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Sample records for cascavel sul-americana crotalus

  1. Perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel criadas em cativeiro Serum protein electrophoresis profile of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus kept in captivity

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    Joandes Henrique Fonteque

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As serpentes peçonhentas dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus têm sido mantidas em cativeiro visando à extração de venenos para a produção de imunobiológicos. O conhecimento da fisiologia desses animais e as alterações na concentração de proteínas e suas frações séricas são importantes para a identificação precoce de importantes enfermidades que cursam com estados de hipoproteinemia e hiperproteinemia. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a concentração de proteína total e o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel criadas em cativeiro. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue da veia coccígea ventral de 21 serpentes adultas e sadias, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 de 12 machos com peso médio de 588,89±193,55g, e Grupo 2 de nove fêmeas com peso médio de 708,33±194,04g. A proteína total sérica foi determinada pelo método de refratometria e a eletroforese em gel de agarose. Obtiveram-se valores da proteína total sérica (g/dL de 4,51±0,50 para machos e de 4,82±0,72 para fêmeas, e para machos e fêmeas de 4,64±0,61. Foram identificadas pela eletroforese quatro frações protéicas (g/dL: albumina, a, b, g-globulinas e calculada a relação albumina:globulina. As serpentes fêmeas apresentaram maiores valores para as variáveis, albumina e para a relação albumina/globulina (AG diferindo significativamente (PThe poisonous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Bothrops have been kept in captivity with the purpose of extracting poison for the production of immunobiological. Knowledge of the physiology of these animals and serum proteins concentration changes are important for early identification of major diseases which lead to states of hypoproteinemia and hyperproteinemia. The objective was to determine the concentration of total protein and serum protein electrophoresis profile of Crotalus durissus terrificus (rattlesnake in captivity. Blood samples were taken from

  2. Análise institucionalista da integração sul-americana = Institutionalist analysis of South American integration

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    Mallmann, Maria Izabel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A integração sul-americana é aqui identificada pelos compromissos regionais assumidos ao longo da década de 1990; lançados durante a 7ª Cúpula do Grupo do Rio, de outubro de 1993, seguidos pelas Cúpulas de presidentes da América do Sul (2000, 2002, 2004, pela criação da Iniciativa para a Integração da Infraestrutura Regional Sul-Americana (IIRSA, em 2000, da Comunidade Sul-Americana das Nações (Casa, em 2005 e da União das Nações Sul-Americanas (Unasul, em 2007. Analisa-se o processo tendo como parâmetro as condições e mecanismos apontados por estudos institucionalistas como essenciais para o sucesso de um processo de integração como, por exemplo, a simetria regional e a estabilidade interna, dentre outras. Constata-se que essas duas são as condições mais problemáticas no caso sul-americano, uma vez que interpõem obstáculos ao avanço nas demais. Um balanço do estudo realizado até aqui permite estimar que o processo de integração tende a ser mais longo e errático do que seria desejável, uma vez que se encontra no que poderia ser entendida como fase inicial de implementação de mecanismos e de geração das condições básicas necessárias

  3. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento crotálico experimental em bovinos Clinical and pathological aspects of experimental Crotalus poisoning in cattle

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    Flávio A.S. Graça

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproduziu-se experimentalmente o envenenamento crotálico, através da inoculação, por via subcutânea, do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel sul-americana em dez bovinos mestiços. Dois animais foram utilizados como controle. O bovino que recebeu dose de 0,03mg/kg de peso corporal, morreu 7h40min após a inoculação. A dose de 0,015mg/kg causou a morte em quatro de sete bovinos inoculados, enquanto os dois animais que receberam 0,0075mg/kg adoeceram discretamente e se recuperaram. Os sintomas tiveram início entre 1h30min e 13h45min após a inoculação. A evolução oscilou entre 5h25min e 45h para os animais que morreram e entre 33h15min e 17 dias entre os animais que se recuperaram. Os principais sinais nervosos observados foram diminuição da resposta aos estímulos externos, reflexos hipotônicos, arrastar dos cascos no solo, aparente apatia, paralisia do globo ocular e da língua, decúbito esternal e lateral. Verificaram-se também adipsia e, por vezes, petéquias nas mucosas vaginal e conjuntival. Houve discreto a moderado aumento do tempo de sangramento e moderado aumento do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada. Houve moderada leucocitose com neutrofilia, linfopenia relativa, eosinopenia, monocitose e discreto aumento do número de bastões. Foi evidenciado significativo aumento dos níveis séricos de creatinaquinase, contudo, não foram observadas alterações significativas através da urinálise. À necropsia constataram-se edema quase imperceptível no local da inoculação, discretas petéquias e sufusões no epicárdio, omento, vesícula biliar e mucosa da bexiga em alguns dos animais envenenados experimentalmente. Os exames histopatológicos revelaram necrose (hialinização de grupos de miócitos ou em miócitos isolados em dez diferentes músculos esqueléticos examinados, próximos ou distantes do local de inoculação em todos os animais necropsiados. Concluí-se que o envenenamento por Crotalus Sul-americanas

  4. Emprego da associação sulfametoxazol + trimetoprim no tratamento da paracoccidioidose (blastomicose Sul-Americana

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    P. N. Pedrosa

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Acentuando a necessidade da continuação das pesquisas terapêuticas em pacientes com paracoccidioidose (blastomicose sul-americana, os autores apresentam 23 pacientes submetidos a diferentes esquemas terapêuticos, sendo 14 virgens de tratamento e 9 com uso prévio de uma ou mais drogas. A associação sulfametoxazol + trimetoprim ( SMZ + TMP foi empregada em 5 pacientes virgens de tratamento e 9 sulfa-resistentes. Outros sete foram submetidos ao esquema clássico com sulfadoxina. Os pacientes que não responderam aos dois esquemas anteriores, com exceção de dois casos inicialmente graves, receberam anfotericina B. A avaliação clínica, radiológica, micológica e sorológica a longo prazo não demonstrou vantagens no emprego de SMZ + TMP em substituição aos sulfamídicos, nos pacientes virgens de tratamento. Entretanto, a associação SMZ + TMP parece ser uma opção válida nos casos sulfa-resistentes, onde teria primazia, considerando-se a toxicidade e necessidade de controle em regime hospitalar da anfotericina B. Ressaltam ainda a boa tolerância clínica e laboratorial da associação SMZ + TMP em cursos terapêuticos prolongados de até 2 anos, quando empregadas em baixas doses de manutenção.

  5. Dietas artificiais para a criação de larvas e adultos da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana

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    Adrise Medeiros Nunes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar as dietas artificiais para o desenvolvimento dos estágios de larva e adulto da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana (Anastrepha fraterculus. Para o estágio larval, foram testadas as seguintes dietas: D1, original, com 10 g de ágar; D2, modificada, com 3,6 g de ágar; e, D3, modificada, com bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar. Para os adultos, foram testadas quatro dietas: A, levedura de cerveja + mel (2:1; B, açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; C, extrato de soja + açúcar mascavo + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; e D, levedura seca de cervejaria + mel (2:1. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros biológicos de duração do período ovo-pupa, duração e viabilidade do estágio de pupa, massa média de pupas, razão sexual e duração e viabilidade do período ovo-adulto. O desenvolvimento larval em D1 e D2 foi semelhante e indicou que a criação de larvas pode ser realizada com 1/3 da quantidade de ágar da utilizada em D1. A utilização do bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar, na dieta artificial, afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento larval. As dietas artificiais com levedura de cerveja + mel e com açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru são as mais adequadas para a criação de adultos.

  6. Localização encefálica da blastomicose sul-americana. Considerações a propósito de 9 casos

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    Walter C. Pereira

    1965-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesões encefálicas produzidas pelo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis têm sido registradas na literatura com relativa freqüência. Os autores chamam a atenção para a dificuldade diagnóstica dêstes processos que, na quase totali- dade, constituem-se de achados cirúrgicos ou de necropsia. A síndrome de hipertensão intracraniana é a manifestação mais comum, levando quase sempre ao diagnóstico de tumor intracraniano. Os exames complementares, inclusive o líquido cefalorraqueano, são pobres em dados específicos; o encontro do parasita, assim como a positividade das reações de fixação de complemento e de precipitação nesse humor, são raramente verificadas. A natureza da afecção só tem sido suspeitada quando existem lesões paracocci-dióicas conhecidas em outros órgãos. Nove casos de blastomicose sul-americana com localização encefálica são estudados. Sete foram submetidos a intervenções cirúrgicas, dêstes, 3 tiveram boa evolução, sendo os únicos que sobreviveram de tôda a série. Nos três casos foi empregada, em épocas diversas depois da intervenção cirúrgica, anfotericina B pelas vias intravenosa ou intratecal. Os autores consideram a excição cirúrgica dos granulomas encefálicos imprescindível, mormente quando existem sinais de compressão bem localizadas. Após o ato cirúrgico a administração de anfotericina B, pelas vias intravenosa ou intratecal, deve ser prescrita a fim de evitar possíveis recidivas da moléstia.

  7. Projeto "Viver em Cascavel": análise do fluxo de informações Proyecto "Vivir en Cascavel": análisis del flujo de informaciones Project "To live in Cascavel": analysis of the information flow

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    Nelsi Salete Tonini Paiva

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo estimou e analisou o tempo (em dias do fluxo das Declarações de Nascidos Vivos (DNV de risco atendidos no Projeto "Viver em Cascavel"- Paraná, 1996 a 1998, segundo os espaços organizativos (hospital, vigilância epidemiológica, unidade básica de saúde. Foram analisadas 303 declarações. Para análise do tempo de fluxo da DNV, foram construídos intervalos de 95% de confiança para os tempos médios populacionais (em dias. Os resultados apontam que a DNV demorou para fluir do hospital até o momento de realização da visita domiciliária, de 25 a 30 dias. A atenção ao recém nascido de risco deve acontecer nos prazos mais breves possíveis. Nesse sentido, o tempo de fluxo da DNV encontrado neste estudo, do nascimento à visita domiciliária, pode comprometer um dos objetivos do Projeto em questão, qual seja, a redução da morbimortalidade infantil no município.El presente estudio estimó y analizó el tiempo (en días de flujo de los certificados de nacimiento de niños con riesgo, atendidos en el Proyecto "Vivir en Cascavel" - Paraná, 1996 hasta 1998, según los espacios organizacionales (hospital, vigilancia epidemiológica, unidad básica de salud. Fueron analizados 303 certificados. Para el análisis del tiempo de flujo del certificado fueron construidos intervalos de 95% de confianza para los tiempos medios poblacionales (en días. Los resultados muestran que el tiempo promedio de flujo es largo, entre 25 y 30 días. La atención al recién nacido de riesgo debe acontecer en plazos lo más breves posibles y, en este sentido, el tiempo de flujo del certificado, desde el nacimiento hasta la visita domiciliaria, puede estar comprometiendo uno de los objetivos del proyecto analizado, o sea, la reducción de la morbi-mortalidad infantil en el municipio.This study estimated and evaluated the time period (in days concerning the flow of Live Birth Declarations (DNV for high-risk newborns assisted by the Project

  8. Avaliação do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil de Cascavel - PR Evaluation of the Child Psychosocial Care Center of Cascavel - PR

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    Ana Silvia Scandolara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo relacionado à avaliação de serviços em saúde mental, neste caso, o Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil - CAPSi, do município de Cascavel-PR, serviço substitutivo implementado a partir da transformação da assistência psiquiátrica no Brasil. Objetivou avaliar qualitativamente o CAPSi. Os participantes foram 10 profissionais de saúde que atuam no CAPSi, sendo que os dados foram analisados sob a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC (Lefèvre & Lefèvre, 2003. Como resultado, construíram-se 06 DSC e destacaram-se 12 temas geradores de significações: bom atendimento, estrutura física, recursos humanos, rede de serviços, acesso, referência, organização do serviço, família, atende as políticas de saúde mental, demanda, capacitação, redefinição de serviços, qualidade do serviço, papel do CAPSi e rotatividade de recursos humanos. Com base nos DSC o atendimento prestado no CAPSi é de boa qualidade, porém existem dificuldades de estrutura administrativa.This study is related to the evaluation of mental health services, in this case, the Child Psychosocial Care Center - (Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil - CAPSi, in the city of Cascavel-PR, that is a substitute service implemented from the transformation of the psychiatric assistance in Brazil. It objectified to evaluate CAPSi qualitatively. The participants have been 10 health professionals who act in CAPSi, and the data has been analyzed under the technique of the General Subject Speech ( Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo - DSC (Lefèvre & Lefèvre, 2003. As result, 06 DSC have been constructed and 12 meaning-generating themes have been distinguished: good attendance, physical structure, human resources, net of services, access, reference, organization of the service, family, respect for the mental health policies, demand, qualification, redefinition of services, quality of the service, role of the CAPSi and rotation of human resources. Based on the

  9. Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus

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    C. F. S. Amaral

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two cases of afibrinogenemia with normal platelet count following Crotalus durissus terrificus, snake bite Both patients presented high output acute renal failure and case two also had increased blood levels of CPK and LDH compatible with the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Case one was given an unknown amount of antivenom and was treated with epsilonaminocaproic acid and a fresh whole blood transfusion and showed recovery of the coagulation disturbance 40 hours following these measures. Case two was given an adequate amount of crotalide antivenom and the coagulation tests performed 12 hours later showed a normal partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen 86 mg/100ml. Case one presented no haemorrhagic disturbances. Case two presented persistent bleeding following venopuncture and after removal of impetigo crust in the legs. Acute renal failure was treated conservatively and both patients were discharged from the hospital with recovery of the renal function.

  10. Toxins from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

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    Rogero, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Phospholipase A, crotapotin and crotamine were purified from the venom of crotalus durissus terrificus. Molecular weigths were respectively estimated in 13400, 8300 and 4880. By sephadex gel filtration, stable complex is formed by interaction (1:1 molar ratio) of Phospholipase A (LD=0,55mg/Kg, in mice) and crotapotin, obtaining an increase in the toxicity of Phospholipase A in 10 fold to LD 50 =0,05mg/Kg. These facts indicate crotoxin as a product of 1:1 molar ratio interaction of crotapotin and Phospholipase A. By sephadex gel filtration an unstable complex is formed by interaction of crotapotin and crotamine (LD 50 =0,8mg/Kg, in mice), increasing the toxicity of crotamine approximately 4 fold to LD 50 =0,2mg/Kg. In tritium-hydrogen exchange experiments, the back exchange kinetic of these tritium labelled proteins were measured in gel filtration columns of sephadex G 25 'coarse' showing for Phospholipase A two clearly distinguishable kinetic classes of exchangeable hydrogens. From the exchangeable hydrogens only 68% were rapidly exchanged and the occurrence of hydrogens envolved in alpha-helix was practically absent. Crotapotin has no hydrogens of alpha-helix and 83% of exchangeable hydrogens were rapidly exchanged with solvent. Crotamine, after a initial heating in tritiated water showed that 31% of exchangeable hydrogens were slowly exchanged with solvent. After 18 hours of heating, that number diminished for 11%. Crotoxin showed three exponential classes of exchangeable hydrogens and about 26 protons have alpha-helix characteristic exchange rate. A possible conformational change after Phospholipase A - crotapotin interaction is suggested. (Author) [pt

  11. Irradiação global, direta e difusa, para a região de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná = Global, direct and diffuse irradiation in the region of Cascavel, Paraná State

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    Patricia Aparecida de Oliveira Drechmer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo sobre os níveis das irradiações global, direta e difusa incidentes na superfície terrestre, a irradiação incidente no topo da atmosfera e a insolação relativa mensal, para a cidade de Cascavel-PR. As componentes da radiação solar foram monitoradas entre janeiro de 2001 e fevereiro de 2003 na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Unioeste, Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Na medição da radiação global foi utilizado um piranômetro KIPP & ZONEN-CM3 e para medir a componente direta foiutilizado um pireliômetro EPPLEY-NIP acoplado a um rastreador solar. A radiação difusa foi calculada pela diferença entre as radiações global e direta. Os níveis médios mensais das irradiações global, direta e difusa, foram respectivamente, 51,8%, 31,7% e 20,17% dairradiação incidente no topo da atmosfera. O índice de insolação relativa apresentou valor máximo em agosto (61,43% e mínimo em fevereiro (34,35%, períodos caracterizados respectivamente por dias de céu limpo e nublados no hemisfério sul.This paper reports a study about the diffuse, direct and global radiation levels on surface of earth, the irradiation over the top of atmosphere and the monthly relative sunstroke in the city of Cascavel, State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The solar radiation components were monitored from January, 2001 to February, 2003 at Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica of Unioeste, Cascavel, Parana State. Global radiation was monitored by a pyranometer KIPP & ZONEN-CM3 and direct radiation was monitored by a pyrheliometer EPPLEY-NIP coupled to a solar tracer. The diffuse radiation wasmonitored through the difference between global and direct radiation. Monthly average levels of global, direct and diffuse irradiations were 51.8%, 31.7% and 20.17% of the irradiation in the top of atmosphere. The relative isolation index showed the maximum value in August (61.43% and the minimum in February (34.35%. These

  12. Displasia broncopulmonar: incidência, fatores de risco e utilização de recursos em uma população sul-americana de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: incidence, risk factors and resource utilization in a population of South-American very low birth weight infants

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    Jose L. Tapia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a incidência de displasia broncopulmonar, os fatores de risco e a utilização de recursos em uma ampla população sul-americana de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso ao nascer MÉTODOS: Dados prospectivamente registrados de crianças com peso ao nascer entre 500 a 1.500 g, nascidas em 16 centros neonatais pertencendo à rede NEOCOSUR entre 10/2000 a 12/2003. A análise multivariada de Poisson com variância robusta foi utilizada para determinar os fatores de risco relativo e intervalo de confiança de 95% que afetam o risco de apresentação de displasia broncopulmonar RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 1.825 recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso ao nascer. As médias de peso ao nascer e a idade gestacional foram de 1.085±279g e 29±3 semanas, respectivamente. A incidência de displasia broncopulmonar foi de 24,4%, e a sobrevida sem displasia broncopulmonar aumentou quanto maior foi a idade gestacional. Maior peso ao nascer, maior idade gestacional e sexo feminino estiveram associados a um menor risco de displasia broncopulmonar. Aumentaram o risco de displasia broncopulmonar: ventilação mecânica, necessidade de surfactante, escape aéreo, persistência do canal arterial, sepse tardia e enterocolite necrotizante. As crianças com displasia broncopulmonar requerem um maior tempo hospitalização (91±27 versus 51±19, de ventilação mecânica (19±20 versus 4±7 e de oxigenioterapia (72±30 versus 8±14. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de displasia broncopulmonar foi de 24,4% em uma ampla população sul-americana e se relaciona com uma maior utilização de recursos. Os fatores de risco associados à displasia broncopulmonar encontrados nesse estudo foram: ventilação mecânica, necessidade de surfactante, escape aéreo, persistência do canal arterial, sepse tardia e enterocolite necrotizante. As informações contidas neste estudo podem ser úteis para o delineamento de estratégias perinatais de prevenção da morbidade

  13. Atendimento de crianças realizado pelo SIATE de Cascavel no ano de 2004

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    Márcio Briccius

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Os acidentes com crianças vêm-se constituindo, cada vez mais, em uma relevante causa de morbimortalidade. As injúrias físicas respondem por 98% das causas de mortes nos países em desenvolvimento. O estudo teve como objetivo, identificar os tipos de acidentes envolvendo crianças de zero a doze anos atendidas pelo SIATE de Cascavel. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, desenvolvido com a consulta realizada aos arquivos do SIATE, sobre os atendimentos realizado à crianças no ano de 2004. Obteve-se como resultado o registro de 379 atendimentos envolvendo crianças. As principais causas foram os acidentes de trânsito (63,6% e a queda (20,3%, atingindo meninos (63,6% com idade entre 10 a 12 anos (33%. Dentre os acidentes de trânsito a colisão (31,1% e o atropelamento (18,2% foram os mais freqüentes. Já no ambiente domiciliar os atendimentos foram devidos a destelhamentos, queda de tanque de lavar roupas, queimaduras, afogamentos, intoxicações e eventos envolvendo cavalo e abelha. Houve ainda registro devido a agressão, estupro e ferimento por arma de fogo. Conclui-se que, as crianças têm sofrido injúrias diversas decorrentes dos acidentes de trânsito, doméstico além de violências físicas e sexuais, indicando a necessidade de intensificar as estratégias voltadas à prevenção de acidentes de trânsito.

  14. O papel social da universidade no preparo profissional: uma pesquisa junto aos egressos de administração da UNIOESTE - Cascavel

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    Loreni Teresinha Brandalise; Cláudio Antonio Rojo; Débora Kasper; Almir Ferreira de Souza

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1983-4535.2013v6n1p176 Este estudo tem como objetivo demonstrar o papel social da universidade no preparo profissional do estudante do Curso de Graduação em Administração da Unioeste, campus de Cascavel. Assim, apresenta-se um projeto de pesquisa que se propôs ao acompanhamento da vida profissional dos ex-alunos do curso de Administração da Unioeste, campus Cascavel, como instrumento que possibilita uma continuada avaliação do curso e da instituição, por meio do d...

  15. Evidência sorológica da infecção aguda pelo Toxoplasma gondii em gestantes de Cascavel, Paraná Serological evidence of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Cascavel, Paraná

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    Sônia de Lucena Mioranza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a ocorrência da toxoplasmose em Cascavel, Paraná, cidade próxima a região onde ocorreu o maior surto epidêmico descrito mundialmente, 334 amostras de soros de gestantes foram triadas pelo ensaio imunoenzimático comercial IgG no Laboratório Municipal de Cascavel, e confirmadas no Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo por imunofluorescência IgG, ensaio imunoenzimático e avidez de IgG in house. A soropositividade pelo IgG comercial foi 54,2%, pela imunofluorescência 54,8% e pelo IgG in house 53,9%, com boa concordância entre imunofluorescência/IgG comercial (Kappa=0,963781; co-positividade=97,8%; co-negatividade=98,7% e imunofluorescência/IgG in house (Kappa=0,975857; co-positividade=97,8%; co-negatividade=100%. A evidência de infecção aguda nas gestantes foi similar tanto pela avidez de IgG (2,4% ao ano como pela análise estatística de tendência (teste χ2 por faixa etária (2% ao ano, sugerindo que a triagem sorológica pré-natal e a vigilância epidemiológica são imprescindíveis para redução do risco da toxoplasmose na região, embora sem evidência de surto epidêmico.In order to investigate the incidence of toxoplasmosis in Cascavel, Paraná, a city near the region where the largest reported epidemic outbreak in the world occurred, 334 serum samples from pregnant women were screened using a commercial IgG immunoenzymatic assay at the Municipal Laboratory in Cascavel and were confirmed at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in São Paulo, by means of IgG immunofluorescence, immunoenzymatic assaying and the in-house IgG avidity test. The IgG seropositivity from the commercial test was 54.2%, from immunofluorescence 54.8% and from the in-house IgG 53.9%, with good agreement between immunofluorescence and the commercial IgG test (kappa = 0.963781; co-positivity = 97.8%; co-negativity = 98,7% and between immunofluorescence and the in-house IgG (kappa = 0.975857; co-positivity = 97.8%; co

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A poll of crotomine positive Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was dissolved in 0.15 M NaCl and the supernatant irradiated using 60 CO. Doses of 100,250,750,1000,1500 and 2000 Cy were used at a dose rate of 1.190Gy/h. The presence of free SH, casein hydrolytic degradation, SDS-PAGE and molecular exclusion chromatography analysis together with LD 50 determination in mice were studied. The antigenic properties of samples were investigated by immunodiffision and immunoprecipitation. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. A comparative analysis of hemolithic activity between Cortalus molossus and Crotalus molossus nigrescens subespecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Martínez, A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blacktailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus has four subspecies distributed in México; two of them are distributed in Chihuahua. Literature shows that few studies have been done in order to analyze the composition of their venom. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate protein content and hemolytic damage by agarose-human erythrocyte substrate between the Crotalus molossus nigrescens and Crotalus molossus molossus subspecies. Mann Whitney’s nonparanteric test was used in order to get the statistics analysis at an IC95. Protein concentration of Crotalus m. nigrescens was 466 ± 35.0 mg mL-1 and Crotalus m. molossus of 449 ± 90.0 mg mL-1 there was no statistical difference detected at IC95 (p>0.05. The protein profile of the venom of Crotalus m. nigrescens showed two protein bands with elevated masses approximately 230 kDa in comparison with Crotalus m. molossus that was of 16 kDa approximately. Crotalus m. nigrescens’s venom was 18 % more hemolytic (156.7±23.33 UHD than Crotalus m. molossus’s (128±23.32 UHD at the first hour and 20 % more hemolytic at the second hour, with UHD values of 116.7 ± 12.3 and 94 ± 9.8, respectively. The venom of the two subspecies did not show differences statistically at an IC95 at the first hour (p>0.05 and second hour (p>0.05. It could be concluded that two subspecies samples showed iqual proteomic characteristics. These differences can be attributed to the different eating habits due to the altitude, geographical distribution and the season. It can also be concluded that more investigation regarding venom of rattlesnakes is needed.

  18. Avaliação socioeconômica e de fatores que levam a violência com detentos de Cascavel/PR Evaluación socio-económica y de factores que levan a la violencia com detenidos de Cascavel/PR Socioeconomic and factor evaluation that lead to violence with inmates of Cascavel/PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Eugênio Armani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A violência não é caracterizada apenas por sequestros, roubos, assaltos, mas também por se destruir a identidade social, cultural e econômica de um povo. A violência aprisiona a capacidade de um país evoluir, porque coloca seus jovens no mundo das drogas, da prostituição, do analfabetismo, enfim na marginalização social, pois todo o desenvolvimento de um povo só acontece graças a uma evolução social, cultural, econômica, psíquica e biológica, que é ditada principalmente pela educação empregada nas escolas. Baseado nisto este trabalho analisou as características sociais, educacionais e econômicas de sujeitos entre 18 e 60 anos que se encontram em cárcere privado na cidade de Cascavel/PR. Através da aplicação de um questionário com perguntas e respostas objetivas, que a partir do seu preenchimento forneceu ideia de quais são os possíveis fatores geradores de violência, com a pesquisa sendo realizada diretamente com os detentos. Foi constatado que há problema educacional, social e econômico com os detentos cascavelenses, porque os mesmos possuem pouca escolaridade, sofrem com desemprego, baixa renda, entre outros problemas, que influenciam a entrada para a criminalidade.La violencia no sólo se caracteriza por los secuestros, robos, asaltos, sino también por la destrucción de la identidad social, cultural y económica de las personas. La violencia aprisiona la capacidad de un país evolucionar por que coloca sus jóvenes en el mundo de las drogas, de la prostitución, del analfabetismo, en fin en la marginalización social, pues todo el desarrollo de un pueblo sólo pasa a través de la evolución social, cultural, económica, psicológica y biológica, que es dictada principalmente por la educación en las escuelas. Este trabajo analizó las características sociales, educacionales y económicas de sujetos entre 18 y 60 años que están en una casa de detención en la ciudad de Cascavel/PR. Mediante la aplicaci

  19. Eficiência de um conjunto fotovoltaico em condições reais de trabalho na região de Cascavel = Efficiency of the photovoltaic systems under real work conditions on region of Cascavel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estor Gnoatto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foi desenvolvido um estudo sobre um sistemafotovoltaico autônomo, com armazenamento de energia, instalado na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Campus Cascavel, a uma Latitude 24º59’ Sul, Longitude de 53º26’ Oeste, com altitude de 682 m, em condições reaisde campo, durante o ano de 2002. Foi avaliada a eficiência dos painéis fotovoltaicos em condições reais de campo, sua curva característica foi determinada utilizando, na aquisição de dados, um micrologger da Campbell Scientific-Inc, modelo CR10X, programado pararealizar uma leitura por segundo de cada canal e armazenar a média aritmética de 5 minutos dos dados das componentes de radiação solar global no plano horizontal e global na incidência do painel; temperatura ambiente e temperatura de operação do painel; tensão ecorrente do sistema fotovoltaico. Os resultados mostram que a eficiência média mensal registrou valores na faixa de 8,65 a 9,17%, com uma média de 8,84%, com variação percentual entre o índice máximo e mínimo de 5,67%. Pode, assim, representar fornecimento médio mensal de energia de 5,57 kWh por painel.The purpose of the present work was to develop a study of anautonomous photovoltaic system, with energy storage, installed at the Experimental Agrometeorological Station of the Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel Campus, located at 24º59’S 53º26’W, 682 meters of altitude, under real field conditions, during the year of 2002. The efficiency of the photovoltaic modules was evaluated underreal field conditions and its characteristic linear fit was determined. A Campbell Scientific CR10X micrologger was used to acquire data, programmed to conduct one reading per second from each channel and store the five-minute arithmetic data average from thereadings of the incidence of global direct solar radiation horizontal and global on the panel, as well as area

  20. Formas de uso medicinal da babosa e camomila pela população urbana de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná = Medicinal use of the Aloe and Chamomile for the urban population of Cascavel, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tatiana Araujo da Cruz-Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A etnobotânica se caracteriza por buscar entender a relação entre as plantas e o homem, podendo-se através desta conhecer a utilização das plantas medicinais como forma de tratamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento sobre as formas de utilização da Babosa (Aloe vera L. e da Camomila (Matricaria chamomilla L.. A coleta de dados envolveu entrevistas de forma aleatória a 400 pessoas, através de um questionário semi-estruturado, no município de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Observou-se que 65% da população utilizam à babosa ou a camomila na cura ou alívio de doenças. A maioria dosentrevistados possui renda de 2 a 4 salários mínimos (60,25%, idade entre 28 a 38 anos (30,75%, tendo concluído o ensino médio (33,75%. O principal motivo pelo qual a população se utiliza de plantas medicinais é por ser natural (71,84%. A forma de preparo mais freqüente da camomila foi por infusão (63,38%, utilizando as flores (92%. Para a babosa 100% utilizam suas folhas na forma de cataplasma (43,88%. Apenas 3% da população relataram ter apresentado algum tipo de reação adversa, durante o período de utilização. Conclui-se que o uso destas plantas pela população é freqüente, sendo um recurso adicional ao uso de medicamentos.The ethnobotany, which is characterized by look for to understand the relationship between the plants and the man, being been able through this to know the use of the medicinal plants as treatment. The objective of this work was to accomplish a rising on the forms of use of the Aloe (Aloe vera L. and of the Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.. The collection of data involved interviews in a random way to a sample of 400 people through a semi-structured questionnaire, in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State. It was observed that 65% of the population use to aloe or the chamomile in the cure or relief of diseases. Most of the interviewees possesses income from 2 to 4 minimum wages (60.25%, age

  1. VIOLÊNCIA E POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS PARA JUVENTUDE: APROXIMAÇÕES ENTRE OS CASOS DE MEDELLÍN E CASCAVEL

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    Tiago Pereira Leite

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta os resultados parciais de pesquisa de doutorado desenvolvida pelo autor na cidade de Cascavel – PR. O tema refere-se às relações entre violência juvenil, políticas públicas para juventude e as intervenções urbanas no espaço público. Partindo da constatação do aumento do índice de homicídios no Brasil, analisa-se o caso de Cascavel, destacando o modo como diversas carências de ordem material se concentraram na região norte da cidade e como se relacionam com os altos índices de violência na região. A territorialização da violência evidencia a centralidade da questão urbana no combate à violência. Nesse sentido, propõem-se a hipótese de que, as políticas públicas para juventude no Brasil carecem de projetos que ressignifiquem os chamados “bairros problemáticos” notadamente por meio de intervenções urbanas. O estudo toma como referência a experiência de Urbanismo Social empreendida em Medelin, Colômbia e coloca em relação ao Centro da Juventude Prof. Jomar Rocha, em Cascavel, Paraná. Os resultados preliminares, alcançados por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica e observação etnográfica apontam para necessidade de políticas públicas articuladas e em diálogo permanente com a comunidade local. A oferta de infraestrutura urbana igualmente se destaca como elemento essencial para o alcance de impactos positivos nas ações públicas. Relacionando as diferentes propostas observam-se resultados distintos: em Medellín os números da violência e evasão escolar diminuíram significativamente, ao passo que em Cascavel os índices de violência não apresentaram variação desde a criação do Centro da Juventude.

  2. A "Pedagogia" da Feira Livre de SÃo Bento: narrativas, saberes e prÃticas educativas na cidade de Cascavel - CE

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Eliana Santos da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Neste estudo, buscamos compreender as prÃticas educativas e os saberes presentes na feira livre de SÃo Bento, localizada na cidade de Cascavel-CE a qual dista de Fortaleza 64 km. Para a realizaÃÃo dessa pesquisa, escolhemos como suporte teÃrico BrandÃo (2005); Durkheim (2007); Burke (2003); Huberman (1976) e Certeau (1998). Optamos pelo enfoque qualitativo e utilizamos a pesquisa bibliogrÃfica como suporte no esclarecimento do tema investigado. Usamos tambÃm o estudo de caso que proporcionou ...

  3. Is the population of Crotalus durissus (Serpentes, Viperidae) expanding in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Crotalus durissus are found from Mexico to northern Argentina in a highly disjunct distribution. According to some studies, this species is prone to occupy areas disturbed by human activities and floods comprise a plausible method of dispersal as inferred for some North American rattlesnakes. Based on the literature, it seems plausible that Crotalus durissus expanded their natural distribution in Brazil due to floods, but only in a few municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State. Data entries of Butantan Institute, in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1998 to 2012 show a declining tendency of snakes brought by donors. In addition, research shows no evidence of Crotalus durissus being an expanding species in the Brazilian territory. PMID:24314146

  4. Topônimos: enunciação e memória da identidade italiana em Cascavel, Paraná

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    Wânia Cristiane Beloni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos onomásticos, ao se integrarem à lexicologia, evidenciam que, por meio do nome próprio, o homem expressa ideias, sentimentos e transmite valores e práticas discursivas. Observando a comunidade de Cascavel, Paraná, percebemos que o contexto da cultura italiana no município pode ser visualizado não apenas em movimentos étnicos e pelos cursos de língua, mas também por meio de nomes de lugares públicos, residenciais e comerciais. Para analisar os nomes próprios de alguns logradouros cascavelenses em relação a essa etnia, foi realizado um levantamento classificatório das designações nominais de espaços públicos, por meio do site da Prefeitura de Cascavel, com complementações de outros sites. Desenvolveu-se a pesquisa, identificando os nomes de origem étnica italiana e observando a taxonomia dos topônimos, para refletir sobre as nomeações que se relacionam de alguma forma com os italodescendentes.

  5. DSC analysis of irradiated proteins from Crotalus durissus terrificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Silva, Monica Nascimento da; Goncalves, Karina de Oliveira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. It is known that ionizing radiation effects - direct and indirect - can modify the molecular structure, affecting the biological properties of proteins. Ionizing radiation has been employed to attenuate the toxicity of snake venoms, aiming to generate an improved antigen with low toxicity. Two proteins, purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom were tested in this work: crotoxin and crotamine. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound of Cdt venom, is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A2. Crotamine is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed to investigate the effects of radiation on crotoxin and crotamine using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). After isolation of the toxins by chromatographic techniques, they were irradiated with 2.0 kGy from 60 Co source. The thermodynamics analysis, carried out in a METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e calorimeter, showed that irradiation promoted changes of the calorimetric profile. These changes suggest that, although radiation induced structural modifications of the protein, denaturation was only partial, since transition states could still be detected, suggesting that some structural elements were still present after irradiation. Taken together, our data suggest that following irradiation, the molecules underwent conformational changes, and that the remaining structural elements displayed a lower enthalpy, clearly indicating that the previously described loss of toxicity of irradiated toxins can be mostly ascribed to structural changes

  6. DSC analysis of irradiated proteins from Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Silva, Monica Nascimento da; Goncalves, Karina de Oliveira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. It is known that ionizing radiation effects - direct and indirect - can modify the molecular structure, affecting the biological properties of proteins. Ionizing radiation has been employed to attenuate the toxicity of snake venoms, aiming to generate an improved antigen with low toxicity. Two proteins, purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom were tested in this work: crotoxin and crotamine. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound of Cdt venom, is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A2. Crotamine is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed to investigate the effects of radiation on crotoxin and crotamine using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). After isolation of the toxins by chromatographic techniques, they were irradiated with 2.0 kGy from {sup 60}Co source. The thermodynamics analysis, carried out in a METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e calorimeter, showed that irradiation promoted changes of the calorimetric profile. These changes suggest that, although radiation induced structural modifications of the protein, denaturation was only partial, since transition states could still be detected, suggesting that some structural elements were still present after irradiation. Taken together, our data suggest that following irradiation, the molecules underwent conformational changes, and that the remaining structural elements displayed a lower enthalpy, clearly indicating that the previously described loss of toxicity of irradiated toxins can be mostly ascribed to structural changes

  7. Características dos doadores de córneas do Banco de Olhos de Cascavel: impacto do exame anti-HBc para hepatite B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Nobuo Shiratori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Traçar o perfil dos doadores de tecidos oculares humanos na região de atuação do Banco de Olhos de Cascavel - Paraná (PR e verificar o impacto da positividade da sorologia positiva para hepatite B (anti-HBc no descartes dos tecidos oculares. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal de dados do Banco de Olhos de Cascavel do período de março de 2006 a abril de 2007. Informações como idade, sexo, causa de óbito, tempo entre óbito e enucleação e resultados sorológicos de doadores foram coletadas. Dados foram agrupados para caracterização da população de estudo e distribuídos segundo positividade da sorologia para hepatite B (anti-HBc. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos doadores foi de 54,2 ± 20,6 anos e a maioria era do sexo masculino (64,7%. Tempo médio entre óbito e enucleação foi de 3,8 ± 2,4 horas, a principal causa de óbito foram doenças cardiovasculares (34,5%. Positividade para os marcadores anti-HBc e HBsAg foi de 47,4% e 1,5%, respectivamente, sendo os exames sorológicos para hepatite B a maior causa de descarte dos tecidos oculares doados. Doadores com sorologia positiva para anti-HBc apresentaram maior média de idade comparados com doadores com sorologia negativa (p<0,001. Somente 0,8% das doações apresentaram sorologia positiva para hepatite C. Não houve doações com sorologia para HIV positiva no período do estudo. CONCLUSÕES: Implementação do Banco de Olhos de Cascavel aumentou significativamente a disponibilização de córneas para transplante no Estado do Paraná. A principal contraindicação para disponibilização de tecidos oculares foi a positividade na sorologia para anti-HBc. Estudos de biosegurança devem ser realizados a fim de investigar o potencial de transmissão da hepatite B de doadores positivos para esse marcador. A inclusão desses doadores como doações efetivas acarretaria maior disponibilização de tecidos para transplantes.

  8. Body size evolution in insular speckled rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii.

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    Jesse M Meik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii inhabit multiple islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two of the 14 known insular populations have been recognized as subspecies based primarily on body size divergence from putative mainland ancestral populations; however, a survey of body size variation from other islands occupied by these snakes has not been previously reported. We examined body size variation between island and mainland speckled rattlesnakes, and the relationship between body size and various island physical variables among 12 island populations. We also examined relative head size among giant, dwarfed, and mainland speckled rattlesnakes to determine whether allometric differences conformed to predictions of gape size (and indirectly body size evolving in response to shifts in prey size.Insular speckled rattlesnakes show considerable variation in body size when compared to mainland source subspecies. In addition to previously known instances of gigantism on Angel de la Guarda and dwarfism on El Muerto, various degrees of body size decrease have occurred frequently in this taxon, with dwarfed rattlesnakes occurring mostly on small, recently isolated, land-bridge islands. Regression models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC showed that mean SVL of insular populations was most strongly correlated with island area, suggesting the influence of selection for different body size optima for islands of different size. Allometric differences in head size of giant and dwarf rattlesnakes revealed patterns consistent with shifts to larger and smaller prey, respectively.Our data provide the first example of a clear relationship between body size and island area in a squamate reptile species; among vertebrates this pattern has been previously documented in few insular mammals. This finding suggests that selection for body size is influenced by changes in community dynamics that are related to graded differences in area over

  9. Estudo clínico e laboratorial de pacientes com artrite reumatoide diagnosticados em serviços de reumatologia em Cascavel, PR, Brasil Clinical and laboratory features of patients with rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed at rheumatology services in the Brazilian municipality of Cascavel, PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Maximiano David

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos epidemiológicos brasileiros sobre artrite reumatoide são bastante escassos, e os dados existentes hoje são majoritariamente de literatura internacional. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência e algumas características clínicas e laboratoriais de pacientes com artrite reumatoide em Cascavel, PR, Brasil. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados entre agosto de 2010 e julho de 2011 em todos os serviços de saúde do município que possuíam atendimento na especialidade de reumatologia: um hospital universitário, o Centro Regional de Especialidades do Consórcio Intermunicipal de Saúde do Oeste do Paraná (CRE-CISOP e quatro clínicas privadas da cidade. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 38 pacientes com diagnóstico de artrite reumatoide, resultando em uma incidência estimada de 13,4 casos/100.000 habitantes/ano. Trinta e dois pacientes eram do gênero feminino, com média de idade de 47,6 anos. A faixa etária com maior incidência foi > 40 anos. O tempo médio entre os primeiros sintomas e o diagnóstico foi de 12,4 meses. O fator reumatoide foi positivo em 68,4% dos casos, e 18,4% já apresentavam alterações radiológicas no momento do diagnóstico. O tratamento farmacológico dos pacientes também foi avaliado e mostrou estar de acordo com o encontrado na literatura. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de artrite reumatoide obtida em Cascavel está abaixo das incidências observadas em estudos internacionais.INTRODUCTION: Brazilian epidemiological studies on rheumatoid arthritis are scarce, thus all data currently available originate from the international literature. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and some clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the municipality of Cascavel, state of Paraná, Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected between August 2010 and July 2011 in all health services of the municipality of Cascavel that provided health care in Rheumatology: a

  10. The effects of hybridization on divergent venom phenotypes: Characterization of venom from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus × Crotalus oreganus helleri hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cara Francesca; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-09-15

    Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated. The current study investigates both phenomena resulting from the hybridization of a male snake with type I degradative venom, Crotalus oreganus helleri (Southern Pacific Rattlesnake), and a female snake with type II highly toxic venom, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave Rattlesnake). SDS-PAGE, enzymology, Western blot and reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) were used to characterize the venom of the C. o. helleri male, the C. s. scutulatus female and their two hybrid offspring as they aged. In general, Crotalus o. helleri × C. s. scutulatus hybrid venoms appeared to exhibit overlapping parental venom profiles, and several different enzyme activity patterns. Both hybrids expressed C. o. helleri father-specific myotoxins as well as C. s. scutulatus mother-specific Mojave toxin. Snake venom metalloprotease activity displayed apparent sex-influenced expression patterns, while hybrid serine protease activities were intermediate to parental activities. The C. s. scutulatus × C. o. helleri hybrid male's venom profile provided the strongest evidence that type I and type II venom characteristics are expressed simultaneously in hybrid venoms, as this snake contained distinctive characteristics of both parental species. However, the possibility of

  11. AVALIAÇÃO NUTRICIONAL DE PRATICANTES DE MUSCULAÇÃO COM OBJETIVO DE HIPERTROFIA MUSCULAR DO MUNICÍPIO DE CASCAVEL, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia de Oliveira1

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess diet and investigate the use of nutritional supplements and anabolic steroids in practicing workout. Eleven male gender individuals were evaluated for who practice workout with the objective of muscle hypertrophy of the municipality of Cascavel – Paraná. The dietary evaluation was carried out through dietary investigators. The micronutrients intake, macronutrients and dietary fibers were analyzed according to the Recommended Dietary Allowances. It was collected information about the use of nutritional supplements and anabolic steroids. In regard to the nutritional orientation only four (36.4% individuals have received this type of service. Regarding the use of food supplements, five (45.5% make use, and cited seven different types. Regarding the use of anabolic steroids three of the individuals (27.3% reported using or have already made use Eight (72.7% had energy consumption more than 3000 kcal/d and the average of micronutrients intake presented a non balanced diet, low in carbohydrates (40.2 ± 8.4% and high in fat (36.0 ± 5.9%. Through this study, it was observed that the individuals evaluated are conscious about the appropriate food to obtain muscle hypertrophy, there is erroneous eating habits, indicating possible risks to health in the long term and even decrease in athletic performance.

  12. Partial characterization of the venom of the Peruvian rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Remuzgo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus from the region of Sandia, Puno, has been investigated for its protein content and some enzymatic activities, using for it the whole venom as well as the fractions obtained by gel filtration chromatography in Sephadex G-100. The protein percentage calculated by the method of Lowry was of 68,6% for the whole venom; 3 peaks were obtained during the fractionation; the first showed proteolytic activity, the second, amidolytic, clotting and phospholipase A2 activities, while the third, another proteolytic activity. Acetylcholinesterase activity was not found while L-aminoacid oxidase activity was found only in the whole venom.

  13. South American energy integration: new perspectives; Novas perspectivas para a integracao energetica sul-americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Malhaes da [Malhaes da Silva Consultoria Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salomao, Luiz Alfredo [Universidade Candido Mendes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Politicas Publicas e Governo

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyses the South American energy integration, the advantages related to this process as well as the existing obstacles . What is the scope in terms of projects and initiatives, and the role of political and institutional barriers to be overcome. (author)

  14. A Comparison of the Crystal Structures of Phospholipase A2 from Bovine Pancreas and Crotalus atrox Venom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RENETSEDER, R; BRUNIE, S; DRENTH, J; SIGLER, PB

    1985-01-01

    The refined high resolution crystal structure of the bovine phospholipase A2 was compared with its counterpart from the venom of Crotalus atrox, the western diamondbacked rattlesnake. The strong similarity in their backbone conformations forms the basis of a common numbering system for the amino

  15. Vascular effects and electrolyte homeostasis of the natriuretic peptide isolated from Crotalus oreganus abyssus (North American Grand Canyon rattlesnake) venom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva, S.L.; Dias-Junior, C.A.; Baldasso, P.A.; Damico, D.C.; Carvalho, B.M.; Garanto, A.; Acosta, G.; Oliveira, E.; Albericio, F.; Soares, A.M.; Marangoni, S.; Resende, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Crotalus oreganus abyssus is a rattlesnake that is usually found in the Grand Canyon, United States of America. Knowledge regarding the composition of C. o. abyssus venom is scarce. New natriuretic peptides (NPs) have been isolated and characterized from the venoms of members of the Crotalinae

  16. Studies of agregates produced during venom irradiation of Crotalus durissus terrificus with gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clissa, Patricia B.; Nascimento, Nanci do; Rogero, Jose R.

    1997-01-01

    Literature data show that 2.0 kGy dose of gamma radiation, generated by 60 Co source, reduces the toxic activity of Crotalus durissus terrificus venon, without altering its immunogenic capacity. When crotoxin, main toxin from crotalic venom, was irradiated with the same dose, toxicity was laos reduced and the immunogenicity was maintained. This fact was attributed to aggregates(compounds with high molecular weight generated during irradiation), that showed no toxicity but were able to induce the antibodies formation against native venom. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradied with 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy doses and submitted to molecular exclusion chromatography, in order to find an efficient dose that produces large amounts of non toxic but still immunogeneic aggregates. After being isolated, the products of irradiation were evaluated for the amount produced, molecular ateration, and toxic and immunogenic activities. The results from different doses irradiated venom were compared with native one, and 2.0 kGg dose was confirmed to be most efficient in the association of toxicity attenuation with maintenance of immunogenicity of the crotalic venom, while other doses, in spite of being efficient in the toxicity attenuation, they were not able to keep the immunogenicity property. So, the dose of 2.0 kGy could be used to immunize animals in order to improve anticrotalic sera production. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Qualidade de medicamentos isentos de prescrição: um estudo com marcas de dipirona comercializadas em uma drogaria de Cascavel (PR, Brasil Quality of over-the-counter medicines: a study with dipyrone brands commercialized in a drugstore in Cascavel city (Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leandro Knappmann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A dipirona é um fármaco muito utilizado pela população brasileira. É considerado seguro mesmo em gestantes, lactentes e crianças, mas é proibido em alguns países do mundo pelo suposto papel de causar agranulocitose e anemia aplástica. Em 2001, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa considerou que os medicamentos com esse fármaco apresentavam bom risco-benefício em relação a outros de indicação semelhante. Porém, de nada adianta segurança no uso de um medicamento se este é de baixa qualidade. É comum encontrar no mercado brasileiro medicamentos fora dos padrões, o que se constitui em um risco para a população em geral. Dessa forma, foram analisadas sete amostras de marcas diferentes de dipirona solução oral comercializados em uma farmácia de Cascavel (PR. Os resultados demonstram que a fiscalização quanto à qualidade de medicamentos similares precisa ser aprimorada, pois eles foram os que mais apresentaram desvios de qualidade.Dipyrone is an antipyretic and analgesic medicine very used by the Brazilian population. The administration is considered safe even in pregnant women, nurseling and children, but is forbidden in some countries, as supposedly causes agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. In 2001, National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa approved the commercialization of this medicine in Brazil. However, it does not matter the safeness in the use of a medicine advances, if it does not have quality. Based on this quality, this work was elaborated, that analyzes seven samples of commercialized different marks of dipyrone oral solution in pharmaceutical establishment in the Cascavel city, Paraná, Brazil. The results demonstrate that the quality control of similar drugs must be improved as were the ones that presented quality deviations.

  18. Gamma radiation effects on crotoxin (toxin of crotalus durissus terrificus venom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Filho, J.N.; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The crotoxin is a great neurotoxin found on Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. This protein was isolated using molecular exclusion cromatography with Sephadex G-75 and irradiated in a source of 60 Co GAMMA-CELL in the concentration of 2 mg/ml 0.85% NaCl with dose rate of 1.19 x 10 3 Gy/hr. The doses used were 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Gy. It was determinated for this samples, the proteic concentration, the diffusion immunoassay using crotalic antiserum and eletrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed some changes on the irradiated toxin. Preliminary results with doses of radiation of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 Gy showed that the letal dose 50% (LD50) in mice increase greatly with the increase of radiation's dose. (author) [pt

  19. Purification and radiodination of gyroxin, toxin like trombin, of crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo, Maria A.P.; Paes, Paulo C.A.; Ribela, Maria T.C.P.; Rogero, Jose R.

    1997-01-01

    Snake's venoms have attracted special interest in research because they are rich in bioactive compounds, which are scientific tools to study many physiological processes and are also important source of new therapeutic agents. Some thrombin-like enzymes are used as a reagent in laboratorial assays as well as in medical drugs. However, a neurotoxic syndrome called gyroxin syndrome or barrel rotation seems to be related to those enzymes. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies of these toxins can contribute to clarifly this mechanisms and consequently, it will help to elaborate safer clinical prescriptions giving more information about possible nocive effects. This paper describes the first step of these studies with the thrombin-like enzyme (or gyroxin) from Crotalus durissus terrificus's venom. The purification and radioiodination methods as well as electrophoretic analysis and biological assay are presented. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Interaction study of water radiolysis products with Crotalus durissus terrificus miotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Murilo Casare da

    2008-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been satisfactorily employed for venoms detoxification. In this report, the radiation was employed to verify the effects caused by the radiolysis products of water on the Crotamine, toxin purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. These effects were analyzed using some substances called 'scavengers', those substances competes for specific reactive species hindering them to act on the toxins molecules. In order to study the possible structural damages caused on the toxins, circular dichroism, fluorescence, nuclear magnetic resonance, amino acids analysis and intravital microscopy were employed. Our results indicate that ionizing radiation caused structure alterations, mainly, in secondary and tertiary structure of crotamine. In the irradiated crotamine, was not possible to determine tridimensional structure. And the crotamine toxic effect was removed by ionizing radiation. (author)

  1. Effects of radiolysis products on crotamine (toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, T.A. da; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-07-01

    Ionizing Radiations changes the molecular structure due to chemical bond destruction. These chemical alterations are able to change the biological properties of the biomolecules. Crotamine was obtained from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by molecular exclusion cromatography and irradiated in a concentration of 1 mg/ml in aqueous solution with gamma radiation produced by a 60 Co source. We used doses of 100 Gy, 2000 Gy and 5000 Gy (dose rate = 1,14 x 10 3 Gy/h). We performed the following experiments: proteic concentration, SDS-PAGE and immunodiffusion. Preliminary results showed a reduction of 55% in proteic concentration; with dose of 5000 Gy; an increase of the number of bands in SDS-PAGE suggesting the appearance of protein aggregates that was proportional as the dose increases. The immunodifusion data showed a reduction of the immunochemical activity against the Butantan antisera. (author) [pt

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on crotoxin (toxin of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Filho, J.N.; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-07-01

    The crotoxin in a great neurotoxin found on Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. This protein was isolated using molecular exclusion cromatrography with Sephadex G-75 and irradiated in a source of 60 Co GAMMACELL in the concentration of 2 mg/ml 0.85% NaCl with dose rate of 1.19 x 10 3 Gy/hr. The doses used were 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Gy. It was determinated for this samples, the proteic concentration, the diffusion immunoassay using crotalic antiserum and eletrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed some changes on the irradiated toxin. Preliminary results with doses of radiation of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 Gy showed that the letal dose 50% (LD50) in mice increase greatly with the increase of radiation's dose. (author) [pt

  3. A taxonomic bibliography of the South American snakes of the Crotalus durissus complex (Serpentes, Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANZOLINI PAULO E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey is made of the taxonomic literature on South American rattlesnakes (genus Crotalus, family Viperidae. Two main areas are emphasized: the attribution of the names proposed in the eighteenth century by Linnaeus and Laurenti, and the current scheme of division in subspecies. The attribution of names is examined based on the original descriptions and on relevant previous and contemporary literature. The presently adopted scheme, proposed by Klauber (1941, 1972 is found not entirely satisfactory, but reasonable enough - besides being hallowed by use. The scheme of geographical differentiation, intrinsically important and with broad practical implications (differentiation of the venom is found to be the culmination of a long series of deficient analyses, and in urgent need of proper investigation.

  4. DETERMINAÇÃO E ESPACIALIZAÇÃO DA PERDA DE SOLO DA BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DO CÓRREGO CASCAVEL, GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Souza Rodrigues Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O modelo de predição de erosão hídrica baseado na Equação Universal de Perda de Solo (USLE, bem como suas variações, tem sido amplamente empregado no Brasil e no mundo devido sua robustez e eficiência. Assim, este estudo tem por objetivos, identificar as áreas mais susceptíveis à erosão hídrica laminar e quantificar os processos erosivos na Bacia Hidrográfica do Córrego Cascavel, tributário do Ribeirão Anicuns. Para tanto, foram identificadas as pedologias existentes, necessárias para a definição do Fator de Erodibilidade (k, realizado cálculo das precipitações para obtenção do Fator de Erosovidade (R, classificação supervisionada de imagem satélite do Landsat 8 composição 4-5-3 (RGB, por meio do programa ArcGis, para compor uma correlação entre os fatores Uso e Manejo do Solo (C e Práticas Conservacionistas (P e, por fim, o Fator Topográfico (LS foi obtido por meio do programa SAGA, que realiza um cruzamento entre o comprimento da rampa e a declividade da região. Dessa forma, foi realizada a interpolação de todos os fatores que compõem a USLE em um Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG. Este estudo consiste no primeiro trabalho dessa natureza realizado para a área com tais ferramentas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram-se coerentes em relação aos dados de entrada. O produto final, Mapa de Estimativa de Perda Anual de Solo, demonstrou taxas que variam de 0 - 10 t/ha.a, divididos em seis classes de perdas de solo. As classes predominantes de perdas foram de 0 - 3,2 t/ha.a, sendo o valor máximo de 10 t/ha.a considerado normal para essa região.

  5. Ecology and behavior of the Midget Faded Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor) in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J.M.; Anderson, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a three-year study to describe the ecology and behavior of the Midget Faded Rattlesnake, Crotalus organus concolor. We encountered 426 and telemetered 50 C. o. concolor between 2000 and 2002. We found that their primary diet was lizards (associated with rock outcrops), though they will consume small mammals and birds. They den in aggregations, although in low numbers when compared to other subspecies. Movements and activity ranges were among the largest reported for rattlesnakes. Minimum convex polygon area was 117.8 ha for males, 63.9 ha for nongravid females, and 4.8 ha for gravid females. Mean distances traveled per year were 2122.0 m for males, 1956.0 m for nongravid females, and 296.7 m for gravid and postpartum females. Following emergence from hibernation, they spent several weeks shedding, often in aggregations before migration, and migrations occurred in early summer. Most snakes made straight-line movements to and from discrete summer activity ranges where short, multidirectional movements ensued, although others made multidirectional movements throughout the active season. We observed mating behavior between 21 July and 12 August. Gravid females gave birth during the third week of August. Mean clutch size was 4.17 (range 2-7). We found that the sex ratio was skewed favoring females 1:1.24, and they were sexually dimorphic in size (males SVL = 44.1 cm; females SVL = 40.8 cm). Our data further illustrate the diversity within the large group of Western Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis). Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  6. Comparison of the effect of Crotalus simus and Crotalus durissus ruruima venoms on the equine antibody response towards Bothrops asper venom: implications for the production of polyspecific snake antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; Arroyo, Cynthia; Solano, Sergio; Herrera, María; Villalta, Mauren; Segura, Alvaro; Estrada, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    Antivenoms are preparations of immunoglobulins purified from the plasma of animals immunized with snake venoms. Depending on the number of venoms used during the immunization, antivenoms can be monospecific (if venom from a single species is used) or polyspecific (if venoms from several species are used). In turn, polyspecific antivenoms can be prepared by purifying antibodies from the plasma of animals immunized with a mixture of venoms, or by mixing antibodies purified from the plasma of animals immunized separately with single venom. The suitability of these strategies to produce polyspecific antibothropic-crotalic antivenoms was assessed using as models the venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Crotalus durissus ruruima. It was demonstrated that, when used as co-immunogen, C. simus and C. durissus ruruima venoms exert a deleterious effect on the antibody response towards different components of B. asper venom and in the neutralization of hemorrhagic and coagulant effect of this venom when compared with a monospecific B. asper antivenom. Polyspecific antivenoms produced by purifying immunoglobulins from the plasma of animals immunized with venom mixtures showed higher antibody titers and neutralizing capacity than those produced by mixing antibodies purified from the plasma of animals immunized separately with single venom. Thus, despite the deleterious effect of Crotalus sp venoms on the immune response against B. asper venom, the use of venom mixtures is more effective than the immunization with separate venoms for the preparation of polyspecific bothropic-crotalic antivenoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The adrenergic retulation of the cardiovascular system in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, G.L.J.; Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Abe, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic...... arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating this response was mediated through α-adrenergic receptors. Injection of phentolamine gave rise to a pronounced vasodilatation (systemic conductance (Gsys) more than doubled), while...... injection of propranolol caused a systemic vasoconstriction, pointing to a potent α-adrenergic, and a weaker β-adrenergic tone in the systemic vasculature of Crotalus. Overall, the pulmonary vasculature was far less responsive to adrenergic stimulation than the systemic circulation. Adrenaline caused...

  8. Isolation and characterization of delta toxin from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus; Isolamento e caracterizacao da delta toxina do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Lucelia de Almeida

    2006-07-01

    The Crotalus durissus terrificus venom has been so far described as being of low complexity, with four major components described: convulxin, gyroxin, crotoxin and crotamine. In recent studies, other components of this venom were characterized as, for example, an analgesic factor. In 1980, Vital Brazil predicted the existence of a toxin which could be involved in platelet aggregation, and named it delta toxin. However, this toxin has never been isolated or characterized. The aim of the present work was to purify and characterize this toxin. After FPLC size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse phase HPLC, an homogeneous fraction was obtained, with a molecular weight of 14,074.92 Da. When analyzed by SOS-PAGE, this toxin presented an anomalous behavior, with a molecular weight of 14 kDa, while in 2D gels, spots around 40 kDa and with an isoelectrical point between 4 and 5 were observed suggesting isoforms with glicosilation microheterogeneity. After trypsin digestion, the fragments were submitted to the swissprot databank showing high homology (43% coverage, 15 matching peptides) with trocarin, a prothrombin activator from Tropidechis carinatus. These data were further confirmed by aminoacid analysis. The toxin was tested for its ability to activate factor II and X using synthetic substrates. Our data indicate a direct activation of factor X. The same toxin also behaved as a potent direct platelet aggregation activator on washed platelets. Assays with specific inhibitors indicate that neither metalloproteinase, nor serinoproteinase or t lectin domains are involved in the aggregating activity, since EDTA, benzamidin and D-galactose did not inhibit the toxin. In the present work, we were able to identify, purify and characterize a new toxin from the brazilian rattlesnake. It behaved as predicted by Vital-Brazil and displayed direct factor X activating properties, also inducing platelet aggregation, even at low concentrations. Our data also indicate that it is

  9. Formas de uso medicinal da babosa e camomila pela população urbana de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i2.6446 Medicinal use of the Aloe and Chamomile for the urban population of Cascavel, Paraná State - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i2.6446

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tatiana Araujo Cruz-Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A etnobotânica se caracteriza por buscar entender a relação entre as plantas e o homem, podendo-se através desta conhecer a utilização das plantas medicinais como forma de tratamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento sobre as formas de utilização da Babosa (Aloe vera L. e da Camomila (Matricaria chamomilla L.. A coleta de dados envolveu entrevistas de forma aleatória a 400 pessoas, através de um questionário semi-estruturado, no município de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Observou-se que 65% da população utilizam à babosa ou a camomila na cura ou alívio de doenças. A maioria dos entrevistados possui renda de 2 a 4 salários mínimos (60,25%, idade entre 28 a 38 anos (30,75%, tendo concluído o ensino médio (33,75%. O principal motivo pelo qual a população se utiliza de plantas medicinais é por ser natural (71,84%. A forma de preparo mais freqüente da camomila foi por infusão (63,38%, utilizando as flores (92%. Para a babosa 100% utilizam suas folhas na forma de cataplasma (43,88%. Apenas 3% da população relataram ter apresentado algum tipo de reação adversa, durante o período de utilização. Conclui-se que o uso destas plantas pela população é freqüente, sendo um recurso adicional ao uso de medicamentos.The ethnobotany, which is characterized by look for to understand the relationship between the plants and the man, being been able through this to know the use of the medicinal plants as treatment. The objective of this work was to accomplish a rising on the forms of use of the Aloe (Aloe vera L. and of the Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.. The collection of data involved interviews in a random way to a sample of 400 people through a semi-structured questionnaire, in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State. It was observed that 65% of the population use to aloe or the chamomile in the cure or relief of diseases. Most of the interviewees possesses income from 2 to 4 minimum wages (60.25%, age

  10. Shallow phylogeographic structure in the declining Mexican Lance-headed Rattlesnake, Crotalus polystictus (Serpentes: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M. Meik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated matrilineal relationships among populations of the Mexican lance-headed rattlesnake (Crotalus polystictus, a pitviper inhabiting high-elevation valleys of the densely populated southernMexican Plateau. A fragment of the mitochondrial ATPase 8 and 6 genes (589 base pairs revealed comparatively low levels of genetic diversity, with few nucleotide polymorphisms across the portion of the geographic distribution sampled. The shallow intraspecificsequence divergence (1.0% in C. polystictus ATPase 8 and 6 genes contrasts with deep divergences (~1.0–14.1% observed within other montane rattlesnake lineages from the Mexican highlands, and is more typical of intraspecific variation observed in lowland rattlesnake species with similar distributional extents (e.g., C. tigris. We posit that the low genetic diversity in C. polystictus relative to that of other highland rattlesnakes may reflect ecological differences resulting in a different evolutionary response to Pleistocene climatic events. Our finding of apparently low genetic diversity in C. polystictus highlights the importance of conservation initiatives to protect high elevation grasslands in central Mexico.

  11. Envenomations by Bothrops and Crotalus snakes induce the release of mitochondrial alarmins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornetta, Irene; Caccin, Paola; Fernandez, Julián; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutierrez, José María; Montecucco, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle necrosis is a common manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomations. Venoms from snakes of the genus Bothrops, such as that of B. asper, induce muscle tissue damage at the site of venom injection, provoking severe local pathology which often results in permanent sequelae. In contrast, the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, induces a clinical picture of systemic myotoxicity, i.e., rhabdomyolysis, together with neurotoxicity. It is known that molecules released from damaged muscle might act as 'danger' signals. These are known as 'alarmins', and contribute to the inflammatory reaction by activating the innate immune system. Here we show that the venoms of B. asper and C. d. terrificus release the mitochondrial markers mtDNA (from the matrix) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) from the intermembrane space, from ex vivo mouse tibialis anterior muscles. Cyt c was released to a similar extent by the two venoms whereas B. asper venom induced the release of higher amounts of mtDNA, thus reflecting hitherto some differences in their pathological action on muscle mitochondria. At variance, injection of these venoms in mice resulted in a different time-course of mtDNA release, with B. asper venom inducing an early onset increment in plasma levels and C. d. terrificus venom provoking a delayed release. We suggest that the release of mitochondrial 'alarmins' might contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory events characteristic of snakebite envenomations.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a convulxin-like protein from Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, M H; Carneiro, E M; Marangoni, S; Amaral MEC; Velloso, L A; Boschero, A C

    2001-10-01

    A convulxin (Cvx)-like protein was isolated from Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom by a combination of molecular exclusion and reversed-phase HPLC chromatographies. The molecular mass of the Cvx-like protein in the absence and presence of DTT was 78 kDa and 12-13 kDa, respectively. The Cvx-like protein consisted of two nonidentical polypeptide chains (alpha and beta). The N-terminal amino-acid sequences of the alpha and beta subunits were GLHCPSDWYAYDGHCYKIFNEEMNWED and GFCCPSHWSSYSRYCYKFFSQEMNWEDAEK, respectively, with both subunits having a high content of Glu, Ser, Cys, and Asp. The Cvx-like protein showed high homology with other venom C-type lectins, but had low hemagglutinating activity on intact and trypsinized erythrocytes. The Cvx-like protein stimulated insulin receptor phosphorylation and potentiated insulin secretion from isolated islets in the presence of sub- (2.8 mM) or supra-physiological (16.7 mM) glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the increase in insulin secretion induced by Cvx-like protein may be mediated by a protein tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway and may involve other membrane receptors, such as GP VI or Scr family proteins.

  13. Inflammatory Mediators Release in Urine from Mice Injected with Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Cruz, A.; Barbosa Navarro, L.; Mendonça, R. Z.; Petricevich, V. L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated in groups of female BALB/c mice injected with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt) the renal function based on creatinine clearance, percentage of fractional excretion cytokines and histological examination of renal tissue. Cdt caused renal alterations that induced proteinuria during the initial hours post-venom and reduced creatinine clearance 15 min. up to 2 hours post-venom administration. In urine from mice injected with Cdt induced a decrease in IL-4 levels. More pronounced increments of IL-5, IL-6 and IFN-γ were observed after 15 and 30 min, respectively. The highest levels of TNF and IL-10 were observed at 1 and 4 hs, respectively. The ratios of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in animals injected with Cdt, which may be manifested in the inflammatory status during the envenoming. In groups of animals treated with Cdt were observed a decreasing in creatinine clearance and its effect on glomerular filtration rate was accompanied by decreased fractional excretion of cytokines and morphologic disturbances. This loss of change selectively in envenomation could thus explain why the relatively excretion of cytokines is reduced while of total proteins increases. In conclusion the fractional excretion of cytokines is significantly reduced in mice injected with Cdt, despite proteinuria. PMID:22174490

  14. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karasawa Andréa Satie Matsubara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae. Fifty animals were evaluated for the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. at the time of arrival and 30 and 60 days later. Intestinal washings with saline solution (1% body weight, fecal samples, and organ scrapings were collected during the study. Oocysts were concentrated by an ether-phosphate-buffered saline sedimentation technique and then separated by a density gradient centrifugation technique. Smears were made with the sediment and submitted to modified acid-fast and auramine-rhodamine staining. Cryptosporidium-positive smears were used as controls for the experimental findings. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was 14%. Among the positive snakes, oocysts were detected only in the intestinal washing in two specimens, only in the feces in four specimens, and in both materials at least once in one specimen. The positive snakes were predominantly from Santa Maria da Serra city State of São Paulo (57.1%. We also observed that all of the examinations that presented positive results were obtained at least 27 days after the capture of the animals.

  15. Seasonal variation in hormonal responses of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) to reproductive and environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterschmidt, William I; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Mason, Robert T; Reinert, Howard K

    2009-08-01

    Data addressing adrenocortical modulation across taxonomic groups are limited, especially with regard to how female reproductive condition influences the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We investigated seasonal and reproductive variation in basal and stress-induced hormone profiles in a population of free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) in north-central Pennsylvania during spring (i.e., May), summer (i.e., July), and early fall (i.e., September). Baseline corticosterone concentrations varied seasonally and were significantly lower during the summer sampling period in July. We observed a significant negative relationship between baseline corticosterone and testosterone in male snakes, while baseline corticosterone and estradiol tended to be positively correlated in females. Treatment of snakes with 1 h of capture stress significantly increased corticosterone across all seasons. However, there was a significant interaction between corticosterone responses to capture stress and season, suggesting that adrenocortical function is modulated seasonally. Because elevated corticosterone may be associated with reproduction, we asked whether hormonal stress responses vary with female reproductive condition. Although sample sizes are low, reproductive snakes had significantly higher baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations than non-reproductive or post-parturient females. Further, despite similar baseline corticosterone concentrations between non-reproductive and post-parturient rattlesnakes, post-parturient females responded to capture stress with a significantly higher increase in corticosterone. Collectively, these data suggest that the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis varies both seasonally and with changing reproductive states.

  16. Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines Release in Mice Injected with Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernández Cruz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt were analyzed with respect to the susceptibility and the inflammatory mediators in an experimental model of severe envenomation. BALB/c female mice injected intraperitoneally presented sensibility to Cdt, with changes in specific signs, blood biochemical and inflammatory mediators. The venom induced reduction of glucose and urea levels and an increment of creatinine levels in serum from mice. Significant differences were observed in the time-course of mediator levels in sera from mice injected with Cdt. The maximum levels of IL-6, NO, IL-5, TNF, IL-4 and IL-10 were observed 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4 hours post-injection, respectively. No difference was observed for levels of IFN-γ. Taken together, these data indicate that the envenomation by Cdt is regulated both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses at time-dependent manner. In serum from mice injected with Cdt at the two first hours revealed of pro-inflammatory dominance. However, with an increment of time an increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines was observed and the balance toward to anti-inflammatory dominance. In conclusion, the observation that Cdt affects the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines provides further evidence for the role played by Cdt in modulating pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance.

