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Sample records for cascavel sul-americana crotalus

  1. Epidemiologia e quadro clínico do acidente por cascavel sul-americana (Crotalus durissus Epidemiology and clinical features of South American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus envenomation

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    Miguel Tanús Jorge

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 249 casos de acidentes por cascavel sul-americana (Crotalus durissus atendidos no HVB-IB, São Paulo, Brasil, de 1974 a 1990. Os acidentes foram mais comuns no período da tarde, nos meses de janeiro a abril e de outubro a dezembro. Dentre cem serpentes classificadas quanto à subespécie 99 eram C. d. terrificus. Pertenciam ao sexo masculino 80,7% dos pacientes. Os membros inferiores e superiores foram picados em, respectivamente, 66,4% e 29,2% dos casos. As manifestações clínicas mais freqüentes foram dor (61,0% e edema (55,0% no local da picada, ptose palpebral (75,9%, escurecimento da urina atribuível à mioglobinúria (38,6% e mialgia (36,1%. Nove pacientes foram submetidos a diálise devido a insuficiência renal aguda (3,6%, três apresentavam insuficiência respiratória que motivou intubação e/ou traqueostomia e um apresentou acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico. A alteração da coagulação sanguínea ocorreu em 48,1% dos pacientes. Oito amostras de sangue colhidas horas após a picada mostraram leucocitose sendo 6 com desvio a esquerda e, nos dias subseqüentes, tendência à normalização do número de leucócitos e aparecimento de eosinofilia. Atividade sérica da creatinoquinase apresentou-se aumentada em 20 dentre 21 pacientes, sendo maior no final das primeiras 24 horas após a picada, chegando a 2.377 vezes o valor de referência. A letalidade foi de 0,8%.Under study were two hundred and forty nine cases of accidents caused by South American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus admitted to the Vital Brasil Hospital, São Paulo, Brasil, from 1974 to 1990. The accidents were more common in the afternoon, from January to April and from October to December. Ninety nine out of 100 snakes classified as subspecies were C. d. terrificus. Most of the patients were males (80.7%. The inferior and superior limbs were bitten in 66.4% and 29.2% of the cases, respectively. The more frequent clinical manifestations were

  2. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento crotálico experimental em bovinos Clinical and pathological aspects of experimental Crotalus poisoning in cattle

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    Flávio A.S. Graça; Paulo V. Peixoto; Cleide D. Coelho; Saulo A. Caldas; Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2008-01-01

    Reproduziu-se experimentalmente o envenenamento crotálico, através da inoculação, por via subcutânea, do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel sul-americana) em dez bovinos mestiços. Dois animais foram utilizados como controle. O bovino que recebeu dose de 0,03mg/kg de peso corporal, morreu 7h40min após a inoculação. A dose de 0,015mg/kg causou a morte em quatro de sete bovinos inoculados, enquanto os dois animais que receberam 0,0075mg/kg adoeceram discretamente e se recuperaram. ...

  3. Perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel criadas em cativeiro Serum protein electrophoresis profile of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus kept in captivity

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    Joandes Henrique Fonteque

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As serpentes peçonhentas dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus têm sido mantidas em cativeiro visando à extração de venenos para a produção de imunobiológicos. O conhecimento da fisiologia desses animais e as alterações na concentração de proteínas e suas frações séricas são importantes para a identificação precoce de importantes enfermidades que cursam com estados de hipoproteinemia e hiperproteinemia. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a concentração de proteína total e o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel criadas em cativeiro. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue da veia coccígea ventral de 21 serpentes adultas e sadias, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 de 12 machos com peso médio de 588,89±193,55g, e Grupo 2 de nove fêmeas com peso médio de 708,33±194,04g. A proteína total sérica foi determinada pelo método de refratometria e a eletroforese em gel de agarose. Obtiveram-se valores da proteína total sérica (g/dL de 4,51±0,50 para machos e de 4,82±0,72 para fêmeas, e para machos e fêmeas de 4,64±0,61. Foram identificadas pela eletroforese quatro frações protéicas (g/dL: albumina, a, b, g-globulinas e calculada a relação albumina:globulina. As serpentes fêmeas apresentaram maiores valores para as variáveis, albumina e para a relação albumina/globulina (AG diferindo significativamente (PThe poisonous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Bothrops have been kept in captivity with the purpose of extracting poison for the production of immunobiological. Knowledge of the physiology of these animals and serum proteins concentration changes are important for early identification of major diseases which lead to states of hypoproteinemia and hyperproteinemia. The objective was to determine the concentration of total protein and serum protein electrophoresis profile of Crotalus durissus terrificus (rattlesnake in captivity. Blood samples were taken from

  4. Random amplified polymorphisms between two South American subspecies of rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus collilineatus and Crotalus durissus terrificus

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    Sergio Echeverrigaray

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work was made to determine the suitability of RAPD analysis for the identification of specimens of two subspecies of South American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus terrificus and Crotalus durissus collilineatus. The 11 arbitrary primer sequence tested amplified a total of 161 bands, of which 31% were polymorphics when compared with Crotalus specimens. The combining results from different primers allowed the identification of all the specimens under analysis. Several characteristic bands of each subspecies were identified. Dendrogram, based on RAPD markers, show three groups that corresponded to the subspecies of Crotalus, and to Bothrops jararaca specimen.O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido visando determinar a aplicabilidade da análise de RAPD na identificação de indivíduos pertencentes a duas sub-espécies de cascavéis sul-americanas (Crotalus durissus terrificus e Crotalus durissus collilineatus. As 11 sequências arbitrárias inicializadoras testadas nestes experimentos, amplificaram um total de 161 bandas, das quais 31% foram polimórficas na comparação entre espécimes de Cratalus. Os resultados combinados obtidos com as distintas sequências inicializadoras, permitiram a identificação de todos os indivíduos avaliados. Várias bandas características de cada sub-espécie foram identificadas. O dendrogama, baseado em marcaodres de RAPD, mostra tres grupos que correspondem às duas sub-espécies de Crotalus e ao especimen de Bothrops jararaca.

