditors’ Perceptions of Reasonable Assurance the Effectiveness of the Audit Risk Model. Case from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Valipour; Javad Moradi; Hajar Moazaminezhad

    2012-01-01

    Despite the definition of the concept of logical confidence in auditing standards, the results from some studies conducted indicate a meaningful difference between perceptions this basic concept, by different auditors (Law, 2008, 180). The results from some researches also indicate that auditors’ perceptions about the effectiveness of the audit risk model vary (which is based on auditing general principles on the basis of risk) (Arense, 2006, 148). In so doing, aiming at studying the proof fo...

  13. Reasons for placement of restorations on previously unrestored tooth surfaces by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nascimento, Marcelle M; Gordan, Valeria V; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted a study to identify and quantify the reasons used by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) for placing restorations on unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and the dental materials they used in doing so.......The authors conducted a study to identify and quantify the reasons used by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) for placing restorations on unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and the dental materials they used in doing so....

  14. Eyewitness identification: Bayesian information gain, base-rate effect equivalency curves, and reasonable suspicion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary L; Yang, Yueran; Smalarz, Laura

    2015-04-01

    We provide a novel Bayesian treatment of the eyewitness identification problem as it relates to various system variables, such as instruction effects, lineup presentation format, lineup-filler similarity, lineup administrator influence, and show-ups versus lineups. We describe why eyewitness identification is a natural Bayesian problem and how numerous important observations require careful consideration of base rates. Moreover, we argue that the base rate in eyewitness identification should be construed as a system variable (under the control of the justice system). We then use prior-by-posterior curves and information-gain curves to examine data obtained from a large number of published experiments. Next, we show how information-gain curves are moderated by system variables and by witness confidence and we note how information-gain curves reveal that lineups are consistently more proficient at incriminating the guilty than they are at exonerating the innocent. We then introduce a new type of analysis that we developed called base rate effect-equivalency (BREE) curves. BREE curves display how much change in the base rate is required to match the impact of any given system variable. The results indicate that even relatively modest changes to the base rate can have more impact on the reliability of eyewitness identification evidence than do the traditional system variables that have received so much attention in the literature. We note how this Bayesian analysis of eyewitness identification has implications for the question of whether there ought to be a reasonable-suspicion criterion for placing a person into the jeopardy of an identification procedure. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Nuclear energy at a moment of truth. Six reasons behind the case for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritch, J. III

    2002-01-01

    Through the years, the simple word 'nuclear' has become the focal point for a seemingly endless controversy, filled with passions and ideologies that sprang originally from a rational fear of nuclear war - but grew into an emotional, and now somewhat institutionalised, standoff that plagues public discourse as to how the world's nations can best meet their energy needs in the 21st century. Along the way, the very idea of nuclear energy became a political and psychological surrogate. Scepticism about government, distrust of large corporations, worry over toxic industrial effluents, a subconscious fear of cataclysm - all these real feelings and fears are crystallized, for many people, in a vague concept called 'the nuclear industry'. The subject of this presentation is that this is an idea whose time has come: that nuclear energy, a half century after its inception, has reached a moment of truth, in no less than six important respects: first, the technology has come of age; second, on a national level, key issues affecting nuclear energy will soon demand decision; third, fossil supplies may simply be inadequate to meet world energy needs; fourth, the valuable uses of nuclear power will soon multiply; fifth, and of profound importance, a massive shift toward nuclear power is now environmentally indispensable; sixth, this moment of truth for nuclear power requires a telling of the truth. Given the urgent need for public awareness and political decision, those able to do so must now make the case for nuclear energy - forcefully, without apology or equivocation, and with persuasive effect. A great deal depends on developing the wisdom and will to exploit nuclear technology to full benefit

  16. Reducing cyberbullying: A theory of reasoned action-based video prevention program for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Ashley N; Kelley, Michelle L; Pearson, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of cyberbullying prevention/intervention programs. The goals of the present study were to develop a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)-based video program to increase cyberbullying knowledge (1) and empathy toward cyberbullying victims (2), reduce favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying (3), decrease positive injunctive (4) and descriptive norms about cyberbullying (5), and reduce cyberbullying intentions (6) and cyberbullying behavior (7). One hundred sixty-seven college students were randomly assigned to an online video cyberbullying prevention program or an assessment-only control group. Immediately following the program, attitudes and injunctive norms for all four types of cyberbullying behavior (i.e., unwanted contact, malice, deception, and public humiliation), descriptive norms for malice and public humiliation, empathy toward victims of malice and deception, and cyberbullying knowledge significantly improved in the experimental group. At one-month follow-up, malice and public humiliation behavior, favorable attitudes toward unwanted contact, deception, and public humiliation, and injunctive norms for public humiliation were significantly lower in the experimental than the control group. Cyberbullying knowledge was significantly higher in the experimental than the control group. These findings demonstrate a brief cyberbullying video is capable of improving, at one-month follow-up, cyberbullying knowledge, cyberbullying perpetration behavior, and TRA constructs known to predict cyberbullying perpetration. Considering the low cost and ease with which a video-based prevention/intervention program can be delivered, this type of approach should be considered to reduce cyberbullying. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Applying Analytic Reasoning to Clarify Intention and Responsibility in Joint Criminal Enterprise Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Amatrudo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that both criminologists and lawyers need a far more philosophically robust account of joint action, notably as it relates to technical matters of intentionality and responsibility when dealing with joint criminal enterprise cases. Criminology seems unable to see beyond the superficiality of cultural explanations ill-suited to understanding matters of action. Law seems wedded to mystical notions of foresight. As regards the law there seems common agreement that joint enterprise prosecutions tend to over-criminalise secondary parties. This paper suggests that the current discussions around joint criminal enterprise will benefit from a critical engagement with analytical philosophy. The paper will examine a series of technical accounts of shared commitment and intention in order to explain the problems of joint criminal enterprise (multi-agent criminal activity. Este artículo defiende que tanto criminólogos como abogados necesitan ofrecer una acción conjunta más robusta, desde el punto de vista filosófico, especialmente en lo que se refiere a aspectos técnicos de intencionalidad y responsabilidad, al tratar casos de colaboración criminal. La criminología parece incapaz de ver más allá de la superficialidad de las explicaciones culturales, inadecuadas para entender cuestiones de acción. El derecho parece aliado con nociones místicas de previsión. En lo que respecta al derecho, parece que existe un consenso en que los fiscales de asociaciones de malhechores tienden a penalizar en exceso a los cómplices. Este artículo sugiere que el debate actual sobre asociaciones criminales se beneficiará de un compromiso crítico con la filosofía analítica. El artículo analiza un conjunto de explicaciones técnicas de compromiso e intención compartidos para explicar los problemas de las asociaciones criminales (actividad criminal multi-agente. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2847796

  18. Intertwining Evidence- and Model-Based Reasoning in Physics Sensemaking: An Example from Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Odden, Tor Ole B.

    2017-01-01

    Our field has long valued the goal of teaching students not just the facts of physics, but also the thinking and reasoning skills of professional physicists. The complexity inherent in scientific reasoning demands that we think carefully about how we conceptualize for ourselves, enact in our classes, and encourage in our students the relationship…

  19. A population-based investigation into the self-reported reasons for sleep problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Armstrong

    Full Text Available Typologies of sleep problems have usually relied on identifying underlying causes or symptom clusters. In this study the value of using the patient's own reasons for sleep disturbance are explored. Using secondary data analysis of a nationally representative psychiatric survey the patterning of the various reasons respondents provided for self-reported sleep problems were examined. Over two thirds (69.3% of respondents could identify a specific reason for their sleep problem with worry (37.9% and illness (20.1% representing the most commonly reported reasons. And while women reported more sleep problems for almost every reason compared with men, the patterning of reasons by age showed marked variability. Sleep problem symptoms such as difficulty getting to sleep or waking early also showed variability by different reasons as did the association with major correlates such as worry, depression, anxiety and poor health. While prevalence surveys of 'insomnia' or 'poor sleep' often assume the identification of an underlying homogeneous construct there may be grounds for recognising the existence of different sleep problem types particularly in the context of the patient's perceived reason for the problem.

  20. Creating Robust Relation Extract and Anomaly Detect via Probabilistic Logic-Based Reasoning and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    reasoning, reasoning and learning, machine learning, relationship extraction, implicit information understanding, Natural language understanding, NLU...transferring across seemingly unrelated domains (eg: Sports and Finance , NELL ontologies). We refer to our ICDM paper [19] for further details and...variants, and phenotypes from the literature, and statistically infer their relationships , presently being applied to clinical genetic diagnostics

  1. An Indexing Scheme for Case-Based Manufacturing Vision Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Johansen, John; Luxhøj, James T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on one critical element, indexing – retaining and representing knowledge in an applied case-based reasoning (CBR) model for supporting strategic manufacturing vision development (CBRM). Manufacturing vision (MV) is a kind of knowledge management concept and process concerned wi...

  2. An Indexing Scheme for Case-Based Manufacturing Vision Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Johansen, John; Luxhøj, James T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on one critical element, indexing – retaining and representing knowledge in an applied case-based reasoning (CBR) model for supporting strategic manufacturing vision development (CBRM). Manufacturing vision (MV) is a kind of knowledge management concept and process concerned...

  3. An approximate-reasoning-based method for screening flammable gas tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-03-01

    High-level waste (HLW) produces flammable gases as a result of radiolysis and thermal decomposition of organics. Under certain conditions, these gases can accumulate within the waste for extended periods and then be released quickly into the dome space of the storage tank. As part of the effort to reduce the safety concerns associated with flammable gas in HLW tanks at Hanford, a flammable gas watch list (FGWL) has been established. Inclusion on the FGWL is based on criteria intended to measure the risk associated with the presence of flammable gas. It is important that all high-risk tanks be identified with high confidence so that they may be controlled. Conversely, to minimize operational complexity, the number of tanks on the watchlist should be reduced as near to the true number of flammable risk tanks as the current state of knowledge will support. This report presents an alternative to existing approaches for FGWL screening based on the theory of approximate reasoning (AR) (Zadeh 1976). The AR-based model emulates the inference process used by an expert when asked to make an evaluation. The FGWL model described here was exercised by performing two evaluations. (1) A complete tank evaluation where the entire algorithm is used. This was done for two tanks, U-106 and AW-104. U-106 is a single shell tank with large sludge and saltcake layers. AW-104 is a double shell tank with over one million gallons of supernate. Both of these tanks had failed the screening performed by Hodgson et al. (2) Partial evaluations using a submodule for the predictor likelihood for all of the tanks on the FGWL that had been flagged previously by Whitney (1995).

  4. An approximate-reasoning-based method for screening flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-03-01

    High-level waste (HLW) produces flammable gases as a result of radiolysis and thermal decomposition of organics. Under certain conditions, these gases can accumulate within the waste for extended periods and then be released quickly into the dome space of the storage tank. As part of the effort to reduce the safety concerns associated with flammable gas in HLW tanks at Hanford, a flammable gas watch list (FGWL) has been established. Inclusion on the FGWL is based on criteria intended to measure the risk associated with the presence of flammable gas. It is important that all high-risk tanks be identified with high confidence so that they may be controlled. Conversely, to minimize operational complexity, the number of tanks on the watchlist should be reduced as near to the true number of flammable risk tanks as the current state of knowledge will support. This report presents an alternative to existing approaches for FGWL screening based on the theory of approximate reasoning (AR) (Zadeh 1976). The AR-based model emulates the inference process used by an expert when asked to make an evaluation. The FGWL model described here was exercised by performing two evaluations. (1) A complete tank evaluation where the entire algorithm is used. This was done for two tanks, U-106 and AW-104. U-106 is a single shell tank with large sludge and saltcake layers. AW-104 is a double shell tank with over one million gallons of supernate. Both of these tanks had failed the screening performed by Hodgson et al. (2) Partial evaluations using a submodule for the predictor likelihood for all of the tanks on the FGWL that had been flagged previously by Whitney (1995)

  5. Ferris Wheels and Filling Bottles: A Case of a Student's Transfer of Covariational Reasoning across Tasks with Different Backgrounds and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather Lynn; McClintock, Evan; Hornbein, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Using an actor-oriented perspective on transfer, we report a case of a student's transfer of covariational reasoning across tasks involving different backgrounds and features. In this study, we investigated the research question: How might a student's covariational reasoning on Ferris wheel tasks, involving attributes of distance, width, and…

  6. Examining Teacher Framing, Student Reasoning, and Student Agency in School-Based Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Emily Mae

    This dissertation presents three interrelated studies examining opportunities for student learning through contributory citizen science (CS), where students collect and contribute data to help generate new scientific knowledge. I draw on sociocultural perspectives of learning to analyze three cases where teachers integrated CS into school science, one third grade, one fourth grade, and one high school Marine Biology classroom. Chapter 2 is a conceptual investigation of the opportunities for students to engage in scientific reasoning practices during CS data collection activities. Drawing on science education literature and vignettes from case studies, I argue that the teacher plays an important role in mediating opportunities for students to engage in investigative, explanatory, and argumentative practices of science through CS. Chapter 3 focuses on teacher framing of CS, how teachers perceive what is going on (Goffman, 1974) and how they communicate that to students as they launch CS tasks. Through analysis of videos and interviews of two upper elementary school teachers, I found that teachers frame CS for different purposes. These framings were influenced by teachers' goals, orientations towards science and CS, planning for instruction, and prior knowledge and experience. Chapter 4 examines how students demonstrate agency with environmental science as they explore their personal interests across their third grade classroom, school garden, and science lab contexts, through the lens of social practice theory (Holland, Lachicotte, Skinner, & Cain, 1998). Through analysis of classroom observations, student interviews, teacher interviews and important moments for three focal students, I found that student agency was enabled and constrained by the different cultures of the classroom, garden, and science lab. Despite affordances of the garden and science lab, the teachers' epistemic authority in the classroom permeated all three contexts, constraining student agency. In

  7. Experiencing teaching and learning quantitative reasoning in a project-based context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Callingham, Rosemary; Jade, Katara

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the findings of a small-scale study that investigated the issues and challenges of teaching and learning about quantitative reasoning (QR) within a project-based learning (PjBL) context. Students and teachers were surveyed and interviewed about their experiences of learning and teaching QR in that context in contrast to teaching and learning mathematics in more traditional settings. The grade 9-12 student participants were characterised by a history of disengagement with mathematics and school in general, and the teacher participants were non-mathematics specialist teachers. Both students and teachers were new to the PjBL situation, which resulted in the teaching/learning relationship being a reciprocal one. The findings indicated that students and teachers viewed QR positively, particularly when compared with traditional mathematics teaching, yet tensions were identified for aspects such as implementation of curriculum and integration of relevant mathematics into projects. Both sets of participants identified situations where learning QR was particularly successful, along with concerns or difficulties about integrating QR into project work. The findings have implications for educators, who may need to examine their own approaches to mathematics teaching, particularly in terms of facilitating student engagement with the subject.

  8. Study and Search for Main Reason of Lung Cancers Based on Cherenkov Radiation in Environmental Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Emoto, Yusaku; Fujihara, Kento; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kimura, Shota; Kodama, Satoshi; Mizuno, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    The number of lung-cancer-related death is highest among all cancers in the world, and it is increasing in Japan where population aging in progressing. The main reason for the lung cancer of non-smokers is regarded to be environmental pollution or exposure of the lung to radon in the nature. The risk of lung cancer was estimated to increase by 8 to 13% per every 100 Bq m-3 concentration of radon in the air. We observed beta rays with maximum energy of 3.27 MeV emitted from 214Bi as one of the progenies based on a detection of Cherenkov radiation. The surface radioactivity concentration of 214Bi on the sample was measured; the relation between the concentration and exposure time for the sample at the room air is researched. The behavior of the radon progenies in the air is discussed by a research for the progenies attaching on the sample after the radon decay. The inhalation of the radon progenies is not clear. Thus, to understand the behavior of progenies in the air make to clear the causal relation between the radon concentration and lung cancers.

  9. Professional physical scientists display tenacious teleological tendencies: purpose-based reasoning as a cognitive default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rottman, Joshua; Seston, Rebecca

    2013-11-01

    Teleological explanations account for objects and events by reference to a functional consequence or purpose. Although they are popular in religion, they are unpopular in science: Physical scientists in particular explicitly reject them when explaining natural phenomena. However, prior research provides reasons to suspect that this explanatory form may represent a default explanatory preference. As a strong test of this hypothesis, we explored whether physical scientists endorse teleological explanations of natural phenomena when their information-processing resources are limited. In Study 1, physical scientists from top-ranked American universities judged explanations as true or false, either at speed or without time restriction. Like undergraduates and age-matched community participants, scientists demonstrated increased acceptance of unwarranted teleological explanations under speed despite maintaining high accuracy on control items. Scientists' overall endorsement of inaccurate teleological explanation was lower than comparison groups, however. In Study 2, we explored this further and found that the teleological tendencies of professional scientists did not differ from those of humanities scholars. Thus, although extended education appears to produce an overall reduction in inaccurate teleological explanation, specialization as a scientist does not, in itself, additionally ameliorate scientifically inaccurate purpose-based theories about the natural world. A religion-consistent default cognitive bias toward teleological explanation tenaciously persists and may have subtle but profound consequences for scientific progress. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Selecting Tanker Steaming Speeds under Uncertainty: A Rule-Based Bayesian Reasoning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.F. Abdul Rahman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the tanker industry, there are a lot of uncertain conditions that tanker companies have to deal with. For example, the global financial crisis and economic recession, the increase of bunker fuel prices and global climate change. Such conditions have forced tanker companies to change tankers speed from full speed to slow speed, extra slow speed and super slow speed. Due to such conditions, the objective of this paper is to present a methodology for determining vessel speeds of tankers that minimize the cost of the vessels under such conditions. The four levels of vessel speed in the tanker industry will be investigated and will incorporate a number of uncertain conditions. This will be done by developing a scientific model using a rule-based Bayesian reasoning method. The proposed model has produced 96 rules that can be used as guidance in the decision making process. Such results help tanker companies to determine the appropriate vessel speed to be used in a dynamic operational environmental.

  11. [A Survey of Maternal Dietary Behavior Based on Theory of Reasoned Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Luo, Bi-ru

    2015-05-01

    To detect the diet behavior and influencing factors of related behavior at different stages among pregnant women. Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), literature review, expert evaluation and preliminary investigation, we designed and finalized three questionnaires. Diet behaviors among women in early term, medium term and late term were investigated by using the questionnaires. 624 early term, 619 medium term and 738 late term valid questionnaires were returned. Participants ranged from 18 to 45 years of age. 74% pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was within the normal range. More than 43% care taking was provided by the mother, followed by the husband. The participants had a good eating behavior on the whole. At 3 stages, carbohydrate intake, protein intake and fat intake were no significant difference when compared with that of recommended value (P> 0. 05). The pregnant women intaked insufficient cereal, beans, dairy and aquatic products, while fruit and nuts were more than needed (Preasonable combination of a variety of food. Subjective norms influenced their behavior attitude and behavioral intention. The mother had the strongest influence on the pregnant woman's diet attitude and behavioral intention among all those had direct contact with the pregnant woman.

  12. Study and Search for Main Reason of Lung Cancers Based on Cherenkov Radiation in Environmental Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of lung-cancer-related death is highest among all cancers in the world, and it is increasing in Japan where population aging in progressing. The main reason for the lung cancer of non-smokers is regarded to be environmental pollution or exposure of the lung to radon in the nature. The risk of lung cancer was estimated to increase by 8 to 13% per every 100 Bq m-3 concentration of radon in the air. We observed beta rays with maximum energy of 3.27 MeV emitted from 214Bi as one of the progenies based on a detection of Cherenkov radiation. The surface radioactivity concentration of 214Bi on the sample was measured; the relation between the concentration and exposure time for the sample at the room air is researched. The behavior of the radon progenies in the air is discussed by a research for the progenies attaching on the sample after the radon decay. The inhalation of the radon progenies is not clear. Thus, to understand the behavior of progenies in the air make to clear the causal relation between the radon concentration and lung cancers.

  13. Reasons for measles cases not being vaccinated with MMR: investigation into parents' and carers' views following a large measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, P; Keenan, A; Ghebrehewet, S

    2016-03-01

    Uptake rates for the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine have been below the required 95% in the UK since a retracted and discredited article linking the MMR vaccine with autism and inflammatory bowel disease was released in 1998. This study undertook semi-structured telephone interviews among parents or carers of 47 unvaccinated measles cases who were aged between 13 months and 9 years, during a large measles outbreak in Merseyside. Results showed that concerns over the specific links with autism remain an important cause of refusal to vaccinate, with over half of respondents stating this as a reason. A quarter stated child illness during scheduled vaccination time, while other reasons included general safety concerns and access issues. Over half of respondents felt that more information or a discussion with a health professional would help the decision-making process, while a third stated improved access. There was clear support for vaccination among respondents when asked about current opinions regarding MMR vaccine. The findings support the hypothesis that safety concerns remain a major barrier to MMR vaccination, and also support previous evidence that experience of measles is an important determinant in the decision to vaccinate.

  14. Clinical reasoning and advanced practice privileges enable physical therapist point-of-care decisions in the military health care system: 3 clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhon, Daniel I; Deyle, Gail D; Gill, Norman W

    2013-09-01

    Physical therapists frequently make important point-of-care decisions for musculoskeletal injuries and conditions. In the Military Health System (MHS), these decisions may occur while therapists are deployed in support of combat troops, as well as in a more traditional hospital setting. Proficiency with the musculoskeletal examination, including a fundamental understanding of the diagnostic role of musculoskeletal imaging, is an important competency for physical therapists. The purpose of this article is to present 3 cases managed by physical therapists in unique MHS settings, highlighting relevant challenges and clinical decision making. Three cases are presented involving conditions where the physical therapist was significantly involved in the diagnosis and clinical management plan. The physical therapist's clinical privileges, including the ability to order appropriate musculoskeletal imaging procedures, were helpful in making clinical decisions that facilitate timely management. The cases involve patients with an ankle sprain and Maisonneuve fracture, a radial head fracture, and a pelvic neoplasm referred through medical channels as knee pain. Clinical pathways from point of care are discussed, as well as the reasoning that led to decisions affecting definitive care for each of these patients. In each case, emergent treatment and important combat evacuation decisions were based on a combination of examination and management decisions. Physical therapists can provide important contributions to the primary management of patients with musculoskeletal conditions in a variety of settings within the MHS. In the cases described, advanced clinical privileges contributed to the success in this role.

  15. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...

  16. A Clinical Reasoning Tool for Virtual Patients: Design-Based Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Inga; Kononowicz, Andrzej A; Adler, Martin

    2017-11-02

    Clinical reasoning is a fundamental process medical students have to learn during and after medical school. Virtual patients (VP) are a technology-enhanced learning method to teach clinical reasoning. However, VP systems do not exploit their full potential concerning the clinical reasoning process; for example, most systems focus on the outcome and less on the process of clinical reasoning. Keeping our concept grounded in a former qualitative study, we aimed to design and implement a tool to enhance VPs with activities and feedback, which specifically foster the acquisition of clinical reasoning skills. We designed the tool by translating elements of a conceptual clinical reasoning learning framework into software requirements. The resulting clinical reasoning tool enables learners to build their patient's illness script as a concept map when they are working on a VP scenario. The student's map is compared with the experts' reasoning at each stage of the VP, which is technically enabled by using Medical Subject Headings, which is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary published by the US National Library of Medicine. The tool is implemented using Web technologies, has an open architecture that enables its integration into various systems through an open application program interface, and is available under a Massachusetts Institute of Technology license. We conducted usability tests following a think-aloud protocol and a pilot field study with maps created by 64 medical students. The results show that learners interact with the tool but create less nodes and connections in the concept map than an expert. Further research and usability tests are required to analyze the reasons. The presented tool is a versatile, systematically developed software component that specifically supports the clinical reasoning skills acquisition. It can be plugged into VP systems or used as stand-alone software in other teaching scenarios. The modular design allows an extension with new

  17. Midwives’ Clinical Reasons for Performing Episiotomies in the Kurdistan Region; Are they evidence-based?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Ahmed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: An episiotomy is one of the most common obstetric surgical procedures and is performed mainly by midwives. The decision to perform an episiotomy depends on related clinical factors. This study aimed to find out midwives’ reasons for performing episiotomies and to identify the relationship between these reasons and the demographic characteristics of the midwives. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1st July and 30th September 2013 in three governmental maternity teaching hospitals in the three main cities of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. All of the midwives who had worked in the delivery rooms of these hospitals for at least one year were invited to participate in the study (n = 53. Data were collected through interviews with midwives as well as via a questionnaire constructed for the purpose of the study. The questionnaire sought to determine: midwives’ demographic characteristics; type of episiotomy performed; authority of the decision to perform the procedure, and reasons for performing episiotomies. Results: The main clinical reasons reported by midwives for performing an episiotomy were: macrosomia/large fetus (38, 71.7%, breech delivery (31, 58.5%, shoulder dystocia (29, 54.7%, anticipated perineal tear (27, 50.9% and fetal distress (27, 50.9%. There was a significant association between the frequency of these reasons and midwives’ total experience in delivery rooms as well as their levels of education. Conclusion: Most of the reasons given by the midwives for performing episiotomies were not evidencebased. Age, years of experience, specialties and level of education also had an effect on midwives’ reasons for performing episiotomies.