  17. Pulmonary mechanic and lung histology induced by Crotalus durissus cascavella snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Neto, Joselito de; Silveira, João Alison de Moraes; Serra, Daniel Silveira; Viana, Daniel de Araújo; Borges-Nojosa, Diva Maria; Sampaio, Célia Maria Souza; Monteiro, Helena Serra Azul; Cavalcante, Francisco Sales Ávila; Evangelista, Janaina Serra Azul Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    This study have analyzed the pulmonary function in an experimental model of acute lung injury, induced by the Crotalus durissus cascavella venom (C. d. cascavella) (3.0 μg/kg - i.p), in pulmonary mechanic and histology at 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after inoculation. The C. d. cascavella venom led to an increase in Newtonian Resistance (R N ), Tissue Resistance (G) and Tissue Elastance (H) in all groups when compared to the control, particularly at 12 h and 24 h. The Histeresivity (η) increased 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after inoculation. There was a decrease in Static Compliance (C ST ) at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h and inspiratory capacity (IC) at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. d. cascavella venom showed significant morphological changes such as atelectasis, emphysema, hemorrhage, polymorphonuclear inflammatory infiltrate, edema and congestion. After a challenge with methacholine (MCh), R N demonstrated significant changes at 6, 12 and 24 h. This venom caused mechanical and histopathological changes in the lung tissue; however, its mechanisms of action need further studies in order to better elucidate the morphofunctional lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Envenomations by Bothrops and Crotalus snakes induce the release of mitochondrial alarmins.

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    Irene Zornetta

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle necrosis is a common manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomations. Venoms from snakes of the genus Bothrops, such as that of B. asper, induce muscle tissue damage at the site of venom injection, provoking severe local pathology which often results in permanent sequelae. In contrast, the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, induces a clinical picture of systemic myotoxicity, i.e., rhabdomyolysis, together with neurotoxicity. It is known that molecules released from damaged muscle might act as 'danger' signals. These are known as 'alarmins', and contribute to the inflammatory reaction by activating the innate immune system. Here we show that the venoms of B. asper and C. d. terrificus release the mitochondrial markers mtDNA (from the matrix and cytochrome c (Cyt c from the intermembrane space, from ex vivo mouse tibialis anterior muscles. Cyt c was released to a similar extent by the two venoms whereas B. asper venom induced the release of higher amounts of mtDNA, thus reflecting hitherto some differences in their pathological action on muscle mitochondria. At variance, injection of these venoms in mice resulted in a different time-course of mtDNA release, with B. asper venom inducing an early onset increment in plasma levels and C. d. terrificus venom provoking a delayed release. We suggest that the release of mitochondrial 'alarmins' might contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory events characteristic of snakebite envenomations.

  19. Biochemical and biological evaluation of gyroxin isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

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    LC Barros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gyroxin, a thrombin-like enzyme isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and capable of converting fibrinogen into fibrin, presents coagulant and neurotoxic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate such coagulant and toxic properties. Gyroxin was isolated using only two chromatographic steps - namely gel filtration (Sephadex G-75 and affinity (Benzamidine Sepharose 6B - resulting in a sample of high purity, as evaluated by RP-HPLC C2/C18 and electrophoretic analysis that showed a molecular mass of 30 kDa. Gyroxin hydrolyzed specific chromogenic substrates, which caused it to be classified as a serine proteinase and thrombin-like enzyme. It was stable from pH 5.5 to 8.5 and inhibited by Mn²+, Cu²+, PMSF and benzamidine. Human plasma coagulation was more efficient at pH 6.0. An in vivo toxicity test showed that only behavioral alterations occurred, with no barrel rotation. Gyroxin was not able to block neuromuscular contraction in vitro, which suggests that its action, at the studied concentrations, has no effect on the peripheral nervous system.

  20. Crotalus atrox Venom Exposed to Carbon Monoxide Has Decreased Fibrinogenolytic Activity In Vivo in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G

    2018-01-01

    Envenomation by haemotoxic enzymes remains a significant source of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, with administration of long-acting or multiple doses of antivenom first-line therapy. However, coagulopathy can still occur and recur. Of interest, it has been recently demonstrated that direct, isolated exposure of snake venom enzymes with fibrinogenolytic activity to carbon monoxide (CO) abrogates venom-mediated loss of coagulation in human plasma. These observations of CO inhibition of venom fibrinogenolytic activity were subsequently repeated in rabbit whole blood. This study sought to translate these findings in an in vivo rabbit model of envenomation with fibrinogenolytic Crotalus atrox venom. Sedated rabbits were intravenously administered C. atrox venom (400 μg/kg) pre-exposed to 0 or 1000 μM carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) in vitro. Arterial whole-blood samples demonstrated that compared to pre-envenomation values, the CORM-2-naïve venom significantly prolonged the onset of coagulation, decreased the velocity of clot growth and decreased clot strength as determined by thromboelastography an hour after venom injection. In contrast, CORM-2 pre-exposure prevented or attenuated C. atrox venom effects on coagulation kinetics. Future studies to determine whether rabbits injected with such venom subcutaneously/intramuscularly can have consequent coagulopathy abrogated by injection of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules into the 'bite site' are justified. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  1. Gross and histologic features of gastritis due to Ophidascaris arndti in tropical rattlesnakes ( Crotalus durissus

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    É.M. Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus is a snake of great importance for biomedical industry since its poison is used for the production of antiophidic serum and researches. Several conditions related to animal health, such as diseases and parasites, which can promote the reduction of poison production by these snakes should be investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gross and microscopic lesions related to the presence of Ophidascaris arndti in stomachs of tropical rattlesnakes. The gastrointestinal tract of thirty-five South American rattlesnakes captured in Southeastern region of Brazil were analyzed and nineteen animals showed infestation by the parasites, found in the small intestine and, especially, in the stomach of the hosts. Grossly, lesions were characterized by mucosal ulcers occasionally associated with hemorrhage. Microscopic alterations included histiocytic granulomas, fibrosis, necrosis, and hemorrhage. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of a parasitic granulomatous disease was made. The lesions may be related to the cause of death in captivity snakes, since the lesions can promote secondary infections by opportunistic bacteria. Moreover, the intense inflammatory response accompanied by fibrosis may be related to poor functioning of the gastric snakes, which it may exhibit frequent regurgitation of the food.

  2. Comprometimento respiratório secundário a acidente ofídico crotálico (Crotalus durissus Respiratory abnormalities following Crotalus durissus snakebite

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    Carlos Faria Santos Amaral

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available São analisados três pacientes que apresentaram comprometimento da função respiratória após acidente por Crotalus durissus. As manifestações respiratórias surgiram nas primeiras 48 horas após a picada do ofídio e consistiram de dispnéia, taquipnéia, uso da musculatura acessória da respiração (casos 1 e 2 e batimento das aletas nasais (caso 2. Dois pacientes (casos 1 e 2 apresentaram insuficiência respiratória aguda. O diagnóstico desta complicação no caso 1 foi clínico pois o paciente apresentou apnéia. O paciente do caso 2, 24 horas após o acidente ofídico apresentou dificuldade respiratória intensa e períodos de apnéia sendo intubado, permanecendo em respiração espontânea. Houve agravamento dos sinais clínicos de insuficiência respiratória e a determinação de pH e gases do sangue arterial mostrou em relação ao exame inicial elevação da pressão parcial de gás carbônico (40 mmHg para 50,3 mm Hg caracterizando insuficiência ventilatória aguda. Ambos foram tratados com emprego de ventilação artificial mecânica, tendo o paciente do caso 1 permanecido no ventilador durante 33 dias e o do caso 2 durante 15 dias. Ambos desenvolveram insuficiência renal aguda, necessitaram de diálise peritoneal e recuperaram a função renal. A paciente do caso 3, apesar dos sintomas e sinais de comprometimento respiratório não apresentou alterações do pH e gases arteriais. Espirometria realizada 58 horas após o acidente mostrou capacidade vital forçada (CVF e volume espirado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 abaixo do previsto (60 e 67% respectivamente. As espirometrias realizadas nos dias subseqüentes evidenciaram melhora progressiva destes parâmetros. No 10º dia após o acidente constatou-se aumento de 20% da CVF e de 17% do VEF1 comparativamente ao exame inicial. A relação entre VEF1 e a CVF manteve-se praticamente inalterada e em valores próximos ao previsto, caracterizando distúrbio ventilatório do tipo

  3. Liver dysfunction in patients bitten by Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768 snakes in Botucatu (State of São Paulo, Brazil Alterações hepáticas em doentes picados por serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768 na região de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Benedito Barra Viera

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two patients bitten by venomous snakes sixteen by Bothrops spp. and sixteen by Crotalus durissus terrificus were studied. The group comprised thirty males and two females, aged eight to sixty-three years (mean 33±15. Bromsulphalein tests were increased in the majority of patients bitten by Crotalus durissus terrificus. The correlation coefficient of Spearman was positive between bromsulphalein tests and alanine aminotransferase levels, and between alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels only in the Crotalus group. The only patient who died was bitten by Crotalus durissus terrificus and showed hydropic degeneration and mitochondrial injury in the liver. It was concluded that the hepatic damage might have been caused by at least two possible mechanisms: venom effect on liver mitochondria and cytokine effects on hepatocyte, specially interleukin-6.Os autores estudaram 32 doentes picados por serpentes venenosas, sendo 16 picados por Bothrops spp. e 16 por Crotalus durissus terrificus. Trinta doentes eram do sexo masculino e dois do feminino com idades variando entre 8 e 63 anos (méda 33±15. A prova da retenção da bromosulfaleína apresentou-se aumentada na maioria dos doentes picados por serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus. Houve correlação positiva entre a retenção da bromosulfaleína e os níveis séricos de alanina aminotransferase e entre alanina e aspartato aminotransferase apenas nos doentes do grupo Crotalus. Um dos doentes evoluiu para o óbito e apresentou no exame anatomopatológico do fígado degeneração hidrópica e lesões mitocondriais. Os autores concluem que as alterações hepáticas são causadas por pelo menos dois mecanismos a saber: lesão mitocondrial por efeito do veneno crotálico; efeito das citoquinas, especialmente a interleucina-6.

  4. Phylogeographic structure and historical demography of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox): A perspective on North American desert biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoe, Todd A; Spencer, Carol L; Parkinson, Christopher L

    2007-01-01

    The western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) is a prominent member of North American desert and semi-arid ecosystems, and its importance extends from its impact on the region's ecology and imagery, to its medical relevance as a large deadly venomous snake. We used mtDNA sequences to identify population genetic structure and historical demographic patterns across the range of this species, and relate these to broader patterns of historical biogeography of desert and semi-arid regions of the southwestern USA and adjacent Mexico. We inferred a Late Pliocene divergence between peninsular and continental lineages of Crotalus, followed by an Early Mid Pleistocene divergence across the continental divide within C. atrox. Within desert regions (Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts, Southern Plains, and Tamaulipan Plain) we observed population structure indicating isolation of populations in multiple Pleistocene refugia on either side of the continental divide, which we attempt to identify. Evidence of post-glacial population growth and range expansion was inferred, particularly in populations east of the continental divide. We observed clear evidence of (probably recent) gene flow across the continental divide and secondary contact of haplotype lineages. This recent gene flow appears to be particularly strong in the West-to-East direction. Our results also suggest that Crotalus tortugensis (Tortuga Island rattlesnake) and a population of 'C. atrox' inhabiting Santa Cruz Island (in the Gulf of California) previously suggested to be an unnamed species, are in fact deeply phylogenetically nested within continental lineages of C. atrox. Accordingly, we suggest C. tortugensis and 'C. atrox' from Santa Cruz Island be placed in the synonymy of C. atrox.

  5. Cloning of subunits of convulxin, a collagen-like platelet-aggregating protein from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom.

    OpenAIRE

    Leduc, M; Bon, C

    1998-01-01

    Convulxin (CVX) is a potent platelet-aggregating glycoprotein from the venom of the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus. It consists of two subunits, alpha and beta, joined by disulphide bridges in a hexameric structure. A cDNA library from venom gland was constructed in the vector pT3T7. The cloned cDNAs encoding the two chains of CVX were sequenced. Both are preceded by an identical 23-amino acid peptide signal sequence and encode sequences of 135 amino acids for the alpha chain and 125 amin...

  6. Isolation and characterization of delta toxin from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Lucelia de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    The Crotalus durissus terrificus venom has been so far described as being of low complexity, with four major components described: convulxin, gyroxin, crotoxin and crotamine. In recent studies, other components of this venom were characterized as, for example, an analgesic factor. In 1980, Vital Brazil predicted the existence of a toxin which could be involved in platelet aggregation, and named it delta toxin. However, this toxin has never been isolated or characterized. The aim of the present work was to purify and characterize this toxin. After FPLC size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse phase HPLC, an homogeneous fraction was obtained, with a molecular weight of 14,074.92 Da. When analyzed by SOS-PAGE, this toxin presented an anomalous behavior, with a molecular weight of 14 kDa, while in 2D gels, spots around 40 kDa and with an isoelectrical point between 4 and 5 were observed suggesting isoforms with glicosilation microheterogeneity. After trypsin digestion, the fragments were submitted to the swissprot databank showing high homology (43% coverage, 15 matching peptides) with trocarin, a prothrombin activator from Tropidechis carinatus. These data were further confirmed by aminoacid analysis. The toxin was tested for its ability to activate factor II and X using synthetic substrates. Our data indicate a direct activation of factor X. The same toxin also behaved as a potent direct platelet aggregation activator on washed platelets. Assays with specific inhibitors indicate that neither metalloproteinase, nor serinoproteinase or t lectin domains are involved in the aggregating activity, since EDTA, benzamidin and D-galactose did not inhibit the toxin. In the present work, we were able to identify, purify and characterize a new toxin from the brazilian rattlesnake. It behaved as predicted by Vital-Brazil and displayed direct factor X activating properties, also inducing platelet aggregation, even at low concentrations. Our data also indicate that it is

  7. Thrombelastographic characterization of the thrombin-like activity of Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Boyer, Leslie V; Redford, Daniel T; Ford, Paul

    2017-04-01

    : Annually, thousands suffer venomous snake-bite from Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper vipers in central and South America. The goals of the present study were to generally characterize the thrombin-like effects of venom from these snakes in human plasma with viscoelastic methods. Human plasma was exposed to the venom of three different C. simus subspecies and venoms obtained from B. asper vipers located in three different locations in Mexico. To characterize the factor X-activating and thrombin-like activity of these venoms, plasma (normal or factor XIII deficient) was pretreated with a variety of additives (e.g., heparin) in the absence or presence of calcium prior to exposure to 2.0 μg/ml of each viper's venom. These profiles were compared with plasma without venom that had contact activation of coagulation. Coagulation kinetics were determined with thrombelastography. All venoms had thrombin-like activity, with C. s. simus creating a slow growing, weak clot that was likely mediated by metalloproteinases. In contrast, B. asper venoms had rapid onset of coagulation and a high velocity of thrombus growth. Further, B. asper venom activity was calcium-independent, activated prothrombin, activated factor XIII, and independently polymerized fibrinogen. The viscoelastic methods used were able to differentiate subspecies of C. simus and specimens of B. asper, and provide insight into the mechanisms by which the venoms acted on plasma. These methods may be useful in the profiling of similar venoms and perhaps can assist in the assessment of interventions designed to treat envenomation (e.g., antivenom).

  8. Ontogenetic shift in response to prey-derived chemical cues in prairie rattlesnakes Crotalus viridis viridis

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    Anthony J. SAVIOLA, David CHISZAR, Stephen P. MACKESSY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Snakes often have specialized diets that undergo a shift from one prey type to another depending on the life stage of the snake. Crotalus viridis viridis (prairie rattlesnake takes different prey at different life stages, and neonates typically prey on ectotherms, while adults feed almost entirely on small endotherms. We hypothesized that elevated rates of tongue flicking to chemical stimuli should correlate with particular prey consumed, and that this response shifts from one prey type to another as individuals age. To examine if an ontogenetic shift in response to chemical cues occurred, we recorded the rate of tongue flicking for 25 neonate, 20 subadult, and 20 adult (average SVL = 280.9, 552, 789.5 mm, respectively wild-caught C. v. viridis to chemical stimuli presented on a cotton-tipped applicator; water-soluble cues from two ectotherms (prairie lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, and house gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, two endotherms (deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus and lab mouse, Mus musculus, and water controls were used. Neonates tongue flicked significantly more to chemical cues of their common prey, S. undulatus, than to all other chemical cues; however, the response to this lizard’s chemical cues decreased in adult rattlesnakes. Subadults tongue flicked with a higher rate of tongue flicking to both S. undulatus and P. maniculatus than to all other treatments, and adults tongue flicked significantly more to P. maniculatus than to all other chemical cues. In addition, all three sub-classes demonstrated a greater response for natural prey chemical cues over chemical stimuli of prey not encountered in the wild (M. musculus and H. frenatus. This shift in chemosensory response correlated with the previously described ontogenetic shifts in C. v. viridis diet. Because many vipers show a similar ontogenetic shift in diet and venom composition, we suggest that this shift in prey cue discrimination is likely a general phenomenon among viperid

  9. Natural history of a northern population of twin-spotted rattlesnakes, Crotalus pricei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prival, D.B.; Goode, M.J.; Swann, D.E.; Schwalbe, C.R.; Schroff, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The twin-spotted rattlesnake (Crotalus pricei) is a small-bodied pitviper that has received little attention in the literature to date. The species reaches the northern limit of its range in southeastern Arizona, where it inhabits higher elevations than any of the state's 10 other rattlesnake species. During 1997-2000, we captured, measured, and marked 127 C. pricei in Arizona's Chiricahua Mountains between 2530 and 2900 m elevation. We also used radiotelemetry to track the movements of 16 C. pricei in the study area during 1997-1998. Mean (?? SE) snout-vent length of C. pricei was 387.8 ?? 8.3 mm (range = 168-572), and mean mass was 53.5 ?? 3.3 g (range = 3.6-188.5). Based on fecal analyses, lizards constituted the bulk of prey (74%), but the diet of C. pricei also included mammals, birds, and a conspecific. Mating was concentrated in August and early September and parturition took place during late July and August. Mean number of embryos was 3.94 ?? 0.34 (range = 1-6) and female reproduction appeared biennial or less frequent. Based on shed and growth rates, female C. pricei develop embryos at 4-5 years of age. Gravid females maintained warmer body temperatures relative to substrate temperature than nongravid females or males, presumably by spending more time basking than other snakes. Radiotelemetry revealed that movement patterns varied from year to year, as males moved over six times farther per week during the 1998 monsoon season (July to September) than during the 1997 monsoon season. Additionally, use of talus slopes by males decreased during 1998. During dry years, such as 1998, males may be forced off talus into cooler microclimates where resources are less concentrated than on talus.

  10. Biological and Proteolytic Variation in the Venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus from Mexico

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    Miguel Borja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rattlesnake venoms may be classified according to the presence/absence and relative abundance of the neurotoxic phospholipases A 2 s (PLA 2 s, such as Mojave toxin, and snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs. In Mexico, studies to determine venom variation in Mojave Rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus are limited and little is known about the biological and proteolytic activities in this species. Tissue (34 and venom (29 samples were obtained from C. s. scutulatus from different locations within their distribution in Mexico. Mojave toxin detection was carried out at the genomic (by PCR and protein (by ELISA levels for all tissue and venom samples. Biological activity was tested on representative venoms by measuring LD 50 and hemorrhagic activity. To determine the approximate amount of SVMPs, 15 venoms were separated by RP-HPLC and variation in protein profile and proteolytic activity was evaluated by SDS-PAGE (n = 28 and Hide Powder Azure proteolytic analysis (n = 27. Three types of venom were identified in Mexico which is comparable to the intraspecific venom diversity observed in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona, USA: Venom Type A (∼Type II, with Mojave toxin, highly toxic, lacking hemorrhagic activity, and with scarce proteolytic activity; Type B (∼Type I, without Mojave toxin, less toxic than Type A, highly hemorrhagic and proteolytic; and Type A + B, containing Mojave toxin, as toxic as venom Type A, variable in hemorrhagic activity and with intermediate proteolytic activity. We also detected a positive correlation between SVMP abundance and hemorrhagic and proteolytic activities. Although more sampling is necessary, our results suggest that venoms containing Mojave toxin and venom lacking this toxin are distributed in the northwest and southeast portions of the distribution in Mexico, respectively, while an intergradation in the middle of both zones is present.

  11. NO production and potassium channels activation induced by Crotalus durissus cascavella underlie mesenteric artery relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S S; Jesus, R L C; Simões, L O; Vasconcelos, W P; Medeiros, I A; Veras, R C; Casais-E-Silva, L L; Silva, D F

    2017-07-01

    Animal toxins are natural resources for pharmacological studies. The venom of Crotalus durissus cascavella (C.d. cascavella) may be a source in the bio-prospecting of new anti-hypertensive agents. The aim of this study was to investigate vascular effects of the venom of C.d. cascavella in normotensive rats. Studies were performed using isolated mesenteric artery segments and aortic endothelial cells. The cumulative administration of the venom of C.d. cascavella (0.001-30 μg/mL) on phenylephrine (Phe; 10 μM) pre-contracted rings induced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in the presence of vascular endothelium (E max  = 47.9 ± 5.0% n = 8), and its effect was almost abolished in the absence of endothelium (E max  = 5.8± 2.4% n = 5 ( ∗∗∗ p stable radical scavenger for nitric oxide (E max  = 10.77± 3.6%, n = 6). Moreover, the venom induced the release of NO by isolated aortic endothelial cells through amperometric studies. When assessing the participation of K + channels on the vasodilatory response of the venom, tyrode solution with 20 mM of KCl caused a significant reduction in the relaxation response (p channels (4-amynopiridine 1 mM; E max  = 9.5 ± 1.3, %, n = 5, ***p channels. These data illustrate that C.d. cascavella is a source of bioactive molecules and therefore has therapeutic potential in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of young ovines inoculated with natural or 60co-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom during hyperimmunization process

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    R. S. Ferreira Junior

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory profile of young ovines was studied in order to evaluate and compare their antiserum production from natural and Cobalt-60 irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus (C.d.t. venoms. The parameters analyzed included complete blood count, and urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin serum measurements. Three groups of six animals each were used. Group 1 (G1 received natural C.d.t. venom; Group 2 (G2 received irradiated C.d.t. venom; and Group 3 (G3 was used as control and did not receive venom, only adjuvants, using seven venom inoculations. During the experimental period, animals were fortnightly weighed. According to clinical and weight evaluation, sheep in post-weaning phase showed no changes in their physiological profiles but had excellent weight gain. The parameters analyzed were not statistically different (p<5% among the groups tested. The hyperimmunization process was successfully accomplished with the production of specific antibodies against Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Results bring a new possibility of utilizing ovines in the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be used to treat human and animal envenomation. Its production cost may be reduced by subsequent use of hyperimmunized sheep for human consumption.

  13. ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY CAUSED BY Crotalus AND Bothrops SNAKE VENOM: A REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND TREATMENT

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    Polianna L.M.M. Albuquerque

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Ophidic accidents are an important public health problem due to their incidence, morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of cases have been registered in Brazil in the last few years. Several studies point to the importance of knowing the clinical complications and adequate approach in these accidents. However, knowledge about the risk factors is not enough and there are an increasing number of deaths due to these accidents in Brazil. In this context, acute kidney injury (AKI appears as one of the main causes of death and consequences for these victims, which are mainly young males working in rural areas. Snakes of the Bothrops and Crotalus genera are the main responsible for renal involvement in ophidic accidents in South America. The present study is a literature review of AKI caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snake venom regarding diverse characteristics, emphasizing the most appropriate therapeutic approach for these cases. Recent studies have been carried out searching for complementary therapies for the treatment of ophidic accidents, including the use of lipoic acid, simvastatin and allopurinol. Some plants, such as Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae seem to have a beneficial role in the treatment of this type of envenomation. Future studies will certainly find new therapeutic measures for ophidic accidents.

  14. ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY CAUSED BY Crotalus AND Bothrops SNAKE VENOM: A REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Polianna L.M.M.; Jacinto, Camilla N.; Silva, Geraldo B.; Lima, Juliana B.; Veras, Maria do Socorro B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Ophidic accidents are an important public health problem due to their incidence, morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of cases have been registered in Brazil in the last few years. Several studies point to the importance of knowing the clinical complications and adequate approach in these accidents. However, knowledge about the risk factors is not enough and there are an increasing number of deaths due to these accidents in Brazil. In this context, acute kidney injury (AKI) appears as one of the main causes of death and consequences for these victims, which are mainly young males working in rural areas. Snakes of the Bothrops and Crotalus genera are the main responsible for renal involvement in ophidic accidents in South America. The present study is a literature review of AKI caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snake venom regarding diverse characteristics, emphasizing the most appropriate therapeutic approach for these cases. Recent studies have been carried out searching for complementary therapies for the treatment of ophidic accidents, including the use of lipoic acid, simvastatin and allopurinol. Some plants, such as Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae seem to have a beneficial role in the treatment of this type of envenomation. Future studies will certainly find new therapeutic measures for ophidic accidents. PMID:24037282

  15. PROVENANCE SNAKES OF GENUS Bothrops AND Crotalus (VIPERIDAE CATALOGED IN SERPENTARIUM ZOO UNIVERSITY OF CAXIAS DO SUL (UCS

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    Ezequiel Capeletti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Snakes are reptiles that have large environmental adaptations, which favored it's distribution among the various ecosystems. In Brazil, there are found 392 species of snakes, while in Rio Grande do Sul (RS, this research field, 79 species have been described, of which there is the Viperidae family. The objective of this work is to verify the origin of snakes of genus Bothrops and Crotalus, according to the records of the last 15 years of the serpentarium the University of Caxias do Sul, representing the first survey in captivity of the northeastern region of RS. By extension, we seek to investigate whether there is a relationship between the amount of snakes records and abiotic factors: precipitation, temperature and humidity during the period. The research was developed at UCS's serpentarium, by documental analysis of notebook records describing serpents entries between the years 2000 and 2014, in addition to literature review that helped to understand the distribution of the species and gather of the environmental parameters at the Instituto Nacional de Metereologia for further analysis. It was found that the received species are distributed in 26 cities in the RS state, of which the highlights are the municities of Nova Petrópolis and Caxias do Sul, with 148 and 42 individuals respectively. Further, it was found that there was no relationship between the amount of animals and registered temperature, precipitation and humidity. Keywords: Geographic distribution; Bothrops; Crotalus; abiotic factors; northeastern RS.

  16. [The use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in primary healthcare units in the cities of Cascavel and Foz do Iguaçu - Paraná: the viewpoint of health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Maria Cecilia Ribeiro; Mosegui, Gabriela Bittencourt Gonzalez; Vianna, Cid Manso de Melo

    2012-10-01

    Phytotherapy and the use of medicinal plants are part of the practice of folk medicine, which complements treatment traditionally employed for the lower income population. This work analyzed the knowledge of health managers and professionals who work in primary health care (PHC) about phytotherapy in the cities of Cascavel and Foz do Iguaçu in the State of Paraná. An exploratory, descriptive, and qualitative study using a structured questionnaire was conducted between February and July 2009. A health manager manifested interest in introducing the program. The other professionals interviewed did not receive training during undergraduate studies or within the Basic Health Units (BHU) where they work. Six professionals (60%) reported having access to information on phytoterapy through folk wisdom, one (10%) via training in a BHU, two (20%) from journals, four (40%) from the media and four mentioned more than one source. In Foz do Iguaçu, in the BHU where the therapy is deployed, the professionals were not consulted before its implementation. To include phytotherapy in the BHUs of these two cities, it is necessary to train the professionals on the topic, including cultivation and prescription, thereby enhancing the rational use of these medicines.

  17. Snake venomics of Crotalus tigris: the minimalist toxin arsenal of the deadliest Nearctic rattlesnake venom. Evolutionary Clues for generating a pan-specific antivenom against crotalid type II venoms [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Juan J; Pérez, Alicia; Lomonte, Bruno; Sánchez, Elda E; Sanz, Libia

    2012-02-03

    We report the proteomic and antivenomic characterization of Crotalus tigris venom. This venom exhibits the highest lethality for mice among rattlesnakes and the simplest toxin proteome reported to date. The venom proteome of C. tigris comprises 7-8 gene products from 6 toxin families; the presynaptic β-neurotoxic heterodimeric PLA(2), Mojave toxin, and two serine proteinases comprise, respectively, 66 and 27% of the C. tigris toxin arsenal, whereas a VEGF-like protein, a CRISP molecule, a medium-sized disintegrin, and 1-2 PIII-SVMPs each represent 0.1-5% of the total venom proteome. This toxin profile really explains the systemic neuro- and myotoxic effects observed in envenomated animals. In addition, we found that venom lethality of C. tigris and other North American rattlesnake type II venoms correlates with the concentration of Mojave toxin A-subunit, supporting the view that the neurotoxic venom phenotype of crotalid type II venoms may be described as a single-allele adaptation. Our data suggest that the evolutionary trend toward neurotoxicity, which has been also reported for the South American rattlesnakes, may have resulted by pedomorphism. The ability of an experimental antivenom to effectively immunodeplete proteins from the type II venoms of C. tigris, Crotalus horridus , Crotalus oreganus helleri, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus, and Sistrurus catenatus catenatus indicated the feasibility of generating a pan-American anti-Crotalus type II antivenom, suggested by the identification of shared evolutionary trends among South and North American Crotalus species.

  18. Interaction study of water radiolysis products with Crotalus durissus terrificus miotoxin; Estudo das interacoes dos produtos de radiolise da agua com a miotoxina do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Murilo Casare da

    2008-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been satisfactorily employed for venoms detoxification. In this report, the radiation was employed to verify the effects caused by the radiolysis products of water on the Crotamine, toxin purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. These effects were analyzed using some substances called 'scavengers', those substances competes for specific reactive species hindering them to act on the toxins molecules. In order to study the possible structural damages caused on the toxins, circular dichroism, fluorescence, nuclear magnetic resonance, amino acids analysis and intravital microscopy were employed. Our results indicate that ionizing radiation caused structure alterations, mainly, in secondary and tertiary structure of crotamine. In the irradiated crotamine, was not possible to determine tridimensional structure. And the crotamine toxic effect was removed by ionizing radiation. (author)

  19. Lesões neurológicas na blastomicose sul-americana estudo anatomopatológico de 14 casos

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    Walter C. Pereira

    1965-06-01

    Full Text Available Several case reports of involvement of the nervous system by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis have been published, changing thus the concept that the nervous system would no be adequate to the proliferation of this fungus. In the material of the Department of Pathology of the University of São Paulo Medical School, collected up to September 1964, 145 cases of paracoccidioidomycosis were found. In 14 of them there were lesions of the nervous system, giving an incidence of 9,65%. This high incidence contradicts the frequent assumption that the involvement of the nervous system in cases of South American blastomycosis is exceptional. In our material most of the cases of neuroblastomycosis had not systemic lesions, 2 of them having isolated involvement of the nervous system. This fact does not agree with the frequent observation of patients with lesions in all organs but the nervous system. There are no pathophysiologic reasons to explain such contradiction, but it can be assumed that individual conditions, in some cases, make the nervous system vulnerable to the parasite. Of the 14 cases studied, 5 had lesions of the meninges and 9 had gra-nulomata of the brain. Of the 5 cases with meningitis, 3 had an isolated basilar leptomeningitis; in 1 case lesions of the pia-arachnoid of the brain convexity were also found, and in another one the spinal meninges were also involved as well the spinal roots. The granulomata of the brain were isolated in 5 cases and multiple in 4. The most frequent site of the lesions was the cerebral hemispheres (6 cases; in 2 cases the cerebellum was involved; the thalamus, pons and medulla were involved in one case each. This predominance of the hemispheric localization must be related to the larger blood supply of this parte of the nervous system, owing to the hematogenic route followed by the parasite. In our material no lesions of the spinal cord were found. However, no definitive conclusions can be drawn, as there was no systematic study of that parte of the nervous system. From a histopathologic viewpoint the meningeal inflammatory lesions were of the productive type, with a nodular or diffuse distribution. The characteristic cellular elements of this process are the gigantocytes of the Langhans type, the histiocytes, lymphocytes and plasmocytes, the two latter showing a predominant perivascular distribution. In the nodular forms there is a trend to the confluence of the granulomata and focal zones of caseous or gummous necrosis can be found. Arterites also can be found, causing degeneration of the nervous structures. The Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are generally abundantly found either free or phagocyted by histiocytes or gigantocytes. The inflammatory infiltrate grows along the Virchow-Robin's spaces, reaching the outer layers of the nervous parenchyma. The parenchymatous forms present a large central necrotic areas, with the characteristics of caseous or gummous necrosis, surrounded by histiocytes, gigantocytes, lymphocytes and plasmocytes. Fibroblasts and collagenous fibers surround and limit these granulomata of the encephalic parenchyma. Arterites are also observed and seem to play an importante role in the necrotic processes. The fungi are generally abundant, being found especially at the periphery of the necrotic areas or within the inflammatory tissues, free or phagocyted by histiocytes. In the nervous tissue neighboring the granulomata various degrees of degenerative processes of the neurons and glia are observed, as well as hyperplastic reaction of the oligodendroglia, microglia and astroglia. The inflammatory reaction of South American blastomycosis of the nervous system is not specific and, by itself, does not permit the etiologic diagnosis of the process. Only the finding of the parasite, with its characteristic forms, make it possible to establish the cause of the lesion.

  20. Modelagem do movimento da placa tectônica sul-americana por meio de dados VLBI e GNSS.

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Souza, Wanessa

    2013-01-01

    Há cerca de 220 milhões de anos os continentes vêm afastando-se uns dos outros. Esse fenômeno se explica a partir da teoria da deriva continental, complementada pela teoria da tectônica de placas, onde se acreditava que estruturas rígidas como as placas litosféricas, eram capazes de transmitir tensões em longas distâncias sem causar deformações internas. Desta forma, devido ao movimento das placas e como consequência a deriva dos continentes, as estações a eles pertencentes também vêm se move...

  1. South America electric power integration: an utopia or a reality?; Integracao eletrica sul-americana: utopia ou realidade?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, Jaime

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this chapter is the discussing on the economic and institutional conditions necessary to the South America electric power integration in the context of the changes in the electric industry initiated on the 1980's years.

  2. Autoridades reguladoras de medicamentos sul-americanas: uma análise a partir de regras organizacionais

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Martins da Silva Sandri; Marismary Horsth De Seta; Vera Lucia Luiza

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever a organização das autoridades reguladoras nacionais (ARN) de medicamentos da Argentina, Brasil, Chile e Peru pela análise de categorias representativas de regras organizacionais. MÉTODOS: As ARN estudadas foram selecionadas utilizando-se os seguintes critérios: estar em país da América do Sul, ter sido identificada como ARN nos Encuentros de Autoridades Competentes en Medicamentos de los Países Iberoamericanos e apresentar boa disponibilidade de dados eletrônicos sobre est...

  3. Autoridades reguladoras de medicamentos sul-americanas: uma análise a partir de regras organizacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Martins da Silva Sandri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a organização das autoridades reguladoras nacionais (ARN de medicamentos da Argentina, Brasil, Chile e Peru pela análise de categorias representativas de regras organizacionais. MÉTODOS: As ARN estudadas foram selecionadas utilizando-se os seguintes critérios: estar em país da América do Sul, ter sido identificada como ARN nos Encuentros de Autoridades Competentes en Medicamentos de los Países Iberoamericanos e apresentar boa disponibilidade de dados eletrônicos sobre estrutura e processo da regulação de medicamentos. Como principal fonte de dados, foram consultadas páginas eletrônicas entre maio de 2010 e março de 2011. As categorias analíticas foram: estrutura da organização, competências, direcionalidade e formas de responsabilidade e prestação de contas. RESULTADOS: As ARN da Argentina e do Brasil funcionavam como agências autônomas, enquanto que as do Chile e do Peru se subordinavam diretamente aos respectivos ministérios da saúde. À exceção da ARN brasileira, evidenciou-se a dependência das demais em relação ao ministério para emitir normas sanitárias. O escopo de ação de cada autoridade se diferenciou pelos bens e serviços a ela sujeitos, sendo a do Peru a única dedicada exclusivamente à regulação de medicamentos. As quatro ARN realizam todos os processos apontadas pela Organização Mundial da Saúde como essenciais para uma regulação efetiva. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados apontam para um esforço dos países estudados em melhorar sua estrutura regulatória. Não obstante, em diversos aspectos, as quatro ARN ainda precisam aprimorar mecanismos para garantir, ao final da cadeia regulatória, a qualidade e a segurança dos medicamentos por elas regulados, com mais transparência nos processos decisórios e prestação de contas à sociedade.

  4. Inhibition of Lung Tumor Colonization and Cell Migration with the Disintegrin Crotatroxin 2 Isolated from the Venom of Crotalus atrox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Jacob A.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Soto, Julio G.; Bashir, Sajid; McLane, Mary Ann; Paquette-Straub, Carrie; Pérez, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Disintegrins are low molecular weight proteins (4-15 kDa) with an RGD binding region at their binding loop. Disintegrin and disintegrin-like proteins are found in the venom of four families of snakes: Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae and Colubridae. This report describes the biological activity of a disintegrin, crotatroxin 2, isolated by a three-step chromatography procedure from the venom of the Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). The intact molecular mass for crotatroxin 2 was 7.384 kDa and 71 amino acids. Crotatroxin 2 inhibited human whole blood platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 17.5 nM, inhibited cell (66.3p) migration by 63%, and inhibited experimental lung tumor colonization in BALB/c mice at 1000 μg/kg. Our data suggest that while crotatroxin 2 inhibits platelet aggregation, cancer cell migration, and lung tumor colonization it is done via different integrins. PMID:18387648

  5. Preparation of crotalus venom radiolabeled with technetium{sup 99m} as a tool for biodistribution study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujatti, Priscilla Brunelli; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: santosr@cdtn.br; Simal, Carlos Jorge Rodrigues [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2005-10-15

    Technetium-{sup 99m} ({sup 99m} Tc) has been the radionuclide of choice for nuclear medicine procedures and experimental research. Because of its optimal nuclear properties, {sup 99m} Tc is suitable for high efficiency detection with the advantage of reduced radiological waste. Crotalus venom (CV) has been shown to reduce tumors in clinical studies and tissue distribution studies are very important for clinical use. The goal of this work was to obtain CV labeled with {sup 99m} Tc which preserves its biological activity. After labeling, biological activity was assessed by hemolytic activity evaluation. Labeled and crude venom caused indirect hemolysis provided that the incubation medium contained an exogenous source of lecithin. High yield radiolabeled-CV was obtained and biological activity was preserved. The results suggest that {sup 99m} Tc-CV can be a useful tool for biodistribution studies. (author)

  6. Clinical and hematological alterations in dogs during experimental envenomation with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and treated with antiophidic serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. B. Nogueira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the clinical and hematological aspects during experimental envenomation by Crotalus durissus terrificus in dogs treated with different antiophidic serum doses. Sixteen dogs were divided into two groups of eight animals each. Group I received 1mg/kg venom subcutaneously and 30mg antiophidic serum intravenously; Group II received 1mg/kg venom subcutaneously and 60mg antiophidic serum intravenously. In the clinical evaluation, we observed ataxia, moderate sedation, dilated pupils, sialorrhea, flaccid paralysis of mandibular muscles, and discreet edema at the site of venom inoculation. Evaluating red and white blood cells, we observed a decrease of hemoglobins, globular volume and erythrocytes, and an increase of plasmatic proteins, leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Clotting time increased and there was blood incoagulability with return to normal clotting time six hours after antiophidic serum administration. Animals treated with six antiophidic serum flasks had a faster recovery than the animals that received three serum flasks.

  7. Crotalus helleri venom preconditioning reduces postoperative cerebral edema and improves neurological outcomes after surgical brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cherine H; McBride, Devin W; Sherchan, Prativa; Person, Carl E; Gren, Eric C K; Kelln, Wayne; Lekic, Tim; Hayes, William K; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2017-11-01

    Postoperative cerebral edema is a devastating complication in neurosurgical patients. Loss of blood-brain barrier integrity has been shown to lead to the development of brain edema following neurosurgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate preconditioning with Crotalus helleri venom (Cv-PC) as a potential preventive therapy for reducing postoperative brain edema in the rodent SBI model. C. helleri venom is known to contain phospholipase A2 (PLA2), an enzyme upstream to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the inflammatory cascade, acts to increase the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins. We hypothesize that Cv-PC will downregulate the response of the COX-2 pathway to injury, thereby reducing the inflammatory response and the development of brain edema after SBI. 75 male Sprague Dawley rats (280-330g) were divided to the following groups-naïve+vehicle, naïve+Cv-PC, sham, vehicle, Cv-PC, Cv-PC+NS398 (COX-2 inhibitor). Vehicle preconditioned and Cv-PC animals received either three daily subcutaneous doses of saline or C. helleri venom at 72h, 48h, and 24h prior to surgery. In Cv-PC+NS398 animals, NS398 was administered intraperitoneally 1h prior to each Cv-PC injection. Sham-operated animals received craniotomy only, whereas SBI animals received a partial right frontal lobectomy. Neurological testing and brain water content were assessed at 24h and 72h after SBI; COX-2 and PGE 2 expression was assessed at 24h postoperatively by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively. At 24h after SBI, the vehicle-treated animals were observed to have increased brain water content (83.1±0.2%) compared to that of sham animals (80.2±0.1%). The brain water content of vehicle-treated animals at 72h post-SBI was elevated at 83.3±0.2%. Cv-PC-treated animals with doses of 10% LD 50 had significantly reduced brain water content of 81.92±0.7% and 81.82±0.3% at 24h and 72h, respectively, after SBI compared to that of vehicle-treated animals

  8. Type specimens of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) re-examined, with new evidence after more than a century of confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael D.; Gotte, Steve W.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Gilmore, Ned; Poindexter, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The original description of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) was published in 1861 by Robert Kennicott, who did not identify a type specimen or a type locality. We review the history of specimens purported to be the type(s) and various designations of type locality. We provide evidence that ANSP 7069 (formerly one of two specimens of USNM 5027) is the holotype and that the appropriate type locality is Fort Buchanan, near present-day Sonoita, in Santa Cruz County, Arizona.

  9. Parasites of prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis) and gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi) from the eastern high plains of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffenberger, G S; Jorgensen, N M; Woody, D D

    1989-04-01

    Three prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis) and two gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi) from the eastern high plains of New Mexico (USA) were examined for parasites. One cestode (Oochoristica osheroffi), and two nematode (Kalicephalus inermis and Physoloptera retusa) species were recovered from two infected rattlesnakes. One female gopher snake was infected with two nematode (K. inermis and Rhabdias spp.) and one mite (Entonyssus halli) species.

  10. Eficiência de um conjunto fotovoltaico em condições reais de trabalho na região de Cascavel - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v30i2.5496

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estor Gnoatto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foi desenvolvido um estudo sobre um sistema fotovoltaico autônomo, com armazenamento de energia, instalado na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Campus Cascavel, a uma Latitude 24°59' Sul, Longitude de 53°26' Oeste, com altitude de 682 m, em condições reais de campo, durante o ano de 2002. Foi avaliada a eficiência dos painéis fotovoltaicos em condições reais de campo, sua curva característica foi determinada utilizando, na aquisição de dados, um micrologger da Campbell Scientific-Inc, modelo CR10X, programado para realizar uma leitura por segundo de cada canal e armazenar a média aritmética de 5 minutos dos dados das componentes de radiação solar global no plano horizontal e global na incidência do painel; temperatura ambiente e temperatura de operação do painel; tensão e corrente do sistema fotovoltaico. Os resultados mostram que a eficiência média mensal registrou valores na faixa de 8,65 a 9,17%, com uma média de 8,84%, com variação percentual entre o índice máximo e mínimo de 5,67%. Pode, assim, representar fornecimento médio mensal de energia de 5,57 kWh por painel.

  11. A utilização da fitoterapia e de plantas medicinais em unidades básicas de saúde nos municípios de Cascavel e Foz do Iguaçu - Paraná: a visão dos profissionais de saúde The use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in primary healthcare units in the cities of Cascavel and Foz do Iguaçu - Paraná: the viewpoint of health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Ribeiro Bruning

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A fitoterapia e o uso de plantas medicinais fazem parte da prática da medicina popular, que complementa o tratamento usualmente empregado para a população de menor renda. O trabalho analisou o conhecimento de gestores e profissionais de saúde que atuam na atenção primária (APS, sobre fitoterapia, nos municípios de Cascavel e Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná. Entre fevereiro e julho de 2009, realizou-se estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo, empregando entrevistas e questionário estruturado. Um gestor relatou interesse na implantação do programa, os demais profissionais entrevistados não receberam formação sobre o tema durante a graduação ou nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS onde trabalham. Seis profissionais (60% relataram ter acesso às informações sobre fitoterapia através do conhecimento popular, uma (10% formação na UBS, dois (20% através de periódicos, quatro (40% através de meio de comunicação e quatro citaram mais que uma das opções. Em Foz do Iguaçu, nas UBS onde a terapêutica foi introduzida, os profissionais não foram consultados antes de sua implantação. Para instituir a fitoterapia nas UBS desses dois municípios é necessário capacitar os profissionais quanto ao tema, desde o cultivo até a prescrição, melhorando o uso racional desses medicamentos.Phytotherapy and the use of medicinal plants are part of the practice of folk medicine, which complements treatment traditionally employed for the lower income population. This work analyzed the knowledge of health managers and professionals who work in primary health care (PHC about phytotherapy in the cities of Cascavel and Foz do Iguaçu in the State of Paraná. An exploratory, descriptive, and qualitative study using a structured questionnaire was conducted between February and July 2009. A health manager manifested interest in introducing the program. The other professionals interviewed did not receive training during undergraduate studies or

  12. Evolution of rattlesnakes (Viperidae; Crotalus) in the warm deserts of western North America shaped by Neogene vicariance and Quaternary climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Michael E; Douglas, Marlis R; Schuett, Gordon W; Porras, Louis W

    2006-10-01

    During Pleistocene, the Laurentide ice sheet rearranged and diversified biotic distributions in eastern North America, yet had minimal physical impact in western North America where lineage diversification is instead hypothesized to result from climatic changes. If Pleistocene climatic fluctuations impacted desert species, the latter would reflect patterns of restricted gene flow concomitant with indications of demographic bottlenecks. Accordingly, molecular evidence for refugia should be present within these distributions and for subsequent range expansions as conditions improved. We sought answers to these questions by evaluating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from four species of rattlesnakes [Crotalus mitchellii (speckled rattlesnake), Crotalus cerastes (sidewinder), Crotalus tigris (tiger rattlesnake), Crotalus ruber (red diamond rattlesnake)] with distributions restricted to desert regions of southwestern North America. We inferred relationships using parsimony and maximum likelihood, tested intraspecific clades for population expansions, applied an isolation-with-migration model to determine bi-directional migration rates (m) among regions, and inferred divergence times for species and clades by applying a semiparametric penalized likelihood approach to our molecular data. Evidence for significant range expansion was present in two of eight regions in two species (Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus, C. tigris region north). Two species (C. cerastes, C. mitchellii) showed a distribution concomitant with northward displacement of Baja California from mainland México, followed by vicariant separation into subclades. Effects of Pleistocene climate fluctuations were found in the distributions of all four species. Three regional diversification patterns were identified: (i) shallow genetic diversity that resulted from Pleistocene climatic events (C. tigris, C. ruber); (ii) deep Pleistocene divisions indicating allopatric segregation of subclades within refugia (C

  13. Comparison of wildlife and captivity rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus terrificus microbiota Comparação da microbiota de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus terrificus de vida-livre e cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui S. Ferreira Junior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated and compared the aerobic microbiota from the oral cavity, cloaca and venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes, recently caught from the wild and kept under quarantine (WQ, individual captivity (IC and collective captivity (CC. Antimicrobial drug effectiveness on isolated agents also was assayed. From group I, II and III were isolated, respectively, 29 (63.04%, 38 (90.48% and 21 (42.86% microorganisms from the cloaca; 15 (32.61%, 3 (7.14% and 25 (51.02% microorganisms from the oral cavity; and, 2 (4.35%, 1 (2.38% and 3 (6.12% microorganisms from venom. The most frequent bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Morganella morganii, with sensitivity to amikacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, sulfazotrin and tobramycin. Snakes kept in semi-open captivity exhibited the fewest microorganisms in oral cavities, perhaps due to the environment in captivity, with different temperature gradients, running water, absence of daily handling, circulating air, possibility of moving around, daily cleaning, and sunlight access.Este estudo avaliou e comparou a microflora aeróbica da cavidade oral, cloaca e veneno de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus recém-capturadas da natureza e mantidas sob quarentena (WQ, mantidas em cativeiro coletivo (CC e em cativeiro individual (IC. A eficácia de drogas antimicrobianas de agentes isolados foi também avaliada. Foram isolados microorganismos dos grupos I, II e III respectivamente: 29 (63.04%, 38 (90.48% e 21 (42.86% da cloaca; 15 (32.61%, 3 (7.14% e 25 (51.02% da cavidade oral, e finalmente 2 (4.35%, 1 (2.38% e 3 (6.12% do veneno. As bactérias mais frequentes foram Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris e Morganella morganii, com sensibilidade para amikacina, gentamicina, norfloxacina, sulfazotrina e tobramicina. Serpentes mantidas no cativeiro semi-aberto mostraram menor número de agentes infecciosos em cavidade oral, talvez devido ao ambiente de cativeiro com diferentes

  14. Allopurinol reduces the lethality associated with acute renal failure induced by Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom: comparison with probenecid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezzatti, Rodrigo; Silveira, Paulo Flavio

    2011-09-01

    Acute renal failure is one of the most serious complications of envenoming resulting from Crotalus durissus terrificus bites. This study evaluated the relevance of hyperuricemia and oxidative stress and the effects of allopurinol and probenecid in renal dysfunction caused by direct nephrotoxicity of C. d. terrificus venom. Hematocrit, protein, renal function and redox status were assessed in mice. High ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione and hyperuricemia induced by C. d. terrificus venom were ameliorated by both, allopurinol or probenecid, but only allopurinol significantly reduced the lethality caused by C. d. terrificus venom. The effectiveness of probenecid is compromised probably because it promoted hypercreatinemia and hypocreatinuria and worsed the urinary hypo-osmolality in envenomed mice. In turn, the highest effectiveness of allopurinol might be due to its ability to diminish the intracellular formation of uric acid. Data provide consistent evidences linking uric acid with the acute renal failure induced by C. d. terrificus venom, as well as that this envenoming in mice constitutes an attractive animal model suitable for studying the hyperuricemia and that the allopurinol deserves to be clinically evaluated as an approach complementary to anti-snake venom serotherapy.

  15. Allopurinol reduces the lethality associated with acute renal failure induced by Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom: comparison with probenecid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Frezzatti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure is one of the most serious complications of envenoming resulting from Crotalus durissus terrificus bites. This study evaluated the relevance of hyperuricemia and oxidative stress and the effects of allopurinol and probenecid in renal dysfunction caused by direct nephrotoxicity of C. d. terrificus venom. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hematocrit, protein, renal function and redox status were assessed in mice. High ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione and hyperuricemia induced by C. d. terrificus venom were ameliorated by both, allopurinol or probenecid, but only allopurinol significantly reduced the lethality caused by C. d. terrificus venom. The effectiveness of probenecid is compromised probably because it promoted hypercreatinemia and hypocreatinuria and worsed the urinary hypo-osmolality in envenomed mice. In turn, the highest effectiveness of allopurinol might be due to its ability to diminish the intracellular formation of uric acid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data provide consistent evidences linking uric acid with the acute renal failure induced by C. d. terrificus venom, as well as that this envenoming in mice constitutes an attractive animal model suitable for studying the hyperuricemia and that the allopurinol deserves to be clinically evaluated as an approach complementary to anti-snake venom serotherapy.

  16. Cloning of subunits of convulxin, a collagen-like platelet-aggregating protein from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, M; Bon, C

    1998-07-15

    Convulxin (CVX) is a potent platelet-aggregating glycoprotein from the venom of the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus. It consists of two subunits, alpha and beta, joined by disulphide bridges in a hexameric structure. A cDNA library from venom gland was constructed in the vector pT3T7. The cloned cDNAs encoding the two chains of CVX were sequenced. Both are preceded by an identical 23-amino acid peptide signal sequence and encode sequences of 135 amino acids for the alpha chain and 125 amino acids for the beta chain. These polypeptides include a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) in which some of the specific amino acids required for binding Ca2+ and galactose or mannose are absent. The presence of such a domain means that CVX can be included in the family of C-type lectins along with other snake venom proteins, although it is not a true lectin. Assuming that the localization of intracatenary disulphide bridges of each CVX chain is similar to that of the CRD and that an intercatenary bridge between the alpha and beta chains is similar to that of the C-type lectin botrocetin, we postulate the existence of an additional intercatenary bridge, which explains the tridimeric structure (alphabeta)3 of CVX.

  17. Modulation of the Pharmacological Activities of Secretory Phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus cascavella Induced by Naringin

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    Marcos H. Toyama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have characterized the action of the naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and known for its various pharmacological effects, which include antioxidant blood lipid lowering and anticancer activity, on the structure and biochemical activities of a secretory phospholipase A (sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus cascavella, an important protein involved in the releasinge of arachidonic acid in phospholipid membranes. sPLA2 was incubated with naringin (mol:mol at 37 °C and a discrete reduction in the UV scanning signal and a modification of the circular dichroism spectra were observed after treatment with naringin, suggesting modifications of the secondary structure of the protein. This flavonoid was able to decrease enzymatic activity and some pharmacological effects, such as myonecrosis, platelet aggregation, and neurotoxic activity caused by sPLA2, however, the inflammatory effect was not affected by naringin. In addition, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS data were collected for sPLA2 and naringin-treated sPLA2 to evaluate possible modifications of the protein structure. These structural investigations have shown that sPLA2 is an elongated dimer in solution and after treatment with naringin a conformational change in the dimeric configuration was observed. Our results suggest that structural modification may be correlated with the loss of enzymatic activity and alterations in pharmacological properties.

  18. Genetic Basis for Variation of Metalloproteinase-Associated Biochemical Activity in Venom of the Mojave Rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus

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    Ruben K. Dagda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metalloproteinase composition and biochemical profiles of rattlesnake venom can be highly variable among rattlesnakes of the same species. We have previously shown that the neurotoxic properties of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus are associated with the presence of the Mojave toxin A subunit suggesting the existence of a genetic basis for rattlesnake venom composition. In this report, we hypothesized the existence of a genetic basis for intraspecies variation in metalloproteinase-associated biochemical properties of rattlesnake venom of the Mojave rattlesnake. To address this question, we PCR-amplified and compared the genomic DNA nucleotide sequences that code for the mature metalloproteinase domain of fourteen Mojave rattlesnakes captured from different geographical locations across the southwest region of the United States. In addition, the venoms from the same rattlesnakes were tested for their ability to hydrolyze fibrinogen, fibrin, casein, and hide powder azure and for induction of hemorrhage in mice. Overall, based on genomic sequencing and biochemical data, we classified Mojave rattlesnake venom into four distinct groups of metalloproteinases. These findings indicate that differences in nucleotide sequences encoding the mature proteinase domain and noncoding regions contribute to differences in venom metalloproteinase activities among rattlesnakes of the same species.

  19. Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits ³H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum

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    L.S. Kattah

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of ³H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0.03-1 µM and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased ³H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 µM the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on ³H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits ³H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 ± 5 nM. We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.

  20. Sexual size dimorphism and growth plasticity in snakes: an experiment on the Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily N; Denardo, Dale F

    2005-07-01

    We conducted an experiment to examine the effects of sex and food intake on growth, mass gain, and attainment of sexual maturity in Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox). We also measured testosterone levels to determine whether testosterone might be involved in the male-biased sexual size dimorphism observed in this species. We collected neonate rattlesnakes and raised them in the laboratory for 2 years on either a high-intake diet (fed one mouse per week) or a low-intake diet (fed one mouse every 3 weeks). High-intake snakes grew and gained mass more rapidly than low-intake snakes, but males did not grow or gain mass more rapidly than females in either treatment group. High-intake snakes attained reproductive maturity earlier than low-intake snakes, indicating that size, not age, is the critical determinant of reproductive maturity. Males had higher levels of testosterone than females but did not grow more quickly, suggesting that testosterone may not affect growth in this species and may therefore not be the proximate determinant of sexual size dimorphism.

  1. Effects of purified human fibrinogen modified with carbon monoxide and iron on coagulation in rabbits injected with Crotalus atrox venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G

    2017-11-01

    While snake venom derived enzymes, such as the thrombin-like activity possessing ancrod, have been used to treat thrombotic disease by defibrinogenating patients, the therapeutic potential of fibrinogenolytic snake venom enzymes, such as those derived from Crotalus atrox, have not been fully explored. However, one of the potential risks of administering fibrinogenolytic enzymes to effect defibrinogenation is hemorrhage secondary to hypofibrinogenemia. The present investigation sought to determine if human fibrinogen modified with carbon monoxide (CO) and iron (Fe) could resist degradation by C. atrox venom as has been seen in vitro in a recently developed rabbit model of envenomation. Compared with unmodified human fibrinogen, CO/Fe modified fibrinogen administered prior to envenomation had significantly shorter onset of coagulation and greater strength; however, when administered after envenomation, there was no differences between the two types of fibrinogen. Of interest, when administered after envenomation, both types of fibrinogen delayed the onset of coagulation while increasing plasma clot strength, a mixed effect likely secondary to formation of fibrinogen degradation products. Further preclinical investigations are needed to further define the benefits and risks of the use of fibrinogenolytic enzymes as defibrinogenating agents, as well as the risks of the "biochemical brakes" used to modulate the activity or substrate of the fibrinogenolytic enzyme.

  2. Influência da temperatura corporal de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus submetidas à anestesia com cetamina Influence of body temperature on rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus anesthetized with ketamine

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    Adriano B. Carregaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou verificar a influência da temperatura corporal nos parâmetros fisiológicos e nos períodos de indução e recuperação anestésicos de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus anestesiadas com cetamina. Os animais foram previamente submetidos à hipotermia (HIPO (The aim of the study was to verify the influence of the body temperature under physiological values and latency and recovery times on rattlesnakes anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were previously submitted to hypothermia (HYPO (<22°C and normothermia (30°C (NORMO and then, anesthetized with 80 mg/kg IM of ketamine. Latency and recovery times were evaluated by head tonus, muscular tonus and righting reflex. Heart rate (HR, time of apnea and body temperature were measured before and 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ketamine administration. Blood gases parameters were measured before, 30 and 60 minutes. It was not observed difference on latency time in both groups. The recovery time was higher on HYPO (5,5 hours compared to NORMO (3,5 hours. HR was higher on NORMO compared to HYPO. Time of apnea was the same pattern on both groups. Compared to basal levels, time of apnea was shorter between 5 to 30 min on both groups. Respiratory acidosis was observed only at 0 min in NORMO. SvO2 was higher after 30 min, the same as with PvO2 in both groups. PvCO2 reduced after 30 min in both groups. It was evident that body temperature exerts intense influence on the recovery time on rattlesnakes anesthetized with ketamine.

  3. Aspectos morfológicos e ultraestruturais de células sanguíneas de Crotalus durissus terrificus

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    Lívia M. Kindlovits

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A avaliação hematológica, de importância comprovada como um meio auxiliar de diagnóstico ao clínico de pequenos animais domésticos, vem se tornando comum em animais selvagens não apenas para a clínica, mas para a avaliação do manejo e como estudo auxiliar para a fisiologia das várias espécies. Tendo em vista o aumento da demanda para a produção de várias drogas de importância farmacêutica, a criação de serpentes peçonhentas vem se tornando comum a ponto destes animais já serem reconhecidos como sendo de produção. O conhecimento do manejo e da clínica destes animais ainda é escasso e a mortalidade é elevada nos criatórios, tornando urgente a ampliação destes. Embora alguns estudos hematológicos já tenham sido realizados em cascavéis (Crotalus durissus os dados analisados ainda são insipientes, notadamente em relação à caracterização das células do sangue e poucos estudos em microscopia eletrônica foram realizados em serpentes. Com o objetivo de caracterizar as células sanguíneas morfologicamente, sob microscopia óptica e ultraestrutural, foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 52 de indivíduos da subespécie Crotalus durissus terrificus para a realização de esfregaços sanguíneos e avaliação ultraestrutural. Concluiu-se que a coloração hematológica de Giemsa permite a avaliação morfológica e a diferenciação das células sanguíneas em serpentes assim como a visualização de hemoparasitos. A avaliação ultraestrutural permite evidenciar as organelas celulares e a diferenciação entre as células, inclusive entre os tipos leucocitários, porém ainda são necessários outros estudos para que seja elucidada a hipótese da existência dos eosinófilos na espécie estudada assim como é necessária melhor caracterização dos grânulos dos azurófilos para que se confirme uma possível diferença entre os monócitos típicos e os azurófilos.

  4. Flow cytometric characterization of peripheral blood leukocyte populations of 3 neotropical snake species: Boa constrictor, Bothrops jararaca, and Crotalus durissus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Marcelo P N; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle G T; Massoco, Cristina O; Rossi, Silmara; Sant'Anna, Sávio S; Catão-Dias, José L; Grego, Kathleen F

    2016-06-01

    The reptilian immune system is represented by innate, humoral, and cell-mediated mechanisms, involving different types of blood leukocytes. The development of optimized methods for the advanced study of origin and function of reptilian blood leukocytes is needed. The purpose of the study was to optimize leukocyte density gradient isolation protocols from snake peripheral blood samples, and characterize recovered cells by flow cytometry based on size and internal complexity for a qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of leukocyte populations in one boa (Boa constrictor), and 2 viper species (Bothrops jararaca, Crotalus durissus). Blood samples from 30 snakes (10 from each species, 5 males and 5 females) were collected in tubes with sodium heparin. Fresh blood was centrifuged with either ficoll-paque PLUS or percoll density gradients for leukocyte isolation. Flow cytometric leukocyte gates were defined based on size (forward scatter [FSC]) and internal complexity (side scatter [SSC]). Relative leukocyte differential counts after sorting the cells in these gates in one snake for each species were compared to conventional light microscopic differential counts on unsorted isolated leukocytes. There was no statistical difference in the relative leukocyte populations, including heterophils, azurophils, and small and large lymphocytes between samples isolated by ficoll or percoll. Four leukocyte gates were identified based on their location in FSC/SSC cytograms. The relative leukocyte differential counts after sorting in single animals showed some agreement with the light microscopy differential count on unsorted cells. Based on FSC and SSC, 4 distinct leukocyte populations were found in ficoll or percoll density gradient isolated leukocytes from peripheral blood from boa and viper species. Further optimization of the technique should allow the performance of functional assays. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  5. Hematological changes in sheep inoculated with natural and Cobalt60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, D.P.; Alfieri, A.A.; Balarim, M.R.S.; Chiacchio, S.B.; Bicudo, P.L.; Nascimento, N.

    2004-01-01

    Natural (NV) and Cobalt 60 -irradiated (IrV) Crotalus durissus terrificus venom were used to evaluate serum production capacity of sheep and possible hematological and biochemical effects. Freeze-dried venom aliquots were diluted in acidified saline solution (NaCl 150 m M, p H 3.0) and irradiated by a Cobalt 60 source at a dose of 5.54 x 102 Gy/h and a concentration of 2.000 Gy. Twelve sheep were divided into two groups of six animals. One group received irradiated venom (IrV) and the other natural venom (NV). Three antigen doses (venom) were administered at monthly intervals. Blood samples were collected weekly for analysis of serum neutralization potency and capacity, complete blood count, total plasma protein, fibrinogen, albumin, and globulin. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD 50 for sheep and showed no signs of envenoming. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. Results of the total leukocyte count did not present interaction or time factor effect for both groups, but there was a different action between them, with the NV group presenting more cells than the IrV group. The leukocyte increase to 13,000/μl indicates that slight leucocytosis occurred in the week after the first inoculation in the NV group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the absolute count of segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes but there were statistically significant oscillations in values at the different collecting times. The NV group presented an increase in the absolute neutrophil count after the first inoculation that persisted for 5 weeks. In the IrV group, the increase in neutrophils occurred only in the first week returning to normal in the following weeks. The alterations in the neutrophil count are indicative of systemic inflammatory response related to cytokine release; response was more marked in the N V group, showing its greater toxicity. (author)

  6. Effects of food supplementation on the physiological ecology of female Western diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily N; Malawy, Michael A; Browning, Dawn M; Lemar, Shea V; DeNardo, Dale F

    2005-06-01

    Food availability is an important factor in the life histories of organisms because it is often limiting and thus can affect growth, mass change, reproduction, and behaviors such as thermoregulation, locomotion, and mating. Experimental studies in natural settings allow researchers to examine the effects of food on these parameters while animals are free to behave naturally. The wide variation among organisms in energy demands and among environmental food resources suggest that responses to changes in food availability may vary among organisms. Since most supplemental feeding field experiments have been conducted on species with high energy demands, we conducted a supplemental feeding study on free-ranging, female Western diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox), a species with low energy demands and infrequent reproductive investment. Snakes were offered thawed rodents 1-4 times per week. Over two active seasons, we collected data on surface activity, home range size, growth, mass change, and reproduction of supplementally fed and control snakes. Fed and control snakes did not differ in surface activity levels (proportion of time encountered above versus below ground) or home range size. Fed snakes grew and gained mass faster, and had a dramatically higher occurrence of reproduction than control snakes. Also, fed snakes were in better body condition following reproduction than snakes that were not fed. However, litter characteristics such as offspring number and size were not increased by feeding, suggesting that these characteristics may be fixed. These data experimentally demonstrate that food availability can directly impact some life history traits (i.e., growth and reproduction for C. atrox), but not others (i.e., surface activity and home range size for C. atrox). The relationship between food availability and life history traits is affected in a complex way by ecological traits and physiological constraints, and thus interspecific variation in this

  7. The relationship between plasma steroid hormone concentrations and the reproductive cycle in the Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus oreganus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Husak, Jerry F; Eikenaar, Cas; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2010-05-01

    We describe the reproductive cycle of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) by quantifying steroid hormone concentrations and observing reproductive behaviors in free-ranging individuals. Additionally, we examined reproductive tissues from museum specimens. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations were quantified for both male and female snakes throughout the active season (March-October). We measured testosterone (T), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and corticosterone (B) concentrations in both sexes and 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in females only. We observed reproductive behaviors (e.g., consortship, courtship, and copulation) in the field and measured testis and follicle size in male and female snakes from museum collections to relate steroid hormone concentrations to the timing of reproductive events. Our study revealed that C. oreganus in central California exhibits a bimodal pattern of breeding, with most mating behavior occurring in the spring and some incidences of mating behavior observed in late summer/fall. Each breeding period corresponded with elevated androgen (T or DHT) levels in males. Testes were regressed in the spring when the majority of reproductive behavior was observed in this population, and they reached peak volume in August and September during spermatogenesis. Although we did not detect seasonal variation in female hormone concentrations, some females had high E2 in the spring and fall, coincident with mating and with increased follicle size (indicating vitellogenesis) in museum specimens. Females with high E2 concentrations also had high T and DHT concentrations. Corticosterone concentrations in males and females were not related either to time of year or to concentrations of any other hormones quantified. Progesterone concentrations in females also did not vary seasonally, but this likely reflected sampling bias as females tended to be underground, and thus unobtainable, in summer months when P would be

  8. Hematological changes in sheep inoculated with natural and Cobalt60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Netto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural (NV and Cobalto60-irradiated (IrV Crotalus durissus terrificus venom were used to evaluate serum production capacity of sheep and possible hematological and biochemical effects. Freeze-dried venom aliquots were diluted in acidified saline solution (NaCl 150 mM, pH 3.0 and irradiated by a Cobalt 60 source at a dose of 5.54 x 102 Gy/h and a concentration of 2.000 Gy. Twelve sheep were divided into two groups of six animals. One group received irradiated venom (IrV and the other natural venom (NV. Three antigen doses (venom were administered at monthly intervals. Blood samples were collected weekly for analysis of serum neutralization potency and capacity, complete blood count (CBC, total plasma protein, fibrinogen, albumin, and globulin. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD50 for sheep and showed no signs of envenoming. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. Results of the total leukocyte count did not present interaction or time factor effect for both groups, but there was a different action between them, with the NV group presenting more cells than the IrV group. The leukocyte increase to 13,000/ml indicates that slight leukocytosis occurred in the week after the first inoculation in the NV group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the absolute count of segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes but there were statistically significant oscillations in values at the different collecting times. The NV group presented an increase in the absolute neutrophil count after the first inoculation that persisted for 5 weeks. In the IrV group, the increase in neutrophils occurred only in the first week returning to normal in the following weeks. The alterations in the neutrophil count are indicative of systemic inflammatory response related to cytokine release; response was more marked in the NV group, showing its greater toxicity.

  9. Impactos ambientais decorrentes da ocupação de áreas reguladoras do aporte de areia: a planície Costeira da Caponga, município de Cascavel, litoral leste cearense.

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    Antonio Jeovah de Andrade Meireles

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pour définir les impacts environnementaux associés à l'occupation humaine dans des secteurs caractérisés par l'apport de sédiments (bypass sur la plage, via des champ de dunes et l’estuaire, ont été réalisées des études géo-environnementales dans la plaine côtière du Caponga, en y incluant un promontoire, une bande littorale et l’embouchure du canal estuarien de même nom. Les résultats ont été représentés dans des modèles évolutifs, intégrés à partir de la définition des flux de matière et d'énergie qui transitent dans la zone côtière. Les conséquences de l'expansion urbaine sur le promontoire, les dunes, la plage et le canal estuarien ont été caractérisées afin de définir des mesures adaptées de planification et de gestion.Environmental impacts caused by the occupation of areas regulating the sand input to the coast line in the coastal plain of Caponga, Cascavel town, East Coast of Ceará. To determine the environmental impacts related to human occupation in areas characterized by the input of sediments (bypass to the coastal line, through dunes and estuary, we carried out geoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of Caponga. They included sections represented by a headland, coastal line and river mouth of the estuarine channel of Caponga. The results were represented in integrated evolutionary models based on the definition of flows of matter and energy that occur in the coastal area. The effects of urban expansion on the headland, dunes, shore and estuarine channel were characterized so as to define adequate measures of planning and management.Para definir os impactos ambientais associados à ocupação humana em áreas caracterizadas pelo aporte de sedimentos (bypass para a faixa de praia, via campo de dunas e estuário, foram realizados estudos geoambientais na planície costeira da Caponga, abrangendo setores representados por um promontório, faixa litorânea e desembocadura do canal estuarino

  10. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

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    Giulia Zancolli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX. Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species.