  5. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento crotálico experimental em bovinos Clinical and pathological aspects of experimental Crotalus poisoning in cattle

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    Flávio A.S. Graça

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproduziu-se experimentalmente o envenenamento crotálico, através da inoculação, por via subcutânea, do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel sul-americana em dez bovinos mestiços. Dois animais foram utilizados como controle. O bovino que recebeu dose de 0,03mg/kg de peso corporal, morreu 7h40min após a inoculação. A dose de 0,015mg/kg causou a morte em quatro de sete bovinos inoculados, enquanto os dois animais que receberam 0,0075mg/kg adoeceram discretamente e se recuperaram. Os sintomas tiveram início entre 1h30min e 13h45min após a inoculação. A evolução oscilou entre 5h25min e 45h para os animais que morreram e entre 33h15min e 17 dias entre os animais que se recuperaram. Os principais sinais nervosos observados foram diminuição da resposta aos estímulos externos, reflexos hipotônicos, arrastar dos cascos no solo, aparente apatia, paralisia do globo ocular e da língua, decúbito esternal e lateral. Verificaram-se também adipsia e, por vezes, petéquias nas mucosas vaginal e conjuntival. Houve discreto a moderado aumento do tempo de sangramento e moderado aumento do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada. Houve moderada leucocitose com neutrofilia, linfopenia relativa, eosinopenia, monocitose e discreto aumento do número de bastões. Foi evidenciado significativo aumento dos níveis séricos de creatinaquinase, contudo, não foram observadas alterações significativas através da urinálise. À necropsia constataram-se edema quase imperceptível no local da inoculação, discretas petéquias e sufusões no epicárdio, omento, vesícula biliar e mucosa da bexiga em alguns dos animais envenenados experimentalmente. Os exames histopatológicos revelaram necrose (hialinização de grupos de miócitos ou em miócitos isolados em dez diferentes músculos esqueléticos examinados, próximos ou distantes do local de inoculação em todos os animais necropsiados. Concluí-se que o envenenamento por Crotalus Sul-americanas

  6. Emprego da associação sulfametoxazol + trimetoprim no tratamento da paracoccidioidose (blastomicose Sul-Americana

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    P. N. Pedrosa

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Acentuando a necessidade da continuação das pesquisas terapêuticas em pacientes com paracoccidioidose (blastomicose sul-americana, os autores apresentam 23 pacientes submetidos a diferentes esquemas terapêuticos, sendo 14 virgens de tratamento e 9 com uso prévio de uma ou mais drogas. A associação sulfametoxazol + trimetoprim ( SMZ + TMP foi empregada em 5 pacientes virgens de tratamento e 9 sulfa-resistentes. Outros sete foram submetidos ao esquema clássico com sulfadoxina. Os pacientes que não responderam aos dois esquemas anteriores, com exceção de dois casos inicialmente graves, receberam anfotericina B. A avaliação clínica, radiológica, micológica e sorológica a longo prazo não demonstrou vantagens no emprego de SMZ + TMP em substituição aos sulfamídicos, nos pacientes virgens de tratamento. Entretanto, a associação SMZ + TMP parece ser uma opção válida nos casos sulfa-resistentes, onde teria primazia, considerando-se a toxicidade e necessidade de controle em regime hospitalar da anfotericina B. Ressaltam ainda a boa tolerância clínica e laboratorial da associação SMZ + TMP em cursos terapêuticos prolongados de até 2 anos, quando empregadas em baixas doses de manutenção.

  7. Dietas artificiais para a criação de larvas e adultos da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana

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    Adrise Medeiros Nunes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar as dietas artificiais para o desenvolvimento dos estágios de larva e adulto da mosca-das-frutas sul-americana (Anastrepha fraterculus. Para o estágio larval, foram testadas as seguintes dietas: D1, original, com 10 g de ágar; D2, modificada, com 3,6 g de ágar; e, D3, modificada, com bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar. Para os adultos, foram testadas quatro dietas: A, levedura de cerveja + mel (2:1; B, açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; C, extrato de soja + açúcar mascavo + gérmen de trigo cru (3:1:1; e D, levedura seca de cervejaria + mel (2:1. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros biológicos de duração do período ovo-pupa, duração e viabilidade do estágio de pupa, massa média de pupas, razão sexual e duração e viabilidade do período ovo-adulto. O desenvolvimento larval em D1 e D2 foi semelhante e indicou que a criação de larvas pode ser realizada com 1/3 da quantidade de ágar da utilizada em D1. A utilização do bagaço seco de cana-de-açúcar, na dieta artificial, afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento larval. As dietas artificiais com levedura de cerveja + mel e com açúcar refinado + extrato de levedura + gérmen de trigo cru são as mais adequadas para a criação de adultos.

  8. Avaliação do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil de Cascavel - PR Evaluation of the Child Psychosocial Care Center of Cascavel - PR

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    Ana Silvia Scandolara; Angela Rockenbach; Emerson Aparecido Sgarbossa; Lilian Rafaela Linke; Nelsi Salete Tonini

    2009-01-01

    Estudo relacionado à avaliação de serviços em saúde mental, neste caso, o Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil - CAPSi, do município de Cascavel-PR, serviço substitutivo implementado a partir da transformação da assistência psiquiátrica no Brasil. Objetivou avaliar qualitativamente o CAPSi. Os participantes foram 10 profissionais de saúde que atuam no CAPSi, sendo que os dados foram analisados sob a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC) (Lefèvre & Lefèvre, 2003). Como resultado, co...