  18. Case-based approaches for knowledge application and organisational learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Johansen, John; Luxhøj, James T.

    2005-01-01

    structured processes to execute the organisational learning and knowledge application, which intend to guide the practitioners during the process of manufacturing competence development and improvement. They are based on Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) methodology and rely on cases as the primary knowledge supply....... These practices and activity patterns are based on learning and applying the knowledge internal and external to an organisation. To ensure their smooth formulation process, there are two important techniques designed – an expert adaptation approach and an expert evaluation approach. These two approaches provide...

  19. Natural representation of the deduction; applying to the temporal reasoning for expert systems based on production rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    The expert systems development within a real time context, requires both to master the necessary reasoning about the time as well as to master the necessary response time for reasoning. Although rigorous temporal logic formalisms exist, strategies for temporal reasoning are either incomplete or else imply unacceptable response times. The first part presents the logic formalism upon which is based the production system. This formalism contains a three-valued logic system with truth-valued matrix, and a deductive system with a formal system. It does a rigorous work for this no standard logic, where the notions of consistency and completeness can be studied. Its development supports itself on the will to formalise the reasoning used at the elaboration time of the strategies to make them more explicit as the natural deduction method. The second part proposes an extension for the source logic formalism to take explicitly the time into account. The approach proposed through 'TANIS', the prototype of such an expert system shell, using a natural reasoning application is proposed. It allows, at the generation time, the implementation within the expert system, of an adapted deduction strategy to the symbolic temporal reasoning which is complete and ease the determination of the response time. (author) [fr

  20. Internet-based Advertising Claims and Consumer Reasons for Using Electronic Cigarettes by Device Type in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvers, Kim; Sun, Jessica Y; Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Holguin, Gabriel; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Important differences exist between closed-system and open-system e-cigarettes, but it is unknown whether online companies are marketing these devices differently and whether consumer reasons for using e-cigarettes vary by device type. This paper compares Internet-based advertising claims of closed- versus open-system products, and evaluates US consumers' reasons for using closed- versus open-system e-cigarettes. Internet sites selling exclusively closed (N = 130) or open (N = 129) e-cigarettes in December 2013-January 2014 were coded for advertising claims. Current users (≥18 years old) of exclusively closed or open e-cigarettes (N = 860) in a nationally representative online survey in February-March 2014 provided their main reason for using e-cigarettes. Internet sites that exclusively sold closed-system e-cigarettes were more likely to make cigarette-related claims such as e-cigarettes being healthier and cheaper than cigarettes (ps < .0001) compared to sites selling open systems. Many sites implied their products could help smokers quit. Exclusive users of both systems endorsed cessation as their top reason. Closed-system users were more likely to report their reason as "use where smoking is banned." Although promotion of e-cigarettes as cessation aids is prohibited, consumers of both systems endorsed smoking cessation as their top reason for using e-cigarettes.

  1. Employing Model-Based Reasoning in Interdisciplinary Research Teams: Evidence-Based Practices for Integrating Knowledge Across Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, D. D.; Vincent, S.

    2017-12-01

    The NSF-funded project "Employing Model-Based Reasoning in Socio-Environmental Synthesis (EMBeRS)" has developed a generic model for exchanging knowledge across disciplines that is based on findings from the cognitive, learning, social, and organizational sciences addressing teamwork in complex problem solving situations. Two ten-day summer workshops for PhD students from large, NSF-funded interdisciplinary projects working on a variety of water issues were conducted in 2016 and 2017, testing the model by collecting a variety of data, including surveys, interviews, audio/video recordings, material artifacts and documents, and photographs. This presentation will introduce the EMBeRS model, the design of workshop activities based on the model, and results from surveys and interviews with the participating students. Findings suggest that this approach is very effective for developing a shared, integrated research vision across disciplines, compared with activities typically provided by most large research projects, and that students believe the skills developed in the EMBeRS workshops are unique and highly desireable.

  2. Bayesian and Dempster–Shafer reasoning for knowledge-based fault diagnosis : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.A.J.; Babuska, R.; De Schutter, B.H.K.

    2017-01-01

    Even though various frameworks exist for reasoning under uncertainty, a realistic fault diagnosis task does not fit into any of them in a straightforward way. For each framework, only part of the available data and knowledge is in the desired format. Moreover, additional criteria, like clarity of

  3. College Students' Understanding of the Carbon Cycle: Contrasting Principle-Based and Informal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Laurel M.; Wilke, Brook J.; Schramm, Jonathon W.; D'Avanzo, Charlene; Anderson, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Processes that transform carbon (e.g., photosynthesis) play a prominent role in college biology courses. Our goals were to learn about student reasoning related to these processes and provide faculty with tools for instruction and assessment. We created a framework illustrating how carbon-transforming processes can be related to one another during…

  4. Theory of mind in the Mod game : An agent-based model of strategic reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerd, Hermanes; Verbrugge, Rineke; Verheij, Bart; Herzig, Andreas; Lorini, Emiliano

    2014-01-01

    When people engage in social interactions, they often rely on their theory of mind, their ability to reason about unobservable mental content of others such as beliefs, goals, and intentions. This ability allows them to both understand why others behave the way they do as well as predict future

  5. The development and psychometric testing of a theory-based instrument to evaluate nurses' perception of clinical reasoning competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Liu, Hsiu-Chen; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Lin, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chia-Hao; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop and psychometrically test the Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale. Clinical reasoning is an essential skill for providing safe and quality patient care. Identifying pre-graduates' and nurses' needs and designing training courses to improve their clinical reasoning competence becomes a critical task. However, there is no instrument focusing on clinical reasoning in the nursing profession. Cross-sectional design was used. This study included the development of the scale, a pilot study that preliminary tested the readability and reliability of the developed scale and a main study that implemented and tested the psychometric properties of the developed scale. The Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale was developed based on the Clinical Reasoning Model. The scale includes 15 items using a Likert five-point scale. Data were collected from 2013-2014. Two hundred and fifty-one participants comprising clinical nurses and nursing pre-graduates completed and returned the questionnaires in the main study. The instrument was tested for internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Its validity was tested with content, construct and known-groups validity. One factor emerged from the factor analysis. The known-groups validity was confirmed. The Cronbach's alpha for the entire instrument was 0·9. The reliability and validity of the Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale were supported. The scale is a useful tool and can be easily administered for the self-assessment of clinical reasoning competence of clinical nurses and future baccalaureate nursing graduates. Study limitations and further recommendations are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Ontology-Based Learner Categorization through Case Based Reasoning and Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Sohail; García-Castro, Raul; Qayyum, Zia Ul; Safyan, Muhammad; Munir, Rana Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Learner categorization has a pivotal role in making e-learning systems a success. However, learner characteristics exploited at abstract level of granularity by contemporary techniques cannot categorize the learners effectively. In this paper, an architecture of e-learning framework has been presented that exploits the machine learning based…

  7. Aspects affecting occupational therapists' reasoning when implementing research-based evidence in stroke rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Borg, Tove; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2012-01-01

    and knowledge use in order to develop their practice knowledge and new skills. Moreover personal values and clinical experiences influenced clinical reasoning. Current knowledge of the importance of local cultures and leadership was reinforced. CONCLUSION: The influence of professional values...... in the occupational therapists' local cultures was a substantial factor in the implementation processes. In addition personal values and clinical experiences influenced professional decision-making. Furthermore, the study reinforced current knowledge of the importance of culture and leadership in implementation...

  8. Multi-person and multi-attribute design evaluations using evidential reasoning based on subjective safety and cost analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Yang, J.B.; Sen, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for ranking proposed design options based on subjective safety and cost analyses. Hierarchical system safety analysis is carried out using fuzzy sets and evidential reasoning. This involves safety modelling by fuzzy sets at the bottom level of a hierarchy and safety synthesis by evidential reasoning at higher levels. Fuzzy sets are also used to model the cost incurred for each design option. An evidential reasoning approach is then employed to synthesise the estimates of safety and cost, which are made by multiple designers. The developed approach is capable of dealing with problems of multiple designers, multiple attributes and multiple design options to select the best design. Finally, a practical engineering example is presented to demonstrate the proposed multi-person and multi-attribute design selection approach

  9. Reasons for Nonresponse in a Web-Based Survey of Alcohol Involvement Among First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.; Slayden, Janie; Reed, Mark B.; Ketchie, Julie M.; Lange, James E.; Scott, Marcia S.

    2007-01-01

    This study conducted a follow-up telephone survey of a probability sample of college students who did not respond to a Web survey to determine correlates of and reasons for nonresponse. A stratified random sample of 2 502 full-time first-year undergraduate students was invited to participate in a Web-based survey. A random sample of 221 students who did not respond to the original Web survey completed an abbreviated version of the original survey by telephone. Nonresponse did not vary by gender, but nonresponse was higher among Blacks and Hispanics compared to Whites, and Blacks compared to Asians. Nonresponders reported lower frequency of past 28 days drinking, lower levels of past-year and past 28-days heavy episodic drinking, and more time spent preparing for classes than responders. The most common reasons for nonresponse were “too busy” (45.7%), “not interested” (18.1%), and “forgot to complete survey” (18.1%). Reasons for nonresponse to Web surveys among college students are similar to reasons for nonresponse to mail and telephone surveys, and some nonresponse reasons vary as a function of alcohol involvement. PMID:17728069

  10. Extending Agent Based Telehealth Platform with Activities of Daily Living Reasoning Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Bjerring; Hallenborg, Kasper; Demazeau, Yves

    2016-01-01

    it will influence his or her everyday live. Therefore we believe that a telehealth system shall adapt its behavior so that it will not be a burden for the patient/resident to use. To this aim we have extended an existing telehealth platform to reason about activities of daily living in a smart home scenario......In the future patients will have a more active role in strengthening and maintaining their own health. Telehealth can empower and motivate patients by giving them the chance to stay in their own homes instead of going to the hospital. A telehealth system is deployed in a patient’s home hence...

  11. Case Based Medical Diagnosis of Occupational Chronic Lung Diseases From Their Symptoms and Signs

    OpenAIRE

    Prempal Singh Tomar, Ranjit Singh, P K Saxena, Jeetu Sharma

    2011-01-01

    The clinical decision support system using the case based reasoning (CBR) methodology of ArtificialIntelligence (AI) presents a foundation for a new technology of building intelligent computer aideddiagnoses systems. This Technology directly addresses the problems found in the traditional ArtificialIntelligence (AI) techniques, e.g. the problems of knowledge acquisition, remembering, robust andmaintenance. In this paper, we have used the Case Based Reasoning methodology to develop a clinicald...

  12. An approximate-reasoning-based method for screening high-level waste tanks for flammable gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The in situ retention of flammable gas produced by radiolysis and thermal decomposition in high-level waste can pose a safety problem if the gases are released episodically into the dome space of a storage tank. Screening efforts at Hanford have been directed at identifying tanks in which this situation could exist. Problems encountered in screening motivated an effort to develop an improved screening methodology. Approximate reasoning (AR) is a formalism designed to emulate the kinds of complex judgments made by subject matter experts. It uses inductive logic structures to build a sequence of forward-chaining inferences about a subject. AR models incorporate natural language expressions known as linguistic variables to represent evidence. The use of fuzzy sets to represent these variables mathematically makes it practical to evaluate quantitative and qualitative information consistently. The authors performed a pilot study to investigate the utility of AR for flammable gas screening. They found that the effort to implement such a model was acceptable and that computational requirements were reasonable. The preliminary results showed that important judgments about the validity of observational data and the predictive power of models could be made. These results give new insights into the problems observed in previous screening efforts

  13. Ontology-based concept map learning path reasoning system using SWRL rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-K.; Lee, C.-I. [National Univ. of Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Computer Science and Information Learning Technology

    2010-08-13

    Concept maps are graphical representations of knowledge. Concept mapping may reduce students' cognitive load and extend simple memory function. The purpose of this study was on the diagnosis of students' concept map learning abilities and the provision of personally constructive advice dependant on their learning path and progress. Ontology is a useful method with which to represent and store concept map information. Semantic web rule language (SWRL) rules are easy to understand and to use as specific reasoning services. This paper discussed the selection of grade 7 lakes and rivers curriculum for which to devise a concept map learning path reasoning service. The paper defined a concept map e-learning ontology and two SWRL semantic rules, and collected users' concept map learning path data to infer implicit knowledge and to recommend the next learning path for users. It was concluded that the designs devised in this study were feasible and advanced and the ontology kept the domain knowledge preserved. SWRL rules identified an abstraction model for inferred properties. Since they were separate systems, they did not interfere with each other, while ontology or SWRL rules were maintained, ensuring persistent system extensibility and robustness. 15 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  14. An approximate-reasoning-based method for screening high-level waste tanks for flammable gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-07-01

    The in situ retention of flammable gas produced by radiolysis and thermal decomposition in high-level waste can pose a safety problem if the gases are released episodically into the dome space of a storage tank. Screening efforts at Hanford have been directed at identifying tanks in which this situation could exist. Problems encountered in screening motivated an effort to develop an improved screening methodology. Approximate reasoning (AR) is a formalism designed to emulate the kinds of complex judgments made by subject matter experts. It uses inductive logic structures to build a sequence of forward-chaining inferences about a subject. AR models incorporate natural language expressions known as linguistic variables to represent evidence. The use of fuzzy sets to represent these variables mathematically makes it practical to evaluate quantitative and qualitative information consistently. The authors performed a pilot study to investigate the utility of AR for flammable gas screening. They found that the effort to implement such a model was acceptable and that computational requirements were reasonable. The preliminary results showed that important judgments about the validity of observational data and the predictive power of models could be made. These results give new insights into the problems observed in previous screening efforts.

  15. Reasons for computerised provider order entry (CPOE)-based inpatient medication ordering errors: an observational study of voided orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joanna; Kannampallil, Thomas G; Jarman, Alan; Sharma, Shivy; Rash, Christine; Schiff, Gordon; Galanter, William

    2017-07-11

    Medication voiding is a computerised provider order entry (CPOE)-based discontinuation mechanism that allows clinicians to identify erroneous medication orders. We investigated the accuracy of voiding as an indicator of clinician identification and interception of a medication ordering error, and investigated reasons and root contributors for medication ordering errors. Using voided orders identified with a void alert, we conducted interviews with ordering and voiding clinicians, followed by patient chart reviews. A structured coding framework was used to qualitatively analyse the reasons for medication ordering errors. We also compared clinician-CPOE-selected (at time of voiding), clinician-reported (interview) and chart review-based reasons for voiding. We conducted follow-up interviews on 101 voided orders. The positive predictive value (PPV) of voided orders that were medication ordering errors was 93.1% (95% CI 88.1% to 98.1%, n=94). Using chart review-based reasons as the gold standard, we found that clinician-CPOE-selected reasons were less reflective (PPV=70.2%, 95% CI 61.0% to 79.4%) than clinician-reported (interview) (PPV=86.1%, 95%CI 78.2% to 94.1%) reasons for medication ordering errors. Duplicate (n=44) and improperly composed (n=41) ordering errors were common, often caused by predefined order sets and data entry issues. A striking finding was the use of intentional violations as a mechanism to notify and seek ordering assistance from pharmacy service. Nearly half of the medication ordering errors were voided by pharmacists. We demonstrated that voided orders effectively captured medication ordering errors. The mismatch between clinician-CPOE-selected and the chart review-based reasons for error emphasises the need for developing standardised operational descriptions for medication ordering errors. Such standardisation can help in accurately identifying, tracking, managing and sharing erroneous orders and their root contributors between healthcare

  16. The ethical task of secondary teachers: An analysis through their attitudes and reasoning. Case study in the Mexican context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela HERNÁNDEZ GONZÁLEZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the analysis of professional ethics of teachers. It is considered important because this teaching is itself an ethical activity because it touches on the whole person of the learner to encourage it to be gradually a better subject.Moral reasoning and moral attitudes: to have a professional approach to this ethic two related elements were studied. A case study located in Mexico, in the Superior Normal School of Michoacán (ensm, initial training institution was performed, but also welcomes teachers in service for further studies and graduate. Methods of quantitative and qualitative research in the same investigation were integrated approach known as hybrid or mixed method. The instruments were built Likert scale, hypothetical and real moral dilemmas. And the implementation of group discussion with experts.The work investigated on major ethical problems of secondary teachers, argumentation processes performed to make ethical decisions and principal values present.The results found that ethical aspects have an important place in their educational conception. Also there is a high emotional charge in moral attitudes, which are transformed along the experience and professional cycling stage that is going through.Moreover, the presence of the principles of justice and charity in ethical conflicts was recognized, and the importance of the ability of moral sensibility as an element that favors the appropriate educational practices and ethical development of students and educators.The study provides knowledge of reflection to be implemented in teacher training, seeking to promote professional ethics in secondary teachers respond to the needs and demands of the current context.

  17. Implementation of a Clinical Reasoning Course in the Internal Medicine trimester of the final year of undergraduate medical training and its effect on students' case presentation and differential diagnostic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harendza, Sigrid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical reasoning, comprising the processes of clinical thinking, which form the basis of medical decisions, constitutes a central competence in the clinical routine on which diagnostic and therapeutic steps are based. In medical curricula in Germany, clinical reasoning is currently taught explicitly only to a small extend. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop and implement a clinical reasoning course in the final year of undergraduate medical training.Project description: A clinical reasoning course with six learning units and 18 learning objectives was developed, which was taught by two to four instructors on the basis of 32 paper cases from the clinical practice of the instructors. In the years 2011 to 2013, the course of eight weeks with two hours per week was taught seven times. Before the first and after the last seminar, the participating students filled out a self-assessment questionnaire with a 6-point Likert scale regarding eight different clinical reasoning skills. At the same times, they received a patient case with the assignment to prepare a case presentation and differential diagnoses.Results: From 128 participating students altogether, 42 complete data sets were available. After the course, participants assessed themselves significantly better than before the course in all eight clinical reasoning skills, for example in “Summarizing and presentation of a paper case” or in the “Skill to enumerate differential diagnoses” (p<0.05. The greatest increase occurred in the skill to recognize typical cognitive errors in medicine and to identify risk situations for their occurrence (pre: 2.98±0.92 and retro-pre: 2.64±1.01, respectively, versus post: 4.38±0.88. Based on the ratio of number of words used per keywords used the problem presentation of the paper case was significantly more focused after the course (p=0.011. A significant increase in the number of gathered differential diagnoses was not

  18. Online Open Circuit Fault Diagnosis for Rail Transit Traction Converter Based on Object-Oriented Colored Petri Net Topology Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Wang; Chunmei Xu; Lijun Diao; Jie Chen; Ruichang Qiu; Peizhen Wang

    2016-01-01

    For online open circuit fault diagnosis of the traction converter in rail transit vehicles, conventional approaches depend heavily on component parameters and circuit layouts. For better universality and less parameter sensitivity during the diagnosis, this paper proposes a novel topology analysis approach to diagnose switching device open circuit failures. During the diagnosis, the topology is analyzed with fault reasoning mechanism, which is based on object-oriented Petri net (OOCPN). The O...

  19. Estimating a reasonable patient panel size for primary care physicians with team-based task delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Justin; Margolius, David; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Grumbach, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Primary care faces the dilemma of excessive patient panel sizes in an environment of a primary care physician shortage. We aimed to estimate primary care panel sizes under different models of task delegation to nonphysician members of the primary care team. METHODS We used published estimates of the time it takes for a primary care physician to provide preventive, chronic, and acute care for a panel of 2,500 patients, and modeled how panel sizes would change if portions of preventive and chronic care services were delegated to nonphysician team members. RESULTS Using 3 assumptions about the degree of task delegation that could be achieved (77%, 60%, and 50% of preventive care, and 47%, 30%, and 25% of chronic care), we estimated that a primary care team could reasonably care for a panel of 1,947, 1,523, or 1,387 patients. CONCLUSIONS If portions of preventive and chronic care services are delegated to nonphysician team members, primary care practices can provide recommended preventive and chronic care with panel sizes that are achievable with the available primary care workforce.

  20. Reasons physicians do not recommend and patients refuse adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer: a population based chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shayeb, Mohamed; Scarfe, Andrew; Yasui, Yutaka; Winget, Marcy

    2012-06-07

    Surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy has been the standard of care for the treatment of stage III colon cancer since the early 1990's. Despite this, large proportions of patients do not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. We aimed to identify physicians' and patients' reasons for treatment decisions. A retrospective population based study was conducted that included all surgically treated stage III colon cancer patients diagnosed in Alberta between 2002 and 2005 who had an oncologist-consult to discuss post-surgical treatment options. Patient demographics and stage were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry. Chart reviews were conducted to extract treatment details, the oncologists' reasons for not recommending chemotherapy, and patients' reasons for refusing chemotherapy. The number and proportion of patients who were not recommended or refused chemotherapy were calculated. A total of 613 patients had surgery followed by an oncologist-consult. Overall, 168 (27%) patients did not receive chemotherapy. It was not recommended for 111 (18%) patients; the most frequent reason was presence of one or more co-morbidities (34%) or combination of co-morbidity and age or frailty (22%). Fifty-eight (9%) patients declined chemotherapy, 22% of whom declined due to concerns about toxicity. Some co-morbidities are clinical indications for not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, however, the high percentage of patients who were not recommended adjuvant chemotherapy due to co-morbidities according to clinical notes but who had a low Charlson co-morbidity score suggests variation in practice patterns of consulting oncologists. In addition, patients' reasons for refusing treatment need to be systematically assessed to ensure patients' preferences and treatment benefits are properly weighed when making treatment decisions.

  1. Drawing-to-learn: a framework for using drawings to promote model-based reasoning in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, Kim; Thomas, Stephen

    2015-03-02

    The drawing of visual representations is important for learners and scientists alike, such as the drawing of models to enable visual model-based reasoning. Yet few biology instructors recognize drawing as a teachable science process skill, as reflected by its absence in the Vision and Change report's Modeling and Simulation core competency. Further, the diffuse research on drawing can be difficult to access, synthesize, and apply to classroom practice. We have created a framework of drawing-to-learn that defines drawing, categorizes the reasons for using drawing in the biology classroom, and outlines a number of interventions that can help instructors create an environment conducive to student drawing in general and visual model-based reasoning in particular. The suggested interventions are organized to address elements of affect, visual literacy, and visual model-based reasoning, with specific examples cited for each. Further, a Blooming tool for drawing exercises is provided, as are suggestions to help instructors address possible barriers to implementing and assessing drawing-to-learn in the classroom. Overall, the goal of the framework is to increase the visibility of drawing as a skill in biology and to promote the research and implementation of best practices. © 2015 K. Quillin and S. Thomas. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. The impact of egocentric vs. allocentric agency attributions on the neural bases of reasoning about social rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Nicola; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Crespi, Chiara; Gorini, Alessandra; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-09-18

    We used the "standard" and "switched" social contract versions of the Wason Selection-task to investigate the neural bases of human reasoning about social rules. Both these versions typically elicit the deontically correct answer, i.e. the proper identification of the violations of a conditional obligation. Only in the standard version of the task, however, this response corresponds to the logically correct one. We took advantage of this differential adherence to logical vs. deontical accuracy to test the different predictions of logic rule-based vs. visuospatial accounts of inferential abilities in 14 participants who solved the standard and switched versions of the Selection-task during functional-Magnetic-Resonance-Imaging. Both versions activated the well known left fronto-parietal network of deductive reasoning. The standard version additionally recruited the medial parietal and right inferior parietal cortex, previously associated with mental imagery and with the adoption of egocentric vs. allocentric spatial reference frames. These results suggest that visuospatial processes encoding one's own subjective experience in social interactions may support and shape the interpretation of deductive arguments and/or the resulting inferences, thus contributing to elicit content effects in human reasoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analogical Trust Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolifard, Mozhgan; Herrmann, Peter; Öztürk, Pinar

    Trust is situation-specific and the trust judgment problem with which the truster is confronted might be, in some ways, similar but not identical to some problems the truster has previously encountered. The truster then may draw information from these past experiences useful for the current situation. We present a knowledge-intensive and model-based case-based reasoning framework that supports the truster to infer such information. The suggested method augments the typically sparse trust information by inferring the missing information from other situational conditions, and can better support situation-aware trust management. Our framework can be coupled with existing trust management models to make them situation-aware. It uses the underlying model of trust management to transfer trust information between situations. We validate the proposed framework for Subjective Logic trust management model and evaluate it by conducting experiments on a large real dataset.