  11. SISTEMA FIBRINOLÍTICO: MÉTODOS DE ESTUDIO Y HALLAZGOS EN VENENOS DE SERPIENTES DE LOS GENEROS Bothrops, Crotalus, Micrurus EN VENEZUELA | FIBRINOLYTIC SYSTEM: METHODS OF STUDY AND FINDINGS IN Bothrops, Crotalus, Micrurus SNAKE VENOMS IN VENEZUELA

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    Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available En la presente revisión se muestran resultados relevantes de actividades hemostáticas, con especial énfasis a las relacionadas con la fibrinólisis, presentes en venenos de serpientes venezolanas de los géneros Bothrops, Crotalus y Micrurus, que existen en diversas localidades geográficas. Con esta descripción, se presenta además una revisión de diversos ensayos que se utilizan en investigación para estos estudios. Se han evidenciado importantes diferencias inter e intra-especies, e incluso entre ejemplares de distintos espacios geográficos, lo que debe influir en los mecanismos de acción de sus venenos y la sintomatología clínica. Estas diferencias en composición y concentración de componentes activos, deben estar asociadas a variaciones estacionales o geográficas, dieta, sexo, hábitat, edad, e inclusive variabilidades genéticas. Ello podría explicar las discrepancias en los cuadros clínicos de las víctimas y también ayudar a determinar mecanismos de acción que faciliten una mejor orientación a los médicos tratantes. Estas variables ayudarían al seguimiento y tratamiento de los pacientes, orientando a los especialistas en antivenenos, en la escogencia del inóculo, con una mezcla amplia de venenos de diferentes especies, géneros, edad, sexo y procedencia, así como con toxinas de relevancia, para la preparación y obtención de estos antivenenos con valores de gran eficacia y amplio espectro. Los componentes bioactivos aislados, como las colombienasas y la tenerplasminina-1, por sus características biológicas, representan asimismo moléculas con un uso potencial como trombolíticos y antifibrinolíticos, respectivamente.

  12. Hematological changes in sheep inoculated with natural and Cobalt{sub 60}-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netto, D.P.; Alfieri, A.A.; Balarim, M.R.S. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva]. E-mail: rnetto@uel.br; Chiacchio, S.B.; Bicudo, P.L. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Nascimento, N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radiobiologia

    2004-07-01

    Natural (NV) and Cobalt{sub 60}-irradiated (IrV) Crotalus durissus terrificus venom were used to evaluate serum production capacity of sheep and possible hematological and biochemical effects. Freeze-dried venom aliquots were diluted in acidified saline solution (NaCl 150 m M, p H 3.0) and irradiated by a Cobalt 60 source at a dose of 5.54 x 102 Gy/h and a concentration of 2.000 Gy. Twelve sheep were divided into two groups of six animals. One group received irradiated venom (IrV) and the other natural venom (NV). Three antigen doses (venom) were administered at monthly intervals. Blood samples were collected weekly for analysis of serum neutralization potency and capacity, complete blood count, total plasma protein, fibrinogen, albumin, and globulin. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD{sub 50} for sheep and showed no signs of envenoming. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. Results of the total leukocyte count did not present interaction or time factor effect for both groups, but there was a different action between them, with the NV group presenting more cells than the IrV group. The leukocyte increase to 13,000/{mu}l indicates that slight leucocytosis occurred in the week after the first inoculation in the NV group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the absolute count of segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes but there were statistically significant oscillations in values at the different collecting times. The NV group presented an increase in the absolute neutrophil count after the first inoculation that persisted for 5 weeks. In the IrV group, the increase in neutrophils occurred only in the first week returning to normal in the following weeks. The alterations in the neutrophil count are indicative of systemic inflammatory response related to cytokine release; response was more marked in the N V group, showing its greater toxicity. (author)

  13. Crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus is able to down-modulate the acute intestinal inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Souza Almeida

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD is the result of dysregulation of mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Factors such as genetic, microbial and environmental are involved in the development of these disorders. Accordingly, animal models that mimic human diseases are tools for the understanding the immunological processes of the IBD as well as to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. Crotoxin (CTX is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom and has an immunomodulatory effect. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of CTX in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6- trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. The CTX was administered intraperitoneally 18 hours after the TNBS intrarectal instillation in BALB/c mice. The CTX administration resulted in decreased weight loss, disease activity index (DAI, macroscopic tissue damage, histopathological score and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity analyzed after 4 days of acute TNBS colitis. Furthermore, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were lower in colon tissue homogenates of TNBS-mice that received the CTX when compared with untreated TNBS mice. The analysis of distinct cell populations obtained from the intestinal lamina propria showed that CTX reduced the number of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3 and Th17 population; CTX decreased IL-17 secretion but did not alter the frequency of CD4+Tbet+ T cells induced by TNBS instillation in mice. In contrast, increased CD4+FoxP3+ cell population as well as secretion of TGF-β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and lipoxin A4 (LXA4 was observed in TNBS-colitis mice treated with CTX compared with untreated TNBS-colitis mice. In conclusion, the CTX is able to modulate the intestinal acute inflammatory response induced by TNBS, resulting in the improvement of clinical status of the mice. This effect of CTX is complex and involves the suppression of the pro-inflammatory environment elicited by intrarectal instillation of TNBS due to the

  14. Avaliação da resposta inflamatória hematológica em cascavéis (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 inoculadas com BCG Assessment of blood inflammatory response in BCG stimulated rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bandeira da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A criação de serpentes peçonhentas em cativeiro para produção de soros antipeçonhas possui crescente importância para a saúde pública devido ao aumento do número de notificações de acidentes ofídicos a cada ano no Brasil. Iniciado no século XX, ainda hoje essa atividade apresenta alguns desafios como a instalação de doenças no plantel. O hemograma é um exame de triagem clínica que auxilia no diagnóstico de diversas moléstias que acometem diferentes espécies de animais, no entanto ainda pouco estudado em serpentes. A caracterização das alterações hematológicas em cascavéis inoculadas experimentalmente com BCG pode servir de base na utilização deste exame no auxílio ao diagnóstico de infecções bacterianas na espécie. Dessa forma, foram realizados exames hematológicos em 10 serpentes da espécie Crotalus durissus pertencentes ao plantel da Divisão de Herpetologia do Instituto Vital Brazil. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos (Grupos 1 e 2, homogêneos entre si em relação ao peso e proporção sexual. Os dois grupos foram inoculados com BCG e submetidos à coleta de sangue antes da inoculação e em três momentos pós-inoculação (3º, 5º, e 7º dias para o Grupo 1 e 11º, 17º e 21º dias para o Grupo 2. O hemograma foi realizado por método semidireto pela utilização de líquido de Natt e Herrick e as lâminas foram coradas pelo Giemsa. Observou-se anemia discreta, com redução dos valores de concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média e da hemoglobina globular média no Grupo 1 que foi relacionada à doença inflamatória. A trombocitopenia observada no Grupo 2 sugeriu a atuação deste tipo celular em processos inflamatórios. Um único animal do Grupo 1 apresentou granulocitose e alguns animais apresentaram discreta azurofilia. Observaram-se alterações morfológicas nos leucócitos. Os granulócitos apresentaram granulações grosseiras e os azurófilos apresentaram aumento de tamanho e

  15. Snakebites by Crotalus durissus ssp in children in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Acidentes por serpentes Crotalus durisssus ssp em crianças em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Fábio BUCARETCHI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From January, 1984 to March, 1999, 31 children under 15 y old (ages 1-14 y, median 8 y were admitted after being bitten by rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus ssp. One patient was classified as "dry-bite", 3 as mild envenoming, 9 as moderate envenoming and 18 as severe envenoming. Most patients had neuromuscular manifestations, such as palpebral ptosis (27/31, myalgia (23/31 and weakness (20/31. Laboratory tests suggesting rhabdomyolysis included an increase in total blood creatine kinase (CK, 28/29 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 25/25 levels and myoglobinuria (14/15. The main local signs and symptoms were slight edema (20/31 and erythema (19/31. Before antivenom (AV administration, blood coagulation disorders were observed in 20/25 children that received AV only at our hospital (incoagulable blood in 17/25. AV early reactions were observed in 20 of these 25 cases (9/9 patients not pretreated and 11/16 patients pretreated with hydrocortisone and histamine H1 and H2 antagonists. There were no significant differences in the frequency of patients with AV early reactions between the groups that were and were not pretreated (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.12. Patients admitted less than and more than 6 h after the bite showed the same risk of developing severe envenoming (Fisher's exact test, p = 1. No children of the first group (De janeiro de 1984 a março de 1999, 31 crianças com menos de 15 anos de idade (1 a 14 anos, mediana = 8 anos foram admitidas após terem sido picadas por Crotalus durissus ssp. Uma criança não apresentou manifestações clínicas de envenenamento, enquanto 3 foram classificadas como acidente leve, 9 como moderado e 18 como grave. A maioria das crianças apresentou envolvimento neuromuscular, tais como ptose palpebral (27/31, mialgia (23/31 e fraqueza (20/31. Alterações laboratoriais sugerindo rabdomiólise também foram observadas, como aumento das enzimas séricas CK (28/29 e LDH (25/25 e mioglobinúria (14/15. As

  16. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified agricultural landscape: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán David; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    It is necessary to determine genetic diversity of fragmented populations in highly modified landscapes to understand how populations respond to land-use change. This information will help guide future conservation and management strategies. We conducted a population genetic study on an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified landscape near the Toluca metropolitan area, in order to provide crucial information for the conservation of this species. There was medium levels of genetic diversity, with a few alleles and genotypes. We identified three genetically differentiated clusters, likely as a result of different habitat cover type. We also found evidence of an ancestral genetic bottleneck and medium values of effective population size. Inbreeding coefficients were low and there was a moderate gene flow. Our results can be used as a basis for future research and C. triseriatus conservation efforts, particularly considering that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is heavily impacted by destructive land-use practices.

  17. Crystal structure of the platelet activator convulxin, a disulfide-linked alpha4beta4 cyclic tetramer from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, M T; Zela, S P; Gava, L M; Michelan-Duarte, S; Cintra, A C O; Arni, R K

    2003-10-17

    Convulxin (CVX), a C-type lectin, isolated from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, causes cardiovascular and respiratory disturbances and is a potent platelet activator which binds to platelet glycoprotein GPVI. The structure of CVX has been solved at 2.4A resolution to a crystallographic residual of 18.6% (R(free)=26.4%). CVX is a disulfide linked heterodimer consisting of homologous alpha and beta chains. The heterodimers are additionally linked by disulfide bridges to form cyclic alpha(4)beta(4)heterotetramers. These domains exhibit significant homology to the carbohydrate-binding domains of C-type lectins, to the factor IX-binding protein (IX-bp), and to flavocetin-A (Fl-A) but sequence and structural differences are observed in both the domains in the putative Ca(2+)and carbohydrate binding regions.

  18. Cytoskeleton, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus alterations in CHO-K1 cell line after Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake venom treatment

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    B. P. Tamieti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are toxic to a variety of cell types. However, the intracellular damages and the cell death fate induced by venom are unclear. In the present work, the action of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on CHO-K1 cell line was analyzed. The cells CHO-K1 were incubated with C. d. terrificus venom (10, 50 and 100g/ml for 1 and 24 hours, and structural alterations of actin filaments, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus were assessed using specific fluorescent probes and agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation. Significant structural changes were observed in all analyzed structures. DNA fragmentation was detected suggesting that, at the concentrations used, the venom induced apoptosis.

  19. The comparison between the humoral response and the neutralizing capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural venom and Co60 irradiated venom from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with Co 60 to investigate the effects of antigen-irradiation on antivenom production in sheep. Twelve sheep were divided in two groups of 6. One group received irradiated, while the other received natural venom. Three doses of antigen were given at monthly intervals. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 in mice. Weekly blood samples were obtained to evaluate anti-crotalic serum titers by indirect ELISA, neutralization capacity, and serum potency. A complete blood count, plasma protein and fibrinogen concentration, and serum albumin and globulin were also determined. At end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with ovine LD 50 , without clinical abnormalities. (author)

  20. Inhibition of proteases and phospholipases A2 from Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venoms by ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos H M; Simão, Anderson A; Trento, Marcus V C; César, Pedro H S; Marcussi, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme inhibition by natural and/ or low-cost compounds may represent a valuable adjunct to traditional serotherapy performed in cases of snakebite, mainly with a view to mitigate the local effects of envenoming. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible interactions between vitamins and enzymes that comprise Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, in vitro. Proteolysis inhibition assays (substrates: azocasein, collagen, gelatin and fibrinogen), hemolysis, coagulation, hemagglutination were carried out using different proportions of vitamins in face of to inhibit minimum effective dose of each venom. The vitamins were responsible for reducing 100% of breaking azocasein by C.d.t. venom, thrombolysis induced by B. atrox and fibrinogenolysis induced by both venoms. It is suggested the presence of interactions between vitamin and the active site of enzymes, for example the interactions between hydrophobic regions present in the enzymes and vitamin E, as well as the inhibitions exercised by antioxidant mechanism.

  1. Intraspecies variation in the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus simus from Mexico: different expression of crotoxin results in highly variable toxicity in the venoms of three subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Edgar Neri; Lomonte, Bruno; del Carmen Gutiérrez, María; Alagón, Alejandro; Gutiérrez, José María

    2013-07-11

    The composition and toxicological profile of the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus simus in Mexico was analyzed at the subspecies and individual levels. Venoms of the subspecies C. s. simus, C. s. culminatus and C. s. tzabcan greatly differ in the expression of the heterodimeric neurotoxin complex 'crotoxin', with highest concentrations in C. s. simus, followed by C. s. tzabcan, whereas the venom of C. s. culminatus is almost devoid of this neurotoxic PLA2. This explains the large variation in lethality (highest in C. s. simus, which also exerts higher myotoxicity). Coagulant activity on plasma and fibrinogen occurs with the venoms of C. s. simus and C. s. tzabcan, being absent in C. s. culminatus which, in turn, presents higher crotamine-like activity. Proteomic analysis closely correlates with toxicological profiles, since the venom of C. s. simus has high amounts of crotoxin and of serine proteinases, whereas the venom of C. s. culminatus presents higher amounts of metalloproteinases and crotamine. This complex pattern of intraspecies venom variation provides valuable information for the diagnosis and clinical management of envenoming by this species in Mexico, as well as for the preparation of venom pools for the production and quality control of antivenoms. This study describes the variation in venom composition and activities of the three subspecies of Crotalus simus from Mexico. Results demonstrate that there is a notorious difference in these venoms, particularly regarding the content of the potent neurotoxic phospholipase A2 complex 'crotoxin'. In addition, other differences were observed regarding myotoxic and coagulant activities, and expression of the myotoxin 'crotamine'. These findings have implications in, at least, three levels: (a) the adaptive role of variations in venom composition; (b) the possible differences in the clinical manifestations of envenomings by these subspecies in Mexico; and (c) the design of venom mixtures for the preparation of

  2. Internal dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals derived of antitumor polypeptide isolated from venoms: Crotalus durissus terrifucus and Scorpaena plumieri;Dosimetria interna de radiofarmacos derivados de polipeptideos antitumorais isolados dos venenos de: Crotalus durissus terrificus e Scorpaena plumieri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de

    2009-07-01

    The identification of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents capable of inhibiting tumor growth is essential for improving the prognosis of patients suffering from malignant tumors (glioma, breast and others). In this context, natural products (plants and animals) are a rich source of substances with potential antitumor. Despite knowledge of the etiology and pathology of tumors little progress has been observed in the area of diagnosis. Molecules of snake venoms have been shown to play an important role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the process of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Polypeptides isolated from the venom of the snake, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Crtx, and Scorpaena plumieri fish, SPGP, have antitumor activity against malignant tumors. It was shown that similar radio iodines Crtx and SPGP, {sup 125}I-Crtx and {sup 125}I-SPGP, can interact specifically with malignant tumors and induce cell death. Prototype-based radiopharmaceuticals Crtx and SPGP containing radioiodine 1311 were able to produce diagnostic images to accumulate specifically in the tumor site. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential radiological safety and diagnostic/therapeutic efficacy of {sup 131}I-Crtx {sup l31}I-SPGP and (evaluated from the biokinetic data in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor) were treated by the MIRD formalism to carry out internal dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the uptake of {sup 131}I-Crtx and {sup 131}I-SPGP were determined in various organs of mice and implanted into the tumor. The results obtained for the animal model were extrapolated to humans by assuming a similar concentration ratio among the various tissues between mice and humans. In extrapolation, we used the masses of human organs of the phantom of Cristy/Eckerman. Both radiation penetrating and non penetrating of {sup 131}I on the tissue were considered in dose calculations. The absorbed dose in the bone marrow due to the

  3. Internal dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals derived of antitumor polypeptide isolated from venoms: Crotalus durissus terrifucus and Scorpaena plumieri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de

    2009-01-01

    The identification of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents capable of inhibiting tumor growth is essential for improving the prognosis of patients suffering from malignant tumors (glioma, breast and others). In this context, natural products (plants and animals) are a rich source of substances with potential antitumor. Despite knowledge of the etiology and pathology of tumors little progress has been observed in the area of diagnosis. Molecules of snake venoms have been shown to play an important role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the process of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Polypeptides isolated from the venom of the snake, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Crtx, and Scorpaena plumieri fish, SPGP, have antitumor activity against malignant tumors. It was shown that similar radio iodines Crtx and SPGP, 125 I-Crtx and 125 I-SPGP, can interact specifically with malignant tumors and induce cell death. Prototype-based radiopharmaceuticals Crtx and SPGP containing radioiodine 1311 were able to produce diagnostic images to accumulate specifically in the tumor site. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential radiological safety and diagnostic/therapeutic efficacy of 131 I-Crtx l31 I-SPGP and (evaluated from the biokinetic data in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor) were treated by the MIRD formalism to carry out internal dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the uptake of 131 I-Crtx and 131 I-SPGP were determined in various organs of mice and implanted into the tumor. The results obtained for the animal model were extrapolated to humans by assuming a similar concentration ratio among the various tissues between mice and humans. In extrapolation, we used the masses of human organs of the phantom of Cristy/Eckerman. Both radiation penetrating and non penetrating of 131 I on the tissue were considered in dose calculations. The absorbed dose in the bone marrow due to the administration of 131 I-Crtx was 0.01 mGy/370

  4. Avaliação da interação de compostos ativos hidratantes com modelo de biomembrana de Crotalus durissus por meio de calorimetria exploratória diferencial e espectroscopia RAMAN

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    MICHELE TAKAOKA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi verificar as alterações no estrato córneo em modelos alternativos de membrana após a aplicação de ativos hidratantes envolvendo métodos biofísicos. O modelo de biomembrana utilizado foi a muda de pele de Crotalus durissus e os ativos hidratantes foram: uréia, silício orgânico, extrato vegetal de Imperata cylindrica, reação de xilitol e glicose e componentes de NMF. Os resultados da avaliação das alterações do modelo por meio de Espectroscopia Raman com Transformada de Fourier sugerem que os ativos hidratantes confirmam segurança necessária, pois não alteraram de forma acentuada a estrutura do estrato córneo. Utilizando-se Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial pode-se indicar que a solução de silício orgânico e o gel hidrofílico com uréia apresentaram melhor poder hidratante. Palavras-chave: Estrato córneo. Hidratação. Métodos biofísicos. Crotalus durissus. FT-Raman, DSC. ABSTRACT Study of the interaction of moisturizers with a Crotalus durissus biomembrane by differential scanning calorimetry and RAMAN spectroscopy The objective of this research was to use biophysical techniques to investigate the alterations induced in a biomembrane model of the stratum corneum by the application of moisturizers. The biomembrane was obtained from the skin shed by the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus and the active moisturizing compounds were: urea, dimethylsilanol hyaluronate, Imperata cylindrical plant extract, carbohydrates and natural moisturizing factors (NMF components. Results from FT-Raman spectroscopy suggested that the moisturizers were safe, since they did not promote modifications in the structure of the stratum corneum. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the solution containing the organic silicon compound and the gel with urea showed the best hydrating effects on the stratum corneum. Keywords: Stratum corneum. Hydration. Biophysical techniques. Crotalus durissus

  5. Crustal evolution of South American Platform based on Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry; Evolucao crustal da plataforma sul americana com base na geoquimica isotopica Sm-Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kei

    1998-07-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic systematics is relevant to the topics of origin and evolution the of continental crust, where model ages refer to the time when crustal material was differentiated from the upper mantle. Alternative interpretations are due to a lack of adequate information on crustal processes and the variable composition of the mantle sources. The Sm-Nd methods are presented, and applied on rock materials from the South American Platform. The main conclusions indicate juvenile accretion with higher growth rates (peaks), around 3.7-3.5 Ga ({approx} 0.5% in volume), 3.1 - 2.9 Ga ({approx}16%), 2.7 - 2.6 ({approx} 9%), 2.2 - 1.9 (35%) and 1.3-1.0 (7%). The continental growth curve indicates that about 35 % of the crust was formed by 2.5 Ga, 88% by 1.8 Ga and 99% by 1.0 Ga, and the remaining {approx} 1 % was added in the Phanerozoic. Rapid crustal growth occurred between 2.2 and 1.9 Ga. The main period of continental crust formation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding to 54 % in volume. Sm-Nd model ages, when compared with the crystallisation ages of granitoid rocks, furnish a rough estimate of juvenile vs. reworked material. Within the South American Platform about 45% of juvenile continental crust is still preserved within tectonic provinces of different ages. The remainder represents continental crust reworked in younger tectono-thermal events. In particular crustal reworking was predominating over juvenile accretion during Meso-Neoproterozoic. The Transbrasiliano Lineament is a megasuture, active in the Neoproterozoic, which separates a large northwestern mass, including the Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons, from a southeastern mass, formed by a collage of cratonic fragments, of which the Sao Francisco and Rio de La Plata are the largest. The crustal evolutions of these two large continental masses are considered individually, and can be resumed following form: I - Old Archean rocks (>3.4 Ga) are found only within the south-eastern part (Gaviao Block, Contendas-Mirante Complex (Sao Francisco Craton) and Caldas Brandao Massif (Borborema Province); 2 - On both continental masses, crustal evolution between 3.0 and 1.7 Ga is very similar; 3 - During Meso and Neoproterozoic times, the northwestern mass (Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons) remained virtually unaffected by tectono-orogenic events, while the southeastern mass is composed of smaller cratonic fragments, which later took part in the formation of two large supercontinents: Rodinia during the Mesoproterozoic, and Gondwana in the Neoproterozoic. (author)

  6. The challenge for integration of South American focusing the energy; O desafio da integracao sul-americana com enfoque a energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeira, Rogerio Londero [Universitetet i Stavanger (Norway)]. E-mail: rlboeira@uol.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The challenge for integration in the South American continent is huge, but feasible as one takes technical decisions instead of political ones. The technique here is so spoken as the one responsible to be the most capable issue to guarantee mercantile actions that objective the investment return. It is not only with this return that it is possible to keep the investment attractiveness for the investors. It also requires the establishment of well-defined and clear rules, as well as of the transparency priority in all the energy market transactions. Political actions for the integration, as the ones that have been taken in the beginning of this century, promote the Idea of the union. However, they are confused and vague as they try to explain how and mainly how much the implementation of such union will cost to the public capital. This present work shows the lack of clearness and discrepancy in the energy commodities supply and demand data in the countries of South America, which would be vital for the implementation of any energy project. The importance of this work is to create consciousness in the society. Like that, it will sustain that political decision for energy investment will not be taken without a clear purpose to foment the society development at a defined cost. (author)

  7. The South American energy policies: regional problems and national logics; As politicas energeticas Sul-Americanas: problemas regionais e logicas nacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Prioux, Bruna [Centro de Pesquisa e Documentacao da America Latina (CREDAL) (France)

    2010-07-01

    The international energy context in the first decade of the 21st century can be described by the following points. First, the growing concerns with climatic changes and the greenhouse effect, which the main cause is the massive use of fossil fuels. Second, the energy vulnerability, due to the mistrust in the main hydrocarbon producers, to the increasing consumption from the so-called developing countries and to the idea of a possible end of oil reserves. And third, as a consequence of the least factor, an intense speculation in international market has increased the prices of oil barrel and gas since 2005. In this context, each country tries to adapt to their way of such changes. Beyond local solutions, South American countries have historic attempts of regional integration through energy, which can be presented as a complement of national policies. This research focuses on the study of the gas energy policy of some producers' and consumers' countries in South America, their choices and procedures in the national and international scope. Thus, the main goal of this article is to analyze how national energy policies affect the regional energy action of these South American countries. In order to answer this question, our goals are: (1) diagnosing the energy potentialities and disadvantages of each country; (2) identifying concepts related to energy questions; and (3) relating the two past steps to analyze the energy interaction in South America. The countries selected to this research are: Brazil, Argentina and Chile, due to their economic magnitude in South America and their intense energy consumption; and Bolivia and Venezuela, due to their energy reserves and surplus. The study of national energy systems was made through SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threat), in order to have a synthetically diagnosis about the energetic potentials and disadvantages of each country. Thereafter, we intersect this data with concepts as sustainable development, interdependence and energy governance, to relate the national and international energy policies. Energy national policies are relevant factors to be considered when a regional integration is studied. In fact, energy advantages and deficiencies emerge in regional scenario, showing that the interdependences depend on national logics and strategies. In this sense, we consider that the effect of energy integration in South America is unsatisfying because national policies do not converge. The advantages of integration (i.e. commerce increase, ensuring supplies and reducing price volatility) are neutralized without this countries' coordination. (author)

  8. Pulmonary, microbiological and hematological changes in Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae parasitized by nematodes of the genus Rhabdias (Nematoda, Rhabdiasidae Alterações Pulmonares, microbiológicas e hematológicas em Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae parasitadas pelos nematódeos do gênero Rhabdias (Nematoda, Rhabdiasidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reported the pulmonary, microbiological, and hematological alterations in Crotalus durissus terrificus parasitized by nematodes of the genus Rhabdias. Histological, microbiological, and hematological analysis were performed on parasitized (n=6 and non-parasitized (n=6 snakes. Granulocytic and mononuclear cell infiltrates in the pulmonary parenchyma and epithelium were also observed during the histological analysis of parasitized snakes. Microbiological analysis of parasitized animals revealed the following Gram-negative bacteria: Citrobacter divergens, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter ammnigenus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pantoea sp. and Providencia rettgeri. In non-parasitized snakes, the following species were identified: B. cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Acinetobacter baumanii. Increased levels of plasmatic protein, decreased lymphocyte counts, and normal red blood cell values were observed in parasitized animals.Este trabalho relata as alterações pulmonares, microbiológicas e hematológicas em Crotalus durissus terrificus parasitadas pelo nematódeo do gênero Rhabdias. As análises histológicas, microbiológicas e hematológicas foram realizadas em serpentes parasitadas (n=6 e não parasitadas (n=6. Foram observados infiltrados de células granulocíticas e mononucleares no parênquima pulmonar durante a análise histopatológica das serpentes parasitadas. A análise microbiológica revelou as seguintes bactérias Gram-negativas; Citrobacter divergens, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter ammnigenus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pantoea sp. e Providencia rettgeri. Nas serpentes não parasitadas foram identificadas: B. cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens e Acinetobacter baumanii. Nos animais parasitados observaram-se: aumento da concentração de proteína plasmática, diminuição da

  9. Humoral response and neutralization capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural and Cobalt 60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netto, D.P.; Alfieri, A.A. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva; Chiacchio, S.B.; Bicudo, P.L. [UNESP, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Nascimento, N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radiobiologia]. E-mail: rnetto@uel.br

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate antigen irradiation on crotalic antivenom and the capacity of sheep as serum producers. Twelve sheep in two groups of six were inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. One group was inoculated with natural venom (N V) and the other with Cobalt 60 gamma-irradiated venom (Ir V). Three antigen doses were given to the animals at monthly intervals for immunization. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 determination in mice. Blood samples were collected weekly analyses of serum neutralization capacity and potency. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD 50 for sheep showed no signs of envenoming. These results showed that toxicity of the irradiated venom was 4.4 times less than the natural venom. The sera from the irradiated group neutralized LD 50 14.6 times, and the sera from the natural group 4.4 times. Sera from the irradiated group were five times more potent. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. The results of this study show the potential for using sheep in crotalic antivenom production. The use of irradiated venom in sheep immunization induces a powerful and lasting humoral immune response shown by both the in vitro neutralization and potency tests and by the indirect ELISA antibody level detection technique. (author)

  10. cDNA and deduced primary structure of basic phospholipase A2 with neurotoxic activity from the venom secretion of the Crotalus durissus collilineatus rattlesnake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.R. Fagundes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the construction of precursor complementary DNAs, we isolated mRNAs from whole venom samples. After reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, we amplified the cDNA coding for a neurotoxic protein, phospholipase A2 D49 (PLA2 D49, from the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc PLA2. The cDNA encoding Cdc PLA2 from whole venom was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA has high overall sequence identity with the group II PLA2 protein family. Cdc PLA2 has 14 cysteine residues capable of forming seven disulfide bonds that characterize this group of PLA2 enzymes. Cdc PLA2 was isolated using conventional Sephadex G75 column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular mass was estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We tested the neuromuscular blocking activities on chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of Cdc PLA2 showed the existence of two lines of N6-PLA2, denominated F24 and S24. Apparently, the sequences of the New World’s N6-F24-PLA2 are similar to those of the agkistrodotoxin from the Asian genus Gloydius. The sequences of N6-S24-PLA2 are similar to the sequence of trimucrotoxin from the genus Protobothrops, found in the Old World.

  11. Mating systems, reproductive success, and sexual selection in secretive species: a case study of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rulon W; Schuett, Gordon W; Repp, Roger A; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa.

  12. Phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus inactivates dengue virus and other enveloped viruses by disrupting the viral envelope.

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    Vanessa Danielle Muller

    Full Text Available The Flaviviridae family includes several virus pathogens associated with human diseases worldwide. Within this family, Dengue virus is the most serious threat to public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Currently, there are no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs against Dengue virus or against most of the viruses of this family. Therefore, the development of vaccines and the discovery of therapeutic compounds against the medically most important flaviviruses remain a global public health priority. We previously showed that phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was able to inhibit Dengue virus and Yellow fever virus infection in Vero cells. Here, we present evidence that phospholipase A2 has a direct effect on Dengue virus particles, inducing a partial exposure of genomic RNA, which strongly suggests inhibition via the cleavage of glycerophospholipids at the virus lipid bilayer envelope. This cleavage might induce a disruption of the lipid bilayer that causes a destabilization of the E proteins on the virus surface, resulting in inactivation. We show by computational analysis that phospholipase A2 might gain access to the Dengue virus lipid bilayer through the pores found on each of the twenty 3-fold vertices of the E protein shell on the virus surface. In addition, phospholipase A2 is able to inactivate other enveloped viruses, highlighting its potential as a natural product lead for developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs.

  13. Rabdomióilise secundária a acidente ofídico crotálico (Crotalus durissus terrificus

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    Renato Almeida Magalhães

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se dois casos de rabdomiólise secundária a envenenamento produzido por Crotalus durissus terrificus. O diagnóstico da rabdomiólise baseou-se na mialgia intensa e generalizada apresentada pelos pacientes e na constatação de níveis séricos elevados de CPK, TGO e DHL. A confirmação do diagnóstico foi obtida no caso n.° 2 pela detecção de mioglobina no soro através de imunoeletroforese contra soro antimioglobina humana e por biópsia muscular. Esse paciente desenvolveu também, como complicação do envenenamento ofídico, quadro clínico e laboratorial de insuficiência renal aguda. Essa complicação foi atribuída à ação nefrotóxica e hemolítica do veneno crotálico e à hipotensão arterial apresentada pelo paciente, não se afastando a possibilidade de que a rabdomiólise tenha sido um fator contribuinte para a sua instalação. Foram constatadas hipocalcemla, hiperuricemia e hiperfosfatemia grave na fase oligúria da insuficiência renal aguda, alterações peculiares quando essa condição está associada à rabdomiólise.

  14. Functional characterizations of venom phenotypes in the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and evidence for expression-driven divergence in toxic activities among populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margres, Mark J.; Walls, Robert; Suntravat, Montamas; Lucena, Sara; Sánchez, Elda E.; Rokyta, Darin R.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypes frequently vary across and within species. The connection between specific phenotypic effects and function, however, is less understood despite being essential to our understanding of the adaptive process. Snake venoms are ideal for identifying functionally important phenotypic variation because venom variation is common, and venoms can be functionally characterized through simple assays and toxicity measurements. Previous work with the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) used multivariate statistical approaches to identify six unique venom phenotypes. We functionally characterized hemolytic, gelatinase, fibrinogenolytic, and coagulant activity for all six phenotypes, as well as one additional venom, to determine if the statistically significant differences in toxin expression levels previously documented corresponded to differences in venom activity. In general, statistical differences in toxin expression predicted the identified functional differences, or lack thereof, in toxic activity, demonstrating that the statistical approach used to characterize C. adamanteus venoms was a fair representation of biologically meaningful differences. Minor differences in activity not accounted for by the statistical model may be the result of amino-acid differences and/or post-translational modifications, but overall we were able to link variation in protein expression levels to variation in function as predicted by multivariate statistical approaches. PMID:27179420

  15. Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) infection and selected hematological values of the neotropical rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Serpentes: Viperidae), from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Rafael Otávio Cançado; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; da Silva, Israel José; Pinto, Ana Cristina Araújo; Braga, Erika Martins; da Cunha, Arildo Pinto; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to establish the hematological values of Crotalus durissus collilineatus snakes captured in Brazil as well as to verify the effects of hematozoan infection on these snakes. Eighty-three blood samples were drawn from C. d. collilineatus specimens for analysis. The sample set was composed of 30 males and 30 females, recently caught from the wild, and 11 males and 12 females bred in captivity. Blood samples were used to determine red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, thrombocyte counts, hematocrit values, hemoglobin concentration, and total plasma protein. Blood smears were used to diagnose Hepatozoon spp. infection and to calculate the parasitic load in the sample as well as the percentage of immature red cells. Results obtained for the wild-caught animals, with and without parasites, were compared among themselves and with the values obtained for the captive-bred animals. Hematological values for C. durissus were established. Wild-caught snakes had an infection rate of 38.3%, while no Hepatozoon sp. infection was detected in the captive-bred animals. The snakes which were not infected by the Hepatozoon sp. exhibited average weight, length, and weight-length ratios higher than those of the infected animals. An increase in immature red cells was noted in the Hepatozoon-infected snakes.

  16. Mating systems, reproductive success, and sexual selection in secretive species: a case study of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

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    Rulon W Clark

    Full Text Available Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa.

  17. Mating Systems, Reproductive Success, and Sexual Selection in Secretive Species: A Case Study of the Western Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rulon W.; Schuett, Gordon W.; Repp, Roger A.; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F.; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa. PMID:24598810

  18. Humoral response and neutralization capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural and Cobalt 60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, D.P.; Alfieri, A.A.; Chiacchio, S.B.; Bicudo, P.L.; Nascimento, N.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate antigen irradiation on crotalic antivenom and the capacity of sheep as serum producers. Twelve sheep in two groups of six were inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. One group was inoculated with natural venom (N V) and the other with Cobalt 60 gamma-irradiated venom (Ir V). Three antigen doses were given to the animals at monthly intervals for immunization. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 determination in mice. Blood samples were collected weekly analyses of serum neutralization capacity and potency. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD 50 for sheep showed no signs of envenoming. These results showed that toxicity of the irradiated venom was 4.4 times less than the natural venom. The sera from the irradiated group neutralized LD 50 14.6 times, and the sera from the natural group 4.4 times. Sera from the irradiated group were five times more potent. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. The results of this study show the potential for using sheep in crotalic antivenom production. The use of irradiated venom in sheep immunization induces a powerful and lasting humoral immune response shown by both the in vitro neutralization and potency tests and by the indirect ELISA antibody level detection technique. (author)

  19. Immunohistochemical changes in kidney glomerular and tubular proteins caused by rattlesnake (Crotalus vegrandis venom Cambios inmunohistoquímicos en proteínas de túbulo y glomérulo renal causadas por el veneno de la serpiente de cascabel (Crotalus vegrandis

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    María E. Girón

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal damage is an important cause of death in patients who have survived the early effects of severe crotalid envenomation. Extracellular matrix of renal tissue is altered by Crotalus toxin activities. The aim of this study was to describe how cytoskeletal proteins and basal membrane components undergo substantial alterations under the action of Crotalus vegrandis crude venom and its hemorrhagic fraction (Uracoina-1 in mice. To detect the proteins in question, the immunoperoxidase method with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies was used. Cell types within renal lesions were characterized by phenotypic identification, by means of immunohistologic analysis of marker proteins using different primary antibodies against mesangial cells, endothelial cells, cytoskeletal proteins (intermediate filament, extracellular matrix and basal membranes. Samples for morphological study by standard procedures (biotin-streptavidin-peroxidase technique using light microscopy were processed. Positive and negative controls for each antigen tested in the staining assay were included. After crude venom and hemorrhagic fraction inoculation of mice, the disappearance of cytoskeletal vimentin and desmin and collagen proteins in the kidney was observed. In extracellular matrix and basal membranes, collagen type IV from envenomed animals tends to disappear from 24 h to 120 h after venom injection.El daño renal es una causa importante de muerte en pacientes que sobreviven a los efectos iniciales de los severos envenenamientos crotálicos. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido el describir como las proteínas del citoesqueleto y los componentes de membrana basal muestran alteraciones importantes en su manifestación, bajo la acción del veneno crudo de Crotalus vegrandis y una fracción hemorrágica (Uracoina-1 del mismo veneno ya que, la matriz extracelular del tejido renal es alterada por la actividad de estas toxinas. Para detectar las proteínas en cuestión se utiliz

  20. Effect of Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae leaf extract combined with anti-venom serum on experimental Crotalus durissus (Squamata: Viperidae envenomation in rats

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    Rafael Stuani Floriano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Crotalic envenomation represents the highest number of deaths when compared to other snakebite envenomations of medical interest. Crotalic venom has important characteristics such as neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and clotting and hemolytic action. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory aspects of Crotalus durissus terrificus experimental envenomation in Wistar rats treated with antivenom and the aqueous extract of the plant Mikania glomerata. The animals were divided into three groups: Group C (control; Group VS-venom and antivenom; Group VSM-venom, antivenom and aqueous extract of M. glomerata. Crotalic poison caused clinical and laboratory alterations in Wistar mice. Significant linical alterations were: temperature decrease, edema in the venom inoculated member, sedation and a locomotion decrease in groups VS and VSM when compared with group C. A faster recovery from sedation was observed only for animals of group VSM when compared to VS. There was an increase in the number of leukocytes, neutrophils and creatine kinase in the VS and VSM groups, compared to group C. Wistar rats showed a high resistance to crotalic venom. Additional studies with different doses, time of treatment, different administration methods and histopathological and immunological studies are necessary to understand the action of M. glomerata in crotalic accidents. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 929-937. Epub 2009 December 01.El envenamiento crotálico representa el número más alto de muertes cuando es comparado con envenenamientos por mordeduras de otras serpientes de interés médico. El veneno crotálico tiene importantes características de acción neurotóxica, miotoxicidad, nefrotoxicidad, coagulación y acción hemolítica. Este trabajo evaluó los aspectos clínicos y de laboratorio del envenenamiento experimental con el veneno de la serpiente Crotalus durissus terrificus en las ratas Wistar tratadas con suero antiofídico y extracto acuoso de M

  1. Contributions of the snake venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys to the paraspecificity of the Central American polyspecific antivenom (PoliVal-ICP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Gabriela; Gómez, Aarón; Corrales, Greivin; Chacón, Danilo; Estrada, Ricardo; León, Guillermo

    2018-03-15

    PoliVal-ICP antivenom is produced from plasma of horses immunized toward the venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys. The antibody response induced by these venoms confers PoliVal-ICP the capacity to neutralize the venoms of the most important Central American viperids, including not only homologous venoms (i.e., venoms used as immunogen), but many heterologous venoms (i.e., venoms not used as immunogen). In this work, the individual contributions of homologous venoms to the paraspecificity of PoliVal-ICP were inferred from the capacity of experimental monospecific antivenoms toward venoms of B. asper (anti-Ba), C. simus (anti-Cs) and L. stenophrys (anti-Ls), and an experimental polyspecific antivenom (anti-Ba/Cs/Ls) to neutralize the lethality induced by different venoms in mice. It was found that all antivenoms neutralized their corresponding homologous venoms. Moreover, the anti-Ba antivenom cross-neutralized the venoms of Agkistrodon howardgloydi, Atropoides picadoi, Bothriechis lateralis, Bothriechis supraciliaris and Porthidium ophryomegas; the anti-Cs antivenom cross-neutralized the venoms of B. lateralis, B. supraciliaris, Cerrophidion sasai and Porthidium nasutum; and the anti-Ls antivenom cross-neutralized the venoms of B. lateralis, B. supraciliaris, C. sasai and Lachesis melanocephala. All venoms neutralized by any monospecific antivenom were also neutralized by the anti-Ba/Cs/Ls antivenom. Venoms of Atropoides mexicanus, Bothriechis nigroviridis and Bothriechis schlegelii were not neutralized by any experimental antivenom, thus explaining the limitations of PoliVal-ICP to neutralize these venoms. Consequently, an enlargement of the neutralization scope of PoliVal-ICP could be achieved by including these venoms in the group of those used as immunogens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Retrospective evaluation of the effect of antivenom administration on hospitalization duration and treatment cost for dogs envenomated by Crotalus viridis: 113 dogs (2004-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, Julia E; Foy, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effect of antivenom administration on mortality, hospitalization duration, and cost of hospitalization for dogs envenomated by Crotalus viridis. Retrospective study (January 2004-December 2012). Private veterinary emergency and referral center. One hundred thirteen dogs with confirmed C. viridis envenomation. None. Dogs were divided into groups treated with either supportive care only (group 1) or supportive care plus antivenin crotalidae polyvalent (group 2). A modified snakebite severity score was used to compare patients from group 1 and group 2. Patients in group 2 received one 10 mL vial of antivenin crotalidae polyvalent over 4-6 hours. The mortality rate was 1.8% (2/113).  Group 1 had a median duration of hospitalization of 20 hours (range, 8-50 hours), while group 2 had a median duration of hospitalization of 24 hours (range, 1.5-74 hours). Group 1 had a median cost of hospitalization of 1050.00 USD (range, 423.52-2266.09 USD) while group 2 had a median cost of hospitalization of 2002.19 USD (range, 1139.91-6908.01 USD). Both the duration of hospitalization (P dogs receiving antivenom. Both the cost and the duration of hospitalization were significantly greater in the group of dogs that received antivenom. The difference in cost between the groups was approximately the cost of the antivenom vial and administration. Amongst the parameters evaluated, no significant benefit was associated with antivenom administered to dogs envenomated by C. viridis. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  3. cDNA cloning of a snake venom metalloproteinase from the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and the expression of its disintegrin domain with anti-platelet effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntravat, Montamas; Jia, Ying; Lucena, Sara E.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Pérez, John C.

    2013-01-01

    A 5′ truncated snake venom metalloproteinase was identified from a cDNA library constructed from venom glands of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). The 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the 1865 bp full-length cDNA sequence of a snake venom metalloproteinase (CamVMPII). CamVMPII encodes an open reading frame of 488 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a spacer, and an RGD-disintegrin domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of CamVMPII showed a 91%, 90%, 83%, and 82% sequence homology to the P-II class enzymes of C. adamanteus metalloproteinase 2, C. atrox CaVMP-II, Gloydius halys agkistin, and Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonitin, respectively. Disintegrins are potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Therefore, the disintegrin domain (Cam-dis) of CamVMPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into a pET-43.1a vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Affinity purified recombinantly modified Cam-dis (r-Cam-dis) with a yield of 8.5 mg/L culture medium was cleaved from the fusion tags by enterokinase cleavage. r-Cam-dis was further purified by two-step chromatography consisting of HiTrap™ Benzamidine FF column, followed by Talon Metal affinity column with a final yield of 1 mg/L culture. r-Cam-dis was able to inhibit all three processes of platelet thrombus formation including platelet adhesion with an estimated IC50 of 1 nM, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with the estimated IC50s of 18 and 6 nM, respectively, and platelet function on clot retraction. It is a potent anti-platelet inhibitor, which should be further investigated for drug discovery to treat stroke patients or patients with thrombotic disorders. PMID:23313448

  4. Isolation and characterization of two disintegrins inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation from the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Elda E.; Galan, Jacob A.; Russell, William K.; Soto, Julio G.; Russell, David H.; Perez, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Disintegrins and disintegrin-like proteins are molecules found in the venom of four snake families (Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae, and Colubridae). The disintegrins are nonenzymatic proteins that inhibit cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix interactions, and signal transduction, and may have potential in the treatment of strokes, heart attacks, cancers, and osteoporosis. Prior to 1983, the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake) was known to be only neurotoxic; however, now there is evidence that these snakes can contain venom with: (1) neurotoxins; (2) hemorrhagins; and (3) both neurotoxins and hemorrhagins. In this study, two disintegrins, mojastin 1 and mojastin 2, from the venom of a Mohave rattlesnake collected in central Arizona (Pinal County), were isolated and characterized. The disintegrins in these venoms were identified by mass-analyzed laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry as having masses of 7.436 and 7.636 kDa. Their amino acid sequences are similar to crotratroxin, a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the western diamondback rattlesnake (C. atrox). The amino acid sequence of mojastin 1 was identical to the amino acid sequence of a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the Timber rattlesnake (C. horridus). The disintegrins from the Mohave rattlesnake venom were able to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole human blood both having IC 5 s of 13.8 nM, but were not effective in inhibiting the binding of human urinary bladder carcinoma cells (T24) to fibronectin

  5. Wound healing activity and mechanisms of action of an antibacterial protein from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus.

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    Ramar Perumal Samy

    Full Text Available Basic phospholipase A2 was identified from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake. The Crotalus adamanteus toxin-II (CaTx-II induced bactericidal effects (7.8 µg/ml on Staphylococcus aureus, while on Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW, and Enterobacter aerogenes were killed at 15.6 µg/ml. CaTx-II caused pore formation and membrane damaging effects on the bacterial cell wall. CaTx-II was not cytotoxic on lung (MRC-5, skin fibroblast (HEPK cells and in mice. CaTx-II-treated mice showed significant wound closure and complete healing by 16 days as compared to untreated controls (**P<0.01. Histological examination revealed enhanced collagen synthesis and neovascularization after treatment with CaTx-II versus 2% Fusidic Acid ointment (FAO treated controls. Measurement of tissue cytokines revealed that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β expression in CaTx-II treated mice was significantly suppressed versus untreated controls. In contrast, cytokines involved in wound healing and cell migration i.e., monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, fibroblast growth factor-basic (FGF-b, chemokine (KC, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF were significantly enhanced in CaTx-II treated mice, but not in the controls. CaTx-II also modulated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation during skin wound healing. The CaTx-II protein highlights distinct snake proteins as a potential source of novel antimicrobial agents with significant therapeutic application for bacterial skin infections.

  6. A novel synthetic peptide inspired on Lys49 phospholipase A2from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom active against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, José R; Mendes, Bruno; Lancellotti, Marcelo; Marangoni, Sergio; Vale, Nuno; Passos, Óscar; Ramos, Maria J; Fernandes, Pedro A; Gomes, Paula; Da Silva, Saulo L

    2018-04-10

    Currently, the evolving and complex mechanisms of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics are increasing, while alternative medicines are drying up, which urges the need to discover novel agents able to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Lys49 phospholipase A 2 s (PLA 2 s) from snake venoms are multifunctional toxins able to induce a huge variety of therapeutic effects and consequently serve as templates for new drug leads. Hence, the present study was aimed at the synthesis of oligopeptides mimicking regions of the antibacterial Lys49 PLA 2 toxin (CoaTx-II), recently isolated from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom, to identify small peptides able to reproduce the therapeutic action of the toxin. Five peptides, representing major regions of interest within CoaTx-II, were synthesized and screened for their antibacterial properties. The 13-mer peptide pC-CoaTxII, corresponding to residues 115-129 of CoaTx-II, was able to reproduce the promising bactericidal effect of the toxin against multi-resistant clinical isolates. Peptide pC-CoaTxII is mainly composed by positively charged and hydrophobic amino acids, a typical trait in most antimicrobial peptides, and presented no defined secondary structure in aqueous environment. The physicochemical properties of pC-CoaTxII are favorable towards a strong interaction with anionic lipid membranes as those in bacteria. Additional in silico studies suggest formation of a water channel across the membrane upon peptide insertion, eventually leading to bacterial cell disruption and death. Overall, our findings confirm the valuable potential of snake venom toxins towards design and synthesis of novel antimicrobials, thus representing key insights towards development of alternative efficient antimicrobials to fight bacterial resistance to current antibiotics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative venomics of the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from Colorado: Identification of a novel pattern of ontogenetic changes in venom composition and assessment of the immunoreactivity of the commercial antivenom CroFab®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviola, Anthony J; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Castoe, Todd A; Calvete, Juan J; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2015-05-21

    Here we describe and compare the venomic and antivenomic characteristics of both neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) venoms. Although both neonate and adult venoms contain unique components, similarities among protein family content were seen. Both neonate and adult venoms consisted of myotoxin, bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinase (SVMP), serine proteinase, L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) and disintegrin families. Quantitative differences, however, were observed, with venoms of adults containing significantly higher concentrations of the non-enzymatic toxic compounds and venoms of neonates containing higher concentrations of pre-digestive enzymatic proteins such as SVMPs. To assess the relevance of this venom variation in the context of snakebite and snakebite treatment, we tested the efficacy of the common antivenom CroFab® for recognition of both adult and neonate venoms in vitro. This comparison revealed that many of the major protein families (SVMPs, CRISP, PLA2, serine proteases, and LAAO) in both neonate and adult venoms were immunodepleted by the antivenom, whereas myotoxins, one of the major toxic components of C. v. viridis venom, in addition to many of the small peptides, were not efficiently depleted by CroFab®. These results therefore provide a comprehensive catalog of the venom compounds present in C. v. viridis venom and new molecular insight into the potential efficacy of CroFab® against human envenomations by one of the most widely distributed rattlesnake species in North America. Comparative proteomic analysis of venoms of neonate and adult Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) from a discrete population in Colorado revealed a novel pattern of ontogenetic shifts in toxin composition for viperid snakes. The observed stage-dependent decrease of the relative content of disintegrins, catalytically active D49-PLA2s

  8. Rabbit IgG antibodies against Phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus neutralize the lethal activity of the venom Los anticuerpos IgG de conejos anti-fosfolipasa A2 de Crotalus durissus terrificus neutralizan la actividad letal del veneno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Crotalus durissus terrificus (C.d.t. (South American rattlesnake venom possesses myotoxic and neurotoxic activities, both of which are also expressed by crotoxin, the principal toxin of this venom. Crotoxin contains a basic phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and a non toxic acidic protein, crotapotin. We have produced and investigated the ability of IgG antibodies raised in rabbits against PLA2 to neutralize the lethality of the whole venom. PLA2 was isolated by gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-75. Specific antibodies were obtained by subcutaneous and intramuscular inoculation of PLA2 (700 µg with Freund adjuvant. Groups of six mice (20 + 2 g were inoculated with 0.5 ml i.p. of C. d. t. venom (4 µg or a mixture of venom that had been preincubated with the desired volume of IgG antibodies. Mortality, recorded 24 and 48 h after inoculation, showed that IgG anti-PLA2 were more effective than anticrotalic serum in neutralizing the lethal activity. These results demonstrate that it could be possible to obtain an anti-venom made by specific antibodies with a high level of protection against the lethal component of C.d.t. venom, and/or the inclusion of these antibodies as a supplement in heterologous anti-venoms.El veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus (C.d.t. (Cascabel de Sud América posee actividad miotóxica y neurotóxica, actividades que también exhibe el complejo crotoxina, principal componente tóxico de este veneno. El complejo crotoxina está constituido por una fosfolipasa A2 básica (PLA2 y una proteína acídica no tóxica, el crotapotín. En este trabajo se estudió la capacidad neutralizante de anticuerpos IgG anti-PLA2 sobre la letalidad inducida por el veneno entero. El antígeno PLA2, fue aislado por cromatografía de filtración en gel (Sephadex G-75. Se inocularon conejos machos por vía subcutánea e intramuscular, con 700 µg de PLA2 y adyuvante para la obtención de anticuerpos específicos. La capacidad neutralizante del

  9. A low-cost method to test cytotoxic effects of Crotalus vegrandis (Serpentes: Viperidae venom on kidney cell cultures Un método de bajo costo para probar los efectos citotóxicos del veneno de Crotalus vegrandis (Serpentes: Viperidae en cultivos de células renales

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    María E. Girón

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of the renal lesion upon envenomation by snakebite has been related to myolysis, hemolysis, hypotension and/or direct venom nephrotoxicity caused by the venom. Both primary and continuous cell culture systems provide an in vitro alternative for quantitative evaluation of the toxicity of snake venoms. Crude Crotalus vegrandis venom was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. The toxicity of C. vegrandis crude venom, hemorrhagic, and neurotoxic fractions were evaluated on mouse primary renal cells and a continuous cell line of Vero cells maintained in vitro. Cells were isolated from murine renal cortex and were grown in 96 well plates with Dulbecco's Modified Essential Medium (DMEM and challenged with crude and venom fractions. The murine renal cortex cells exhibited epithelial morphology and the majority showed smooth muscle actin determined by immune-staining. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the tetrazolium colorimetric method. Cell viability was less for crude venom, followed by the hemorrhagic and neurotoxic fractions with a CT50 of 4.93, 18.41 and 50.22 µg/mL, respectively. The Vero cell cultures seemed to be more sensitive with a CT50 of 2.9 and 1.4 µg/mL for crude venom and the hemorrhagic peak, respectively. The results of this study show the potential of using cell culture system to evaluate venom toxicity.La patogénesis de la lesion renal ha sido relacionada a la miolisis, hemólisis, hipotensión y/o el efecto directo del veneno. Tanto el cultivo primario o el cultivo celular continuo proveen una alternativa in vitro para la evaluación cuantitativa de la toxicidad de venenos de serpiente. El veneno crudo de Crotalus vegrandis fue fraccionado por una cromatografía de exclusión molecular. La toxicidad del veneno crudo de C. vegrandis, sus fracciones hemorrágicas y neurotóxicas fueron evaluadas en células renales primarias de ratón y una línea continua de células Vero mantenidas in vitro. Las c

  10. The comparison between the humoral response and the neutralizing capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural venom and Co{sup 60} irradiated venom from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netto, D.P. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva]. E-mail: mnetto@uel.br

    2000-07-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with Co{sup 60} to investigate the effects of antigen-irradiation on antivenom production in sheep. Twelve sheep were divided in two groups of 6. One group received irradiated, while the other received natural venom. Three doses of antigen were given at monthly intervals. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD{sub 50} in mice. Weekly blood samples were obtained to evaluate anti-crotalic serum titers by indirect ELISA, neutralization capacity, and serum potency. A complete blood count, plasma protein and fibrinogen concentration, and serum albumin and globulin were also determined. At end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with ovine LD{sub 50}, without clinical abnormalities. (author)

  11. Quadros clínico-patológicos do envenenamento ofídico por Crotalus durissus terrificus e Bothrops spp. em animais de produção

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    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma revisão dos quadros clínico-patológicos causados pelos venenos de Crotalus durissus terrificus e Bothrops spp. em bovinos, búfalos, ovinos equinos e suínos. Foram compilados os dados obtidos pela experimentação em animais de produção encontrados na literatura e os obtidos através de experimentação realizada por nossa equipe. Também foram revisados os casos naturais de envenenamento ofídico comunicados. Em dois Quadros foram lançados os mais importantes dados dessas revisões, que revelou diversos aspectos interessantes: 1 em nossos experimentos, o veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus, quando injetado por via subcutânea em cavalos, causou um edema acentuado no local da aplicação, ao contrário do que tem sido observado em todas as outras espécies animais, aspecto não relatado na literatura; 2 em nossos experimentos, o veneno de diversas espécies de Bothrops, quando injetado por via subcutânea em bovinos, ovinos e equinos, não causou edema como em geral é relatado na literatura, e sim hemorragias subcutâneas acentuadas no local da aplicação. Nos casos não fatais este sangue era reabsorvido em poucos dias sem deixar sequelas. Exceção foi a reação ao veneno de Bothrops jararacussu, que causou edema nos ovinos experimentais, e tumefação acentuada que resultou em fístula com eliminação de líquido seroso nos equinos experimentais. O objetivo do presente estudo visa contribuir para o aperfeiçoamento do diagnóstico de acidentes ofídicos em animais de produção.

  12. Estabilidad de la actividad neutralizante del antiveneno ofídico conservado a 4°C y a 16°C contra el veneno de Cascabel (Crotalus durissus cumanensis de Colombia

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    Jaime Ramírez

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la actividad neutralizante de la letalidad de varios lotes de antiveneno polivalente (no liofilizado, producidos por el Instituto Nacional de Salud, los cuales fueron retados contra una mezcla de venenos de cascabel (Crotalus durissus cumanensis de Colombia. Se compara la actividad de los diferentes lotes almacenados en oscuridad a las temperaturas de 4°C y 16°C. Se estableció el porcentaje remanente de la potencia de cada lote para cada temperatura en los diferentes años a lo largo del período del estudio. Se concluye que el antiveneno almacenando en las condiciones recomendadas, mantiene casi la totalidad de la capacidad de neutralización (97.9% luego de tres años de almacenamiento, lo quecorresponde a lafechade expiración del producto. En cambio, el antiveneno almacenado a 16°C y oscuridad, luego de dos años de almacenamiento, mantiene el 87.9% de su capacidad protectora contra veneno de cascabel, protección similara la encontrada bajo las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento, paraveneno de Taya X, pasados dos años de almacenamiento (l, sustentando la recomendación de descartar el producto, transcurridos dos años de almacenamiento en estas condiciones.

  13. Tecnologias de informação e integração regional: desafios institucionais para a cooperação Sul-Americana na área de segurança

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    Marco Cepik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on examine le rôle des Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication (TIC dans le processus d'intégration de la région sud-américaine, à partir de l'étude des problèmes de sécurité régionale et des processus de coopération entre États. On cherche ainsi à voir la portée des TIC dans la construction d'une confiance mutuelle entre les États et dans la syntonie entre le maintien de l'ordre domestique et la stabilité régionale dans un décor marqué par la méfiance et par des restrictions politiques et institutionnelles. On montre que l'usage des TIC peut contribuer à renforcer les processus politiques de la région, bien que, pratiquement, il n'existe pas de stratégie coordonnée pour l'application de ces technologies par les pays d'Amérique du Sud. Le développement des TIC promu par l' UNASUL et par le Conseil de Défense Sud-Américain (CDS semble donc un effort de promouvoir une adéquation entre les initiatives d'intégration observées entre les pays sud-américains et de plus grands échanges d'information en vue de la sécurité et de la stabilité pour la région.

  14. Lamprosoma W. Kirby (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae: descrição de nova espécie, redescrições e chave para algumas espécies sul americanas

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    Caxambú Marcelo Galeazzi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lamprosoma alacre sp. nov. from Mato Grosso is described and illustrated. The genus Lamprosoma is redescribed and illustrations of characters are provided. The following south american species are redescribed: L. amethystinum Perty, 1832, L. azureum Germar, 1824, L. bicolor W. Kirby, 1818, L. chrysopygium Germar, 1824, L. corruscum Guérin-Méneville, 1844, L. podtiaguini Monrós, 1947 and L. triste Guérin-Méneville, 1844.

  15. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles Crotoxina em humanos: estudo da ação em músculos extraoculares e faciais

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    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.OBJETIVO: A crotoxina é a principal neurotoxina da cascavel sul-americana Crotalus durissus terrificus e sua ação neurotóxica caracteriza-se por um bloqueio pr

  16. Study of crotoxin on the induction of paralysis in extraocular muscle in animal model Estudo da crotoxina na indução de paralisia da musculatura extraocular em modelo animal

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    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-10-01

    crotoxina é a principal toxina do veneno da cobra cascavel sul-americana Crotalus durissus terrificus e causa bloqueio da neurotransmissão na junção neuromuscular. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ação e aplicabilidade da crotoxina na indução de paralisia da musculatura extrínseca ocular, e comparar seus efeitos com os da toxina botulínica do tipo A (TB-A. MÉTODOS: A crotoxina, com DL50 de 1,5 µg, foi aplicada no músculo reto superior direito de dez coelhos da raça neozelandesa, em concentrações que variaram de 0,015 µg a 150 µg. Em dois coelhos, utilizou-se 2 unidades de toxina botulínica do tipo A para análise comparativa. A avaliação da paralisia foi realizada através de eletromiografia seriada. Após a recuperação, que ocorreu em dois meses, seis coelhos foram sacrificados para estudo anátomopatológico. RESULTADOS: Os animais não apresentaram sinais de intoxicação sistêmica. Ptose palpebral transitória foi observada em quase todos os animais e permaneceu por até 14 dias. As toxinas causaram um bloqueio imediato da captação dos potenciais elétricos. A recuperação foi gradativa no período aproximado de um mês, observando-se sinais evidentes de regeneração no registro eletromiográfico. Os efeitos da crotoxina na paralização do músculo injetado foram proporcionais à concentração. A crotoxina, na concentração de 1,5 µg, induziu alterações semelhantes às da toxina botulínica do tipo A. Os achados anátomo-patológicos foram localizados somente na região em que se aplicou as toxinas, não havendo necrose de fibras musculares em nenhuma amostra analisada. As alterações causadas pela crotoxina também foram proporcionais à concentração utilizada e similares a toxina botulínica do tipo A na concentração de 1,5 µg. CONCLUSÃO: A crotoxina foi capaz de induzir paralisia transitória do músculo reto superior. Este efeito foi caracterizado pela redução na amplitude dos potenciais de ação e sinais inespec

  17. Secretory phospholipases A(2) isolated from Bothrops asper and from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venoms induce distinct mechanisms for biosynthesis of prostaglandins E2 and D2 and expression of cyclooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Vanessa; Gutiérrez, José Maria; Soares, Andreimar Martins; Zamunér, Stella Regina; Purgatto, Eduardo; Teixeira, Catarina de Fátima Pereira

    2008-09-01

    The effects of myotoxin III (MT-III), a phospholipase A(2) (sPLA2) from Bothrops asper snake venom, and crotoxin B (CB), a neurotoxic and myotoxic sPLA2 from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus, on cyclooxygenases (COXs) expression and biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) were evaluated, together with the mechanisms involved in these effects. Upon intraperitoneal injection in mice, both sPLA(2)s promoted the synthesis of PGD2 and PGE2, with a different time-course. MT-III, but not CB, induced COX-2 expression by peritoneal leukocytes without modification on COX-1 constitutive expression, whereas CB increased the constitutive activity of COX-1. MT-III increased the enzymatic activity of COX-1 and COX-2. Similar effects were observed when these sPLA(2)s were incubated with isolated macrophages, evidencing a direct effect on these inflammatory cells. Moreover, both toxins elicited the release of arachidonic acid from macrophages in vitro. Inhibition of cPLA2 by AACOCF3, but not of iPLA2 by PACOCF3 or BEL, significantly reduced PGD2, PGE2 and arachidonic acid (AA) release promoted by MT-III. These inhibitors did not affect MT-III-induced COX-2 expression. In contrast, cPLA2 inhibition did not modify the effects of CB, whereas iPLA2 inhibition reduced PGD2 and AA production induced by CB. These findings imply that distinct regulatory mechanisms leading to PGs' synthesis are triggered by these snake venom sPLA(2)s. Such differences are likely to explain the dissimilar patterns of inflammatory reaction elicited by these sPLA(2)s in vivo.

  18. Cross-reactivity and cross-immunomodulation between venoms of the snakes Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys, and its effect in the production of polyspecific antivenom for Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Cynthia; Solano, Sergio; Segura, Álvaro; Herrera, María; Estrada, Ricardo; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2017-11-01

    A mixture of the venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys is used as immunogen to produce the polyspecific Central American antivenom (PoliVal-ICP). In this work, we studied the ability of each of these venoms to modulate the antibody response induced by the other two venoms included in the immunization mixture. For that, equine monospecific, bispecific and polyspecific antivenoms were prepared and compared regarding their ability to neutralize the phospholipase A 2 , coagulant and lethal activities of each venom, and their anti-venom antibodies concentration. Results indicate that there is low cross-reactivity and cross-neutralization between venoms of B. asper, C. simus and L. stenophrys, hence justifying the use of all of them as immunogens for the production of the Central American antivenom. It was also found that the venom of B. asper reduces the anti-crotalic response while the venom of C. simus does not affect the anti-bothropic response. On the other hand, the venoms of B. asper and C. simus increase the anti-lachesic response, and L. stenoprhys venom reduced both the anti-bothropic and anti-crotalic responses. On the basis of these results, the immunization strategy can be adjusted by preventing or taking advantage of cross-immunomodulation between venoms, in order to maximize the antibody response towards all venoms. Immune responses can be improved by injecting horses with several immunogen mixtures, composed by one or two of the three venoms, and administering them at different times during the immunization, eventually generating a high titer against the three venoms. Our results suggest that addressing the issue of immunomodulation by venoms might improve antivenom manufacture worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus) in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark A; Douglas, Marlis R; Webb, Colleen T; Collyer, Michael L; Holycross, Andrew T; Painter, Charles W; Kamees, Larry K; Douglas, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs) are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO), an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas) is numerically constricted (N = 151), with few breeding adults (Nb = 24) and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years). Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (femaleclimate estimates. While survival is significantly impacted by wildfire at upper elevations, the extinction vortex is driven by small population demographics, a situation comparable to that of the European Adder (Vipera berus), a conservation icon in southern Sweden. Genetic rescue, a management approach successfully employed in similar situations, is ill advised in this situation due to climate-driven habitat change in the sky islands. CWO is a rare organism in a unique environment, with a conserved niche and a predisposition towards extinction. It is a bellwether for the eventual climate-driven collapse of the Madrean pine-oak ecosystem, one of Earth's three recognized megadiversity centers.

  20. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NV< IrV). There was no significant difference (p<5%) for biochemical tests, complete blood count, and animals weight between the three groups tested. The group immunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  1. Neuromuscular paralysis by the basic phospholipase A2 subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom needs its acid chaperone to concurrently inhibit acetylcholine release and produce muscle blockage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Walter L G; Noronha-Matos, José B; Timóteo, Maria A; Fontes, Marcos R M; Gallacci, Márcia; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2017-11-01

    Crotoxin (CTX), a heterodimeric phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, promotes irreversible blockade of neuromuscular transmission. Indirect electrophysiological evidence suggests that CTX exerts a primary inhibitory action on transmitter exocytosis, yet contribution of a postsynaptic action of the toxin resulting from nicotinic receptor desensitization cannot be excluded. Here, we examined the blocking effect of CTX on nerve-evoked transmitter release measured directly using radioisotope neurochemistry and video microscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye. Experiments were conducted using mice phrenic-diaphragm preparations. Real-time fluorescence video microscopy and liquid scintillation spectrometry techniques were used to detect transmitter exocytosis and nerve-evoked [ 3 H]-acetylcholine ([ 3 H]ACh) release, respectively. Nerve-evoked myographic recordings were also carried out for comparison purposes. Both CTX (5μg/mL) and its basic PLA 2 subunit (CB, 20μg/mL) had biphasic effects on nerve-evoked transmitter exocytosis characterized by a transient initial facilitation followed by a sustained decay. CTX and CB reduced nerve-evoked [ 3 H]ACh release by 60% and 69%, respectively, but only the heterodimer, CTX, decreased the amplitude of nerve-evoked muscle twitches. Data show that CTX exerts a presynaptic inhibitory action on ACh release that is highly dependent on its intrinsic PLA 2 activity. Given the high safety margin of the neuromuscular transmission, one may argue that the presynaptic block caused by the toxin is not enough to produce muscle paralysis unless a concurrent postsynaptic inhibitory action is also exerted by the CTX heterodimer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S. E-mail: rseabra@cevap.org.br

    2005-07-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NV

  3. Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Davis

    Full Text Available Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO, an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas is numerically constricted (N = 151, with few breeding adults (Nb = 24 and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years. Mean home range (0.07 km2 is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

  4. Isolation, characterization and screening of the in vitro cytotoxic activity of a novel L-amino acid oxidase (LAAOcdt) from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Tuila Leveghim; Oliveira Silva, Viviane Aline; da Cunha, Daniel Batista; Polettini, Flávia Lino; Thomaz, Camila Daniele; Pianca, Ariana Aparecida; Zambom, Fabiana Letícia; da Silva Leitão Mazzi, Denise Pimenta; Reis, Rui Manuel; Mazzi, Maurício Ventura

    2016-09-01

    An L-amino acid oxidase (LAAOcdt) from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was purified to homogeneity in a two-step procedure using molecular exclusion on Sephadex G-75, followed by Phenyl Sepharose FF chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was 113 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. LAAOcdt showed amino acid homology to other L-amino acid oxidases isolated from different snake venoms. The comparative analysis of the internal peptide sequences of the NNPGILEYPVKPSEEGK fragments by LC-MS/MS spectrometry revealed 100% identity with C. durissus cumanensis LAAO. The purified protein catalyzed the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids, and the most specific substrates were L-Tyr and L-Phe. The enzyme presented optimum activity at pH 7.4 and at 44 °C. LAAOcdt also showed hemolytic activity (0.6-20 μg/μL) and induced both the formation plasma clots (5-100 μg/μL) and platelet aggregation (2.5 × 10(-3), 5.0 × 10(-3) and 10 × 10(-3) μg/mL), as well as bactericidal activity (2.5-10 μg/μL) against Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, LAAOcdt exhibited cytotoxicity in distinct cancer cell lines, which presented a heterogeneous response profile. The mean IC50 value was 10.5 μg/mL. Glioma and pancreatic carcinoma cells were the most sensitive cell lines; they showed mean IC50 values of 7.2 μg/mL and 7.4 μg/mL, respectively. The exposure of the drug-sensitive cells to LAAOcdt for 24 h upregulated activated p-H2AX and efficiently decreased P42/P44 (ERK) activation in glioma cells (HCB151), which suggested an anti-proliferative effect. In addition, increased p21 expression was observed in SiHa cells, which showed a resistant phenotype. On the other hand, the flow cytometry and immunoblotting analyses showed that the enzyme did not induce cancer cell apoptosis. These results suggest that another cell death mechanism might contribute to the LAAOcdt-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, this work may help to elucidate

  5. Isca tóxica e disrupção sexual no controle da mosca-da-fruta sul-americana e da mariposa-oriental em pessegueiro Toxic bait and mating disruption to control the American fruit fly and the oriental fruit moth on peach orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner da Roza Härter; Anderson Dionei Grützmacher; Dori Edson Nava; Rafael da Silva Gonçalves; Marcos Botton

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o emprego simultâneo de isca tóxica e da técnica de disrupção sexual, com uso de feromônio sexual, para o controle de Anastrepha fraterculus e Grapholita molesta, em pomar comercial de pessegueiro. Foram utilizados três pomares de 0,5 ha, com os seguintes tratamentos: pomar 1, manejo com isca tóxica (Biofruit 3% + Malathion 500 CE a 200 mL por 100 L), aplicada nas plantas da borda do pomar quando o nível de controle era atingido, e uso da disrupção sexual...