  9. Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus)

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    C. F. S. Amaral; N. A. Rezende; T. M. G. Pedrosa; Da Silva, O A; E. R. P. Pedroso

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports two cases of afibrinogenemia with normal platelet count following Crotalus durissus terrificus, snake bite Both patients presented high output acute renal failure and case two also had increased blood levels of CPK and LDH compatible with the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Case one was given an unknown amount of antivenom and was treated with epsilonaminocaproic acid and a fresh whole blood transfusion and showed recovery of the coagulation disturbance 40 hours following thes...

  10. Projeto "Viver em Cascavel": análise do fluxo de informações Proyecto "Vivir en Cascavel": análisis del flujo de informaciones Project "To live in Cascavel": analysis of the information flow

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    Nelsi Salete Tonini Paiva

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo estimou e analisou o tempo (em dias do fluxo das Declarações de Nascidos Vivos (DNV de risco atendidos no Projeto "Viver em Cascavel"- Paraná, 1996 a 1998, segundo os espaços organizativos (hospital, vigilância epidemiológica, unidade básica de saúde. Foram analisadas 303 declarações. Para análise do tempo de fluxo da DNV, foram construídos intervalos de 95% de confiança para os tempos médios populacionais (em dias. Os resultados apontam que a DNV demorou para fluir do hospital até o momento de realização da visita domiciliária, de 25 a 30 dias. A atenção ao recém nascido de risco deve acontecer nos prazos mais breves possíveis. Nesse sentido, o tempo de fluxo da DNV encontrado neste estudo, do nascimento à visita domiciliária, pode comprometer um dos objetivos do Projeto em questão, qual seja, a redução da morbimortalidade infantil no município.El presente estudio estimó y analizó el tiempo (en días de flujo de los certificados de nacimiento de niños con riesgo, atendidos en el Proyecto "Vivir en Cascavel" - Paraná, 1996 hasta 1998, según los espacios organizacionales (hospital, vigilancia epidemiológica, unidad básica de salud. Fueron analizados 303 certificados. Para el análisis del tiempo de flujo del certificado fueron construidos intervalos de 95% de confianza para los tiempos medios poblacionales (en días. Los resultados muestran que el tiempo promedio de flujo es largo, entre 25 y 30 días. La atención al recién nacido de riesgo debe acontecer en plazos lo más breves posibles y, en este sentido, el tiempo de flujo del certificado, desde el nacimiento hasta la visita domiciliaria, puede estar comprometiendo uno de los objetivos del proyecto analizado, o sea, la reducción de la morbi-mortalidad infantil en el municipio.This study estimated and evaluated the time period (in days concerning the flow of Live Birth Declarations (DNV for high-risk newborns assisted by the Project

  11. Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus

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    C. F. S. Amaral

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two cases of afibrinogenemia with normal platelet count following Crotalus durissus terrificus, snake bite Both patients presented high output acute renal failure and case two also had increased blood levels of CPK and LDH compatible with the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Case one was given an unknown amount of antivenom and was treated with epsilonaminocaproic acid and a fresh whole blood transfusion and showed recovery of the coagulation disturbance 40 hours following these measures. Case two was given an adequate amount of crotalide antivenom and the coagulation tests performed 12 hours later showed a normal partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen 86 mg/100ml. Case one presented no haemorrhagic disturbances. Case two presented persistent bleeding following venopuncture and after removal of impetigo crust in the legs. Acute renal failure was treated conservatively and both patients were discharged from the hospital with recovery of the renal function.

  12. Avaliação do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil de Cascavel - PR Evaluation of the Child Psychosocial Care Center of Cascavel - PR

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    Ana Silvia Scandolara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo relacionado à avaliação de serviços em saúde mental, neste caso, o Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil - CAPSi, do município de Cascavel-PR, serviço substitutivo implementado a partir da transformação da assistência psiquiátrica no Brasil. Objetivou avaliar qualitativamente o CAPSi. Os participantes foram 10 profissionais de saúde que atuam no CAPSi, sendo que os dados foram analisados sob a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC (Lefèvre & Lefèvre, 2003. Como resultado, construíram-se 06 DSC e destacaram-se 12 temas geradores de significações: bom atendimento, estrutura física, recursos humanos, rede de serviços, acesso, referência, organização do serviço, família, atende as políticas de saúde mental, demanda, capacitação, redefinição de serviços, qualidade do serviço, papel do CAPSi e rotatividade de recursos humanos. Com base nos DSC o atendimento prestado no CAPSi é de boa qualidade, porém existem dificuldades de estrutura administrativa.This study is related to the evaluation of mental health services, in this case, the Child Psychosocial Care Center - (Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil - CAPSi, in the city of Cascavel-PR, that is a substitute service implemented from the transformation of the psychiatric assistance in Brazil. It objectified to evaluate CAPSi qualitatively. The participants have been 10 health professionals who act in CAPSi, and the data has been analyzed under the technique of the General Subject Speech ( Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo - DSC (Lefèvre & Lefèvre, 2003. As result, 06 DSC have been constructed and 12 meaning-generating themes have been distinguished: good attendance, physical structure, human resources, net of services, access, reference, organization of the service, family, respect for the mental health policies, demand, qualification, redefinition of services, quality of the service, role of the CAPSi and rotation of human resources. Based on the