  4. EUROCONTROL-Systemic Occurrence Analysis Methodology (SOAM)-A 'Reason'-based organisational methodology for analysing incidents and accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licu, Tony; Cioran, Florin; Hayward, Brent; Lowe, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The Safety Occurrence Analysis Methodology (SOAM) developed for EUROCONTROL is an accident investigation methodology based on the Reason Model of organisational accidents. The purpose of a SOAM is to broaden the focus of an investigation from human involvement issues, also known as 'active failures of operational personnel' under Reason's original model, to include analysis of the latent conditions deeper within the organisation that set the context for the event. Such an approach is consistent with the tenets of Just Culture in which people are encouraged to provide full and open information about how incidents occurred, and are not penalised for errors. A truly systemic approach is not simply a means of transferring responsibility for a safety occurrence from front-line employees to senior managers. A consistent philosophy must be applied, where the investigation process seeks to correct deficiencies wherever they may be found, without attempting to apportion blame or liability

  5. A quantitative risk-based model for reasoning over critical system properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    This position paper suggests the use of a quantitative risk-based model to help support reeasoning and decision making that spans many of the critical properties such as security, safety, survivability, fault tolerance, and real-time.

  6. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...

  7. Verbal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-31

    Psicologia , 4(3), 183-198. 94 Guyote, M.J. and Sternberg, R.J. (1981). A transitive-chain theory of syllogistic reasoning. Cognitive Psychology, 13(4), 461...personal connections. Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 39-59. Newell, A. (1990). Unified Theories of Cognition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard

  8. Survey of Spread and Reasons of Turning into Alternative Therapies to Current Medicine: (Case Study of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Ramezani

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Although the reasons of citizens for using alternative therapies was more pragmatic, but statistical analysis showed that near 40% of the variance of using Herbal treatment among citizens interested by awareness about benefits of this therapy in advices of religious leaders.

  9. Drug utilization according to reason for prescribing: a pharmacoepidemiologic method based on an indication hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Hendriksen, Carsten; Morten, Andersen

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To develop a pharmacoepidemiologic method for drug utilization analysis according to indication, gender, and age by means of register-based information. Statin utilization in 2005 was applied as an example. Methods Following the recommendations for statin therapy, we constructed ...

  10. Probability-Based Inference in a Domain of Proportional Reasoning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    By Diatrtbutionj Availability Codeo ~vall and/or’ Dist Sp*oLeL Probability-Based Inference Page 1 Introduction The view of human learning rapidly...Ho Kbs Car-o"Wellor Uokrsay of Now Jersey 86=sinlims Town& C - Deprn-a of Pschology Waves. NJ 0102 Pinito. NJ 6841 rabuah. PA 15213 Dr. Job baud Dr

  11. The Analysis of Geometrical Reasoning Ability Viewed from Self-Efficacy on Connected Mathematic Project (CMP Learning Etnomathematics-Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Dwi Damaryanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the geometrical reasoning ability of the students viewed from the self-efficacy through the learning of  Connected Mathematic Project (CMP ethnomathematic-based. The type of this research was qualitative which was descriptive. To obtained the validity of the qualitative data, the checking technique used in this research was sources triangulation, which had been done by comparing the suitability of the obtained data from the results of the interview and the test. Population of this research was the students of grade VIII at SMP Negeri 1 Sidoharjo and the sample was the students from VIII A Class. At the final, 12 research subjects were chosen to represent the group of level 1 self-efficacy, level 2 self-efficacy, level 3 self-efficacy, level 4 self efficacy, level 5 self-efficacy, and level 6 self-efficacy. In this research, there was a finding which shows us that the students with high self-efficacy had low ability to finish the geometrical reasoning ability test, while the students with low self-efficacy had the ability to finish the geometrical reasoning ability test. The factors which affected the finding were the motivations and the interest of learning mathematics which was affecting the attitude of the students in the classroom.

  12. Taxonomies for Reasoning About Cyber-physical Attacks in IoT-based Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Pan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT has transformed many aspects of modern manufacturing, from design to production to quality control. In particular, IoT and digital manufacturing technologies have substantially accelerated product development- cycles and manufacturers can now create products of a complexity and precision not heretofore possible. New threats to supply chain security have arisen from connecting machines to the Internet and introducing complex IoT-based systems controlling manufacturing processes. By attacking these IoT-based manufacturing systems and tampering with digital files, attackers can manipulate physical characteristics of parts and change the dimensions, shapes, or mechanical properties of the parts, which can result in parts that fail in the field. These defects increase manufacturing costs and allow silent problems to occur only under certain loads that can threaten safety and/or lives. To understand potential dangers and protect manufacturing system safety, this paper presents two taxonomies: one for classifying cyber-physical attacks against manufacturing processes and another for quality control measures for counteracting these attacks. We systematically identify and classify possible cyber-physical attacks and connect the attacks with variations in manufacturing processes and quality control measures. Our taxonomies also provide a scheme for linking emerging IoT-based manufacturing system vulnerabilities to possible attacks and quality control measures.

  13. Analysis of students’ mathematical reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirwan; Darhim; Herman, T.

    2018-01-01

    The reasoning is one of the mathematical abilities that have very complex implications. This complexity causes reasoning including abilities that are not easily attainable by students. Similarly, studies dealing with reason are quite diverse, primarily concerned with the quality of mathematical reasoning. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of mathematical reasoning based perspective Lithner. Lithner looked at how the environment affects the mathematical reasoning. In this regard, Lithner made two perspectives, namely imitative reasoning and creative reasoning. Imitative reasoning can be memorized and algorithmic reasoning. The Result study shows that although the students generally still have problems in reasoning. Students tend to be on imitative reasoning which means that students tend to use a routine procedure when dealing with reasoning. It is also shown that the traditional approach still dominates on the situation of students’ daily learning.

  14. Model-based reasoning for power system management using KATE and the SSM/PMAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert A.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.; Carreira, Daniel J.; Mckenzie, F. D.; Gann, Brian

    1993-01-01

    The overall goal of this research effort has been the development of a software system which automates tasks related to monitoring and controlling electrical power distribution in spacecraft electrical power systems. The resulting software system is called the Intelligent Power Controller (IPC). The specific tasks performed by the IPC include continuous monitoring of the flow of power from a source to a set of loads, fast detection of anomalous behavior indicating a fault to one of the components of the distribution systems, generation of diagnosis (explanation) of anomalous behavior, isolation of faulty object from remainder of system, and maintenance of flow of power to critical loads and systems (e.g. life-support) despite fault conditions being present (recovery). The IPC system has evolved out of KATE (Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer), developed at NASA-KSC. KATE consists of a set of software tools for developing and applying structure and behavior models to monitoring, diagnostic, and control applications.

  15. Robust Automated Test Assembly for Testlet-Based Tests: An Illustration with Analytical Reasoning Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard P. Veldkamp

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many high-stakes testing programs, testlets are used to increase efficiency. Since responses to items belonging to the same testlet not only depend on the latent ability but also on correct reading, understanding, and interpretation of the stimulus, the assumption of local independence does not hold. Testlet response theory (TRT models have been developed to deal with this dependency. For both logit and probit testlet models, a random testlet effect is added to the standard logit and probit item response theory (IRT models. Even though this testlet effect might make the IRT models more realistic, application of these models in practice leads to new questions, for example, in automated test assembly (ATA. In many test assembly models, goals have been formulated for the amount of information the test should provide about the candidates. The amount of Fisher Information is often maximized or it has to meet a prespecified target. Since TRT models have a random testlet effect, Fisher Information contains a random effect as well. The question arises as to how this random effect in ATA should be dealt with. A method based on robust optimization techniques for dealing with uncertainty in test assembly due to random testlet effects is presented. The method is applied in the context of a high-stakes testing program, and the impact of this robust test assembly method is studied. Results are discussed, advantages of the use of robust test assembly are mentioned, and recommendations about the use of the new method are given.

  16. Toward a Reasoned Classification of Diseases Using Physico-Chemical Based Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Laurent; Lafitte, Olivier; da Veiga Moreira, Jorgelindo

    2018-01-01

    Background: Diseases and health conditions have been classified according to anatomical site, etiological, and clinical criteria. Physico-chemical mechanisms underlying the biology of diseases, such as the flow of energy through cells and tissues, have been often overlooked in classification systems. Objective: We propose a conceptual framework toward the development of an energy-oriented classification of diseases, based on the principles of physical chemistry. Methods: A review of literature on the physical chemistry of biological interactions in a number of diseases is traced from the point of view of the fluid and solid mechanics, electricity, and chemistry. Results: We found consistent evidence in literature of decreased and/or increased physical and chemical forces intertwined with biological processes of numerous diseases, which allowed the identification of mechanical, electric and chemical phenotypes of diseases. Discussion: Biological mechanisms of diseases need to be evaluated and integrated into more comprehensive theories that should account with principles of physics and chemistry. A hypothetical model is proposed relating the natural history of diseases to mechanical stress, electric field, and chemical equilibria (ATP) changes. The present perspective toward an innovative disease classification may improve drug-repurposing strategies in the future.

  17. Toward a Reasoned Classification of Diseases Using Physico-Chemical Based Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Schwartz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diseases and health conditions have been classified according to anatomical site, etiological, and clinical criteria. Physico-chemical mechanisms underlying the biology of diseases, such as the flow of energy through cells and tissues, have been often overlooked in classification systems.Objective: We propose a conceptual framework toward the development of an energy-oriented classification of diseases, based on the principles of physical chemistry.Methods: A review of literature on the physical chemistry of biological interactions in a number of diseases is traced from the point of view of the fluid and solid mechanics, electricity, and chemistry.Results: We found consistent evidence in literature of decreased and/or increased physical and chemical forces intertwined with biological processes of numerous diseases, which allowed the identification of mechanical, electric and chemical phenotypes of diseases.Discussion: Biological mechanisms of diseases need to be evaluated and integrated into more comprehensive theories that should account with principles of physics and chemistry. A hypothetical model is proposed relating the natural history of diseases to mechanical stress, electric field, and chemical equilibria (ATP changes. The present perspective toward an innovative disease classification may improve drug-repurposing strategies in the future.

  18. Model-based reasoning: using visual tools to reveal student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckie, Douglas; Harrison, Scott H; Ebert-May, Diane

    2011-03-01

    Using visual models is common in science and should become more common in classrooms. Our research group has developed and completed studies on the use of a visual modeling tool, the Concept Connector. This modeling tool consists of an online concept mapping Java applet that has automatic scoring functions we refer to as Robograder. The Concept Connector enables students in large introductory science courses to visualize their thinking through online model building. The Concept Connector's flexible scoring system, based on tested grading schemes as well as instructor input, has enabled >1,000 physiology students to build maps of their ideas about plant and animal physiology with the guidance of automatic and immediate online scoring of homework. Criterion concept maps developed by instructors in this project contain numerous expert-generated or "correct" propositions connecting two concept words together with a linking phrase. In this study, holistic algorithms were used to test automated methods of scoring concept maps that might work as well as a human grader.

  19. Toward a Reasoned Classification of Diseases Using Physico-Chemical Based Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Laurent; Lafitte, Olivier; da Veiga Moreira, Jorgelindo

    2018-01-01

    Background: Diseases and health conditions have been classified according to anatomical site, etiological, and clinical criteria. Physico-chemical mechanisms underlying the biology of diseases, such as the flow of energy through cells and tissues, have been often overlooked in classification systems. Objective: We propose a conceptual framework toward the development of an energy-oriented classification of diseases, based on the principles of physical chemistry. Methods: A review of literature on the physical chemistry of biological interactions in a number of diseases is traced from the point of view of the fluid and solid mechanics, electricity, and chemistry. Results: We found consistent evidence in literature of decreased and/or increased physical and chemical forces intertwined with biological processes of numerous diseases, which allowed the identification of mechanical, electric and chemical phenotypes of diseases. Discussion: Biological mechanisms of diseases need to be evaluated and integrated into more comprehensive theories that should account with principles of physics and chemistry. A hypothetical model is proposed relating the natural history of diseases to mechanical stress, electric field, and chemical equilibria (ATP) changes. The present perspective toward an innovative disease classification may improve drug-repurposing strategies in the future. PMID:29541031

  20. Case-based approaches for knowledge application and organisational learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Johansen, John; Luxhøj, James T.

    2005-01-01

    . These practices and activity patterns are based on learning and applying the knowledge internal and external to an organisation. To ensure their smooth formulation process, there are two important techniques designed – an expert adaptation approach and an expert evaluation approach. These two approaches provide......In dealing with the strategic issues within a manufacturing system, it is necessary to facilitate formulating the composing elements of a set of strategic manufacturing practices and activity patterns that will support an enterprise to reinforce and increase its competitive advantage...... structured processes to execute the organisational learning and knowledge application, which intend to guide the practitioners during the process of manufacturing competence development and improvement. They are based on Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) methodology and rely on cases as the primary knowledge supply...

  1. Logical reasoning with diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Allwein, Gerard

    1996-01-01

    PART A: Theoretical Issues. 1. Visual Information and Valid Reasoning, Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. 2. Operational Constraints in Diagrammatic Reasoning, Atsushi Shimojima. 3. Diagrams and the Concept of Logical System, Jon Barwise and Eric Hammer. PART B: Case Studies. 4. Situation-Theoretic Account of Valid Reasoning with Venn Diagrams, Sun-Joo Shin. 5. Towards a Model Theory of Venn Diagrams, eric Hammer and Norman Danner. 6. Peircean Graphs for Propositional Logic, Eric Hammer. 7. A Diagrammatic Subsystem of Hilbert''s Geometry, Isabel Luengo. PART C: Heterogenous Systems. 8. Heterogenous Logic, Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. 9. Toward the Rigorous Use of Diagrams in Reasoning about Hardware, Steven D. Johnson, Jon Barwise, and Gerard Allwein. 10. Exploiting the Potential of Diagrams in Guiding Hardware Reasoning, Kathi D. Fisler

  2. SemantGeo: Powering Ecological and Environment Data Discovery and Search with Standards-Based Geospatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed, P.; Ashby, B.; Khan, I.; Patton, E. W.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Recent efforts to create and leverage standards for geospatial data specification and inference include the GeoSPARQL standard, Geospatial OWL ontologies (e.g., GAZ, Geonames), and RDF triple stores that support GeoSPARQL (e.g., AllegroGraph, Parliament) that use RDF instance data for geospatial features of interest. However, there remains a gap on how best to fuse software engineering best practices and GeoSPARQL within semantic web applications to enable flexible search driven by geospatial reasoning. In this abstract we introduce the SemantGeo module for the SemantEco framework that helps fill this gap, enabling scientists find data using geospatial semantics and reasoning. SemantGeo provides multiple types of geospatial reasoning for SemantEco modules. The server side implementation uses the Parliament SPARQL Endpoint accessed via a Tomcat servlet. SemantGeo uses the Google Maps API for user-specified polygon construction and JsTree for providing containment and categorical hierarchies for search. SemantGeo uses GeoSPARQL for spatial reasoning alone and in concert with RDFS/OWL reasoning capabilities to determine, e.g., what geofeatures are within, partially overlap with, or within a certain distance from, a given polygon. We also leverage qualitative relationships defined by the Gazetteer ontology that are composites of spatial relationships as well as administrative designations or geophysical phenomena. We provide multiple mechanisms for exploring data, such as polygon (map-based) and named-feature (hierarchy-based) selection, that enable flexible search constraints using boolean combination of selections. JsTree-based hierarchical search facets present named features and include a 'part of' hierarchy (e.g., measurement-site-01, Lake George, Adirondack Region, NY State) and type hierarchies (e.g., nodes in the hierarchy for WaterBody, Park, MeasurementSite), depending on the ';axis of choice' option selected. Using GeoSPARQL and aforementioned ontology

  3. Reasoning Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Renato Pinto de Queiroz

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Esta dissertação apresenta uma ferramenta de apoio à decisão, baseada na Metodologia Multicritérios de Apoio à Decisão - MCDA, através do desenvolvimento de um software denominado Reasoning Maps. O software permite, de maneira integrada, a construção de mapas cognitivos, suas diversas análises topológicas e o cadastramento e análise de alternativas. Abor...

  4. You get what you need: an examination of purpose- based inheritance reasoning in undergraduates, preschoolers, and biological experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Elizabeth A; Gelman, Susan A

    2014-03-01

    This set of seven experiments examines reasoning about the inheritance and acquisition of physical properties in preschoolers, undergraduates, and biology experts. Participants (N = 390) received adoption vignettes in which a baby animal was born to one parent but raised by a biologically unrelated parent, and they judged whether the offspring would have the same property as the birth or rearing parent. For each vignette, the animal parents had contrasting values on a physical property dimension (e.g., the birth parent had a short tail; the rearing parent had a long tail). Depending on the condition, the distinct properties had distinct functions (“function-predictive”) were associated with distinct habitats (“habitat-predictive”), or had no implications (“non-predictive”). Undergraduates' bias to view properties as inherited from the birth parent was reduced in the function- and habitat-predictive conditions. This result indicates a purpose-based view of inheritance, whereby animals can acquire properties that serve a purpose in their environment. This stance was not found in experts or preschoolers. We discuss the results in terms of how undergraduates' purpose-based inheritance reasoning develops and relates to larger-scale misconceptions about Darwinian evolutionary processes, and implications for biology education.

  5. Population-based screening versus case detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ravi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available India has a large burden of blindness and population-based screening is a strategy commonly employed to detect disease and prevent morbidity. However, not all diseases are amenable to screening. This communication examines the issue of "population-based screening" versus "case detection" in the Indian scenario. Using the example of glaucoma, it demonstrates that given the poor infrastructure, for a "rare" disease, case detection is more effective than population-based screening.

  6. Software requirements management based on use cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the requirements management based on use cases is theoretically explored, and a multi-layer use-case model is introduced, which combined with three levels of use cases and a single use-case refinement model. Through the practice in a software project, the multi-layer use-case model provides a good solution on how to control the requirements scope and change, and provides the balance of work assignment between customer departments, information management departments and software development outsourcing team. (authors)

  7. The Extent of and Reasons for Non Re-Enrollment: A Case of Korea National Open University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoseon Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuous efforts to increase retention, dropout rates are high in distance universities. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the extent and causes of non re-enrollment at a mega university, Korea National Open University; and 2 to suggest actions to improve the retention of students, in general, and those with higher risks of dropout in particular. A survey designed to establish the student demographics and the students’ main reasons for non re-enrollment was carried out during spring, 2009 with 1,353 respondents. The results indicate that a lack of feedback from the instructors, heavy workload, and difficulties in studying at a distance were the main reasons for non re-enrollment. The learners’ perceptions of the value of the degrees and their ages, gender, and educational backgrounds were also found to be significant factors in decisions not to re-enroll. The suggested solutions for reducing non re-enrollment include: a decrease in the number of required credit hours’ study per semester; the provision of stronger social support; the introduction of a more flexible enrollment system; and better use of the available technology and infrastructure to help both students and instructors build stronger learning communities.

  8. A Teacher Competency Enhancement Model based on the Coaching Processes to Increase Mathematical Reasoning Abilities of Lower-Secondary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uaychai Sukanalam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study aimed to: 1 investigate problems and needs for the learning management that helps increase capacities of mathematics teachers at the lower-secondary level, 2 develop a teacher competency enhancement model based on the coaching processes to enhance mathematical reasoning abilities of lower-secondary students, 3 find out the educational supervisors’ opinions on the model designed. The samples of the study comprised 212 mathematics teachers at the lower-secondary level from 60 schools under jurisdiction of the Office of Secondary Educational Service Area 27, who were selected through the simple random sampling technique ; and 201 educational supervisors in charge of the mathematics learning strand from 42 educational service areas, who were selected through the purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted in the academic year 2015. The research instruments included: 1 a teacher competency enhancement manual that illustrated the steps and procedures for increasing the teacher’s capacities based on the coaching processes in order to enhance mathematical reasoning abilities of lower-secondary students, 2 a survey on problems and needs for the learning management to enhance capacities of mathematics teachers at the lower-secondary level, 3 A questionnaire concerning the educational supervisor’s opinion on the model designed. The statistics used included percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The study results showed that: 1. According to the study and analysis of basic data, problems and needs, it was found that the needs for increasing capacities of mathematics teachers at the lower-secondary level was overall at the high level. In terms of identifying behaviors as “mathematical competencies”, there were some problems associated with thinking and reasoning abilities of the teachers, and their needs in developing the learning management were at the highest level. To solve such problems, it is suggested that

  9. Modeling and knowledge acquisition processes using case-based inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of acquisition and presentation of the organizational Process Knowledge has considered by many KM researches. In this research a model for process knowledge acquisition and presentation has been presented by using the approach of Case Base Reasoning. The validation of the presented model was evaluated by conducting an expert panel. Then a software has been developed based on the presented model and implemented in Eghtesad Novin Bank of Iran. In this company, based on the stages of the presented model, first the knowledge intensive processes has been identified, then the Process Knowledge was stored in a knowledge base in the format of problem/solution/consequent .The retrieval of the knowledge was done based on the similarity of the nearest neighbor algorithm. For validating of the implemented system, results of the system has compared by the results of the decision making of the expert of the process.

  10. Heuristic reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    How can we advance knowledge? Which methods do we need in order to make new discoveries? How can we rationally evaluate, reconstruct and offer discoveries as a means of improving the ‘method’ of discovery itself? And how can we use findings about scientific discovery to boost funding policies, thus fostering a deeper impact of scientific discovery itself? The respective chapters in this book provide readers with answers to these questions. They focus on a set of issues that are essential to the development of types of reasoning for advancing knowledge, such as models for both revolutionary findings and paradigm shifts; ways of rationally addressing scientific disagreement, e.g. when a revolutionary discovery sparks considerable disagreement inside the scientific community; frameworks for both discovery and inference methods; and heuristics for economics and the social sciences.

  11. Professional Perceptions and Reasons for Access to Journalism Studies. The Case of Journalism Students at Complutense University of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam RODRÍGUEZ PALLARES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the academic year 2013-2014, the MediaCom UCM research group conducted a study among students in the first and fourth year of the Degree in Journalism at UCM with the pretention to know the reasons that they decided to pursue these studies, their perceptions of journalism and media influence. From a quantitative analysis model relatively vocational criteria among students are perceived; generally they believe that journalists are not very independent and that political and economic factors influence in the activity of the media sector, whose influence on policy choices and consumption is subject to debate. This article is part of an academic project, whose results are intended to work with universities to improve their teaching and training model of students according to their perception of journalism as a profession.

  12. Query Expansion: Is It Necessary In Textual Case-Based Reasoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Query expansion (QE) is the process of transforming a seed query to improve retrieval performance in information retrieval operations. It is often intended to overcome a vocabulary mismatch between the query and the document collection. Query expansion is known to improve retrieval effectiveness of some information ...

  13. A Case-Based Reasoning Approach to Internet Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) Authoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stottler, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Report developed under SBIR contract. Intelligent tutoring systems (lTSs) have shown great promise in a variety of training domains and can achieve many of the same benefits as one-on-one instruction, in a cost-effective manner...