  6. On Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974: South American correlated species (Nematoda, Cucullanidae and some other helminths of micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Pisces, Sciaenidae Sobre Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974: espécies sul americanas correlatas (Nematoda, Cucullanidae e alguns outros helmintos de Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823(Pisces, Sciaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Júlio Vicente

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tomquist, 1931 Petter, 1974, from Venezuela, of which D.(C. amaurincai (Freitas, Vicente & Ibáñez, 1969 Petter, 1974 is proposed as a junior synonym, is redescribed and comments on the present status of the remaining species under the group, namely D.(C. dichelyneformes (Szidat, 1950 Petter, 1974, D.(C. rodriguesi (Pinto, Fábio & Noronha, 1970 Petter, 1974 and D.(C. travassosi (Guimarães & Cristofaro, 1974, occuring in South America are made. Dollfusentis chandleri Golvan, 1969 (Acanthocephala, Illiosentidae, Poecilancistrium caryophyllum (Diesing, 1850(Cestoidea, Otobothriidae and Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819(Cestoidea, Dasyrhynchidae as well as larval forms of Echinocephalus sp. (Nematoda, Gnathostomatidae and Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae are also reported.Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974, da Venezuela, da qual D.(C. amaurincai (Freitas, Vicente & Ibáñez, 1969 Petter, 1974 é proposta como sinônimo junior, é descrita, e são feitos comentários sobre a atual situação das outras espécies do mesmo grupo, ocorrendo na América do Sul, a saber: D.(C. dichelyneformes (Szidat, 1950 Petter, 1974, D.(C. rodriguesi (Pinto, Fábio & Noronha, 1971 Petter, 1974 e D.(C. travassosi (Guimarães & Cristofaro, 1974. Dollfusentis chandleri Golvan, 1969 (Acantochephala, Illiosentidae, Poecilancistrium cariophyllum (Diesing, 1850 (Cestoidea, Otobothriidae e Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819 (Cestoidea, Dayrhynchidae bem como formas larvares de Exhinocephalus sp. (Nematoda, Gnathostomatidae e Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae são também assinaladas.

  7. Isca tóxica e disrupção sexual no controle da mosca-da-fruta sul-americana e da mariposa-oriental em pessegueiro Toxic bait and mating disruption to control the American fruit fly and the oriental fruit moth on peach orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner da Roza Härter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o emprego simultâneo de isca tóxica e da técnica de disrupção sexual, com uso de feromônio sexual, para o controle de Anastrepha fraterculus e Grapholita molesta, em pomar comercial de pessegueiro. Foram utilizados três pomares de 0,5 ha, com os seguintes tratamentos: pomar 1, manejo com isca tóxica (Biofruit 3% + Malathion 500 CE a 200 mL por 100 L, aplicada nas plantas da borda do pomar quando o nível de controle era atingido, e uso da disrupção sexual por meio da aplicação de feromônio (Splat Grafo em 1.000 pontos por ha; pomar 2, manejo convencional, constituído por pulverizações com inseticidas de contato e ingestão de 2 a 3 vezes ao ano; pomar 3, testemunha, sem controle. A população de adultos das duas espécies e o dano em ponteiros e frutos foram monitorados nas safras 2007/2008 e 2008/2009. O uso simultâneo da isca tóxica e da técnica de disrupção sexual reduziu em mais de 90% a captura de adultos de A. fraterculus e G. molesta. Nas duas safras, os danos reduziram de 62-85% em ponteiros, e de 98-99% nos frutos, em comparação à testemunha sem controle.The objective of this work was to evaluate the simultaneous use of toxic bait and mating disruption technique using sexual pheromone for Anastrepha fraterculus and Grapholita molesta control, in commercial peach orchards. Three 0.5-ha orchards were used, with the following treatments: orchad 1, toxic bait (Biofruit 3% + Malathion 500 CE, 200 mL in 100 L and mating disruption using sexual pheromone (Splat Grafo in 1,000 points ha-1; orchad 2, conventional management, using contact insecticides 2 to 3 times a year; orchad 3, no pest control. Adult populations of both species, and sprout and fruit damages were monitored during the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 crop seasons. Simultaneous use of toxic bait and mating disruption technique decreased the captures of A. fraterculus and G. molesta in more than 90%. In the two crop seasons, the damages on sprouts decreased 62-85%, and 98-99% on fruit, compared to the untreated orchard.

  8. A contribuição da Rede Mercocidades para o desenvolvimento da integração fronteiriça junto ao MERCOSUL: o papel da paradiplomacia municipal sul-americana na concretização da integração regional em zonas de fronteira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Fiorin Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O cenário atual das relações internacionais apresenta dois fenômenos relevantes, a integração regional e a paradiplomacia. Estes elementos, no âmbito sul-americano, encontram-se interligados, manifestando-se na Rede Mercocidades. Esta é organização de municípios sul-americanos, a qual foi formada, inicialmente, para promover a participação de governos locais junto ao MERCOSUL. Em face disso, devido à crescente relevância adquirida pelas cidades no âmbito internacional, vislumbra-se possibilidade de a Rede contribuir para aprofundar a agenda de integração na região, explorando a questão premente da integração fronteiriça. Nesse contexto, o trabalho visa a examinar a atuação da Rede junto ao MERCOSUL. Com isso, objetiva-se averiguar o papel da Rede para desenvolver a questão fronteiriça no âmbito do bloco.

  9. Desenvolvimento e aplicação de metodologia por cromatografia em camada delgada para determinação do perfil de alcalóides oxindólicos pentacíclicos nas espécies sul-americanas do gênero Uncaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia M.M. Valente

    Full Text Available O gênero Uncaria (Rubiaceae é representado na América do Sul e Central por duas espécies: U. tomentosa (Willd. DC. e U. guianensis (Aubl. Gmel., conhecidas popularmente como unha-de-gato. Ambas são trepadeiras perenes, sendo empregadas na prevenção e cura de várias doenças. Nessas plantas são encontrados alcalóides oxindólicos e indólicos, triterpenos glicosilados, taninos e flavonóides. Seis alcalóides oxindólicos pentacíclicos, considerados seus marcadores: especiofilina, mitrafilina, uncarina F, isomitrafilina, pteropodina e isopteropodina, são usados na padronização do material vegetal e fitoterápicos derivados. O presente trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento de metodologia analítica qualitativa utilizando cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD para determinação do perfil dos seis alcalóides oxindólicos pentacíclicos marcadores das espécies. O desenvolvimento do método incluiu a comparação entre o uso do extrato metanólico bruto, e de frações enriquecidas obtidas por partição ácido-base clássica ou pelo uso de resina básica Poliamida 6. Utilizou-se gel de sílica como fase estacionária, e variaram-se alguns parâmetros como: eluentes, concentração da amostra, espaço de eluição e tipos de reveladores. O método desenvolvido em CCD mostrou-se confiável, reprodutível e seletivo para os alcalóides alvos, sendo aplicado na análise de amostras de folhas e caule das duas espécies e também de fitoterápicos comerciais à base de U. tomentosa.

  10. Sistemática, filogenia e distribuição geográfica das espécies sul-americanas de Centris (Paracentris Cameron, 1903 e de Centris (Penthemisia Moure, 1950, incluindo uma análise filogenética do "grupo Centris" sensu Ayala, 1998 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Centridini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Vieira Zanella

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematics, phylogeny and geographical distribution of the South American species of Centris (Paracentris Cameron, 1903, and Centris (Penthemisia Moure, 1950, including a phylogenetic analysis of the "Centris group" sensu Ayala, 1998 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Centridini. A cladistic analysis with the objective of testing the hypothesis of monophily of Centris (Paracentris Cameron, 1903, and of studying its phylogenetic relationships with the other subgenera that belong to the Centris group, sensu Ayala, 1998, and the relationships among the species that occur in South America, is presented. Centris (Paracentris is a group of New World bees of amphitropical distribution, especially diversified in the Andes and in the xeric areas of South and North America. Thirty-one species were included in the analysis, four considered as outgroup, and 49 characters, all from external morphology and genitalia of adult specimens. Parsimony analyses with equal weights for the characters and successive weighting were performed with the programs NONA and PAUP, and analyses of implied weighting with the program PeeWee. The strict consensus among the trees obtained in all the analyses indicates that C. (Paracentris, as previously recognized, is a paraphyletic group. In order to eliminate that condition, the subgenera C. (Acritocentris, C. (Exallocentris and C. (Xerocentris, all described by SNELLING (1974 are synonymized under C. (Paracentris. The subgenus C. (Penthemisia Moure, 1950, previously considered a synonym of C. (Paracentris, is reinstated, but in a more restricted sense than originally proposed and with the following species: Centris brethesi Schrottky, 1902; C. buchholzi Herbst, 1918; C. chilensis (Spinola, 1851, C. mixta mixta Friese, 1904, and C. mixta tamarugalis Toro & Chiappa, 1989. Centris mixta, previously recognized as the only South American species of the subgenus C. (Xerocentris, a group supposedly amphitropical, came out as the sister-species of C. buchholzi. The following South American species were recognized under Centris (Paracentris: Centris burgdorfi Friese, 1901; C. caelebs Friese, 1900; C. cordillerana Roig-Alsina, 2000; C. euphenax Cockerell, 1913; C. flavohirta Friese, 1900; C. garleppi (Schrottky, 1913; C. klugii Friese, 1900; C. lyngbyei Jensen-Haarup, 1908; C. mourei Roig-Alsina, 2000; C. neffi Moure, 2000; C. nigerrima (Spinola, 1851; C. toroi sp. nov.; C. tricolor Friese, 1900; C. unifasciata (Schrottky, 1913, and C. vogeli Roig-Alsina, 2000. The relationships among the subgenera of the "Centris group" were: (Xanthemisia (Penthemisia (Centris s. str. - Paracentris. Centris xanthomelaena Moure & Castro 2001, an endemic species of the Caatinga and previously considered a C. (Paracentris, came out as the sister group of C. (Centris s. str. A new species of C. (Paracentris from Chile is described: Centris toroi sp. nov. Lectotypus designations and redescriptions are presented for Centris burgdorfi, C. caelebs, C. lyngbyei, C. tricolor, C. autrani Vachal, 1904 and C. smithii Friese, 1900. New synonyms proposed: C. buchholzi Herbst, 1918 = Centris wilmattae Cockerell, 1926 syn. nov.; C. caelebs Friese, 1900 = Paracentris fulvohirta Cameron, 1903. The female of C. vogeli Roig-Alsina, 2000 and the male of C. xanthomelaena are described.

  11. Preliminary Fractionation of Tiger Rattlesnake (Crotalus tigris) Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-31

    yield (average 10 mg per snake ), the venom is highly toxiL and contains high concentrations of several neurotoxic isotoxins. K,, . , S 20. DIST BUTION...has a low venom yield (average 10 mg per snake ), the venom is highly toxic and contains high concentrations of several neurotoxic isotoxins. AcCe,o...sciluatus, f mitchelLrnitcbheli and c! lrirUS tenatu.5, all of which secruled distinc.lively polent venon s when compared with other North American

  12. Insuficiência renal aguda secundária a acidentes ofídicos botrópico e crotálico. Análise de 63 casos

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    Carlos Faria Santos Amaral

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Sessenta e três pacientes com insuficiência renal aguda secundária a acidente ofídico foram tratados no CTI do Hospital das Clínicas da UFMG. Em 32 pacientes (51% o acidente foi produzido por serpentes do gênero Bothrops (grupo bio-trópico e em 32 pacientes (49% pela cascavel sul-americana (grupo crotálico. As principais complicações apresentadas pelos pacientes foram a uremia (100% dos casos, hiperpotassemia (89% dos casos, anemia (78% dos casos, infecção urinária (37% dos casos, hiper-hidratação (17% dos casos, parada cardíaca (14% dos casos e edema agudo dos pulmões (11% dos casos. Cinco pacientes do grupo crotálico (16% tiveram insuficiência respiratória aguda atribuída à ação neurotóxica do veneno, quatro dos quais se recuperaram completamente. Sete pacientes do grupo botrópico (22% tiveram necrose cortical renal diagnosticada em cinco através da biópsia renal e em dois na necropsia. Quarenta e cinco pacientes (71% foram tratados com diálise peritoneal e a hemodiálise foi necessária em dois pacientes, um dos quais havia sido submetido a diálise peritoneal. Em 17 pacientes (27% o tratamento foi conservador. Cinqüenta e cinco pacientes receberam alta hospitalar, quatro dos quais com insuficiência renal crônica secundária a necrose cortical renal e oito (13% faleceram. Os óbitos foram atribuídos a edema pulmonar agudo em quatro pacientes, a estado de choque em dois pacientes e a coma e infecção respiratória após parada cardíaca em dois pacientes.

  13. Alterações hematológicas em bovinos submetidos ao envenenamento crotálico

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    P. M. Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O quadro clínico observado ao exame do animal acidentado pela cascavél sul americana (Crotalus durissus terrificus , portadora de veneno contendo quantidades significativas da toxina crotamina, é de difícil diferenciação clínica com outras doenças. Com o objetivo de se estabelecer alterações hematológicas que auxiliem o diagnóstico desta condição mórbida, cinco fêmeas bovinas mestiças, com idade variando entre dois e três anos, foram inoculadas com veneno crotálico do tipo crotamina positivo, utilizando a dose de 0,03 mg por quilo de pêso vivo, na região glútea, por via intramuscular. Colheu-se amostras de sangue para realizar os exames laboratoriais antes e a cada duas horas após a inoculação, até a morte dos animais. Verificou-se que: o número de hemácias, o volume corpuscular médio ( VCM , a hemoglobina corpuscular média ( HCM , os números de leucócitos totais, de linfócitos, de neutrófilos e de monócitos, tiveram aumentos significativos e que os números de leucócitos totais apresentaram comportamento atípico, caracterizado por leucocitoses com valores atingindo até 60.000 celulas/mm,3 a cada seis horas, alternadas por quedas para em torno de 13.000 células/mm3. Pelo exposto, concluiu-se que a observação destas alterações poderá auxiliar o estabelecimento do diagnóstico desta afecção nos bovinos. PALAVRAS CHAVE: Envenenamento crotálico; hemograma; bovinos. SUMMARY: The clinical findings observed at examination of an animal attacked by South American rattle snake (Crotalus durissus terrificus , that has poison containing significative crotamine toxin quantites are difficult to distinguish from other diseases. With the aim of establishing haematological parameters of diagnostic value for this condition diagnosis, five crossbred female cattle, from two to three years old, were inoculated with

  14. Tertiary Structural studies of Myotoxin a from Crotalus viridis viridis Venom by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    electrophorus electri... 47 47 47 Sw:Ibb2SWheat P09864 wheat (triticum aestivum). proteina ... 46 46 51 Sw:Pa29$Pseau P20253 mulga snake (pseudechis...Sw:Pa2bSPsepo P20259 red-bellied black snake (pseudechis... 34 46 37 Sw:IbblSWheat P09863 wheat (triticum aestivum). proteina ... 46 46 52 Sw:Pa2a$Psepo P20258 red

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on isolated toxin of Crotalus durissus terrificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Filho, J.N.; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-07-01

    It is know that the ionizing radiation is able to change significantly the biological and antigenic behaviour of a toxin depending of the dose and radiation's conditions, probably by structural alterations caused by radiation. In this paper, the crotoxin, principal neurotoxin of the south american rattlesnake venom, was isolated using molecular exclusion cromatography with Sephadex G-75 and followed by precipitation of the isoeletric point. (pI 4.7.). Fractions in the concentration of 2 mg toxin/ml 0.85 % NaCl were irradiated in a source of 60 Co GAMMACELL with dose rate of 1100 Gy/hr using doses of 250,500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 Gy. It was determinated for this samples, the proteic concentration (Lowry's method), the antigenic capability using crotalic antiserum by the diffusion imunoassay (Ouch - terlony's method), the DL50 in mice and eletrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed that the antigenic capability seems to be intact until dose of 1000 Gy. By the other hand, the LD50 in the same radiation dose increases more than two times when compared with the native sample. As the radiation dose increases, the solutions became turbid showing loss of protein probably by the presence of aggregates as can be seen by the determination of the proteic concentration and the eletrophoretic control. Other important changs were observed with the irrdiated samples in comparison with the native crotoxin that can given us additional information about dose-effect event. (author) [pt

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation in crotamine from Crotalus durissus terrificus venous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, T.A. da.

    1988-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are sufficiently energetic and able to cleave any chemical bond. Molecules of substances present in solution have been shown either by direct or indirect action of ionizing radiations loss of biological activity. Crotamine obtained from C. d. terrificus venom by molecular exclusion cromatography was irradiated in aqueous solution of 1 mg/ml by gamma rays produced on a 60 Co source. Doses of 100 Gy, 2000 Gy and 5000 Gy (Dose rate = 1,14 x 10 3 Gy/h) in presence of O 2 were used for the comparison of properties of irradiated and non irradiated samples; the following assays were performed: determination of protein concentration, presence of free SH groups, SDS-Page and Ouchterlony's immunodiffusion. The Ellman's reaction for free SH groups was positive in the irradiated protein and negative one. The protein concentration was not altered up to the dose of 2000 Gy in relation to the native protein: at the dose of 5000 Gy was observed a loss of 55% of the proteic material. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed the formation of protein aggregates in the dose of 2000 Gy and 5000 Gy. A loss of the antigenic activity was observed both in the dose of 2000 Gy and 5000 Gy againt sera anticrotalic. Further studies was perfomed with crotamine irradiated at the dose of 2000 Gy in aqueous solution, O 2 absence and in presence of different concentrations of radioprotectors such as: cystein, sodium nitrate and tert-butanol. The level of the radioprotection to the toxin was estimated through the simple radical immunodiffusion technique. According to the technique the best radioprotective agent was cysteine. Since the antigenic determinants were preserved and in the SDS-PAGE analysis the crotamine structure was maintained entire like the non irradiated toxin. (author) [pt

  17. Gopherus agassizii (desert tortoise) and Crotalus ruber (red diamond rattlesnake). Burrow co-occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    I observed an adult Desert Tortoise and an adult Red Diamond Rattlesnake (sexes unknown) in a shallow tortoise burrow on 6 January 1997 at a wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, Riverside Co., California, USA (33.9599°N, 116.6613°W).

  18. Notizen zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie und Jugendentwicklung zweier Grubenottern (Serpentes: Crotalidae: Crotalus atrox und Agkistrodon p. piscivorus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petzold, Hans Günter

    1963-01-01

    Über die postembryonale Entwicklung — besonders die Gewichtszunahme — junger Giftschlangen (Viperiden, Crotaliden, Elapiden) gibt es aus naheliegenden Gründen nur wenige eingehendere Untersuchungen. KLAUBER (1956) bringt an Hand eines großen Materials eine Zusammenfassung einschlägiger

  19. Effects of ionizing radiation on crotoxin (toxin of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom): molecular studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Filho, J.N. de.

    1988-01-01

    It is know that the ionizing radiation is able to change significantly the biological and antigenic response of a toxin depending of the dose and irradiation's conditions, probable by structural alterations caused by radiation. In this work, the crotoxin, principal neurotoxin of the South American rattlesnake venom, was isolated using molecular exclusion chromatography with Sephadex G-75 and follwed by precipitation on the isoelectric point. Fractions in the concentration of 2 mg of protein/m1 0.85% NaCl were irradiated in a source of sup(60)Co GAMMACELL with dose rate of 1100 Gy/h using doses of 250, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 Gy. It was determinated for these samples, the proteic concentration (Lowry's method), the content sulphydryl (Ellman's method), the profile electrophoretic (SDS-PAGE), the toxicity by lethal dose 50% in mice and the antigenic response using crotalic antiserum by the diffusion imunoassay (Ouchterlony's method). The results showed the formation of aggregates and loss of protein in solution by precipitation. In the dose of 1000 Gy and higher it was possible to observe the presence of sulphydryl groups indicating the breakage of S-S bridges. The lethal dose 50% increased 2 times for the dose of 1000 Gy and 3.5 times for 1500 Gy shoding a detoxication. By the other hand, the antigenic response seems to be still intact at doses up to 1000 Gy. (author)

  20. In vitro evaluation of copaiba oil as a kojic acid skin enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Vicente Machado de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of copaíba oil to act as a skin penetration enhancer for the depigmenting agent kojic acid was evaluated using an in vitro diffusion system with static flux and shed rattlesnake skin membrane, Crotalus durissus terrificus, in saline solution at 34±2 ºC as the fluid receptor. The quantities of kojic acid liberated into the fluid receptor were determined by spectrophotometry at 268 nm with intervals of one and a half hours. The membranes, pretreated with copaíba oil at 25% and 50% v/v, gave flux values of 8.0 and 12.7 µg/cm²/h, permeability values of 2.0 and 3.3 cm×10-4/h, and promotion factors of 4.1 and 3.7, respectively. These results indicate that copaíba oil, at the two concentrations studied, has the capacity to promote penetration of kojic acid.A propriedade do óleo de copaíba como agente promotor de penetração cutânea do despigmentante ácido kójico foi avaliada utilizando-se sistema de difusão in vitro com fluxo estático, membrana de pele da serpente cascavel - Crotalus durissus terrificus e solução salina a 34±2 ºC como fluido receptor. As quantidades liberadas do ácido kójico no fluido receptor foram determinadas por espectrofotometria em 268 nm em intervalos de 1:30 h. As membranas pré-tratadas com óleo de copaíba a 25 e 50% v/v apresentaram valores de fluxo de 8,0 e 12,7 µg/cm²/h, permeabilidade de 2,0 e 3,3 cm×10-4/h, e fatores de promoção de 4,1 e 3,7, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o óleo de copaíba, nas duas concentrações estudadas, apresentou capacidade de promoção da penetração do ácido kójico.

  1. Estudo comparativo do emprego de selante de fibrina comercial e derivado do veneno de cascavel para reimplante de raízes ventrais medulares após avulsão

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus Vidigal de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: Lesões axonais na interface do sistema nervoso central (SNC) e periférico (SNP), como a avulsão de raízes ventrais (ARV), induzem importantes processos degenerativos retrógrados, podendo resultar em morte neuronal e consequente perda da função motora. Nesse tipo de lesão ocorre a separação de raízes nervosas com a medula espinal, interrompendo o contato entre um motoneurônio e as fibras musculares por ele inervadas. Um tratamento promissor seria a utilização de selantes de fibrina, pa...

  2. Clinical safety evaluation of F(ab')₂ antivenom (Crotalus durissus-Bothrops asper) administration in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Craig; Young, David

    2011-10-01

    Antivenoms consisting of selective antigen binding antibody fragments, or F(ab')(2), are becoming more popular in human and veterinary medicine, owing to their preferred kinetics, tissue distribution, and removal of the Fc binding portion of IgG. Consequences of antivenom administration can include acute and delayed reactions, dependent, in part, on the antivenom's donor source, purity, and composition. This study evaluated an equine-derived polyvalent F(ab')(2) pit viper antivenom in healthy dogs of various size, age, and breed under controlled conditions. Dogs were allocated into 6 treatment groups (n = 10 per group) based on weight (3 weight groups) and dose (2 dose groups) and administered F(ab')(2) antivenom over 1 hour by IV infusion. Dogs were observed for adverse events at 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after administration and blood was collected for CBC and serum biochemistry before and at 24 hours postadministration. No abnormalities were noted in the 3-vial group. In the 6-vial group, 3 dogs developed mild self-limiting edema around the head or neck, suggestive of a type 1 hypersensitivity, while another dog vomited and developed mild hypocalcemia at 24 hours, reflecting a 13% reaction rate at high doses. However, no dogs exhibited clinical signs of hypocalcemia or had any severe adverse events. CBC remained normal in all groups. This study demonstrated that the polyvalent F(ab')(2) pit viper antivenom is well tolerated in dogs given large doses in a short period of time. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2011.

  3. Quadro clínico do envenenamento crotálico experimental em bovinos (Crotalus durissus terrificus - crotamina positivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto do Lago

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever o quadro clínico de envenenamento crotálico em bovinos, cinco fêmeas, mestiças, com idade variando entre dois e três anos, foram inoculadas com veneno crotálico do tipo crotamina positivo. A dose foi de 0,03 mg/kg de peso vivo. Os animais apresentaram, cronologicamente, o seguinte quadro clínico: na 2ª hora de evolução, apatia, cabeça baixa, letargia profunda e edemaciação discreta no local da inoculação; na 6ª hora, o edema local desapareceu e mioclonias foram observadas nas grandes massas musculares; na 10ª hora, houve diminuição do tônus muscular, de reflexos superficiais, aparecimento de incoordenação motora e decúbito esternal; na 14ª hora, observaram-se movimentos de "pedalagem" e diminuição da sensibilidade profunda; na 16ª hora, paralisia flácida dos membros pélvicos; e, na 20ª hora, surgiram dispnéia, sialorréia e morte de todos os animais. A temperatura retal não se alterou até a 20ª hora, porém, a partir daí, ocorreu diminuição constante até a morte. A freqüência respiratória se manteve dentro da faixa de valores normais para bovinos, apesar da dispnéia observada ao atingir a 20ª hora. A duração do curso clínico foi de 28 ± 9 horas e, muito embora estas alterações clínicas sejam comuns a outras doenças, julga-se que a rapidez e a ordem com que aparecem seja um fator determinante no diagnóstico diferencial.

  4. Estudo morfológico e funcional do hemipênis de Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Moreira Martins Arruda

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A presença de um par de órgãos copuladores, os hemipênis, é a característica mais singular do grupo Squamata, que reúne as serpentes e os lagartos. Para que ocorra a ereção, o hemipênis sofre ingurgitamento dos corpos cavernosos por sangue e linfa, além de contar com o auxílio da contração do músculo propulsor do pênis e o relaxamento do músculo retrator. O coito nestes animais pode durar até 28 horas, porém, os mecanismos envolvidos, as estruturas e sua base farmacológica de funciona...

  5. Estratigrafia e Evolução Geológica da Parte Oriental da Bacia Bauru (Ks, Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Alberto Fernandes

    1998-01-01

    A Bacia Bauru formou-se no Cretáceo Superior (Coniaciano-Maastrichtiano), por subsidência termo-mecânica, na parte centro-sul da Plataforma Sul-Americana. Esta bacia, continental interior, acumulou uma seqüência sedimentar essencialmente arenosa (atualmente com espessura máxima de quase 300 m), que ocorre em área de cerca 370.000 km². Tem por substrato rochas vulcânicas da Fm. Serra Geral (Ki), sobretudo basaltos, da qual é separada por superfície erosiva regional. A área investigada correspo...

  6. Tectônica intraplaca e deformação sinsedimentar induzida por abalos sísmicos: o Lineamento Transbrasiliano e estruturas relacionadas na Província Parnaíba, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marlei Antônio Carrari Chamani

    2011-01-01

    O Lineamento Transbrasiliano é uma das principais estruturas da Plataforma Sul-Americana, estendendose em território brasileiro por cerca de 2700km. Desde sua instalação, no Neoproterozóico, o lineamento sofreu diversas reativações, e evidências geofísicas mostram que este se constitui numa importante descontinuidade litosférica. O Lineamento Transbrasiliano e outras estruturas do embasamento exerceram grande influência na instalação e história deposicional das bacias sedimentares da Provínci...

  7. O rebote SENDERISTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO DOS SANTOS POLETTO

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de ser pouco focado pela mídia, o Peru faz-se como um importante ator a ser analisado na conjuntura sul-americana. Marcado pela herança de Sendero Luminoso, o Estado Peruano se vê constantemente ameaçado no que se refere à sua estabilidade e capacidade de auto-sustentação. Nesse sentido o presente artigo busca analisar aos efeitos que o senderismo tem sob a política peruana e sua estabilidade.

  8. The effects of Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom on the production of antihemorrhagins and/or antibodies in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeller, Morgan R; Pérez, John C

    2002-04-01

    Opossums are animals that are naturally resistant to the proteolytic effects of Crotalid venoms. Opossums possess proteinase inhibitors in their sera that bind to and neutralize hemorrhagic and other proteolytic activity in many snake venoms. The proteinase inhibitors are not antibodies since they have different molecular weights (60kDa) and pI (4.2). The purpose of this study was to determine if opossums were capable of producing antibodies against venom and/or increasing the production of proteinase inhibitors (specifically antihemorrhagins). Five different venom immunization protocols were used to determine the effects of the venom in the opossums. The dosages ranged from 1mg of venom per immunization to 350mg/kg body weight of venom per immunization. The antihemorrhagic response was increased, but there is no evidence to suggest that an opossum can produce antibodies against venom. The lack of an antibody response is most likely due to the natural proteinase inhibitors clearing the venom from the opossum's body before an antibody response can occur.

  9. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value.

  10. The unequal influences of the left and right vagi on the control of the heart and pulmonary artery in the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, E.W.; Andrade, Denis V.; Abe, Augusto A.

    2009-01-01

    the systemic and pulmonary circulations. Central stimulation of either vagus caused small (5–10%) reductions in systemic blood pressure but did not affect blood flows or fH. A bilateral differentiation between the vagi was confirmed by progressive vagotomy in recovered snakes. Transection of the left vagus......Autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in reptiles includes sympathetic components but heart rate (fH), pulmonary blood flow ( pul) and cardiac shunt patterns are primarily controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. The vagus innervates both the heart and a sphincter on the pulmonary...... lung regresses during development. Stimulation of the left cervical vagus in anaesthetised snakes slowed the heart and markedly reduced blood flow in the pulmonary artery whereas stimulation of the right cervical vagus slowed the heart and caused a small increase in stroke volume (VS) in both...

  11. Medicamentos similares e saúde pública: controle de qualidade físico- químico de comprimidos de similar de ácido acetilsalicílico do estoque da farmácia básica do Município de Cascavel, PR, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Borges de Melo, Eduardo; Minneto, Aline; Violin, Isabella; Braga, Renata S.; Andrade, Eliane; Mariot, Simone; Leal Schneider, Deborah Sandra; Souza Godoi, Mário Fernando de; Rosa Lucca, Patricia S.

    2006-01-01

    Pela legislação brasileira, medicamentos similares eram cópias de um medicamento referência que não passaram por testes de equivalência farmacêutica e biodisponibilidade relativa. Isto mudou com a RDC 133/03. Visando discutir a importância da qualidade de medicamentos similares para a saúde pública, realizou-se avaliação físico-química de amostra de ácido acetilsalicílico similar 500 mg. Esta foi aprovada nas análises de peso-médio, dureza, friabilidade, desintegração, umidade, identificação ...

  12. Radiographic evaluation of the effect of obesity on alveolar bone in rats with ligature-induced periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    do Nascimento CM; Cassol T; da Silva FS; Bonfleur ML; Nassar CA; Nassar PO

    2013-01-01

    Cassiane Merigo do Nascimento,1 Tiago Cassol,2 Fernanda Soares da Silva,3 Maria Lucia Bonfleur,4 Carlos Augusto Nassar,5 Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar5 1Biologica Science and Health Center, State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil; 2State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil; Department of 3Pharmacy, 4Fisiology, 5Periodontology, Dental School, State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE), Ca...

  13. 77 FR 51819 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... (Crotalus durissus unicolor) Cuban ground iguana (Cyclura nubila nubila) Grand Cayman blue iguana (Cyclura lewisi) Cayman Brac ground iguana (Cyclura nubila caymanensis) Applicant: Boulder Ridge Ranch LLC, Alto...

  14. Tilapia culture and its inputs, economic relations

    OpenAIRE

    Scorvo Filho, João Donato; Frascá-Scorvo, Célia Maria Dória; Alves, João Manoel Cordeiro; Souza, Fernanda Rinaldi Alves de

    2010-01-01

    A aquicultura brasileira é a segunda (destaque para o Chile) em produção sul-americana, apoiada basicamente nas cadeias de produção da tilapicultura e da carcinicultura. O Brasil produziu, em 2007, 95.691,0 toneladas de tilápia, o que representa 45% da produção da aquicultura continental. A aquicultura formada por pequenos e médios produtores vem mostrando, nos últimos anos, mudança nos sistemas de criação. Até a o final da década de 90, ela se baseava no sistema semi-intensivo em viveiros es...

  15. A tilapicultura e seus insumos, relações econômicas

    OpenAIRE

    Scorvo Filho,João Donato; Frascá-Scorvo,Célia Maria Dória; Alves,João Manoel Cordeiro; Souza,Fernanda Rinaldi Alves de

    2010-01-01

    A aquicultura brasileira é a segunda (destaque para o Chile) em produção sul-americana, apoiada basicamente nas cadeias de produção da tilapicultura e da carcinicultura. O Brasil produziu, em 2007, 95.691,0 toneladas de tilápia, o que representa 45% da produção da aquicultura continental. A aquicultura formada por pequenos e médios produtores vem mostrando, nos últimos anos, mudança nos sistemas de criação. Até a o final da década de 90, ela se baseava no sistema semi-intensivo em viveiros es...

  16. Natureza e direções das mudanças linguísticas observadas entre os últimos falantes do Kokáma nativos do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Chandra Wood

    2011-01-01

    Esta dissertação trata das reduções estruturais em uma língua indígena sul-americana obsolescente, falada antigamente no Peru, na Colômbia e no Brasil, mas que presentemente é falada como primeira língua apenas no Peru. Trata-se da língua Kokáma, a qual possui três variedades conhecidas como Kokáma, Kokamilla e Omágwa. Esta última tem apenas lembradores no Brasil. O presente estudo segue a abordagem dada à obsolescência linguística por Dorian (1981), Hill (1981), Campbell e Muntzel (1989) e T...

  17. HPLC method to assay total saponins in Ilex paraguariensis aqueous extract

    OpenAIRE

    Gnoatto, Simone C.B.; Schenkel, Eloir P.; Bassani, Valquiria L.

    2005-01-01

    Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire é uma espécie sul-americana da qual ramos e folhas são utilizados para o preparo de uma bebida de grande consumo em alguns países da América do Sul. A planta é conhecida como “erva-mate” em português ou “yerba-mate” em espanhol. Tendo em vista o potencial uso das saponinas como tensoativo bem como o seu potencial terapêutico, o presente trabalho propõe um método de extração e quantificação para as saponinas presentes em Ilex paraguariensis. As saponinas foram e...

  18. An aid to the identification of the South American species of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Vanzolini

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A matrix of meristic characters is presented to orient the identification of South American Amphisbaena. Complementarily is given a checklist containing the citation of the original description, the type locality, identified, and a citation of a modern description useful to the identification.O trabalho consiste de uma matriz de caracteres merísticos, destinada a orientar a identificação das espécies sul americanas de Amphisbaena. Complementarmente é apresentada uma lista remissiva contendo a citação original, a localidade tipo, identificada, e a citação de uma descrição recente util à identificação.

  19. UMA LEITURA CLÁSSICA DO “ESPAÇO DO CIDADÃO” NA DEMOCRACIA

    OpenAIRE

    Raposo, Tácio José Natal; Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR); Senhoras, Elói Martins; Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR)

    2015-01-01

    RESENHA A importância da vida e da obra de Milton Santos extrapola as fronteiras brasileiras e sul americanas justamente pelo amplo reconhecimento internacional de seu esforço cientifico, acadêmico e também de cidadania para construir um pensamento crítico sobre as relações do homem no espaço que fora forjado em bases humanistas e éticas, razão pela qual ele tenha sido reconhecido ao longo do século XX como um dos mais destacados epistemólogos das Ciências Geográficas. Contando com 40 livros ...

  20. Transfronteirizações na América do Sul: uma agenda de pesquisa sobre dinâmicas territoriais nas fronteiras meridional e setentrional do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldomar Arnaldo Rückert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma agenda de pesquisa em desenvolvimento sobre cenários de dinâmicas territoriais transfronteiriças com atenção em políticas territoriais dirigidas às conexões de infraestruturas sul-americanas e a áreas protegidas no norte amazônico / Planalto das Guianas. A agenda de pesquisa e seus problemas regionais estão localizados em regiões de fronteiras brasileiras no extremos sul e norte, isto é: i as fronteiras do Mercosul no Arco Sul do Brasil - estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná ao longo do Uruguai, Argentina e Paraguai (macrorregião da Bacia do Prata e ii a fronteira franco-brasileira no Arco Norte do Brasil - Estado do Amapá ao longo da Guiana Francesa (macrorregião do Planalto das Guianas.

  1. Aspectos citoquímicos e morfológicos de elementos sanguíneos das serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus mantidas em cativeiro no serpentário do Instituto Vital Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Kindlovits

    Full Text Available RESUMO A criação de serpentes peçonhentas em cativeiro vem se tornando prática cada vez mais difundida no país. Dessa forma, o conhecimento do manejo e da clínica de serpentes se torna prioritário, a fim de permitir maior sobrevida dos animais. No que concerne a serpentes peçonhentas, dados hematológicos já foram descritos na literatura, no entanto, apesar dos recursos utilizados, os dados analisados ainda são insipientes. Com o objetivo de caracterizar, morfologicamente, as células sanguíneas e de esclarecer diferenças morfológicas e funcionais, foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 50 serpentes pertencentes ao plantel do Instituto Vital Brasil. Foram confeccionados e analisados por microscopia óptica e citoquimicamente os esfregaços sanguíneos corados por métodos de Romanowsky e citoquímicos. Foi possível diferenciar as células, caracterizar e confirmar a existência de eosinófilo em B. atrox e C. durissus. Concluiu-se que a caracterização celular pode fornecer evidências indispensáveis ao entendimento da fisiologia de serpentes.

  2. EFECTO DEL AZUL DE METILENO EN LA HIPOTENSIÓN Y BRADICARDIA ASOCIADAS A LA ADMINISTRACIÓN DE UNA DOSIS LETAL DEL VENENO TOTAL DE CASCABEL VENEZOLANA (Crotalus durissus cumanensis) EN RATAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briceno, Elena; Zerpa, Hector; Ascanio, Elias

    2010-01-01

    rats treated with a 2% solution of methylene blue (single dose: 2 mg/kg, IV) and forty min later, TV was injected as in group I. Before the onset of the experiments, each rat was anesthetized with azaper - one:ketamine. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated to record blood pressure (mean arterial...

  3. Energy inputs and outputs in the wheat production at different localizations; Balanco de energia na producao de trigo em diferentes locais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollmann, Pedro; Greco, Marcelo; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: jefersonklein@yahoo.com.br; Klein, Jeferson [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil); Palagi, Celso A.; Jurach, Jorge J. [Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agricola Tecnologia da Nossa Terra (COODETEC), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The intensifying and modernization of agriculture, in spite of improving the productivity, it caused a complete petroleum derived dependence, so much in the form of fuels, lubricants and machinery, as in the form of inputs for the production. This work had as objective to esteem the energy inputs and outputs and the energy conversion, in two different local, in the west of Parana State/Brazil. The largest consumption was observed for the direct energy category, with 95.6% and 95.28% in Cascavel and Palotina, respectively. In the direct energy flow, the Palotina production spent 5,0% more. The consumption of fossil energy was of 22.32% for the Palotina farm and of 23.84% for the Cascavel farm. The energy conversion was of 3.2 and 1.8, for the wheat productions in Cascavel and Palotina, respectively. (author)

  4. Prospectivity analysis of gold and iron oxide copper-gold-(silver mineralizations from the Faina Greenstone Belt, Brazil, using multiple data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Schievano de Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Faina Greenstone Belt is located in the southern sector of the Goiás Archean Block and has been investigated since the 18th century because of its gold deposits. Recent studies have revealed the polymetallic potential of the belt, which is indicated by anomalous levels of Ag, Cu, Fe and Co in addition to Mn, Ba, Li, Ni, Cr and Zn. This study was developed based on a detailed analysis of two selected target sites, Cascavel and Tinteiro, and multiple data sets, such as airborne geophysics, geochemistry and geological information. These datasets were used to create a final prospectivity map using the fuzzy logic technique. The gold mineralization of Cascavel target is inserted in an orogenic system and occurs in two overlapping quartz veins systems, called Mestre-Cascavel and Cuca, embedded in quartzite with an average thickness 50 cm and guidance N45º-60ºW/25ºSW with free coarse gold in grains 2-3 mm to 3 cm. The prospectivity map created for this prospect generated four first-order favorable areas for mineralization and new medium-favorability foci. The Tinteiro area, derived from studies conducted by Orinoco do Brasil Mineração Ltda., shows polymetallic mineralization associated with an iron oxide-copper-gold ore deposit (IOCG system posterior to Cascavel target mineralization. Its prospectivity map generated 19 new target sites with the potential for Au, Cu and Ag mineralization, suggesting new directions for future prospecting programs.

  5. Environmental Assessment for a Commercial Vehicle Inspection Point at the Downs Road Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    defense; information operations; precision aerospace fires; psychological operations; specialized air mobility; specialized refueling; and intelligence ...for Florida black bear (Ursus americanus floridanus), other mammals, amphibians and reptiles such as diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus adamanteus

  6. F-22 Operational Squadron and T-38 Detachment Beddown at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Rattlesnake Crotalus adamanteus Bracken Fern Pteridium aquilinum Six-lined Racerunner Cnemidophorus sexlineatus Blueberry Vaccinium spp. Florida Black Bear...adamanteus Bracken Fern Pteridium aquilinum Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus Blackberry Rubus cuneifolius Pine Siskin Carduelis pinus Flatwoods

  7. The substrate specificity of phospholipase A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenen, L.L.M. van; Haas, Gerard H. de

    1963-01-01

    Investigations on variously modified analogues of phospholipids elucidated the following substrate characteristics for phospholipase A (Crotalus adamanteus). 1. 1. Within the class of α-phosphoglycerides -isomers are readily hydrolysed, while -α-phospholipids appeared not to be attacked. 2.

  8. Instituições Internacionais de Saúde no Contexto Sub-Regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Freitas Campos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ao que pese as diferenças nucleares entre os blocos União Europeia (UE - supranacional e União das Nações Sul-americanas (UNASUL - intergovernamental, em ambos as competências regionais em matéria sanitária não se sobrepõe às competências dos Estados-membros. No caso da União Europeia os art. 4, §2, k; art. 6, a; art. 168 do Tratado sobre o Funcionamento da UE confere apenas poderes para agir em complemento das políticas nacionais; enquanto na União de Nações Sul-americanas, nos artigos 2º e 3º, f de seu Tratado Constitutivo prevê como objetivo construir, de maneira participativa e consensuada, um espaço de integração, para que de forma consequente os Estados independentes possam garantir o acesso universal aos serviços de saúde às suas populações. Dessa forma, o objetivo é verificar as competências, a constituição histórico-regional, objetivos e potencialidades dessas instituições internacionais, criadas no âmbito desses blocos regionais, em influenciar as políticas regionais e nacionais de saúde. Tendo em vista a ampla gama de instituições internacionais que atuam de forma multisetorial na saúde, o estudo apresenta aqueles órgãos cujas competências são estabelecidas nos tratados constitutivos e decisões presidenciais e resoluções desses blocos. Para isso foi realizada uma pesquisa documental e bibliográfica no âmbito das Instituições da União Europeia e da Unasul. Um importante ponto de questionamento diz respeito à existência ou não de um diálogo entre essas instituições e os cidadãos dos blocos a que pertencem, uma vez que se parte do pressuposto que a democracia deve ser uma regra implícita no ‘jogo’ internacional.

  9. O Processo de Dessecuritização do Narcotráfico na Unasul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias David Morales Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO artigo estuda como a problemática do narcotráfico é incorporada à agenda da União de Nações Sul-Americanas (Unasul. A análise desenvolvida fundamenta-se no arcabouço teórico apresentado pela Escola de Copenhague, mais especificamente a Teoria da (DesSecuritização (BUZAN et al., 1998. Dessa forma, defende-se que a Unasul, por meio de dois conselhos temáticos (Conselho de Defesa Sul-Americano e Conselho Sul-Americano sobre o Problema Mundial das Drogas, iniciou o processo de dessecuritização da problemática do tráfico de drogas em nível regional. Nesse sentido, vê-se que a Unasul tem avançado nas discussões sobre a problemática do narcotráfico na região, buscando ampliar a abordagem do tema ao mesmo tempo em que se apresenta como uma alternativa ao modelo militarista norte-americano de combate ao narcotráfico.

  10. Sacroiliíte bilateral por criptococos: relato de um caso e revisão de literatura Bilateral cryptococcal sacroiliitis: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Kameya da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O envolvimento do sistema osteoarticular na criptococose ocorre, particularmente, nas formas disseminadas da infecção, afetando principalmente indivíduos imunodeprimidos. O sistema ósseo é acometido em 5 a 10% dos casos e o sistema articular é raramente comprometido. Até o momento, há 31 casos de artrite criptocócica relatados na literatura médica e, nesta série, apenas 2 casos de sacroiliíte criptocócica. Os autores relatam o caso de um paciente com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS, que desenvolveu criptococose disseminada, complicada com sacroiliíte bilateral. Este se constitui no primeiro caso de sacroiliíte criptocócica relatado na literatura médica brasileira e sul-americana.The involvement of osseous and articular system in cryptococcosis occurs particularly in the disseminated forms of the infection, affecting mostly immunossupressed hosts. The bone system is compromised in 5 to 10% of the cases, and the articular system is rarely implicated. Until now, there are 31 related cases of cryptococcal arthritis in the medical literature, and in this serie, only 02 cases of criptococcal sacroiliitis. The authors discuss a case of a patient with AIDS that developed disseminated cryptococcosis, complicated with bilateral sacroiliitis. To our knowledge this is the first case of cryptococcal sacroiliitis related in the Brazilian and South-American medical literature.

  11. Sistemas de Salud en Suramérica: desafios para la universalidad, la integralidad y la equidad; Ligia Giovanella, Oscar Feo, Mariana Faria, Sebastián Tobar (orgs., ISAGS/UNASUR, Rio de Janeiro, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cris na Souto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O livro aqui apresentado não é resultado apenas de um projeto editorial, mas de um importante avanço que tem ocorrido nos países da América do Sul nesses últimos anos: a criação da União das Nações Sul-americanas (Unasul e do Instituto Sul-americano de Governo em Saúde (Isags, instituição integrante dessa União. Com o propósito de circular conhecimento, realizar debates e análise conjuntural e política, além de buscar o estreitamento dos 12 países membros, o Isags tem realizado importantes eventos. Este livro é fruto de uma de suas iniciativas, a Ofi cina Sistemas de Saúde na América do Sul: desafi os para a universalidade, a integralidade e a equidade, ocorrida em julho de 2011 na cidade do Rio de Janeiro.

  12. FLUXOS IMIGRATÓRIOS DE LATINO-AMERICANOS: CIDADANIA TRANSNACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Toledo Lucena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A imigração na atualidade tornou-se um fenômeno social e econômico que se apresenta como um problema nas políticas internacionais e às políticas latino-americanas. Assim, a imigração centro e sul americana, sob a perspectiva de gênero, para diferentes lugares do planeta, têm se intensificado a partir de 1990.Com relação ao destino, existem dois tipos migratórios favoritos: as regiões metropolitanas e as regiões de fronteira. Tendo em vista perceber as diferentes formas de integração, em região metropolitana, o grupo de peruanos foi objeto de análise na cidade de São Paulo, na migração trans-fronteiriça, a fronteira Nicarágua-Costa Rica foi espaço de reflexão. A fronteira segue o ritmo das metrópoles e tende a se transformar em território global.

  13. As relações Colômbia, países vizinhos e Estados Unidos: visões em torno da agenda de segurança Relations between Colombia, its neighbours and the United States: views on the Security Agenda

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    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trabalha a tese de que a agenda de segurança dos EUA para Colômbia, que adquire expressão concreta em mecanismos como o Plano Colômbia e a Iniciativa Regional Andina, continuará sendo o eixo central da política de segurança na região sul-americana. No entanto, a noção de segurança que têm em mente os decisions makers dos EUA no caso colombiano reflete uma visão nas percepções de ameaças na que se misturam fortemente elementos novos ("as novas ameaças", como o tráfico de drogas e fatores clássicos.This article works the thesis that the security agenda of the USA for Colombia, that acquires a concrete expression in mechanisms like the Colombia Plan and the Andean Regional Initiative, will remain as the central axis of the security policy in the South-American region. However, the notion of security that the decision makers of the USA have in mind in the Colombian case reflects a vision focused on the perceptions of threat in which new elements ("the new threats", such as traffic, and classical factors are mixed.

  14. A dor além dos confins do homem: aproximações preliminares ao debate entre Frances Power Cobbe e os darwinistas a respeito da vivissecção na Inglaterra vitoriana (1863-1904 Pain beyond the confines of man: a preliminary introduction to the debate between Frances Power Cobbe and the Darwinists with respect to vivisection in Victorian England (1863-1904

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    André Luis de Lima Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta uma personagem pouco conhecida e estudada na comunidade acadêmica brasileira e sul-americana, Frances Power Cobbe, britânica vitoriana empenhada em várias causas sociais, entre elas o combate à vivissecção. Na maturidade, Cobbe criticou todo e qualquer uso de animais vivos em experimentos de laboratório, com ou sem aplicação de anestésicos. Nosso foco inicial é a relação entre Cobbe e Charles Darwin e o embate em que ambos se envolveram a respeito da legitimidade ética do uso de animais vivos em experimentos fisiológicos para o bem (ou não do conhecimento e da humanidade.This article introduces a person who is little known and studied in the Brazilian and South-American academic communities. Frances Power Cobbe was a British woman in the Victorial period engaged in various social causes, among them the abolition of vivisection. In her later years, Cobbe criticized any use of live animals in laboratory experiments, with or without the use of anesthetics. Our initial focus is on the relationship between Cobbe and Charles Darwin and the conflict they both were involved in regarding the ethical legitimacy of using live animals in physiological experiments for the good (or not of knowledge and mankind.

  15. Taxonomia e distribuição de Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce A. Evans (Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiophyta Taxonomy and distribution of Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce A. Evans (Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiophyta

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    Cid José Passos Bastos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce A. Evans é uma espécie sul americana, ocorrendo nas Florestas Amazônica e Atlântica. Caracteriza-se, principalmente, pela presença do segundo e primeiro dentes do lóbulo contíguos um ao outro e ausência de inovações. Entre as espécies neotropicais, C. aneogyna é a única que pode apresentar ocelos, porém, a presença destes não é constante. Descrição, ilustração, comentários sobre a morfologia e distribuição geográfica são fornecidos e discutidos. Está sendo referida pela primeira vez para a Bolívia.Cheilolejeunea aneogyna (Spruce A. Evans is a South American species found in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. It is characterized mainly by the presence of the first and second teeth of the lobule that are adjacent to each other and the lack of innovations. Among the neotropical species, C. aneogyna is the only one that has ocelli; however, their presence is not constant. A description, illustration, and comments on the morphology and geographic distribution are provided. This species is reported for the first time for Bolivia.

  16. As guerras de independência, as práticas sociais e o código de elite na América do século XIX: leituras da correspondência bolivariana The wars of independence, social practices, and the elite code in nineteenth-century America: readings from Bolivar's correspondence

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    Fabiana de Souza Fredrigo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Produzido entre os anos de 1799 e 1830, o epistolário de Simón Bolívar permite vincular a escrita de cartas, a memória e a historiografia. Este artigo pretende alcançar dois objetivos: 1 expor o projeto narrativo epistolar, considerando os vínculos citados; 2 avaliar as práticas sociais que possibilitaram, simultaneamente, a formação de uma comunidade afetiva entre oficiais, a partilha de um código de elite e a construção de uma memória para as nascentes repúblicas sul-americanas.Produced between 1799 and 1830, Simón Bolívar's epistolary allows to tie the writing of letters, the memory and the historiography. This article intends to reach two objectives: 1 to display the narrative epistolar project, to considering the cited bonds; 2 to evaluate the social practices that make possible, simultaneously, the formation of an affective community between officers, the allotment of a elite code and the construction of a memory for the rising South American republics.

  17. Muito além de direitas e esquerdas: os giros e a densidade dos regimes democráticos na América do Sul

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    Renata Peixoto de Oliveira

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretende inicialmente dialogar com a literatura existente sobre processos de redemocratização e consolidação democrática Sul-Americana, entre as décadas de 1980 e 1990. Com base nesta discussão teórica elementar sobre as novas democracias na região, é proposta uma reavaliação conceitual e analítica aplicada ao entendimento do contexto democrático contemporâneo. Recentemente, as análises se centram nos giros, para a esquerda e para a direita, e suas consequências e implicações. Neste artigo se pretende a superação de uma análise dicotômica simplista, entendendo que estes giros ideológicos fazem parte de uma trama mais complexa, de giros maiores e períodos mais abrangentes, que se referem à própria densidade de nossos regimes democráticos. Assim, seria possível uma melhor compreensão das distintas fases, objetivos e dilemas enfrentados por nossas democracias nas últimas três décadas e, principalmente, avançar para um melhor entendimento do período em que nos encontramos.

  18. Radiographic evaluation of the effect of obesity on alveolar bone in rats with ligature-induced periodontal disease

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    do Nascimento CM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassiane Merigo do Nascimento,1 Tiago Cassol,2 Fernanda Soares da Silva,3 Maria Lucia Bonfleur,4 Carlos Augusto Nassar,5 Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar5 1Biologica Science and Health Center, State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil; 2State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil; Department of 3Pharmacy, 4Fisiology, 5Periodontology, Dental School, State University of West Paraná (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: There is evidence that the lack of metabolic control of obese patients may accelerate periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographically the effect of cafeteria-diet-induced obesity on alveolar bone loss in rats subjected to periodontal disease. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1 control group, 2 control and ligature group; 3 cafeteria group; and 4 cafeteria and ligature group. The animals were evaluated for obesity and euthanized, and the mandible of each rat was removed to perform a radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss and its effect on diet-induced obesity. The results showed greater alveolar bone loss in the mice in Group 4 (P<0.01. Thus, we concluded that obese mice, on average, showed greater radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss than mice undergoing induction of obesity. Keywords: periodontal disease, radiography, obesity

  19. Management of venomous snakebites in dogs and cats in Brazil

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    R.S. Ferreira Júnior

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake envenoming is a major problem both to veterinary and human medicine in tropical countries due to high incidence, severity, and sequelae. In Brazil, most envenomings involving animals are caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snakes; these are the highest risk to animals. This study reports on Bothrops and Crotalus envenomings in dogs, the main species responsible for epidemiology, pathogenesis, venom action, clinical signs, sequelae and complications, clinical pathology, necropsy findings, diagnosis, and treatment. Veterinarians must be capable of identifying the snake not only by observing its characteristics but also symptom evolution.

  20. De ‘Trabalhador Migrante’ a ‘Cidadão Sul-Americano’: uma análise da política migratória multilateral

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    Jacques Ramírez Gallegos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente artigo examina o tratamento dos assuntos migratórios na América do Sul de uma perspectiva multilateral. A tese central do texto é que tanto a CAN como o Mercosul tiveram uma visão unidimensional do assunto, na qual prevalecem os enfoques econômico-comerciais e veem os migrantes como “mão de obra”. Ao contrário dessa visão esta a UNASUL, que vem pensando o tema de maneira integral, superando a histórica divisão entre “migrantes desejáveis” e “não desejáveis” e recuperando a categoria de cidadania sul-americana como  um elemento central para a integração regional. Palavras-chaves: migração, multilateralismo,  integração, cidadania sul-americana.   De ‘Trabajador Migrante’ a ‘Ciudadano Suramericano’: un análisis de la política migratoria multilateral Resumen El presente artículo examina el tratamiento de los asuntos migratorios en América del Sur desde una perspectiva multilateral. La tesis central del texto es que tanto la CAN (Comunidad Andina de Naciones como MERCOSUR (Mercado Común del Sur han tenido una mirada unidimensional donde prevalecen los enfoques económico comerciales y ven a los migrantes como ‘mano de obra’. Por el contrario, desde la UNASUR (Unión de Naciones Suramericanas se ha pensando el tema de manera integral superando la histíricoa división entre ‘migrantes deseables’ y ‘no deseables’ y recuperando la categoría de ciudadanía suramericana como un elemento central para la integración regional. Palabras Claves: migración, multilateralismo, integración, ciudadania suramericana   From 'Migrant Worker' to 'South American Citizen': an analysis of multilateral migration policy Summary This article examines the treatment of migratory issues in South America from a multilateral perspective. The central argument holds that both the CAN (the Community of Andean Nations, and the MERCOSUR have a vision of migratory issues that is largely dictated by the

  1. Vigilância e resposta em saúde no plano regional: um estudo preliminar do caso da febre do Zika vírus

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    Flávia Thedim Costa Bueno

    Full Text Available Resumo Apesar de ser conhecido desde os anos 50, o Zika vírus não havia despertado interesse da comunidade internacional. Entre 2015 e 2016, o vírus se alastrou pelo Brasil com a suspeita de que o aumento de casos de distúrbios neurológicos poderia ter vínculos com a infecção, configurando uma Emergência Nacional de Saúde Pública em novembro de 2015. Em 1º de fevereiro de 2016, a OMS declarou esta suspeita como uma Emergência de Saúde Pública de Importância Internacional (ESPII, deflagrando resposta conforme o Regulamento Sanitário Internacional (2005. O Zika está presente também em quase todos os países da América do Sul. Nesse sentido, organizações internacionais como a OPAS/OMS, Unasul e Mercosul estão desenvolvendo ações de resposta à epidemia. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar criticamente as respostas regional sul-americana e brasileira de fevereiro a setembro de 2016 com relação à esta declaração de ESPII, utilizando metodologia qualitativa, por meio do levantamento bibliográfico e análise documental. Nesse contexto, a OPAS/OMS teve atuação destacada em relação às demais organizações. Além disso, a conjuntura política da região parece ter papel importante na instabilidade do Mercosul e da Unasul, o que pode afetar sua capacidade e efetividade de resposta.

  2. Em busca de uma nova inserção da América Latina na economia global

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    Maria Cristina Cacciamali

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir, de forma interdisciplinar, as condições necessárias e os caminhos para concretizar um modelo econômico e político de maior autonomia no cenário mundial para os países da América do Sul. O enfoque parte das condições políticas e sociais configuradas pela região ao fim da primeira década do presente século, enfatizando o papel do Brasil e considerando as relações econômicas e políticas do contexto internacional, a estabilidade política e o crescente protagonismo da China nos países da região. Analisa ainda aspectos referentes à importância da política social e da política de defesa comum sob a União das Nações Sul-Americanas (Unasul.The aim of this paper is to discuss, in an interdisciplinary way, the necessary conditions and steps to achieve a more autonomous political and economic model on the world stage for South America countries. It departs from the political and social conditions of the region by the end of the first decade of this century. Emphasis is placed on the role of Brazil across the region in the light of the economic and political relations in the international arena, political stability and the growing influence of China. It also examines issues concerning the importance of maintaining an inclusive social policy and a common defense policy under the Southern America Nations Union (Unasur.

  3. Território, redes técnicas e transporte turístico aéreo: notas para discussão de seu contexto atual

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    Jaciel Gustavo Kunz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As redes técnicas organizam o território na atualidade. Entre as tipologias de redes técnicas está a de circulação de pessoas, que opera a partir de distintos modais, com destaque para o aéreo. Este incorpora os maiores avanços técnicos e a perspectiva de fluidez. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar contribuições teóricas a respeito do tema “redes técnicas” associado ao estudo do objeto “transporte aéreo de passageiros/turistas”, sob o contexto brasileiro atual dessa atividade. Por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica e documental de caráter exploratório, utilizam-se conceitos-chave, sobretudo da Geografia, afetos ao transporte aéreo, aproximando-os da perspectiva do Turismo. Esses permitem uma síntese, a partir da qual é possível propor uma reflexão preliminar, apontando relações – como entre hierarquias da rede de transporte aéreo e da rede urbana – e, também, agenda de pesquisa futura voltadas a uma compreensão mais ampla do transporte turístico aéreo na conjuntura contemporânea brasileira e sul-americana, oferecendo subsídios à intervenção com vistas ao desenvolvimento.

  4. Evolution of iron crust and clayey Ferralsol in deeply weathered sandstones of Marília Formation (Western Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosolen, Vania; Bueno, Guilherme Taitson; Melfi, Adolpho José; Montes, Célia Regina; de Sousa Coelho, Carla Vanessa; Ishida, Débora Ayumi; Govone, José Silvio

    2017-11-01

    Extensive flat plateaus are typical landforms in the cratonic compartment of tropical regions. Paleoclimate, pediplanation, laterization, and dissection have created complex and distinct geological, geomorphological, and pedological features in these landscapes. In the Brazilian territory, the flat plateau sculpted in sandstone of Marília Formation (Neocretaceous) belonging to the Sul-Americana surface presents a very clayey and pisolitic Ferralsol (Red and Yellow Latossolo in the Brazilian soil classification). The clayey texture of soil and the pisolites have been considered as weathering products of a Cenozoic detritical formation which is believed to overlay the Marília Formation sandstones. Using data of petrography (optical microscopy and SEM), mineralogy (RXD), and macroscopic structures (description in the field of the arrangement of horizons and layers), a complete profile of Ferralsol with ferricrete and pisolites was studied. The complex succession of facies is in conformity with a sedimentary structure of Serra da Galga member (uppermost member of Marília Formation). The hardening hematite concentration appears as layered accretions in the subparallel clayey lenses of sandstone saprolite, preserving its structure. Iron contents varied according to different soil fabrics. Higher concentrations of iron are found in the massive ferricrete or in pisolites in the mottled horizon. Kaolinite is a dominant clay mineral and shows two micro-organizations: (1) massive fabric intrinsic to the sedimentary rock, and (2) reworked in pisolites and illuviated features. The pisolites are relicts of ferricrete in the soft bioturbated topsoil. The continuous sequence of ferricrete from saprolite to the Ferralsol indicates that the regolith is autochthonous, developed directly from sandstones of Marília Formation, through a long and intense process of laterization.

  5. Métodos de enxertia na produção de mudas de tamarindeiro

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    Glêidson Bezerra de Góes

    Full Text Available RESUMO O tamarindo (Tamarindus indica L. vem despertando interesse da população sul-americana por suas propriedades medicinais. Contudo, estudos com técnicas agronômicas para a espécie são ainda escassos. Com o objetivo de determinar o melhor método de enxertia para a produção de mudas de tamarindeiro, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido - UFERSA, em Mossoró, RN. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, constituído por cinco tratamentos, que foram os métodos de enxertia (garfagem no topo em fenda cheia, garfagem no topo à inglesa, simples, garfagem no topo à inglesa, complicada, garfagem em fenda lateral e borbulhia em placa, com sete repetições, sendo cada parcela composta por 14 mudas. Foram avaliados: percentagem de pegamento dos enxertos, comprimento da parte aérea, comprimento do sistema radicular, comprimento de ramos, número de folhas, número de ramos, diâmetro do colo, matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria seca do sistema radicular, matéria seca total. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e comparados pelo teste Tukey, a 5% de significância. Garfagem no topo em fenda cheia, garfagem no topo à inglesa complicada e garfagem no topo à inglesa simples foram os melhores métodos de enxertia para o tamarindeiro.

  6. Cooperação estruturante, a experiência da Fiocruz Structural Cooperation, the Fiocruz experience

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    José Roberto Ferreira

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo analisa a estratégia de cooperação estruturante em saúde, procurando destacar seu significado como método de promover políticas institucionais para aperfeiçoar o modelo de gestão. No âmbito da saúde, chama a atenção para a diferença que representa em relação à cooperação tradicional mais orientada à doenças, enquanto esta abordagem está centrada no sistema de saúde, reforçando a governança global e aplicando os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODS, que ampliam uma influência multisetorial. Tal abordagem potencializa a cooperação com o estabelecimento de redes de Instituições estruturantes, incluindo as relações entre os países participantes no âmbito de seus Institutos Nacionais de Saúde, e Escolas de Saúde Pública e de Pessoal Técnico. Como exemplo se aplica na União de Nações Sul Americanas (UNASUL e na Comunidade de Países de Língua Portuguesa (CPLP especialmente na África. Finalmente, ressalta a importância dessa estratégia na relação sul-sul, visando as reais necessidades dos países parceiros em oposição às assimetrias nas dimensões econômicas e cientificas que se observam na cooperação oferecida pelos países desenvolvidos.

  7. As estratégias de cooperação Sul-Sul nos marcos da política externa brasileira de 1993 a 2007 South-South cooperation strategies in Brazilian Foreign Policy from 1993 to 2007

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    Miriam Gomes Saraiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é analisar as duas vertentes da cooperação sul-sul adotadas pela política externa brasileira entre 1993 e 2007. Por um lado, o artigo examina a política externa brasileira em face da América do Sul: o Mercosul e a cooperação sul-americana em termos mais gerais que, dentro do arco das atuações externas do país, é o tipo de cooperação sul-sul identificada como prioritária. Por outro lado, dedicará também algumas reflexões para a cooperação do Brasil com outros países considerados emergentes e system-affecting, em outros continentes, como é o caso da África do Sul, Índia, China e, em diferente medida, da Rússia.The aim of this article is to analyze the two approaches to South-South cooperation evident in Brazilian foreign policy between 1993 and 2007. On one hand the article examines Brazilian foreign policy towards South America. Specifically, cooperation with Mercosur members and South-American cooperation broadly conceptualized. The region is a foreign policy priority among its south-south cooperation activities. On the other hand, this paper reflects on Brazilian cooperation with other emerging and "system-affecting" countries that belong to other continents, such as South Africa, India and China, and to a certain extent, Russia.

  8. Contributions to the study of the macroscopy anatomy of Bradypus torquatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Bradypus variegatus (Schinz, 1825 brain

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    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A grande preocupação na preservação da fauna sul americana tem levado pesquisadores a intensa produção de trabalhos. Este trabalho constitui parte deste esforço para entender as estruturas animais, em especial do gênero Bradypus, ordem Edentata, descrevendo a anatomia macroscópica do encéfalo de duas espécies, Torquatus e Variegatus, ambas ocorrendo na mata atlântica brasileira. Os animais foram a óbito naturalmente, congelados reserva da Matinha, e descongelados, injetados, dissecados e corados por de técnicas apropriadas. Vemos as formações do neocórtex num modelo mais primitivo para mamíferos, uma predominância de áreas e estruturas ligadas ao olfato e diversas diferenças, quando comparadas a outros mamíferos, em especial a primatas. Dentre estas, a ocorrência de apenas 2 colículos no tronco encefálico, hipófise discoidal, grande fórnice e bem desenvolvidos pedúnculos cerebrais. As circunvoluções são brandas e ocorrem lobos semelhantes aos demais mamíferos, com cerebelo não recoberto pelas projeções dos telencéfalos e com proporção de até 1/4 em relação ao todo.

  9. Variability of Venom-Neutralizing Properties of Serum from Snakes of the Colubrid Genus Lampropeltis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    chick in the terciopelo Bothrops asper venom by blood se- zootoxicologic studies on venoms. Copeia 1959: rum of the colubnd snake Cletie dIeia. Toxicon 20...effect of Bothrops jararaca and faded rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis concolor) venom: Waglerophis merremii snake plasma on the coagu- lethal toxicity and

  10. Histology of the venom gland of the puff-adder (Bitis arietans)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Morph. 123: 133-156. RUSSEL, F.E. & EVENTOV, R. 1964. Lethality of crude and lyopbilised Crotalus venom. Toxicon 2: 81. WILLEMSE, G.T., HATTINGH, J., KARLSSON, R.M., LEVY, S. &. PARKER, C. 1979. Changes in composition and protein concentration of puff-adder (Bitis arietans) venom due to frequent milking.

  11. Snake mortality associated with late season radio-transmitter implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; Robert T. Zappalorth

    1998-01-01

    Radio-telemetry is an increasingly used procedure to obtain data on the biology of free-living snakes (Reinert 1992, 1994). In Texas and Louisiana we have been using the surgical technique of Weatherhead and Anderka (1984) to implant transmitters in timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus...

  12. Taste buds in the palatal mucosa of snakes | Berkhoudt | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An examination of the oral mucosa of Crotalus and several Scolecophidia revealed the presence of taste buds. The taste buds in these two divergent groups of snakes are similar in appearance, and correspond to previous descriptions of gustatory organs in other reptiles. Few taste buds were present in any specimen, and ...

  13. A computational model for simulating the transport of corn, soybean and wheat yield from west parana state region.

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Felomena Alves de Oliveira Sandri

    2006-01-01

    In the West of Paranà State, the Regional Nuclei of Agricultural State Secretary â SEAB - are located in Cascavel and Toledo. The first one has an area of 1,283,062.58 ha, which includes 28 cities; the second one is 849,732.80 ha wide and counts with 20 cities. These Regional Nuclei are responsible for twenty percent of the Whole Production Value, requiring agribusiness state production, as well as important areas concerning/ corn, soybean at wheat production; and they reach...

  14. Caracterização morfológica de espécies de Hemerobius Linnaeus, 1758 (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae associadas a cultivos de café (Coffea arabica L., milho (Zea mays L. e erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Rogéria Inês Rosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The predators were collected in mate crop in Cascavel and São Mateus do Sul, Paraná, Brazil and some other additional specimens in coffee and maize crops in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Illustrations obtained by SEM are given by the first time to the principal structures. Three species of Hemerobius were identified: H. bolivari Banks, 1910; H. domingensis Banks, 1941 and H. gaitoi Monserrat, 1996. H. domingensis is recorded for the first time to Brazil.

  15. Diabete Melito Pós-Transplante em Receptores de Transplante Renal

    OpenAIRE

    Batista Peres, Luís Alberto; Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná/Renalclin Oeste; Ann, Hi Kyung; Renalclin Oeste; Camargo, Maurício; Renalclin Oeste; Rohde, Noris; Renalclin Oeste; Uscocovich, Vanessa; Renalclin Oeste; Biela, Rubia Bethania; Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná

    2009-01-01

    O diabete melito pós-transplante (DMPT) é uma complicação relativamente comum e sua ocorrência está relacionada principalmente ao uso de imunossupressores. Avaliar a incidência de diabete melito após o transplante renal na região Oeste do Estado do Paraná. Estudamos retrospectivamente os prontuários de todos os pacientes submetidos à transplante renal em Cascavel-PR. Foram realizados 256 transplantes no período de 14/09/1985 a 30/04/2008, sendo 58 com doador falecido e 198 com doador vivo. Fo...

  16. Susceptibility of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae) to the fungus Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Renato Cassol de; Alves, Luis Francisco Angeli; Neves, Pedro Manuel Oliveira Janeiro

    2002-01-01

    A cultura da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) é uma importante atividade econômica no Sul do Brasil. Com o aumento de consumo nos anos oitenta, cresceram também as áreas de monocultura, gerando condições favoráveis para o aumento populacional de insetos e ácaros fitófagos, entre eles o ácaro vermelho Oligonychus yothersi. Este estudo avaliou a suscetibilidade do ácaro vermelho O. yothersi a vários isolados do fungo Beauveria bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em Cascavel, PR. Discos foliare...