  13. Toxins from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phospholipase A, crotapotin and crotamine were purified from the venom of crotalus durissus terrificus. Molecular weigths were respectively estimated in 13400, 8300 and 4880. By sephadex gel filtration, stable complex is formed by interaction (1:1 molar ratio) of Phospholipase A (LD=0,55mg/Kg, in mice) and crotapotin, obtaining an increase in the toxicity of Phospholipase A in 10 fold to LD50=0,05mg/Kg. These facts indicate crotoxin as a product of 1:1 molar ratio interaction of crotapotin and Phospholipase A. By sephadex gel filtration an unstable complex is formed by interaction of crotapotin and crotamine (LD50=0,8mg/Kg, in mice), increasing the toxicity of crotamine approximately 4 fold to LD50=0,2mg/Kg. In tritium-hydrogen exchange experiments, the back exchange kinetic of these tritium labelled proteins were measured in gel filtration columns of sephadex G 25 'coarse' showing for Phospholipase A two clearly distinguishable kinetic classes of exchangeable hydrogens. From the exchangeable hydrogens only 68% were rapidly exchanged and the occurrence of hydrogens envolved in alpha-helix was practically absent. Crotapotin has no hydrogens of alpha-helix and 83% of exchangeable hydrogens were rapidly exchanged with solvent. Crotamine, after a initial heating in tritiated water showed that 31% of exchangeable hydrogens were slowly exchanged with solvent. After 18 hours of heating, that number diminished for 11%. Crotoxin showed three exponential classes of exchangeable hydrogens and about 26 protons have alpha-helix characteristic exchange rate. A possible conformational change after Phospholipase A - crotapotin interaction is suggested. (Author)

  14. Irradiação global, direta e difusa, para a região de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná = Global, direct and diffuse irradiation in the region of Cascavel, Paraná State

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    Patricia Aparecida de Oliveira Drechmer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo sobre os níveis das irradiações global, direta e difusa incidentes na superfície terrestre, a irradiação incidente no topo da atmosfera e a insolação relativa mensal, para a cidade de Cascavel-PR. As componentes da radiação solar foram monitoradas entre janeiro de 2001 e fevereiro de 2003 na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Unioeste, Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Na medição da radiação global foi utilizado um piranômetro KIPP & ZONEN-CM3 e para medir a componente direta foiutilizado um pireliômetro EPPLEY-NIP acoplado a um rastreador solar. A radiação difusa foi calculada pela diferença entre as radiações global e direta. Os níveis médios mensais das irradiações global, direta e difusa, foram respectivamente, 51,8%, 31,7% e 20,17% dairradiação incidente no topo da atmosfera. O índice de insolação relativa apresentou valor máximo em agosto (61,43% e mínimo em fevereiro (34,35%, períodos caracterizados respectivamente por dias de céu limpo e nublados no hemisfério sul.This paper reports a study about the diffuse, direct and global radiation levels on surface of earth, the irradiation over the top of atmosphere and the monthly relative sunstroke in the city of Cascavel, State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The solar radiation components were monitored from January, 2001 to February, 2003 at Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica of Unioeste, Cascavel, Parana State. Global radiation was monitored by a pyranometer KIPP & ZONEN-CM3 and direct radiation was monitored by a pyrheliometer EPPLEY-NIP coupled to a solar tracer. The diffuse radiation wasmonitored through the difference between global and direct radiation. Monthly average levels of global, direct and diffuse irradiations were 51.8%, 31.7% and 20.17% of the irradiation in the top of atmosphere. The relative isolation index showed the maximum value in August (61.43% and the minimum in February (34.35%. These

  15. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom as a source of antitumoral agents

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    MA Soares; PB Pujatti; CL Fortes-Dias; Antonelli, L.; RG Santos

    2010-01-01

    The basic knowledge on neoplasms is increasing quickly; however, few advances have been achieved in clinical therapy against tumors. For this reason, the development of alternative drugs is relevant in the attempt to improve prognosis and to increase patients' survival. Snake venoms are natural sources of bioactive substances with therapeutic potential. The objective of this work was to identify and characterize the antitumoral effect of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CV) and its polypep...

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A poll of crotomine positive Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was dissolved in 0.15 M NaCl and the supernatant irradiated using 60CO. Doses of 100,250,750,1000,1500 and 2000 Cy were used at a dose rate of 1.190Gy/h. The presence of free SH, casein hydrolytic degradation, SDS-PAGE and molecular exclusion chromatography analysis together with LD50 determination in mice were studied. The antigenic properties of samples were investigated by immunodiffision and immunoprecipitation. (M.A.C.)

  17. Hidrometria aplicada: medição de vazão da seção 2 do rio Cascavel, Guarapuava (PR) / Applied hydrometry: outflow measurement of section 2 of Cascavel River, Guarapuava (PR, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Camargo Filho; Andreza Rocha de Freitas; Sebastião Celso Ferreira da Silva; Edilberto Leopolski de Souza; Eliza do Belém Tratz

    2009-01-01

    ResumoEste trabalho teve como objetivo a medição de vazão e sedimentação da seção 2 do rio Cascavel, localizada entre as coordenadas UTM 451241e 450665E e 7195853e 7194473N, Datum horizontal SAD69 Meridiano 51°W de Greenwich. Nesta seção foram efetuadas 28 medições e coletadas 84 amostras de material sedimentar, no período de março a setembro de 2005. Concluiu-se que o aumento da área molhada da seção esta associada aos períodos de maior precipitação, registrados nos meses maio, junho e setem...