  14. Free will and intelligent machines: Why case-based reasoning systems do what they do

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    This paper presents an analysis of the application of the philosophical concept of free will to intelligent machines. It is argued that we need to transfer the concept to a more empirical approach in philosophy in order to be able to answer questions about the design of intelligent systems that are

  15. Case Based Heuristic Selection for Timetabling Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Edmund; Petrovic, Sanja; Qu, Rong

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a case-based heuristic selection approach for automated university course and exam timetabling. The method described in this paper is motivated by the goal of developing timetabling systems that are fundamentally more general than the current state of the art. Heuristics that worked well in previous similar situations are memorized in a case base and are retrieved for solving the problem in hand. Knowledge discovery techniques are employed in two distinct scenarios. Firstl...

  16. Knowledge-based systems and interactive graphics for reactor control using the Automated Reasoning Tool(ART) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.; Clayton, B.; Davies, P.

    1987-01-01

    The use of Knowledge-Based systems and advanced graphic concepts are described using the Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) for a model nuclear plant system. Through the sue of asynchronous graphic input/output, the user is allowed to communicate through a graphical display to a Production-Rule Analysis System modelling the plant while its rules are actively being fired. The user changes the status of system components by pointing at them on the system configuration display with a mouse cursor and clicking one of the buttons on the mouse. The Production-Rule Analysis System accepts the new input and immediately displays its diagnosis of the system state and any associated recommendations as to the appropriate course of action. This approach offers a distinct advantage over typing the components statuses in response to queries by a conventional Production-Rule Analysis system. Moreover, two effective ways of communication between man and machine are combined

  17. Supporting Students' Learning and Socioscientific Reasoning About Climate Change—the Effect of Computer-Based Concept Mapping Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Sabina; Nitsch, Anne; Boone, William J.; Nückles, Matthias; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2017-02-01

    Climate change is one of the most challenging problems facing today's global society (e.g., IPCC 2013). While climate change is a widely covered topic in the media, and abundant information is made available through the internet, the causes and consequences of climate change in its full complexity are difficult for individuals, especially non-scientists, to grasp. Science education is a field which can play a crucial role in fostering meaningful education of students to become climate literate citizens (e.g., NOAA 2009; Schreiner et al., 41, 3-50, 2005). If students are, at some point, to participate in societal discussions about the sustainable development of our planet, their learning with respect to such issues needs to be supported. This includes the ability to think critically, to cope with complex scientific evidence, which is often subject to ongoing inquiry, and to reach informed decisions on the basis of factual information as well as values-based considerations. The study presented in this paper focused on efforts to advance students in (1) their conceptual understanding about climate change and (2) their socioscientific reasoning and decision making regarding socioscientific issues in general. Although there is evidence that "knowledge" does not guarantee pro-environmental behavior (e.g. Schreiner et al., 41, 3-50, 2005; Skamp et al., 97(2), 191-217, 2013), conceptual, interdisciplinary understanding of climate change is an important prerequisite to change individuals' attitudes towards climate change and thus to eventually foster climate literate citizens (e.g., Clark et al. 2013). In order to foster conceptual understanding and socioscientific reasoning, a computer-based learning environment with an embedded concept mapping tool was utilized to support senior high school students' learning about climate change and possible solution strategies. The evaluation of the effect of different concept mapping scaffolds focused on the quality of student

  18. An Integrated Software Framework to Support Semantic Modeling and Reasoning of Spatiotemporal Change of Geographical Objects: A Use Case of Land Use and Land Cover Change Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolving Earth observation and change detection techniques enable the automatic identification of Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC over a large extent from massive amounts of remote sensing data. It at the same time poses a major challenge in effective organization, representation and modeling of such information. This study proposes and implements an integrated computational framework to support the modeling, semantic and spatial reasoning of change information with regard to space, time and topology. We first proposed a conceptual model to formally represent the spatiotemporal variation of change data, which is essential knowledge to support various environmental and social studies, such as deforestation and urbanization studies. Then, a spatial ontology was created to encode these semantic spatiotemporal data in a machine-understandable format. Based on the knowledge defined in the ontology and related reasoning rules, a semantic platform was developed to support the semantic query and change trajectory reasoning of areas with LULCC. This semantic platform is innovative, as it integrates semantic and spatial reasoning into a coherent computational and operational software framework to support automated semantic analysis of time series data that can go beyond LULC datasets. In addition, this system scales well as the amount of data increases, validated by a number of experimental results. This work contributes significantly to both the geospatial Semantic Web and GIScience communities in terms of the establishment of the (web-based semantic platform for collaborative question answering and decision-making.

  19. When Security Overrules Reason: McCarthyism in View of The Cases of Charles Chaplin and Lucille Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet Árvay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Counter-Intelligence operations as part of modern warfare serve the purpose of national security. However, these operations often target civilians, and therefore give rise to serious allegations which can have devastating effects on many people’s life. The aim of this paper is to depict the mechanisms of the McCarthy era in view of the persecution of Charles Chaplin and Lucille Ball. Their cases aptly illustrate the controversial tactics and methods of McCarthyism in post-war America. To explore the networks used by authorities and actors of anti-communist operations, this paper exploits the archival sources of Chaplin’s and Ball’s cases which adds up to over two thousands pages in the records of the MI5 and the FBI. The fully detailed records give an insight into the impact of espionage accusations on civilians’ lives and provide a good account of post-war American intelligence actions.

  20. Review of Case Studies for Quantitative Reasoning: A Casebook of Media Articles by Bernard L. Madison, Stuart Boersma, Caren L. Diefenderfer, and Shannon W. Dingman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel L. Tunstall

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bernard L. Madison, Stuart Boersma, Caren L. Diefenderfer, and Shannon W. Dingman. Case Studies for Quantitative Reasoning: A Casebook of Media Articles (Pearson Learning Solutions, 2012. 215 pp. ISBN 9781256512875. Concisely organized and timely to a tee, Case Studies for Quantitative Reasoning contains a wealth of articles and exercises to promote higher-order thinking in any course where quantitative literacy is a goal. The text is a self-contained package complete with just enough mathematics to ensure that all students can join in. It contains a total of twenty-four case studies, each of which highlights how numbers appear in day-to-day media. The text is broken into six broad mathematical topics, each of which includes any background mathematics necessary for reading. Each individual study includes warm-up exercises and follow-up questions that demand critical thinking. Notwithstanding the elementary mathematics prerequisite to read the text, the topics and questions are sufficiently challenging to keep a class – and accompanying instructor – engaged for an entire semester.

  1. Educational Program Status of Premarital Counseling Centers in Hamadan Province Based on Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mahdi Hazavehei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Divorce, unwanted pregnancies, and unsuccessful marriages create mental, emotional, physical, and financial problems for individuals, families, and ultimately the community. Premarital education and counseling is one of the most effective ways for the prevention of such problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of a premarital educational program by using the TRA (Theory of Reasoned Action. Materials and Methods: Four hundred couples who attended premarital education and counseling classes voluntarily participated in this descriptive and analytical study. Variables such as attitude, subjective norms, and intention, were collected by using a validated questionnaire based on the TRA components. The questionnaire was filled out before and after the educational classes. Results: The mean age of the couples was 23.16 ± 5.64 years old. Statistically significant differences were found in knowledge, attitude, and subjective norms before and after participation in the classes (p value 0.05. Conclusion: Although the mean knowledge and attitude of the couples under study increased after the classes, the increase was not high and only 20% of the couples gained acceptable knowledge. The effectiveness of such classes in the current manner is very low. Application of appropriate educational methods and media-based models and theories is highly recommended.

  2. Lifestyle Behaviours Add to the Armoury of Treatment Options for Panic Disorder: An Evidence-Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Rod

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an evidence-based reasoning, focusing on evidence of an Occupational Therapy input to lifestyle behaviour influences on panic disorder that also provides potentially broader application across other mental health problems (MHP). The article begins from the premise that we are all different. It then follows through a sequence of questions, examining incrementally how MHPs are experienced and classified. It analyses the impact of individual sensitivity at different levels of analysis, from genetic and epigenetic individuality, through neurotransmitter and body system sensitivity. Examples are given demonstrating the evidence base behind the logical sequence of investigation. The paper considers the evidence of how everyday routine lifestyle behaviour impacts on occupational function at all levels, and how these behaviours link to individual sensitivity to influence the level of exposure required to elicit symptomatic responses. Occupational Therapists can help patients by adequately assessing individual sensitivity, and through promoting understanding and a sense of control over their own symptoms. It concludes that present clinical guidelines should be expanded to incorporate knowledge of individual sensitivities to environmental exposures and lifestyle behaviours at an early stage. PMID:26095868

  3. Lifestyle Behaviours Add to the Armoury of Treatment Options for Panic Disorder: An Evidence-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Lambert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an evidence-based reasoning, focusing on evidence of an Occupational Therapy input to lifestyle behaviour influences on panic disorder that also provides potentially broader application across other mental health problems (MHP. The article begins from the premise that we are all different. It then follows through a sequence of questions, examining incrementally how MHPs are experienced and classified. It analyses the impact of individual sensitivity at different levels of analysis, from genetic and epigenetic individuality, through neurotransmitter and body system sensitivity. Examples are given demonstrating the evidence base behind the logical sequence of investigation. The paper considers the evidence of how everyday routine lifestyle behaviour impacts on occupational function at all levels, and how these behaviours link to individual sensitivity to influence the level of exposure required to elicit symptomatic responses. Occupational Therapists can help patients by adequately assessing individual sensitivity, and through promoting understanding and a sense of control over their own symptoms. It concludes that present clinical guidelines should be expanded to incorporate knowledge of individual sensitivities to environmental exposures and lifestyle behaviours at an early stage.

  4. Developing a Construct-Based Assessment to Examine Students' Analogical Reasoning around Physical Models in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Ann E.; Kastens, Kim A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, science education has placed increasing importance on learners' mastery of scientific reasoning. This growing emphasis presents a challenge for both developers and users of assessments. We report on our effort around the conceptualization, development, and testing the validity of an assessment of students' ability to reason around…

  5. Additivity pretraining and cue competition effects: developmental evidence for a reasoning-based account of causal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simms, V.; McCormack, T.; Beckers, T.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of additivity pretraining on blocking has been taken as evidence for a reasoning account of human and animal causal learning. If inferential reasoning underpins this effect, then developmental differences in the magnitude of this effect in children would be expected. Experiment 1 examined

  6. Simulation and case-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Guralnick, David

    2008-01-01

    Abstract- This paper has its origin in the authors' reflection on years of practical experiences combined with literature readings in our preparation for a workshop on learn-by-doing simulation and case-based learning to be held at the ICELW 2008 conference (the International Conference on E...... they are applied in workplace related and e-learning contexts. In addition to the organizers, a small number of invited presenters will attend, giving demonstrations of their work within learn-by-doing simulation and cases-based learning, but still leaving ample of time for discussion among all participants....

  7. The Effects of Successful versus Failure-Based Cases on Argumentation while Solving Decision-Making Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Andrew; Jonassen, David

    2013-01-01

    Solving complex, ill-structured problems may be effectively supported by case-based reasoning through case libraries that provide just-in-time domain-specific principles in the form of stories. The cases not only articulate previous experiences of practitioners, but also serve as problem-solving narratives from which learners can acquire meaning.…

  8. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  9. Priority setting in HIV/AIDS control in West Java Indonesia: an evaluation based on the accountability for reasonableness framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Noor; Prawiranegara, Rozar; Subhan Riparev, Harris; Siregar, Adiatma; Sunjaya, Deni; Baltussen, Rob

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia has insufficient resources to adequately respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and thus faces a great challenge in prioritizing interventions. In many countries, such priority setting processes are typically ad hoc and not transparent leading to unfair decisions. Here, we evaluated the priority setting process in HIV/AIDS control in West Java province against the four conditions of the accountability for reasonableness (A4R) framework: relevance, publicity, appeals and revision, and enforcement. We reviewed government documents and conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews based on the A4R framework with 22 participants of the 5-year HIV/AIDS strategy development for 2008-13 (West Java province) and 2007-11 (Bandung). We found that criteria for priority setting were used implicitly and that the strategies included a wide range of programmes. Many stakeholders were involved in the process but their contribution could be improved and particularly the public and people living with HIV/AIDS could be better engaged. The use of appeal and publicity mechanisms could be more transparent and formally stated. Public regulations are not yet installed to ensure fair priority setting. To increase fairness in HIV/AIDS priority setting, West Java should make improvements on all four conditions of the A4R framework. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  10. Computer aided fixture design - A case based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Shekhar; Raiker, Saiesh; Mathew, Arun Tom

    2017-11-01

    Automated fixture design plays important role in process planning and integration of CAD and CAM. An automated fixture setup design system is developed where when fixturing surfaces and points are described allowing modular fixture components to get automatically select for generating fixture units and placed into position with satisfying assembled conditions. In past, various knowledge based system have been developed to implement CAFD in practice. In this paper, to obtain an acceptable automated machining fixture design, a case-based reasoning method with developed retrieval system is proposed. Visual Basic (VB) programming language is used in integrating with SolidWorks API (Application programming interface) module for better retrieval procedure reducing computational time. These properties are incorporated in numerical simulation to determine the best fit for practical use.

  11. Collaborative Learning Utilizing Case-Based Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilvano, Nestor T.; Mathis, Karen M.; Schauer, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging students in discussion and creating high impact teaching and learning practices are a challenge in every classroom. Small group discussion and poster presentations were used to solve case-based problems to highlight issues for the learner and to allow each student to demonstrate understanding and application of theory to real life…

  12. How substance-based ontologies for gravity can be productive: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew; Conlin, Luke D.

    2014-06-01

    Many science education researchers have argued that learners' commitment to a substance (matter-based) ontology impedes the learning of scientific concepts that scientists typically conceptualize as processes or interactions, such as force, electric current, and heat. By this account, students' tendency to classify these entities as substances or properties of substances leads to robust misconceptions, and instruction should steer novices away from substance-based reasoning. We argue that substance-based reasoning can contribute to the learning and understanding of these very same physics concepts. Our case study focuses on a group of elementary school science teachers in our professional development program. Starting from substance-based metaphors for gravity, the teachers build a sophisticated explanation for why objects of different masses fall with the same acceleration. We argue that, for conceptual, epistemological, and affective reasons, instructional interventions should focus on tapping these productive substance-based resources when they arise rather than attempting to suppress them.

  13. Generic project definitions for improvement of health care delivery: A case-base approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, G.C.; Does, R.J.M.M.; de Mast, J.; Trip, A.; van den Heuvel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this article is to create actionable knowledge, making the definition of process improvement projects in health care delivery more effective. Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of process improvement projects in hospitals, facilitating a case-based reasoning

  14. Calvin on Human Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas Vorster

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book The Unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory makes the statement that the Reformation replaced the teleological social ethics of Roman Catholicism based on virtue with formal social ethics based on rules and enforced by magistrates, because they regarded human reason as too depraved to acquire virtue. The result, according to Gregory, is that the relation between internalised values and rules were undermined. This article asks whether this accusation is true with regard to Calvin. The first section discusses the intellectual environment of Calvin’s day – something that inevitably influenced his theory on reason, whilst the second part analyses Calvin’s view on the created nature of reason. The third section investigates Calvin’s view on the effects of sin on reason; and the fourth section discusses Calvin’s perspective on the relation between grace and reason. The article concludes that Gregory’s accusation against the Reformation is not applicable to Calvin. Gregory fails to take into account Calvin’s modified position that the imago Dei was not totally destroyed by sin as well as his teaching on common grace that maintains that even non-believers are able to acquire virtue through the common grace of God.

  15. An Ontology-Based Approach to Enable Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Worker–Cobot Agile Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R. Sadik

    2017-11-01

    accomplish the cooperative manufacturing concept, a proper approach is required to describe the shared environment between the worker and the cobot. The cooperative manufacturing shared environment includes the cobot, the co-worker, and other production components such as the product itself. Furthermore, the whole cooperative manufacturing system components need to communicate and share their knowledge, to reason and process the shared information, which eventually gives the control solution the capability of obtaining collective manufacturing decisions. Putting into consideration that the control solution should also provide a natural language which is human readable and in the same time can be understood by the machine (i.e., the cobot. Accordingly, a distributed control solution which combines an ontology-based Multi-Agent System (MAS and a Business Rule Management System (BRMS is proposed, in order to solve the mentioned challenges in the cooperative manufacturing, which are: manufacturing knowledge representation, sharing, and reasoning.

  16. Reliability-Based and Cost-Oriented Product Optimization Integrating Fuzzy Reasoning Petri Nets, Interval Expert Evaluation and Cultural-Based DMOPSO Using Crowding Distance Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxi Hong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization, the target product reliability is apportioned to subsystems or components to achieve the maximum reliability and minimum cost. Main challenges to conducting such optimization design lie in how to simultaneously consider subsystem division, uncertain evaluation provided by experts for essential factors, and dynamic propagation of product failure. To overcome these problems, a reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization method integrating fuzzy reasoning Petri net (FRPN, interval expert evaluation and cultural-based dynamic multi-objective particle swarm optimization (DMOPSO using crowding distance sorting is proposed in this paper. Subsystem division is performed based on failure decoupling, and then subsystem weights are calculated with FRPN reflecting dynamic and uncertain failure propagation, as well as interval expert evaluation considering six essential factors. A mathematical model of reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization is established, and the cultural-based DMOPSO with crowding distance sorting is utilized to obtain the optimized design scheme. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the numerical example of the optimization design for a computer numerically controlled (CNC machine tool.

  17. Reasoning about modular datatypes with Mendler induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Torrini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In functional programming, datatypes a la carte provide a convenient modular representation of recursive datatypes, based on their initial algebra semantics. Unfortunately it is highly challenging to implement this technique in proof assistants that are based on type theory, like Coq. The reason is that it involves type definitions, such as those of type-level fixpoint operators, that are not strictly positive. The known work-around of impredicative encodings is problematic, insofar as it impedes conventional inductive reasoning. Weak induction principles can be used instead, but they considerably complicate proofs. This paper proposes a novel and simpler technique to reason inductively about impredicative encodings, based on Mendler-style induction. This technique involves dispensing with dependent induction, ensuring that datatypes can be lifted to predicates and relying on relational formulations. A case study on proving subject reduction for structural operational semantics illustrates that the approach enables modular proofs, and that these proofs are essentially similar to conventional ones.

  18. Females and males rely on different cortical regions in Raven's Matrices reasoning capacity: evidence from a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Yang

    Full Text Available Raven's Matrices test (RMT is a non-verbal test designed to assess individuals' ability to reason and solve new problems without relying extensively on declarative knowledge derived from schooling or previous experience. Despite a large number of behavioral studies that demonstrated gender differences in Raven's Matrices reasoning ability, no neural evidence supported this difference. In this study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used in an attempt to uncover the gender-specific neural basis of Raven's Matrices reasoning ability as measured by the combined Raven's Matrices test (CRT in 370 healthy young adults. The behavioral results showed no difference between males and females. However, the VBM results showed that the relationship between reasoning ability and regional gray matter volume (rGMV differed between sexes. The association between CRT scores and rGMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (associated with visuospatial ability was significantly greater in males than in females, whereas the reverse was true for the inferior frontal cortex (relating to verbal reasoning ability and the medial frontal cortex (engaged in information binding where the association was greater in females. These findings suggest that males and females use differently structured brains in different ways to achieve similar levels of overall Raven's Matrices reasoning ability.

  19. The Impact of Humanities-Based Teaching and Learning Strategies on Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning Development among BSN Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodhead, Josette

    2016-01-01

    The ability to function effectively in a dynamic, culturally diverse healthcare environment requires both critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN, 2008) recognizes the importance of humanities in the baccalaureate nursing curriculum. This quasi-experimental, nonrandomized…

  20. Examination of Attitudes towards Teaching Online Courses Based on Theory of Reasoned Action of University Faculty in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzy-Ling; Chen, Tzu-Jung

    2006-01-01

    This study examined attitudes of university faculty specialising in the field of human resource (HR) in Taiwan towards participation in the teaching of online courses using the theory of reasoned action (TRA). The population targeted for investigation consisted of the full-time university faculty in the HR field in Taiwan regardless of their…

  1. Archivists Killed for Political Reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    This essay, Archivists Killed for Political Reasons, offers an overview of archivists who were killed for political reasons through the ages. After determining the criteria for inclusion, sixteen such political murders of archivists are briefly discussed. These cases were distributed over six

  2. "Model-Based Reasoning is Not a Simple Thing": Investigating Enactment of Modeling in Five High School Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytan, Candice Renee

    Modeling is an important scientific practice through which scientists generate, evaluate, and revise scientific knowledge, and it can be translated into science classrooms as a means for engaging students in authentic scientific practice. Much of the research investigating modeling in classrooms focuses on student learning, leaving a gap in understanding how teachers enact this important practice. This dissertation draws on data collected through a model-based curricular project to uncover instructional moves teachers made to enact modeling, to describe factors influencing enactment, and to discuss a framework for designing and enacting modeling lessons. I framed my analysis and interpretation of data within the varying perceptions of modeling found in the science studies and science education literature. Largely, modeling is described to varying degrees as a means to engage students in sense-making or as a means to deliver content to students. This frame revealed how the instructional moves teachers used to enact modeling may have influenced its portrayal as a reasoning practice. I found that teachers' responses to their students' ideas or questions may have important consequences for students' engagement in modeling, and thus, sense-making. To investigate factors influencing the portrayal of modeling, I analyzed teacher interviews and writings for what they perceived affected instruction. My findings illustrate alignments and misalignments between what teachers perceive modeling to be and what they do through instruction. In particular, teachers valued providing their students with time to collaborate and to share their ideas, but when time was perceived as a constraint, instruction shifted towards delivering content. Additionally, teachers' perceptions of students' capacity to engage in modeling is also related to if and how they provided opportunities for students to make sense of phenomena. The dissertation closes with a discussion of a framework for designing

  3. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  4. Using the Quantitative Literacy and Reasoning Assessment (QLRA for Early Detection of Students in Need of Academic Support in Introductory Courses in a Quantitative Discipline: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Grawe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the number of young people attending college has increased, the diversity of college students� educational backgrounds has also risen. Some students enter introductory courses with math anxiety or gaps in their quantitative training that impede their ability to master or even grasp relevant disciplinary content. Too often professors learn of these anxieties and gaps only during the post mortem of the first midterm. By that time, a good portion of a student�s grade is determined and successful recovery may be impossible. During the 2016-17 academic year, the Department of Economics at Carleton College ran a pilot project using the Quantitative Literacy and Reasoning Assessment (QLRA as a pre-course diagnostic tool. Results show that the QLRA predicts student grades even after controlling for other SAT/ACT math scores and overall GPA. This finding suggests that quantitative reasoning is an important input into success in Principles of Economics (both Macro and Micro. When the QLRA alone is used to predict success in a course (as defined by either a grade of C- or better, or a grade of B- or better, we find that we could nearly always pick out students who were on the way to sub-par performance. On the other hand, the tool has a fairly high false positive rate; almost half of students identified as �at risk� based on QLRA performance went on to earn a successful grade in the course. In total, we argue that the QLRA may be a useful and inexpensive early-warning device for introductory courses in economics; it may be worth exploring a similar use of the instrument in other disciplinary settings where introductory courses require quantitative reasoning.

  5. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  6. The Christological Ontology of Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulrik Becker

    2006-01-01

    Taking the startingpoint in an assertion of an ambiguity in the Lutheran tradition’s assessment of reason, the essay argues that the Kantian unreserved confidence in reason is criticised in Bonhoeffer. Based upon a Christological understanding of reason, Bonhoeffer endorses a view of reason which...... is specifically Christian and yet maintains a universality. With a focus on Bonhoeffer’s »Ethik« as the hermeneutical key to his theology, Bonhoeffer’s notion is also discussed in the light of contemporary Christian ethics. In this part it is particularly the role of reason within a public dis-course which...

  7. An Analysis of Students' Self-Efficacy and Motivation in Piano, Based on Different Variables and the Reasons for Their Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilmez, Hatice Onuray; Engur, Doruk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the self-efficacy and motivation of Zeki Muren Fine Arts High School piano students were examined based on different variables as well as the reasons for their failure. The data on their self-efficacy were obtained through self-efficacy scale of piano performance and the data on their motivation were obtained through motivation…

  8. A Framework for a Clinical Reasoning Knowledge Warehouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus; Boye, Niels

    2004-01-01

    is stored and made accessible when relevant to the reasoning context and the specific patient case. Furthermore, the information structure supports the creation of new generalized knowledge using data mining tools. The patient case is divided into an observation level and an opinion level. At the opinion......, Knowledge Management Systems and Business Intelligence to make context based, patient case specific analysis and knowledge management. The knowledge base integrates three sources of information that supports clinical reasoning: general information, guidelines and health records. New generalized knowledge...... level, reasoning participants can express their argument based opinions about a patient case, thereby enhancing the knowledge about the state of and plans for the patient. An opinion language that supports expressing a possible imprecise/uncertain opinion based on imprecise...