  17. ASPECTOS HIGIÊNICO-SANITÁRIOS DE ESTABELECIMENTO COMERCIAL DO TIPO SUPERMERCADO DE GRANDE PORTE.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, Kátia Rejane Pereira de Queiroga; Bernardino, Priscilla Diniz Lima da Silva

    2016-01-01

    RESUMOOs supermercados são locais aonde o consumidor pode encontrar vários produtos indispensáveis ao seu dia-a-dia, principalmente os produtos alimentícios. Este tipo de comércio deve oferecer um serviço de qualidade capaz de assegurar a saúde do consumidor, por meio dos preceitos higiênico- sanitários, conforme a legislação vigente determina. Objetivou-se neste trabalho a avaliação da qualidade dos serviços oferecidos ao consumidor por três supermercados da rede Y, em Cascavel, PR. A metodo...

  18. [Women's body language during the post-partum period: language understanding based on the work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machineski, Gicelle Galvan; Schneider, Jacó Fernando; Bastos, Carmen Célia Barradas Correia

    2006-09-01

    This study aimed understanding the woman's language during the post-partum period as to her perceptions of her body language. This study was based in the work of Maurice Merleau-Pont. Ten women living in Cascavel, State of Parand, Brazil, were interviewed from February to May 2005. This study allowed the understanding of the meaning that the woman gives to her existence in the post childbirth period. This study may support training of health professionals in terms of understanding how women experience the post-partum period, thereby allowing better care of these patients.

  19. Incidência e aspectos clínico-laboratoriais do Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico em cidade do Sul do Brasil Incidence and clinical-laboratory aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus in a Southern brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Kenji Nakashima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos epidemiológicos brasileiros sobre o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES são bastante escassos e os dados existentes hoje são praticamente todos de literatura internacional. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência e algumas características clínicas e laboratoriais de pacientes com LES em Cascavel, Paraná - Brasil. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados entre agosto de 2007 e julho de 2008 em todos os serviços de saúde do município que possuíam atendimentos na especialidade de Reumatologia: um hospital universitário, um ambulatório público e três clínicas privadas da cidade. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 14 pacientes com diagnóstico de LES, resultando em uma incidência estimada de 4,8 casos/100.000 habitantes/ano. Todos os pacientes eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 41,5 anos. A faixa etária com maior incidência foi a de 30 - 39 anos e 92,8% apresentaram quatro ou mais dos 11 critérios do American College of Rheumatology (ACR para o diagnóstico de LES. O tratamento farmacológico dos pacientes também foi avaliado e mostrou estar de acordo com o Consenso Brasileiro para o tratamento de LES. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência obtida em Cascavel/PR está próxima das incidências observadas em estudos internacionais.INTRODUCTION: Brazilian epidemiological studies on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are scarce, and currently available data originate almost entirely from international literature. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and some clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with SLE in the municipality of Cascavel, state of Paraná, Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected from August 2007 to July 2008 in all health services of Cascavel providing health care in rheumatology: a university-affiliated hospital, a public outpatient clinic, and three private clinics. RESULTS: The study identified 14 patients diagnosed with SLE, which resulted in an estimated incidence of 4

  20. Analysis of Brazilian snake venoms by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Rogero, J.R.; Cruz, M.C.G.

    1991-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determinations of Brazilian snake venoms from the species: Bothrops jararacussu, Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops jararaca. Concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, K, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn have been determined in lyophilized venoms by using short and long irradiations in the IEA-RI nuclear reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10 11 to 10 13 n · cm -2 · s -1 . The reference materials NIST Bovine Liver 1577 and IUPAC Bowen's Kale were also analyzed simultaneously with the venoms to evaluate the accuracy and the reproducibility of the method. The concentrations of the elements found in snake venoms from different species were compared. The Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms presented high concentration of Se but low concentrations of Zn when these results are compared with those obtained from genera Bothrops venoms. (author) 9 refs.; 2 tabs

  1. Atividade antiinflamatória do extrato aquoso de Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verl. sobre o edema induzido por venenos de serpentes amazônicas

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    Denys Paixão Costa de Oliveira

    Full Text Available O estudo investigou o efeito antiinflamatório do extrato aquoso da Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verl., Bignoniaceae, popularmente conhecida como "crajiru", sobre o edema induzido por venenos de serpentes amazônicas dos gêneros Brothrops e Crotalus, em camundongos albinos, por via oral, intraperitoneal e subcutânea. O efeito anti-edematogênico foi avaliado pela medição do diâmetro dos coxins das patas posteriores, sendo medidos as 1, 3, 6, 12 e 24 horas, para B. atrox e 1, 3 e 6 horas para Crotalus durissus ruruima, e também avaliado por histopatologia. O estudo mostrou que o efeito inibitório do extrato aquoso para o gênero Bothrops, pelas vias subcutânea e intraperitoneal (12 horas foi de 55,87% e 65,70%, respectivamente. Para o gênero Crotalus o efeito inibitório do extrato pela via subcutânea após 3 horas foi de 33,55% e após 6 horas de 79,81%. Pela via intraperitoneal após 3 horas foi de 48,02% e após 6 horas de 92,52%. Na análise histopatológica, o infiltrado de granulócitos e a miocitólise foram os efeitos inflamatórios inibidos mais significativamente. Os resultados sugerem a presença no extrato aquoso de A. chica de substâncias com atividade inibitória sobre os efeitos inflamatórios dos venenos das serpentes Bothrops atrox e Crotalus durissus ruruima.

  2. Podem as novas tecnologias de informação e comunicação auxiliar na consolidação das democracias? Um estudo sobre a informatização dos órgãos legislativos na América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Soares Braga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os resultados de pesquisa sobre a informatização dos órgãos legislativos da América do Sul. Procuramos refletir sobre o impacto da internet no funcionamento das instituições democráticas sul-americanas através do exame comparado da organização dos websites dos órgãos parlamentares dos diferentes países. Esse objetivo geral desdobra-se em dois objetivos específicos: a Apresentar uma proposta de mensuração do grau de informatização destes órgãos parlamentares, visando a avaliar o quanto os parlamentos destes países avançaram neste processo; b Elaborar e aplicar instrumentos teórico-metodológicos para a análise de tais dados, bem como para a avaliação do significado analítico de tais informações e sobre seu impacto no funcionamento das instituições políticas democráticas da América Latina em geral, e da América do Sul em particular, especialmente no controle dos representantes pelos cidadãos.The objective of this article is to present the results of our research about the informatization of the legislative bodies in the South America. This general objective is divided in two specific objectives: a To present a proposal of mensurement of the degree of informatization of these parliamentary agencies, evaluating how much the parliaments of these countries had advanced in this process; b To elaborate and to apply metodological instruments for the analysis of data, as well as for the evaluation of the analytical meaning of that informations, and on its impact in the functioning of the democratic institutions of Latin America in general, and the South America in particular, especially in the control of the representatives for the citizens.

  3. Água e espaços transfronteiriços na América do Sul: questões a partir do território

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela A. Pires do Rio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Muitos países permanecem reticentes à implantação de novas institucionalidades e arenas de negociações participativas em espaços transfronteiriços. Assumindo-se a existência de dinâmica transfronteiriça peculiar, o presente trabalho apresenta e discute questões sobre gestão de água em espaços transfronteiriços, a fim suscitar debates sobre situações efetivas de cooperação/conflito transfronteiriços na América do Sul. Partimos do pressuposto de que uma turbulência de escalas é característica dessas áreas. Entende-se por turbulência de escalas a possibilidade de manifestação de cooperação, tensões, conflitos e disputas em múltiplas escalas. Recorrendo a exemplos recentemente discutidos na literatura geográfica em diferentes regiões do mundo, foram definidos parâmetros para refletir sobre a realidade sul-americana. Esses parâmetros referem-se às manifestações de concordância e discordância da implantação de dispositivos de gestão de águas por bacias hidrográficas. Complementa o levantamento bibliográfico, a análise de documentação de organismos internacionais, tendo em vista a identificação de situações que se projetaram em várias escalas geográficas. O interesse do trabalho reside na apresentação de questões próprias ao contexto sul americano, como proposta de agenda para reflexão. Nas considerações finais são apresentados os desafios que nos parecem mais significativos para a construção de proximidades institucionais nos espaços transfronteiriços.

  4. Análise cladística e biogeográfica dos gêneros do grupo Sitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini Cladistic and biogeographic analysis of the genera of the group Sitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kátia Matiotti da Costa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma análise cladística do relacionamento entre as espécies sul-americanas do grupo Sitalces (Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Psilocirtus Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Robustusacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Arimacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Salvadoracris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 e Caruaruacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 é apresentada. A análise incluiu 14 espécies com três grupos-externos e 34 caracteres morfológicos. A monofilia do grupo é suportada por três sinapomorfias com índices de consistência e retenção de 100%: prozona maior que a metazona, borda posterior do pronoto não angulada e placa supranal mais curta em relação aos cercos. A análise resultou em um único cladograma: (P. olivaceus (E. vittatus (L. dorsualis; L. punctifrons (R. balzapambae (A. trinitatis (S. nigritus; C. bivittatus (S. volxemi (P. vulneratus; P. sexnotata. Comentários biogeográficos são apresentados e relacionados com padrões pré-estabelecidos.A cladistic analysis of the relationships among the species of the South American genera of the group Sitalces (Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Psilocirtus Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Robustusacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Arimacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Salvadoracris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 and Caruaruacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 is presented. The analysis included 14 species with three outgroups and 34 morphological characters. The monophyly of the group is supported by three sinapomorphies with 100% consistency and retention indices: prozona larger than the metazona, posterior border of the pronotum not angulated and supranal plate shorter than cerci. The analysis resulted in a single cladogram: (P. olivaceus (E. vittatus (L. dorsualis; L. punctifrons (R. balzapambae (A. trinitatis (S. nigritus; C. bivittatus (S. volxemi (P. vulneratus; P. sexnotata. Biogeographic comments are

  5. Amazonia boliviana: arqueología de los Llanos de Mojos Bolivian Amazonia: archaeology of the Llanos de Mojos

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    Horacio Adolfo Calandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A arqueologia da Amazônia boliviana ou das "Terras Baixas" compreende um imenso território que mostra, a luz da informação disponível, significativas descontinuidades espaço-temporais. A identificação nesta área de sociedades constituindo "cacicados da floresta tropical" a partir de critérios baseados em preconceitos, requer a reavaliação da pré-história regional do ponto de vista causal. A arqueologia beniana (de Llanos de Mojos é conhecida, fundamentalmente, a partir das escavações de Erland Nordenskiöld, que sem dúvida estabeleceu as bases conceituais existentes atualmente. Entre os anos de 1977 e 1981 uma missão do Museu de La Plata (Argentina, sob a direção de B. Dougherty, e em estreita colaboração com o Instituto de Arqueologia de La Paz (Bolívia e com o Amazonian Ecosystem Research (EUA, conduziu pesquisas sistemáticas considerando variados itens antropológicos e produzindo numerosas datações de radiocarbono. Estas contribuições ajudaram a esclarecer, mas não a simplificar o panorama pré-hispânico regional, tão importante na temática arqueológica sul-americana. Complementa este artigo uma exaustiva lista de bibliografias que facilita o acesso ao conhecimento sobre este grande território.The archaeology of the Bolivian Amazonia or "Low lands" comprises a large territory that shows, significant time and spatial discontinuities. The identification of societies in this area constituting "Jefaturas de la Floresta Tropical", from criteria based on preconceptions requires the reassessment of regional prehistory from the causal point of view. Benian archeology (Llanos de Mojos is fundamentally known, from the Erland Nordenskiöld excavations, which undoubtedly sets the conceptual bases existing to date. Between 1977 and 1981 a Mission of Museo de La Plata (Argentina, under the direction of B. Dougherty together with the Instituto Nacional de Arqueología of La Paz (Bolivia and the Amazonian Ecosystem

  6. Cooperação para autonomia? Explicando o paradoxo da política externa brasileira para a Unasul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Medeiros

    Full Text Available Resumo Como explicar o comportamento aparentemente paradoxal da Política Externa Brasileira para o regionalismo sul-americano? A literatura acadêmica especializada afirma existir um distanciamento do Brasil em relação a cooperação e integração regional na América do Sul. Esse distanciamento, porém, não desmantelou o regionalismo estabelecido em período anterior (Mercosul e não impediu o estabelecimento da União de Nações Sul-Americanas (Unasul. A partir da formulação do conceito de Cooperação para Autonomia, o presente trabalho propõe uma resposta ao puzzle. O estudo utiliza a metodologia de Estudo de Caso combinada com modelos de Análise de Política Externa. A hipótese deste trabalho é que o baixo nível de engajamento do governo Lula em relação ao desenvolvimento institucional e à atribuição de responsabilidades à Unasul pode ser explicado pelo desejo de, por um lado, distanciar a PEB para arenas e temas globais e, por outro lado, ancorar tal distanciamento em uma lógica estatocêntrica. A essa estratégia, todavia, soma-se o interesse de assegurar os ganhos econômicos e comerciais brasileiros na região e de manter a estabilidade no campo da segurança no subcontinente. Como resultado, o Brasil adota um perfil reduzido na região, diminuindo os seus custos com a América do Sul, ao mesmo tempo em que busca preservar sua autonomia. Para verificação desta hipótese, o artigo analisa iniciativas de cooperação regional do Brasil nos campos do comércio (Mercosul Ampliado, infraestrutural (IIRSA e de defesa (CDS. A pesquisa conclui que o perfil apresentado pela PEB junto à Unasul expressa a adequação nos moldes de pequenos ajustes nas relações com as nações vizinhas. Distinto da aparente ruptura na Política Externa, tal estratégia preserva os ganhos prévios do regionalismo sem, contudo, obstar uma maior inserção internacional e a busca por metas extrarregionais de Política Externa.

  7. Desenvolvimento da Vigilância Epidemiológica de Fronteira no contexto da Globalização: conceitos e marcos teóricos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson BRUNIERA-OLIVEIRA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Apresentar e analisar as ações desenvolvidas para a implementação e desenvolvimento de Vigilância Epidemiológica de Fronteiras, nos Blocos Econômicos Multinacionais, particularmente na América do Sul e Brasil. Metodologia. Foi realizado um estudo de revisão narrativa incluindo artigos científicos, documentos técnicos, diretrizes, normas, manuais, pautas de reuniões ou qualquer outro documento que fosse relacionado ao desenvolvimento e implementação de ações e programas de Vigilância Epidemiológica em Fronteiras. O estudo foi baseado nos sites das instituições/organizações multinacionais e nas bases MedLine, PubMed, Scielo e Scopus. Resultados. Foram identificados a criação de órgãos e ações no intuito de implementar e desenvolver a vigilância epidemiológica de fronteiras para os seguintes blocos: União Europeia (Health Security Committee, European Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Sistema de alerta rápido e resposta, General Rapid Alert System e Rede de Monitoramento Ad Hoc; Tratado Norte-Americano de Livre Comércio (Border Infectious Disease Surveillance, “Projeto de Vigilância e Alerta Rápido de Doenças Infeciosas” ; Mercado Comum do Sul ( Reunião de Ministros da Saúde do Mercosul, Subgrupo de Trabalho 11 Saúde e Subcomissão Controle Sanitário de Portos, Aeroportos, Terminais e Passos Fronteiriços Terrestres; e União de Nações Sul-Americanas. Conclusões. Os programas e politicas desenvolvidos até o momento refletem o reconhecimento da importância do assunto por parte dos Estados Membros da OMS. Uma maior integração, com troca de informações, incluindo fluxos, frameworks, planos de preparação e o fortalecimento de áreas estratégicas como de energia e transporte deve ser incentivada intra e inter blocos.

  8. Acompanhamento de enfermagem em saúde pública, assessoramento pedagógico e agrícola numa comunidade de assentados sem-terra na zona rural: relato de experiência Acompañamiento de enfermería en salud pública, asesoramiento pedagógico y agrícola en una comunidad de asentados "sin tierra" en la zona rural: relato de experiencia Public health nursing, pedagogical and agricultural ad vice in a rural community of settled landless people: an experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacó Fernando Schneider

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo relata uma experiência no acompanhamento de Enfermagem, assessoramento pedagógico e agrícola desenvolvido em uma comunidade de assentados sem-terra na zona rural da cidade de Cascavel, estado do Paraná, que teve como premissa básica a integração docente/discente, oferecendo oportunidade de socialização do saber, integração teoria e prática e contato direto com a comunidade. Aponta para a necessidade da enfermagem compreender melhor este tipo de realidade buscando, através da observação e vivência, uma visão crítica com possibilidades de intervenção.El estudio relata una experiencia en el acompañamiento de enfermería, asesoramiento pedagógico y agrícola desarrollado en una comunidad de asentados "sin tierra" en la zona rural perteneciente al municipio de Cascavel, estado del Paraná, que tuvo como principio básico la integración docente/alumno, ofreciendo oportunidad de socialización del saber, integración teoría y práctica y contacto directo con la comunidad. Señala la necessidad de la enfermería comprender mejor este tipo de realidad, buscando por medio de la observación y vivencia, una visión crítica con posibilidades de intervención.This study reports an experience in nursing accompaniment, pedagogical and agricultural advice in a community of settled people without land in the countryside of Cascavel, state of Paraná. The basic premise was student/teacher integration offering the opportunity of knowledge socialization, integration of theory and practice and direct contact with the community. It points out that nursing needs a better understanding of this type of reality seeking, by observation and living, a critical vision with the possibility of intervention.

  9. Análise comparativa entre duas bacias hidrográficas utilizando um protocolo de avaliação rápida da diversidade de habitats / Comparative analysis between two hydrographic basin using a rapid habitats diversity evaluation protocol

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    Rogério Antonio Krupek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo utilizar um protocolo de avaliação rápida da diversidade de habitats como ferramenta para comparar duas bacias de drenagem localizadas no município de Guarapuava, estado do Paraná: a bacia hidrográfica do rio Cascavel (25º23’03”S-51º28’12”W e a bacia hidrográfica do rio das Pedras (25º13’10”S-51º28’40”W, que se encontram relativamente próximas e estão sob diferentes intensidades de influências antrópicas. Este protocolo tem como finalidade avaliar características da água e do entorno de ecossistemas aquáticos a partir da atribuição de pontuação a cada um dos parâmetros com base na observação das condições do habitat. As coletas de dados foram realizadas no período de 10 de junho a 30 de julho de 2007 em vinte pontos de amostragem estabelecidos em cada uma das bacias de drenagem estudadas. Comparativamente, a grande maioria dos parâmetros apresentou diferenças significativas entre os dois sistemas, sendo que os rios e riachos da bacia do rio das Pedras encontram-se nitidamente em melhores condições que a bacia do rio Cascavel, onde seus ecossistemas aquáticos apresentam visíveis sinais de degradação. O uso de avaliações rápidas como este protocolo é uma importante ferramenta no desenvolvimento de programas de monitoramento ecológico e na restauração de ambientes lóticos. AbstractThe main object of the present work was to use a protocol of rapid habitat diversity evaluation as tool to compare two drainage basin located in the municipality of Guarapuava, mid-southern region of Paraná state: Cascavel river basin (25º23’03”S-51º28’12”W and Pedras river basin (25º13’10”S-51º28’40”W, which meets relatively near and under different intensities of entropic influences. This protocol has the purpose of evaluating water and riparian characteristics of the aquatic ecosystems from the attribution of values to each parameter through observation of

  10. Análises coproparasitológicas de aves silvestres cativas

    OpenAIRE

    Snak, Alessandra; Lenzi, Paola Fernanda; Agostini, Kira Maria; Delgado, Luis Eduardo; Montanucci, Cleuza Rocha; Zabott, Marivone Valentim

    2014-01-01

    Na maioria dos casos de parasitismo em aves cativas não há expressão de sinais clínicos. Esse fato aponta a importância da realização de exames parasitológicos frequentes nesses animais. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar exames coproparasitológicos para monitorar as infecções parasitárias nas aves cativas no Parque Municipal Danilo Galafassi (Zoológico Municipal de Cascavel-PR), projeto aprovado pela Comissão de Ética e Bem-estar Animal (CEBEA) do Campus Palotina-UFPR, protocolo nº...

  11. Deficiência de ferro, prevalência de anemia e fatores associados em crianças de creches públicas do oeste do Paraná, Brasil Iron deficiency and prevalence of anemia and associated factors in children attending public daycare centers in western Paraná, Brazil

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    Valdete Carreira Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional de ferro, a prevalência de anemia e fatores associados, em crianças de 6 a 24 meses frequentadoras de creche pública em Cascavel, Região Oeste do Paraná, Brasil. MÉTODOS: O estudo transversal foi realizado com amostra aleatória de 256 crianças. A coleta de dados (questionário, medidas antropométricas e amostras de sangue ocorreu de julho a setembro de 2007. A deficiência de ferro foi avaliada em termos de transferrina, hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio, ferro sérico e eosinófilos. Na análise estatística dos dados foram obtidas as odds ratio bruta e ajustada (regressão logística, bem como os respectivos níveis de significância (p-valor. Para identificar diferenças significativas entre as medidas quantitativas, adotou-se a Análise de Variância e o teste de comparação múltipla de Tukey. RESULTADOS: A prevalência da anemia foi de 29,7%, sendo que 77,3% das amostras apresentaram baixa concentração de ferro. A antropometria não apontou deficiência de macronutrientes, porém mostrou obesidade acima dos índices médios. Os fatores associados à anemia e à deficiência de ferro foram: doenças frequentes na família (OR=10,02, condições de moradia (OR=5,05, tempo de creche (OR=3,05, número de moradores na residência (OR=2,83 e falta de saneamento (OR=2,20. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de anemia e a elevada deficiência de ferro detectada evidenciam um grave problema de saúde pública entre os pré-escolares do município de Cascavel, Paraná. Apesar da amplitude do problema, a anemia não está sendo reconhecida, prevenida e tratada adequadamente. Neste estudo são sugeridas algumas possíveis intervenções.OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the iron levels and prevalence of anemia and associated factors in children aged 6 to 24 months attending public daycare centers in Cascavel, Western Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 256 randomly sampled children

  12. BIOLOGIA E AS NOVAS TECNOLOGIAS EDUCACIONAIS, UM FOCO PARA A EDUCAÇÃO CONTEMPORÂNEA

    OpenAIRE

    de Carvalho Olivetti, Maria Madalena; Periotto, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho aborda o tema tecnologia na educação com ênfase ao ensino de biologia, levando em conta a relação entre professores, alunos e as novas tecnologias na atual conjuntura em que se encontra a sociedade no contexto da intercomunicação. Baseado em tal reflexão foram pesquisados 88 professores da rede básica de ensino do município de Cascavel, Paraná e, como resultado, verificou-se pequeno avanço nas metodologias utilizadas em sala de aula em relação aos novos recursos tecnológicos, se...

  13. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. Omaterial fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado doParaná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  14. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935 Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Lúcia Moraes Falavigna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. O material fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/díspar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  15. The Defense of Socio-Educational Internment: Feature of the Hygienist Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Biazze Feitosa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth violence and interventions to affront it are the focus of our scientific research. The aim of this study is evaluate the existence of the aspects contained in the justifications of hygienism judgments of teenagers who meet admission youth work. In this sense, we 21 sentences that determined the internment and its supporting materials which makes up the judicial process of teenagers that have entered the year 2010 in the Center of Socio-education II in Cascavel Paraná State. The results led us to conclude that nowadays, notwithstanding the Children and Adolescent, we are still, by judicial determination, removing the Teen Delinquency situation and closed the judicial term returning it to the same context from which it was withdrawn. Enshrined due differences in shape and time note this routing aspects of the ideology of mental hygiene and the minor doctrine.

  16. Prevalencia dos sintomas atribuídos ao climatério, em relaçao r idade e/ou r menopausa

    OpenAIRE

    Poli, Jarbas

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Analisa a correlação entre, de um lado, a idade e a menopausa e, de outro, a prevalência de queixas atribuídas ao climatério, em mulheres da região Oeste do Paraná, atendidas em hospital conveniado com o SUS e em clínica particular na cidade de Cascavel, de junho 1998 a maio de 1999. O estudo comparativo é de corte transversal, com 367 mulheres divididas em três grupos: o primeiro, grupo com 167 mulheres entre 40 e 49 anos com eumenorréia (em pré-menopausa) o segundo, com 65 mulheres ...

  17. THE ISSUE OF EDUCATION IN MARX: SOME NOTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available : Article as a result of readability and reflections carried out in the study group on the works of Marx and Engels, within the group of search HISTEDOPR - GT, Cascavel, PR. The question educational not received a specific treatment in the work of Marx, even if many seek in their formulations, theoreticalmethodological principles for the process of teaching-learning. Its educational thinking must be observed in the whole production marxist. This text to understand, in the light of historical change, the question educational, based on some of his writings. Their conception of education is immersed in horizon of socioeconomic relations, central object of discussion. We will see that education, in Marx, presents a politicalideological perspective, even before the determinant economic. Understand the analysis of Marx about the educative phenomenon does without to observe its way to understand the society.

  18. O PATRIMÔNIO HISTÓRICO COMO LUGAR SOCIAL

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    Silmara Dias FEIBER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação procura compreender as funções do “Lugar” na formação de identidades e analisa, neste contexto, especificamente a função do Patrimônio Histórico e Cultural na época atual. Toma, como exemplo, o caso de uma Igreja de madeira no Interior do Estado do Paraná, a Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Fátima que foi erguida originalmente, em 1958, no distrito São João D'Oeste e depois transferida, em 1987, para a sede do município de Cascavel/PR.

  19. Aspectos morfológicos de frutos e sementes e caracterização citogenética de Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae Morphological aspects of fruits and seeds and cytogenetic characterization of Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Aparecida Verde de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos, sementes e plântulas de Crotalaria lanceolata, conhecida popularmente como guizo-de-cascavel, chocalho-de-cobra, xique-xique ou feijão-de-guizo, planta tóxica infestante que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, foram estudadas morfologicamente e citogeneticamente. Os frutos são secos, deiscentes, polispérmicos e do tipo legume. As sementes são reniformes e o embrião é constituído de eixo embrionário e dois cotilédones. A testa pode apresentar variadas tonalidades de castanhos. A germinação é epígea e fanerocotiledonar. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico diplóide 2n = 16 com formulação cariotípica 12M + 4SM e comprimento cromossômico médio geral de 3,340 ± 0,689.Crotalaria lanceolata, known popularly as "guizo-de-cascavel", "xique-xique" or "feijão-de-guizo", is a toxic weed that occurs in the state of Sao Paulo. Fruits, seeds and seedlings were studied morphologically and cytogenetically. The fruits are dry, dehiscent, polyspermic legumes. The seeds are kidney shaped and the embryo consists of an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. The seed tegument comes in various chestnut tones. Germination is phanerocotylar and epigeal. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 16 with karyotype formula 12M + 4SM; overall mean chromosome length is 3.340 ± 0.689.

  20. Structural studies of the oligomeric formation crotoxin and their complexes; Estudos estruturais da formacao oligomerica da crotoxina e seus complexos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, Humberto A.S.; Fernandes, Carlos A.H.; Magro, Angelo J.; Fontes, Marcos R.M.; Fernandez, Roberto M., E-mail: rmorato@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica; Bicev, Renata N.; Oliveira, Cristiano L.P. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Experimental; Barioni, Marina B.; Ito, Amando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica

    2013-08-15

    The crotoxin is a phospholipase A{sub 2} that is the mainly responsible for the neurotoxic effect of the snakes' venom of the species Crotalus durissus, popularly known as rattlesnakes. In the crotoxin there are two subunits: an acidic, non-toxic and devoid of enzymatic action, (called crotoxin A or CA); and a basic, toxic with enzymatic activity (called crotoxin B or CB). The main objective of this work is to study the CA, CB and the complex CA + CB using the Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Optical absorption spectrometry and static fluorescence techniques. (author)

  1. Contribuição à biologia de serpentes da Bahia, Brasil: I. vivíparas Contribution to reproductive biology of snakes in Bahia, Brazil: I. viviparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Maria Lira-da-Silva

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Great part of lhe avaiable data about snakes reprodution refers to species coming from subtropical and temperate regions. In Brazil, the data is rather rare and can be found in various works where information is restricted. Results from studies developed with five viviparous snakes - Crotalus durissus cascavella (Wagler, 1824. Bothrops erythromelas(Amaral, 1923, B. leucurus (Wagler, 1824, Helicops leopardinus (Schlegel, 1873 and Thamnodynastes strigilis (Thiinberg, 1787 - which come from the Northeast of Brazil (Bahia are described. Data about pregnancy and birth, number, sex ratio, length and weight of neonates is given and discussed.

  2. Rattlesnake Envenomation in Three Dairy Goats

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    Joseph Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of rattlesnake envenomation in dairy goats are lacking. These cases present three dairy goats presented to a veterinary referral hospital for envenomation of Northern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus. Treatments and clinical characteristics reported are similar to those for llamas, alpacas, and horses. These cases suggest that quick treatment in the event of a bite may have a more favorable clinical response. Existing rattlesnake bite scoring systems applicable to other species may be applicable to goats, and existing respiratory pathology may predispose goats to a less favorable outcome.

  3. Assessing the influence of mechanical ventilation on blood gases and blood pressure in rattlesnakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Buchanan, Rasmus; Jensen, Heidi Meldgaard

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impact of mechanical positive pressure ventilation on heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure, blood gases, lactate, glucose, sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations in rattlesnakes during anesthesia and the subsequent recovery period. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective......, randomized trial. ANIMALS: Twenty one fasted adult South American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus terrificus). METHODS: Snakes were anesthetized with propofol (15 mg kg(-1) ) intravenously, endotracheally intubated and assigned to one of four ventilation regimens: Spontaneous ventilation, or mechanical...... with significantly elevated glucose, lactate and potassium concentrations compared to values at 24 hours (p ventilation frequency (p Mechanical ventilation had a profound impact...

  4. Characterization of the Venom of C. d. cumanesis of Colombia: Proteomic Analysis and Antivenomic Study

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    Juan Carlos Quintana-Castillo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Colombian rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis is distributed in three geographic zones of the country: the Atlantic Coast, the upper valley of the Magdalena River, and the eastern plains of the Colombian Orinoquía. Its venom induces neurological symptoms, such as eyelid ptosis, myasthenic facies, and paralysis of the respiratory muscles, which can lead to death. Identification and analysis of C. d. cumanensis showed nine groups of proteins responsible for the neurotoxic effect, of which the crotoxin complex was the most abundant (64.71%. Immunorecognition tests of C. d. cumanensis showed that the use of a commercial antivenom manufactured in Mexico resulted in immunoreactivity.

  5. Boletín de la AHA | Volumen 5 | Número 1-2

    OpenAIRE

    Asociación Herpetológica Argentina (AHA)

    1989-01-01

    - VI Reunión de Comunicaciones Herpetológioas (Circular Nro. 1) - II Congreso Argentino de Herpetología - Notas Herpetológicas -- Grisolia, C. S.; N. O. Stanchi. Labio leporino bilateral en una nidada de cascabel (Crotalus durissus terrificus) -- Martori, R.; L. J. Ávila. Partenogénesis en el género Teius (Sauria: Teiidae) - Novedades Zoogeográficas -- Filipello, A. M.; D. D. Echeverría. Acerca de la presencia de Leptodactylus latinasus anceps Gallardo 1964 (Anura: Leptodac...

  6. Determination of sphingomyelinase-D activity of Loxosceles venoms in sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposomes containing horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marco Túlio R; Guimarães, Gabriela; Frézard, Frédéric; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Minozzo, João Carlos; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Oliveira, Sergio Costa; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2011-03-15

    Based on degradation of sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposomes containing entrapped horseradish peroxidase, we evaluated the Sphingomyelinase-D (SMase-D) activity of scorpion, spider and snake venoms by monitoring spectrophotometrically the product of oxidation of HRP released. The results indicate that Loxosceles crude venoms (Loxosceles intermedia, Loxosceles laeta, Loxosceles gaucho and Loxosceles similis) displayed SMase-D activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, this activity was blocked by the anti-loxoscelic antivenom. However, Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom, Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom and Bothrops jararaca, Crotalus durissus, Lachesis muta and Micrurus frontalis snake venoms did not show measurable SMase-D activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolução e gênese de um Plintossolo Pétrico concrecionário êutrico argissólico no município de Ouro Verde de Goiás Evolution and genesis of a petroferric eufrophic alfisol in Ouro Verde de Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Lenzi Moreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Solos concrecionários (Plintossolo Pétrico concrecionário nas Regiões Central e Norte do Brasil são muito comuns, ocorrendo em áreas baixas e nas bordas das chapadas, constituindo geralmente solos distróficos,pobres em nutrientes. A ocorrência de solo concrecionário eutrófico no município de Ouro Verde de Goiás, em área de borda de chapada motivou esta pesquisa, desenvolvida com a finalidade de verificar a relação eutrofia/solo/material litológico subjacente, provável fonte das bases trocáveis. As relações pedológicas e geoquímicas do solo com as concreções e a rocha de origem foram pesquisadas por meio de determinações da constituição química total dos elementos maiores, utilizando ICP-AES (espectrometria de emissão atômica por plasma acoplado indutivamente, análise mineralógica da fração argila por DRX, análise mineralógica da fração areia, além da caracterização analítica de rotina em pedologia. Os resultados analíticos de amostras de rocha, concreções ferruginosas e TFSA, as relações moleculares Ki e Kr e bases/R2O3 e a relação Zr/Ti são abordados e discutidos. Ocorrências mais significativas quanto a alguns elementos móveis são creditadas ao conteúdo elevado de matéria orgânica no horizonte superficial do solo, ao acúmulo residual de quartzo e à contribuição de material externo nos horizontes superiores . A relação solo/material litológico subjacente indica para o perfil de origem a partir de um metatonalito, atribuindo-se ao material petroplíntico presente na porção superior do solo, origem relacionada à desagregação e arraste de materiais relacionados à Superfície de Aplanamento Sul-Americana.The occurrence of concretionary soils in the Central and Northern Brazil is very common. They are found in low areas and on plateau edges, usually constituting dystrophic soils,poor in nutrients. The finding of an eutrophicc concretionary soil in the edge of a plateau in Ouro

  8. Phylogenetic correlograms and the evolution of body size in South American owls (Strigiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho

    2000-06-01

    ção interespecífica no tamanho do corpo de 19 espécies de corujas (Strigiformes sul-americanas através de correlogramas filogenéticos, construídos utilizando índices I de Moran em quatro classes de distância. A filogenia entre as espécies foi definida com base em dados de hibridização de DNA. O correlograma observado foi então comparado a 500 correlogramas obtidos através de simulações de evolução por movimento Browniano e pelo processo O-U, sobre essa mesma filogenia. Esses correlogramas foram comparados entre si utilizando análises de variância (ANOVA e MANOVA e através das correlações entre os índices I de Moran e as classes de distância filogenética. O correlograma observado indica a existência de um gradiente filogenético de variação até cerca de 45 milhões de anos, quando os índices se estabilizam, e é similar aos correlogramas obtidos através do processo O-U, considerando tanto a correlação do gradiente quanto a sua alocação aos dois grupos de processos através de análise discriminante. Esse padrão é esperado, considerando a importância do tamanho do corpo e sua correlação com diversos caracteres ecológicos e de história de vida, que produzem muitas restrições que podem de fato ser modeladas por um processo O-U expressando seleção estabilizadora.

  9. Hidrelétricas no Rio Madeira-RO: tensões sobre o uso do território e dos recursos naturais na Amazônia Hydroélectriques dans la rivière Madeira-RO: les tensions sur l´usage du territoire et des les ressources naturelles d’Amazonie Hydroelectric at the Madeira River: tensions about the territory using and the natural resources in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo José Cordeiro Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A construção das usinas hidrelétricas (Jirau e Santo Antônio, iniciadas em 2008, no Rio Madeira, município de Porto Velho-RO, confere à parte da Amazônia Sul Ocidental Rondoniense, uma (revalorização diante do contexto nacional e internacional devido ao potencial energético e ainda por compor parte de complexos para circulação e energia Sul-Americana. A materialização da obra incide sobre a intensificação dos conflitos sobre o uso do território e de seus recursos, fato comprovado a partir das análises feitas sobre as escalas de atuação dos atores e as estratégias na utilização dos recursos naturais na área de estudo. Os resultados ratificam que na Amazônia Rondoniense as políticas de infraestrutura estabelecidas são resultantes de interesses externos a região e, quando implantadas, desestruturam a lógica de organização local, elevando as tensões ambientais e sociais.La construction des usines hydroélectriques (Jirau et Santo Antônio, commencée en 2008, sur le Rio Madeira, dans le município Porto Velho-RO, (revalorise la partie d’ Amazonie Sud Occidentale dú Rondônia en raison du potentiel énérfetique qu’elle gènére et son inscription dans le réseau d’alimentation électrique de l’Amérique du Sud. Mais l´rélisation des ouvrages intensifie les conflits d’utilisation du territoire et de ses ressources, comme le conferment les analyses produites par cette recherché sur les échelles d’intervention des acteurs et les estratégies d’utilisation des ressources naturelles dans la zone d’éstude. Les résultats montrent que dans l’Amazonie du Rondônia, les politiques d’infrastructure telles qu’elles sont conçues resultant d’intérêts externes à la région et, lorsqu’wlles sont implantées, déstructurent les logiques d’organisation locale et provoquent des tensions environnementales et sociales.The building of the hydroelectric plants (Jirau and Santo Antônio, which started

  10. De homens, árvores e sapos: forma, espaço e tempo em Tapirapé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonne Leite

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Em várias línguas não-indo-européias, categorias gramaticais como nome, verbo, numerais etc. são classificadas segundo propriedades ou características físicas de seus referentes. Apresenta-se aqui a classificação que expressa, em tapirapé (família tupi-guarani, Brasil, as propriedades de forma ("chata", "redonda", "alta" que se aliam, com restrições combinatórias, à posição ("deitado", "sentado", "de pé" do objeto referenciado. A comparação feita com sistemas de classificação de línguas sul-americanas indica que, apesar da diversidade categorial aparente, é possível detectar não só um número reduzido de componentes semânticos geométricos sempre atuantes, mas também coincidências na inclusão ou exclusão dos membros nas diferentes classes. O exame, mesmo superficial, parece contrariar os pressupostos das versões, moderada ou extremada, do relativismo lingüístico ou de uma infinidade de recortes de um mundo que lá está. No caso tapirapé, o que está em jogo não é a expressão culturalmente filtrada de um mundo preexistente, mas antes a apreensão de uma realidade que se constrói a partir da perspectiva que o falante tem de um evento, de um fato ou de uma existência, que se consubstancia através de uma geometria extremamente simples, mas altamente rentável, em que forma, espaço, tempo/aspecto são interdependentes.In various non-Indo-European languages, grammatical categories such as name, verb and number are classified according to the physical properties or characteristics of their referents. Presenting material on the Tapirapé language (Tupi-Guarani family, Brazil, this paper focuses on a linguistic classification which expresses formal properties ("flat", "round", "tall" in alliance with the position of the referred object ("lying", "seated", "standing" within a system subject to combinatory restrictions. Comparison with classificatory systems of other South American Indian languages reveals that

  11. Análise de componentes principais de atributos físicos, químicos e mineralógicos de solos do bioma cerrado Principal component analysis of physical, chemical, and mineralogical attributes of the cerrado biome soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. V. Gomes

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de avaliar diferenças de comportamento entre solos das superfícies geomórficas Sul-Americana e Velhas da região dos Cerrados, todos sob uso atual de cobertura vegetal nativa, foram realizadas caracterizações físicas, químicas e mineralógicas, bem como feitas análises de componentes principais desses atributos. Com os solos referenciados por sub-região e pela superfície geomórfica que representam, três agrupamentos foram constituídos: Grupo 1: solos de textura argilosa a muito argilosa e hipo a mesoférricos; Grupo 2: solos de textura média a arenosa e hipoférricos; e Grupo 3: solos de textura argilosa a muito argilosa e férricos. A retenção de água dos horizontes superficiais dos solos estudados foi positivamente correlacionada com os teores de argila e carbono orgânico. Os solos do Grupo 3 apresentaram a maior oferta de bases trocáveis dos horizontes superficiais, o que foi relacionado, em grande parte, com a maior reciclagem imposta pela formação florestal local, quando comparada à da formação de cerrado, presente em 31 dos 33 perfis de solos dos Grupos 1 e 2. O Grupo 3, diferenciado pelos elevados teores de Fe herdados do material de origem, é o grupo mais homogêneo em termos mineralógicos, com todos os perfis hematíticos. Os Grupos 1 e 2 apresentam sobreposição de composição mineralógica, sendo o Grupo 1, em termos médios, mais gibbsítico do que o Grupo 2. A maior eficácia do Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, relativamente ao Soil Taxonomy, em discriminar os solos estudados é resultante do uso do caráter férrico concomitantemente a outros atributos comuns aos dois sistemas. A análise de componentes principais auxiliou no entendimento das diferenças e similaridades dos ambientes pedológicos separados no campo.Behavior differences between soils of the South-American and Velhas geomorphic surfaces of the Cerrado region, all of them under native vegetation cover, were

  12. Toxicity attenuation optimization of crotalic venom by gamma radiation and studies of its immunogenic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clissa, Patricia Bianca

    1997-01-01

    Literature data show that 2.0 kGy dose of gamma radiation, generated by 60 source, reduces the toxic activity of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, without altering its immunogenic capacity. When crotoxin, main toxin from crotalic venom, was irradiated with the same dose, toxicity was also reduced and the immunogenicity was maintained. This fact was attributed to aggregates (compounds with high molecular weight generated during irradiation), that showed no toxicity but were able to induce the antibodies formation against native venom. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy doses and submitted to molecular exclusion chromatography, in order to find an efficient dose that produces large amounts of non toxic but still immunogenic aggregates. After being isolated, the products of irradiation were evaluated for the amount produced, molecular alteration, and toxic and immunogenic activities. These parameters were also analyzed for the whole venom irradiated. The results from different doses irradiated venom were compared with native one, and 2.0 kGy dose was confirmed to be the most efficient in the association of toxicity attenuation with maintenance of immunogenicity of the crotalic venom, while other doses, in spite of being efficient in the toxicity attenuation, they were not able to keep the immunogenicity property. So, the dose of 2.0 kGy could be used to immunize animals in order to improve anticrotalic sera production. (author)

  13. Structural aspects of crotalic venom proteins modified by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de

    2010-01-01

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the Ministry of Health notified around 26 000 accidents in 2008. The genus Crotalus (rattlesnakes) accounts for approximately 7% of the total, with a high mortality rate of 72% when untreated with the specific serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites. In Brazil, the serum is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool for reducing the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins, resulting in better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum producing animals. Since the action of gamma radiation on venoms and toxins has not been yet fully clarified from the structural point of view, we proposed in this paper, to characterize two toxins of the species Crotalus durissus terrificus: crotoxin and crotamine. After isolation of the toxins of interest by chromatographic techniques, they were subjected to structural analysis with the application of the following methods: Fluorescence, Circular Dichroism, Differential Calorimetry and Infrared Spectroscopy. These tests showed that both crotamine as crotoxin when subjected to gamma radiation, showed changes in their structural conformation compared with the samples in the native state. Such changes probably occur in the secondary and tertiary structure and may explain the changes on the biological activity of these toxins. (author)

  14. Crotamine and crotoxin interact with tumor cells and trigger cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio; Pujatti, Priscilla Brunelli; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN-MG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: maso@cdtn.br; santosr@cdtn.br; Dias, Consuelo Latorre Fortes [Fundacao Ezequiel Dias FUNED, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Chavez Olortegui, Carlos Delfin [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas; Santos, Wagner Gouvea dos [Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA (United States). Neurosurgery Dept.

    2007-07-01

    Crotoxin (Crtx) and Crotamine (Crota) are polypeptides isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (CV). Previous reports have been shown therapeutic effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and Crtx on skin, breast and lung tumours, although, the mechanisms of this antitumoral effect are still unknown. The aim of this work was to investigate the antitumoral effect of Crtx and Crota on brain tumours cells (GH3 and RT2) in vitro and their capacity of interaction with these tumour cells membranes. Cell survival after Crtx and Crota treatment was evaluated by MTT assay in different times post-treatment and apoptosis was evaluated by DAPI staining. In order to evaluate the specific interaction of Crtx and Crota, these polypeptides were radiolabelled, using {sup 125}I as radiotracer and binding assays were performed. The results were compared with the binding in nontumoral brain tissue. Crtx and Crota induced apoptosis on both tumour cells lineages but, Crota was more powerful than Crtx 90% and 20% cell death for RT2 cells; 80% and 20% cell death for GH3 cells, respectively). Both {sup 125}I-Crtx and {sup 125}I-Crota bound specifically in glioblastoma membranes. Nonetheless, CV polypeptides recognised glioblastoma cells with higher specificity than normal brain tissue. These results suggest that the Crtx and Crota interactions with the plasmatic membrane of tumour cells may be the first step of the cascade of signalling that trigger their antitumoral effect. (author)

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the heterodimeric crotoxin complex and the isolated subunits crotapotin and phospholipase A{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, K. F.; Murakami, M. T. [Department of Physics, IBILCE/UNESP, Cristóvão Colombo 2265, CEP 15054-000, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Cintra, A. C. O. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Toyama, M. H.; Marangoni, S. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Forrer, V. P.; Brandão Neto, J. R. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Polikarpov, I. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Arni, R. K., E-mail: arni@ibilce.unesp.br [Department of Physics, IBILCE/UNESP, Cristóvão Colombo 2265, CEP 15054-000, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Center for Applied Toxinology, CEPID (Brazil)

    2007-04-01

    Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, exists as a heterodimer formed between a phospholipase A{sub 2} and a catalytically inactive acidic phospholipase A{sub 2} analogue (crotapotin). Large single crystals of the crotoxin complex and of the isolated subunits have been obtained. Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, exists as a heterodimer formed between a phospholipase A{sub 2} and a catalytically inactive acidic phospholipase A{sub 2} analogue (crotapotin). Large single crystals of the crotoxin complex and of the isolated subunits have been obtained. The crotoxin complex crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.2, b = 68.7, c = 84.2 Å, and diffracted to 1.75 Å resolution. The crystal of the phospholipase A{sub 2} domain belongs to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22 (or its enantiomorph P6{sub 5}22), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 38.7, c = 286.7 Å, and diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution. The crotapotin crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution; however, the highly diffuse diffraction pattern did not permit unambiguous assignment of the unit-cell parameters.

  16. Structural aspects of crotalic venom proteins modified by ionizing radiation; Aspectos estruturais de proteinas do veneno crotalico modificadas por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de

    2010-07-01

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the Ministry of Health notified around 26 000 accidents in 2008. The genus Crotalus (rattlesnakes) accounts for approximately 7% of the total, with a high mortality rate of 72% when untreated with the specific serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites. In Brazil, the serum is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool for reducing the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins, resulting in better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum producing animals. Since the action of gamma radiation on venoms and toxins has not been yet fully clarified from the structural point of view, we proposed in this paper, to characterize two toxins of the species Crotalus durissus terrificus: crotoxin and crotamine. After isolation of the toxins of interest by chromatographic techniques, they were subjected to structural analysis with the application of the following methods: Fluorescence, Circular Dichroism, Differential Calorimetry and Infrared Spectroscopy. These tests showed that both crotamine as crotoxin when subjected to gamma radiation, showed changes in their structural conformation compared with the samples in the native state. Such changes probably occur in the secondary and tertiary structure and may explain the changes on the biological activity of these toxins. (author)

  17. Helodermatine, a kallikrein-like, hypotensive enzyme from the venom of Heloderma horridum horridum (Mexican beaded lizard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagon, A; Possani, L D; Smart, J; Schleuning, W D

    1986-12-01

    We have purified and characterized the major N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester hydrolase from the venom of Heloderma horridum horridum. The enzyme belongs to the serine proteinase family, and its activity vs. peptide amide substrates and human high-molecular-weight kininogen suggests a similarity to the family of kallikreins. This interpretation is corroborated by its reactivity with the natural inhibitors soybean trypsin inhibitor and Kunitz-type bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (aprotinin). Injection of the enzyme (2-16 micrograms/kg) into anesthetized rabbits leads to a rapid dose-dependent transient decrease of the arterial blood pressure. Like glandular kallikrein it specifically converts single-chain tissue type plasminogen activator into its double chain form. In contrast to other kallikrein-like enzymes from snake venoms it shows no thrombin-like or plasminogen activator activity. The enzyme is a single-chain glycoprotein (Mr 63,000). The N-terminal sequence revealed significant homology to pig pancreatic kallikrein and to kallikrein like enzymes from Crotalus atrox and Crotalus adamanteus venom. This enzyme, which we name Helodermatine, is the first purified from Sauria with kallikrein-like properties.

  18. Crotamine and crotoxin interact with tumor cells and trigger cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio; Pujatti, Priscilla Brunelli; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Dias, Consuelo Latorre Fortes; Chavez Olortegui, Carlos Delfin; Santos, Wagner Gouvea dos

    2007-01-01

    Crotoxin (Crtx) and Crotamine (Crota) are polypeptides isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (CV). Previous reports have been shown therapeutic effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and Crtx on skin, breast and lung tumours, although, the mechanisms of this antitumoral effect are still unknown. The aim of this work was to investigate the antitumoral effect of Crtx and Crota on brain tumours cells (GH3 and RT2) in vitro and their capacity of interaction with these tumour cells membranes. Cell survival after Crtx and Crota treatment was evaluated by MTT assay in different times post-treatment and apoptosis was evaluated by DAPI staining. In order to evaluate the specific interaction of Crtx and Crota, these polypeptides were radiolabelled, using 125 I as radiotracer and binding assays were performed. The results were compared with the binding in nontumoral brain tissue. Crtx and Crota induced apoptosis on both tumour cells lineages but, Crota was more powerful than Crtx 90% and 20% cell death for RT2 cells; 80% and 20% cell death for GH3 cells, respectively). Both 125 I-Crtx and 125 I-Crota bound specifically in glioblastoma membranes. Nonetheless, CV polypeptides recognised glioblastoma cells with higher specificity than normal brain tissue. These results suggest that the Crtx and Crota interactions with the plasmatic membrane of tumour cells may be the first step of the cascade of signalling that trigger their antitumoral effect. (author)

  19. Irreversible inactivation of snake venom l-amino acid oxidase by covalent modification during catalysis of l-propargylglycine☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jyotirmoy; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2013-01-01

    Snake venom l-amino acid oxidase (SV-LAAO, a flavor-enzyme) has attracted considerable attention due to its multifunctional nature, which is manifest in diverse clinical and biological effects such as inhibition of platelet aggregation, induction of cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity against various cells. The majority of these effects are mediated by H2O2 generated during the catalytic conversion of l-amino acids. The substrate analog l-propargylglycine (LPG) irreversibly inhibited the enzyme from Crotalus adamanteus and Crotalus atrox in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Inactivation was irreversible which was significantly protected by the substrate l-phenylalanine. A Kitz–Wilson replot of the inhibition kinetics suggested formation of reversible enzyme–LPG complex, which occurred prior to modification and inactivation of the enzyme. UV–visible and fluorescence spectra of the enzyme and the cofactor strongly suggested formation of covalent adduct between LPG and an active site residue of the enzyme. A molecular modeling study revealed that the FAD-binding, substrate-binding and the helical domains are conserved in SV-LAAOs and both His223 and Arg322 are the important active site residues that are likely to get modified by LPG. Chymotrypsin digest of the LPG inactivated enzyme followed by RP-HPLC and MALDI mass analysis identified His223 as the site of modification. The findings reported here contribute towards complete inactivation of SV-LAAO as a part of snake envenomation management. PMID:23772385

  20. Comparative study of anticoagulant and procoagulant properties of 28 snake venoms from families Elapidae, Viperidae, and purified Russell's viper venom-factor X activator (RVV-X).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntravat, Montamas; Nuchprayoon, Issarang; Pérez, John C

    2010-09-15

    Snake venoms consist of numerous molecules with diverse biological functions used for capturing prey. Each component of venom has a specific target, and alters the biological function of its target. Once these molecules are identified, characterized, and cloned; they could have medical applications. The activated clotting time (ACT) and clot rate were used for screening procoagulant and anticoagulant properties of 28 snake venoms. Crude venoms from Daboia russellii siamensis, Bothrops asper, Bothrops moojeni, and one Crotalus oreganus helleri from Wrightwood, CA, had procoagulant activity. These venoms induced a significant shortening of the ACT and showed a significant increase in the clot rate when compared to the negative control. Factor X activator activity was also measured in 28 venoms, and D. r. siamensis venom was 5-6 times higher than those of B. asper, B. moojeni, and C. o. helleri from Wrightwood County. Russell's viper venom-factor X activator (RVV-X) was purified from D. r. siamensis venom, and then procoagulant activity was evaluated by the ACT and clot rate. Other venoms, Crotalus atrox and two Naja pallida, had anticoagulant activity. A significant increase in the ACT and a significant decrease in the clot rate were observed after the addition of these venoms; therefore, the venoms were considered to have anticoagulant activity. Venoms from the same species did not always have the same ACT and clot rate profiles, but the profiles were an excellent way to identify procoagulant and anticoagulant activities in snake venoms.

  1. Identification and functional analysis of a novel bradykinin inhibitory peptide in the venoms of New World Crotalinae pit vipers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Graham, Robert Leslie; Graham, Ciaren; McClean, Stephen; Chen, Tianbao; O'Rourke, Martin; Hirst, David; Theakston, David; Shaw, Chris

    2005-01-01

    A novel undecapeptide has been isolated and structurally characterized from the venoms of three species of New World pit vipers from the subfamily, Crotalinae. These include the Mexican moccasin (Agkistrodon bilineatus), the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis), and the South American bushmaster (Lachesis muta). The peptide was purified from all three venoms using a combination of gel permeation chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Automated Edman degradation sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry established its peptide primary structure as: Thr-Pro-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-Asp-Val-Gly-Pro-Arg-OH, with a non-protonated molecular mass of 1063.18 Da. A synthetic replicate of the peptide was found to be an antagonist of bradykinin action at the rat vascular B2 receptor. This is the first bradykinin inhibitory peptide isolated from snake venom. Database searching revealed the peptide to be highly structurally related (10/11 residues) with a domain residing between the bradykinin-potentiating peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide domains of a recently cloned precursor from tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom gland. BIP thus represents a novel biological entity from snake venom

  2. Ação de venenos de serpentes brasileiras sôbre a alexina ou complemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. da Rocha Lagôa

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor estudou a ação inativante, sôbre o complemento de cobaia, alguns venenos de serpentes brasileiras pertencentes às famílias dos Elapideos e Crotalideos. Da primeira, foi utilizado veneno de Micrurus frontalis, da segunda, foram usados venenos de espécies pertencentes aos gêneros Crotalus (C. terrificus e Bothrops (B. atrox, B. neuwiedii, B. jararaca, B. ja-raracussú, B. cotiara e B. alternata. O venenos de M. frontalis e C. terri¬ficus se revelaram incapazes de inativar o complemento, ao passo que os diversos de Bothrops empregados se mostraram altamente inativantes, destruindo sempre o 4.° componente do complemento (C4, fração idêntica à afetada pela ação da amônea.The author shows in this paper the results of the inactivation of com¬plement or alexin by some Brazilian snakes venoms of the Elapideae and Cro¬talideae families. The venom of Micrurus frontalis (Elapideae family and of Crotalus terrificus (Crotalideae family did not destroy the complement; but the venoms of Bothrops generus (B. atrox, B. neuwiedii, B. jararaca, B. jararacussú, B. cotiara e B. alternata, (Crotalideae family are highly active in the inactivation complement, always destroing the fourth component, whichis exactly the same component that is detroyed by ammonia.

  3. Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies (VHHs against Crotoxin: A Basis for Developing Modular Building Blocks for the Enhancement of Treatment or Diagnosis of Crotalic Envenoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos B. Luiz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects triggered by crotalic envenoming are mainly related to crotoxin (CTX, composed of a phospholipase A2 (CB and a subunit with no toxic activity (CA. Camelids produce immunoglobulins G devoid of light chains, in which the antigen recognition domain is called VHH. Given their unique characteristics, VHHs were selected using Phage Display against CTX from Crotalus durissus terrificus. After three rounds of biopanning, four sequence profiles for CB (KF498602, KF498603, KF498604, and KF498605 and one for CA (KF498606 were revealed. All clones presented the VHH hallmark in FR2 and a long CDR3, with the exception of KF498606. After expressing pET22b-VHHs in E. coli, approximately 2 to 6 mg of protein per liter of culture were obtained. When tested for cross-reactivity, VHHs presented specificity for the Crotalus genus and were capable of recognizing CB through Western blot. KF498602 and KF498604 showed thermostability, and displayed affinity constants for CTX in the micro or nanomolar range. They inhibited in vitro CTX PLA2 activity, and CB cytotoxicity. Furthermore, KF498604 inhibited the CTX-induced myotoxicity in mice by 78.8%. Molecular docking revealed that KF498604 interacts with the CA–CB interface of CTX, seeming to block substrate access. Selected VHHs may be alternatives for the crotalic envenoming treatment.

  4. RÁDIO COMUNITÁRIA NA TRÍPLICE FRONTEIRA: participação étnica e de gênero na Rádio Norte FM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Amarante

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta um recorte da pesquisa “Radiofonia Comunitária na Tríplice Fronteira: gênero, etnia e inclusão social midiática”, cuja proposta é um estudo aprofundado sobre a participação desses grupos nas rádios comunitárias das regiões das fronteiras entre o Paraná, o Paraguai e a Argentina e o modo como estas emissoras têm favorecido a cidadania comunicativa. Em destaque, o caso da Rádio Norte FM da cidade de Cascavel, na região oeste do Paraná. Atualmente, a emissora emite 24 horas e também pode ser ouvida online. Ela abre espaço para as manifestações culturais locais e procura dar vez e voz às reivindicações de diversos movimentos sociais, cedendo-lhes espaço ao longo da programação. Este trabalho foi realizado a partir de pesquisas bibliográfica e documental, visita de campo, entrevistas e questionários dirigidos a diretores e comunicadores.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Radiodifusão Comunitária; Gênero; Etnia; Participação. ABSTRACT This article presents part of the research “Community Radiophonic in the Triple Border: gender, ethnicity and social inclusion media”, whose proposal is a thorough study of this groups participation in community radio stations, in the regions of the borders, between the State of Parana, Paraguay and Argentina and how these vehicles have favored the communicative citizenship. Highlighting the case of Radio North FM, in the city of Cascavel, western region of Parana. Currently, the radio remains 24 hours on the air and is present online. It makes room for cultural events in all its expressions and it seeks to give time and voice to the demands of social movements giving them spaces along with the schedule of the programs. This work is based on bibliographic and documentary research, field visits, interviews and questionnaires addressed to directors and communicators.   KEY WORDS: Community Radios, gender, ethnicity and social participation.     RESUMEN El artículo presenta

  5. Estudo da morbidade em uma população idosa Estudio de la morbilidad en la población de ancianos Morbidity study in an elder population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou identificar os agravos que mais acometeram os idosos no período de 1998 a 2005 e a capacidade funcional dos residentes na área de abrangência de quatro unidades básicas de saúde de diferentes regiões, no Município de Cascavel, Paraná, em 2007. Os dados de morbidade foram pesquisados no Sistema de Informações Hospitalar do Sistema Único de Saúde, e foram realizadas entrevistas com 141 idosos. No período estudado, a morbidade pouco variou: as doenças do aparelho circulatório foram responsáveis pelo maior número de internamentos. A média geral de doenças referidas pelos idosos foi de 2, com destaque para as cardiovasculares. Dentre os entrevistados, 136 (96,5% afirmaram realizar todas as atividades cotidianas, sem o auxílio de outras pessoas. O estudo mostra que é necessário implantar serviços voltados para as doenças crônicas, com foco na manutenção da máxima capacidade funcional pelo maior tempo possível, valorizando a autonomia e a autodeterminação dos idosos.El objetivo del estudio fue identificar las enfermedades que más afectaron a los ancianos en el período entre 1998 y 2005 y la capacidad funcional de los residentes en el área de cobertura de cuatro unidades básicas de salud de diferentes regiones en la cuidad de Cascavel, Paraná, en 2007. Los datos de morbilidad fueron investigados en el Sistema de Información Hospitalario del Sistema Único de Salud, e se realizaron encuestas con 141 ancianos. En el periodo estudiado, la morbilidad ha variado poco, las enfermedades del sistema circulatorio fueron responsables por el mayor número de internamientos. El promedio general de las enfermedades referidas por los mayores fue de 2, con relieve para las cardiovasculares. Entre los encuestados, 136 (o sea el 96,5% afirmaron realizar todas las actividades cotidianas sin la ayuda de los demás. El estudio muestra la necesidad de implementar servicios dirigidos a las enfermedades crónicas, con

  6. O tornar-se cuidadora na senescência Conviertendo cuidador en la vejez Becoming caregiver in the old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Braz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo, desenvolvido no município de Cascavel PR, com senescentes cuidadoras domiciliares de idosos dependentes, teve como objetivo verificar os motivos que as levaram a executarem esse papel. A metodologia utilizada foi a qualitativa, e a Representação Social foi eleita como caminho teórico. Foram critérios de inclusão: sexo feminino; idade superior ou igual a 60 anos; cuidadores domiciliares principais de idosos dependentes por um período igual ou superior a três meses. A coleta de dados deu-se entre novembro de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. A população constituiu-se de 13 senescentes, sendo 46,1% esposas, o que atribuímos a própria representação social construída. A representação social também está relacionada à figura da mulher, geralmente a mais velha da família, viúva ou solteira. Sem recursos e tratados com desigualdade pelo sistema, o idoso cuidador e, nesse caso, a idosa cuidadora senescente tornam-se mais um ponto vulnerável em nossa sociedade.Estudio, desarrollado en la ciudad de Cascavel-PR, con los cuidadoras ancianas domiciliarios de dependientes envejecidos, tenía como el objetivo, verificar las razones para ejecutar este papel. La metodología usada era cualitativa y como camino teórico la representación social. Los criterios de inclusión fueran: sexo femenino, edad igual o superior a los sesenta años, cuidadores principales domiciliarios de dependientes envejecidos, por un período igual o superior los tres meses. La recogida de datos fue hecha desde noviembre de 2006 hasta enero de 2007. La población consistió en 13 envejecido, siendo 46.1% esposas, qué atribuimos la representación social construida. La representación social también está relacionada, a la figura de la mujer, generalmente más vieja de la familia, viuda o soltera. Tratados sin recursos, el cuidador envejecido y en este caso, la cuidadora envejecida, se convierte en más un punto vulnerable en nuestra sociedad.The present study

  7. O tipo vivido de familiares de usuários de um centro de atenção psicossocial infantil El tipo vivido de familiares de usuarios de un centro de atención psicosocial infantil The experience lived by clients' family members of a child psychosocial care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicelle Galvan Machineski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta investigação foi compreender o tipo vivido de familiares de usuários de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, de abordagem fenomenológica, desenvolvido em um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil (CAPSi, localizado no município de Cascavel, Paraná. Os participantes da pesquisa foram onze familiares de usuários do referido serviço e que mais participavam dos cuidados com os usuários. Realizaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas, e as informações foram analisadas por meio da metodologia da fenomenologia social. O tipo vivido dos familiares de usuários de um CAPSi mostrou-se como sendo: aquele que vivencia o comportamento do usuário; refere o encaminhamento de outros serviços; espera por tratamento; deseja a melhora do quadro clínico e vivencia o apoio do serviço aos familiares. Nesse sentido, o estudo pode contribuir para a reflexão sobre as práticas de Enfermagem em saúde mental aos usuários e familiares.El objetivo de esta investigación fue comprender el tipo vivido de familiares de usuarios de un Centro de Atención Psicosocial Infantil. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo de abordaje fenomenológico, desarrollado en un Centro de Atención Psicosocial Infantil (CAPSi, ubicado en el municipio de Cascavel, Paraná. Los participantes del estudio fueron once familiares de usuarios del referido servicio y que más participaban de los cuidados con los usuarios. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas y las informaciones se analizaron por medio de la metodología de la fenomenología social. El tipo vivido de los familiares de usuarios de un CAPSi se mostró como siendo: aquel que convive con el comportamiento del usuario; refiere el encaminamiento de otros servicios; espera por tratamiento; desea la mejora del cuadro clínico y convive con el apoyo de servicios a los familiares. En este sentido, el estudio puede contribuir para la reflexión sobre la práctica de la

  8. Força de tração necessária em função do número de linhas de semeadura utilizadas por uma semeadora-adubadora de precisão Traction force necessary in function of the number of sowing lines used by a seed-drill

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    Alcir J. Modolo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento da força de tração solicitada por uma semeadora-adubadora, variando o número de linhas de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido no Núcleo Experimental de Engenharia Agrícola - NEEA, pertencente à UNIOESTE - Câmpus de Cascavel - PR, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférico com relevo plano e textura argilosa. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, composto por cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: semeadora equipada com uma, duas, três, quatro e cinco linhas de semeadura, deslocada à velocidade média de 5,5 km h-1. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros de profundidade do sulco, área de solo mobilizada, força de tração média e força de tração máxima. Com o aumento do número de linhas de semeadura de uma para cinco, a força de tração média na barra aumentou de 3,7 para 8,6 kN, ou seja, houve acréscimo de 131,9%.This work aimed to evaluate the behavior of the traction force requested by a seeder-drill varying the number of lines of sowing. The experiment was leaded in the Experimental Nucleus of Agricultural Engineering - NEEA, belonging to the UNIOESTE - Campus of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil, in Red Latosoil Haplortox with plane relief and loamy texture. The experimental design used was of blocks by chance with five treatments and four repetitions. It was used the following treatments: seeder equipped with one, two, three, four and five sowing lines, which were moved in an average speed of 5.5 km h-1. The parameters evaluated were: depth of the furrow, soil area mobilized, average traction force and maximum traction force. With the increase of the number of sowing lines of one for five, the average traction force in the bar increased from 3.7 to 8.6 kN, in other words, there was an increment of 131.9%.

  9. Enteroparasitosis and their ethnographic relationship to food handlers in a tourist and economic center in Paraná, Southern Brazil Enteroparasitoses e sua relação etnográfica com manipuladores de alimentos em rota turística e econômica do estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil

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    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the occurrence of enteroparasites based on data from an ethnographic study of food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Fecal material from 343 food handlers of both sexes, between 14 and 75 years of age, was analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Ethnographic relationships were investigated by means of specific questionnaires. Positive fecal samples were found for 131 (38.2% handlers. Endolimax nana (67.9% was the predominant species, followed by Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis hominis (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections (p = 0.00. The positive results for some parasites were associated with the male sex, professional category, and the performance of other activities (p Este estudo mostra a ocorrência de enteroparasitos e realiza um estudo etnográfico de manipuladores de alimentos do município de Cascavel/Paraná, Brasil. O material fecal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de ambos os gêneros e idade entre 14 e 75 anos foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado. A relação etnográfica foi investigada utilizando questionários específicos. O material fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. Endolimax nana (67,9% foi a espécie predominante seguida por Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis hominis (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino, a categoria ocupacional e a realização de outras atividades (p < 0,05. Estes resultados permitem concluir que a ocorrência de enteroparasitos em manipuladores de alimentos é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e que medidas educativas rígidas devem ser aplicadas, para evitar a

  10. Análise de um sistema de aquecimento de água para residências rurais, utilizando energia solar A water heating system analysis for rural residences, using solar energy

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    Luiz H. Basso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A conscientização da importância do meio ambiente tem incentivado o estudo de novas fontes energéticas renováveis e menos poluentes. Dentre essas fontes, a energia solar destaca-se por ser perene e limpa. A utilização da energia solar em sistemas de aquecimento de água residencial rural pode colaborar com a economia de energia elétrica, base da matriz energética brasileira. Conhecer os fatores que influenciam na operação de um sistema de aquecimento de água por energia solar é importante na determinação de sua viabilidade técnica, visando a sua difusão em residências rurais. Para tanto, construiu-se um protótipo, no câmpus da Faculdade Assis Gurgacz, em Cascavel - PR, com características similares a um equipamento utilizado em residências para dois habitantes, para funcionar com circulação natural ou termossifão e sem auxílio de sistema de aquecimento complementar. O equipamento mostrou-se viável tecnicamente, alcançando a temperatura mínima para banho de 35 °C, sempre que a radiação solar foi superior a 3.500 Wh m-2, o que aconteceu para a maioria dos dias estudados.The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new renewed energy sources and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of agricultural residential water heating, can complement the economy of electric energy, base of the Brazilian energy matrix. Knowing the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy is important in determining their technical viabilities targeting their distribution in agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy, a prototype was constructed in the campus of Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel,State of Paraná, Brazil, with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants, to function with natural circulation or

  11. Determinação da curva característica de um painel fotovoltaico em condições reais de trabalho = Determination of the characteristic curve of a photovoltaic panel in real conditions of work

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    Estor Gnoatto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi desenvolvido um estudo sobre um sistemafotovoltaico autônomo, com armazenamento de energia, instalado na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Estado do Paraná, Campus Cascavel, a uma latitude 24º 59’ Sul, longitude de 53º 26’ Oeste, com altitude de 682 metros, sob condições reais de campo, durante o ano de 2002. Foi determinada a curva característica do painel, utilizando uma aquisição de dados um "micrologger" da Campbell Scientific-INC modelo CR10X, programado para realizar uma leitura por segundo de cada canal e armazenar a média aritmética de cinco minutos dos dados das componentes detemperatura de operação do painel; tensão e corrente do sistema fotovoltaico. Baseando-se nesses dados pode-se determinar que a curva característica do painel em condições reais de campo apresenta uma perda de 24% em seu rendimento em relação ao padrão STC (condições padrão de teste.The purpose of the present work was to develop the study of anautonomous photovoltaic system, with storage of energy, installed in the Agrometeorological Experimental Station of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, State of Paraná, Campus Cascavel, at 24º 59’ latitude south, 53º26 longitude west, 682 meters of altitude, under real field conditions, during the year 2002. Efficacy of the photovoltaic panels has been evaluated under real field conditions, as well as to determine its characteristic linear fit. A 'micrologger' Campbell Scientific-INC model CR10X was used to acquire data, and it was programmed to accomplish a reading per second in each channel and to store the arithmetic average of data from five minutes of operational temperature of the panel, photovoltaic system tension and current. According to results, it could determined that the panel characteristic linear fit in real field conditions shows 24% less field than standard STC (Standard Test Conditions.