  18. Hidrometria aplicada: medição de vazão da seção 2 do rio Cascavel, Guarapuava (PR / Applied hydrometry: outflow measurement of section 2 of Cascavel River, Guarapuava (PR, Brazil

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    Mauricio Camargo Filho

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEste trabalho teve como objetivo a medição de vazão e sedimentação da seção 2 do rio Cascavel, localizada entre as coordenadas UTM 451241e 450665E e 7195853e 7194473N, Datum horizontal SAD69 Meridiano 51°W de Greenwich. Nesta seção foram efetuadas 28 medições e coletadas 84 amostras de material sedimentar, no período de março a setembro de 2005. Concluiu-se que o aumento da área molhada da seção esta associada aos períodos de maior precipitação, registrados nos meses maio, junho e setembro e que, os maiores picos de sedimentação não foram proporcionais aos períodos de maior pluviosidade, sendo estes relacionados ao período pós-cheia do canal.AbstractThe research objective was to measure the outflow and sedimentation of section of the Cascavel River which is located between coordinates UTM 451241 and 450665 E, and 7195853 and 7194473 N, horizontal Datum SAD 69, Greenwich Meridian 51° W, where 28 measurements were carried on and 8 sediment samples were collected from March through September, 2005. It was found that the increase of the wet area of the section is associated with the seasons of abundant rain, registered in the months May, June and September. In addition, the greatest peaks of sedimentation were not proportional to the periods of greater rainfall, being related instead to the canal post-flooding period.

  19. Final Critical Habitat for the New Mexican ridge-nosed rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for New Mexican ridge-nosed rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus) occur based on...

  20. Anaphylatic reaction after Crotalus envenomation treatment in a dog: case report

    OpenAIRE

    L.G. Conceição; N. M. Argôlo Neto; Castro, A. P.; L. B. A. Faria; C.O. Fonterrada

    2007-01-01

    Crotalus envenomation is the second most frequent condition caused by venomous snakes attacking dogs and cats in Brazil. Affected animals show severe neurological and muscular involvement, lower motor neuron signs and myalgia due to extensive rabdomiolysis. The present case report is about Crotalus envenomation in a dog which showed severe clinical and laboratory abnormalities. After treatment with antivenom (specific antidote) and clinical support, the dog totally recovered from that condition.

  1. AVALIAÇÃO NUTRICIONAL DE PRATICANTES DE MUSCULAÇÃO COM OBJETIVO DE HIPERTROFIA MUSCULAR DO MUNICÍPIO DE CASCAVEL, PR

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Flávia Oliveira; Elis Carolina de Souza Fatel; Bruno Moreira Soares; Diogo Círico

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess diet and investigate the use of nutritional supplements and anabolic steroids in practicing workout. Eleven male gender individuals were evaluated for who practice workout with the objective of muscle hypertrophy of the municipality of Cascavel – Paraná. The dietary evaluation was carried out through dietary investigators. The micronutrients intake, macronutrients and dietary fibers were analyzed according to the Recommended Dietary Allowances. It was collected info...

  2. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae) in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernaki-Leffer, A M; Almeida, L M; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Anjos, A; Vogado, K M

    2007-05-01

    Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22) for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter and of the poultry house was measured at the same locations of the tube traps. Beetle numbers increased continuously throughout all the sampling dates (average 5,137 in the first week and 18,494 insects on the sixth week). Significantly greater numbers of larvae were collected than adults (1 to 20 times in 95% of the sampling points). There was no correlation between temperature and the number of larvae and adults collected, therefore no fluctuation was observed during the sampling period. The population growth was correlated to litter re-use. The highest temperatures were observed in deep litter. The spatial distribution of larvae and adults in the poultry house was heterogeneous during the whole period of evaluation. Results suggest that monitoring in poultry houses is necessary prior to adopting and evaluating control measures due to the great variability of the insect distribution in the poultry house. PMID:17876430

  3. Avaliação socioeconômica e de fatores que levam a violência com detentos de Cascavel/PR Evaluación socio-económica y de factores que levan a la violencia com detenidos de Cascavel/PR Socioeconomic and factor evaluation that lead to violence with inmates of Cascavel/PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Eugênio Armani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A violência não é caracterizada apenas por sequestros, roubos, assaltos, mas também por se destruir a identidade social, cultural e econômica de um povo. A violência aprisiona a capacidade de um país evoluir, porque coloca seus jovens no mundo das drogas, da prostituição, do analfabetismo, enfim na marginalização social, pois todo o desenvolvimento de um povo só acontece graças a uma evolução social, cultural, econômica, psíquica e biológica, que é ditada principalmente pela educação empregada nas escolas. Baseado nisto este trabalho analisou as características sociais, educacionais e econômicas de sujeitos entre 18 e 60 anos que se encontram em cárcere privado na cidade de Cascavel/PR. Através da aplicação de um questionário com perguntas e respostas objetivas, que a partir do seu preenchimento forneceu ideia de quais são os possíveis fatores geradores de violência, com a pesquisa sendo realizada diretamente com os detentos. Foi constatado que há problema educacional, social e econômico com os detentos cascavelenses, porque os mesmos possuem pouca escolaridade, sofrem com desemprego, baixa renda, entre outros problemas, que influenciam a entrada para a criminalidade.La violencia no sólo se caracteriza por los secuestros, robos, asaltos, sino también por la destrucción de la identidad social, cultural y económica de las personas. La violencia aprisiona la capacidad de un país evolucionar por que coloca sus jóvenes en el mundo de las drogas, de la prostitución, del analfabetismo, en fin en la marginalización social, pues todo el desarrollo de un pueblo sólo pasa a través de la evolución social, cultural, económica, psicológica y biológica, que es dictada principalmente por la educación en las escuelas. Este trabajo analizó las características sociales, educacionales y económicas de sujetos entre 18 y 60 años que están en una casa de detención en la ciudad de Cascavel/PR. Mediante la aplicaci