  9. Relations between Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important open questions in reasoning research is how inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning are related. In an effort to address this question, we applied methods and concepts from memory research. We used 2 experiments to examine the effects of logical validity and premise-conclusion similarity on evaluation of arguments.…

  10. Is it just religious practice? Exploring patients' reasons for choosing a faith-based primary health clinic over their local public sector primary health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, James D; Bresick, Graham

    2017-06-29

    Person-centred, re-engineered primary health care (PHC) is a national and global priority. Faith-based health care is a significant provider of PHC in sub-Saharan Africa, but there is limited published data on the reasons for patient choice of faith-based health care, particularly in South Africa. The primary objective was to determine and explore the reasons for patient choice of a faith-based primary care clinic over their local public sector primary care clinic, and secondarily to determine to what extent these reasons were influenced by demography. The study was conducted at Jubilee Health Centre (JHC), a faith-based primary care clinic attached to Jubilee Community Church in Cape Town, South Africa. Focus groups, using the nominal group technique, were conducted with JHC patients and used to generate ranked reasons for attending the clinic. These were collated into the top 15 reasons and incorporated into a quantitative questionnaire which was administered to adult patients attending JHC. A total of 164 patients were surveyed (a response rate of 92.4%) of which 68.3% were female and 57.9% from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Of patients surveyed, 98.2% chose to attend JHC because 'the staff treat me with respect', 96.3% because 'the staff are friendly' and 96.3% because 'the staff take time to listen to me'. The reason 'it is a Christian clinic' was chosen by 70.1% of patients. 'The staff speak my home language' was given as a reason by 61.1% of DRC patients and 37.1% of South African patients. 'The clinic is close to me' was chosen by 66.6% of Muslims and 40.8% of Christians. Patients chose to attend JHC (a faith-based primary care clinic) because of the quality of care received. They emphasised the staff-patient relationship and patient-centredness rather than the clinic's religious practices (prayer with patients). These findings may be important in informing efforts to improve public sector primary care.

  11. Base of Tongue Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chiesa Estomba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that has displayed increasing incidence in the last decades. It is estimated that up to 20% of tuberculosis cases affect extra-pulmonary organs. In the ENT area, soft palate and tongue are the least probable locations.   Case Report A 62-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and treatment with corticosteroids and Adalimumab, developed a foreign body sensation in the pharynx accompanied by a sore throat and halitosis. The laryngoscopy with a 70 degree rigid telescope showed an ulcerated hypertrophic lesion in the right vallecula of about 2-3 cm in the base of the tongue. Acid-alcohol resistant bacilli were found positive for M. tuberculosis, through the Ziehl Neelsen method and Löwenstein culture the patient was treated with tuberculostatic medication. Conclusion:  TB is a possible diagnosis when in the presence of an ulcerated lesion at the base of the tongue, accompanied by sore throat, dysphagia, or foreign body sensation.

  12. A Framework for a Clinical Reasoning Knowledge Warehouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus; Boye, Niels

    2004-01-01

    , Knowledge Management Systems and Business Intelligence to make context based, patient case specific analysis and knowledge management. The knowledge base integrates three sources of information that supports clinical reasoning: general information, guidelines and health records. New generalized knowledge......In many areas of the medical domain, the decision process i.e. reasoning, involving health care professionals is distributed, cooperative and complex. This paper presents a framework for a Clinical Reasoning Knowledge Warehouse that combines theories and models from Artificial Intelligence...... is stored and made accessible when relevant to the reasoning context and the specific patient case. Furthermore, the information structure supports the creation of new generalized knowledge using data mining tools. The patient case is divided into an observation level and an opinion level. At the opinion...

  13. Reason and less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    We consider ourselves to be rational beings. We feel that our choices, decisions, and actions are selected from a flexible array of possibilities, based upon reasons. When we vote for a political candidate, it is because they share our views on certain critical issues. When we hire an individual for a job, it is because they are the best qualified. However, if this is true, why does an analysis of the direction of shift in the timbre of the voice of political candidates during an exchange or debate, predict the winner of American presidential elections? Why is it that while only 3% of the American population consists of white men over 6'4″ tall, 30% of the CEOs of Fortune 500 companies are white men over 6'4″ tall? These are examples of "instinctual biases" affecting or modulating rational thought processes. I argue that existing theories of reasoning cannot substantively accommodate these ubiquitous, real-world phenomena. Failure to recognize and incorporate these types of phenomena into the study of human reasoning results in a distorted understanding of rationality. The goal of this article is to draw attention to these types of phenomena and propose an "adulterated rationality" account of reasoning as a first step in trying to explain them.

  14. Reason and Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod eGoel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider ourselves to be rational beings. We feel that our choices, decisions, and actions are selected from a flexible array of possibilities, based upon reasons. When we vote for a political candidate, it is because they share our views on certain critical issues. When we hire an individual for a job, it is be-cause they are the best qualified. However, if this is true, why does an analysis of the direction of shift in the timbre of the voice of political candidates during an exchange or debate, predict the winner of American presidential elections? Why is it that while only 3% of the American population consists of white men over 6'4 tall, 30% of the CEOs of Fortune 500 companies are white men over 6'4 tall? These are examples of instinctual biases affecting or modulating rational thought processes. I argue that existing theories of reasoning cannot substantively accommodate these ubiquitous, real-world phe-nomena. Failure to recognize and incorporate these types of phenomena into the study of human reasoning results in a distorted understanding of rationality. The goal of the article is to draw attention to these types of phenomena and propose an adulterated rationality account of reasoning to explain them.

  15. Theoretical Approach Regarding the Bases of Success and Reasons that May Lead to Failure in Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Larisa Loredana Dragolea; Denisa Cotîrlea Denisa

    2012-01-01

    The present paper work deals with theoretical concepts regarding the reasons that may lead to a project’s failure or success. The primary aim of the work paper is to help readers to get a view of conceptualizations of project management and its phases, while providing an opportunity to see the interferences of factors that may determine project’s success. This work paper also contains some aspects regarding key-factors and elements that may assure a good management of projects. The present su...

  16. "Only you can play with me!" Children's inclusive decision making, reasoning, and emotions based on peers' gender and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplak, Joanna; Song, Ju-Hyun; Colasante, Tyler; Malti, Tina

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the development of children's decisions, reasoning, and emotions in contexts of peer inclusion/exclusion. We asked an ethnically diverse sample of 117 children aged 4years (n=59; 60% girls) and 8years (n=58; 49% girls) to choose between including hypothetical peers of the same or opposite gender and with or without attention deficit/hyperactivity problems and aggressive behavior. Children also provided justifications for, and emotions associated with, their inclusion decisions. Both 4- and 8-year-olds predominantly chose to include the in-group peer (i.e., the same-gender peer and peers without behavior problems), thereby demonstrating a normative in-group inclusive bias. Nevertheless, children included the out-group peer more in the gender context than in the behavior problem contexts. The majority of children reported group functioning-related, group identity-related, and stereotype-related reasoning after their in-group inclusion decisions, and they associated happy feelings with such decisions. Although most children attributed sadness to the excluded out-group peer, they attributed more anger to the excluded out-group peer in the aggression context compared with other contexts. We discuss the implications of our findings for current theorizing about children's social-cognitive and emotional development in contexts of peer inclusion and exclusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tactical Diagrammatic Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Linker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although automated reasoning with diagrams has been possible for some years, tools for diagrammatic reasoning are generally much less sophisticated than their sentential cousins. The tasks of exploring levels of automation and abstraction in the construction of proofs and of providing explanations of solutions expressed in the proofs remain to be addressed. In this paper we take an interactive proof assistant for Euler diagrams, Speedith, and add tactics to its reasoning engine, providing a level of automation in the construction of proofs. By adding tactics to Speedith's repertoire of inferences, we ease the interaction between the user and the system and capture a higher level explanation of the essence of the proof. We analysed the design options for tactics by using metrics which relate to human readability, such as the number of inferences and the amount of clutter present in diagrams. Thus, in contrast to the normal case with sentential tactics, our tactics are designed to not only prove the theorem, but also to support explanation.

  18. Intelligent Case Based Decision Support System for Online Diagnosis of Automated Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rabah, N.; Saddem, R.; Ben Hmida, F.; Carre-Menetrier, V.; Tagina, M.

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of Automated Production System (APS) is a decision-making process designed to detect, locate and identify a particular failure caused by the control law. In the literature, there are three major types of reasoning for industrial diagnosis: the first is model-based, the second is rule-based and the third is case-based. The common and major limitation of the first and the second reasonings is that they do not have automated learning ability. This paper presents an interactive and effective Case Based Decision Support System for online Diagnosis (CB-DSSD) of an APS. It offers a synergy between the Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and the Decision Support System (DSS) in order to support and assist Human Operator of Supervision (HOS) in his/her decision process. Indeed, the experimental evaluation performed on an Interactive Training System for PLC (ITS PLC) that allows the control of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), simulating sensors or/and actuators failures and validating the control algorithm through a real time interactive experience, showed the efficiency of our approach.

  19. Intelligent Case Based Decision Support System for Online Diagnosis of Automated Production System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rabah, N; Saddem, R; Carre-Menetrier, V; Ben Hmida, F; Tagina, M

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of Automated Production System (APS) is a decision-making process designed to detect, locate and identify a particular failure caused by the control law. In the literature, there are three major types of reasoning for industrial diagnosis: the first is model-based, the second is rule-based and the third is case-based. The common and major limitation of the first and the second reasonings is that they do not have automated learning ability. This paper presents an interactive and effective Case Based Decision Support System for online Diagnosis (CB-DSSD) of an APS. It offers a synergy between the Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and the Decision Support System (DSS) in order to support and assist Human Operator of Supervision (HOS) in his/her decision process. Indeed, the experimental evaluation performed on an Interactive Training System for PLC (ITS PLC) that allows the control of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), simulating sensors or/and actuators failures and validating the control algorithm through a real time interactive experience, showed the efficiency of our approach. (paper)

  20. A Textual Case-Based Mobile Phone Diagnosis Support System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a Mobile Phone Diagnosis Support System is presented as an extension to jCOLIBRI which accepts a problem and reasons with cases to provide a solution related to a new given problem. Experimental evaluation using some set of problems shows that the developed system predicts the solution that is ...

  1. An Exploratory Study on University Students' Perceptions of Posthumous Organ Donation Base on the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shui Hung; Chow, Amy Yin Man

    2017-08-01

    In view of the general support for organ donation but low registration rate in Hong Kong, the present research attempted to understand the attitude-behavior inconsistency by identifying the underlying beliefs for organ donation through employing the theory of reasoned action. A qualitative approach using semi-structured focus groups was adopted and 19 students from three universities in Hong Kong participated; 10 constructs were identified: attitude, subjective norm, helping, continuation, contribution, body intact, distrust to the medical system, indifference to organ donation, negative affect, and family burden. Findings suggested that their attitudes toward organ donation were of both the cognitive and affective nature; subjective norm of family, friends, and people they respect were identified as influential to students' views on organ donation. The study provided insight in promoting organ donation, that the cognitive concerns about keeping the body intact, and the negative affects introduced should also be addressed.

  2. Case base classification on digital mammograms: improving the performance of case base classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Valliappan; Then, H. H.; Sumari, Putra; Venkatesa Mohan, N.

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer continues to be a significant public health problem in the world. Early detection is the key for improving breast cancer prognosis. The aim of the research presented here is in twofold. First stage of research involves machine learning techniques, which segments and extracts features from the mass of digital mammograms. Second level is on problem solving approach which includes classification of mass by performance based case base classifier. In this paper we build a case-based Classifier in order to diagnose mammographic images. We explain different methods and behaviors that have been added to the classifier to improve the performance of the classifier. Currently the initial Performance base Classifier with Bagging is proposed in the paper and it's been implemented and it shows an improvement in specificity and sensitivity.

  3. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hackman CL; Knowlden AP

    2014-01-01

    Christine L Hackman, Adam P KnowldenDepartment of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USABackground: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interven...

  4. Lateral temporal encephaloceles: case-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Kazuhito; Kato, Mihoko; Chu, Jonsu; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Lateral temporal encephalocele is an extremely rare clinical condition, with only 18 cases presented in the literature to date. No review articles have examined lateral temporal encephalocele in depth. We therefore reviewed past cases of lateral encephalocele to clarify the clinical characteristics of this extremely rare deformity. We also present a case of lateral encephalocele with arachnoid cyst which has never been reported in past reports. We identified 8 reports describing 18 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele. We therefore reviewed 19 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele, including our own experience, and discussed the clinical characteristics of this pathology. All the cases with lateral temporal encephalocele were detected at birth except for an occult case. The majority occurred at the pterion, and occurrence at the asterion appears much rarer. Due to the preference for the pterion, the ipsilateral orbital wall was also distorted in some cases. Lateral temporal encephalocele seems to have fewer associated malformations: only 3 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele had associated malformations, including our case which was associated with intracranial arachnoid cyst. The only case of lateral temporal encephalocele to have shown hydrocephalus was our own case. Patients with this deformity have relatively good prognoses: only 3 of the 19 cases showed delayed psychomotor development during follow-up. Provision of adequate treatment is likely to achieve a good prognosis in patients with lateral temporal encephalocele, so we should keep in mind this deformity when encountering pediatric patients with mass lesions on the temporal cranium.

  5. Generic project definitions for improvement of health care delivery: A case-base approach

    OpenAIRE

    Niemeijer, G.C.; Does, R.J.M.M.; de Mast, J.; Trip, A.; van den Heuvel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this article is to create actionable knowledge, making the definition of process improvement projects in health care delivery more effective. Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of process improvement projects in hospitals, facilitating a case-based reasoning approach to project definition. Data sources were project documentation and hospital-performance statistics of 271 Lean Six Sigma health care projects from 2002 to 2009 of general, teaching, and aca...

  6. Case-Based Parameter Selection for Plans: Coordinating Autonomous Vehicle Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    revise Bayesian network models for setting the control parameters of a genetic algorithm that performs root identification for geomet- ric problems. In... networks to model software programs and biological sys- tems, resulting in a case representation of problem, solution, and outcome similar to ours...the parameters for multiple systems, including a rule-based reasoner used to modify therapies for diabetes patients. We focus on multi-agent planning

  7. Trends Concerning Four Misconceptions in Students' Intuitively-Based Probabilistic Reasoning Sourced in the Heuristic of Representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustos, Paul Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Student difficulty in the study of probability arises in intuitively-based misconceptions derived from heuristics. One such heuristic, the one of note for this research study, is that of representativeness, in which an individual informally assesses the probability of an event based on the degree to which the event is similar to the sample from…

  8. Calvin on Human Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas Vorster

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book The Unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory makes the statement that the Reformation replaced the teleological social ethics of Roman Catholicism based on virtue with formal social ethics based on rules and enforced by magistrates, because they regarded human reason as too depraved to acquire virtue. The result, according to Gregory, is that the relation between internalised values and rules were undermined. This article asks whether this accusation is true with regard to Calvin. The first section discusses the intellectual environment of Calvin’s day – something that inevitably influenced his theory on reason, whilst the second part analyses Calvin’s view on the created nature of reason. The third section investigates Calvin’s view on the effects of sin on reason; and the fourth section discusses Calvin’s perspective on the relation between grace and reason. The article concludes that Gregory’s accusation against the Reformation is not applicable to Calvin. Gregory fails to take into account Calvin’s modified position that the imago Dei was not totally destroyed by sin as well as his teaching on common grace that maintains that even non-believers are able to acquire virtue through the common grace of God. Calvyn oor Menslike Rede. In sy onlangse boek, The Unintended Reformation, maak Brad Gregory die stelling dat die Reformasie die substantiewe teleologiese deugde-etiek van die Rooms-Katolisisme vervang het met ‘n formele etiek gebaseer op reëls wat deur magistrate afgedwing moet word. Die Reformasie was, volgens Gregory, van mening dat die menslike rede sodanig deur sonde geskend is dat die mens nie langer deugde kan beoefen nie. Dit het tot ‘n skadelike skeiding tussen waardes en reëls gelei. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die vraag of Gregory se stelling op Calvyn van toepassing is. Die eerste afdeling bespreek die intellektuele omgewing waarin Calvyn gewerk het. Tweedens word Gregory se siening van die geskape

  9. Effectiveness of Educational Program Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action to Decrease the Rate of Cesarean Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Fasa, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khan-Jeihooni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cesarean section is considered as a major surgery accompanied by several complications. The present study aimed to determine the effect of educational intervention based on the theory of reasoned action to reduce the rate of cesarean section among pregnant women in Fasa, Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 100 (50 participants in each of the control and intervention groups primiparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy admitted to health centers of Fasa city, Fars province, Iran. The data-gathering tool was a multipart questionnaire containing demographic variables and the theory of reasoned action structures. After the pretest, the intervention group underwent exclusive training based on the theory of reasoned action. Then, after 3 months, both groups took part in the posttest. Data was analyzed by paired T-test, independent T-test and chi-square using SPSS-18 software. Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups regarding knowledge, evaluations behavioral outcomes, Behavioral beliefs and intention (P<0.001. Chi-square analysis showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding their performance (P<0.001. Conclusion: The present intervention was effective in increasing the pregnant women’s knowledge, evaluation of outcomes, attitude and strengthening their intention as well as performance. Therefore, it is suggested to use this model and other systematic straining for pregnant women to decrease the rate of cesarean section.

  10. Unified modeling language and design of a case-based retrieval system in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBozec, C.; Jaulent, M. C.; Zapletal, E.; Degoulet, P.

    1998-01-01

    One goal of artificial intelligence research into case-based reasoning (CBR) systems is to develop approaches for designing useful and practical interactive case-based environments. Explaining each step of the design of the case-base and of the retrieval process is critical for the application of case-based systems to the real world. We describe herein our approach to the design of IDEM--Images and Diagnosis from Examples in Medicine--a medical image case-based retrieval system for pathologists. Our approach is based on the expressiveness of an object-oriented modeling language standard: the Unified Modeling Language (UML). We created a set of diagrams in UML notation illustrating the steps of the CBR methodology we used. The key aspect of this approach was selecting the relevant objects of the system according to user requirements and making visualization of cases and of the components of the case retrieval process. Further evaluation of the expressiveness of the design document is required but UML seems to be a promising formalism, improving the communication between the developers and users. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9929346

  11. Unified modeling language and design of a case-based retrieval system in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBozec, C; Jaulent, M C; Zapletal, E; Degoulet, P

    1998-01-01

    One goal of artificial intelligence research into case-based reasoning (CBR) systems is to develop approaches for designing useful and practical interactive case-based environments. Explaining each step of the design of the case-base and of the retrieval process is critical for the application of case-based systems to the real world. We describe herein our approach to the design of IDEM--Images and Diagnosis from Examples in Medicine--a medical image case-based retrieval system for pathologists. Our approach is based on the expressiveness of an object-oriented modeling language standard: the Unified Modeling Language (UML). We created a set of diagrams in UML notation illustrating the steps of the CBR methodology we used. The key aspect of this approach was selecting the relevant objects of the system according to user requirements and making visualization of cases and of the components of the case retrieval process. Further evaluation of the expressiveness of the design document is required but UML seems to be a promising formalism, improving the communication between the developers and users.

  12. Towards a Hybrid Approach to Context Reasoning for Underwater Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies have been widely used to facilitate semantic interoperability and serve as a common information model in many applications or domains. The Smart and Networking Underwater Robots in Cooperation Meshes (SWARMs project, aiming to facilitate coordination and cooperation between heterogeneous underwater vehicles, also adopts ontologies to formalize information that is necessarily exchanged between vehicles. However, how to derive more useful contexts based on ontologies still remains a challenge. In particular, the extreme nature of the underwater environment introduces uncertainties in context data, thus imposing more difficulties in context reasoning. None of the existing context reasoning methods could individually deal with all intricacies in the underwater robot field. To this end, this paper presents the first proposal applying a hybrid context reasoning mechanism that includes ontological, rule-based, and Multi-Entity Bayesian Network (MEBN reasoning methods to reason about contexts and their uncertainties in the underwater robot field. The theoretical foundation of applying this reasoning mechanism in underwater robots is given by a case study on the oil spill monitoring. The simulated reasoning results are useful for further decision-making by operators or robots and they show that the consolidation of different reasoning methods is a promising approach for context reasoning in underwater robots.

  13. Reasoning in Design: Idea Generation Condition Effects on Reasoning Processes and Evaluation of Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus Lundgaard; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning is at the core of design activity and thinking. Thus, understanding and explaining reasoning in design is fundamental to understand and support design practice. This paper investigates reasoning in design and its relationship to varying foci at the stage of idea generation and subsequent...... to investigate idea generation sessions of two industry cases. Reasoning was found to appear in sequences of alternating reasoning types where the initiating reasoning type was decisive. The study found that abductive reasoning led to more radical ideas, whereas deductive reasoning led to ideas being for project...

  14. Effectiveness of Schema-Based Instruction for Improving Seventh-Grade Students' Proportional Reasoning: A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Rodriguez, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of schema-based instruction (SBI) on 7th-grade students' mathematical problem-solving performance. SBI is an instructional intervention that emphasizes the role of mathematical structure in word problems and also provides students with a heuristic to self-monitor and aid problem solving. Using a…

  15. The Balance-Scale Task Revisited: A Comparison of Statistical Models for Rule-Based and Information-Integration Theories of Proportional Reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe D Hofman

    Full Text Available We propose and test three statistical models for the analysis of children's responses to the balance scale task, a seminal task to study proportional reasoning. We use a latent class modelling approach to formulate a rule-based latent class model (RB LCM following from a rule-based perspective on proportional reasoning and a new statistical model, the Weighted Sum Model, following from an information-integration approach. Moreover, a hybrid LCM using item covariates is proposed, combining aspects of both a rule-based and information-integration perspective. These models are applied to two different datasets, a standard paper-and-pencil test dataset (N = 779, and a dataset collected within an online learning environment that included direct feedback, time-pressure, and a reward system (N = 808. For the paper-and-pencil dataset the RB LCM resulted in the best fit, whereas for the online dataset the hybrid LCM provided the best fit. The standard paper-and-pencil dataset yielded more evidence for distinct solution rules than the online data set in which quantitative item characteristics are more prominent in determining responses. These results shed new light on the discussion on sequential rule-based and information-integration perspectives of cognitive development.

  16. The case for implementing activity based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Paul H; Bolinger-Perez, Nicole; Boysen, Kent

    2012-01-01

    ABC identifies profitable volumes to give managers information to better manage volumes. Managers must balance the demand for service while maintaining a reasonable profit margin. Disparate systems work extremely well for their intended purposes, but they do not communicate with one another. The strength of the data they hold individually may be leveraged when implementing ABC methodology. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota implemented a pilot of ABC to evaluate CT services where there is a high volume, multiple service location for cost comparison, variety of patient acuity and service mix, and large capital investments.The goal was to reveal the actual cost of CT services at the procedural level.

  17. SU2 nonstandard bases: the case of mutually unbiased bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, Albouy; Kibler, Maurice R.

    2007-02-01

    This paper deals with bases in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. Such a space can be realized as a subspace of the representation space of SU 2 corresponding to an irreducible representation of SU 2 . The representation theory of SU 2 is reconsidered via the use of two truncated deformed oscillators. This leads to replace the familiar scheme [j 2 , j z ] by a scheme [j 2 , v ra ], where the two-parameter operator v ra is defined in the universal enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra su 2 . The eigenvectors of the commuting set of operators [j 2 , v ra ] are adapted to a tower of chains SO 3 includes C 2j+1 (2j belongs to N * ), where C 2j+1 is the cyclic group of order 2j + 1. In the case where 2j + 1 is prime, the corresponding eigenvectors generate a complete set of mutually unbiased bases. Some useful relations on generalized quadratic Gauss sums are exposed in three appendices. (authors)

  18. Supporting Case-Based Learning in Information Security with Web-Based Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wu; Yuan, Xiaohong; Yang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Case-based learning has been widely used in many disciplines. As an effective pedagogical method, case-based learning is also being used to support teaching and learning in the domain of information security. In this paper, we demonstrate case-based learning in information security by sharing our experiences in using a case study to teach security…

  19. Summary table of base case and national reference case reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This paper summarises in tabular form the main specifications of the base case reprocessing plant, together with those of the national reference case plants contributed by France, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Japan and the United Kingdom

  20. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  1. Reasons to Do Food Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reasonable explanations for this that underscore the importance of food challenges . Given the possibility of severe reactions, food ... than was previously suspected. In this case, the importance of strict avoidance, as well as being thoroughly prepared to treat severe ... & Visitors Giving For Professionals About Us ...