  12. Influência do espaçamento e população de plantas sobre doenças de final de ciclo e oídio e caracteres agronômicos em soja = Influence of row spacing and plant population on late season disease severity, powdery mildew and agronomic characters in soybean

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    Jorge Luiz Knebel

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido em Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, na safra de2004/2005, utilizando a cultivar de soja CD 202, para avaliar a influência do espaçamento e da população de plantas sobre a severidade de (DFC doenças de final de ciclo (Septoria glycines e Cercospora kikuchii e oídio da soja (Microsphaera diffusa e caracteres agronômicos da cultura. Os tratamentos foram 3 espaçamentos (22,5; 45,0 e 67,5 cm e 3 populações (200; 400; e 600 mil plantas ha-1. As DFC tiveram menor severidade no espaçamento reduzido e na população mais baixa, enquanto a ocorrência de oídio não se alterou. Em todos os espa��amentos, quanto maior a população de plantas, maior a altura final e, conseqüentemente, maior o acamamento de plantas. O número de legumes/planta foi superior no maior espaçamento e reduziu com o aumento da população; o número de grãos/planta diminuiu com o aumento da população; e a produtividade foi superior no menor espaçamento.This study was carried out in Cascavel, Paraná State, during the growing season 2004/2005, using soybean cultivar CD 202. The aim was to evaluate the influence of row-spacing and plant population on lateseason disease severity (Septoria glycines and Cercospora kikuchii, soybean powdery mildew (Microsphaera diffusa and agronomic characters of the culture. The treatments were three row spacing (22.5; 45.0 and 67.5 cm and three plant populations (200; 400; and 600 thousand plants ha-1. Late season disease had smaller severity in the reduced spacing and in the lowest population, while the powdery mildew occurrence did not modify with these factors. In all spacing, as larger the plants density, larger the plants height and consequently larger the plants fallen. The number pods per plant was higher with the largest spacing and it decreased with the population increase; the number of grains per plant decreased with the population increase; and the productivity was higher in the smallest spacing.

  13. Alelopatia de cultivos de cobertura vegetal sobre plantas infestantes = Allelopathy of cover crop on weed plants

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    Luciene Kazue Tokura

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o potencial alelopático de cultivos de cobertura vegetal de trigo, aveia preta, milheto, nabo forrageiro e colza sobre o desenvolvimento de plantas infestantes e verificou qual das coberturas vegetais exerce maior controle sobre as mesmas. Os cultivos de cobertura vegetal foram implantados sob preparo convencional (uma aração e uma gradagem no Núcleo Experimental de Engenharia Agrícola (NEEA, da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (Unioeste, Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Mensalmente, realizou-se o acompanhamento e identificação das plantas infestantes emersas nas áreas de cobertura vegetal no período de agosto de 2000 a agosto de 2001. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que das espécies encontradas, o capim marmelada foi o que apresentou maior potencial alelopático e a erva-de-santa-maria o menor. As coberturasvegetais que apresentaram melhor controle do total de plantas infestantes presentes na área experimental, incluindo àquelas com reconhecido potencial alelopático, foram aveia preta, colza, nabo forrageiro e milheto.This work evaluated the cover crop allelopathic potential of wheat, black oat, pearl millet, turnip and rape on the development of weed plants. It also verified which cover crop has larger control on the weed plants. The cover crop was implanted under conventional tillage (one disk plowing plus one disk harrowing in the Experimental Nucleus of Agricultural Engineering (NEEA, of the State University of the West of Paraná (Unioeste, Cascavel, Paraná State. Monthly (from August 2000 to August 2001, weed plants identification in the cover crop area was made. Results showed that from the found species, the alexander grass was the one that presented larger allelopathic potential, and, the mexican-tea was the one that presented smaller control. The vegetable coverings that presented larger control of the total of weed plants in the experimental area, including those with

  14. Aerobic fitness and biological and sociodemographic indicators in female school children

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    Roberto Régis Ribeiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness is an important health-related fitness component. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of age, growth, body composition, sexual maturation and socioeconomic status on the aerobic fitness of female school children attending public schools in Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Across-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 2006 on 1,317 school children aged 8 to17 years. Body mass, height and triceps and medial calf skinfold thickness were measured and relative body fat (%BF was calculated. Sexual maturation was self-assessed using a breast development scale (M1 to M5. The questionnaire proposed by the Brazilian Association of Research Companies was used to assess socioeconomic status. Aerobic fitness was estimated by the 20-m shuttle runtest. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, Tukey post hoc test, Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression with 95% confidence intervals. Three variables (age, %BF and socioeconomic status showed an interaction (p<0.05 in the prediction of VO2peakrel (R2=0.73. All independent variables (body mass, height, age, %BF, socioeconomic status, and sexual maturation were significant predictors (p<0.05 of VO2picoabs (R2=0.88. In conclusion, chronological age and sexual maturation were the best predictors of VO2peakabs (positive and VO2peakrel (negative.

  15. Evaluation of the principle of coordination in primary health care of the child in Londrina-Pr

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    Gisleine Tíemi Souza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary Care is a set of universally accessible services that promotes and protects health and prevents and treats diseases, and it is considered the initial access to the Health System. Four main essential attributes are present: accessibility, continuity, integrality and coordination. The coordination is the network of several health related services and actions that must be synchronized and continuous regardless of the location in which they occur. The goal of this study was to evaluate this coordination principle in Primary Care provided to children in 39 UBS (tr. From Basic Health Unit in the urban area of the city of Londrina. The research is multicentric (Londrina, Cascavel and João Pessoa, descriptive and quantitative – with use of PCATool-Brasil for children. In this instrument, coordination is subdivided in integration of care (which refers to the relation between Basic Health Care and specialties and the information system (which evaluates the health data and file availability. Amongst the 609 subjects submitted to interview, only 29.2% reported that a specialist examined the child. The coordination-integration of care score was 7.393 and the coordination-information system score was 7.620. From the eight questions concerning the coordination attribute that can be numeric-evaluated, three had scores below 6.6. The score should be higher than that to meet the concept of Primary Care. The conclusion is that the coordination attribute had a high score despite the three questions with a low score.

  16. Determinação da curva característica de um painel fotovoltaico em condições reais de trabalho - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v27i2.1484

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    Estor Gnoatto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi desenvolvido um estudo sobre um sistema fotovoltaico autônomo, com armazenamento de energia, instalado na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Estado do Paraná, Campus Cascavel, a uma latitude 24º 59’ Sul, longitude de 53º 26’ Oeste, com altitude de 682 metros, sob condições reais de campo, durante o ano de 2002. Foi determinada a curva característica do painel, utilizando uma aquisição de dados um "micrologger" da Campbell Scientific-INC modelo CR10X, programado para realizar uma leitura por segundo de cada canal e armazenar a média aritmética de cinco minutos dos dados das componentes de temperatura de operação do painel; tensão e corrente do sistema fotovoltaico. Baseando-se nesses dados pode-se determinar que a curva característica do painel em condições reais de campo apresenta uma perda de 24% em seu rendimento em relação ao padrão STC (condições padrão de teste

  17. ANÁLISES COPROPARASITOLÓGICAS DE AVES SILVESTRES CATIVAS

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    Alessandra Snak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most instances of parasitism in captive birds there is no expression of clinical signs. This fact underscores the importance of performing frequent parasitological examinations in these animals. The aim of this study was to do a coproparasitological analysis to monitor parasitic infections in captive birds in Danilo Galafassi Municipal Park (Municipal Zoo of Cascavel-PR, project approved by the Committee of Ethics and Animal Welfare (CEBEA Campus Palotina-UFPR, protocol nº 29/2010. A total of 228 fecal samples were analyzed from 37 species of captive birds from 22 enclosures in the period from August 2010 to July 2012. Chilled feces were analyzed through flotation methods of Willis-Mollay and simple sedimentation of Hoffmann, Pons and Janer. Out of the analyzed samples, 127 (55.7% were positive and among these 55 (43.3% presented mixed infection. The parasites that were found belonged to the genus Strongyloides, Eimeria, Capillaria, Deletrocephalus and Isospora, the superfamilies Strongyloidea, Ascaroidea and Spiruroidea, the order Trichurida and the class Cestoda. The examinations results of the enclosure of Jabiru mycteia (tuiuiú and Cariama cristata (seriema were negative throughout the study period. Hygienic-sanitary measures and movement control measures of animals and people circulation were introduced to minimize bird’s infection, but it requires further analysis to assess their impact.

  18. Mineral content of young leaves of yerba mate

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    Marília Camotti Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate is largely used to produce drinks to human consume. In Spring the plants develop tender young leaves that could represent a new market niche in the yerba-mate industry; this period is called as ”pressafrinha” in this study. This study aimed to analyze the total and hydro soluble nutritional values of young leaves collected in the Spring season and its nutritional potential for human consumption. To represent the ”pressafrinha” young leaves, the collected vegetal material was limited to the third terminal bud. The total and hydro soluble chemical analysis of leaves in the provenances Cascavel (progeny 174, Ivaí (progeny 6, Barão de Cotegipe (progenies 68 and 69 included the following elements: P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. The content of elements in the beverage obtained from the infusion of young leaves of yerba mate in the recommended daily intake ranges from 0.5% to 11.5% and was in the following order: Cu > Mn > K > P > Mg > Fe > Zn > Ca > Na. Progenies and morphotypes of yerba mate showed little variation in the total nutrient content and did not differ in the content of soluble nutrients evaluated in young leaves. The extract obtained from young leaves of yerba mate presents potential to be used for human consumption.

  19. Acesso ao cuidado à saúde da criança em serviços de atenção primária

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    Rosane Meire Munhak da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se uma pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa com base no referencial metodológico da hermenêutica dialética, com o objetivo de identificar o atributo acesso da atenção primária para a resolução dos problemas de saúde de crianças menores de um ano a partir dos relatos de pais e cuidadores. Envolveram-se 16 cuidadores de crianças atendidas em unidades de pronto atendimento de Cascavel-PR, em 2010. Foram reconhecidas quatro categorias temáticas: Aconselhamento familiar ao buscar atenção à saúde da criança; Ausência de acolhimento ao primeiro contato; Presença de classificação de risco para atenção à saúde da criança; Barreiras que impedem o acesso à atenção à saúde. Concluiu-se que as famílias exibiram dificuldades para alcançar resolutividade aos problemas de saúde dos filhos, mediante a falta de acesso aos serviços de atenção primária.

  20. Scientific controversies on biological knowledge construction: investigating a continued formation course for teachers with respect for human biological evolution

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    Marcelo Erdmann Bulla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The research here presented has as central theme the human biological evolution, its scientific controversies and the continued formation of science and biology teachers. We evaluate the development of a teaching sequence on the topic, emphasizing the scientific controversy regarding the supposed fossil hominid Ardipithecus ramidus (“Ardi” in a continued formation course for teachers of science and biology of basic public network Cascavel-PR and region. The empirical work involved collecting data from the responses provided by teachers to an initial questionnaire and a final. The analysis and data discussion has highlighted the importance of scientific controversy for the development of scientific knowledge and the urgency to insert the contents of human evolution in subjects on the initial formation of courses in licentiate of Biological Sciences. It is necessary also to offer continued formation courses to include such content for teachers already inserted in schools. We conclude that teaching biology and science using scientific controversies may be in satisfactory teaching tool to introduce the history and nature of science, since scientific activity is permeated by conflicts.

  1. A INCUBADORA COMO INTERMEDIÁRIA DE RELACIONAMENTOS NA PERCEPÇÃO DOS EMPREENDEDORES: UM ESTUDO MULTICASO EM INCUBADORAS PARANAENSES

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    Jaiane Aparecida Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar de que maneira a incubadora, a partir da percepção dos empreendedores, atua como intermediária das empresas incubadas no acesso a informação para o desenvolvimento de inovação. Para alcançá-lo, discute-se no quadro teórico sobre redes sociais, inovação, incubadoras e empresas incubadas. Foi realizado um estudo multicaso, em três incubadoras localizadas no interior do estado do Paraná: (1 Incubadora Tecnológica de Maringá, (2 Incubadora do Parque Tecnológico Itaipu (PTI e (3 Centro Incubador Tecnológico de Cascavel (CIT/FUNDETEC. Entre os achados destaca-se que os empreendedores percebem mais os benefícios tangíveis proporcionados pela incubadora, como o espaço físico, equipamentos e cursos ofertados. Entretanto, constata-se que existem benefícios indiretos, como a contribuição para o reconhecimento de mercado e o apoio para intermediar relacionamentos benéficos à incubada, como o acesso a editais. Pode-se observar ainda que a intermediação da incubadora para desenvolvimento da inovação é secundária.

  2. Analysis of absorbed energy and efficiency of a solar flat plate collector

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    Anderson Miguel Lenz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The highest percentage in home electricity demands in Brazil lies with the water heating systems, where the electric shower has a great contribution in consumption. The use of solar thermal panels is an alternative to minimize the strain on the electrical system by heating water. Current study evaluates a water heating system built with materials commonly used in home constructions. The tested collector is a 1 m² flat plate. Experiments were conducted at the State University of Western Paraná (UNIOESTE, campus Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil. Temperature data were collected by PT100 sensors and solar radiation was measured with a pyranometer, coupled to a CR-1000 datalogger, with readings and collection every 5 minutes for 1 year. Data collection and analysis showed that the system presented monthly efficiency ranging between 33.7 and 53.54%, and energy absorbed between 30.79 and 75.29 kWh m-².month. Results show the system is a good option for use in residential or rural water heating due to decrease in the electric bill.

  3. Vozes de aprendizes acerca de identidades sociais de raça/etnia na escola: percepção sobre materiais didáticos

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    Susana Aparecida Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo refletir a respeito de algumas questões que cercam as identidades sociais de raça/etnia nos materiais didáticos (ou materiais de ensino de alunos de duas salas de 8ª séries em duas escolas da cidade de Cascavel, no Estado do Paraná. Aqui as reflexões concentrar-se-ão em algumas entrevistas dos alunos das referidas escolas. O referencial teórico utilizado para dar suporte a esta pesquisa são: Schwarcz (1998, Moita Lopes (2002, Gomes (2003, Ferreira (2006; 2009, Azevedo (2009, Oliveira (2009, dentre outros. A natureza desta pesquisa é de cunho qualitativo e a metodologia, de base etnográfica, com entrevistas de alunos selecionados com base em questionários. Para as análises foram utilizados apenas excertos das entrevistas. As análises revelaram as percepções desses alunos acerca dos materiais de ensino e a relação deles com a raça/etnia na vida escolar e em sociedade. A pesquisa também demonstrou que as percepções dos alunos envolvem questões que muitas vezes podem estar naturalizadas por eles, e dessa maneira nem sempre lhes sendo perceptíveis.

  4. NURSING PROCESS, ACCORDING TO THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF WANDA HORTA, APPLIED TO A FAMILY MET BY THE REGIONAL CORE OF HOME CARE, DISTRITO FEDERAL.

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    Prince Vangeris Silva Fernandes de Lima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The case report describes the nursing care, systematized according to the conceptual model of Wanda Horta, who was dismissed to a family accompanied by a core team of Regional home care, an administrative region of the Federal District through prioritization, based on the scale of Cascavel, a member of this for such a public service. The context part according to reports from the Discipline community health nursing in ' 02 and ' Stage, mandatory mode sold to students from the undergraduate program in nursing, University of Brasilia. At this juncture, described the history and nursing diagnoses, a welfare plan, as well as the prescription, the evolution and prognosis of nursing. In the residence there was the importance of specific health care provided not only by the nurse, but for the entire multidisciplinary team, customers with chronic clinical pictures and aggravated, but stable, that demand care that exceed those offered by primary health care. Seeking the completeness of the care, professionals and students involved started for the opportunity to visualize and better understand the patterns of relationships established between the client, family and healthcare professionals, with an emphasis on how the actors involved in this scenario mobilized in support of ailing client.

  5. The Civil Liability of Accountants: a study focusing the new Brazilian civil code of 2002 from the perspective of professional ethics

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    Ketlyn da Silva Pasquali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the trends in the development of accountancy is the alignment of accounting principles, ethics and civil liability. In this context, this study analyzes the perception of accountants with respect to professional ethics and liability in view of the new Brazilian civil code adopted in 2002. To examine professional ethics, we investigated the perception of accountants as to civil liability, the hypotheses of incidence, and preventive measures for protecting rights and interests in light of the new civil code, using a descriptive and quantitative approach.  Data was collected by means of a questionnaire applied to a sample of 52 accountants belonging to the Accountants Union of Cascavel and Region.  Comparisons were made of the responses using graphical analysis and consensus analysis.  On the basis of the results obtained, we can conclude that the accountants  attribute importance to the use of ethics in their professional practice and that there is very strong consensus on the obligation to carry out the accounting profession zealously and with technical expertise. With regard to the degree of knowledge concerning civil responsibility and liability in the execution of their activities, we observed that these professionals know the penalties for malicious and intentional unethical acts in the exercise of the profession. Future research could explore self-assessment for further investigation with the purpose of developing a sense of individual responsibility and critical spirit.

  6. A water heating system analysis for rural residences, using solar energy; Analise de um sistema de aquecimento de agua para residencias rurais, utilizando energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Luiz H.; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Siqueira, Jair A.C.; Nogueira, Carlos E.C.; Santos, Reginaldo F. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], emails: melegsouza@yahoo.com, ssouza@unioeste.br, jairsiqueira@unioeste.br, cecn1@yahoo.com.br, rfsantos@unioeste.br

    2010-01-15

    The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new renewed energy sources and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of agricultural residential water heating, can complement the economy of electric energy, base of the Brazilian energy matrix. Knowing the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy is important in determining their technical viabilities targeting their distribution in agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy, a prototype was constructed in the campus of Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel,State of Parana, Brazil, with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants, to function with natural circulation or thermo siphon and without help of a complementary heating system. The equipment revealed technical viability, reaching the minimum temperature for shower, of 35 deg C, whenever the solar radiation was above the 3,500 Wh m{sup -2}, for the majority of the studied days. (author)

  7. Uso de álcool entre adolescentes escolares: um estudo-piloto

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    Luana Dallo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de álcool entre adolescentes é um tema que preocupa profissionais da saúde pelos prejuízos acarretados e pela displicência da sociedade quanto ao uso desta droga por essa faixa etária. Este artigo analisa o consumo de álcool entre alunos do ensino médio de três escolas de Cascavel-PR. O instrumento utilizado foi o Alcohol Use Disordens Identification Test (AUDIT, além de levantamento de informações sobre o nível socioeconômico, religião e o beber problemático de familiar. O resultado mostrou que 34,7% dos estudantes bebem de maneira arriscada, não havendo diferenças significativas por escola, gênero e nível socioeconômico. Ter familiar que bebe foi considerado fator de risco e ter religião, fator protetor. Esta pesquisa pode alertar a sociedade paranaense para a necessidade de estudos mais amplos, com o objetivo de desenvolver políticas públicas que incluam projetos de prevenção e intervenção dirigidos à população jovem.

  8. EXISTENCIAL DE SUAS VIVÊNCIAS

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    Elionésia Marta dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender los sentimientos de las personas que sufren dolor por la muerte de un ser querido con cáncer. Se trata de una investigación de carácter cualitativo, a la luz de la fenomenología existencial de Martin Heidegger, realizada entre abril y junio de 2009. Los seis participantes entrevistados se seleccionaron de los archivos del Programa de Asistencia y Cuidado en el Hogar, en la ciudad de Cascavel-PR. A los familiares se les hizo la siguiente pregunta: "¿Cómo se está sintiendo por la muerte de su ser querido?" Del análisis surgieron tres temáticas existenciales: Angustia ante la posibilidad de una muerte inminente, el descubrimiento de la propia finitud, y, experimentar la temporalidad de estar en duelo. Se concluye que el enfermero debe caminar al lado de la persona que está de luto, ya que él necesita sentirse apoyado en todo el proceso, pues vivir el duelo significa transitar un camino para sobrevivir a la ausencia de un ser querido y encontrar un nuevo sentido para la existencia

  9. Calorific value for compositions with biodiesel of fat chicken and diesel oil; Valor calorifico para composicoes com biodiesel da gordura de frango e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose da [Universidade de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], email: marcelo.jose@feagri.unicamp.br; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Souza, Abel A. de; Martins, Gislaine I. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, abel.sza@hotmail.com, iastiaque@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    The biodiesel fuel is a renewable source of alternative fuel used in diesel cycle engines. The production of biodiesel involves the reaction of methanol with fatty acids of animal or vegetable. The production of biodiesel from chicken fat can be very attractive for some regions from Brazil with high poultry production, as in the Parana West and Santa Catarina West. In this study , the goal was the lower calorific value of the compositions between biodiesel and diesel oil: 100% Diesel oil (B0), 20% biodiesel (B20), 40% biodiesel (B40), 60% biodiesel (B60), 80% biodiesel (B80 ), 100% biodiesel (B100). The biodiesel used was acquired in the Centre for Development and Diffusion of technologies on the Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel city. The nominal production capacity of the unit is 900 liters on period of 8 hours. The model of the calorimeter used, was the E2K. The lower calorific value of B100 composition was 35.388 MJ kg-1 and the diesel oil was 41.299 MJ kg-1. With the measuring of the caloric value of six samples mix of diesel oil and biodiesel, was obtained a linear function decrease of the calorific value when increased it the proportion of biodiesel from chicken fat into fuel. (author)

  10. Comportamento sexual de risco entre estudantes universitárias dos cursos de ciências da saúde Risky sexual behavior among university students in health science courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Moser

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o comportamento sexual de estudantes do sexo feminino do Setor de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal do Paraná e do Setor de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Campus Cascavel. MÉTODOS: Participaram todas as estudantes matriculadas nos referidos setores, no mês de junho de 2001, com idade entre 18 e 24 anos completos, sendo que a amostra final foi constituída por 572 estudantes em Curitiba e 395 em Cascavel. Foram avaliados a idade, relacionamento familiar, religiosidade, participação em aulas de educação sexual, idade de início de atividade sexual, uso de métodos anticoncepcionais e preservativos, e número de parceiros para avaliar a conduta sexual. Sexo seguro foi definido pelo uso de preservativo em todas ou na maioria das relações sexuais pelas estudantes monogâmicas, incluindo as estudantes poligâmicas com uso de preservativo em todas as relações sexuais. Sexo inseguro foi definido pelo uso ocasional de preservativo pelas estudantes monogâmicas, e pelo não uso sistemático entre as estudantes poligâmicas. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi um questionário auto-respondido. A análise dos dados foi feita no SPSS, utilizando o teste do Qui-quadrado de Pearson e Yates, teste do p de Wilcoxon-Gehan, análise bivariada e regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa na conduta sexual de risco entre as estudantes e a cidade de estudo. Cerca de 50% das estudantes de 18 a 20 anos e 70% das de 21 a 24 anos tinham vida sexual ativa. A abstinência esteve associada a menor idade, maior freqüência a culto religioso e ao bom relacionamento das estudantes com os pais. A prática de sexo seguro esteve diretamente associada a menor idade e a morar fora da residência da família. Ter participado de aulas de educação sexual esteve associada a maior abstinência, mas não a sexo seguro, e a relação não se manteve na an

  11. O seguimento da saúde da criança pré-termo e de baixo peso egressa da terapia intensiva neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silveira Viera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es describir cómo ocurre el cuidado del niño prematuro y de bajo peso después de ser dado de alta de la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatal, en lo que se refiere a su seguimiento y el de su familia en el hogar. Es un estudio descriptivo, con abordaje hermenéutico y comprensión de los datos a partir del análisis temático. La investigación se realizó en la ciudad de Cascavel-PR, con seis familias cuyos hijos fueron dados de alta de la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatal, siendo acompañados por medio de visitas domiciliarias en los tres primeros meses después de haber sido dados de alta. Los relatos señalan aspectos del cuidado del niño en el hogar y las experiencias con los servicios de salud en la atención basica y especializada. Las familias mostraron su itinerario en los servicios de salud disponibles, en busca de la continuidad del cuidado del niño después de ser dado de alta. Ese itinerario se caracterizó por barreras de acceso, vínculo frágil y vulnerabilidad institucional, produciendo inseguridad, insatisfacción y falta de afecto en el seguimiento del niño.

  12. Gamma radiation damage in crotamine (venom of Brazilian rattlesnake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, T.A.; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Ionizing Radiations changes the molecular structure due to chemical bond destruction. These chemical alterations is able to change the biological properties of the macro-molecules. Crotamine was obtained from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by molecular exclusion cromatography and irradiated in concentration of 2 mg/ml of NaCl 0,85% with gamma radiation produced by a 60 Co source. We used doses of 100 Gy, 250 Gy, 500 Gy, 1000 Gy and 2000 Gy (dose rate = 1,19.10 3 Gy/h). We performed the following experiments: presence of free SH groups, proteic concentration,SDS-PAGE and immunodifusion. Preliminary results showed an increase of the number of bands in SDS-PAGE suggesting the appearence of protein aggregates that proportional to the dose increasing. The immunodiffusion data showed no modification of the immunochemical activity against theButantan anti - sera. (author) [pt

  13. Influence of the main reactive species formed during the detoxication process of toxins by ionizing radiation; Influencia das principais especies reativas formadas durante o processo de destoxicacao de toxinas por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Murilo Casare da

    2003-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been satisfactorily employed for venoms detoxification. In this report, the radiation was employed to verify the effects caused by the radiolysis products of water on two toxins (Crotoxin and Crotamine) purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. These effects were analyzed using some substances called 'scavengers', those substances competes for specific reactive species hindering them to act on the toxins molecules. In order to study the possible structural damages caused on the toxins, UV spectra, fluorescence, mass spectrometry, enzymatic activity were employed. In addition, biochemical techniques were employed to evaluate the decrease of toxicity and the immunogenicity of toxins before and after the irradiation. Our results indicate that the irradiation promotes structural damages, even at low doses. These modifications lead to a gradual decrease in toxicity, however, the immunogenic properties of the toxins are preserved. (author)

  14. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storz, Jay F.; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer- dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking...... for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying - and -type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2......) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis...

  15. Influence of the main reactive species formed during the detoxication process of toxins by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Murilo Casare da

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been satisfactorily employed for venoms detoxification. In this report, the radiation was employed to verify the effects caused by the radiolysis products of water on two toxins (Crotoxin and Crotamine) purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. These effects were analyzed using some substances called 'scavengers', those substances competes for specific reactive species hindering them to act on the toxins molecules. In order to study the possible structural damages caused on the toxins, UV spectra, fluorescence, mass spectrometry, enzymatic activity were employed. In addition, biochemical techniques were employed to evaluate the decrease of toxicity and the immunogenicity of toxins before and after the irradiation. Our results indicate that the irradiation promotes structural damages, even at low doses. These modifications lead to a gradual decrease in toxicity, however, the immunogenic properties of the toxins are preserved. (author)

  16. Crystal structures of catrocollastatin/VAP2B reveal a dynamic, modular architecture of ADAM/adamalysin/reprolysin family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Tomoko; Araki, Satohiko; Mori, Hidezo; Takeda, Soichi

    2007-05-29

    Catrocollastatin/vascular apoptosis-inducing protein (VAP)2B is a metalloproteinase from Crotalus atrox venom, possessing metalloproteinase/disintegrin/cysteine-rich (MDC) domains that bear the typical domain architecture of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)/adamalysin/reprolysin family proteins. Here we describe crystal structures of catrocollastatin/VAP2B in three different crystal forms, representing the first reported crystal structures of a member of the monomeric class of this family of proteins. The overall structures show good agreement with both monomers of atypical homodimeric VAP1. Comparison of the six catrocollastatin/VAP2B monomer structures and the structures of VAP1 reveals a dynamic, modular architecture that may be important for the functions of ADAM/adamalysin/reprolysin family proteins.

  17. Facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia after a timber rattlesnake envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madey, Jason J; Price, Amanda B; Dobson, Joseph V; Stickler, David E; McSwain, S David

    2013-11-01

    The timber rattlesnake, also known as Crotalus horridus, is well known to cause significant injury from toxins stored within its venom. During envenomation, toxic systemic effects immediately begin to cause damage to many organ systems including cardiovascular, hematologic, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and neurologic. One defining characteristic of the timber rattlesnake is a specific neurotoxin called crotoxin, or the "canebrake toxin," which is a potent β-neurotoxin affecting presynaptic nerves that can cause paralysis by inhibiting appropriate neuromuscular transmission. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old boy bitten twice on his calf by a timber rattlesnake, who presented with a life-threatening envenomation and suffered multisystem organ failure as well as a prominent presynaptic neurotoxicity resulting in facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia.

  18. Molecular exclusion chromatographic analysis on 60Co irradiated rattlesnake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Y.; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are sufficiently energetic to be able of breaking chemical bonds and as result of that molecules of substances present in the irradiated will be chemically changed and their biological properties affected also. In this paper the effects of gamma radiation of Co-60 on the rattlesnake venom were studied. A pool of positive crotamina Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was dissolved in 0,15 M NaCl and irradiated with Co-60. Doses of 100, 250, 500, 750, 1500 and 2000 Gy were applied at the dose rate of 1190 Gy/h. With doses over 500 Gy the solutions became turbid, suggesting the presence of aggregates and structural changes of the proteins. The concentration of proteins from the filtered solution was measured by the Lowry method. One ml samples were measured at 230 nm. The partition coefficients and the areas of the three main fraction obtained were calculated. (author) [pt

  19. Commentary on: "Vascular distensibilities have minor effects on intracardiac shunt patterns in reptiles" by Filogonio et al. (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hedrick, Michael S; Kohl, Zachary F

    2017-06-01

    The recent study by Filogonio et al. (2017) suggested that net cardiac shunt patterns in two species of reptiles (Trachemys scripta and Crotalus durissus) were not significantly influenced by the vascular distensibilities of the systemic and pulmonary vasculatures. This is in contrast to a previously published study (Hillman et al., 2014) in the toad (Rhinella marina) in which net cardiac shunts were predicted primarily by the physical properties of vascular distensibility rather than physiological control of resistance of the systemic and pulmonary vasculature. We analyze the data and conclusions reached by Filogonio et al. (2017) regarding the role of vascular distensibilities in determining net cardiac shunt patterns in reptiles in comparison with toads. In our view, the conclusions reached by Filogonio et al. (2017) are not supported by the data primarily because vascular distensibilities were not measured in the reptiles analyzed in their study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of gamma radiation on snake venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, N.; Spencer, P.J.; Andrade, H.F.; Guarnieri, M.C.; Rogero, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venoms, without affecting significantly their immunogenic properties. In order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative pharmacological study between native and irradiated (2,000 Gy) crotoxin, the main toxin of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and, subsequently submitted to irradiation. Gel filtration of the irradiated toxin resulted in some high molecular weight aggregates formation. Crotoxin toxicity decreased two folds after irradiation, as determined by LD 50 in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution ocurred in the same general manner, with renal elimination. However, in contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native form was initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3 hr) appeared in phagocytic mononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junction rich organs (muscle and brain)

  1. Evaluation of snake venom phospholipase A{sub 2}: hydrolysis of non-natural esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirolla, Renan A.S.; Baldasso, Paulo A.; Marangoni, Sergio; Moran, Paulo J.S.; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto R., E-mail: jaugusto@iqm.unicamp.b [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry. Dept. of Organic Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Phospholipase A2 from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus was employed for the first time to test its enantioselectivity on the hydrolysis of different non-natural esters. It was observed that the structure of this small enzyme is restrictive in the choice of its lipase action with non-natural substrates. Two forms of the enzyme were used; free and as its cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA). With all substrates, the free enzyme showed activity similar to the CLEA preparation. The advantage of the CLEA phospholipase is the possibility to reuse it in several consecutive reactions without a decrease of activity and selectivity with good but higher yields and ee than with the free enzyme. (author)

  2. {sup 131}I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. {sup 125}I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, {sup 125}I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for {sup 131}I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  3. Professor José Roberto Giglio and toxinnology in Brazil: 48 years in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Soares

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work succinctly describes the professional and scientific life of Dr. José R. Giglio, one of the most outstanding Brazilian researchers in the field of Toxinology. During his long and successful career, he has made major contributions, especially in elucidating the function, structure, and mechanisms of action of animal venom proteins (from snakes, scorpions and spiders as well as the characterization of antibodies and several inhibitors of venoms and toxins. We present here a brief history of Dr. Giglio’s personal and professional life, also reporting some of his numerous published scientific articles on venoms from snakes (Bothrops, Crotalus, and other genera, scorpions (Tityus sp, spiders (Phoneutria sp, their isolated toxins and natural inhibitors. Thus, this work is a tribute to Dr. Giglio in his 73rd birthday, having devoted 48 years of his life studying animal venoms, an effort that has continued even after his formal retirement from university duties.

  4. 239Pu contamination in snakes inhabiting the Rocky Flats Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, R.A.; Winsor, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    For approximately four years studies have been under way at the Rocky Flats plant to determine contamination patterns and concentrations of Pu in the biota. Contamination of the Rocky Flats environs has resulted from at least three incidents, a September 1957 fire, a May 1969 fire, and leaking barrels containing plutonium-laden cutting oil. The latter incident was considered by far the major source of the plutonium contamination. Results are reported from a study conducted to determine whether snake tissues of the area contained detectable amounts of 239 Pu and, if so, at what concentrations. Eastern yellow-bellied racers (Coluber constrictor flaviventris, bullsnakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi, and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis, were collected for 239 Pu bioassay of lung, liver, and bone tissues. Snakes were captured using drift fences terminating in funnel traps and by opportunistic sampling. Results led to the conclusion that snakes are not an important organism in the redistribution of 239 Pu

  5. /sup 239/Pu contamination in snakes inhabiting the Rocky Flats Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, R.A.; Winsor, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    For approximately four years studies have been under way at the Rocky Flats plant to determine contamination patterns and concentrations of Pu in the biota. Contamination of the Rocky Flats environs has resulted from at least three incidents, a September 1957 fire, a May 1969 fire, and leaking barrels containing plutonium-laden cutting oil. The latter incident was considered by far the major source of the plutonium contamination. Results are reported from a study conducted to determine whether snake tissues of the area contained detectable amounts of /sup 239/Pu and, if so, at what concentrations. Eastern yellow-bellied racers (Coluber constrictor flaviventris, bullsnakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi, and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis, were collected for /sup 239/Pu bioassay of lung, liver, and bone tissues. Snakes were captured using drift fences terminating in funnel traps and by opportunistic sampling. Results led to the conclusion that snakes are not an important organism in the redistribution of /sup 239/Pu. (CH)

  6. 131I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos

    2009-01-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. 125 I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, 125 I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for 131 I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131 I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  7. Effect of saponin from Quillaja saponaria (molina) on antibody, tumour necrosis factor and interferon-gamma production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebara, V C; Petricevich, V L; Raw, I; da Silva, W D

    1995-08-01

    Saponin has been described to contain adjuvant activity in vaccination protocols, in protection against disease, and on humoral immune response. In this paper we describe the effect of a pure saponin from Quillaja saponaria (molina) on the immune response elicited in mice by two antigens, BSA and Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake) venom. Antibody production as measured by ELISA shows that saponin was able to increase antibody synthesis to both antigens. Moreover, mice immunized with verom plus saponin were completely protected against the lethal effects of the venom. The effect of saponin was also evaluated for cytokine production. Tumour necrosis factor activity about 2.9 times higher than in control mice was detectable in sera from animals immunized with saponin. Interferon-gamma was produced only when BSA and saponin were injected together into the mice.

  8. ELISA for the detection of venom antigens in experimental and clinical envenoming by Loxosceles intermedia spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Olórtegui, C; Zanetti, V C; Ferreira, A P; Minozzo, J C; Mangili, O C; Gubert, I C

    1998-04-01

    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed to detect antigens from Loxosceles intermedia spider venom. Hyperimmune horse anti-Loxosceles intermedia IgGs were prepared by immunoaffinity chromatography and used to set up a sandwich-type ELISA. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by its capacity to correctly discriminate the circulating antigens in mice that were experimentally inoculated with L. intermedia venom from those inoculated with L. gaucho, L. laeta, and Phoneutria nigriventer spider venoms, Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom and Bothrops jararaca, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Lachesis muta muta and Micrurus frontalis snake venoms. Measurable absorbance signals were obtained with 0.8 ng of venom per assay. The ELISA also detected antigens in the sera of patients envenomed by L. intermedia. Therefore, after standardization for clinical use this ELISA may be a valuable tool for clinicians and epidemiologists.

  9. Increase of the cytotoxic effect of Bothrops jararacussu venom on mouse extensor digitorum longus and soleus by potassium channel blockers and by Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaz, Marcelo A; Fernandes, Fabrício F A; El-Kik, Camila Z; Moraes, Raphael A M; Calil-Elias, Sabrina; Saturnino-Oliveira, Jeison; Martinez, Ana Maria B; Ownby, Charlotte L; Melo, Paulo A

    2008-09-15

    We investigated the myotoxicity of Bothrops jararacussu crude venom and other cytolytic agents on mouse isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles, which present distinct properties: EDL is a fast-twitch, white muscle with predominantly glycolytic fibers, while SOL is slow-twitch, red muscle with predominantly oxidative fibers. Muscles were exposed to B. jararacussu crude venom (25 microg/ml) and other crotaline venoms (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus; Crotalus viridis viridis; Crotalus durissus terrificus) at the same concentration. Basal creatine kinase (CK) release to bathing solution was 0.43+/-0.06 for EDL and 0.29+/-0.06 for SOL (U g(-)(1) h(-)(1), n=36 for each muscle). Sixty minutes after exposure to B. jararacussu venom, EDL presented higher increase in the rate of CK release than SOL, respectively, 13.2+/-1.5 and 2.9+/-0.7 U g(-)(1)h(-)(1), n=10-12. Muscle denervation, despite decreasing CK content, did not affect sensitivities to B. jararacussu venom. Ouabain and potassium channel blockers (TEA; clotrimazole; glibenclamide) increased the rate of CK release by B. jararacussu in EDL and SOL muscles, decreasing and almost abolishing the different sensitivity. When we exposed EDL or SOL muscles to Naja naja, Apis mellifera venoms (25 microg/ml), or Triton X-100 (0.01%), they showed similar rate of CK release. Our present data suggest that a mechanism involving intracellular calcium regulation or potassium channels may participate in the different sensitivity of EDL and SOL to B. jararacussu venom.

  10. Snake co-occurrence patterns are best explained by habitat and hypothesized effects of interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, David A; McClure, Christopher J W; Brock, Jean C; Craig Rudolph, D; Pierce, Josh B; Lee, James R; Jeffrey Humphries, W; Gregory, Beau B; Sutton, William B; Smith, Lora L; Baxley, Danna L; Stevenson, Dirk J; Guyer, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Snakes often occur in species-rich assemblages, and sympatry is thought to be facilitated primarily by low diet overlap, not interspecific interactions. We selected, a priori, three species pairs consisting of species that are morphologically and taxonomically similar and may therefore be likely to engage in interspecific, consumptive competition. We then examined a large-scale database of snake detection/nondetection data and used occupancy modelling to determine whether these species occur together more or less frequently than expected by chance while accounting for variation in detection probability among species and incorporating important habitat categories in the models. For some snakes, we obtained evidence that the probabilities that habitat patches are used are influenced by the presence of potentially competing congeneric species. Specifically, timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) were less likely than expected by chance to use areas that also contained eastern diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus adamanteus) when the proportion of evergreen forest was relatively high. Otherwise, they occurred together more often than expected by chance. Complex relationships were revealed between habitat use, detection probabilities and occupancy probabilities of North American racers (Coluber constrictor) and coachwhips (Coluber flagellum) that indicated the probability of competitive exclusion increased with increasing area of grassland habitat, although there was some model uncertainty. Cornsnakes (Pantherophis guttatus or Pantherophis slowinskii) and ratsnakes (Pantherophis alleghaniensis, Pantherophis spiloides, or Pantherophis obsoletus) exhibited differences in habitat selection, but we obtained no evidence that patterns of use for this species pair were influenced by current interspecific interactions. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that competitive interactions influence snake assemblage composition; the strength of these effects was

  11. Obtained and evaluation of antisera raised against irradiated crotalic whole venom or crotoxin in 60 Co source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Regina A. de.

    1995-01-01

    Snake bite is a great Public Health problem in our country. The accidents with snakes from Crotalus genus are the most severe. About 1% of the victims die without seratherapy. The antivenons are obtained from hyper immune horse plasma. During the production these animals present signs of envenoming that result in a decrease of organic resistance besides the horses maintenance is very expensive and the producers are fewer, so the sera production is restrict. Many techniques which could reduce the venoms toxicity and increase the sera production using chemical and physical agents have been studied. The gamma rays are excellent tool to detoxify venoms and toxins. It is able to modify protein structures that decrease lethally, toxic and enzymatic activities without modifying the immunogenicity. So, it is important evaluate the sera production in rabbits using gamma rays detoxified venom and crotoxin as immunogen and their power as reagents in immuno assays. In order to obtain the antisera, Crotalus durissus terrificus whole venom or isolated crotoxin was irradiated with 2.000 Gy in 60 Co source, in a 150 mM NaCl solution, and inoculated in rabbits. The sera production were screened by immunoprecipitation, immuno enzymatic (ELISA) and immunoradiometric (IRMA) assays. The specificity was studied by immuno-electrophoresis, ELISA and western blot techniques. The neutralizing power was evaluated by neutralization of phospholipase A 2 activity of toxin in vitro. The antisera were used as reagents in antigen capture assays ELISA and IRMA immuno assays to detect circulant antigens in sera of mice experimentally inoculated with crotalic venom or crotoxin. The results showed that both detoxified venom or crotoxin were good immunogens, and they were able to induce antibodies that could recognize non-irradiated venom or isolated crotoxin. The data suggest that those antibodies present more specificity and higher in vitro neutralizing power, when compared with commercial

  12. A importância dos acidentes ofídicos como causa de mortes em bovinos no Brasil The importance of snake bites as cause of cattle death in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A revisão da literatura pertinente indica que as opiniões sobre a importância dos acidentes ofídicos, como causa de mortes em bovinos no Brasil, são divergentes no meio veterinário. Enquanto alguns acreditam que são pouco importantes, ou que têm menor significado do que lhes é atribuído, outros são da opinião que esses acidentes são freqüentes. Verificou-se que só foi relatado diagnóstico fundamentado de dois casos fatais de envenenamento por Bothrops spp em bovinos, e de nenhum por Crotalus spp. Um questionário por nós submetido a patologistas e clínicos veterinários que atuam em diversos Estados do país, revelou apenas raros casos suspeitos de envenenamento ofídico fatal em bovinos no Brasil. Em nossas viagens de estudo e nos trabalhos de diagnóstico nunca estabelecemos o diagnóstico de morte por acidente ofídico em bovinos. Os casos tidos como envenenamento ofídico, na sua grande maioria, são apenas suposições, sem embasamento. Esses "diagnósticos", em geral, são feitos à distância dos animais que morreram, à revelia de exame clínico, necropsia e estudo histopatológico. Importante foi a constatação de que, no Brasil, embora algumas serpentes do gênero Bothrops possam, teoricamente, produzir quantidades suficientes de veneno para matar um bovino adulto, em experimentos realizados, apenas Bothrops alternatus foi capaz de levar a morte um dos três bovinos experimentalmente por ela picados; esse animal tinha apenas 279 kg. Já as serpentes do gênero Crotalus poderiam inocular quantidades letais de veneno para bovinos adultos. Mesmo assim, tanto para Bothrops spp, como para Crotalus spp, há que se considerar que as serpentes, em geral, só inoculam parte do veneno disponível. Esse estudo indica que é necessário melhor investigar as mortes suspeitas de terem sido causadas por acidente ofídico em bovinos no Brasil. O estabelecimento do diagnóstico de morte por envenenamento ofídico, porém, só é poss

  13. Icnito de Habitação (Serpulidae da Formação Riachuelo, Bacia Sergipe-Alagoas.

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    Daniela Melo Andrade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A margem continental do leste e norte do Brasil apresenta uma série de bacias marginais, cujo desenvolvimento está diretamente relacionado com a separação da placa africana/sul-americana, eem ambos os lados do Atlântico Sul, as bacias têm uma história geológica comum. Com a abertura do Atlântico Sul, o mar transgressivo cobriu os depósitos da fase evaporítica protomarinha com águas moderadamente quentes e hipersalinas, possibilitando a deposição sucessiva de carbonatos. Assim, o registro desta fase marinha inicial é representado por uma extensa plataforma carbonática que se estende ao longo de 3.500 km de litoral brasileiro, desde a bacia de Santos até a bacia de Barreirinhas. A Formação Riachuelo aflora numa faixa de aproximadamente 20 km de largura, entre os municípios de Itaporanga e Pacatuba, noEstado de Sergipe. A Formação Riachuelo engloba um complexo de plataforma mista siliciclásticacarbonática, onde podem ser reconhecidos três membros: Angico, Taquari e Maruim. Os Polychaetas são encontrados abundantemente em alguns intervalos das sequências marinhas, principalmente em rochas do Albiano inferior daFormação Riachuelo, Coniaciano da Formação Cotinguiba e Campaniano superior da Formação Calumbi. As formas mais comuns são as secretorasde tubos calcários, p. ex., Serpula, Diploconcha e Hamulus, entretanto formas escavadoras, p. ex., Terebella, ocorrem de forma localizada. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo principal identificar os icnogêros que ocorrem na localidade Porto dosBarcos 2, da Formação Riachuelo. Esta localidade é representada por uma exposição de siltito argiloso amarelo, com concreções, e camadas que mergulham 20oNE, ocorrem ainda uma fauna associada composta por amonóides, biválvios, gastrópodos e equinóides, está a 10°43’22”S - 37º10’51”W, no município de Riachuelo. A construção dos icnitos dehabitação (Dominichnia desta formação é atribuída a poliquetas de

  14. A tilapicultura e seus insumos, relações econômicas Tilapia culture and its inputs, economic relations

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    João Donato Scorvo Filho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A aquicultura brasileira é a segunda (destaque para o Chile em produção sul-americana, apoiada basicamente nas cadeias de produção da tilapicultura e da carcinicultura. O Brasil produziu, em 2007, 95.691,0 toneladas de tilápia, o que representa 45% da produção da aquicultura continental. A aquicultura formada por pequenos e médios produtores vem mostrando, nos últimos anos, mudança nos sistemas de criação. Até a o final da década de 90, ela se baseava no sistema semi-intensivo em viveiros escavados e de barragens. A partir do ano de 2000, surge, com força, a tilapicultura em tanques-rede, principalmente em águas da União (grandes reservatórios de hidroelétricas e açudes da Região Nordeste. Esta mudança acarretou alterações na cadeia de produção, uma vez que são necessários insumos adequados ao sistema: rações específicas, material genético compatível com a criação e formas de escoamento da produção, uma vez que no novo sistema apresenta maior escala de produção. O sistema agroindustrial do pescado abrange dois sistemas de produção distintos: a pesca (sistema extrativo e a aquicultura (sistema produtivo. Alguns elos deste sistema são compartilhados pelos dois sistemas, porém ração e material genético são exclusivos da aquicultura. Nos elos de transformação, distribuição e comercialização, ambos os sistemas se relacionam e, muitas vezes, concorrem entre si. Atualmente, o Brasil possui linhagens melhoradas geneticamente, em contínuo processo de melhoramento e adaptaçao às nossas condições. A atividade de tilapicultura vem passando, desde as décadas passadas, por um processo de profissionalização, com o produtor mais atento ao manejo e aos insumos utilizados. Hoje, é possível escolher o insumo que mais se adapta ao manejo empregado pelo produtor, porém isso não é é uma prática generalizada quando se considera seu preço de venda.The Brazilian aquaculture is the second (Chile is the

  15. Detecção de risco de interações entre fármacos antidepressivos e associados prescritos a pacientes adultos Interaction risk detection between antidepressant and associated drugs prescribed for adult patients

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    Kassia Fernanda Campigotto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O uso de fármacos combinados para o tratamento de patologias diversas em psiquiatria tem aumentado progressivamente. Os antidepressivos estão envolvidos em diversas interações farmacológicas clinicamente importantes. OBJETIVO: Detectar risco de interações entre fármacos antidepressivos e associados prescritos a pacientes adultos. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa retrospectiva e descritiva foi desenvolvida em uma farmácia magistral da cidade de Cascavel, Paraná. Os dados foram coletados de 151 receituários médicos de pacientes adultos (19 anos ou mais, envolvendo fármacos antidepressivos e associados entre outubro e novembro de 2005. O estudo limitou-se às variáveis registradas no receituário médico (sexo, idade, fármaco antidepressivo e associado prescrito. RESULTADOS: A categoria de 31 a 40 anos de idade foi a mais freqüente (32,46% e o sexo foi o feminino (64,90%. Os fármacos antidepressivos tricíclicos (ADT e associados apresentaram um total de oito episódios de interações relativos ao grau de severidade, sendo quatro de grau moderado e quatro menor. Em relação aos fármacos antidepressivos inibidores seletivos da recaptura de serotonina (ISRS e associados, o risco de ocorrência foi de 16 casos; quatro de severidade menor, dez moderada e dois maior. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados mostram que os pacientes com prescrição de fármacos ISRS e associados possuíam mais risco de interações de maior severidade, totalizando o dobro de interações em relação aos ADTs.BACKGROUND: The combination of drugs for the treatment of psychiatric disorders has become a relatively frequent practice. The antidepressants are involved in several clinically important pharmacological interactions. OBJECTIVES: To detect the risk of interactions between antidepressants and associated drugs prescribed for adults patients. METHODS: Data on 151 medical prescriptions of antidepressants and other psychiatric drugs were retrospectively assessed at a

  16. Prevalência do uso de produtos derivados do tabaco e fatores associados em mulheres no Paraná, Brasil Prevalence of tobacco use and associated factors among women in Paraná State, Brazil

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    Isabel C. Scarinci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência do uso de produtos derivados do tabaco e o perfil demográfico de mulheres fumantes no Paraná, Brasil. Foi um estudo transversal de base populacional com amostragem por cluster envolvendo 2.153 mulheres com 18 anos de idade ou mais em sete cidades. A prevalência do uso do tabaco fumado foi de 13,4% variando de 10% (Cascavel a 19% (Irati. Na análise multivariada, cidade, estado civil e escolaridade foram significativamente associados ao uso do tabaco. Mulheres em Irati (OR = 2,08; IC95%: 1,22-3,54 foram mais propensas a serem fumantes que mulheres em Cambé. As casadas ou viúvas foram menos propensas a serem fumantes (OR = 0,47; IC95%: 0,30-0,73 e OR = 0,43; IC95%: 0,22-0,87 que as solteiras. Mulheres em união estável foram mais propensas a serem fumantes que as solteiras (OR = 2,49; IC95%: 1,12-5,53 e mulheres com curso superior foram menos propensas a serem fumantes que as com primeiro grau ou menos (OR = 0,41; IC95%: 0,22-0,87. Estes resultados confirmam a necessidade de programas de controle do tabaco que levem em consideração as questões de gênero e regiões.This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to describe the demographic profile of female smokers in Paraná State, Brazil. The study used a cross-sectional population-based design with cluster sampling (n = 2,153 of women 18 years or older in seven cities. Prevalence of smoking was 13.4%, ranging from 10% in Cascavel to 19% in Irati. According to multivariate analysis, city of residence, marital status, and schooling were significantly associated with tobacco use. Women in Irati (OR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.22-3.54 were more likely to smoke than those in Cambé. Married women and widows were less likely to smoke (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.30-0.73 and OR = 0.43; 95%CI: 0.22-0.87 than single women. Women living with a partner (but not married were more likely to smoke than single women (OR = 2.49; 95%CI: 1.12-5.53, and

  17. Propriedades físicas de Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico sob sistemas de manejo na sucessão soja-milho no período de três anos = Physical properties in distrofic Red Latosol under management systems in the succession soybean-maize in three years

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    Reny Adilmar Prestes Lopes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou alterações das propriedades físicas teor de água, densidade e porosidade do solo em áreas sob sistemas de semeadura direta e preparo convencional nas culturas de soja e milho em três anos agrícolas. O experimento foi instalado no NúcleoExperimental de Engenharia Agrícola da Unioeste (Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Nos dois primeiros anos foi implantada a cultura de soja; no terceiro ano, milho, como cultura de verão, e aveia preta e nabo forrageiro, como cobertura de inverno. Durante os três anos,foram observados redução do teor de água e densidade do solo e aumento da porosidade. As variações nas propriedades físicas do solo mostraram relação diretamente proporcional entre teor de água e densidade do solo e inversamente para porosidade. O solo apresentoumelhorias nas condições físicas pelo acréscimo de porosidade e redução de densidade com as culturas de aveia preta+nabo forrageiro e milho. O manejo soja/milho em rotação com aveia preta+nabo forrageiro mostrou-se mais adequado na melhoria das condições físicas dosolo do que os sistemas de manejo, uma vez que nenhum dos sistemas teve maior destaque na melhoria das propriedades físicas avaliadas em todo o período.This study evaluated alterations in the physical properties water content, soil density and porosity in areas under no tillage and tillage systems in the cultures of soybean and maize in three agricultural years. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Nucleus of Agricultural Engineering of Unioeste (Cascavel, state of Paraná. Soybean culture occurred in the first two years and in the third year maize, as summer crop, black oats and forage turnip as winter cover crops. During these three years the study observed reduction of water content and soil density andincrease of porosity . The variations as regards the physical properties of the soil showed direct proportional relation between water content and soil density and was

  18. Avaliação genética em erva-mate pelo procedimento BLUP individual multivariado sob interação genótipo x ambiente Genetic evaluation in Ilex paraguariensis by the multivariate individual BLUP procedure with genotype-environment interaction

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    Rosangela Maria Simeão

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos e realizar a predição de valores genéticos de matrizes e procedências de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis. Foram avaliadas 164 progênies de oito procedências, em três locais (Ivaí, PR, Guarapuava, PR e Rio Azul, PR, em relação ao caráter produção de massa foliar (PMF. Os componentes de variância, parâmetros genéticos e valores genéticos foram estimados pelo procedimento REML/BLUP individual (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viciada, realizando a análise multivariada para os três locais. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade individual, no sentido restrito, para o caráter PMF foram 0,15 em Ivaí, 0,62 em Guarapuava e 0,23 em Rio Azul. A baixa magnitude desses coeficientes em Ivaí e Rio Azul demanda a utilização de métodos de seleção que utilizem todos os efeitos aleatórios do modelo estatístico. O efeito de procedências foi significativo em Ivaí e Rio Azul, com correlação fenotípica intraclasse de 0,13 em Ivaí e de 0,09 em Rio Azul. As procedências apresentaram correlação genética de 0,95 entre os locais Ivaí e Rio Azul. Nesses locais, as procedências foram mais estáveis nos diferentes ambientes do que as progênies. Foram preditos os valores genéticos em relação a todas as procedências e matrizes em todos os locais quanto ao caráter avaliado. As melhores procedências são Barão de Cotegipe, Quedas do Iguaçu, Cascavel e Ivaí.The objectives of this paper were to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters and to predict breeding values for parents and provenances of Ilex paraguariensis. Eight provenances with 164 progenies were evaluated on three sites (Ivaí, PR, Guarapuava, PR and Rio Azul, PR for the trait leaf weight (LW. All the variance components, parameters and breeding values were obtained by REML/BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction procedure at the

  19. Suscetibilidade de Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae ao fungo Beauveria bassiana Susceptibility of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae to the fungus Beauveria bassiana

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    Renato Cassol de Oliveira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis é uma importante atividade econômica no Sul do Brasil. Com o aumento de consumo nos anos oitenta, cresceram também as áreas de monocultura, gerando condições favoráveis para o aumento populacional de insetos e ácaros fitófagos, entre eles o ácaro vermelho Oligonychus yothersi. Este estudo avaliou a suscetibilidade do ácaro vermelho O. yothersi a vários isolados do fungo Beauveria bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em Cascavel, PR. Discos foliares de erva-mate (2,2 cm² foram previamente infestados com 20 fêmeas adultas. Alíquotas de 1 mL de cada suspensão de conídios dos diferentes isolados de B. bassiana, ajustadas na concentração de 1,0x10(8 conídios mL-1 foram pulverizadas, separadamente, sobre um conjunto de 5 discos. Os discos foliares foram mantidos flutuando em água destilada, em caixas plásticas (3 cm de diâmetro, sob condições controladas. Diariamente, os ácaros mortos foram transferidos para câmara úmida, para confirmação de mortalidade causada pelo fungo. A mortalidade total variou entre 77 e 98% (6 dias após a aplicação, não permitindo diferenciar os isolados quanto à virulência (P>0,05. Já a mortalidade confirmada variou entre 19 e 75%, permitindo diferenciá-los (PThe Paraguay tea (Ilex paraguariensis crop is an important economical activity in Southern Brazil. With the increase of tea consumption in the 80s, the number of monoculture crops also increased, creating favorable conditions for the development of phytophagous insect and mite populations, such as the red mite Oligonychus yothersi. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of the red mite O. yothersi to the several strains of the Beauveria bassiana fungus. The experiments were carried out in Cascavel, PR, Brazil. Leaf disks of Paraguay tea (2.2 cm² were previously infested with 20 adult females. Five disks were inoculated with 1 mL of each conidial suspension of B

  20. O cuidado nos centros municipais educacionais infantis em relação às infecções respiratórias agudas = The care in the municipal centers for children education about acute respiratory infections

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    Eloeth Kaliska Piva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As infecções respiratórias agudas (IRA são causa de morbidade e mortalidade na infância, e sua crescente manifestação e transmissão nos centros educacionais infantis têm sugestionado maior atenção aos cuidados prestados nesses locais as crianças. Este estudo teve por objetivo conhecer as atitudes preventivas e curativas do cuidado proporcionado pelos monitores educacionais dos Centros Municipais Educacionais Infantis da Cidade de Cascavel - PR diante das IRA. Para tanto, realizamos entre novembro a dezembro de 2008, uma pesquisa qualitativa com 12 monitores educacionais, por meio da entrevista semi-estruturada gravada. Os aspectos emergentes das entrevistas foram pontuados e orientado na ótica do cuidado integral de José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita Ayres. As ações das monitoras educacionais em relação as IRA têm caráter curativo, sendo fundamentadas no cuidado técnico e entendimentos causais. Nessas ações faltam elementos que compõem o cuidado integral como o movimento, a interação, a reconstrução de identidades e alteridades, a não-causalidade, a plasticidade, a temporalidade e a responsabilidade. Diante disso, enfatiza-se a necessidade de preparar os monitores e as instituições para o cuidado integral. E, sobretudo, a articulação dos centros educacionais aos setores de saúde promovendo a aplicação de estratégias para o controle, prevenção e promoção da saúde das crianças.Acute respiratory infections are the causes of morbidity and mortality during infancy and childhood. Their increasing manifestation and transmission in day-care centers have demanded greater attention for children’ care in such institutions. Current research investigates prevention and care activities provided by educational monitors of day-care center in Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, with regard to acute respiratory infections. A qualitative research was undertaken with 12 educational monitors between November and December 2008

  1. Quantitative genetic analysis of methylxanthines and phenolic compounds in mate progenies Análise genética quantitativa de metilxantinas e compostos fenólicos em progênies de erva-mate

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    Euclides Lara Cardozo Junior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the contents of methylxanthines, caffeine and theobromine, and phenolic compounds, chlorogenic and caffeic acids, in 51 mate progenies (half-sib families and estimate the heritability of genetic parameters. Mate progenies were from five Brazilian municipalities: Pinhão, Ivaí, Barão de Cotegipe, Quedas do Iguaçu, and Cascavel. The progenies were grown in the Ivaí locality. The contents of the compounds were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The estimation of genetic parameters by the restricted maximum likelihood (REML and the prediction of genotypic values via best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP were obtained by the Selegen - REML/BLUP software. Caffeine (0.248-1.663% and theobromine (0.106-0.807% contents were significantly different (p0.5. The two different progeny groups determined for chlorogenic (1.365-2.281% and caffeic (0.027-0.037% acid contents were not significantly different (pO objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor de metilxantinas, cafeína e teobromina, e de compostos fenólicos, ácido clorogênico e ácido cafeico, em 51 progênies de erva-mate e estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. As progênies de erva-mate eram oriundas de cinco municipios brasileiros: Pinhão, Ivaí, Barão do Cotegipe, Quedas do Iguaçu e Cascavel. Essas progênies foram cultivadas na localidade de Ivaí. O conteúdo dos compostos foi obtido por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Na estimativa dos componentes da variância e dos parâmetros genotípicos, utilizou-se a metodologia de modelos mistos para a obtenção da melhor predição linear não viciada (BLUP dos efeitos genotípicos e o processo da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML, processados pelo programa Selegen - REML/BLUP. Os conteúdos de cafeína (0,248-1,663 % e teobromina (0,106-0.807% foram significativamente (p0,5. Foram determinados dois diferentes grupos de progênie para

  2. Ocorrência de Commelina villosa como planta daninha em áreas agrícolas no estado do Paraná-PR, Brasil Occurence of Commelina villosa as weed in Paraná State, Brazil

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    Dalva C. Rocha

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As trapoerabas pertencem à família Commelinaceae e são plantas daninhas de difícil controle em diferentes regiões do país. No Brasil, a espécie Commelina benghalensis destaca-se como a principal trapoeraba infestante nas culturas de soja, milho, café e citros. Outras duas espécies desse gênero, Commelina diffusa e Commelina erecta, também são conhecidas como infestantes de ocorrência freqüente no território nacional. Commelina villosa está registrada, até o momento, apenas para os Estados da Bahia e Goiás além do Distrito Federal. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar e registrar a ocorrência de C. villosa no Estado do Paraná, onde pode estar sendo confundida com outras trapoerabas, principalmente C. benghalensis. Exemplares de C. villosa e C. benghalensis foram coletados, de forma aleatória, em lavouras de soja, feijão e milho, nos municípios de Ponta Grossa, Tibagi, Piraí do Sul, Guarapuava, Pato Branco, Francisco Beltrão, Cascavel, Campo Mourão e Londrina. Parte desse material foi herborizado para a confecção de exsicatas e outra parte foi mantida in vivo, cultivada no Departamento de Botânica, do Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu-UNESP. Caracteres morfológicos descritivos e quantitativos foram avaliados e as espécies comparadas entre si. C. villosa distinguiu-se de C. benghalensis por apresentar folhas maiores (9,76 x 3,26 cm, elíptica a elípticaestreita, sésseis, de coloração verde escura com manchas violáceas na face inferior, filetes translúcidos, entre outras características. A ocorrência de C. villosa no Paraná foi constatada em todos os municípios amostrados, com exceção de Campo Mourão e Londrina.Commelinaceae are weeds with unsatisfactory control in different parts of the country. Commelina benghalensis is the main Commelinaceae weed in soybean, corn, coffee and orange crops in Brazil. Commelina diffusa and Commelina erecta are also known as common weeds in national

  3. Efeito do armazenamento à baixa temperatura (-4 ºC na cor e no teor de acidez da farinha de trigo Effect of storage at low temperature (-4 ºC in the color and acidity content of wheat flour

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    Fernanda Ortolan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante o armazenamento de farinha de trigo, podem ocorrer mudanças bioquímicas que resultam em alterações nutricionais e tecnológicas, sendo que em baixa temperatura estas mudanças ocorrem mais lentamente. Entre as alterações, pode-se citar o aumento da acidez, a redução do pH e as modificações na sua cor. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos do armazenamento à baixa temperatura (-4 ºC na cor e na acidez da farinha de trigo durante seis meses e correlacionar os resultados obtidos para investigar se a acidez tem relação com a cor da farinha. Foram utilizadas farinhas provenientes de dez genótipos de trigo cultivados em Cascavel, no Estado do Paraná. A cor foi determinada no sistema CIEL*a*b* através dos parâmetros de cor: L* (luminosidade, a* e b* (coordenadas de cromaticidade. Usou-se procedimento da AOAC para determinação da acidez de lipídios. As farinhas apresentaram tendência ao branqueamento durante o período de seis meses de armazenamento, com ocorrência de leve aumento da acidez, mas dentro dos teores aceitáveis. A acidez não foi considerada um fator envolvido na alteração da cor das farinhas no armazenamento à baixa temperatura, pois não houve correlação entre estes dois parâmetros.During wheat flour storage, biochemical changes can occur which lead to nutritional and technological alterations, but in low temperature these changes can occur more slowly. Among the reactions, we may note are an increase in acidity, reduction of pH and modifications to its color. The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of storage at low temperature (-4 ºC on the color and acidity of wheat flour over six months and to correlate the results obtained to discover whether the acidity has any relationship with the color of the flour. Flours of ten wheat genotypes, cultivated in Cascavel, in Paraná State were used. The color was determined via the CIEL*a*b* system using the color parameters: L

  4. Anisotropia no estudo da variabilidade espacial de algumas variáveis químicas do solo Anisotropy to analyze spatial variability of some spatially referenced soil chemical variables

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    Luciana Pagliosa Carvalho Guedes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No estudo do mapeamento da fertilidade do solo, pelas técnicas de geoestatística, algumas características estruturais da variabilidade espacial devem ser consideradas, tais como continuidade espacial e ausência de anisotropia. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho apresenta uma análise da anisotropia no estudo da variabilidade espacial das variáveis químicas do solo: ferro (Fe, acidez potencial (H + Al, matéria orgânica (MO e Mn, de um conjunto de dados de 128 parcelas sem manejo químico localizado, espacialmente referenciados, estudados entre 1998 e 2002, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, em Cascavel-PR. A identificação da anisotropia foi realizada por meio da construção de semivariogramas direcionais com modelos ajustados, e a correção da anisotropia realizou-se por meio de transformações lineares e de modelos combinados. Em seguida, utilizou-se um modelo ajustado ao semivariograma omnidirecional para construção de mapas temáticos de variabilidade das variáveis estudadas. Observou-se a existência de anisotropia geométrica para a variável H + Al. Já as variáveis MO, Mn e Fe mostraram a presença de anisotropia combinada, sendo corrigida inicialmente a anisotropia geométrica e, posteriormente, a anisotropia zonal. Por meio do estudo da anisotropia, foi possível eliminar as direções privilegiadas, melhorando assim o ajuste dos semivariogramas e produzindo mapas temáticos das variáveis químicas estudadas com maior acurácia.Studies on soil fertility mapping based on geostatistics should consider some spatial variability characteristics such as spatial continuity and absence of anisotropy. The present study reports an anisotropic analysis of the spatial variability of the following soil chemical variables: iron (Fe, potential acidity (H + Al, organic matter (OM and manganese (Mn of a data set of 128 plots without local chemical management, spatially referenced, studied between 1998 and 2002 in a dystrophic Red

  5. Características espectrais da soja ao longo do ciclo vegetativo com imagens landsat 5/TM em área agrícola no oeste do Paraná Spectral characteristics of soybean during the vegetative cycle with landsat 5/TM images in the western Paraná, Brazil

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    Erivelto Mercante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as mudanças no comportamento espectral da cultura da soja, por meio dos perfis espectrais temporais dos índices de vegetação NDVI e GVI, expressos em diferentes valores físicos: fator de reflectância bidirecional (FRB aparente, de superfície e normalizado derivados de imagens Landsat 5/TM. Foi monitorada área de cultura de soja localizada próxima ao município de Cascavel - PR, utilizando cinco imagens da safra de 2004/2005, sendo realizados nessas imagens os procedimentos de transformação radiométrica, correção atmosférica e normalização, determinando valores físicos dos fatores de reflectância bidirecional aparente, de superfície e normalizado, respectivamente. Com o intuito de caracterizar a resposta espectral da biomassa da soja, geraram-se imagens referentes aos índices de vegetação NDVI e GVI. Como resultado, a cultura mostrou-se diferente para os tratamentos dos fatores de reflectância bidirecional aparente, de superfície e de normalização. Por meio dos perfis médios espectrais do NDVI e GVI, foi possível acompanhar todo o ciclo da cultura da soja, caracterizando o seu desenvolvimento. Observou-se, ainda, que os dados provenientes do fator de reflectância bidirecional normalizado descaracterizaram a curva espectral da cultura da soja, principalmente em meio à fase de crescimento vegetativo, na data de 9-12-2004.The objective of this study was to analyze changes in the spectral behavior of the soybean crop through spectral profiles of the vegetation indexes NDVI and GVI, expressed by different physical values such as apparent bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF, surface BRF, and normalized BRF derived from images of the Landsat 5/TM. A soybean area located in Cascavel, Paraná, was monitored by using five images of Landsat 5/TM during the 2004/2005 harvesting season. The images were submitted to radiometric transformation, atmospheric correction and normalization

  6. A eficiência de um programa de reabilitação audiológica em idosos com presbiacusia e seus familiares The efficiency of an auditory rehabilitation program in elderly people with presbycusis and their family

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    Christine Vieira Ruschel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi desenvolver um programa de treinamento de estratégias de comunicação para indivíduos idosos, portadores de deficiência auditiva, usuários de aparelhos de amplificação sonora individual e seus familiares. Além disso, objetivamos verificar a contribuição da participação de familiares no processo de reabilitação audiológica desses sujeitos e promover melhor adaptação dos mesmos em relação ao uso do aparelho auditivo. MÉTODOS: Fizeram parte da pesquisa 30 indivíduos com presbiacusia da cidade de Cascavel (PR. A amostra foi divida em dois grupos, o grupo 1 (grupo controle foi constituído por 15 indivíduos que receberam uma única sessão de orientação e o grupo 2 (grupo experimental constituiu-se de 15 idosos que participaram de um programa de reabilitação fonoaudiológica fracionado em seis sessões. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos controle e experimental, quando comparadas as entrevistas dos pacientes e familiares, em aspectos como: manuseio da prótese auditiva, uso do telefone com a prótese auditiva e uso do diálogo em ambientes ruidosos. CONCLUSÕES: Neste estudo constatou-se que os idosos tiveram necessidade de acompanhamento fonoaudiológico após a adaptação do aparelho auditivo, pois sozinhos, muitas vezes, não conseguiam manusear a prótese auditiva e utilizá-la de maneira adequada.PURPOSE: The aim of this research consisted on developing a training program of communicative strategies for elderly people with auditory problems, users of individual hearing aids, and their families. Additionally, we had the aim to verify the contribution of family intervention during the process of auditory rehabilitation and to promote better adaptation of these individuals regarding the use of their hearing aids. METHODS: Thirty elderly subjects with presbycusis from the city of Cascavel (PR - Brazil took part in this research

  7. Methodology for quantifying the technological level of energy in electric motors; Metodologia para quantificacao do nivel tecnologico energetico de motores eletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopatzki, Evandro Andre; Bianchessi, Joel Marcos [Faculdade Assis Gurgacz (FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA-USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos; Konopatzki, Angelica da Silva Lima [Faculdade de Ciencias Aplicadas de Cascavel (FACIAP), PR (Brazil). Curso de Ciencia da Computacao; Marim, Cesar [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The market competition created in agricultural industry because of its insertion in the domestic and foreign markets, verified by the increase in GDP share of agribusiness in the Brazilian GDP, led us to have better control of costs and inputs. Thus the final value of products sold by these agribusinesses can download increasing the space in the consumer market. Electricity is one of the inputs now being studied and this paper presents a model for determining the coefficients that allow the comparison of different existing technologies for electric motors inserting an indicator of technological innovation called Technological Level Energy (NTE). The NTE was developed and tested in Storage Units of Grain (UAG) in the region of Cascavel - Parana where data were collected in six UAG, analyzed in medium weighted, had levels of different energy technology development. The main elements used to create the NTE are the number of engines installed in UAG, the lifetime of the engine considered from its manufacture and motor plate data such as income and the power factor. As a comparative process, each region can create your NTE and analyze your situation in a national context. The UAG will use the NTE to technological innovation and planning projects such as depreciation, financing and cross-examination of financial resources for the exchange of electric motors. Thus the NTE will aid in comparative indication of the timing for replacement of electric motors. Moment from which the energy demand, according to the obsolescence of equipment, are considered excessive compared to other more modern UAG. (author)

  8. Comparação do estado nutricional de meninas de acordo com diferentes referências para índice de massa corporal

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    Everton Paulo Roman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar o estado nutricional de meninas de nove a 17 anos na cidade de Cascavel (PR segundo três referências para índice de massa corporal (IMC. Métodos: estudo transversal com 2759 meninas. Verificou-se o peso e a estatura obtendo-se o IMC além da avaliação da maturidade sexual e do nível socioeconômico. O estado nutricional foi classificado pelos pontos de corte do IMC propostos por Conde e Monteiro, WHO, e CDC. Resultados: as frequências dos estados nutricionais não diferiram significativamente na mesma referência para IMC por faixa etária, por nível socioeconômico e por tipo de escola. Por nível de maturidade sexual, apenas a referência da WHO apresentou valores de obesidade e sobrepeso maiores para o estadio de mamas grau 5. No entanto, quando comparadas as três referências entre si, o CDC apresentou frequências significativamente menores de sobrepeso e obesidade por faixa etária, por nível de maturidade sexual, por nível socioeconômico e por tipo de escola. Apesar das três referências apresentarem concordância entre si, esta foi maior entre os de Conde e Monteiro, e da WHO. Conclusões: a referência do CDC identificou menor percentual de meninas com sobrepeso e obesidade. As referências propostas por Conde e Monteiro e WHO apresentaram resultados semelhantes.