  4. Eficiência de um conjunto fotovoltaico em condições reais de trabalho na região de Cascavel = Efficiency of the photovoltaic systems under real work conditions on region of Cascavel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estor Gnoatto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foi desenvolvido um estudo sobre um sistemafotovoltaico autônomo, com armazenamento de energia, instalado na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Campus Cascavel, a uma Latitude 24º59’ Sul, Longitude de 53º26’ Oeste, com altitude de 682 m, em condições reaisde campo, durante o ano de 2002. Foi avaliada a eficiência dos painéis fotovoltaicos em condições reais de campo, sua curva característica foi determinada utilizando, na aquisição de dados, um micrologger da Campbell Scientific-Inc, modelo CR10X, programado pararealizar uma leitura por segundo de cada canal e armazenar a média aritmética de 5 minutos dos dados das componentes de radiação solar global no plano horizontal e global na incidência do painel; temperatura ambiente e temperatura de operação do painel; tensão ecorrente do sistema fotovoltaico. Os resultados mostram que a eficiência média mensal registrou valores na faixa de 8,65 a 9,17%, com uma média de 8,84%, com variação percentual entre o índice máximo e mínimo de 5,67%. Pode, assim, representar fornecimento médio mensal de energia de 5,57 kWh por painel.The purpose of the present work was to develop a study of anautonomous photovoltaic system, with energy storage, installed at the Experimental Agrometeorological Station of the Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel Campus, located at 24º59’S 53º26’W, 682 meters of altitude, under real field conditions, during the year of 2002. The efficiency of the photovoltaic modules was evaluated underreal field conditions and its characteristic linear fit was determined. A Campbell Scientific CR10X micrologger was used to acquire data, programmed to conduct one reading per second from each channel and store the five-minute arithmetic data average from thereadings of the incidence of global direct solar radiation horizontal and global on the panel, as well as area

  5. Formas de uso medicinal da babosa e camomila pela população urbana de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná = Medicinal use of the Aloe and Chamomile for the urban population of Cascavel, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tatiana Araujo da Cruz-Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A etnobotânica se caracteriza por buscar entender a relação entre as plantas e o homem, podendo-se através desta conhecer a utilização das plantas medicinais como forma de tratamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento sobre as formas de utilização da Babosa (Aloe vera L. e da Camomila (Matricaria chamomilla L.. A coleta de dados envolveu entrevistas de forma aleatória a 400 pessoas, através de um questionário semi-estruturado, no município de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Observou-se que 65% da população utilizam à babosa ou a camomila na cura ou alívio de doenças. A maioria dosentrevistados possui renda de 2 a 4 salários mínimos (60,25%, idade entre 28 a 38 anos (30,75%, tendo concluído o ensino médio (33,75%. O principal motivo pelo qual a população se utiliza de plantas medicinais é por ser natural (71,84%. A forma de preparo mais freqüente da camomila foi por infusão (63,38%, utilizando as flores (92%. Para a babosa 100% utilizam suas folhas na forma de cataplasma (43,88%. Apenas 3% da população relataram ter apresentado algum tipo de reação adversa, durante o período de utilização. Conclui-se que o uso destas plantas pela população é freqüente, sendo um recurso adicional ao uso de medicamentos.The ethnobotany, which is characterized by look for to understand the relationship between the plants and the man, being been able through this to know the use of the medicinal plants as treatment. The objective of this work was to accomplish a rising on the forms of use of the Aloe (Aloe vera L. and of the Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.. The collection of data involved interviews in a random way to a sample of 400 people through a semi-structured questionnaire, in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State. It was observed that 65% of the population use to aloe or the chamomile in the cure or relief of diseases. Most of the interviewees possesses income from 2 to 4 minimum wages (60.25%, age

  6. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom as a source of antitumoral agents

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    MA Soares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic knowledge on neoplasms is increasing quickly; however, few advances have been achieved in clinical therapy against tumors. For this reason, the development of alternative drugs is relevant in the attempt to improve prognosis and to increase patients' survival. Snake venoms are natural sources of bioactive substances with therapeutic potential. The objective of this work was to identify and characterize the antitumoral effect of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CV and its polypeptide, crotoxin, on benign and malignant tumors, respectively, pituitary adenoma and glioblastoma. The results demonstrated that CV possess a powerful antitumoral effect on benign (pituitary adenoma and malignant (glioblastoma multiforme tumors with IC50 values of 0.96 ± 0.11 µg/mL and 2.15 ± 0.2 µg/mL, respectively. This antitumoral effect is cell-cycle-specific and dependent on extracellular calcium, an important factor for crotoxin phospholipase A2 activity. The CV antitumoral effect can be ascribed, at least partially, to the polypeptide crotoxin that also induced brain tumor cell death. In spite of the known CV nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity, acute treatment with its antitumoral dose established in vitro was not found to be toxic to the analyzed animals. These results indicate the biotechnological potential of CV as a source of pharmaceutical templates for cancer therapy.

  7. Diet of Crotalus lepidus klauberi (Banded Rock Rattlesnake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holycross, A.T.; Painter, C.W.; Prival, D.B.; Swann, D.E.; Schroff, M.J.; Edwards, T.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the diet of Crotalus lepidus klauberi (Banded Rock Rattlesnake) using samples collected in the field and from museum specimens, as well as several records from unpublished reports. Most records (approximately 91%) were from the northern Sierra Madrean Archipelago. Diet consisted of 55.4% lizards, 28.3% scolopendromorph centipedes, 13.8% mammals, 1.9% birds, and 0.6% snakes. Sceloporus spp. comprised 92.4% of lizards. Extrapolation suggests that Sceloporus jarrovii represents 82.3% of lizard records. Diet was independent of geographic distribution (mountain range), sex, source of sample (stomach vs. intestine/feces), and age class. However, predator snout-vent length differed significantly among prey types; snakes that ate birds were longest, followed in turn by those that ate mammals, lizards, and centipedes. Collection date also differed significantly among prey classes; the mean date for centipede records was later than the mean date for squamate, bird, or mammal records. We found no difference in the elevation of collection sites among prey classes.