  2. Public Reason Renaturalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This article takes up recent discussions of nature and the sensorium in order to rethink public reason in deeply divided societies. The aim is not to reject the role of reason-giving but rather to infuse it with new meaning, bringing the reasonable back to its sensorially inflected circumstances....

  3. 13,915 reasons for equity in sexual offences legislation: A national school-based survey in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Foster Ari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Prior to 2007, forced sex with male children in South Africa did not count as rape but as "indecent assault", a much less serious offence. This study sought to document prevalence of male sexual violence among school-going youth. Design A facilitated self-administered questionnaire in nine of the 11 official languages in a stratified (province/metro/urban/rural last stage random national sample. Setting Teams visited 5162 classes in 1191 schools, in October and November 2002. Participants A total of 269,705 learners aged 10–19 years in grades 6–11. Of these, 126,696 were male. Main outcome measures Schoolchildren answered questions about exposure in the last year to insults, beating, unwanted touching and forced sex. They indicated the sex of the perpetrator, and whether this was a family member, a fellow schoolchild, a teacher or another adult. Respondents also gave the age when they first suffered forced sex and when they first had consensual sex. Results Some 9% (weighted value based on 13915/127097 of male respondents aged 11–19 years reported forced sex in the last year. Of those aged 18 years at the time of the survey, 44% (weighted value of 5385/11450 said they had been forced to have sex in their lives and 50% reported consensual sex. Perpetrators were most frequently an adult not from their own family, followed closely in frequency by other schoolchildren. Some 32% said the perpetrator was male, 41% said she was female and 27% said they had been forced to have sex by both male and female perpetrators. Male abuse of schoolboys was more common in rural areas while female perpetration was more an urban phenomenon. Conclusion This study uncovers endemic sexual abuse of male children that was suspected but hitherto only poorly documented. Legal recognition of the criminality of rape of male children is a first step. The next steps include serious investment in supporting male victims of abuse, and in prevention of

  4. Collaborative Time-based Case Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohøj, Morten; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2009-01-01

    We explore in this paper using timelines to represent bureaucratic processes in a municipal setting. The system described herein enables citizens and case workers to collaborate over the application for and configuration of parental leave, which is a highly involved process under Danish law....

  5. Teaching Communication with Ethics-Based Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Betsy

    1996-01-01

    Argues the importance of presenting ethics and communication as twin concepts in the management communication class. Presents two cases useful in the classroom that address two contemporary issues (harassment in the workplace and the consumption of alcohol by pregnant women) that have implications for business professionals and allow students to…

  6. Uncertainty reasoning in expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent control is a very successful way to transform the expert's knowledge of the type 'if the velocity is big and the distance from the object is small, hit the brakes and decelerate as fast as possible' into an actual control. To apply this transformation, one must choose appropriate methods for reasoning with uncertainty, i.e., one must: (1) choose the representation for words like 'small', 'big'; (2) choose operations corresponding to 'and' and 'or'; (3) choose a method that transforms the resulting uncertain control recommendations into a precise control strategy. The wrong choice can drastically affect the quality of the resulting control, so the problem of choosing the right procedure is very important. From a mathematical viewpoint these choice problems correspond to non-linear optimization and are therefore extremely difficult. In this project, a new mathematical formalism (based on group theory) is developed that allows us to solve the problem of optimal choice and thus: (1) explain why the existing choices are really the best (in some situations); (2) explain a rather mysterious fact that fuzzy control (i.e., control based on the experts' knowledge) is often better than the control by these same experts; and (3) give choice recommendations for the cases when traditional choices do not work.

  7. HMD based virtual environments for military training - Two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on two cases in which Head Mounted Display (HMD) based Virtual Environments (VE) are applied to military training. The first case deals with Forward Air Controller training, while the second case is aimed at Stinger training. Both applications are subjects of study within the VE

  8. iCBLS: An interactive case-based learning system for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Maqbool; Han, Soyeon Caren; Bilal, Hafiz Syed Muhammad; Lee, Sungyoung; Kang, Matthew Jee Yun; Kang, Byeong Ho; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Amin, Muhammad Bilal

    2018-01-01

    Medical students should be able to actively apply clinical reasoning skills to further their interpretative, diagnostic, and treatment skills in a non-obtrusive and scalable way. Case-Based Learning (CBL) approach has been receiving attention in medical education as it is a student-centered teaching methodology that exposes students to real-world scenarios that need to be solved using their reasoning skills and existing theoretical knowledge. In this paper, we propose an interactive CBL System, called iCBLS, which supports the development of collaborative clinical reasoning skills for medical students in an online environment. The iCBLS consists of three modules: (i) system administration (SA), (ii) clinical case creation (CCC) with an innovative semi-automatic approach, and (iii) case formulation (CF) through intervention of medical students' and teachers' knowledge. Two evaluations under the umbrella of the context/input/process/product (CIPP) model have been performed with a Glycemia study. The first focused on the system satisfaction, evaluated by 54 students. The latter aimed to evaluate the system effectiveness, simulated by 155 students. The results show a high success rate of 70% for students' interaction, 76.4% for group learning, 72.8% for solo learning, and 74.6% for improved clinical skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An Exploratory Study On The Reasons Of The Takeaway Customer Using E-intermediary For Food Ordering: Yemeksepeti.com Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaş, Melda

    2014-01-01

    A number of companies have started to head for e-commerce after removing some intermediaries due to the latest advances in information technologies and widespread use of Internet, which ultimately causes some new e-intermediaries to emerge. Online takeaway food ordering systems in food and drink industry are of great samples for those e-intermediaries. The aim of this study is to investigate the reasons why the takeaway service users order via online food ordering systems instead of ordering ...

  10. Implementation of a telephone-based secondary preventive intervention after acute coronary syndrome (ACS): participation rate, reasons for non-participation and 1-year survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Daniel; Henriksson, Robin; Jakobsson, Stina; Stenfors, Nikolai; Mooe, Thomas

    2016-02-15

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of death from a non-communicable disease. Secondary prevention is effective for reducing morbidity and mortality, but evidence-based targets are seldom reached and new interventional methods are needed. The present study is a feasibility study of a telephone-based secondary preventive programme in an unselected ACS cohort. The NAILED (Nurse-based Age-independent Intervention to Limit Evolution of Disease) ACS trial is a prospective randomized controlled trial. All eligible patients admitted for ACS were randomized to usual follow-up by a general practitioner or telephone follow-up by study nurses. The intervention was made by continuous telephone contact, with counseling on healthy living and titration of medicines to reach target values for blood pressure and blood lipids. Exclusion criteria were limited to physical inability to follow the study design or participation in another study. A total of 907 patients were assessed for inclusion. Of these, 661 (72.9%) were included and randomized, 100 (11%) declined participation, and 146 (16.1%) were excluded. The main reasons for exclusion were participation in another trial, dementia, and advanced disease. "Excluded" and "declining" patients were significantly older with more co-morbidity, decreased functional status, and had more seldom received education above compulsory school level than "included" patients. Non-participants had a higher 1-year mortality than participants. Nurse-led telephone-based follow-up after ACS can be applied to a large proportion in an unselected clinical setting. Reasons for non-participation, which were associated with increased mortality, include older age, multiple co-morbidities, decreased functional status and low level of education. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): ISRCTN96595458 (archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6RlyhYTYK). Application date: 10 July 2011.

  11. False diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and its complications in Wolfram syndrome--is it the reason for the low number of reported cases of this abnormality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Katarzyna; Stefański, Adam; Zmysłowska, Agnieszka; Molęda, Piotr; Bryśkiewicz, Marta Ewa; Majkowska, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WS), also known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness), is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome (1/770,000 in the United Kingdom), characterised by juvenile onset of diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, diabetes insipidus, sensorineural deafness, renal tract and neurological abnormalities, and primary gonadal atrophy. WS is caused mainly by biallelic mutations in the WFS1 gene, which encodes wolframin. Wide tissue distribution of wolframin and many mutations in the wolframin gene resulting in Wolfram syndrome may contribute to different phenotypes and the unusual combinations of clinical features. We describe a female patient with Wolfram syndrome diagnosed at the age of 25, with a previous false diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and misdiagnosed diabetic complications. The patient was found to be a compound heterozygote for two novel mutations in exon 8 of WFS1 gene: a 2-bp deletion AT at nt 1539 leading to a frameshift (Y513fs) and a single-base substitution 1174C > T resulting in a stop codon (Q392X). A detailed analysis of the patient's medical history and a review of the literature suggest that many cases of Wolfram syndrome may remain undiagnosed due to misdiagnosis as type 1 diabetes mellitus and incorrect interpretation of clinical symptoms of neurodegenerative abnormalities, especially in their early stages.

  12. A Case-Based Curriculum for Introductory Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, David W.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 5 years I have been teaching my introductory geology class using a case-based method that promotes student engagement and inquiry. This article presents an explanation of how a case-based curriculum differs from a more traditional approach to the material. It also presents a statistical analysis of several years' worth of student…

  13. Knowledge-Based Approaches: Two cases of applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Basic issues of the term: A knowledge-based approach (KBA) are discussed. Two cases of applicable to KBA are presented, and its concluded that KBA is more than just IT.......Basic issues of the term: A knowledge-based approach (KBA) are discussed. Two cases of applicable to KBA are presented, and its concluded that KBA is more than just IT....

  14. Representing and Reasoning with the Internet of Things: a Modular Rule-Based Model for Ensembles of Context-Aware Smart Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Loke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware smart things are capable of computational behaviour based on sensing the physical world, inferring context from the sensed data, and acting on the sensed context. A collection of such things can form what we call a thing-ensemble, when they have the ability to communicate with one another (over a short range network such as Bluetooth, or the Internet, i.e. the Internet of Things (IoT concept, sense each other, and when each of them might play certain roles with respect to each other. Each smart thing in a thing-ensemble might have its own context-aware behaviours which when integrated with other smart things yield behaviours that are not straightforward to reason with. We present Sigma, a language of operators, inspired from modular logic programming, for specifying and reasoning with combined behaviours among smart things in a thing-ensemble. We show numerous examples of the use of Sigma for describing a range of behaviours over a diverse range of thing-ensembles, from sensor networks to smart digital frames, demonstrating the versatility of our approach. We contend that our operator approach abstracts away low-level communication and protocol details, and allows systems of context-aware things to be designed and built in a compositional and incremental manner.

  15. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  16. The Development of Geometri Teaching Materials Based on Constructivism to Improve the Students' Mathematic Reasoning Ability through Cooperative Learing Jigsaw at the Class VIII of SMP Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Izwita; Harahap, Muhammad Syahri

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to know the validity, practicality, and effectivity of geometrical learning material based on the constructivism to Increase students' mathematic reasoning ability and increasing students' mathematic reasoning ability by using learning material at the grade VIII of SMP Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan. Type of the…

  17. Using Case-Based Reasoning to Improve the Quality of Feedback Provided by Automated Assessment Systems for Programming Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrilov, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Information technology is now ubiquitous in higher education institutions worldwide. More than 85% of American universities use e-learning systems to supplement traditional classroom activities. An obvious benefit of these online tools is their ability to automatically grade exercises submitted by students and provide immediate feedback. Most of…

  18. Exploring the Influence of an E-Learning Sensory Processing-Based Module for Graduate Level Occupational Therapy Students on Clinical Reasoning: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan M. Gee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a series of online, module-based instructional reusable learning objects (RLOs targeted at entry-level, 1st year, Master of Occupational Therapy students. The content of the RLOs addressed knowledge and implementation of A SECRET, a parental reasoning approach for children with a sensory processing disorder, specifically sensory over responsiveness. Nine RLOs were developed and embedded within a commonly used learning management system. Participants (n=8 were evaluated regarding their ability to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate A SECRET strategies using a selected-response assessment. The participants’ overall average score was 68%, a positive finding given the novelty of the instruction, assessment, and the content.

  19. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  20. Specification of Nonmonotonic Reasoning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.

    2000-01-01

    Two levels of description of nonmonotonic reasoning are distinguished. For these levels semantical formalizations are given. The first Level is defined semantically by the notion of belief state frame, the second Level by the notion of reasoning frame. We introduce two specification languages to

  1. Specification of Nonmonotonic Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.

    1996-01-01

    Two levels of description of nonmonotonic reasoning are distinguished. For these levels semantical formalizations are given. The first level is defined semantically by the notion of belief state frame, the second level by the notion of reasoning frame. We introduce two specification languages to

  2. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  3. Logistics case study based research: Towards higher quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrosa, Alex; Näslund, Dag; Jasmand, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper assesses the quality of the case study based research approach as documented in articles published during the past 13 years, based on a synthesis of indicators for the quality criteria truth-value, transferability, and traceability. Design/methodology/approach – Content...... analysis of 134 case study based articles published in six leading logistics and supply chain management (SCM) journals between 1998 and 2010 is used to assess and evaluate the quality of the case study based research approach as documented in these publications. Findings – This research provides...... to address to ensure high quality of the case study based research approach in published articles. Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to the analysis of published articles in six logistics and SCM journals. Further research should investigate different journals in logistics and other...

  4. PENGEMBANGAN CASE BASE LEARNING PADA MATA KULIAH PEREKONOMIAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastarini Dwi Atmani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this time, teacher centered learning is a methods in part of higher education in Indonsia. This method, students passively receive information.Case base learning is an instructional design model that is a variant of project oriented learning. Cases are factually-based, complex problems written to stimulate classroom discussion and collaborative analysis. This one, students construct knowledge through gathering and synthesizing information and integrating it with the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, and problem solving. Key words : active learning, case base learning.

  5. Secondary School Students' Understanding of Science and Their Socioscientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2017-08-01

    Research in socioscientific issue (SSI)-based interventions is relatively new (Sadler in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 41:513-536, 2004; Zeidler et al. in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 46:74-101, 2009), and there is a need for understanding more about the effects of SSI-based learning environments (Sadler in Journal of Research in Science Teaching 41:513-536, 2004). Lee and Witz (International Journal of Science Education 31:931-960, 2009) highlighted the need for detailed case studies that would focus on how students respond to teachers' practices of teaching SSI. This study presents case studies that investigated the development of secondary school students' science understanding and their socioscientific reasoning within SSI-based learning environments. A multiple case study with embedded units of analysis was implemented for this research because of the contextual differences for each case. The findings of the study revealed that students' understanding of science, including scientific method, social and cultural influences on science, and scientific bias, was strongly influenced by their experiences in SSI-based learning environments. Furthermore, multidimensional SSI-based science classes resulted in students having multiple reasoning modes, such as ethical and economic reasoning, compared to data-driven SSI-based science classes. In addition to portraying how participants presented complexity, perspectives, inquiry, and skepticism as aspects of socioscientific reasoning (Sadler et al. in Research in Science Education 37:371-391, 2007), this study proposes the inclusion of three additional aspects for the socioscientific reasoning theoretical construct: (1) identification of social domains affecting the SSI, (2) using cost and benefit analysis for evaluation of claims, and (3) understanding that SSIs and scientific studies around them are context-bound.

  6. The reasons associated with the loss of certain facts of language and culture while translating fiction from Russian into English based on the novel “War and peace” by Leo Tolstoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukova L.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available the article deals with the reasons for the loss of certain facts of language and culture while translating fiction from Russian into English based on the novel «War and peace» by Leo Tolstoy.

  7. Differentiating case-based learning from problem-based learning after a twoday introductory workshop on case-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqil Mohammad Daher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Considerable overlap exists between case-based learning (CBL and problem-based learning (PBL and differentiating between the two can be difficult for a lot of the academicians. Aims This study gauged the ability of members of medical school, familiar with a problem-based learning (PBL curriculum, to differentiate between case-based learning (CBL and PBL after a two-day workshop on CBL. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to all participants, attending the introductory course on CBL. It was designed to document the basic characteristics of the respondents, their preference for either CBL or PBL, their ability to recognize differences between CBL and PBL, and their overall perception of the course. Results Of the total workshop participants, 80.5 per cent returned the completed questionnaire. The mean age of the respondents was 44.12±12.31 years and women made up a slight majority. Majority favoured CBL over PBL and felt it was more clinical, emphasizes on self-directed learning, provides more opportunities for learning, permits in-depth exploration of cases, has structured environment and encourages the use of all learning resources. On the respondents’ ability to discriminate CBL from PBL, a weighted score of 39.9 per cent indicated a failure on the part of the respondents to correctly identify differences between CBL and PBL. Less than half opined that CBL was a worthwhile progression from PBL and about third would recommend CBL over PBL. Conclusion It seems that majority of the respondents failed to adequately differentiate between CBL and PBL and didn’t favour CBL over PBL.

  8. A measles outbreak in Catania, Sicily: the importance of high vaccination coverage and early notification of cases for health and economic reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celesia, Benedetto Maurizio; Fontana, Rossella; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Cuccia, Mario; Bellissimo, Francesco; Rapisarda, Liliana; Rinnone, Sebastiano; Rapisarda, Venerando; Pavone, Piero; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Measles is a paediatric exanthematous disease. Even though vaccination has dramatically reduced measles morbidity and mortality, outbreaks still occur due to insufficient vaccination coverage and importation of the virus from endemic regions. Although child vaccination coverage in Italy has been broadened (from 74% in 2000 to 90.1% in 2011), outbreaks are still observed at a regional level. We describe epidemiological and clinical characteristics of cases reported from January 2009 to May 2010 to the Epidemiology Service of the Provincial Health Authority of Catania. We obtained demographic data and vaccination status from the database of the Epidemiology Service and clinical features and laboratory data from medical records. In all, 522 cases were notified: 286 males (54%), median age 12 years (interquartile range (IQR) 4-18); 401 cases (77%) were notified by the hospital, and 121 (23%) by general practitioners. Only one patient had been previously vaccinated. 52 cases were hospitalized, median age 18 years (IQR 17-23). We observed hypertransaminasaemia in 20 patients (38%), thrombocytopenia in 22 patients (42%) and a creatine phosphokinase increase in 16 (30%). Complications (pneumonia, haemorrhagic cystitis, acute hepatitis) occurred in 10 patients (19%), all older than 18. Recent outbreaks show that immunization practices are still insufficient. Most cases were recorded in adolescents and young adults; even if the vaccine has limited virus circulation in childhood, it did not prevent the infection of other age groups. The number of notifications also suggests that the phenomenon is underestimated. In order to monitor the disease we need early notification of cases and increased vaccination coverage.

  9. Multistage problem-based case discussion for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadgostarnia, M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Students are presented with a variety of case formulas to promote the development of clinical reasoning. Methods: 120 third-year medical students at our medical university were randomly assigned to 18 small groups. After each ICM (Introduction to clinical Medicine course, they were given a paper case. A few days later small group sessions were formed and students asked tutors some questions to have more history and physical examination data and discussed and developed a differential diagnosis list. Then, all small groups met in a large group session for further discussion. After that, back to small groups, students ordered paraclinical tests and they were given the results by tutor. At this stage, each group tried to further narrow the differential diagnosis list and to determine the most probable diagnosis. Finally, in the large group session a consensus diagnosis was reached after reflective observation. A questionnaire was used before and after intervention. The small group tutor rated student’s abilities at the end of first day and last day. Results: The attitude of students about the positive effects of MPCD increased significantly from the first day to the last day (P<0.05. the progress checklist of the student’s abilities showed a statistically significant improvement post intervention. Conclusion: Our study suggests that using MPCD method is an effective way to increase clinical reasoning skills of medical students.

  10. Case-Based Learning for Orofacial Pain and Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Glenn T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The use of interactive computer-based simulation of cases of chronic orofacial pain and temporomandibular joint disfunction patients for clinical dental education is described. Its application as a voluntary study aid in a third-year dental course is evaluated for effectiveness and for time factors in case completion. (MSE)

  11. Smoking habits in lung cancer patients: a hospital based case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective, hospital based case-control study was designed to investigate the cigarette smoking history, the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of lung cancer in KHMC-Jordan. Six hundred cases with lung cancer (576 males, 24 females) and 600 controls were included in the study. The majority of ...

  12. Public Reason Renaturalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    . The article develops this argument via a sensorial orientation to politics that not only re-frames existing critiques of neo-Kantianism but also includes an alternative, renaturalized conception of public reason, one that allows us to overcome the disconnect between the account we give of reason and the way...... it is mobilized in a world of deep pluralism. The article concludes with a discussion of how a renaturalized conception of public reason might change the positioning of contemporary democratic theory vis-a-vis the struggle for empowerment and pluralization in an age of neo-liberalism and state-surveillance....

  13. Wisdom in clinical reasoning and medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Ricca; Pearce, Jane; Woerner, Markus H

    2009-01-01

    Exploring informal components of clinical reasoning, we argue that they need to be understood via the analysis of professional wisdom. Wise decisions are needed where action or insight is vital, but neither everyday nor expert knowledge provides solutions. Wisdom combines experiential, intellectual, ethical, emotional and practical capacities; we contend that it is also more strongly social than is usually appreciated. But many accounts of reasoning specifically rule out such features as irrational. Seeking to illuminate how wisdom operates, we therefore build on Aristotle's work on informal reasoning. His account of rhetorical communication shows how non-formal components can play active parts in reasoning, retaining, or even enhancing its reasonableness. We extend this account, applying it to forms of healthcare-related reasoning which are characterised by the need for wise decision-making. We then go on to explore some of what clinical wise reasoning may mean, concluding with a case taken from psychotherapeutic practice.

  14. Of Artificial Intelligence and Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    2014-01-01

    Can computers, or artificial intelligence, reason by analogy? This essay urges that they cannot, because they are unable to engage in the crucial task of identifying the normative principle that links or separates cases. Current claims, about the ability of artificial intelligence to reason analogically, rest on an inadequate picture of what legal reasoning actually is. For the most part, artificial intelligence now operates as a kind of advanced version of LEXIS, offering research assistance...