  9. Energy cost simulations for heating in greenhouses for five cities in Brazil; Simulacoes do custo de energia para calefacao em casas de vegetacao para cinco cidades brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: celsooli@unioeste.br; La Plaza, Saturnino de; Garcia, Jose Luis [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid, (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos

    2004-07-01

    Using the values of the global heat loss coefficient (U) calculated with the equations of the lineal model developed by OLIVEIRA (2003), and with the 30 year-old values, the energy can be calculated by square meter that would be necessary to obtain a temperature set point of 15 deg C, to a greenhouse of 132 m{sup 2}. They were chosen the cities of Cascavel, Curitiba, Florianopolis, Porto Alegre and Sao Paulo. To each place the medium day of the months was used to determine the convenience of the heating that the minimum average went under 15 deg C. Observing the medium minimum temperatures is easy to verify that the support of alone heat would be justified for a crop with high energy need and excellent commercial value, as it can be the case of the crop of some ornamental species. The value of estimated energy was multiplied by the Euros cost for Kwh for fuel-oil, natural gas and diesel, being simulate the heating use for heat fan and radiant floor, combined or not with two techniques of energy saving: use a double layer or plastic tunnel over the crop. Should even consider that in all the chosen places frost risk exists, what can influence in the profitability of many crops. The city of Florianopolis went to that presented smaller thermal solicitations and, therefore smaller costs, the city of Curitiba already demonstrated the needs of a support system for eight months and, therefore, larger costs. The technical more efficient it is the use of combined radiant floor with plastic tunnel, being the combustible more economic is fuel-oil. (author)

  10. AVALIAÇÃO E COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE KITS LABORATORIAIS “D-DÍMERO” COMO DIAGNÓSTICO DE TROMBOSE VENOSA PROFUNDA

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    Rafaela Natiéli LIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos realizar análise comparativa entre kits laboratoriais D-Dímero para Trombose Venosa Profunda (TVP pelos métodos de Imunoturbidimetria (metodologia 1 e Quimiluminescência (metodologia 2, ambos da marca Siemens, e comparar o resultado das análises realizadas, com o diagnóstico clínico confirmatório do paciente, analisando seus prontuários. A amostra foi constituída por uma população de 95 voluntários que realizaram o teste laboratorial D-Dímero, em um laboratório de análises clínicas da cidade de Cascavel-PR. Os resultados foram comparados através dos parâmetros para validação sorológica, através dos cálculos de especificidade, o qual foi de 33% em ambos os métodos, sensibilidade, o qual foi de 89% e 90%, e a eficiência de 68% e 69%, respectivamente para as metodologias 1 e 2. O valor preditivo positivo (VPP foi de 69% em ambos os testes, o valor preditivo negativo (VPN foi de 33%, a prevalência foi de 62%, e a prevalência sorológica foi de 81%. Conclui-se assim que, os testes analisados são pouco específicos para TVP, não podendo ser utilizados como método diagnóstico, mas sim para excluir prováveis suspeitas de tromboembolismo venoso.

  11. Estudo retrospectivo das complicações intra-operatórias na cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio

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    Ariana Rodrigues Silva Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As complicações intra-operatórias na cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRM quando reconhecidas previamente podem guiar os cuidados prestados na sala operatória, dando continuidade na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e durante toda internação. Quando a equipe conhece essas complicações sofridas pelo indivíduo poderá prever e prover cuidados mais específicos na seqüência de sua evolução cirúrgica. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar a freqüência e tipos de complicações observadas no intra-operatório da CRM. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, transversal, baseado em dados secundários, com amostra intencional de 123 sujeitos. A coleta de dados realizou-se por meio do acesso ao banco de dados do Instituto de Moléstias Cardiovasculares do Oeste do Paraná, em Cascavel. Os dados foram analisados no programa computadorizado Statistic, versão 6,0. Os tipos de complicações observadas nesse período foram: cardiovasculares, pulmonares, alteração nos vasos do enxerto e sangramento. Dentre essas, a que obteve maior freqüência foi “alteração nos vasos do enxerto”, em 33 (26,8% casos. As complicações no intra-operatório podem não ser passíveis de prevenção quando consideradas as características individuais de cada sujeito, entretanto, todos os esforços precisam ser direcionados para que o evento, quando ocorrer, seja bem atendido, evitando dessa forma, complicações adicionais maiores.

  12. Sensory analysis and postharvest of potted gerbera based on fertilization

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    Francielly Torres Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of gerberas as cut flowers has been broadly studied. With the purpose of assess the production and visual quality of potted gerberas conducted with different fertilizations, the experiment was performed in a greenhouse located at UNIOESTE – Campus of Cascavel – Parana - Brazil. The experimental design was done in randomized blocks with four repetitions and five treatments. The treatments were defined based on the fertilization source: mineral (NPK or organic. The organic fertilizations were obtained with the dilution of four organic composts derived from the composting process of agro-industrial wastes in water. The agro-industrial waste, used in different percentages in each treatment, were: grains pre-cleaning residues (corn meal and wheat husk; hatchery waste; flotation sludge; cellulose casing (sausage covering; solid fraction of pig slurry (Piglet Producer Unit and truck washing; coal and ash remaining from boiler; poultry litter and sugarcane bagasse. The growth parameters were evaluated at the commercialization phase (plant height and diameter, stem height, capitulum number, and capitulum and stem diameter and sensory analysis through trait and preference assessment tests. The use of liquid organic fertilizers are a feasible alternative to substitute conventional mineral fertilization. Farmers should observe EC values and K, Ca, Mg ratio for better quality assurance according to the results obtained in T5 . The T5 (Boiler remaining ash + Hatchery residue has a larger amount of boiler remaining ash, whereas the chemical elements in mineral form are already readily available to the plants, this fact may have contributed to better visual development of plants grown in this treatment.

  13. Temporomandibular joint sounds and disc dislocations incidence after orotracheal intubation

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    Estela T Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estela T Rodrigues1, Iván C Suazo2, Antonio S Guimarães31Centro de Pós Graduação em Odontologia São Leopoldo Mandic, Campinas, Brasil; 2Department of Morphology. Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile; 3Centro de Pós Graduação em Odontologia São Leopoldo Mandic, Campinas, BrasilAbstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the temporomandibular joint (TMJ disc displacement and articular sounds incidence after orotracheal intubation. A prospective cohort study was conducted in the Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná (HUOP, in Cascavel, Brazil. 100 patients (aged 14–74 years, mean 44 years, 34 male and 66 female, in need of surgical procedure with orotracheal intubation were evaluated. The anterior disc displacement with reduction incidence and the nonclassifiable sounds incidence by the Research Diagnostic Criteria Axis I was evaluated in all patients after orotracheal intubation. The patients was evaluated one day before and until two days after the procedure. Eight percent present with anterior disc displacement with reduction and 10% presented nonclassifiable sounds after the orotracheal intubation. There was no correlation of any kind regarding gender related influence in the incidence of disc dislocations (P = 0.2591 and TMJ sounds (P = 0.487. Although anterior disc dislocations and TMJ sounds after anesthetic with orotracheal intubation presented a low incidence (8%–10%, it is recommended that the evaluation of TMJ signs and symptoms be done before the anesthetic procedure to take care with susceptible patients manipulation.Keywords: orotracheal intubation, TMJ sounds, TMJ dislocations, TMJ disorders, disc displacement, surgical procedure

  14. Alelopatia de Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de Bidens pilosa (L. e Glycine max (L. Merr

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    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p17 O presente trabalho buscou avaliar a possível presença de potencial alelopático na camelina, bem como o seu efeito sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de soja e picão-preto, a fim de verificar a possibilidade do cultivo dela com a soja no sistema de rotação de culturas e de seu uso como herbicida. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado e as avaliações realizadas diariamente. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: porcentagem de germinação, tempo e velocidade média de germinação e comprimento médio de raiz. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao Teste F e as médias comparadas pelo Teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os resultados obtidos comprovam a presença de potencial alelopático na camelina. Foi verificado que esta espécie pode ser considerada uma opção para o cultivo com a soja devido à interferência alelopática positiva provocada na cultura e ainda, que ela apresenta capacidade para utilização no controle de plantas invasoras como o picão-preto, já que atuou atrasando o desenvolvimento das plântulas testadas.

  15. Interações medicamentosas potenciais entre medicamentos psicotrópicos dispensados

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    Eloise Balen

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Estimar a frequência e caracterizar as interações medicamentosas potenciais entre fármacos psicotrópicos sujeitos a controle especial pela portaria 344/98 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa, os quais foram prescritos e dispensados em uma farmácia pública do Município de Cascavel, Paraná. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo com desenho seccional foi realizado em uma Farmácia Pública Municipal. A amostra foi composta por prescrições de medicamentos sujeitos a controle especial, dispensados entre primeiro de julho a 31 de agosto de 2010. As prescrições retidas na farmácia foram analisadas retrospectivamente e as informações, coletadas. As interações medicamentosas potenciais foram identificadas em 824 prescrições. Resultados As prescrições eram na maioria para pacientes do sexo feminino e com idade entre 19 e 59 anos. Em relação à especialidade do prescritor, 30,6% foram prescritas por psiquiatra. Em 77,9% das prescrições identificou-se pelo menos uma interação medicamentosa potencial. Foram descritas 54 diferentes interações medicamentosas potenciais, sendo 34 graves e 20 moderadas. Encontrou-se uma correlação linear entre medicamentos prescritos e interações medicamentosas potenciais (p valor < 0,001. Conclusão O presente estudo identificou uma alta frequência de interações medicamentosas potenciais envolvendo fármacos de controle especial e uma associação positiva entre o número de fármacos prescritos com a maior frequência dessas interações.

  16. Frequency of potential interactions between drugs in medical prescriptions in a city in southern Brazil

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    Genici Weyh Bleich

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Drug interactions form part of current clinical practice and they affect between 3 and 5% of polypharmacy patients. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of potential drug-drug interactions in prescriptions for adult and elderly patients. TYPE OF STUDY AND SETTING: Cross-sectional pharmacoepidemiological survey in the Parque Verde housing project, municipality of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil, between December 2006 and February 2007. METHODS: Stratified cluster sampling, proportional to the total number of homes in the housing project, was used. The sample consisted of 95 homes and 96 male or female patients aged 19 or over, with medical prescriptions for at least two pharmaceutical drugs. Interactions were identified using DrugDigest, Medscape and Micromedex softwares. RESULTS: Most of the patients were female (69.8%, married (59.4% and in the age group of 60 years or over (56.3%, with an income less than or equal to three minimum monthly salaries (81.3% and less than eight years of schooling (69.8%; 90.6% of the patients were living with another person. The total number of pharmaceutical drugs was 406 (average of 4.2 medications per patient. The drugs most prescribed were antihypertensives (47.5%. The frequency of drug interactions was 66.6%. Among the 154 potential drug interactions, 4.6% were classified as major, 65.6% as moderate and 20.1% as minor. CONCLUSION: The high frequency of drug prescriptions with a potential for differentiated interactions indicates a situation that has so far been little explored, albeit a reality in household surveys.

  17. terapêutica

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    Marisa Ines Tomazzoni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnobotánico e investigación de opinión, que tuvo como objetivo ampliar el conocimiento sobre el uso de las plantas medicinales en la comunidad de la Municipalidad de Cascavel-PR, con miras a apoyar en la implantación de los fitoterápicos en la red pública de la salud. La muestra correspondió a 50 familias del área de la jurisdicción de una Unidad Básica de Salud, seleccionadas mediante una muestra estratificada proporcional. Para la obtención de los datos se optó por una investigación de carácter exploratório-descriptivo, a través de la entrevista semiestructurada. Como resultado, se observo que el 96% de la población albo manifestó el uso de la plantas; fueron registradas 271 referencias etnobotánicas, englobando 75 etnoespecies; 40 propiedades terapéuticas estaban relacionadas al uso doméstico. El uso de las plantas es bastante difundido y la transferencia eel conocimiento etnobotánico sigue los padrones de las comunidades trradicionales, no existiendo bloqueos en éste proceso. Se constató también, que las plantas medicinales para la comunidad representan un factor importante para la manutención de las condiciones de la salud, formando parte de un saber local preservado.

  18. Exame de caso sobre o método de graus-dia para avaliação do desempenho energético de uma edificação unifamiliar - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v31i1.305

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    Aurea Lúcia Vendramin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho utilizou o método de graus-dia para avaliação do desempenho energético de uma edificação unifamiliar ao mostrar que, na concepção de um projeto arquitetônico, devem ser sempre considerados os materiais empregados na edificação e o tamanho das aberturas. O desempenho energético foi obtido por meio do modelo de graus-dia, considerando-se a localização da residência unifamiliar nas cidades de Cascavel, Curitiba, Foz do Iguaçu e Londrina. Para isso, foram obtidos os dados climáticos dessas localidades e, em um segundo momento, obteve-se o coeficiente total de perda de calor na edificação unifamiliar preestabelecida, avaliando-se, assim, as condições de conforto térmico e o desempenho energético da edificação. Observou-se que graus-dia de aquecimento, no inverno, são de 77,78 para Curitiba e de 0,00 para Foz do Iguaçu, na temperatura-base de 14°C, e que os graus-dia de resfriamento são de 30,17 no inverno. A energia consumida em Foz do Iguaçu para aquecer a residência é de 2.367,88 kWh anual e o consumo de energia anual para aquecer a residência em Curitiba é de 6.277,02 kWh, para ITA = 2 e 20% de abertura, com vidros duplos.

  19. Body image dissatisfaction and anthropometric indicators in male children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, E P; Minatto, G; Berria, J; Silva, S F Dos S; Fidelix, Y L; Ribeiro, R R; Santos, K D; Petroski, E L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body image dissatisfaction and body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) and to identify which of these anthropometric indicators are more strongly associated, and finally to estimate the prevalence of overweight and high body adiposity in male children and adolescents, according to maturational stages. Overall, 1499 students aged from 7 to 17 years from Cascavel, PR, Brazil, were evaluated. Body image was self-rated through the body silhouette scale. Body weight, height and triceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured and BMI and BF% were calculated. Sexual maturity was self-assessed by the development of pubic hair. Data analysis used the Fisher exact test, the χ(2)-test and multinomial logistic regression. Body image dissatisfaction because of excess weight was associated with BMI and BF%, whereas in prepubertal students, this association did not remain in the adjusted analysis. In pubescent students, both BMI (odds ratio (OR)=5.25, confidence interval (CI) 95%=3.06-9.01) and BF% (OR=2.42, CI 95%=1.60-3.66), and in post-pubescent students for BMI (OR=3.77, CI 95%=1.33-10.70), the association remained. Body image dissatisfaction because of thinness was associated only with BF% in pubescent (OR=0.50, CI 95%= 0.33-0.75) and post-pubescent students (OR=0.38, CI 95%= 0.16-0.94). Body image dissatisfaction was associated with BMI and BF%, especially in pubescent and post-pubescent students.

  20. VIABILIDADE AMBIENTAL E FINANCEIRA EM UMA MICROEMPRESA FAMILIAR: VALE O INVESTIMENTO?/ Environmental and financial feasibility in a family microenterprise: is the investment worth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Yuho Endo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou apresentar os custos de adequação às exigências da legislação ambiental no licenciamento de uma oficina mecânica familiar no município de Cascavel, estado do Paraná, atuando na melhoria dos processos de gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos produzidos pela empresa e analisando se os custos de adequação são viáveis financeira e ambientalmente. O trabalho utilizou o método de estudo de caso intrínseco e uma pesquisa de toda legislação que afeta o setor, com posterior verificação das mudanças necessárias à legislação e precificação dessas alterações. Em paralelo foi desenvolvido uma pesquisa da disposição a pagar a mais por produtos/serviços ambientalmente corretos, o que resultou em valores percentuais aplicados à fórmula. Como resultado pode-se verificar que diante dos custos auferidos e fazendo-se o cálculo de viabilidade ambiental e financeira, o empresário obtém um retorno sobre o investimento que se justifica, sendo que além do retorno financeiro, ainda evita as sanções pela não adequação à legislação vigente. Conclui-se, portanto, que além da questão ambiental, no caso em estudo, é também financeiramente viável o investimento nas adequações propostas, mesmo sendo esta uma empresa de pequeno porte e familiar.

  1. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics

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    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino do tipo A e tipo B. O mesmo ocorreu com serpentes recém chegadas. Quanto ao teste de inibição da hemaglutinação dos soros dos répteis observou-se títulos protetores de anticorpos aos vírus influenza tipo A (origens humana e eqüina e tipo B. Com soro de sapo não se observou reação de inibição da hemaglutinação porém, 83,3% das rãs obtiveram médias de 40UIH para algumas cepas. Conclui-se que animais heterotérmicos podem oferecer condições de hospedeiros aos vírus influenza, assim como susceptibilidade à infecção.The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza

  2. Novo método de dosagem de soros antipeçonhentos em camundongos lactentes: I - dosagem do soro anticrotálico New method for dosage of antivenoms sera in baby mice: I-Anticrotalic serum's dosage

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    Bruno Soerensen

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica dos soros antipeçonhentos pode ser determinada "in vivo" em pombos, coelhos, cobaios e camundongos adultos, não existindo, entretanto, nenhum método que possa ser recomendado internacionalmente. Estudou-se comparativamente aos métodos tradicionais de dosagem de soros em pombos e camundongos adultos, a validade do uso de camundongos lactentes de 6 a 7 dias, pesando 4 a 5g, inoculados pela via subcutânea. Inicialmente foi determinada a toxidez do veneno de Crotalus durissus terríficus através do estudo da sintomatologia do envenenamento e da atividade letal. O estudo comparativo dos três métodos forneceu maior concordância de resultados em DE100 entre as dosagens realizadas com camundongos lactentes e adultos. A DE100 e DL50 determinadas em camundongos lactentes forneceu resultados mais constantes que os dos métodos de camundongos adultos e pombos. O uso deste novo método permite eliminar a dificuldade de obtenção do atual animal de prova; a utilização de um maior número de animais por ponto de avaliação biológica, possibilitando uma maior precisão e conseguindo-se uma uniformidade nas características exigidas neste tipo de dosagem como peso, idade e linhagem, visando a reprodução sistemática dos resultados.The biological activity of antiserum against venoms can be assessed by "in vivo" tests using pigeons, rabbits, guinea-pigs and adult mice although there is no International standardized reaction for it. The traditional methods using pigeons and adult mice were comparatively studied with those using mice of 4-5 g (6-7 days of age, inoculated by subcutaneous injection. The toxicity of the Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was initially determined by studying the symptomatology after administration of venom and lethal activity. The comparative study of these three methods showed that the best concordance in the results of the ED100 was obtained using adult and baby mice. The most homogeneous ED100

  3. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops colombiensis, a medically important pitviper of the Bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to Venezuela: Contributing to its taxonomy and snakebite management.

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    Calvete, Juan J; Borges, Adolfo; Segura, Alvaro; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María; Diez, Nardy; De Sousa, Leonardo; Kiriakos, Demetrio; Sánchez, Eladio; Faks, José G; Escolano, José; Sanz, Libia

    2009-03-06

    The taxonomic status of the medically important pitviper of the Bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to Venezuela, which has been classified as Bothrops colombiensis, remains incertae cedis. To help resolving this question, the venom proteome of B. colombiensis was characterized by reverse-phase HPLC fractionation followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The venom contained proteins belonging to 8 types of families. PI Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases and K49 PLA(2) molecules comprise over 65% of the venom proteins. Other venom protein families comprised PIII Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases (11.3%), D49 PLA(2)s (10.2%), l-amino acid oxidase (5.7%), the medium-sized disintegrin colombistatin (5.6%), serine proteinases (1%), bradykinin-potentiating peptides (0.8%), a DC-fragment (0.5%), and a CRISP protein (0.1%). A comparison of the venom proteomes of B. colombiensis and B. atrox did not support the suggested synonymy between these two species. The closest homologues to B. colombiensis venom proteins appeared to be toxins from B. asper. A rough estimation of the similarity between the venoms of B. colombiensis and B. asper indicated that these species share approximately 65-70% of their venom proteomes. The close kinship of B. colombiensis and B. asper points at the ancestor of B. colombiensis as the founding Central American B. asper ancestor. This finding may be relevant for reconstructing the natural history and cladogenesis of Bothrops. Further, the virtually indistinguishable immunological crossreactivity of a Venezuelan ABC antiserum (raised against a mixture of B. colombiensis and Crotalus durissus cumanensis venoms) and the Costa Rican ICP polyvalent antivenom (generated against a mixture of B. asper, Crotalus simus, and Lachesis stenophrys venoms) towards the venoms of B. colombiensis and B. asper, supports this

  4. Reactividad inmunoquímica de sueros anti- Caiman yacare y Caiman latirostris frente a sueros de diferentes especies

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    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la reactividad inmunoquímica entre los sueros de distintas especies de reptiles frente a sueros hiperinmunes experimentales anti-suero de Caiman yacare y anti-suero de Caiman latirostris. Los sueros que se probaron fueron los homólogos de Caiman yacare, Caiman latirostris y los heterólogos de Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops diporus, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus y Gallus gallus. La reactividad inmunoquímica se determinó mediante las técnicas de doble inmunodifusión y ELISA, mostrándose importante entre los sueros de los crocodrílidos y baja entre estos y los de las otras especies de reptiles estudiadas. Se observó mayor reactividad entre los antisueros anti-Caiman respecto a los sueros de Caiman latirostris y Caiman yacare que frente al suero de Alligator missisipiensis. Además, se encontró una fuerte reactividad entre ambos sueros anti-Caiman y el de Gallus gallus poniendo en evidencia la fuerte reactividad entre los sueros de arcosaurios. In order to study the immunochemical reactivity among sera from different species of reptiles regarding sera from Caiman, the immunoreactivity of sera from reptiles against antisera to Caiman yacare or anti-Caiman latirostris sera was studied. These hiperimmune sera were tested against sera from Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops neuwiedii, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus and Gallus gallus. The immunochemical

  5. A eficácia do antiveneno botrópico-crotálico na neutralização das principais atividades do veneno de Bothrops jararacussu The efficacy of the bothropic/crotalic antivenom on the neutralization of the main Bothrops jararacussu venom activities

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    Maria Cristina dos-Santos

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A mionecrose é um dos efeitos causados pelo veneno de Bothrops jararacussu. Uma miotoxina com homologia estrutural à fosfolipase A2 (PLA2, mas sem atividade enzimática, foi isolada desse veneno. O veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus apresenta também atividade miotóxica, que vem sendo atribuída à crotoxina e à PLA2 (crotoxina B, o componente básico do complexo crotoxina. O veneno de Bothrops jararacussu apresenta três proteínas, que têm identidade imunológica com a PLA2 da crotoxina. O presente trabalho comparou a eficiência dos antivenenos polivalentes comerciais produzidos pelo Instituto Butantan - o antiveneno botrópico (AB e o antiveneno botrópico-crotálico (AB/C - na neutralização das atividades letal, hemorrágica, coagulante e miotóxica do veneno de B. jararacussu. Os dois antivenenos neutralizaram de maneira semelhante a atividade hemorrágica, mas o AB/C foi três vezes mais potente que o AB em neutralizar a ação miotóxica e duas vezes mais potente na neutralização da letalidade e na ação coagulante do veneno de B. jararacussu. Os dados sugerem que a utilização do AB/C pode ser vantajosa no tratamento de pacientes picados por serpentes dessa espécieMyonecrosis is one of the effects of Bothrops jararacussu venom, from which a myotoxin was isolated showing structural homology to phospholipase A2 (PLA2, but without enzimatic activity. Such myotoxic activity is also present in the Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, and is atributed to crotoxin and to PLA2 (crotoxin B, the basic component of the crotoxin complex. The Bothrops jararacussu venom showed three proteins with immunologic identity to PLA2 from crotoxin. The bothropic (AB and the bothropic/crotalic (AB/C antivenoms, two commercial polyvalent antivenoms produced at Instituto Butantan, were compared in order to assess their capacity for neutralization of the lethal, hemorrhagic, coagulant and myotoxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu venom. Both

  6. Structures and functions of crotoxin-like heterodimers and acidic phospholipases A2 from Gloydius intermedius venom: Insights into the origin of neurotoxic-type rattlesnakes.

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    Yang, Zhang-Min; Guo, Qian; Ma, Zhao-Rui; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhe-Zhi; Wang, Xu-Min; Wang, Ying-Ming; Tsai, Inn-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The cDNAs encoding four major phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) were sequenced while the expressed sequence tags of Gloydius intermedius venom glands were constructed. These PLA2s were designated as Gintexin-A precursor, Gintexin-B, Gin-E6a and Gin-E6b, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the former two PLA2s are 80% and 90% identical to those of crotoxin-A-precursor and crotoxin-B1, respectively. We also purified Gintexin-A, Gintexin-B, Gin-E6a and Gin-E6b like PLA2 from the venom. The latter three PLA2s are enzymatically active but not strongly anticoagulant for human plasma. Gin-E6a and E6b-like PLA2s induced mouse platelet aggregation but inhibited rabbit platelet aggregation. The isolated Gintexin, a 1:1 complex of Gintexin-A and Gintexin-B, blocked the twitch of chick biventer cervicis tissue presynaptically. Results of N-terminal sequencing and peptide mass fingerprinting reveal that Gintexin-A undergoes proteolytic processing similar to crotoxin-A. This is the first time heterodimeric β-neurotoxins are found in Asian pitviper venom, and incompatible neurotoxic- and hemorrhagic-type venoms are found to evolve in parallel within the genus Gloydius, like in Crotalus. Thus, G. intermedius probably is the ancestor of rattlesnakes with type-II venom, and characterization of its venomics helps us to understand the evolution of heterodimeric neurotoxic PLA2s and the paedomorphic trend observed in Neotropical rattlesnake venoms. For the first time, a heterodimeric neurotoxic PLA2 (designated as Gintexin) has been isolated from the venom of an Asian pitviper, which shows a characteristic venom gland transcriptome similar to those of the neurotoxic type rattlesnakes. The fact that the venom of G. intermedius is less hemorrhagic than those of other Gloydius species, reveals that incompatible neurotoxic- and hemorrhagic-type venoms have evolved in parallel within the genus Gloydius, like the genus Crotalus. Our findings suggest that G. intermedius is the most

  7. Methemoglobinemia associated with loxoscelism Meta-hemoglobinemia associada ao loxoscelismo

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    Orlando C. de O. Barreto

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available In twenty five patients who presented the cutaneous form of loxoscelism, serum haptoglobin and lactic dehydrogenase, erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, methemoglobin, bilirubin and reticulocytes were investigated after bite. No hemolysis was detected but an increase in methemoglobin was found in 54% of the cases; in 7% it was between 1.1% and 2%, in 27% it ranged from 2.1% to 4%, and in 20% from 4.1% to 8%. Blood samples of a normal, blood group 0 individual and of a patient who exhibited methemoglobinemia after Loxosceles bite were incubated separately with antisera against Loxosceles gaucho, Crotalus terrificus, Bothrops jararaca, with Loxosceles gaucho venom and 0.3% phenol. No methemoglobin was found after 1, 4,8 and 15 days in both sets of samples. At the 25th day all the samples, including the controls, exhibited similar methemoglobin reductase decrease. The data suggest that the methemoglobinemia which occurs in 50% of the patients probably arises from in vivo venom metabolism, inasmuch as the crude venom does not induce methemoglobinemia.Vinte e cinco pacientes que apresentaram a forma cutânea do loxoscelismo foram estudados após a picada, determinando-se a glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase, glutationa redutase e glutationa peroxidase eritrocitárias, haptoglobina e latico desidrogenase séricas, bilirrubina, reticulócitos e meta-hemoglobina. Não foi observada hemólise aumentada, mas foi detectado aumento da meta-hemoglobina em 54% dos casos: em 7% entre 1,1% e 2%, em 27% variou de 2,1% a 4%, e em 20% de 4,1 a 8%. Amostras de sangue de um indivíduo normal do grupo 0 de uma paciente que exibiu meta-hemoglobina após picada por Loxosceles foram incubadas separadamente com anti-soros contra Loxosceles gancho, Crotalus terrificus e Bothrops jararaca, com veneno de Loxosceles gaucho e fenol a 3%, e não se detectou aumento de meta-hemoglobina depois de 1, 4, 8 e 15 dias em todas

  8. Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA for specific identification of Lachesis acrochorda venom

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    V Núñez Rangel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The snake genus Lachesis provokes 2 to 3% of snakebites in Colombia every year. Two Lachesis species, L. acrochorda and L. muta, share habitats with snakes from another genus, namely Bothrops asper and B. atrox. Lachesis venom causes systemic and local effects such as swelling, hemorrhaging, myonecrosis, hemostatic disorders and nephrotoxic symptoms similar to those induced by Bothrops, Portidium and Bothriechis bites. Bothrops antivenoms neutralize a variety of Lachesis venom toxins. However, these products are unable to avoid coagulation problems provoked by Lachesis snakebites. Thus, it is important to ascertain whether the envenomation was caused by a Bothrops or Lachesis snake. The present study found enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA efficient for detecting Lachesis acrochorda venom in a concentration range of 3.9 to 1000 ng/mL, which did not show a cross-reaction with Bothrops, Portidium, Botriechis and Crotalus venoms. Furthermore, one fraction of L. acrochorda venom that did not show crossreactivity with B. asper venom was isolated using the same ELISA antibodies; some of its proteins were identified including one Gal-specific lectin and one metalloproteinase. This test may be useful to physicians, since it could be applicable for tracking the kinetic distribution of antigens in patients or experimentally envenomed animals.

  9. Neutralization of venom-induced hemorrhage by equine antibodies raised by immunization with a plasmid encoding a novel P-II metalloproteinase from the lancehead pitviper Bothrops asper.

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    Arce-Estrada, Viviana; Azofeifa-Cordero, Gabriela; Estrada, Ricardo; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flores-Díaz, Marietta

    2009-01-14

    In this work, the cDNA encoding a novel P-II type metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper venom glands was cloned, sequenced and used for DNA immunization of animals with accelerated DNA-coated tungsten microparticles and the helius Gene Gun system. Specific antibodies against B. asper venom antigens were induced in mice co-immunized with the plasmid encoding the P-II metalloproteinase together with an expression plasmid encoding the murine IL-2. Similarly, specific antibodies against B. asper venom antigens were also induced in a horse co-immunized with the plasmid encoding the P-II metalloproteinase, together with a plasmid encoding the equine IL-6. The equine antibodies induced by immunization with the P-II metalloproteinase encoding plasmid cross react with several proteins of B. asper, Crotalus durissus durissus, and Lachesis stenophrys venoms in western blot, demonstrating antigenic similarity between the cloned metalloproteinase and other metalloproteinases present in these venoms. Furthermore, the equine antibodies induced by immunization with the P-II metalloproteinase encoding plasmid completely neutralized the hemorrhagic activity of the whole B. asper venom and partially the hemorrhagic activity of C. durissus durissus venom. The neutralizing ability of the produced antibodies raises, for the first time, the possibility of developing therapeutic antivenoms in horses by DNA immunization using tungsten microparticles.

  10. Adhesion and activation of human platelets induced by convulxin involve glycoprotein VI and integrin alpha2beta1.

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    Jandrot-Perrus, M; Lagrue, A H; Okuma, M; Bon, C

    1997-10-24

    We analyzed the interaction of convulxin (Cvx), a 72-kDa protein isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus, with human platelets. Cvx is a potent platelet agonist that induces an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), granule exocytosis and aggregation. 125I-Labeled Cvx binds specifically and rapidly to platelets at binding sites of high and moderate affinity. Platelets adhere to immobilized Cvx in a time-dependent but cation-independent manner. Platelet exocytosis and aggregation induced by Cvx were inhibited by an anti-integrin alpha2beta1 monoclonal antibody (6F1) and by the Fab fragments of a polyclonal anti-glycoprotein VI (GPVI) antibody. Both the adhesion of platelets to Cvx and the Cvx-induced increase in [Ca2+]i were inhibited by anti-GPVI Fab fragments but not by 6F1. Ligand blotting assay showed that 125I-Cvx binds to a 57-kDa platelet protein with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of GPVI. In addition, we observed the following: (i) 125I-Cvx binds to GPVI immunoprecipitated by the anti-GPVI antibody from a platelet lysate, and (ii) Cvx inhibits the binding of anti-GPVI IgG to GPVI. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GPVI behaves as a Cvx receptor and that the alpha2beta1 integrin appears to be involved in the later stages of Cvx-induced platelet activation, i.e. exocytosis and aggregation.

  11. Convulxin binding to platelet receptor GPVI: competition with collagen related peptides.

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    Niedergang, F; Alcover, A; Knight, C G; Farndale, R W; Barnes, M J; Francischetti, I M; Bon, C; Leduc, M

    2000-06-24

    Convulxin (CVX), a potent platelet aggregating protein from the venom of the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus, is known to bind to the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI). CVX binding to human platelets was investigated by flow cytometry, using fluorescein labeled convulxin (FITC-CVX). Scatchard analysis indicated high and low affinity binding sites with Kd values of 0.6 and 4 nM and Bmax values of 1200 and 2000 binding sites per platelet. FITC-CVX binding was inhibited by collagen related peptides (CRPs) comprising a repeated GPO sequence, namely GCO(GPO)(10)GCOGNH(2) and GKO(GPO)(10)GKOGNH(2), which also bind to receptor GPVI. These peptides (monomeric or cross-linked forms) gave a high affinity inhibition of 10-20% for concentrations between 10 ng/ml and 5 microg/ml, followed by a second phase of inhibition at concentrations greater than 5 microg/ml. It was shown also that the inhibition of FITC-CVX binding by CRPs was independent on the time of preincubation of platelets with CRPs, and the same percentage of inhibition was seen with various concentrations of convulxin. Confocal microscopy of the distribution of FITC-CVX binding sites on platelets showed an homogeneous distribution of FITC-CVX bound to GPVI, although some limited clustering may exist. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Convulxin-induced platelet adhesion and aggregation: involvement of glycoproteins VI and IaIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrot-Perrus, M; Lagrue, A H; Leduc, M; Okuma, M; Bon, C

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of convulxin (Cvx), a 72-kDa glycoprotein isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus with human platelets has been studied. Cvx at low concentrations (below 100 pM) induced platelet aggregation, dense body secretion and intracellular calcium mobilization which indicates that Cvx is a potent activator of human platelets. Cvx-induced platelet aggregation and secretion was inhibited by 6Fl an anti-integrin alpha2beta1 monoclonal antibody that was without effect on calcium mobilization. Anti-GPVI Fab fragments inhibited aggregation, secretion and calcium mobilization triggered by Cvx. In addition, immobilized Cvx was found to induce divalent cation-independent platelet adhesion in a static system. Platelet adhesion to Cvx was inhibited by anti-GPVI Fab fragments but not by anti-integrin alpha2beta1 . Cvx was shown to bind to a 57,000 Dalton protein that was identified as GPVI. Altogether, these results indicate that GPVI behaves as a receptor for Cvx, while integrin alpha2beta1 could play a regulatory role in Cvx-induced platelet aggregation. Cvx and collagen interaction with platelets, thus appears to share some characteristics but to also have specific properties.

  13. Crotacetin, a novel snake venom C-type lectin homolog of convulxin, exhibits an unpredictable antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; de Lima Nogueira, Lucas; Martins, Alice M C; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Toyama, Marcos Hikari; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; de Azevedo, Walter Filgueira; Yamane, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    Snake venom (sv) C-type lectins encompass a group of hemorrhagic toxins that are capable of interfering with blood stasis. A very well-studied svC-type lectin is the heterodimeric toxin, convulxin (CVX), from the venom of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. CVX is able to activate platelets and induce their aggregation by acting via p62/GPVI collagen receptor. By using polymerase chain reaction homology screening, we have cloned several cDNA precursors of CVX subunit homologs. One of them, named crotacetin (CTC) beta-subunit, predicts a polypeptide with a topology very similar to the tridimensional conformations of other subunits of CVX-like snake toxins, as determined by computational analysis. Using gel permeation and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, CTC was purified from C. durissus venoms. CTC can be isolated from the venom of several C. durissus subspecies, but its quantitative predominance is in the venom of C. durissus cascavella. Functional analysis indicates that CTC induces platelet aggregation, and, importantly, exhibits an antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, comparable with CVX.

  14. Role of the recombinant non-integrin platelet collagen receptor P65 on platelet activation induced by convulxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, I M; Chiang, T M; Guimarães, J A; Bon, C

    2000-04-21

    Convulxin (Cvx) isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom selectively binds with a high affinity to platelets and induces platelet aggregation by a mechanism that resembles that induced by collagen. Taking advantage that P65 has been recently cloned and expressed as a recombinant soluble protein (rec-P65), we examined the role of this non-integrin collagen receptor in platelet activation induced by Cvx. Rec-P65 blocked platelet adhesion to collagen-coated surfaces and inhibited platelet aggregation and ATP secretion induced by type I collagen. On the other hand, rec-P65 did not inhibit platelet aggregation and ATP secretion induced by Cvx, and it did not affect platelet adhesion to Cvx. In addition, ligand-blotting indicated that the Cvx binding to the collagen receptor GPVI was preserved in the presence of rec-P65. These observations indicate that P65 does not play a significant role in platelet activation by Cvx; in contrast, platelet response to collagen involves multiple receptors. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Western diamondback rattlesnakes demonstrate physiological and biochemical strategies for tolerating prolonged starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D

    2007-01-01

    Because of the uncertainty in food resources in nature, all animals face the possibility of imposed periods of fasting (i.e., starvation) at some point in their lives. I investigated physiological and biochemical responses to starvation that occur in a species of rattlesnake known to tolerate successfully prolonged periods of starvation in the wild. Sixteen subadult Crotalus atrox were fasted for up to 24 wk under controlled conditions simulating their active season. Snakes exhibited significant reductions in plasma glucose but increased circulating ketone bodies. Fasting snakes lost mass at a linear rate and increased their relative moisture content during the experiment. The bodies of fasting snakes demonstrated an increase in their fatty acid (FA) unsaturation index and were apparently able to "spare" essential FAs effectively from beta -oxidation. Endogenous essential and nonessential amino acids were used indiscriminately to fuel energetic requirements, suggesting that essential amino acids are not preferentially spared during starvation. The (15)N signature of excreted nitrogenous waste increased significantly, presumably as a result of shifting amino acid source pools during starvation. Because our comparative knowledge of starvation physiology contains large taxonomic gaps, particularly with respect to amphibians and reptiles, an understanding of the biological responses exhibited by these animals may offer insight into the evolution of physiological strategies animals employ to cope with the pressures of starvation.

  16. Heterologous fibrin sealant derived from snake venom: from bench to bedside - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rui Seabra; de Barros, Luciana Curtolo; Abbade, Luciana Patrícia Fernandes; Barraviera, Silvia Regina Catharino Sartori; Silvares, Maria Regina Cavariani; de Pontes, Leticia Gomes; Dos Santos, Lucilene Delazari; Barraviera, Benedito

    2017-01-01

    Hemostatic and adhesive agents date back to World War II, when homologous fibrin sealant came onto scene. Considering that infectious diseases can be transmitted via human blood, a new heterologous fibrin sealant was standardized in the 1990s. Its components were a serine protease (a thrombin-like enzyme) extracted from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes and a fibrinogen-rich cryoprecipitate extracted from the blood of Bubalus bubalis buffaloes. This new bioproduct has been used as a coagulant, sealant, adhesive and recently as a candidate scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells and bone and cartilage repair. This review discusses the composition of a new heterologous fibrin sealant, and cites published articles related to its preclinical applications aiming at repairing nervous system traumas and regenerating bone marrow. Finally, we present an innovative safety trial I/II that found the product to be a safe and clinically promising candidate for treating chronic venous ulcers. A multicenter clinical trial, phase II/III, with a larger number of participants will be performed to prove the efficacy of an innovative biopharmaceutical product derived from animal venom.

  17. Immunochemical aspects of crotoxim and its subunits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazone, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Crotamine and crotoxin with the subunits - phospholipase A and crotapotin - were obtained by purification from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Interaction studies of the subunits using crotalic antiserum, indicated that: crotoxin is formed of crotapotin and phospholipase A with the molar ratio of 1 to 1; using crotapotin 125 I the presence of a soluble complex was shown with the same antiserum. Immunological precipitation reactions demonstrated that crotapotin is antigenic: crotapotin and phospholipase A presented similar antigenic determinants; crotoxin antiserum reacted with each one of the submits; when the subunits are mixed to form synthetic crotoxin some antigenic determinants are masked in the process of interaction. Crotamine, interacted with crotapotin 1:1, without hidden antigenic determinants crotapotin antigenic site seems to be formed by, at least, one lysine. Enzimatical activity of phospholipase A apreared to be dependent on some reaction conditions when its arginine residues are blocked. Tyrosines of phospholipase A are more susceptible to labelling with 131 I than crotapotin. Gama irradiation of aqueous solutions of the subunits produced modifications in the ultraviolet spectra. A decrease of the enzymatic activity occured as a function of radiation dosis. Immunological activities of crotapotin and phospholipase A were not altered [pt

  18. Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa) from snakes in the southcentral and southwestern United States: new host and geographic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, C T; Upton, S J; Trauth, S E; Dixon, J R

    1995-02-01

    Four hundred thirty-five leptotyphlopid, colubrid, elapid, and viperid snakes were collected from various localities in Arkansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, and their feces were examined for coccidian parasites. Of these, 131 (30%) were passing oocysts or sporocysts of at least 1 coccidian; 88 (67%) of the infected snakes had only 1 species of coccidian when they were examined. Aquatic and semiaquatic snakes accounted for 48% of the infections, whereas strictly terrestrial snakes comprised the other 52%. There was more than a 2-fold difference in prevalence among these 2 groups as 63 of 129 (49%) of the aquatic and semiaquatic snakes versus 68 of 306 (22%) of the terrestrial snakes harbored coccidia. Most terrestrial snakes were infected by species of Caryospora and Sarcocystis that are either facultatively or obligatorily heteroxenous. The aquatic and semiaquatic species most often harbored eimerians. Attempts to transmit some of the Sarcocystis spp. experimentally from Crotalus atrox to Mus musculus, Peromyscus leucopus, Peromyscus maniculatus, or Microtus ochrogaster were unsuccessful. This report documents 27 new host and several distributional records for coccidians from snakes in the southcentral and southwestern United States.

  19. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Della Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 μg/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  20. Biodistribution and SPECT imaging of 125/131I-crotoxin on mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Silveira, Marina B.; Simal, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The search of specific radiopharmaceuticals to be used in breast tumour diagnosis is relevant to complement the techniques applied in conventional medicine. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CV) and its main polypeptide, Crotoxin (Crtx), are natural source of several bioactive substances with therapeutical potential. The aim of this work was to evaluate the binding of Crtx with tumour targets in vivo, as well as, evaluate its applicability for breast tumours diagnosis. Crtx was labelled with 125/131 I using lactoperoxidase method and radiochemical analysis was performed by chromatography. 125 I-Crtx was used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies on swiss mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour, while 131 I-Crtx was used for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Crtx presented specific binding sites on Ehrlich tumour cells and had a rapid blood clearance (T 1/2 = 201.1 min.). Intratumoral administration increased significantly the activity delivered into the tumour site (128-fold higher) and reduced the kidney burden (7.2-fold lower). 131 I-Crxt demonstrated to interact with tumour cells for until 72 hours allowing good quality images of tumour. Our results indicate the biotechnological potential of Crtx as template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  1. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C.Z.; Yee, J.; Mitchell, D.L.; Britt, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  2. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardiasp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  3. Myotoxic phospholipases A(2) isolated from Bothrops brazili snake venom and synthetic peptides derived from their C-terminal region: cytotoxic effect on microorganism and tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tassia R; Menaldo, Danilo L; Oliveira, Clayton Z; Santos-Filho, Norival A; Teixeira, Sabrina S; Nomizo, Auro; Fuly, André L; Monteiro, Marta C; de Souza, Bibiana M; Palma, Mário S; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Sampaio, Suely V; Soares, Andreimar M

    2008-10-01

    This paper reports the purification and biochemical/pharmacological characterization of two myotoxic phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) from Bothrops brazili venom, a native snake from Brazil. Both myotoxins (MTX-I and II) were purified by a single chromatographic step on a CM-Sepharose ion-exchange column up to a high purity level, showing M(r) approximately 14,000 for the monomer and 28,000Da for the dimer. The N-terminal and internal peptide amino acid sequences showed similarity with other myotoxic PLA(2)s from snake venoms, MTX-I belonging to Asp49 PLA(2) class, enzymatically active, and MTX-II to Lys49 PLA(2)s, catalytically inactive. Treatment of MTX-I with BPB and EDTA reduced drastically its PLA(2) and anticoagulant activities, corroborating the importance of residue His48 and Ca(2+) ions for the enzymatic catalysis. Both PLA(2)s induced myotoxic activity and dose-time dependent edema similar to other isolated snake venom toxins from Bothrops and Crotalus genus. The results also demonstrated that MTXs and cationic synthetic peptides derived from their 115-129 C-terminal region displayed cytotoxic activity on human T-cell leukemia (JURKAT) lines and microbicidal effects against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Leishmania sp. Thus, these PLA(2) proteins and C-terminal synthetic peptides present multifunctional properties that might be of interest in the development of therapeutic strategies against parasites, bacteria and cancer.

  4. Oral microbiota of Brazilian captive snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the oral microbiotic composition of snakes from São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Ten snake species, comprising the families Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae, were submitted to microbiological examination of their oral cavity, which indicated positivity for all buccal samples. Gram-negative bacilli, gram-negative cocci bacilli, gram-positive bacilli and gram-positive cocci were isolated from the snakes. Among isolated bacterium species, the occurrence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the buccal cavity of Crotalus durissus (Viperiade, Eunectes murinus (Boidae, Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae and Bacillus subtilis, common to oral cavity of Bothrops alternatus (Viperidae and Phalotris mertensi (Colubridae, was detected. It was observed higher diversity of isolated bacteria from the oral cavity of Micrurus frontalis (Elapidae and Philodryas nattereri (Colubridae, as well as the prevalence of gram-positive baccillus and gram-positive cocci. The composition of the oral microbiota of the studied snakes, with or without inoculating fangs, is diverse and also related to the formation of abscesses at the bite site in the victims of the ophidian accidents, and to pathogenic processes in the snakes that host these microorganisms.

  5. The complementarity-determining region sequences in IgY antivenom hypervariable regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gitirana da Rocha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Development of IgY antibodies against anti-snake toxins endowed with highly lethal neutralizing activity" (da Rocha et al., 2017 [1]. Complementarity-determining region (CDR sequences are variable antibody (Ab sequences that respond with specificity, duration and strength to identify and bind to antigen (Ag epitopes. B lymphocytes isolated from hens immunized with Bitis arietans (Ba and anti-Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt venoms and expressing high specificity, affinity and toxicity neutralizing antibody titers were used as DNA sources. The VLF1, CDR1, CDR2, VLR1 and CDR3 sequences were validated by BLASTp, and values corresponding to IgY VL and VH anti-Ba or anti-Cdt venoms were identified, registered [Gallus gallus IgY Fv Light chain (GU815099/Gallus gallus IgY Fv Heavy chain (GU815098] and used for molecular modeling of IgY scFv anti-Ba. The resulting CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 sequences were combined to construct the three - dimensional structure of the Ab paratope.

  6. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH 2 , respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  7. Reply to the commentary by Hillman et al. on: "Vascular distensibilities have minor effects on intracardiac shunt patterns in reptiles" by Filogonio et al. (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filogonio, Renato; Costa Leite, Cléo Alcantara; Wang, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Our meta-analysis (Filogonio et al., 2017) on central vascular blood flows in a snake (Crotalus durissus) and a turtle (Trachemys scripta) was motivated by Hillman et al.'s (2014) analysis on amphibians to investigate whether cardiac shunt patterns depend on cardiac output and vascular distensibilities. In contrast to Hillman et al. (2014), we did not uncover a general trend that supports the notion that cardiac shunts in reptiles are dictated by vascular distensibilities. In addition to our response to the criticism raised by Hillman et al. (2017), we suggest that future experiments should consider (i) both compliance and distensibility of the major arteries; (ii) differences in volume of the systemic and pulmonary circuits to account for the accommodation of stroke volume; and (iii) an evaluation of the pulsatile pressures in both the ventricle and the major arteries to consider the timing of the ventricular ejection provided by opening of the ventricular valves. We hope these suggestions may help future clarification of the relative importance of passive arterial mechanical properties compared to autonomic regulation in determining intracardiac shunts in both amphibians and reptiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C; Meik, J M; Dashevsky, D; Card, D C; Castoe, T A; Schaack, S

    2014-09-22

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Location of the ureteral openings in the cloacas of tinamous, some ratite birds, and crocodilians: a primitive character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cleida Aparecida; Silva, Renata Mageste; Santos, Marcileida Maria; Mahecha, Germán Arturo Bohórquez

    2004-05-01

    Cloacas of 67 avian species, of both sexes, from various habitats and differing dietary habits, were examined macro- and microscopically to investigate possible variation in the location of the ureteral openings. Differing from most birds studied, in adult male Rhea americana and several tinamous species the ureters were found to open into the coprodeum. In these species the urodeum receives only the vas deferens or oviduct. Similarly, in crocodiles Caiman crocodilus yacare, but not in lizards Tropidurus montanus and snakes Crotalus durissus terrificus, the ureters empty into the coprodeum. This similarity between ancient birds (ratites and tinamous) and crocodiles may indicate a primitive character linking reptiles and birds. This unusual position of the ureteral orifice can represent an adaptation to facilitate urine collection into the coprodeum and large intestine. Another possibility is that this variation in ureter position is a male reproductive strategy to avoid the mixture of urine and semen in the cloaca. There were no evident correlations between the location of the ureteral openings and the birds' habitat, diet, or histology of the coprodeal mucosa. The occurrence of a phallus in eight species of birds was detected, as well as a peculiar vascularization related to the coprodeal epithelium of anseriformes. Together, these data add to the scarce information about the morphophysiology of the avian cloaca, and also contribute to clarify avian phylogenetic linkages. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Neutralization of snake venom phospholipase A2 toxins by aqueous extract of Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae) in mouse neuromuscular preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Walter L G; Campos, Tayná O; Dal Pai-Silva, Maeli; Pereira, Paulo S; Oliveira, Clayton Z; Soares, Andreimar M; Gallacci, Márcia

    2007-07-25

    Aqueous extract of Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae) has been shown to inhibit enzymatic and biological properties of some Bothrops and Crotalus venoms and their purified phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) toxins. In this work we evaluated the influence of C. sylvestris aqueous extract upon neuromuscular blocking and muscle damaging activities of some PLA(2)s (crotoxin from C. durissus terrificus, bothropstoxin-I from B. jararacussu, piratoxin-I from B. pirajai and myotoxin-II from B. moojeni) in mouse phrenic-diaphragm preparations. Crotoxin (0.5 microM) and all other PLA(2) toxins (1.0 microM) induced irreversible and time-dependent blockade of twitches. Except for crotoxin, all PLA(2) toxins induced significant muscle damage indices, assessed by microscopic analysis. Preincubation of bothropstoxin-I, piratoxin-I or myotoxin-II with C. sylvestris extract (1:5 (w/w), 30 min, 37 degrees C) significantly prevented the neuromuscular blockade of preparations exposed to the mixtures for 90 min; the extent of protection ranged from 93% to 97%. The vegetal extract also neutralized the muscle damage (protection of 80-95%). Higher concentration of the C. sylvestris extract (1:10, w/w) was necessary to neutralize by 90% the neuromuscular blockade induced by crotoxin. These findings expanded the spectrum of C. sylvestris antivenom activities, evidencing that it may be a good source of potentially useful PLA(2) inhibitors.

  11. Evaluación comparativa de dos métodos para determinar la actividad de fosfolipasa A en venenos de serpientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Lazo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado la actividad de fosfolipasa A en seis venenos de serpientes comparando las ventajas de un método espectrofotométrico, previamente adaptado a nuestras condiciones de laboratorio, frente al método macroscópico de retardo en la coagulación de una emulsión lipoproteica. En ambos casos, la actividad de fosfolipasa A estuvo presente en los venenos de Micrurus spixii, Crotalus durissus, Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox y la actividad decreció en orden. En cambio, la actividad de la enzima en el veneno de Micrurus surinamensis sólo fue detectada por el método espectrofotométrico. Así mismo, los resultados basados en la cantidad de veneno utilizado para medir la actividad, mostraron una mayor sensibilidad con el método espectrofotométrico en comparación con el método macroscópico ya que se requirieron cantidades menores en el orden de 2 a 10 veces.

  12. Skin lipid structure controls water permeability in snake molts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Cristian; Mangoni, Alfonso; Teta, Roberta; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Fermani, Simona; Bonacini, Irene; Gazzano, Massimo; Burghammer, Manfred; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The role of lipids in controlling water exchange is fundamentally a matter of molecular organization. In the present study we have observed that in snake molt the water permeability drastically varies among species living in different climates and habitats. The analysis of molts from four snake species: tiger snake, Notechis scutatus, gabon viper, Bitis gabonica, rattle snake, Crotalus atrox, and grass snake, Natrix natrix, revealed correlations between the molecular composition and the structural organization of the lipid-rich mesos layer with control in water exchange as a function of temperature. It was discovered, merging data from micro-diffraction and micro-spectroscopy with those from thermal, NMR and chromatographic analyses, that this control is generated from a sophisticated structural organization that changes size and phase distribution of crystalline domains of specific lipid molecules as a function of temperature. Thus, the results of this research on four snake species suggest that in snake skins different structured lipid layers have evolved and adapted to different climates. Moreover, these lipid structures can protect, "safety", the snakes from water lost even at temperatures higher than those of their usual habitat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of Neurotoxic Secretory Phospholipases A2 Enzymatic, Edematogenic, and Myotoxic Activities by Harpalycin 2, an Isoflavone Isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M. Ximenes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2 exert proinflammatory actions through lipid mediators. These enzymes have been found to be elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of harpalycin 2 (Har2, an isoflavone isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth., in the enzymatic, edematogenic, and myotoxic activities of sPLA2 from Bothrops pirajai, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Apis mellifera, and Naja naja venoms. Har2 inhibits all sPLA2 tested. PrTX-III (B. pirajai venom was inhibited at about 58.7%, Cdt F15 (C. d. terrificus venom at 78.8%, Apis (from bee venom at 87.7%, and Naja (N. naja venom at 88.1%. Edema induced by exogenous sPLA2 administration performed in mice paws showed significant inhibition by Har2 at the initial step. In addition, Har2 also inhibited the myotoxic activity of these sPLA2s. In order to understand how Har2 interacts with these enzymes, docking calculations were made, indicating that the residues His48 and Asp49 in the active site of these enzymes interacted powerfully with Har2 through hydrogen bonds. These data pointed to a possible anti-inflammatory activity of Har2 through sPLA2 inhibition.

  14. Inhibition of Neurotoxic Secretory Phospholipases A(2) Enzymatic, Edematogenic, and Myotoxic Activities by Harpalycin 2, an Isoflavone Isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Rafael M; Rabello, Marcelo M; Araújo, Renata M; Silveira, Edilberto R; Fagundes, Fábio H R; Diz-Filho, Eduardo B S; Buzzo, Simone C; Soares, Veronica C G; Toyama, Daniela de O; Gaeta, Henrique H; Hernandes, Marcelo Z; Monteiro, Helena S A; Toyama, Marcos H

    2012-01-01

    Secretory phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)) exert proinflammatory actions through lipid mediators. These enzymes have been found to be elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of harpalycin 2 (Har2), an isoflavone isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth., in the enzymatic, edematogenic, and myotoxic activities of sPLA(2) from Bothrops pirajai, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Apis mellifera, and Naja naja venoms. Har2 inhibits all sPLA(2) tested. PrTX-III (B. pirajai venom) was inhibited at about 58.7%, Cdt F15 (C. d. terrificus venom) at 78.8%, Apis (from bee venom) at 87.7%, and Naja (N. naja venom) at 88.1%. Edema induced by exogenous sPLA(2) administration performed in mice paws showed significant inhibition by Har2 at the initial step. In addition, Har2 also inhibited the myotoxic activity of these sPLA(2)s. In order to understand how Har2 interacts with these enzymes, docking calculations were made, indicating that the residues His48 and Asp49 in the active site of these enzymes interacted powerfully with Har2 through hydrogen bonds. These data pointed to a possible anti-inflammatory activity of Har2 through sPLA(2) inhibition.

  15. Inhibition of Neurotoxic Secretory Phospholipases A2 Enzymatic, Edematogenic, and Myotoxic Activities by Harpalycin 2, an Isoflavone Isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Rafael M.; Rabello, Marcelo M.; Araújo, Renata M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Fagundes, Fábio H. R.; Diz-Filho, Eduardo B. S.; Buzzo, Simone C.; Soares, Veronica C. G.; Toyama, Daniela de O.; Gaeta, Henrique H.; Hernandes, Marcelo Z.; Monteiro, Helena S. A.; Toyama, Marcos H.

    2012-01-01

    Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) exert proinflammatory actions through lipid mediators. These enzymes have been found to be elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of harpalycin 2 (Har2), an isoflavone isolated from Harpalyce brasiliana Benth., in the enzymatic, edematogenic, and myotoxic activities of sPLA2 from Bothrops pirajai, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Apis mellifera, and Naja naja venoms. Har2 inhibits all sPLA2 tested. PrTX-III (B. pirajai venom) was inhibited at about 58.7%, Cdt F15 (C. d. terrificus venom) at 78.8%, Apis (from bee venom) at 87.7%, and Naja (N. naja venom) at 88.1%. Edema induced by exogenous sPLA2 administration performed in mice paws showed significant inhibition by Har2 at the initial step. In addition, Har2 also inhibited the myotoxic activity of these sPLA2s. In order to understand how Har2 interacts with these enzymes, docking calculations were made, indicating that the residues His48 and Asp49 in the active site of these enzymes interacted powerfully with Har2 through hydrogen bonds. These data pointed to a possible anti-inflammatory activity of Har2 through sPLA2 inhibition. PMID:22899963

  16. Crotacetin, a novel snake venom C-type lectin, is homolog of convulxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rádis-Baptista

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom (sv C-type lectins encompass a group of hemorrhagic toxins, which are able to interfere with hemostasis. They share significant similarity in their primary structures with C-type lectins of other animals, and also present a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD. A very well studied sv C-type lectin is the heterodimeric toxin, convulxin (CVX, from the venoms of South American rattlesnakes, Crotalus durissus terrificus and C. d. cascavella. It consists of two subunits, alfa (CVXalpha , 13.9 kDa and beta (CVXbeta , 12.6 kDa, joined by inter and intra-chain disulfide bounds, and is arranged in a tetrameric alpha4beta4 conformation. Convulxin is able to activate platelet and induce their aggregation by acting via p62/GPVI collagen receptor. Several cDNA precursors, homolog of CVX subunits, were cloned by PCR homology screening. As determined by computational analysis, one of them, named crotacetin beta subunit, was predicted as a polypeptide with a tridimensional conformation very similar to other subunits of convulxin-like snake toxins. Crotacetin was purified from C. durissus venoms by gel permeation and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The heterodimeric crotacetin is expressed in the venoms of several C. durissus subspecies, but it is prevalent in the venom of C. durissus cascavella. As inferred from homology modeling, crotacetin induces platelet aggregation but noticeably exhibits antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  17. Substituted thiobenzoic acid S-benzyl esters as potential inhibitors of a snake venom phospholipase A2: Synthesis, spectroscopic and computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao Castañeda, I. C.; Pereañez, J. A.; Jios, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    4-Chlorothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (I), 3-nitrothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (II), 4-nitrothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (III) and 4-methylthiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (IV) were prepared and characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, Mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations were performed with Gaussian 09 to calculate the geometric parameters and vibrational spectra. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was purified from Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom by molecular exclusion chromatography, followed by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. Two studies of the inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity were performed using phosphatidilcholine and 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxybenzoic acid as substrates, in both cases compound II showed the best inhibitory ability, with 74.89% and 69.91% of inhibition, respectively. Average percentage of inhibition was 52.49%. Molecular docking was carried out with Autodock Vina using as ligands the minimized structures of compounds (I-IV) and as protein PLA2 (PDB code 2QOG). The results suggest that compounds I-IV could interact with His48 at the active site of PLA2. In addition, all compounds showed Van der Waals interactions with residues from hydrophobic channel of the enzyme. This interaction would impede normal catalysis cycle of the PLA2.

  18. Structural aspects of crotoxin modified by ionizing radiation; Aspectos estruturais da crotoxina modificada pela radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Albero, Felipe Guimaraes; Zezell, Denise Maria; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: kcorleto@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool for reducing the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins, resulting in better immunogens for serum production, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. Since the action of gamma radiation of venoms and toxins has not been yet fully clarified from the structural point of view, we proposed in this paper, to characterize the crotoxin, a venom protein of the species Crotalus durissus terrificus by Circular Dichroism (CD) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. After chromatographic techniques, crotoxin was irradiated with 2.0 kGy ({sup 60}Co source). The CD spectra obtained of native and irradiated crotoxin solutions showed changes between the samples in characteristic regions of -sheet and-helix . The Infrared analyse showed expressive changes in the spectra of the native and irradiated crotoxin (amide I band region). These tests showed that crotoxin when subjected to gamma radiation, showed changes in their structural conformation compared with the samples in the native state. Such changes probably occur in the secondary structure and may explain its neurotoxic activity loss. (author)

  19. Molecular modeling of the inhibition of enzyme PLA2 from snake venom by dipyrone and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. L. Da; Comar, M., Jr.; Oliveira, K. M. T.; Chaar, J. S.; Bezerra, E. R. M.; Calgarotto, A. K.; Baldasso, P. A.; Veber, C. L.; Villar, J. A. F. P.; Oliveira, A. R. M.; Marangoni, S.

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are enzymes that trigger the degradation cascade of the arachidonic acid, leading to the formation of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. The selective inhibition of PLA2s is crucial in the search for a more efficient anti-inflammatory drug with fewer side effects than the drugs currently used. Hence, we studied the influences caused by two pyrazolonic inhibitors: dipyrone (DIP) and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) on the kinetic behavior of PLA2 from Crotalus adamanteus venom. Molecular modeling results, by DFT and MM approaches, showed that DIP is strongly associated to the active site of PLA2 through three hydrogen bonds, whereas PMP is associated to the enzyme just through hydrophobic interactions. In addition, only PMP presents an intramolecular hydrogen bond that make difficult the formation of more efficient interactions with PLA2. These results help in the understanding of the experimental observations. Experimentally, the results showed that PLA2 from C. adamanteus present a typical Michaelian behavior. In addition, the calculated kinetic parameters showed that, in the presence of DIP or PMP, the maximum enzymatic velocity (VMAX) value was kept constant, whereas the Michaelis constant (KM) values increased and the inhibition constant (KI) decreased, indicating competitive inhibition. These results show that the phenyl-pyrazolonic structures might help in the development and design of new drugs able to selectively inhibit PLA2.

  20. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity; Mediacao dos receptores ativados por proteases (PARs) em atividades biologicas da giroxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-07-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH{sub 2}, respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  1. Biodistribution and SPECT imaging of {sup 125/131}I-crotoxin on mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcellaaraugio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: santosr@cdtn.br; Silveira, Marina B.; Simal, Carlos [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Dias, Consuelo L. Fortes [Fundacao Ezequiel Dias (FUNED), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The search of specific radiopharmaceuticals to be used in breast tumour diagnosis is relevant to complement the techniques applied in conventional medicine. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CV) and its main polypeptide, Crotoxin (Crtx), are natural source of several bioactive substances with therapeutical potential. The aim of this work was to evaluate the binding of Crtx with tumour targets in vivo, as well as, evaluate its applicability for breast tumours diagnosis. Crtx was labelled with {sup 125/131}I using lactoperoxidase method and radiochemical analysis was performed by chromatography. {sup 125}I-Crtx was used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies on swiss mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour, while {sup 131}I-Crtx was used for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Crtx presented specific binding sites on Ehrlich tumour cells and had a rapid blood clearance (T{sub 1/2}= 201.1 min.). Intratumoral administration increased significantly the activity delivered into the tumour site (128-fold higher) and reduced the kidney burden (7.2-fold lower). {sup 131}I-Crxt demonstrated to interact with tumour cells for until 72 hours allowing good quality images of tumour. Our results indicate the biotechnological potential of Crtx as template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  2. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Vitelbina; Cid, Pedro; Sanz, Libia; De La Torre, Pilar; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2009-11-02

    The venom proteomes of Bothrops atrox from Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú were characterized using venomic and antivenomic strategies. Our results evidence the existence of two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes. The venom from Colombia comprises at least 26 different proteins belonging to 9 different groups of toxins. PI-metalloproteinases and K49-PLA(2) molecules represent the most abundant toxins. On the other hand, the venoms from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian B. atrox contain predominantly PIII-metalloproteinases. These toxin profiles correlate with the venom phenotypes of adult and juvenile B. asper from Costa Rica, respectively, suggesting that paedomorphism represented a selective trend during the trans-Amazonian southward expansion of B. atrox through the Andean Corridor. The high degree of crossreactivity of a Costa Rican polyvalent (Bothrops asper, Lachesis stenophrys, Crotalus simus) antivenom against B. atrox venoms further evidenced the close evolutionary kinship between B. asper and B. atrox. This antivenom was more efficient immunodepleting proteins from the venoms of B. atrox from Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú than from Colombia. Such behaviour may be rationalized taking into account the lower content of poorly immunogenic toxins, such as PLA(2) molecules and PI-SVMPs in the paedomorphic venoms. The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using this antivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil.

  3. Physico-chemical characterization of gamma rays irradiated crotamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. It has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine, a toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed the characterization of irradiated crotamine using Circular Dichroism (CD), Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. We used size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography to purify it from Cdt crude venom. The pure crotamine was irradiated with 2.0 kGy from a 60 Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were analyzed in a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi F-4500), under excitation wavelength at 275 nm and the emission was scanned from 300 to 500 nm. The analysis of fluorescence quenching showed that the irradiated form displayed a lower quantum yield when compared to the native form. CD spectra, obtained from a Jasco, J-180 spectropolarimeter, of native and irradiated crotamine solutions, showed a discrete change between the samples, from apparently ordered conformation to a random coil. Finally, the thermodynamics analysis, realized in a calorimeter METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e, showed that irradiation promoted changes in the calorimetric profile. Our results indicate that irradiation leads to progressive changes in the structure of the toxin, which could explain the decrease in myotoxic activity. (author)

  4. Effects of 60Co gamma radiation on crotamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boni-Mitake M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide (pI 10.3 from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of the present study was to carry out a biochemical study and a toxic activity assay on native and irradiated crotamine. Crotamine was purified from C.d. terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography, and irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M NaCl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a 60Co source. The native and irradiated toxins were evaluated in terms of structure and toxic activity (LD50. Irradiation did not change the protein concentration, the electrophoretic profile or the primary structure of the protein although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. Gamma radiation reduced crotamine toxicity by 48.3%, but did not eliminate it.

  5. Ethnobotanic study of Randia aculeata (Rubiaceae in Jamapa, Veracruz, Mexico, and its anti-snake venom effects on mouse tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Gallardo-Casas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, medicinal plants are widely used. The use of Randia aculeata by healers against snakebites has never been scientifically tested in relation to possible effects on blood parameters and muscle tissue damage. Interviews were carried out in Jamapa, Veracuz, Mexico, with local residents to collect information about the traditional use of Randia aculeata. In this locality, seven pieces of fruit from the plant are mixed in a liter of alcohol, and then administered orally against snakebites. By using histological techniques and a murine model, we explored its cytoprotective properties against the effects of Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper venoms. Possible protections provided by the plant against tissue damage to skeletal and cardiac muscles and against the typical loss of red blood cells were analyzed. Randia aculeata caused an increase in microhematocrit and total hemoglobin, parameters that are often decremented in association with the loss of red blood cells, which is a characteristic effect of animal venom. Randia aculeata was also shown to protect against the lowering of platelet levels caused by Bothrops asper venom. Finally, Randia aculeata produced a partial inhibition of necrosis following administration of snake venom in skeletal and myocardial muscles. The present results provide solid evidence for the traditional use of Randia aculeata against snakebites, as demonstrated by protection against muscular tissue damage and the diminution of red blood cells.