  8. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild animals living in the Cascavel city park, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Snak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digestive and respiratory tracts parasite’s protozoan, Cryptosporidium spp. now-a-days is a major zoonotic agent, it causes self-limiting diarrhea, remaining in the body passively until the moment immune system decreases, leading to an increase in its multiplication in the mucosa and appearance of clinical signs. As there are few studies on cryptosporidiosis in wild free-living and captive animals, especially in Brazil, this study aimed to identify the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of captive animals in Cascavel, PR Municipal Zoo. Between 2011 and 2012 there have been four collections of bird feces and five mammalian feces totaling 65 and 118 samples respectively. Samples were sent to the laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Federal University of Parana. The feces were diluted, centrifuged and the pellets were used to make blades which were stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen modified method and observed under a microscope with 1000X magnification. Then the blades containing the oocysts were observed under a capture microscope, where they were measured. Mammals showed 49.15% and birds 44.61% of positivity. Oocysts’ sizes ranged from 3,54?m to 5,81?m with an average of 4,32?m for birds and 3,11?m to 5,60?m averaging 4,63?m to mammals. As of yet, there isn’t effective treatment against this parasite and considering that it’s a zoonotic disease, preventive measures should be taken to prevent transmission to humans.

  9. DSC analysis of irradiated proteins from Crotalus durissus terrificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. It is known that ionizing radiation effects - direct and indirect - can modify the molecular structure, affecting the biological properties of proteins. Ionizing radiation has been employed to attenuate the toxicity of snake venoms, aiming to generate an improved antigen with low toxicity. Two proteins, purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom were tested in this work: crotoxin and crotamine. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound of Cdt venom, is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A2. Crotamine is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed to investigate the effects of radiation on crotoxin and crotamine using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). After isolation of the toxins by chromatographic techniques, they were irradiated with 2.0 kGy from 60Co source. The thermodynamics analysis, carried out in a METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e calorimeter, showed that irradiation promoted changes of the calorimetric profile. These changes suggest that, although radiation induced structural modifications of the protein, denaturation was only partial, since transition states could still be detected, suggesting that some structural elements were still present after irradiation. Taken together, our data suggest that following irradiation, the molecules underwent conformational changes, and that the remaining structural elements displayed a lower enthalpy, clearly indicating that the previously described loss of toxicity of irradiated toxins can be mostly ascribed to structural changes. (author)

  10. DSC analysis of irradiated proteins from Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Silva, Monica Nascimento da; Goncalves, Karina de Oliveira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. It is known that ionizing radiation effects - direct and indirect - can modify the molecular structure, affecting the biological properties of proteins. Ionizing radiation has been employed to attenuate the toxicity of snake venoms, aiming to generate an improved antigen with low toxicity. Two proteins, purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom were tested in this work: crotoxin and crotamine. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound of Cdt venom, is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A2. Crotamine is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed to investigate the effects of radiation on crotoxin and crotamine using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). After isolation of the toxins by chromatographic techniques, they were irradiated with 2.0 kGy from {sup 60}Co source. The thermodynamics analysis, carried out in a METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e calorimeter, showed that irradiation promoted changes of the calorimetric profile. These changes suggest that, although radiation induced structural modifications of the protein, denaturation was only partial, since transition states could still be detected, suggesting that some structural elements were still present after irradiation. Taken together, our data suggest that following irradiation, the molecules underwent conformational changes, and that the remaining structural elements displayed a lower enthalpy, clearly indicating that the previously described loss of toxicity of irradiated toxins can be mostly ascribed to structural changes

  11. Body size evolution in insular speckled rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Meik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii inhabit multiple islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two of the 14 known insular populations have been recognized as subspecies based primarily on body size divergence from putative mainland ancestral populations; however, a survey of body size variation from other islands occupied by these snakes has not been previously reported. We examined body size variation between island and mainland speckled rattlesnakes, and the relationship between body size and various island physical variables among 12 island populations. We also examined relative head size among giant, dwarfed, and mainland speckled rattlesnakes to determine whether allometric differences conformed to predictions of gape size (and indirectly body size evolving in response to shifts in prey size. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Insular speckled rattlesnakes show considerable variation in body size when compared to mainland source subspecies. In addition to previously known instances of gigantism on Angel de la Guarda and dwarfism on El Muerto, various degrees of body size decrease have occurred frequently in this taxon, with dwarfed rattlesnakes occurring mostly on small, recently isolated, land-bridge islands. Regression models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC showed that mean SVL of insular populations was most strongly correlated with island area, suggesting the influence of selection for different body size optima for islands of different size. Allometric differences in head size of giant and dwarf rattlesnakes revealed patterns consistent with shifts to larger and smaller prey, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provide the first example of a clear relationship between body size and island area in a squamate reptile species; among vertebrates this pattern has been previously documented in few insular mammals. This finding suggests that selection for body size is influenced by changes in

  12. Características dos doadores de córneas do Banco de Olhos de Cascavel: impacto do exame anti-HBc para hepatite B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Nobuo Shiratori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Traçar o perfil dos doadores de tecidos oculares humanos na região de atuação do Banco de Olhos de Cascavel - Paraná (PR e verificar o impacto da positividade da sorologia positiva para hepatite B (anti-HBc no descartes dos tecidos oculares. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal de dados do Banco de Olhos de Cascavel do período de março de 2006 a abril de 2007. Informações como idade, sexo, causa de óbito, tempo entre óbito e enucleação e resultados sorológicos de doadores foram coletadas. Dados foram agrupados para caracterização da população de estudo e distribuídos segundo positividade da sorologia para hepatite B (anti-HBc. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos doadores foi de 54,2 ± 20,6 anos e a maioria era do sexo masculino (64,7%. Tempo médio entre óbito e enucleação foi de 3,8 ± 2,4 horas, a principal causa de óbito foram doenças cardiovasculares (34,5%. Positividade para os marcadores anti-HBc e HBsAg foi de 47,4% e 1,5%, respectivamente, sendo os exames sorológicos para hepatite B a maior causa de descarte dos tecidos oculares doados. Doadores com sorologia positiva para anti-HBc apresentaram maior média de idade comparados com doadores com sorologia negativa (p<0,001. Somente 0,8% das doações apresentaram sorologia positiva para hepatite C. Não houve doações com sorologia para HIV positiva no período do estudo. CONCLUSÕES: Implementação do Banco de Olhos de Cascavel aumentou significativamente a disponibilização de córneas para transplante no Estado do Paraná. A principal contraindicação para disponibilização de tecidos oculares foi a positividade na sorologia para anti-HBc. Estudos de biosegurança devem ser realizados a fim de investigar o potencial de transmissão da hepatite B de doadores positivos para esse marcador. A inclusão desses doadores como doações efetivas acarretaria maior disponibilização de tecidos para transplantes.