  15. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackman CL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Christine L Hackman, Adam P KnowldenDepartment of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USABackground: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB and the theory of reasoned action (TRA have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interventions targeting adolescents and young adults.Methods: The following databases were systematically searched to find articles for this review: Academic Search Premier; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL; Education Resources Information Center (ERIC; Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; and MEDLINE. Inclusion criteria for articles were: 1 primary or secondary interventions, 2 with any quantitative design, 3 published in the English language, 4 between January 2003 and March 2014, 5 that targeted adolescents or young adults, 6 which included dietary change behavior as the outcome, and 7 utilized TPB or TRA.Results: Of the eleven intervention studies evaluated, nine resulted in dietary behavior change that was attributed to the treatment. Additionally, all but one study found there to be a change in at least one construct of TRA or TPB, while one study did not measure constructs. All of the studies utilized some type of quantitative design, with two employing quasi-experimental, and eight employing randomized control trial design. Among the studies, four utilized technology including emails, social media posts, information on school websites, web-based activities, audio messages in classrooms, interactive DVDs, and health-related websites. Two studies incorporated goal setting and four employed persuasive communication.Conclusion: Interventions directed toward changing dietary behaviors

  16. Studies in using a universal exchange and inference language for evidence based medicine. Semi-automated learning and reasoning for PICO methodology, systematic review, and environmental epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry

    2016-12-01

    The Q-UEL language of XML-like tags and the associated software applications are providing a valuable toolkit for Evidence Based Medicine (EBM). In this paper the already existing applications, data bases, and tags are brought together with new ones. The particular Q-UEL embodiment used here is the BioIngine. The main challenge is one of bringing together the methods of symbolic reasoning and calculative probabilistic inference that underlie EBM and medical decision making. Some space is taken to review this background. The unification is greatly facilitated by Q-UEL's roots in the notation and algebra of Dirac, and by extending Q-UEL into the Wolfram programming environment. Further, the overall problem of integration is also a relatively simple one because of the nature of Q-UEL as a language for interoperability in healthcare and biomedicine, while the notion of workflow is facilitated because of the EBM best practice known as PICO. What remains difficult is achieving a high degree of overall automation because of a well-known difficulty in capturing human expertise in computers: the Feigenbaum bottleneck. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A competency-based approach to nurses' continuing education for clinical reasoning and leadership through reflective practice in a care situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudreau, Johanne; Pepin, Jacinthe; Larue, Caroline; Dubois, Sylvie; Descôteaux, Renée; Lavoie, Patrick; Dumont, Katia

    2015-11-01

    Newly graduated nurses need to demonstrate high levels of competencies when they enter the workplace. A competency-based approach to their education is recommended to ensure patients' needs are met. A continuing education intervention consistent with the competency-based approach to education was designed and implemented in eight care units in two teaching hospitals. It consists of a series of 30-min reflective practice groups on clinical events that newly graduated nurses encountered in their practice. It was evaluated using a descriptive longitudinal evaluative research design, combining individual and group interviews with stakeholders, the analysis of facilitators' journal entries, and a research assistant's field notes. The results suggest that issues associated with the implementation of the continuing education intervention revolved around leadership for managers, flexibility for nursing staff, and role shifting for the facilitators. Newly graduated nurses who participated in the study noted that the reflective practice sessions contributed to the development of both clinical reasoning and leadership. Nursing managers stated the advantages of the intervention on nurses' professional development and for the quality and safety of care. Following the end of the study, participants from two units managed to pursue the activity during their work time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Generic project definitions for improvement of health care delivery: a case-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Gerard C; Does, Ronald J M M; de Mast, Jeroen; Trip, Albert; van den Heuvel, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to create actionable knowledge, making the definition of process improvement projects in health care delivery more effective. This study is a retrospective analysis of process improvement projects in hospitals, facilitating a case-based reasoning approach to project definition. Data sources were project documentation and hospital-performance statistics of 271 Lean Six Sigma health care projects from 2002 to 2009 of general, teaching, and academic hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium. Objectives and operational definitions of improvement projects in the sample, analyzed and structured in a uniform format and terminology. Extraction of reusable elements of earlier project definitions, presented in the form of 9 templates called generic project definitions. These templates function as exemplars for future process improvement projects, making the selection, definition, and operationalization of similar projects more efficient. Each template includes an explicated rationale, an operationalization in the form of metrics, and a prototypical example. Thus, a process of incremental and sustained learning based on case-based reasoning is facilitated. The quality of project definitions is a crucial success factor in pursuits to improve health care delivery. We offer 9 tried and tested improvement themes related to patient safety, patient satisfaction, and business-economic performance of hospitals.

  19. An Engineering Approach to Atomic Transaction Verification : Use of a Simple Object Model to Achieve Semantics-based Reasoning at Compile-time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, D.; Even, S.J.

    In this paper, we take an engineering approach to atomic transaction verification. We discuss the design and implementation of a verification tool that can reason about the semantics of atomic database operations. To bridge the gap between language design and automated reasoning, we make use of a

  20. Identifying Kinds of Reasoning in Collective Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, AnnaMarie; Singletary, Laura M.; Smith, Ryan C.; Wagner, Patty Anne; Francisco, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    We combine Peirce's rule, case, and result with Toulmin's data, claim, and warrant to differentiate between deductive, inductive, abductive, and analogical reasoning within collective argumentation. In this theoretical article, we illustrate these kinds of reasoning in episodes of collective argumentation using examples from one…

  1. Making a Case for Case-Based Teaching in Data Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Derek R.; Beck, Jori S.; Morgan, Joseph John; Brown, Nancy; Whitesides, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Building on a study conducted by the authors, this article provides strategies for teaching data literacy and outlines the case-based teaching method as an effective way of developing data-literate teachers.

  2. Consequence Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Consequence reasoning is a major element for operation support system to assess the plant situations. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate how Multilevel Flow Models can be used to reason about consequences of disturbances in complex engineering systems. MFM is a modelling methodology...... for representing process knowledge for complex systems. It represents the system by using means-end and part-whole decompositions, and describes not only the purposes and functions of the system but also the causal relations between them. Thus MFM is a tool for causal reasoning. The paper introduces MFM modelling...... syntax and gives detailed reasoning formulas for consequence reasoning. The reasoning formulas offers basis for developing rule-based system to perform consequence reasoning based on MFM, which can be used for alarm design, risk monitoring, and supervision and operation support system design....

  3. An integrated risk assessment model of township-scaled land subsidence based on an evidential reasoning algorithm and fuzzy set theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shu, Longcang; Burbey, Thomas J

    2014-04-01

    Land subsidence risk assessment (LSRA) is a multi-attribute decision analysis (MADA) problem and is often characterized by both quantitative and qualitative attributes with various types of uncertainty. Therefore, the problem needs to be modeled and analyzed using methods that can handle uncertainty. In this article, we propose an integrated assessment model based on the evidential reasoning (ER) algorithm and fuzzy set theory. The assessment model is structured as a hierarchical framework that regards land subsidence risk as a composite of two key factors: hazard and vulnerability. These factors can be described by a set of basic indicators defined by assessment grades with attributes for transforming both numerical data and subjective judgments into a belief structure. The factor-level attributes of hazard and vulnerability are combined using the ER algorithm, which is based on the information from a belief structure calculated by the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory, and a distributed fuzzy belief structure calculated by fuzzy set theory. The results from the combined algorithms yield distributed assessment grade matrices. The application of the model to the Xixi-Chengnan area, China, illustrates its usefulness and validity for LSRA. The model utilizes a combination of all types of evidence, including all assessment information--quantitative or qualitative, complete or incomplete, and precise or imprecise--to provide assessment grades that define risk assessment on the basis of hazard and vulnerability. The results will enable risk managers to apply different risk prevention measures and mitigation planning based on the calculated risk states. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Christine L; Knowlden, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interventions targeting adolescents and young adults. THE FOLLOWING DATABASES WERE SYSTEMATICALLY SEARCHED TO FIND ARTICLES FOR THIS REVIEW: Academic Search Premier; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL); Education Resources Information Center (ERIC); Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); and MEDLINE. Inclusion criteria for articles were: 1) primary or secondary interventions, 2) with any quantitative design, 3) published in the English language, 4) between January 2003 and March 2014, 5) that targeted adolescents or young adults, 6) which included dietary change behavior as the outcome, and 7) utilized TPB or TRA. Of the eleven intervention studies evaluated, nine resulted in dietary behavior change that was attributed to the treatment. Additionally, all but one study found there to be a change in at least one construct of TRA or TPB, while one study did not measure constructs. All of the studies utilized some type of quantitative design, with two employing quasi-experimental, and eight employing randomized control trial design. Among the studies, four utilized technology including emails, social media posts, information on school websites, web-based activities, audio messages in classrooms, interactive DVDs, and health-related websites. Two studies incorporated goal setting and four employed persuasive communication. Interventions directed toward changing dietary behaviors in adolescents should aim to incorporate multi-faceted, theory-based approaches. Future studies should consider utilizing randomized control trial design and

  5. Improved Student Reasoning About Carbon-Transforming Processes Through Inquiry-Based Learning Activities Derived from an Empirically Validated Learning Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    JW, Schramm; Jin, H.; Keeling, EG; Johnson, M.; Shin, HJ

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports on our use of a fine-grained learning progression to assess secondary students' reasoning through carbon-transforming processes (photosynthesis, respiration, biosynthesis). Based on previous studies, we developed a learning progression with four progress variables: explaining mass changes, explaining energy transformations, explaining subsystems, and explaining large-scale systems. For this study, we developed a 2-week teaching module integrating these progress variables. Students were assessed before and after instruction, with the learning progression framework driving data analysis. Our work revealed significant overall learning gains for all students, with the mean post-test person proficiency estimates higher by 0.6 logits than the pre-test proficiency estimates. Further, instructional effects were statistically similar across all grades included in the study (7th-12th) with students in the lowest third of initial proficiency evidencing the largest learning gains. Students showed significant gains in explaining the processes of photosynthesis and respiration and in explaining transformations of mass and energy, areas where prior research has shown that student misconceptions are prevalent. Student gains on items about large-scale systems were higher than with other variables (although absolute proficiency was still lower). Gains across each of the biological processes tested were similar, despite the different levels of emphasis each had in the teaching unit. Together, these results indicate that students can benefit from instruction addressing these processes more explicitly. This requires pedagogical design quite different from that usually practiced with students at this level.

  6. Semitransparent inverted organic solar cell with improved absorption and reasonable transparency perception based on the nanopatterned MoO3/Ag/MoO3 anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ximin; Zhang, Ye; Hao, Yuying; Cui, Yanxia; Wang, Wenyan; Shi, Fang; Wang, Hua; Wei, Bin; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an inverted low bandgap semitransparent organic solar cell with improved absorption as well as reasonable transparency perception based on a nanopatterned MoO3/Ag/MoO3 (MAM) multilayer film as the transparent anode under illumination from the MAM side. The integrated absorption efficiency of the active layer at normal hybrid-polarized incidence considering an AM 1.5G solar spectrum is up to 51.69%, increased by 18.53% as compared to that of the equivalent planar device (43.61%) and reaching 77.3% of that of the corresponding opaque nanopatterned device (66.90%). Detailed investigations reveal that the excitation of plasmonic waveguide modes (at transverse magnetic polarization) and photonic modes (at transverse electric polarization) are responsible for the observed enhancement in absorption. Importantly, the proposed device exhibits an average transmittance of up to 28.4% and an average transparency perception of 26.3% for the human eyes under hybrid-polarized light illumination along with a good color rendering property. Additionally, our proposal works very well over a fairly wide angular range.

  7. A Java-Web-Based-Learning Methodology, Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Java-Web-Based-Learning Methodology, Case Study : Waterborne diseases. The recent advances in web technologies have opened new opportunities for computer-based-education. One can learn independently of time and place constraints, and have instantaneous access to relevant updated material at minimal cost.

  8. Community-based Tourism and Rural Development: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based Tourism and Rural Development: The Case of the Wechiau Hippo Sanctuary in the Wa West District of Ghana. ... the sustainable management of the Sanctuary. KEY DESCRIPTORS: Community-based Tourism, Nature Conservation, Eco-system maintenance, Participatory Planning; Rural Development.

  9. Science Teachers' Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-08-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students' learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students' prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to introduce analogies in their lessons. Both aspects have been discussed in the literature in the last few decades. However, almost nothing is known about how teachers draw their own analogies for instructional purposes or, in other words, about how they reason analogically when planning and conducting teaching. This is the focus of this paper. Six secondary teachers were individually interviewed; the aim was to characterize how they perform each of the analogical reasoning subprocesses, as well as to identify their views on analogies and their use in science teaching. The results were analyzed by considering elements of both theories about analogical reasoning: the structural mapping proposed by Gentner and the analogical mechanism described by Vosniadou. A comprehensive discussion of our results makes it evident that teachers' content knowledge on scientific topics and on analogies as well as their pedagogical content knowledge on the use of analogies influence all their analogical reasoning subprocesses. Our results also point to the need for improving teachers' knowledge about analogies and their ability to perform analogical reasoning.

  10. Problem based learning (PBL) vs. Case based curriculum in clinical clerkship, Internal Medicine innovated Curriculum, Student prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljarallah, Badr; Hassan, Mohammad Saleh

    2015-04-01

    The vast majority of PBL experience is in basic science courses. Application of classic Problem based learning in clerkship phase is challenging. Although the clinical case is considered a problem, yet solving this problem following the burrow's law has faced hurdles. The difficulties are facing the learner, the teacher and curricula. We implement innovative curriculum for the clerkship year in internal medicine course. We surveyed the student just before coming to an internal medicine course to ask them about continuing PBL or other types of learning in clinical years. A committee was created to study the possible ways to integrate PBL in the course. After multiple brainstorming meeting, an innovated curriculum was implemented. Student surveyed again after they completed their course. The survey is asking them about what is the effect of the implemented curriculum in their skills, attitude, and knowledge. 70% of Students, who finished their basic science in PBL, preferred not to have classical PBL, but more a clinical oriented case based curriculum in the clinical years. After this innovated curriculum, 50-60 % of students who completed it showed a positive response in all aspects of effects including skill, attitude, and knowledge. The Innovated curriculum includes daily morning report, 3 bedside teaching, investigation session, and clinical reasoning weekly, and Lectures up to twice a week. We suggest implementing a curriculum with PBL and case-based criteria in clinical phase are feasible, we are providing a framework with this innovated curriculum.

  11. Case Reports, Case Series - From Clinical Practice to Evidence-Based Medicine in Graduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Jerry W; Toklu, Hale Z; Ye, Fan; Mazza, Joseph; Yale, Steven

    2017-08-07

    Case reports and case series or case study research are descriptive studies that are prepared for illustrating novel, unusual, or atypical features identified in patients in medical practice, and they potentially generate new research questions. They are empirical inquiries or investigations of a patient or a group of patients in a natural, real-world clinical setting. Case study research is a method that focuses on the contextual analysis of a number of events or conditions and their relationships. There is disagreement among physicians on the value of case studies in the medical literature, particularly for educators focused on teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM) for student learners in graduate medical education. Despite their limitations, case study research is a beneficial tool and learning experience in graduate medical education and among novice researchers. The preparation and presentation of case studies can help students and graduate medical education programs evaluate and apply the six American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies in the areas of medical knowledge, patient care, practice-based learning, professionalism, systems-based practice, and communication. A goal in graduate medical education should be to assist residents to expand their critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills. These attributes are required in the teaching and practice of EBM. In this aspect, case studies provide a platform for developing clinical skills and problem-based learning methods. Hence, graduate medical education programs should encourage, assist, and support residents in the publication of clinical case studies; and clinical teachers should encourage graduate students to publish case reports during their graduate medical education.

  12. From cases to projects in problem-based medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Stentoft

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL based on patient cases has become a well-established worldwide educational approach in medical education. Recent studies indicate that case-based PBL when used throughout an entire curriculum may develop into a counter-productive routine for students as well as teachers. Consequently, there is a need to develop PBL approaches further allowing students to work with more ill-defined problems and alternative learning structures. In this paper, we argue that this can be realised by introducing project-PBL into the medical curriculum, as in the medical education at Aalborg University, Denmark. We outline organisations of case- and project- PBL in the medical curriculum and present an explorative study of 116 first and second year students’ experiences working in the two settings of PBL. Results reveal that students generally rate their PBL experiences positively however, project-PBL is rated more positively than case-PBL on all parameters studied. These results invite further consideration of the differences in working with cases and projects. Two central differences are discussed; the nature of the problem as the trigger of learning and students' possibilities for directing their own learning processes. The study demonstrates that introducing project-PBL may contribute significantly in problem-based medical education. However, the need for extensive research into advantages and limitations of the combined use of case- and project-PBL is also emphasised.

  13. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowang

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical) description logic reasoning.

  14. Minimally inconsistent reasoning in Semantic Web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowang Zhang

    Full Text Available Reasoning with inconsistencies is an important issue for Semantic Web as imperfect information is unavoidable in real applications. For this, different paraconsistent approaches, due to their capacity to draw as nontrivial conclusions by tolerating inconsistencies, have been proposed to reason with inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. However, existing paraconsistent approaches are often criticized for being too skeptical. To this end, this paper presents a non-monotonic paraconsistent version of description logic reasoning, called minimally inconsistent reasoning, where inconsistencies tolerated in the reasoning are minimized so that more reasonable conclusions can be inferred. Some desirable properties are studied, which shows that the new semantics inherits advantages of both non-monotonic reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning. A complete and sound tableau-based algorithm, called multi-valued tableaux, is developed to capture the minimally inconsistent reasoning. In fact, the tableaux algorithm is designed, as a framework for multi-valued DL, to allow for different underlying paraconsistent semantics, with the mere difference in the clash conditions. Finally, the complexity of minimally inconsistent description logic reasoning is shown on the same level as the (classical description logic reasoning.

  15. Environmental impact assessment using a utility-based recursive evidential reasoning approach for structural flood mitigation measures in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) has created significant awareness on the role of environmentally sound projects in sustainable development. In view of the recent studies on the effects of climate change, the Philippine government has given high priority to the construction of flood control structures to alleviate the destructive effects of unmitigated floods, especially in highly urbanized areas like Metro Manila. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively carried out to maximize or optimize the potential benefits that can be derived from structural flood mitigation measures (SFMMs). A utility-based environmental assessment approach may significantly aid flood managers and decision-makers in planning for effective and environmentally sound SFMM projects. This study proposes a utility-based assessment approach using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique, coupled with the evidential reasoning approach, to rationally and systematically evaluate the ecological and socio-economic impacts of 4 planned SFMM projects (i.e. 2 river channel improvements and 2 new open channels) in Metro Manila. Results show that the overall environmental effects of each of the planned SFMM projects are positive, which indicate that the utility of the positive impacts would generally outweigh the negative impacts. The results also imply that the planned river channel improvements will yield higher environmental benefits over the planned open channels. This study was able to present a clear and rational approach in the examination of overall environmental effects of SFMMs, which provides valuable insights that can be used by decision-makers and policy makers to improve the EIA practice and evaluation of projects in the Philippines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Teaching clinical reasoning to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, Lisa; Donald, Kenneth J; Teodorczuk, Andrew

    2017-07-02

    Clinical reasoning is often not explicitly addressed in the early medical school curriculum. As a result, students observe the process while on clinical placements with little or no understanding of the complex processes underlying it. Clinical reasoning has significant implications for patient safety. Medical errors as a consequence of faulty reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality. Educating medical students at an early stage about the processes of clinical reasoning and strategies to avoid associated errors can have positive impacts upon patient safety. The authors propose that clinical reasoning should be taught as early as the first year of medical school, using frameworks, anatomical knowledge and mnemonics. Using this approach with simulated cases during the pre-clinical years, students will be equipped with an understanding of the clinical reasoning process as it unfolds before them while on clinical placements, enhancing their overall learning experience.

  17. Applications of Case Based Organizational Memory Supported by the PAbMM Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the aim to manage and retrieve the organizational knowledge, in the last years numerous proposals of models and tools for knowledge management and knowledge representation have arisen. However, most of them store knowledge in a non-structured or semi-structured way, hindering the semantic and automatic processing of this knowledge. In this paper we present a more detailed case-based organizational memory ontology, which aims at contributing to the design of an organizational memory based on cases, so that it can be used to learn, reasoning, solve problems, and as support to better decision making as well. The objective of this Organizational Memory is to serve as base for the organizational knowledge exchange in a processing architecture specialized in the measurement and evaluation. In this way, our processing architecture is based on the C-INCAMI framework (Context-Information Need, Concept model, Attribute, Metric and Indicator for defining the measurement projects. Additionally, the proposal architecture uses a big data repository to make available the data for consumption and to manage the Organizational Memory, which allows a feedback mechanism in relation with online processing. In order to illustrate its utility, two practical cases are explained: A pasture predictor system, using the data of the weather radar (WR of the Experimental Agricultural Station (EAS INTA Anguil (La Pampa State, Argentina and an outpatient monitoring scenario. Future trends and concluding remarks are extended.

  18. Reason destroys itself

    CERN Multimedia

    Penrose, Roger

    2008-01-01

    "Do we know for certain that 2 lus 2 equals 4? Of course we don't. Maybe every time everybody in the whole world has ever done that calculation and reasoned it through, they've made a mistake." (1 page0

  19. Quantitative Algebraic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash; Plotkin, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantitative analogue of equational reasoning which we call quantitative algebra. We define an equality relation indexed by rationals: a =ε b which we think of as saying that “a is approximately equal to b up to an error of ε”. We have 4 interesting examples where we have a quantitative...

  20. One reason, several logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.

  1. Spatial Cognition and Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    reasoning has been conducted within the past twenty years. The bulk of this research has been in the area of environmental psychology (Lynch, 1960...New York: Basic Books, 1960. Proshansky, H., Ittelson, W., & Rivlin, L. Environmental psychology : Man and his physical setting. New York: Holt

  2. Observing Reasonable Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Norman I.

    1991-01-01

    Although courts and legislators usually set legal standards that correspond to empirical knowledge of human behavior, recent developments in behavioral psychology have led courts to appreciate the limits and errors in consumer decision making. "Reasonable consumer" standards that are congruent with cognitive reality should be developed.…

  3. Paying the price for an incentive: an exploratory study of smokers' reasons for failing to complete an incentive based smoking cessation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Caroline; Radley, Andrew; Williams, Brian

    2012-10-01

    In 2009, one Scottish region launched a smoking cessation programme offering a weekly financial incentive of £12.50 over a 12-week period. However, a significant proportion of registered participants dropped out of the programme, some even failing to collect the financial reward they were owed. We explore reasons for disengagement and failure to re-engage within this group. Individuals (n = 14) were interviewed in depth. Transcripts from recorded interviews formed the dataset and were analysed using the "Framework" method. Incentives appeared to introduce a potential change/reversal in the felt contractual relationship between service provider and client: the client was now the provider and being paid to quit. This led to an increased sense of obligation towards the service, and enhanced feelings of failure, guilt and shame post-relapse, and reluctance to continue engagement or re-engagement. Other service factors promoting disengagement included issues of practical delivery through location, timing, administrative burden and incentive preference. The future design of incentive-based schemes should be cognisant of the potential impact on the client-professional relationship. Increasing the value of the incentive may overcome clients' antipathy towards bureaucracy and monitoring, but may simultaneously exacerbate the sense of failure and resultant stigma associated with relapse. It may be more cost-effective to reduce barriers/costs such as inconvenience, lack of privacy, timing and embarrassment of association of attendance at the pharmacy with methadone use. Alternatively, risks may be managed by reframing weekly rewards as three separate month-long stages, increasing a sense of achievement that a particular stage has been achieved before any relapse. The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd 2012

  4. Case-Based Plan Recognition in Computer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Fagan, Michael; Cunningham, Padraig

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of case-based plan recognition to predict a player?s actions in a computer game. The game we work with is the classic Space Invaders game and we show that case-based plan recognition can produce good prediction accuracy in real-time, working with a fairly simple game representation. Our evaluation suggests that a personalized plan library will produce better prediction accuracy but, for Space Invaders, good accuracy can be produced using a pl...

  5. Recurrent mandibular ameloblastoma with anterior skull base invasion: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, L; Varoquaux, A; Giovanni, A; Dessi, P; Michel, J

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent ameloblastoma with skull base invasion is a rare clinical entity with poor prognosis. We report a case of a mandibular ameloblastoma recurrence involving the anterior skull base. The diagnostic and therapeutic processes are presented with emphasis on the radiologic features of ameloblastoma. Another aim of this case report is to underline the importance of close and long-term follow-up after resection. Ameloblastoma recurrences are frequent and mainly occur after incomplete surgical resection. These recurrences may be diagnosed late because of lack of symptoms in the mandibular area.

  6. The ethical reasoning variations of personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalizani Khalid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a comparison of the ethical reasoning components of business managers and executives based on personal characteristics of working experiences, gender and age group. Data were collected in Malaysia within the small and medium sized industry in the form of questionnaires which contain vignettes of questionable ethical reasoning issues. Factor analysis was used to identify the major ethical reasoning dimensions which were then used as the basic comparison. Our study reviews that SMEs managers’ and executives’ ethical reasoning influenced by their years of working experiences. The gap analysis between male and female managers and executives revealed that the significant difference only occurs for ethical awareness in business management and business practices but not for other dimensions. Besides, there are indications that generally, business people tend to have higher ethical reasoning evaluation when they reach thirty six years old. Based on our results, recommendations are made to improve the ethical reasoning evaluation of business managers and executives.