  6. Physico-chemical characterization of gamma rays irradiated crotamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: kcorleto@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. It has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine, a toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed the characterization of irradiated crotamine using Circular Dichroism (CD), Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. We used size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography to purify it from Cdt crude venom. The pure crotamine was irradiated with 2.0 kGy from a {sup 60}Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were analyzed in a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi F-4500), under excitation wavelength at 275 nm and the emission was scanned from 300 to 500 nm. The analysis of fluorescence quenching showed that the irradiated form displayed a lower quantum yield when compared to the native form. CD spectra, obtained from a Jasco, J-180 spectropolarimeter, of native and irradiated crotamine solutions, showed a discrete change between the samples, from apparently ordered conformation to a random coil. Finally, the thermodynamics analysis, realized in a calorimeter METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e, showed that irradiation promoted changes in the calorimetric profile. Our results indicate that irradiation leads to progressive changes in the structure of the toxin, which could explain the decrease in myotoxic activity. (author)

  7. Effects of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation on crotamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni-Mitake, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radioprotecao Ocupacional; Costa, H.; Spencer, P.J. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioengenharia; Rogero, J.R [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Materiais; Vassilieff, V.S. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Ceatox - Centro de Assistencia Toxicologica]. E-mail: mbmitake@net.ipen.br

    2001-12-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide (p I 10.3) from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of the present study was to carry out a biochemical study and a toxic activity assay on native and irradiated crotamine. Crotamine was purified from C.d. terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography, and irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M NaCl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a 60 Co source. The native and irradiated toxins were evaluated in terms of structure and toxic activity (Ld50). Irradiation did not change the protein concentration, the electrophoretic profile or the primary structure of the protein although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. Gamma radiation reduced crotamine toxicity by 48.3%, but did not eliminate it. (author)

  8. Ground squirrels use an infrared signal to deter rattlesnake predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundus, Aaron S; Owings, Donald H; Joshi, Sanjay S; Chinn, Erin; Giannini, Nicolas

    2007-09-04

    The evolution of communicative signals involves a major hurdle; signals need to effectively stimulate the sensory systems of their targets. Therefore, sensory specializations of target animals are important sources of selection on signal structure. Here we report the discovery of an animal signal that uses a previously unknown communicative modality, infrared radiation or "radiant heat," which capitalizes on the infrared sensory capabilities of the signal's target. California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) add an infrared component to their snake-directed tail-flagging signals when confronting infrared-sensitive rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus), but tail flag without augmenting infrared emission when confronting infrared-insensitive gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus). Experimental playbacks with a biorobotic squirrel model reveal this signal's communicative function. When the infrared component was added to the tail flagging display of the robotic models, rattlesnakes exhibited a greater shift from predatory to defensive behavior than during control trials in which tail flagging included no infrared component. These findings provide exceptionally strong support for the hypothesis that the sensory systems of signal targets should, in general, channel the evolution of signal structure. Furthermore, the discovery of previously undescribed signaling modalities such as infrared radiation should encourage us to overcome our own human-centered sensory biases and more fully examine the form and diversity of signals in the repertoires of many animal species.

  9. A zygomycotic infection in captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, W; Chandler, F W; Padhye, A A; Hamm, T E

    1983-06-01

    We report disseminated, fatal fungal disease involving subcutaneous and visceral tissues in 4 captive snakes (1 Elaphe guttata, 2 Crotalus horridus, and 1 Pituophis melanoleucus). The etiologic agent, which was abundant in the lesion, had a rounded form in vivo with a prominent nucleus. These cells averaged 17 microns in diameter and reproduced by fission, forming clusters of two or four daughter cells. The etiologic agent was isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar from one of the snakes. It also grew well on various mycologic media, forming soft, raised, glabrous, tannish colonies. The colonies were composed of large spherical cells with prominent nuclei that reproduced by fission like those seen in tissue. In addition, some of the cells were observed to germinate, forming rudimentary hyphal filaments that were up to 8 microns in diameter and 100 microns in length, with occasional septa and thick-walled structures regarded as azygospores. We consider the fungus to be a zygomycete that may belong to the order Entomophthorales.

  10. Comparative study of native and irradiated crotoxin. Biochemical and pharmacological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, N. do.

    1991-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venom, without affecting significantly their antigenic and immunogenic properties. In order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative biochemical and pharmacological study between native and gamma irradiated (2000Gy) crotoxin, main toxin of south american rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified from crude venom by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and then irradiated. Immunodiffusion, electrophoresis and gel filtration showed that the molecular integrity was preserved after irradiation with some higher molecular weight aggregate formation and maintenance of its antigenic capacity. The antibodies induced by irradiated toxin had a similar titer to the antibodies induced by native crotoxin; however with higher protective effects in mice. Crotoxin toxicity became 15 times lower after irradiation, as determined by LD sub(50) in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution occurred with a similar general pattern, with renal elimination. In contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native crotoxin is initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3hs) occurs in phagocyticmononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junctions rich organs (muscle and brain). (author)

  11. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2014-01-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon becoming aware of venomous and non-venomous snakes; but in northern Michigan and Minnesota where venomous snakes have been absent for millennia, black bears showed little or no fear in four encounters with non-venomous snakes of three species. The possible roles of experience and evolution in bear reactions to snakes and vice versa are discussed. In all areas studied, black bears had difficulty to recognize non-moving snakes by smell or sight. Bears did not react until snakes moved in 11 of 12 encounters with non-moving timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four species of harmless snakes. However, in additional tests in this study, bears were repulsed by garter snakes that had excreted pungent anal exudates, which may help explain the absence of snakes, both venomous and harmless, in bear diets reported to date. PMID:25635152

  12. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  13. Prairie rattlesnake envenomation in 27 New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonis, J M; Hackett, E S; Callan, R J; Holt, T N; Hackett, T B

    2013-01-01

    Morbidity and case fatality from rattlesnake envenomation is regionally specific because of variability in relative toxicity of the species of snake encountered. A previous report of rattlesnake envenomation in New World camelids (NWC) from the western coastal United States documented high case fatality rates and guarded prognosis for survival. To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcome of NWC with prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) envenomation in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Twenty-seven NWC admitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute rattlesnake envenomation between 1992 and 2012. Medical records of NWC evaluated for rattlesnake envenomation as coded by the attending clinician and identified by a database search were reviewed retrospectively. Month of admission, signalment, area of bite, clinical and clinicopathologic data, treatments, and outcome were recorded. Twenty-five llamas and 2 alpacas were admitted for envenomation. Llamas were overrepresented compared to hospital caseload. The face was the most common site of envenomation, observed in 96% of recorded cases. Presenting clinical signs included fever, tachypnea, tachycardia, and respiratory distress. Nine animals required a tracheotomy. Median hospitalization time was 3 days and overall survival rate was 69%. Case fatality rate for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in NWC was lower than that reported in the Western coastal region of the United States and similar to that reported for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae of snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moço Tatiana Cristina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatozoon species are the most abundant hemoparasites of snakes. Its identification has been based mainly on the morphologic characterization of the gamonts in the peripheral blood of the vertebrate host and also of the cysts found in the internal organs of the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Using a computerized image analysis system, we studied five species of Hepatozoon from recently captured snakes in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the importance of the morphology and morphometry of the gamonts for the characterization of Hepatozoon species and to analyze the morphologic changes induced in the erythrocytes by the parasite. The studied species were H. terzii of Boa constrictor amarali, Hepatozoon sp. of Crotalus durissusterrificus, H. philodryasi of Philodryas patagoniensis, and H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi of Hydrodynastes gigas. We observed three different groups, one of them including the species H. terzii, H. philodryasi and Hepatozoon sp. of C. durissus terrificus; and the other two consisting of H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi. Degree of alterations in the erythrocytes was variable and it may be useful for characterization of Hepatozoon species.

  15. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moço, Tatiana Cristina; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Vilela, Fabiana Custódio; Barrella, Thomaz Henrique; da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2002-12-01

    Hepatozoon species are the most abundant hemoparasites of snakes. Its identification has been based mainly on the morphologic characterization of the gamonts in the peripheral blood of the vertebrate host and also of the cysts found in the internal organs of the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Using a computerized image analysis system, we studied five species of Hepatozoon from recently captured snakes in Botucatu, State of S o Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the importance of the morphology and morphometry of the gamonts for the characterization of Hepatozoon species and to analyze the morphologic changes induced in the erythrocytes by the parasite. The studied species were H. terzii of Boa constrictor amarali, Hepatozoon sp. of Crotalus durissusterrificus, H. philodryasi of Philodryas patagoniensis, and H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi of Hydrodynastes gigas. We observed three different groups, one of them including the species H. terzii, H. philodryasi and Hepatozoon sp. of C. durissus terrificus; and the other two consisting of H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi. Degree of alterations in the erythrocytes was variable and it may be useful for characterization of Hepatozoon species.

  16. The use of ecological niche modeling to infer potential risk areas of snakebite in the Mexican state of Veracruz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yañez-Arenas

    Full Text Available Many authors have claimed that snakebite risk is associated with human population density, human activities, and snake behavior. Here we analyzed whether environmental suitability of vipers can be used as an indicator of snakebite risk. We tested several hypotheses to explain snakebite incidence, through the construction of models incorporating both environmental suitability and socioeconomic variables in Veracruz, Mexico.Ecological niche modeling (ENM was used to estimate potential geographic and ecological distributions of nine viper species' in Veracruz. We calculated the distance to the species' niche centroid (DNC; this distance may be associated with a prediction of abundance. We found significant inverse relationships between snakebites and DNCs of common vipers (Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper, explaining respectively 15% and almost 35% of variation in snakebite incidence. Additionally, DNCs for these two vipers, in combination with marginalization of human populations, accounted for 76% of variation in incidence.Our results suggest that niche modeling and niche-centroid distance approaches can be used to mapping distributions of environmental suitability for venomous snakes; combining this ecological information with socioeconomic factors may help with inferring potential risk areas for snakebites, since hospital data are often biased (especially when incidences are low.

  17. The use of ecological niche modeling to infer potential risk areas of snakebite in the Mexican state of Veracruz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez-Arenas, Carlos; Peterson, A Townsend; Mokondoko, Pierre; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have claimed that snakebite risk is associated with human population density, human activities, and snake behavior. Here we analyzed whether environmental suitability of vipers can be used as an indicator of snakebite risk. We tested several hypotheses to explain snakebite incidence, through the construction of models incorporating both environmental suitability and socioeconomic variables in Veracruz, Mexico. Ecological niche modeling (ENM) was used to estimate potential geographic and ecological distributions of nine viper species' in Veracruz. We calculated the distance to the species' niche centroid (DNC); this distance may be associated with a prediction of abundance. We found significant inverse relationships between snakebites and DNCs of common vipers (Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper), explaining respectively 15% and almost 35% of variation in snakebite incidence. Additionally, DNCs for these two vipers, in combination with marginalization of human populations, accounted for 76% of variation in incidence. Our results suggest that niche modeling and niche-centroid distance approaches can be used to mapping distributions of environmental suitability for venomous snakes; combining this ecological information with socioeconomic factors may help with inferring potential risk areas for snakebites, since hospital data are often biased (especially when incidences are low).

  18. Proposta de um Mapa Estratégico para uma Universidade Pública

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    Vinicius Abilio Martins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A ferramenta de tradução da estratégia, medição e avaliação do desempenho organizacional chamado Balanced Scorecard (BSC vem sendo estudada de forma crescente desde a sua publicação em 1990. O formato inicialmente proposto é aplicado muito bem às empresas privadas. Porém, sua aplicação em organizações não pertencentes ao ramo privado não foi contemplado nos estudos iniciais. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar uma proposição de um mapa estratégico na forma do Balanced Scorecard para a Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE, localizada na região Oeste daquele estado. Foram utilizados dados secundários relacionados ao Plano de Desenvolvimento Institucional, dentre outros documentos relacionados com a estratégia da instituição. Este estudo de caso se classifica como exploratório e qualitativo. A UNIOESTE possui, além da Reitoria, 5 campis localizados nas cidades de Cascavel, Toledo, Foz do Iguaçu, Marechal Cândido Rondon e Francisco Beltrão, além do Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná (HUOP. Conta com corpo docente composto por 1.229 docentes e 1.267 agentes universitários. Para o problema desta pesquisa, tem-se: é possível a criação de um Balanced Scorecard para uma Universidade Pública? Para o tratamento dos dados, utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo, apoiado pelo software ATLAS.ti. Ao final do trabalho, propôs-se um total de 5 perspectivas: Educacional, Financeira, Sociedade, Aprendizado e Crescimento e Processos Internos, distribuídos nestas perspectivas, 16 objetivos estratégicos e 30 indicadores estratégicos. A contribuição deste artigo consiste em apresentar as especificidades não abordadas no modelo tradicional, proposto por Kaplan e Norton, a uma instituição que se apresenta nas características de instituição pública e voltada para o ensino superior.

  19. Presença e extensão dos atributos de atenção primária à saúde da criança em distintos modelos de cuidado

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    Nathanielly Cristina Carvalho de Brito Santos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar qual modelo de atenção, entre unidade básica de saúde (UBS tradicional e aquelas com Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF, é mais orientado à atenção primária à saúde (APS da criança, considerando a presença e a extensão dos atributos essenciais e derivados da APS. Foram entrevistados 1.484 familiares e ou cuidadores de crianças menores de 10 anos de idade cadastradas em unidades de saúde da família de João Pessoa na Paraíba, Brasil, e UBS tradicionais de Cascavel, e UBS mistas de Londrina, ambas no Paraná, Brasil. Para tanto, utilizou-se o Primary Care Assessment Tool Brasil, versão criança. Para análise utilizou-se o teste ANOVA one way paramétrica, para identificação de diferença estatisticamente significante entre os modelos de atenção, seguida do teste de comparação múltipla (post hoc de Tukey, para apontar qual modelo apresentava diferença. Apesar de limitações no desenho do estudo, os achados levantam a hipótese de que a UBS mista é o modelo mais orientado à APS no cuidado à criança. Isso pode estar relacionado ao fato de que os diferentes modelos avaliados pertenciam a municípios diferentes, sem possibilidade de ajustar, na análise, as variáveis ligadas aos diferentes contextos. Assim, estudos futuros, com desenhos mais robustos, e ampliando para outros usuários e profissionais de saúde, poderão comprovar esta hipótese.

  20. Immunogenicity of Bothrops atrox (Ophidia: Viperidae venom and its evaluation by immunoenzymatic methods Inmunogenicidad del veneno de Bothrops atrox (Ophidia: Viperidae y su evaluación por métodos inmunoenzimáticos

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    Gustavo A. Sandoval

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The immunogenicity of Bothrops atrox, “jergón”, venom was studied using ELISA and Western Blot methods, as well as cross-reactivity patterns against venoms of Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta and Crotalus durissus. For this purpose, New Zealand white rabbits (2 kg aprox were immunized with four 500 μg doses of B. atrox venom in a period of 90 days. Antibody production was followed using ELISA technique, and title of hiper-immune serum was determined at the end of immunization protocol. Additionally, electrophoretic patterns of venoms were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and venom reactivity against obtained serum by ELISA and Western Blot. Immunization schedule allowed a pronounced antibody production since day 20 of protocol. At the end of process, serum title was 256000, which demonstrated both efficacy and usefulness of the developed procedure. On the other hand, studied venoms showed a heterogenic protein composition according to their electrophoretic patterns, whereas cross-reactivity values of 23,7%, 4,0% and 1,8% were obtained between B. atrox venom and B. brazili, L. muta and C. durissus venoms, respectively, using immunoenzymatic methods. According to our results, this procedure constitutes an initial step for further assays directed to optimization in immunoserum production for envenoming treatment and development of kits for diagnosis and species identification of snakes.Se estudió la inmunogenicidad del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops atrox, “jergón”, utilizando los métodos inmunoenzimáticos de ELISA y Western Blot, así como los patrones de reactividad cruzada empleando los venenos de las serpientes Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta y Crotalus durissus. Para este fin se inmunizaron conejos albinos Nueva Zelanda (2 kg aprox con cuatro dosis de 500 μg del veneno de B. atrox en un periodo de 90 días. La producción de anticuerpos fue monitoreada mediante la técnica de ELISA, determinándose el título del suero hiperinmune obtenido

  1. Eficacia experimental de anticuerpos IgY producidos en huevos, contra el veneno de la serpiente peruana Bothrops atrox Experimental efficacy of IgY antibodies produced in eggs against the venom of the Peruvian snake Bothrops atrox

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    Julio C. Mendoza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Desarrollar un protocolo de inmunización para producir inmunoglobulinas IgY de origen aviar contra el veneno de la serpiente peruana Bothrops atrox y evaluar la capacidad neutralizante. Materiales y métodos. Se inmunizaron seis gallinas de postura de la raza hy line brown con 500 μg/dosis de veneno de B. atrox en un periodo de dos meses. Cada semana, los huevos fueron colectados para el aislamiento de inmunoglobulinas IgY a partir de la yema, usando dos pasos consecutivos con αcido caprνlico y sulfato de amonio. La detecciσn de anticuerpos se realizσ por inmunodifusiσn doble mientras que el tνtulo y reactividad cruzada se determinaron por las técnicas de ELISA y Western blot. El cálculo de DL50 y de la DE50 del antiveneno IgY producido se realizó utilizando el método de Probits. Resultados. La masa de anticuerpos aislados fue de 8,5 ± 1,35 mg de IgY/mL de yema. Asimismo, la DE50 del antiveneno aviar fue calculada en 575 μL de antiveneno/mg de veneno. Adicionalmente, los ensayos de reactividad cruzada mostraron que el veneno de B. atrox comparte mas epνtopes comunes con el veneno de B. brazili (47% que con otros veneno del mismo género, en tanto que los venenos de Lachesis muta (19% y Crotalus durissus (12% mostraron una baja reactividad cruzada. Conclusiones. Se ha obtenido IgY purificada contra el veneno de B. atrox con capacidad neutralizante y se ha demostrado su utilidad como herramienta inmunoanalítica para evaluar la reactividad cruzada con venenos de otras especies.Objectives. To develop an immunization protocol in order to produce avian IgY immunoglobulins against Bothrops atrox Peruvian snake venom and to evaluate its neutralizing capacity. Materials and methods. Six Hy Line Brown hens were immunized each two weeks using 500μg/doses of B. atrox venom in a period of two months. Each week, eggs were collected for IgY isolation from yolk using two consecutive steps with caprilic acid and ammonium sulfate

  2. Serpentes peçonhentas e ofidismo em Cruzeiro do Sul, Alto Juruá, Estado do Acre, Brasil Venomous snakes and ophidism in Cruzeiro do Sul, Alto Juruá, State of Acre, Brazil

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    Paulo Sérgio Bernarde

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da importância dos acidentes ofídicos na Saúde Pública, são relativamente poucas as pesquisas realizadas sobre esse tema no Brasil. Devido aos poucos estudos sobre ofidismo na Amazônia e especialmente no estado do Acre, trabalhos epidemiológicos são de grande relevância. Esse estudo apresenta a lista de serpentes peçonhentas e aspectos epidemiológicos dos acidentes ofídicos em Cruzeiro do Sul, região do Alto Juruá (Acre, verificando quais gêneros de serpentes são responsáveis pelos envenenamentos e aspectos que envolvem o acidente e o atendimento hospitalar. Os dados epidemiológicos foram coligidos a partir do SINAN (Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação, no setor de vigilância epidemiológica do Hospital Regional do Juruá, no município de Cruzeiro do Sul. Sete espécies de serpentes peçonhentas foram registradas nesse município: três viperídeos (Bothrops atrox, Bothriopsis bilineata e Lachesis muta e quatro elapídeos (Micrurus hemprichii, M. lemniscatus, M. remotus and M. surinamensis. Durante o período de dois anos (agosto de 2007 a julho de 2009 foram registrados 195 casos de acidentes ofídicos. Cinquenta e um por cento dos acidentes foi classificado como laquético (Lachesis, seguido pelo botrópico (Bothrops e Bothriopsis com 38% e crotálico (Crotalus com 2%. Em 9% dos casos o gênero da serpente envolvida não foi informado. A maioria dos acidentes envolveu indivíduos adultos do gênero masculino em área rural, afetados principalmente nos membros inferiores. Os casos ocorreram mais frequentemente nos meses de novembro a abril, coincidindo com os maiores níveis pluviométricos. A maioria dos acidentes foi atribuída equivocadamente à serpente L. muta, tendo sido provavelmente causados por B. atrox.Despite the importance of accidents involving snakebites, research on this theme in Brazil is relatively rare, especially in the Amazon region. Due to the poor number of studies about ophidism

  3. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of irradiated crotamine by gamma rays of 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto

    2014-01-01

    The serum production in Brazil, the only effective treatment in cases of snakebites, uses horses that although large size, have reduced l lifespan compared with horses not immunized. Ionizing radiation has been shown as an excellent tool in reducing the toxicity of venoms and toxins isolated, and promote the achievement of better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. It is known, however, that the effects of ionizing radiation on protein are characterized by various chemical modifications, such as fragmentation, cross-linking due to aggregation and oxidation products generated by water radiolysis. However, the action of gamma radiation on toxins is not yet fully understood structurally and pharmacologically, a fact that prevents the application of this methodology in the serum production process. So we proposed in this paper the characterization of crotamine, an important protein from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus species, irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays. After isolating the toxin by chromatographic techniques and testing to prove the obtaining of pure crotamine, it was irradiated with gamma rays and subjected to structural analysis, Fluorescence and Circular Dichroism. Using high hydrostatic pressure tests were also conducted in order to verify that the conformational changes caused by radiation suffer modifications under high pressures. From the pharmacological point of view, muscle contraction tests were conducted with the objective of limiting the action of crotamine in smooth muscle as well as the change in the action of toxin caused structural changes to the front. Analysis of Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence showed changes in structural conformation of crotamine when subjected to gamma radiation and that such changes possibly occurring in the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. The observed in pharmacological tests showed that the irradiated crotamine was less effective in

  4. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of irradiated crotamine by gamma rays of {sup 60}Co; Caracterizacao bioquimica e farmacologica da crotamina irradiada por raios gama de {sup 60}Co

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    Oliveira, Karina Corleto

    2014-07-01

    The serum production in Brazil, the only effective treatment in cases of snakebites, uses horses that although large size, have reduced l lifespan compared with horses not immunized. Ionizing radiation has been shown as an excellent tool in reducing the toxicity of venoms and toxins isolated, and promote the achievement of better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. It is known, however, that the effects of ionizing radiation on protein are characterized by various chemical modifications, such as fragmentation, cross-linking due to aggregation and oxidation products generated by water radiolysis. However, the action of gamma radiation on toxins is not yet fully understood structurally and pharmacologically, a fact that prevents the application of this methodology in the serum production process. So we proposed in this paper the characterization of crotamine, an important protein from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus species, irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays. After isolating the toxin by chromatographic techniques and testing to prove the obtaining of pure crotamine, it was irradiated with gamma rays and subjected to structural analysis, Fluorescence and Circular Dichroism. Using high hydrostatic pressure tests were also conducted in order to verify that the conformational changes caused by radiation suffer modifications under high pressures. From the pharmacological point of view, muscle contraction tests were conducted with the objective of limiting the action of crotamine in smooth muscle as well as the change in the action of toxin caused structural changes to the front. Analysis of Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence showed changes in structural conformation of crotamine when subjected to gamma radiation and that such changes possibly occurring in the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. The observed in pharmacological tests showed that the irradiated crotamine was less effective

  5. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of Co60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms, leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective was to carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 m NaCl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD50), and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labeled with 29.6 MBq of I using chloramine T method and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35 @ 5 g) were injected IP with 0.1 mL (2.4x10 cpm/mouse) of I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10 cpm/mouse) of I irradiated crotamine. The animals were sacrificed by ether inhalation at 0.08, 0.25, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change protein concentration, electrophoretic profile, or protein primary structure, although differences could be seen by spectroscopic techniques. Gamma radiation reduced crotamine toxicity, but did not eliminate bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. Native and irradiated crotamine have an affinity to skeletal muscle and did not cross the blood-brain barrier. (author)

  6. Effects of PI and PIII Snake Venom Haemorrhagic Metalloproteinases on the Microvasculature: A Confocal Microscopy Study on the Mouse Cremaster Muscle.

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    Cristina Herrera

    Full Text Available The precise mechanisms by which Snake Venom Metalloproteinases (SVMPs disrupt the microvasculature and cause haemorrhage have not been completely elucidated, and novel in vivo models are needed. In the present study, we compared the effects induced by BaP1, a PI SVMP isolated from Bothrops asper venom, and CsH1, a PIII SVMP from Crotalus simus venom, on cremaster muscle microvasculature by topical application of the toxins on isolated tissue (i.e., ex vivo model, and by intra-scrotal administration of the toxins (i.e., in vivo model. The whole tissue was fixed and immunostained to visualize the three components of blood vessels by confocal microscopy. In the ex vivo model, BaP1 was able to degrade type IV collagen and laminin from the BM of microvessels. Moreover, both SVMPs degraded type IV collagen from the BM in capillaries to a higher extent than in PCV and arterioles. CsH1 had a stronger effect on type IV collagen than BaP1. In the in vivo model, the effect of BaP1 on type IV collagen was widespread to the BM of arterioles and PCV. On the other hand, BaP1 was able to disrupt the endothelial barrier in PCV and to increase vascular permeability. Moreover, this toxin increased the size of gaps between pericytes in PCV and created new gaps between smooth muscle cells in arterioles in ex vivo conditions. These effects were not observed in the case of CsH1. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that both SVMPs degrade type IV collagen from the BM in capillaries in vivo. Moreover, while the action of CsH1 is more directed to the BM of microvessels, the effects of BaP1 are widespread to other microvascular components. This study provides new insights in the mechanism of haemorrhage and other pathological effects induced by these toxins.

  7. Perfil epidemiológico del accidente ofídico en las tierras bajas de Guatemala

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    Dennis Guerra-Centeno

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el perfil epidemiológico del accidente ofídico en las tierras bajas de Guatemala a partir del análisis de 305 expedientes de casos atendidos en los hospitales regionales de Escuintla y San Benito, Petén, entre 2008 y 2013. De los 305 casos, 169 correspondieron al Hospital Regional de Escuintla y 136 al Hospital Regional de San Benito Petén. Los casos del Hospital Regional de Escuintla correspondieron a pacientes provenientes de los departamentos de Escuintla, Santa Rosa, Chimaltenango, Retalhuleu, Suchitepéquez, Sacatepéquez, Sololá y Guatemala. Los casos del Hospital Regional de San Benito Petén correspondieron a pacientes provenientes del área centro y norte de Petén, y algunos referidos del área sur. La edad media de la víctima fue 25.2 años. La enfermedad afectó más a hombres (61.3% que a mujeres (38.7%. La mayoría de los afectados (28.3% eran agricultores. Las especies de serpiente que se consignaron en los expedientes con mayor frecuencia fueron Bothrops asper (serpiente barba amarilla en la región norte y Crotalus simus (serpiente cascabel en la región sur. La mayoría de las mordeduras ocurrieron en los miembros inferiores. Los eventos de mordedura ocurrieron durante el día y durante la noche en proporciones similares. El tiempo medio que tarda la víctima en llegar al hospital fue de 5.6 horas. Se describen también otros aspectos epidemiológicos y se discuten las implicaciones ecológicas y sociales de los datos generados.

  8. Identification of linear B-cell epitopes on myotoxin II, a Lys49 phospholipase A₂ homologue from Bothrops asper snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge on toxin immunogenicity at the molecular level can provide valuable information for the improvement of antivenoms, as well as for understanding toxin structure-function relationships. The aims of this study are two-fold: first, to identify the linear B-cell epitopes of myotoxin II from Bothrops asper snake venom, a Lys49 phospholipase A₂ homologue; and second, to use antibodies specifically directed against an epitope having functional relevance in its toxicity, to probe the dimeric assembly mode of this protein in solution. Linear B-cell epitopes were identified using a library of overlapping synthetic peptides spanning its complete sequence. Epitopes recognized by a rabbit antiserum to purified myotoxin II, and by three batches of a polyvalent (Crotalidae) therapeutic antivenom (prepared in horses immunized with a mixture of B. asper, Crotalus simus, and Lachesis stenophrys venoms) were mapped using an enzyme-immunoassay based on the capture of biotinylated peptides by immobilized streptavidin. Some of the epitopes identified were shared between the two species, whereas others were unique. Differences in epitope recognition were observed not only between the two species, but also within the three batches of equine antivenom. Epitope V, located at the C-terminal region of this protein, is known to be relevant for toxicity and neutralization. Affinity-purified rabbit antibodies specific for this site were able to immunoprecipitate myotoxin II, suggesting that the two copies of epitope V are simultaneously available to antibody binding, which would be compatible with the mode of dimerization known as "conventional" dimer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Convulxin binds to native, human glycoprotein Ib alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaji, Sachiko; Kanaji, Taisuke; Furihata, Kenichi; Kato, Kazunobu; Ware, Jerry L; Kunicki, Thomas J

    2003-10-10

    Convulxin (CVX), a C-type snake protein from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, is the quintessential agonist for studies of the collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and its role in platelet adhesion to collagens. In this study, CVX, purified from venom, behaves as expected, i.e. it binds to platelet GPVI and recombinant human GPVI, induces platelet aggregation and platelet prothrombinase activity, and binds uniquely to GPVI in ligand blots of SDS-denatured proteins. Nonetheless, we find that CVX has a dual specificity for both GPVI and native but not denatured human GPIb alpha. First, CVX binds to human GPIb alpha expressed on the surface of CHO cells. Second, CVX binds weakly to murine platelet GPIb alpha but more strongly to human platelet GPIb alpha, as evidenced by comparative binding to wild-type, GPVI(-/-), FcR gamma (-/-), and human GPIb transgenic mice. Third, the binding of CVX to human GPIb alpha is inhibited by soluble, recombinant human GPVI. Fourth, CVX binding to GPIb alpha is disrupted by phenylalanine substitutions at GPIb alpha tyrosine-276, tyrosine-278, and tyrosine-279, which also disrupts von Willebrand factor and alpha-thrombin binding to GPIb alpha. Fifth, CVX binding to GPIb alpha on Chinese hamster ovary cell transfectants is inhibited by function-blocking murine monoclonal anti-GPIb alpha antibodies. Lastly, CVX fails to bind to denatured GPIb alpha in detergent extracts of platelets. Three separate preparations of CVX (two purified by the authors; one obtained commercially) produced equivalent results. These results indicate that CVX exhibits dual specificity for both native GPIb alpha and GPVI. Furthermore, the binding site on GPIb alpha for CVX may be close to that for von Willebrand factor. Therefore, a contribution of GPIb alpha to CVX-induced platelet responses needs to be carefully re-evaluated.

  10. Human platelets activation by convulxin is accompanied by tyrosyl-phosphorylation of PLCgamma2 and occurs independently of integrin alphaIIbbeta3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, I M; Carlini, C R; Guimàraes, J A

    1998-01-01

    In the present report we show that convulxin (Cvx), a C-type lectin from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, induces platelet agregation and phospholipase C (PLC) activation by a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK)-dependent pathway. In addition, Cvx stimulates a rapid increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of human platelet proteins with molecular masses of 40, 72/74, 78/80 and 120 kDa, followed by dephosphorylation of some proteins. However, platelet aggregation was accompanied by the phosphorylation of a 105-kDa molecular mass protein. Furthermore, Cvx stimulates a rapid-tyrosyl phosphorylation of a 145-kDa protein that was identified as PLC gamma 2. Protein tyrose phosphatase (PTP) induced by Cvx was not blocked when platelets were stimulated in the presence of indomethacin, apyrase, EDTA or RGDS peptide, but inhibited by staurosporine and genistein. These results indicate that PTP is chronologically proximal to Cvx binding to platelets, and it is independent of platelet aggregation or fibrinogen binding to integrin alphaIIbbeta3. On the other hand, the phosphorylation step, and the phosphorylation of the 105-kDa protein, were both inhibited by RGDS and EDTA, which suggests that the integrin alphaIIbbeta3 beta is involved in these steps. Our results, taken together, show that Cvx induces platelet IIb 3 aggregation in a similar manner as collagen and collagen-related peptides that also trigger platelet aggregation by a PTK-dependent pathway, and stimulate tyrosyl-phosphorylation of PLC gamma 2. However, Cvx is unique among platelet receptor agonists, because under test-tube stirring conditions it induces a PTP profile independently of integrin alphaIIbbeta3.

  11. Effect of multimer size and a natural dimorphism on the binding of convulxin to platelet glycoprotein (GP)VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K; Furihata, K; Cheli, Y; Radis-Baptista, G; Kunicki, T J

    2006-05-01

    Convulxin (CVX), a C-type lectin from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus, is a potent activator of human platelets, binding predominantly to glycoprotein (GP)VI. Native CVX is an octamer composed of four alphabeta-heterodimers [(alphabeta)(4)]. Two different native sequences have been reported, one bearing lysine (K), the other glutamic acid (E), at beta chain residue 89, but the physiological relevance of this difference is unknown. We used the Drosophila S2 system to express recombinant CVX (rCVX) heterodimers (alphabeta) and site-directed mutagenesis to evaluate the influence of multimer size and the substitution betaK89E on CVX function. By flow cytometry, native CVX and both recombinant forms bind to human platelets in whole blood. By surface plasmon resonance (BIAcore, Piscataway, NJ, USA), the calculated equilibrium dissociation constants (K(D)) were: rCVX alphabeta89K, 11.3 x 10(-8) m; rCVX alphabeta89E, 9 x 10(-8) m; and native CVX, 2.8 x 10(-8) m. Thus, the affinities of the two rCVX forms for human, recombinant GPVI are essentially the same, but the relative affinity of native CVX is about 3-fold higher. The minimum concentration of native CVX that induces maximal human platelet aggregation (70 pm) is roughly 400-fold lower than that of either rCVX (29 nm). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the ability of the native CVX octamer to cluster mobile GPVI molecules within the platelet membrane may be the single most important factor that contributes to the efficiency with which CVX is able to induce platelet activation.

  12. cAMP does not inhibit convulxin-induced tyrosyl-phosphorylation of human platelet proteins, including PLCgamma2, but completely blocks the integrin alphaIIb beta3-dependent dephosphorylation step: comparisons with RGDS peptide, cytochalasin D, and phenylarsine oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, I M; Carlini, C R; Guimarães, J A

    1998-06-15

    Convulxin (Cvx) isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, induces platelet aggregation, phospholipase C (PLC) activation, and tyrosyl-phosphorylation (PTP) of multiple proteins, including PLCgamma2 by a mechanism independent of integrin alphaIIb beta3. However, PTP induced by Cvx is followed by a dephosphorylation step in a platelet aggregation-dependent manner. Here we show that increasing intraplatelet content of cAMP with forskolin is associated with the inhibition of Cvx-induced platelet aggregation, ATP secretion, and inositol-phosphates production. However, the early onset of Cvx-induced PTP is not sensitive to cAMP (including PLCgamma2), and it also occurs in the presence of integrin alphaIIb beta3-antagonist (RGDS peptide, RGDS) or inhibitors of actin polymerization (cytochalasin D, CD) and tyrosine-phosphatases (phenylarsine oxide, PAO). However, forskolin, RGDS, and CD prevented the dephosphorylation step together with inhibition of platelet aggregation, whereas in the presence of phenylarsine oxide (PAO) the dephosphorylation step was replaced by an increase in the number and intensity of tyrosyl-phosphorylated proteins. Our data provide evidence to conclude that (i) cAMP inhibits platelet aggregation at a downstream site to PLCgamma2 tyrosyl-phosphorylation; (ii) Cvx-induced PTP is independent on integrin alphaIIb beta3 engagement, actin polymerization, and tyrosine-phosphatases activation; (iii) integrin alphaIIb beta3 mediates the dephosphorylation step in a platelet aggregation-dependent manner; and (iv) Cvx and collagen stimulate platelets by a similar signal transduction pathway. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  13. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.

  14. The interaction of α2-macroglobulin with proteinases. Binding and inhibition of mammalian collagenases and other metal proteinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Zena; Burleigh, Mary C.; Barrett, Alan J.; Starkey, Phyllis M.

    1974-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed to determine whether the specific collagenases and other metal proteinases are bound and inhibited by α2-macroglobulin, as are endopeptidases of other classes. 2. A specific collagenase from rabbit synovial cells was inhibited by human serum. The inhibition could be attributed entirely to α2-macroglobulin; α1-trypsin inhibitor was not inhibitory. α2-Macroglobulin presaturated with trypsin or cathepsin B1 did not inhibit collagenase, and pretreatment of α2-macroglobulin with collagenase prevented subsequent reaction with trypsin. The binding of collagenase by α2-macroglobulin was not reversible in gel chromatography. 3. The collagenolytic activity of several rheumatoid synovial fluids was completely inhibited by incubation of the fluids with α2-macroglobulin. 4. The collagenase of human polymorphonuclear-leucocyte granules showed time-dependent inhibition by α2-macroglobulin. 5. The collagenolytic metal proteinase of Crotalus atrox venom was inhibited by α2-macroglobulin. 6. The collagenase of Clostridium histolyticum was bound by α2-macroglobulin, and inhibited more strongly with respect to collagen than with respect to a peptide substrate. 7. Thermolysin, the metal proteinase of Bacillus thermoproteolyticus, was bound and inhibited by α2-macroglobulin. 8. It was shown by polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis of reduced α2-macroglobulin in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate that synovial-cell collagenase, clostridial collagenase and thermolysin cleave the quarter subunit of α2-macroglobulin near its mid-point, as do serine proteinases. 9. The results are discussed in relation to previous work, and it is concluded that the characteristics of interaction of the metal proteinases with α2-macroglobulin are the same as those of other proteinases. ImagesPLATE 2PLATE 1 PMID:4374931

  15. Venoms, toxins and derivatives from the Brazilian fauna: valuable sources for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco Almeida, Flávia; de Castro Pimenta, Adriano Monteiro; Oliveira, Mônica Cristina; De Lima, Maria Elena

    2015-06-25

    Animal venoms have been widely investigated throughout the world. The great number of biotechnological articles as well as patent applications in the field of drug discovery based on these compounds indicates how important the source is. This review presents a list of the most studied Brazilian venomous animal species and shows the most recent patent applications filed from 2000 to 2013, which comprise Brazilian venoms, toxins and derivatives. We analyze the data according to the species, the type of products claimed and the nationality of the inventors. Fifty-five patent applications were found, involving 8 genera. Crotalus, Lachesis, Bothrops and Loxosceles represented 78% of the patent applications. The other 22% were represented by Phoneutria, Tityus, Acanthoscurria and Phyllomedusa. Most of the inventions (42%) involved anticancer, immunomodulator or antimicrobial drugs, while 13% involved anti-venoms and vaccines, 11% involved hypotensive compositions, 9% involved antinociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory compositions, and the other 25% involved methods, kits or compositions for various purposes. Brazilian inventors filed 49% of the patent applications, but other countries, mainly the United States of America, Germany, Russia and France, also filed patent applications claiming products comprising venoms, toxins and/or derivatives from the Brazilian fauna. Brazil holds an important number of patent applications which mostly belong to universities and research institutes, but the pharmaceutical industry in this field is still weak in Brazil. Although, Brazilian venomous animal species have been reported in drug discovery throughout the world, many species remain to be explored as valuable and promising tools for drug discovery and development.

  16. Microbiological evaluation of different strategies for management of snakes in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagner, M V; Bosco, S M G; Bagagli, E; Cunha, M L R S; Jeronimo, B C; Saad, E; Biscola, N P; Ferreira, R S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    Keeping snakes in captivity to produce venom for scientific research and production of inputs is now a worldwide practice. Maintaining snakes in captivity involves capture, infrastructure investments, management techniques, and appropriate qualified personnel. Further, the success of the project requires knowledge of habitat, nutrition, and reproduction, and control of opportunistic infections. This study evaluated the management of snakes in three types of captivity (quarantine, intensive, and semiextensive) and diagnosed bacterial and fungal contaminants. A bacteriological profile was obtained by swabbing the oral and cloacal cavities, scales, and venoms of healthy adult snakes from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt). There was predominance of Enterobacteriaceae, especially non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli excluding Pseudomonas spp and Gram- positive bacteria. Statistically, intensive captivity resulted in the highest number of bacterial isolates, followed by recent capture (quarantine) and by semiextensive captivity. No statistical difference was found between Bj and Cdt bacterial frequency. In vitro bacterial susceptibility testing found the highest resistance against the semisynthetic penicillins (amoxicillin and ampicillin) and highest sensitivity to amicacin and tobramycin aminoglycosides. To evaluate mycological profile of snakes from intensive captivity, samples were obtained from two healthy Bj and one B. moojeni, one B. pauloensis, and one Cdt showing whitish lesions on the scales suggestive of ringworm. Using conventional methods and DNA-based molecular procedures, five samples of Trichosporon asahii were identified. Despite the traditional role of intense captivity in ophidian venom production, semiextensive captivity was more effective in the present study by virtue of presenting superior control of bacterial and fungal transmission, easier management, lowest cost, and decreased rate of mortality; therefore, it should be

  17. Rattlesnake Phospholipase A2 Increases CFTR-Chloride Channel Current and Corrects ∆F508CFTR Dysfunction: Impact in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Grazyna; Bakouh, Naziha; Lourdel, Stéphane; Odolczyk, Norbert; Premchandar, Aiswarya; Servel, Nathalie; Hatton, Aurélie; Ostrowski, Maciej K; Xu, Haijin; Saul, Frederick A; Moquereau, Christelle; Bitam, Sara; Pranke, Iwona; Planelles, Gabrielle; Teulon, Jacques; Herrmann, Harald; Roldan, Ariel; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Dadlez, Michal; Lukacs, Gergely L; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Ollero, Mario; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Edelman, Aleksander

    2016-07-17

    Deletion of Phe508 in the nucleotide binding domain (∆F508-NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR; a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel) is the most frequent mutation associated with cystic fibrosis. This mutation affects the maturation and gating of CFTR protein. The search for new high-affinity ligands of CFTR acting as dual modulators (correctors/activators) presents a major challenge in the pharmacology of cystic fibrosis. Snake venoms are a rich source of natural multifunctional proteins, potential binders of ion channels. In this study, we identified the CB subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus as a new ligand and allosteric modulator of CFTR. We showed that CB interacts with NBD1 of both wild type and ∆F508CFTR and increases their chloride channel currents. The potentiating effect of CB on CFTR activity was demonstrated using electrophysiological techniques in Xenopus laevis oocytes, in CFTR-HeLa cells, and ex vivo in mouse colon tissue. The correcting effect of CB was shown by functional rescue of CFTR activity after 24-h ΔF508CFTR treatments with CB. Moreover, the presence of fully glycosylated CFTR was observed. Molecular docking allowed us to propose a model of the complex involving of the ABCβ and F1-like ATP-binding subdomains of ΔF508-NBD1. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange analysis confirmed stabilization in these regions, also showing allosteric stabilization in two other distal regions. Surface plasmon resonance competition studies showed that CB disrupts the ∆F508CFTR-cytokeratin 8 complex, allowing for the escape of ∆F508CFTR from degradation. Therefore CB, as a dual modulator of ΔF508CFTR, constitutes a template for the development of new anti-CF agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Binding studies of the antitumoral radiopharmaceutical 125I-Crotoxin to Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Marina B.; Santos, Raquel G. dos; Dias, Consuelo L. Fortes; Cassali, Geovanni D.

    2009-01-01

    The development of tools for functional diagnostic imaging is mainly based on radiopharmaceuticals that specifically target membrane receptors. Crotoxin (Crtx), a polypeptide isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, has been shown to have an antitumoral activity and is a promising bioactive tracer for tumor detection. More specific radiopharmaceuticals are being studied to complement the techniques applied in the conventional medicine against breast cancer, the most frequent cause of death from malignant disease in women. Crtx's effect has been shown to be related with the overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), present in high levels in 30 to 60% of breast tumor cells. Our objective was to evaluate Crtx as a tracer for cancer diagnosis, investigating its properties as an EGFR-targeting agent. Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT cells) were used due to its origin and similar characteristics to breast tumor cells, specially the presence of EGFR. Crtx was labeled with 125I and binding experiments were performed. To evaluate the specific binding in vitro of Crtx, competition binding assay was carried out in the presence of increasing concentrations of non-labelled crotoxin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Specific binding of 125I-Crtx to EAT cells was determined and the binding was considered saturable, with approximately 70% of specificity, high affinity (Kd = 19.7 nM) and IC50 = 1.6 x 10-11 M. Our results indicate that Crtx's interaction with EAT cells is partially related with EGFR and increases the biotechnological potential of Crtx as a template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  19. Structural analysis of irradiated crotoxin by spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina C. de; Fucase, Tamara M.; Silva, Ed Carlos S. e; Chagas, Bruno B.; Buchi, Alisson T.; Viala, Vincent L.; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2013-01-01

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite of their large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to attenuate the biological activity of animal toxins. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A 2 . Previous data indicated that this protein, following irradiation process, undergoes unfolding and/or aggregation, resulting in a much lower toxic antigen. The exact mechanisms and structural modifications involved in aggregation process are not clear yet. This work investigates the effects of ionizing radiation on crotoxin employing Infrared Spectroscopy, Circular Dichroism and Dynamic Light Scattering techniques. The infrared spectrum of lyophilized crotoxin showed peaks corresponding to the vibrational spectra of the secondary structure of crotoxin, including β-sheet, random coil, α-helix and β-turns. We calculated the area of these spectral regions after adjusting for baseline and normalization using the amide I band (1590-1700 cm -1 ), obtaining the variation of secondary structures of the toxin following irradiation. The Circular Dichroism spectra of native and irradiated crotoxin suggests a conformational change within the molecule after the irradiation process. This data indicates structural changes between the samples, apparently from ordered conformation towards a random coil. The analyses by light scattering indicated that the irradiated crotoxin formed multimers with an average molecular radius 100 folds higher than the native toxin. (author)

  20. Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structural Characterization of New Basic Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata Snake Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Corasolla Carregari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bbil-TX, a PLA2, was purified from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom after only one chromatographic step using RP-HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18 column. A molecular mass of 14243.8 Da was confirmed by Q-Tof Ultima API ESI/MS (TOF MS mode mass spectrometry. The partial protein sequence obtained was then submitted to BLASTp, with the search restricted to PLA2 from snakes and shows high identity values when compared to other PLA2s. PLA2 activity was presented in the presence of a synthetic substrate and showed a minimum sigmoidal behavior, reaching its maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 25–37∘C. Maximum PLA2 activity required Ca2+ and in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+ it was reduced in the presence or absence of Ca2+. Crotapotin from Crotalus durissus cascavella rattlesnake venom and antihemorrhagic factor DA2-II from Didelphis albiventris opossum sera under optimal conditions significantly inhibit the enzymatic activity. Bbil-TX induces myonecrosis in mice. The fraction does not show a significant cytotoxic activity in myotubes and myoblasts (C2C12. The inflammatory events induced in the serum of mice by Bbil-TX isolated from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom were investigated. An increase in vascular permeability and in the levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1 was was induced. Since Bbil-TX exerts a stronger proinflammatory effect, the phospholipid hydrolysis may be relevant for these phenomena.

  1. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Jay F; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E

    2015-11-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Good vibrations: Assessing the stability of snake venom composition after researcher-induced disturbance in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claunch, Natalie M; Holding, Matthew L; Escallón, Camilo; Vernasco, Ben; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2017-07-01

    Phenotypic plasticity contributes to intraspecific variation in traits of many animal species. Venom is an integral trait to the success and survival of many snake species, and potential plasticity in venom composition is important to account for in the context of basic research as well as in human medicine for treating the various symptoms of snakebite and producing effective anti-venoms. Researchers may unknowingly induce changes in venom variation by subjecting snakes to novel disturbances and potential stressors. We explored phenotypic plasticity in snake venom composition over time in captive Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) exposed to vibration treatment, compared to an undisturbed control group. Venom composition did not change significantly in response to vibration, nor was there a detectable effect of overall time in captivity, even though snakes re-synthesized venom stores while subjected to novel disturbance in the laboratory. This result indicates that venom composition is a highly repeatable phenotype over short time spans and that the composition of venom within adult individuals may be resistant to or unaffected by researcher-induced disturbance. On the other hand, the change in venom composition, measured as movement along the first principle component of venom phenotype space, was associated with baseline corticosterone (CORT) levels in the snakes. While differential forms of researcher-induced disturbance may not affect venom composition, significant changes in baseline CORT, or chronic stress, may affect the venom phenotype, and further investigations will be necessary to assess the nature of the relationship between CORT and venom protein expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A snake venom group IIA PLA2 with immunomodulatory activity induces formation of lipid droplets containing 15-d-PGJ2 in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Karina Cristina; Leiguez, Elbio; Carvalho, Ana Eduarda Zulim de; Nascimento, Neide Galvão; Matsubara, Márcio Hideki; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Moreira, Vanessa; Teixeira, Catarina

    2017-06-22

    Crotoxin B (CB) is a catalytically active group IIA sPLA 2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom. In contrast to most GIIA sPLA 2 s, CB exhibits anti-inflammatory effects, including the ability to inhibit leukocyte functions. Lipid droplets (LDs) are lipid-rich organelles associated with inflammation and recognized as a site for the synthesis of inflammatory lipid mediators. Here, the ability of CB to induce formation of LDs and the mechanisms involved in this effect were investigated in isolated macrophages. The profile of CB-induced 15-d-PGJ 2 (15-Deoxy-Delta-12,14-prostaglandin J 2 ) production and involvement of LDs in 15-d-PGJ 2 biosynthesis were also investigated. Stimulation of murine macrophages with CB induced increased number of LDs and release of 15-d-PGJ 2 . LDs induced by CB were associated to PLIN2 recruitment and expression and required activation of PKC, PI3K, MEK1/2, JNK, iPLA 2 and PLD. Both 15-d-PGJ 2 and COX-1 were found in CB-induced LDs indicating that LDs contribute to the inhibitory effects of CB by acting as platform for synthesis of 15-d-PGJ 2 , a pro-resolving lipid mediator. Together, our data indicate that an immunomodulatory GIIA sPLA 2 can directly induce LD formation and production of a pro-resolving mediator in an inflammatory cell and afford new insights into the roles of LDs in resolution of inflammatory processes.

  4. Crovirin, a snake venom cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP with promising activity against Trypanosomes and Leishmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila M Adade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neglected human diseases caused by trypanosomatids are currently treated with toxic therapy with limited efficacy. In search for novel anti-trypanosomatid agents, we showed previously that the Crotalus viridis viridis (Cvv snake venom was active against infective forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Here, we describe the purification of crovirin, a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP from Cvv venom with promising activity against trypanosomes and Leishmania.Crude venom extract was loaded onto a reverse phase analytical (C8 column using a high performance liquid chromatographer. A linear gradient of water/acetonitrile with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid was used. The peak containing the isolated protein (confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry was collected and its protein content was measured. T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes, L. amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes and T. brucei rhodesiense procyclic and bloodstream trypomastigotes were challenged with crovirin, whose toxicity was tested against LLC-MK2 cells, peritoneal macrophages and isolated murine extensor digitorum longus muscle. We purified a single protein from Cvv venom corresponding, according to Nano-LC MS/MS sequencing, to a CRISP of 24,893.64 Da, henceforth referred to as crovirin. Human infective trypanosomatid forms, including intracellular amastigotes, were sensitive to crovirin, with low IC50 or LD50 values (1.10-2.38 µg/ml. A considerably higher concentration (20 µg/ml of crovirin was required to elicit only limited toxicity on mammalian cells.This is the first report of CRISP anti-protozoal activity, and suggests that other members of this family might have potential as drugs or drug leads for the development of novel agents against trypanosomatid-borne neglected diseases.

  5. Contrasting modes and tempos of venom expression evolution in two snake species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margres, Mark J; McGivern, James J; Seavy, Margaret; Wray, Kenneth P; Facente, Jack; Rokyta, Darin R

    2015-01-01

    Selection is predicted to drive diversification within species and lead to local adaptation, but understanding the mechanistic details underlying this process and thus the genetic basis of adaptive evolution requires the mapping of genotype to phenotype. Venom is complex and involves many genes, but the specialization of the venom gland toward toxin production allows specific transcripts to be correlated with specific toxic proteins, establishing a direct link from genotype to phenotype. To determine the extent of expression variation and identify the processes driving patterns of phenotypic diversity, we constructed genotype-phenotype maps and compared range-wide toxin-protein expression variation for two species of snake with nearly identical ranges: the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and the eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius). We detected significant expression variation in C. adamanteus, identified the specific loci associated with population differentiation, and found that loci expressed at all levels contributed to this divergence. Contrary to expectations, we found no expression variation in M. fulvius, suggesting that M. fulvius populations are not locally adapted. Our results not only linked expression variation at specific loci to divergence in a polygenic, complex trait but also have extensive conservation and biomedical implications. C. adamanteus is currently a candidate for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act, and the loss of any major population would result in the irrevocable loss of a unique venom phenotype. The lack of variation in M. fulvius has significant biomedical application because our data will assist in the development of effective antivenom for this species. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Full-Length Venom Protein cDNA Sequences from Venom-Derived mRNA: Exploring Compositional Variation and Adaptive Multigene Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modahl, Cassandra M; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-06-01

    Envenomation of humans by snakes is a complex and continuously evolving medical emergency, and treatment is made that much more difficult by the diverse biochemical composition of many venoms. Venomous snakes and their venoms also provide models for the study of molecular evolutionary processes leading to adaptation and genotype-phenotype relationships. To compare venom complexity and protein sequences, venom gland transcriptomes are assembled, which usually requires the sacrifice of snakes for tissue. However, toxin transcripts are also present in venoms, offering the possibility of obtaining cDNA sequences directly from venom. This study provides evidence that unknown full-length venom protein transcripts can be obtained from the venoms of multiple species from all major venomous snake families. These unknown venom protein cDNAs are obtained by the use of primers designed from conserved signal peptide sequences within each venom protein superfamily. This technique was used to assemble a partial venom gland transcriptome for the Middle American Rattlesnake (Crotalus simus tzabcan) by amplifying sequences for phospholipases A2, serine proteases, C-lectins, and metalloproteinases from within venom. Phospholipase A2 sequences were also recovered from the venoms of several rattlesnakes and an elapid snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus), and three-finger toxin sequences were recovered from multiple rear-fanged snake species, demonstrating that the three major clades of advanced snakes (Elapidae, Viperidae, Colubridae) have stable mRNA present in their venoms. These cDNA sequences from venom were then used to explore potential activities derived from protein sequence similarities and evolutionary histories within these large multigene superfamilies. Venom-derived sequences can also be used to aid in characterizing venoms that lack proteomic profiles and identify sequence characteristics indicating specific envenomation profiles. This approach, requiring only venom, provides

  7. Binding studies of the antitumoral radiopharmaceutical 125I-Crotoxin to Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Marina B.; Santos, Raquel G. dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Dias, Consuelo L. Fortes [Fundacao Ezequiel Dias (FUNED), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: consuelo@pq.cnpq.br; Cassali, Geovanni D. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Patologia Comparada], e-mail: cassalig@icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The development of tools for functional diagnostic imaging is mainly based on radiopharmaceuticals that specifically target membrane receptors. Crotoxin (Crtx), a polypeptide isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, has been shown to have an antitumoral activity and is a promising bioactive tracer for tumor detection. More specific radiopharmaceuticals are being studied to complement the techniques applied in the conventional medicine against breast cancer, the most frequent cause of death from malignant disease in women. Crtx's effect has been shown to be related with the overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), present in high levels in 30 to 60% of breast tumor cells. Our objective was to evaluate Crtx as a tracer for cancer diagnosis, investigating its properties as an EGFR-targeting agent. Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT cells) were used due to its origin and similar characteristics to breast tumor cells, specially the presence of EGFR. Crtx was labeled with 125I and binding experiments were performed. To evaluate the specific binding in vitro of Crtx, competition binding assay was carried out in the presence of increasing concentrations of non-labelled crotoxin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Specific binding of 125I-Crtx to EAT cells was determined and the binding was considered saturable, with approximately 70% of specificity, high affinity (Kd = 19.7 nM) and IC50 = 1.6 x 10-11 M. Our results indicate that Crtx's interaction with EAT cells is partially related with EGFR and increases the biotechnological potential of Crtx as a template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  8. Acções phylacticas não especificas em relação aos venenos ophidicos: tratamento auxiliar dos accidentes ophidicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vellard

    1929-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans l'intoxication expérimentale du pigeon avec les venins de Crotalus terrificus, de Lachesis jararaca et de Naya tripudians, nous avons étudié l'action de 12 médicaments, possédant des affinités neurotropes plus ou moins accusées, arrivant aux conclusions suivantes: 1 - Quelques-uns des ces médicaments exercent une action protectrice spéciale contre ces venins, permettant, injectés une heure avant le vénin, d'eviter tout symptôme d'intoxication chez le pigeon. Certains n'agissent qu'injectés em même temps que le vénin. D'autres sont complètement inactifs. Aucun d'êntre eux ne possède de propriétés curatives. 2 - En plus de ce pouvoir protecteur, ou phylactique, un certain nombre d'entre eux possède sur les venins, une action neutralisante "in vitro", s'accentuant après une heure de contact. 3 - Les conditions dans lesquelles s'exercent ces deux actions, protectrice et neutralisante, sont très variables suivant les venins et les médicaments. Sur leur mécanisme très complexe, on ne peut actuellement formuler que des hypothèses. 4 - Au point de vue pratique, certains de ces médicaments, surtout la spartéine et l'adrénaline, peuvent être utilisés avec avantage comme complément du traitement sérotérapique spécifique dans les accidents déterminés par les animaux venimeux.

  9. Study of crotoxin on the induction of paralysis in extraocular muscle in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the major toxin of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, capable of causing a blockade of the neurotransmitters at the neuromuscular junction. The objective of this study was to appraise the action and effectiveness of the crotoxin induced paralysis of the extraocular muscle and to compare its effects with the botulinum toxin type A (BT-A. METHODS: The crotoxin, with LD50 of 1.5 µg, was injected into the superior rectus muscle in ten New Zealand rabbits. The concentration variance was 0.015 up to 150 µg. Two rabbits received 2 units of botulinum toxin type A for comparative analysis. The evaluation of the paralysis was performed using serial electromyography. After the functional recovery of the muscles, which occurred after two months, six rabbits were sacrificed for anatomopathology study. RESULTS: The animals did not show any evidence of systemic toxicity. Transitory ptosis was observed in almost every animal and remained up to fourteen days. These toxins caused immediate blockade of the electrical potentials. The recovery was gradual in the average of one month with regeneration signs evident on the electromyography. The paralysis effect of the crotoxin on the muscle was proportional to its concentration. The changes with 1.5 µg crotoxin were similar to those produced by the botulinum toxin type A. The histopathology findings were localized to the site of the injection. No signs of muscle fiber's necrosis were seen in any sample. The alterations induced by crotoxin were also proportional to the concentration and similar to botulinum toxin type A in concentration of 1.5 µg. CONCLUSION: Crotoxin was able to induce transitory paralysis of the superior rectus muscle. This effect was characterized by reduction of action potentials and non-specific signs of fibrillation. Crotoxin, in concentration of 1.5 µg was able to induce similar effects as botulinum toxin type A.

  10. Landscape-level influences of terrestrial snake occupancy within the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, David A; McClure, Christopher J W; Brock, Jean C; Rudolph, D Craig; Pierce, Josh B; Lee, James R; Humphries, W Jeffrey; Gregory, Beau B; Sutton, William B; Smith, Lora L; Baxley, Danna L; Stevenson, Dirk J; Guyer, Craig

    2012-06-01

    Habitat loss and degradation are thought to be the primary drivers of species extirpations, but for many species we have little information regarding specific habitats that influence occupancy. Snakes are of conservation concern throughout North America, but effective management and conservation are hindered by a lack of basic natural history information and the small number of large-scale studies designed to assess general population trends. To address this information gap, we compiled detection/nondetection data for 13 large terrestrial species from 449 traps located across the southeastern United States, and we characterized the land cover surrounding each trap at multiple spatial scales (250-, 500-, and 1000-m buffers). We used occupancy modeling, while accounting for heterogeneity in detection probability, to identify habitat variables that were influential in determining the presence of a particular species. We evaluated 12 competing models for each species, representing various hypotheses pertaining to important habitat features for terrestrial snakes. Overall, considerable interspecific variation existed in important habitat variables and relevant spatial scales. For example, kingsnakes (Lampropeltis getula) were negatively associated with evergreen forests, whereas Louisiana pinesnake (Pituophis ruthveni) occupancy increased with increasing coverage of this forest type. Some species were positively associated with grassland and scrub/shrub (e.g., Slowinski's cornsnake, Elaphe slowinskii) whereas others, (e.g., copperhead, Agkistrodon contortrix, and eastern diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus adamanteus) were positively associated with forested habitats. Although the species that we studied may persist in varied landscapes other than those we identified as important, our data were collected in relatively undeveloped areas. Thus, our findings may be relevant when generating conservation plans or restoration goals. Maintaining or restoring landscapes that

  11. Management of Tissue Loss After Agkistrodon Snakebite: Appropriate Use of Crotalidae-Fab Antivenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kenneth W; Schaefer, Keith R; Austin, Cindy; Norton, Rhy; Finley, Phillip J

    2016-01-01

    Although initially created for the treatment of rattlesnake (genus: Crotalus) bites, Crotalidae-Fab antivenin is used to treat many different pit viper envenomations. However, the efficacy of Crotalidae-Fab in preventing tissue loss from copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) or cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) snakebites remains unclear. Recent reports show that Agkistrodon-related bites rarely require treatment beyond simple observation and pain control. The purpose of this study was to examine the amount of tissue loss in patients who received Crotalidae-Fab compared with those who did not after an Agkistrodon bite. After institutional review board approval, a retrospective study was completed at a Level 1 trauma center. Between 2009 and 2013, a total of 57 snakebites were identified. Of the 57 bites, the snake species was documented in 36 cases including 31 copperheads, 1 cottonmouth, and 4 rattlesnakes. The other 21 bites were from unknown or nonvenomous species. Of the 32 Agkistrodon-related bites, 15 patients received Crotalidae-Fab (average of 3 vials administered) and 17 did not receive Crotalidae-Fab. None of the 32 patients, regardless of treatment option, had tissue loss or required surgical interventions. Only 1 patient received Crotalidae-Fab and debridement of a vesicle associated with the bite. No clinically significant differences were observed between the groups. These findings support previous literature that failed to show added benefit of Crotalidae-Fab treatment for Agkistrodon bites beyond patient comfort and pain control. Evaluation of current protocols for Agkistrodon envenomations is warranted. Snakebite wound education in trauma physicians and nurses may decrease unnecessary use of antivenom medication.

  12. Epidemiology of accidents with poisonous animals registered in Nova Xavantina – MT

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    Vivian Tallita Pinheiro Santana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Accidents with poisonous animals are a public health problem in Brazil, especially in countryside cities. Updated regional information is important for the development of epidemiological surveillance activities. Through this research, we determined the epidemiological aspects of the cases registered in Nova Xavantina, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, from January 2007 to May 2013. Methods: This is a cross-sectional and descriptive epidemiological study. Results: In this period, 68 accidents occurred, of which 44 were caused by snakes, 19 by scorpions, and four by spiders. Most accidents with snakes were caused by the genera Bothrops (79.5%, Crotalus (11.5%, and Micrurus (2.3%. As for the victims, there was a prevalence of males (76.5%, aged between 30 and 49 years (41.2% of mixed race (72.1%, with basic education (55.9% involved in field activities, such as agriculture and livestock (41.2%.There was a predominance of accidents of moderate severity (48.5% and all serious cases were caused by snakes. In most injuries (75%, the relationship between the accidents and occupational activities was not recorded. The most affected body regions were the feet (39.7%, legs (20.6%, and hands (11.8%. The predominant local manifestations were pain, swelling, and bruising. The predominant systemic manifestations were hemorrhage, nausea and vomiting. Conclusion: The study period was characterized by the predominance of accidents involving snakes and male individuals in field activities and of moderate severity. Thus, educational campaigns and the adoption of preventive measures are essential to reduce the occurrence of these diseases in this city. KEYWORDS: Poisoning; snake bites; Scorpion Stings.

  13. Epidemiologia do acidente por serpentes peçonhentas: estudo de casos atendidos em 1988

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    Lindioneza Adriano Ribeiro

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados aspectos epidemiológicos de acidentes por serpentes peçonhentas no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com base em prontuários de 322 pacientes e em entrevistas feitas com 209 deles e/ou seus acompanhantes. Os acidentes ocorreram principalmente com pessoas de 10 a 20 anos de idade, do sexo masculino, nos meses de outubro a abril e no período diurno. As regiões anatômicas mais freqüentemente picadas foram os pés, as mãos e as pernas. Bothrops, Crotalus e Micrurus foram responsáveis por, respectivamente, 95,0%, 4,4% e 0,6% dos casos. Não ocorreram óbitos, mas 2,2% dos pacientes apresentaram seqüelas. Dentre os 209 entrevistados, a ocupação de lavrador foi a mais freqüentemente relacionada ao acidente que, em aproximadamente 60% das vezes, ocorreu durante o trabalho. O total de 160 pacientes (76,6% submeteram-se a alguma forma de tratamento antes de chegarem a um serviço de saúde: foram mais comuns o uso de torniquete (50,2%, a expressão local na tentativa de retirar parte do veneno (33,5%, a colocação das mais diversas substâncias sobre o local da picada (36,8% e a ingestão de outras (12,9%; pouco mais de um quarto dos pacientes submeteram-se a alguma forma de tratamento médico antes de chegar ao HVB sendo mais comum a antissepsia (8,2%, a administração do antiveneno (6,2%, de anti-histamínicos (5,7% e de analgésicos (5,3%.

  14. A rational design for the nanoencapsulation of poisonous animal venoms in liposomes prepared with natural phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Maria Helena Bueno; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo A; Quintilio, Wagner; Schwendener, Reto Albert; de Araujo, Pedro Soares

    2012-11-01

    Liposomes have been used since the 1970's to encapsulate drugs envisaging enhancement in efficacy and therapeutic index, avoidance of side effects and increase in the encapsulated agent stability. The major problem when encapsulating snake venoms is the liposomal membrane instability caused by venom phospholipases. Here the results obtained encapsulating Crotalus durissimus terrificus and a pool of Bothropic venoms within liposomes (LC and LB, respectively) used to produce anti-venom sera are presented. The strategy was to modify the immunization protocol to enhance antibody production and to minimize toxic effects by encapsulating inactivated venoms within stabilized liposomes. Chemically modified venoms were solubilized in a buffer containing an inhibitor and a chelating agent. The structures of the venoms were analyzed by UV, CD spectroscopy and ELISA. In spite of the differences in the helical content between natural and modified venoms, they were recognized by horse anti-sera. To maintain long-term stability, mannitol was used as a cryoprotectant. The encapsulation efficiencies were 59 % (LB) and 99 % (LC), as followed by filtration on Sephacryl S1000. Light scattering measurements led us to conclude that both, LB (119 ±47 nm) and LC (147±56 nm) were stable for 22 days at 4 °C, even after lyophilization. Genetically selected mice and mixed breed horses were immunized with these formulations. The animals did not show clinical symptoms of venom toxicity. Both, LB and LC enhanced by at least 30 % the antibody titers 25 days after injection and total IgG titers remained high 91 days after immunization. The liposomal formulation clearly exhibited adjuvant properties.

  15. Structural analysis of irradiated crotoxin by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina C. de; Fucase, Tamara M.; Silva, Ed Carlos S. e; Chagas, Bruno B.; Buchi, Alisson T.; Viala, Vincent L.; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: kcorleto@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite of their large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to attenuate the biological activity of animal toxins. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A{sub 2}. Previous data indicated that this protein, following irradiation process, undergoes unfolding and/or aggregation, resulting in a much lower toxic antigen. The exact mechanisms and structural modifications involved in aggregation process are not clear yet. This work investigates the effects of ionizing radiation on crotoxin employing Infrared Spectroscopy, Circular Dichroism and Dynamic Light Scattering techniques. The infrared spectrum of lyophilized crotoxin showed peaks corresponding to the vibrational spectra of the secondary structure of crotoxin, including β-sheet, random coil, α-helix and β-turns. We calculated the area of these spectral regions after adjusting for baseline and normalization using the amide I band (1590-1700 cm{sup -1}), obtaining the variation of secondary structures of the toxin following irradiation. The Circular Dichroism spectra of native and irradiated crotoxin suggests a conformational change within the molecule after the irradiation process. This data indicates structural changes between the samples, apparently from ordered conformation towards a random coil. The analyses by light scattering indicated that the irradiated crotoxin formed multimers with an average molecular radius 100 folds higher than the native toxin. (author)

  16. Estabilidade e estudo de penetração cutânea in vitro da rutina veiculada em uma emulsão cosmética através de um modelo de biomembrana alternativo Stability and in vitro penetration study of rutin incorporated in a cosmetic emulsion through an alternative model biomembrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rolim Baby

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A rutina é empregada como antioxidante e na prevenção da fragilidade capilar. Estudos de penetração in vitro através da pele humana seria a situação ideal, entretanto, há dificuldades de sua obtenção e manutenção de sua viabilidade. Entre os demais modelos de membrana, a muda de pele de cobra se apresenta como estrato córneo puro, fornecendo barreira similar ao humano e é obtida sem a morte do animal. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram desenvolver e avaliar a estabilidade de uma emulsão cosmética contendo rutina e, como promotor de penetração cutânea, o propilenoglicol; e avaliar a penetração e a retenção cutânea in vitro da referida substância ativa da formulação, empregando um modelo de biomembrana alternativo. A emulsão foi desenvolvida com rutina e propilenoglicol, ambos a 5,0% p/p. Quantificou-se a rutina das emulsões por espectrofotometria a 361,0 nm, método previamente validado. A penetração e retenção cutânea in vitro foram realizadas em células de difusão vertical com muda de pele de cobra de Crotalus durissus, como modelo de biomembrana alternativo, e água destilada e álcool etílico absoluto 99,5% (1:1, como fluido receptor. O experimento foi conduzido em um período de seis horas, a 37,0 ± 0,5 ºC e agitação constante de 300 rpm. Empregou-se o método espectrofotométrico validado a 410,0 nm para a quantificação da rutina após penetração e retenção cutânea. A emulsão não promoveu a penetração cutânea da rutina através da muda de pele de C. durissus, retendo 0,931 ± 0,0391 mg de rutina/mg de muda de pele de cobra. Nas condições de armazenamento a 25,0 ± 2,0 ºC; 5,0 ± 0,5 ºC e 45,0 ± 0,5 ºC, a emulsão apresentou-se quimicamente estável durante 30 dias. De acordo com os resultados, a emulsão não favoreceu a penetração cutânea da rutina, mas apenas sua retenção no estrato córneo de C. durissus, condição considerada estável no período de 30 dias.Rutin is