  7. Managing inadequate responses to frontline treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: a case-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixby, Dale L

    2013-05-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib are the standard of care for treating patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Compared with interferon-based treatment, the previous standard of care, imatinib is associated with significantly higher cytogenetic response rates and prolonged overall survival. Nilotinib and dasatinib, both newer and more potent TKIs, significantly improve cytogenetic and molecular response rates compared with imatinib. Despite significant advances in CML treatment enabled by the TKIs, a fraction of patients who receive frontline treatment with a TKI demonstrate inadequate response. The reasons for this vary, but in many cases, inadequate response can be attributed to non-adherence to the treatment regimen, intolerance to the drug, intrinsic or acquired resistance to the drug, or a combination of reasons. More often than not, strategies to improve response necessitate a change in treatment plan, either a dose adjustment or a switch to an alternate drug, particularly in the case of drug intolerance or drug resistance. Improved physician-patient communication and patient education are effective strategies to address issues relating to adherence and intolerance. Because inadequate response to TKI treatment correlates with poor long-term outcomes, it is imperative that patients who experience intolerance or who fail to achieve appropriate responses are carefully evaluated so that appropriate treatment modifications can be made to maximize the likelihood of positive long-term outcome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Development of PCR for WWTP based on a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Borghi, A.; Gallo, M.; Strazza, C.; Gaggero, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    In order to apply the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) to products or services, specific rules (PCR, Product Category Rules) have to be issued to ensure comparability among different declarations within the same service group. The aim of the present study is to describe the reasons leading to each choice in the development of PCR applied to collecting and treatment service of municipal wastewater and to evaluate, through life cycle analysis (LCA), their influence on the potential environmental impact of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), analysed as a case study. Specific data were collected during the year 2003 from an Italian active sludge treatment plant with separate wastewater and sludge treatment lines. The life-cycle approach applied to the case study shows that LCA represents an environmental management tool able both to communicate environmental information by the Type 3. environmental label EPD, and to look for different scenarios that can improve the environmental performance of the Collecting and Treatment Service of Municipal Wastewater. [it

  9. Invariants in probabilistic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has identified three invariants or identities that appear to hold in people's probabilistic reasoning: the QQ identity, the addition law identity, and the Bayes rule identity (Costello and Watts, 2014, 2016a, Fisher and Wolfe, 2014, Wang and Busemeyer, 2013, Wang et al., 2014). Each of these identities represent specific agreement with the requirements of normative probability theory; strikingly, these identities seem to hold in people's judgements despite the presence of strong and systematic biases against the requirements of normative probability theory in those very same judgements. These results suggest that the systematic biases seen in people's probabilistic reasoning follow mathematical rules: for these particular identities, these rules cause an overall cancellation of biases and so produce agreement with normative requirements. We assess two competing mathematical models of probabilistic reasoning (the 'probability theory plus noise' model and the 'quantum probability' model) in terms of their ability to account for this pattern of systematic biases and invariant identities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Case-Based Modeling for Learning: Socially Constructed Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul; Bandura, Randall P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Grounded on components of experiential learning theory (ELT) and self-regulation of learning (SRL) theory, augmented by elements of action theory and script development, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the case-based modeling (CBM) instructional approach that stimulates learning in groups or teams. CBM is related to individual…

  11. Arts-Based Learning and Leadership Development: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael Yoel

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study was designed to explore how participants in an arts-based leadership development program learned to draw on their right brain capabilities in order to develop the creative competencies required to solve complex modern-day problems in new and different ways. The rationale for this study emerges from the researcher's…

  12. A case study of Ghana's Community- Based Rural Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... 9, No. 2, October, 2012. Kwadwo Adusei-Asante and Peter Hancock. When Empowerment Disempowers: A case study of Ghana's Community-Based Rural Development Projects. Nussbaum, M. (2000). Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  13. Case-Based Learning, Pedagogical Innovation, and Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, A.; Morris, S.; Tscholl, M.; Tracy, F.; Carmichael, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of Semantic Web technologies to support teaching and learning in a variety of higher education settings in which some form of case-based learning is the pedagogy of choice. It draws on the empirical work of a major three year research and development project in the United Kingdom: "Ensemble: Semantic…

  14. Development of a Synergistic Case-Based Micro anatomy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Prayson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an interactive approach to teaching and assessing a micro anatomy curriculum in an innovative medical school program. As an alternative to lectures and labs, students are engaged in interactive seminars focused on discussion of clinical and research-based cases matched with normal histology and pathology…

  15. Project-Based Learning in Electronic Technology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    A case study of project-based learning (PBL) implemented in Tianjin University of Technology and Education is presented. This multidiscipline project is innovated to meet the novel requirements of industry while keeping its traditional effectiveness in driving students to apply knowledge to practice and problem-solving. The implementation of PBL…

  16. Trends in performance of the National Measles Case-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Since adoption of the measles case-based surveillance system in Zimbabwe in 1998, data has been routinely collected at all levels of the health delivery system and sent to national level with little or no documented evidence of use to identify risky populations, monitor impact of interventions and measure ...

  17. Learning Neuroscience: An Interactive Case-Based Online Network (ICON).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, James J.; Pasquale, Susan; Cerva, Barbara; Lester, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interactive, case-based online network (ICON) that provides a learning environment that integrates student thinking across different concentration tracks and allows students to get away from interpreting vast amounts of available information, move toward selecting useful information, recognize discriminating findings, and build a…

  18. What role for the anterior cingulate in analogical reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Michael W

    2010-06-01

    Abstract While prefrontal and frontal cortex of the brain are well documented to mediate many executive functions, including creativity, flexibility, and adaptability, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to be involved in error detection and conflict resolution, and is crucial to reward-based learning. A case is made for the notion that any neural model of analogical reasoning must incorporate the critical (and specialized) contributions of the ACC.

  19. The effects of inquiry-based teaching on attitudes, self-efficacy, and science reasoning abilities of students in introductory biology courses at a rural, open-enrollment community college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roster, Nicholas Owen

    Publications such as Beyond Bio 101, BIO 2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists and College Pathways to the Science Education Standards advocate science education reform in higher education institutions, including the use of student-centered pedagogies. While many studies about the effectiveness of such pedagogies have been conducted at universities and four-year colleges, few have been conducted at the community college level, where many students, including many would-be educators, choose to take their introductory science courses. This study investigated whether the same techniques used in universities to increase student attitudes, self-efficacy and science reasoning can also be effective at a small, rural community college. This study used pre and post-tests of student attitudes, self-efficacy and scientific reasoning to determine if inquiry-based learning positively affected each of these parameters. In wholly traditional classes, students' attitudes decreased, self-efficacy increased and scientific reasoning was unchanged. In classes with traditional lecture and inquiry labs, attitudes increased, self-efficacy increased and scientific reasoning was unchanged. Finally in a course designed with inquiry lecture and lab components, attitude did not change, self-efficacy increased, and scientific reasoning increased. This provides evidence that inquiry-based teaching can have a positive effect on community college students. It also provides evidence that using three different measures, allows for a more complete picture of the effects of inquiry-based teaching.

  20. Conceptual Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldager, Steen Nikolaj

    2003-01-01

    One of the main areas in knowledge representation and logic-based artificial intelligence concerns logical formalisms that can be used for representing and reasoning with concepts. For almost 30 years, since research in this area began, the issue of intensionality has had a special status...... in that it has been considered to play an important role, yet it has not been precisely established what it means for a logical formalism to be intensional. This thesis attempts to set matters straight. Based on studies of the main contributions to the issue of intensionality from philosophy of language...

  1. K-Means Clustering to Study How Student Reasoning Lines Can Be Modified by a Learning Activity Based on Feynman's Unifying Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Onofrio Rosario; Di Paola, Benedetto; Fazio, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Research in Science Education has shown that often students need to learn how to identify differences and similarities between descriptive and explicative models. The development and use of explicative skills in the field of thermal science has always been a difficult objective to reach. A way to develop analogical reasoning is to use in Science…

  2. Autobiographical reasoning in long-term fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lee Harrington

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore the social psychological processes through which fan-based experiences become situated in fans' larger life narratives. Drawing on original survey data with long-term U.S. soap opera fans, we examine how the psychological mechanism of autobiographical reasoning functions in fans' construction of self-narratives over time. The case study presented here is a subset of a larger investigation into the age-related structure of fans' activities, identities, and interpretive capacities. Situated at the intersections of gerontological (life span/life course theory and contemporary fan studies, our project mines relatively uninvestigated theoretical terrain. We conclude with a brief discussion of implications for future fan studies.

  3. Reasonable Avoidability, Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2012-01-01

    In “Health, Luck and Justice” Shlomi Segall argues for a luck egalitarian approach to justice in health care. As the basis for a just distribution he suggests a principle of Reasonable Avoidability, which he takes to imply that we do not have justice-based reasons to treat diseases brought about...... such as smoking and over-eating, nor that responsibility is ultimately irrelevant for the principle of Reasonable Avoidability. Second, I object to an argument of Segall’s, according to which the size of the health-care costs related to smoking and obesity is irrelevant for whether society reasonably can expect...

  4. Integrating collaborative concept mapping in case based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tifi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Different significance of collaborative concept mapping and collaborative argumentation in Case Based Learning are discussed and compared in the different perspectives of answering focus questions, of fostering reflective thinking skills and in managing uncertainty in problem solving in a scaffolded environment. Marked differences are pointed out between the way concepts are used in constructing concept maps and the way meanings are adopted in case based learning through guided argumentation activities. Shared concept maps should be given different scopes, as for example a as an advance organizer in preparing a background system of concepts that will undergo transformation while accompanying the inquiry activities on case studies or problems; b together with narratives, to enhance awareness of the situated epistemologies that are being entailed in choosing certain concepts during more complex case studies, and c after-learning construction of a holistic vision of the whole domain by means of the most inclusive concepts, while scaffoldedcollaborative writing of narratives and arguments in describing-treating cases could better serve as a source of situated-inspired tools to create-refine meanings for particular concepts.

  5. Connecting Mathematics Learning through Spatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Joanne; Woolcott, Geoffrey; Mitchelmore, Michael; Davis, Brent

    2018-01-01

    Spatial reasoning, an emerging transdisciplinary area of interest to mathematics education research, is proving integral to all human learning. It is particularly critical to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This project will create an innovative knowledge framework based on spatial reasoning that identifies new…

  6. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  7. Validation test case generation based on safety analysis ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chin-Feng; Wang, Wen-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Current practice in validation test case generation for nuclear system is mainly ad hoc. ► This study designs a systematic approach to generate validation test cases from a Safety Analysis Report. ► It is based on a domain-specific ontology. ► Test coverage criteria have been defined and satisfied. ► A computerized toolset has been implemented to assist the proposed approach. - Abstract: Validation tests in the current nuclear industry practice are typically performed in an ad hoc fashion. This study presents a systematic and objective method of generating validation test cases from a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). A domain-specific ontology was designed and used to mark up a SAR; relevant information was then extracted from the marked-up document for use in automatically generating validation test cases that satisfy the proposed test coverage criteria; namely, single parameter coverage, use case coverage, abnormal condition coverage, and scenario coverage. The novelty of this technique is its systematic rather than ad hoc test case generation from a SAR to achieve high test coverage.

  8. Reasons for Whistleblowing: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BALTACI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Whistleblowing has become a commonly encountered concept in recent times. Negative behaviors and actions can be experienced in any organization, and whistleblowing, as a communication process, is a kind of ethical behavior. Whistleblowing is the transmission of an unfavorable situation discovered in the organization to either internal or external authorities. An examination of the reasons for the employee’s whistleblowing is important for a better understanding of this concept; hence, this research focuses on the reasons for whistleblowing. In addition, the reasons for avoiding whistleblowing were also investigated. This research, which is designed as a qualitative study, is based on the phenomenological approach. Interviews were conducted with open-ended, semi-structured interview form in the study. The research was conducted on 20 teachers, 12 administrators, and 7 inspectors. The data were analyzed using the content analysis method. As a result of the research, the individual, organizational and social reasons for whistleblowing have been differentiated. Among the individual reasons for whistleblowing are the considerations of protecting and gaining interests. Organizational reasons include business ethics and the expectation of subsequent promotion. Social reasons encompass social benefits, social justice, and religious belief. Reasons for avoiding whistleblowing vary based on retaliation and worry. This research is considered important because as it is believed to be the first qualitative research to approach the reasons for whistleblowing. The results of this research have revealed gaps in the understanding of this area for future studies.

  9. Theoretical and practical significance of formal reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Marcia C.

    Piaget's theory has profoundly influenced science education research. Following Piaget, researchers have focused on content-free strategies, developmentally based mechanisms, and structural models of each stage of reasoning. In practice, factors besides those considered in Piaget's theory influence whether or not a theoretically available strategy is used. Piaget's focus has minimized the research attention placed on what could be called practical factors in reasoning. Practical factors are factors that influence application of a theoretically available strategy, for example, previous experience with the task content, familiarity with task instructions, or personality style of the student. Piagetian theory has minimized the importance of practical factors and discouraged investigation of (1) the role of factual knowledge in reasoning, (2) the diagnosis of specific, task-based errors in reasoning, (3) the influence of individual aptitudes on reasoning (e.g., field dependence-independence), and (4) the effect of educational interventions designed to change reasoning. This article calls for new emphasis on practical factors in reasoning and suggests why research on practical factors in reasoning will enhance our understanding of how scientific reasoning is acquired and of how science education programs can foster it.

  10. Effectiveness and Utility of a Case-Based Model for Delivering Engineering Ethics Professional Development Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Ann Hahn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an action research project conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL to resolve a problem with the ability of licensed and/or certified engineers to obtain the ethics-related professional development units or hours (PDUs or PDHs needed to maintain their credentials. Because of the recurring requirement and the static nature of the information, an initial, in-depth training followed by annually updated refresher training was proposed. A case model approach, with online delivery, was selected as the optimal pedagogical model for the refresher training. In the first two years, the only data that was collected was throughput and information retention. Response rates indicated that the approach was effective in helping licensed professional engineers obtain the needed PDUs. The rates of correct responses suggested that knowledge transfer regarding ethical reasoning had occurred in the initial training and had been retained in the refresher. In FY13, after completing the refresher, learners received a survey asking their opinion of the effectiveness and utility of the course, as well as their impressions of the case study format vs. the typical presentation format. Results indicate that the courses have been favorably received and that the case study method supports most of the pedagogical needs of adult learners as well as, if not better than, presentation-based instruction. Future plans for improvement are focused on identifying and evaluating methods for enriching online delivery of the engineering ethics cases.

  11. Effectiveness and Utility of a Case-Based Model for Delivering Engineering Ethics Professional Development Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Ann Hahn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an action research project conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL to resolve a problem with the ability of licensed and/or certified engineers to obtain the ethics-related professional development units or hours (PDUs or PDHs needed to maintain their credentials. Because of the recurring requirement and the static nature of the information, an initial, in-depth training followed by annually updated refresher training was proposed. A case model approach, with online delivery, was selected as the optimal pedagogical model for the refresher training. In the first two years, the only data that was collected was throughput and information retention. Response rates indicated that the approach was effective in helping licensed professional engineers obtain the needed PDUs. The rates of correct responses suggested that knowledge transfer regarding ethical reasoning had occurred in the initial training and had been retained in the refresher. In FY13, after completing the refresher, learners received a survey asking their opinion of the effectiveness and utility of the course, as well as their impressions of the case study format vs. the typical presentation format. Results indicate that the courses have been favorably received and that the case study method supports most of the pedagogical needs of adult learners as well as, if not better than, presentation-based instruction. Future plans for improvement are focused on identifying and evaluating methods for enriching online delivery of the engineering ethics cases.

  12. The reasons for deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Based on a series of seminars gathering students of the French Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, the author first proposes as introduction a discussion of lessons learned from recent Ukrainian crisis and Syrian crisis by focusing on issues related to deterrence, more precisely to the Syrian chemical program and attacks, and to the nuclear dimension of the Ukrainian crisis. The first part of this book addresses the French case with the definition of threats and of the defence policy (French white papers, overview of Russian and American defence policies, the current role of nuclear deterrence), and an historical overview of the French nuclear program. The second part proposes a brief grammar of deterrence through a presentation of the main technical data of nuclear defence, and of the main concepts related to nuclear defence and deterrence, through an historical overview of the strategic relationship between the USA and Russia, and through a discussion of the Non Proliferation Treaty (its history, its content, its current debates). The third part addresses the relationship between deterrence and regional balances by discussing issues related to various regions: South Asia (India and Pakistan), North Korea, China, role of the USA in Asia in terms of extended deterrence. It also comments the Iranian crisis: discussion of the problem, international, security and political stakes, brief history of negotiations. The fourth part addresses the relationships between non nuclear capabilities and deterrence: chemical and biological weapons as arms of massive destruction, programs and concepts of anti-missile defence, space and cyber-defence. The last and concluding part discusses the moral (or immoral) value of nuclear deterrence as it can be perceived from a humanitarian or legal point of view

  13. Reasoning about plans

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, James; Pelavin, Richard; Tenenberg, Josh

    1991-01-01

    This book presents four contributions to planning research within an integrated framework. James Allen offers a survey of his research in the field of temporal reasoning, and then describes a planning system formalized and implemented directly as an inference process in the temporal logic. Starting from the same logic, Henry Kautz develops the first formal specification of the plan recognition process and develops a powerful family of algorithms for plan recognition in complex situations. Richard Pelavin then extends the temporal logic with model operators that allow the representation to

  14. Game-based versus traditional case-based learning: comparing effectiveness in stroke continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telner, Deanna; Bujas-Bobanovic, Maja; Chan, David; Chester, Bob; Marlow, Bernard; Meuser, James; Rothman, Arthur; Harvey, Bart

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate family physicians' enjoyment of and knowledge gained from game-based learning, compared with traditional case-based learning, in a continuing medical education (CME) event on stroke prevention and management. An equivalence trial to determine if game-based learning was as effective as case-based learning in terms of attained knowledge levels. Game questions and small group cases were developed. Participants were randomized to either a game-based or a case-based group and took part in the event. Ontario provincial family medicine conference. Thirty-two family physicians and 3 senior family medicine residents attending the conference. Participation in either a game-based or a case-based CME learning group. Scores on 40-item immediate and 3-month posttests of knowledge and a satisfaction survey. Results from knowledge testing immediately after the event and 3 months later showed no significant difference in scoring between groups. Participants in the game-based group reported higher levels of satisfaction with the learning experience. Games provide a novel way of organizing CME events. They might provide more group interaction and discussion, as well as improve recruitment to CME events. They might also provide a forum for interdisciplinary CME. Using games in future CME events appears to be a promising approach to facilitate participant learning.

  15. Surgical Reconstruction of Charcot Foot Neuroarthropathy, a Case Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kučera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our case-based review focuses on limb salvage through operative management of Charcot neuroarthropathy of the diabetic foot. We describe a case, when a below-knee amputation was considered in a patient with chronic Charcot foot with a rocker-bottom deformity and chronic plantar ulceration. Conservative treatment failed. Targeted antibiotic therapy and operative management (Tendo-Achilles lengthening, resectional arthrodesis of Lisfranc and midtarsal joints, fixation with large-diameter axial screws, and plaster cast were performed. On the basis of this case, we discuss options and drawbacks of surgical management. Our approach led to healing of the ulcer and correction of the deformity. Two years after surgery, we observed a significant improvement in patient’s quality of life. Advanced diagnostic and imaging techniques, a better understanding of the biomechanics and biology of Charcot neuroarthropathy, and suitable osteosynthetic material enables diabetic limb salvage.

  16. Low Volume, Funding, Staffing and Technical Problems are Key Reasons for Discontinuation of Chat Reference Services. A review of: Radford, Marie L., and M. Kathleen Kern. “A Multiple‐case Study Investigation of the Discontinuation of Nine Chat Reference Services.” Library & Information Science Research 28.4 (Sept. 2006: 521‐47.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie R. Walker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the reasons behind the cessation of 9 virtual (chat reference services.Design – Multiple case‐study investigationSetting – Academic, public, and special libraries in the United States.Subjects – Five academic libraries, 1 public library, and 3 library consortia.Methods – The initial method used to identify discontinued chat reference services was via a posting to DIG_REF, the digitalreference services listserv. From this initial posting, librarians on the list also suggested other cases, for a total of 7. Two cases later came to the authors’ attention and were added. The 9 cases included academic libraries, a public library, and consortia who used tools provided by four major software vendors, giving a good cross‐section of the types of libraries participating in VR and the major software packages available at the time. A contact person for each discontinued service was invited to participate. The participants were geographically scattered, so data were collected via e‐mail questionnaires, telephone interviews, and examination of available documents describing the services, audiences, demographics, operations, and any decision‐making processes either for starting or discontinuing the service. The authors then compared and contrasted results obtained from the 9 services. The authors analysed reasons for discontinuation of services, the decision making processes, volume of questions, service hours, marketing, evaluation, and whether the service might be restarted atsome time in the future.Main Results – Although the VR services discussed were being delivered by diverse organizations, some commonalities emerged. All 9 services used existing staff and added chat reference to their duties. In all but one case, the hours of service offered when VRbegan were within the hours that the libraries were already open to the public. In the exception (Case E, there were hours of service after the libraries were

  17. Digital case-based learning system in school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Peipei; Guo, Jiayang

    2017-01-01

    With the continuing growth of multi-media learning resources, it is important to offer methods helping learners to explore and acquire relevant learning information effectively. As services that organize multi-media learning materials together to support programming learning, the digital case-based learning system is needed. In order to create a case-oriented e-learning system, this paper concentrates on the digital case study of multi-media resources and learning processes with an integrated framework. An integration of multi-media resources, testing and learning strategies recommendation as the learning unit is proposed in the digital case-based learning framework. The learning mechanism of learning guidance, multi-media materials learning and testing feedback is supported in our project. An improved personalized genetic algorithm which incorporates preference information and usage degree into the crossover and mutation process is proposed to assemble the personalized test sheet for each learner. A learning strategies recommendation solution is proposed to recommend learning strategies for learners to help them to learn. The experiments are conducted to prove that the proposed approaches are capable of constructing personalized sheets and the effectiveness of the framework.

  18. Digital case-based learning system in school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Gu

    Full Text Available With the continuing growth of multi-media learning resources, it is important to offer methods helping learners to explore and acquire relevant learning information effectively. As services that organize multi-media learning materials together to support programming learning, the digital case-based learning system is needed. In order to create a case-oriented e-learning system, this paper concentrates on the digital case study of multi-media resources and learning processes with an integrated framework. An integration of multi-media resources, testing and learning strategies recommendation as the learning unit is proposed in the digital case-based learning framework. The learning mechanism of learning guidance, multi-media materials learning and testing feedback is supported in our project. An improved personalized genetic algorithm which incorporates preference information and usage degree into the crossover and mutation process is proposed to assemble the personalized test sheet for each learner. A learning strategies recommendation solution is proposed to recommend learning strategies for learners to help them to learn. The experiments are conducted to prove that the proposed approaches are capable of constructing personalized sheets and the effectiveness of the framework.

  19. Criteria Based Case Review: The Parent Child Psychological Support Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Bujia-Couso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Parent Child Psychological Support Program (PCPS was established in an area of South West Dublin in 2001. Since then until May 2008 it has offered its services to over 700 children and their parents. This preventative, parenting support service is available to all parents of children aged 3 to 18 months within its catchment area. During periodical visits, the infant’s development and growth are measured and parents receive specific information about their child’s progress. Parents are empowered in their parenting practices, thus promoting consistency and synchrony in parent-child interaction. Between 2001 and 2006, 538 parents and their infants participated in the Program. Out of these cases, 130 (24.16% were considered to require additional support and were included in the Monthly Meeting Case Review (MM based on initial concerns The aims of this study were: 1. to review the first five years of MM cases and to explore the socio-demographic profile of the MM cases in comparison to those not in need of additional support (non-MM and 2. To illustrate an approach to refining the case review process which will inform practice and provides the service providers with better understanding of the early detection of parent-child relation difficulties. In pursuing this goal the cases screened over five years of practice were analyzed to explore the structure of the different factors by using statistical techniques of data reduction, i.e. factor analysis. The results showed that the MM group differed on several socio-demographic dimensions from the non-MM group and there was a four factor structure underlying the case review decision process. Implications of this research are discussed.

  20. Twelve tips for the construction of ethical dilemma case-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsuen-Chiuan

    2017-04-01

    Ethical dilemma case-based examination (ethics Script Concordance Test, eSCT) is a written examination that can be delivered to a large group of examinees for the purpose of measuring high-level thinking. As it accommodates for diverse responses from experts, ethics SCT allows partial credits. The framework of ethics SCT includes a vignette with an ethical dilemma and a leading question, which asks the examinee to "agree" or "disagree", plus the shifts of prior decision by adding new information. In this article, the following tips for constructing this type of examination are provided: use "true" dilemmas, select an appropriate ethical issue, target high-level cognitive tasks, list key components, keep a single central theme, device quality scoring system, be important and plausible, be clear, select quality experts, validate, know the limitation, and be familiar with test materials. The use of eSCT to measure ethical reasoning ability appears to be both viable and desirable.