  13. Histopathological evaluation in experimental envenomation of dogs with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sangiorgio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated histopathological aspects in experimental envenomation of dogs with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Twenty-eight mixed breed adult dogs were divided into three groups of seven animals each: Group I - only venom; Group II - venom + 50ml antiophidic serum + fluid therapy; Group III - venom + 50ml antiophidic serum + fluid therapy + urine alkalization. Lyophilized venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was reconstituted in saline solution and inoculated subcutaneously at the dose of 1mg/kg body weight. Three animals of each group were subjected to euthanasia, and their muscular tissue, brain, spleen, kidneys, heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestines, and popliteal lymph node fragments were collected for histopathological evaluation. There was myonecrosis in the inoculated limb, renal tubular degeneration, lymphoid hyperplasia of spleen, and unspecific reactive hepatitis. These results show the antigenicity and action of the venom on the immune system.

  14. ACUTE-PHASE REACTIONS, INCLUDING CYTOKINES, IN PATIENTS BITTEN BY BOTHROPS AND CROTALUS SNAKES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. BARRAVIERA

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one patients bitten by venomous snakes in Botucatu area (State of São Paulo - Brazil, sixteen by Bothrops spp. and fifteen by Crotalus durissus terrificus, were studied. The group comprised twenty-nine males and two females, ranging from fourteen to sixty-three years of age (mean 33 ± 15. Leukocytosis with neutrophilia and lymphopenia, increase of mucoproteins and C-reactive protein, decrease of total serum protein and albumin, were observed on the first day after the accident. In addition, increased serum levels of the cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, but not of IL-1b and TNF-a, were observed. The alterations were generally more intense in patients bitten by Crotalus durissus terrificus than by Bothrops spp. It is concluded that these snakebite envenomations closely resemble an acute trauma, inducing a typical acute-phase response.

  15. Sensitivity to thermal stimulation in prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) after bilateral anesthetization of the facial pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiszar, D.; Dickman, D.; Colton, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six yearling prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) were exposed to thermal stimuli prior to and after bilateral anesthetization of their facial pits with 2% xylocaine solution. This treatment eliminates trigeminally mediated electrophysiological responses of the pits to thermal stimulation. Nevertheless, the rattlesnakes continued to exhibit behavioral responses to thermal cues after anesthetization of the pits. An auxiliary infrared-sensitive system, nociceptors, or the common temperature sense could be responsible for these findings.

  16. Functional and structural analysis of two fibrinogen-activating enzymes isolated from the venoms of Crotalus durissus terrificus and Crotalus durissus collilineatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniela G.L.de Oliveira; Mário T.Murakami; Adelia C.O.Cintra; Jo(a)o J.Franco; Suely V.Sampaio; Raghuvir K.Arni

    2009-01-01

    Fibrinogen-activating enzymes,widely distributed in Crotalidae and Viperidae venoms,are single-chain glycosylated serine proteases that display high macromolecular selectivity and are often referred to as thrombin-like enzymes(TLEs).TLEs serve as structural models to extend our understanding of the structure-function relationships of blood coagulation factors,have been clinically used for the treatment of thrombotic diseases,and are used as tools in clinical assays.The combination of gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography proved to be successful in obtaining milligram quantities of pure samples of TLEs from the venoms of Crotalus durissus terrificus(white venom)and Crotalus durissus collilineatus(yellow venom).Functional characterization indicates that both enzymes preferentially degrade the Bβ chain of bovine fibrinogen and possess edema-inducing and coagulant activities.However,the TLE from C.d.collilineatus venom shows twofold higher coagulant activity with a minimum coagulant dose(MCD)of 0.6 μg/μl,whereas the enzyme isolated from C.d terrificus indicated an MCD of 1.5μg/μl.Molecular modeling of gyroxin and structural comparisons with other highly conserved snake venom serine proteases,underlines the key role played by the surface charge distribution and the double insertion in the 174-surface loop in macromolecular substrate recognition by TLEs.

  17. South American energy integration: new perspectives; Novas perspectivas para a integracao energetica sul-americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Malhaes da [Malhaes da Silva Consultoria Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salomao, Luiz Alfredo [Universidade Candido Mendes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Politicas Publicas e Governo

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyses the South American energy integration, the advantages related to this process as well as the existing obstacles . What is the scope in terms of projects and initiatives, and the role of political and institutional barriers to be overcome. (author)

  18. Purification and radiodination of gyroxin, toxin like trombin, of crotalus durissus terrificus venom; Purificacao e radioiodacao da giroxina (toxina semelhante a trombina) do veneno de crotalus durissus terrificus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camillo, Maria A.P.; Paes, Paulo C.A.; Ribela, Maria T.C.P.; Rogero, Jose R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Snake`s venoms have attracted special interest in research because they are rich in bioactive compounds, which are scientific tools to study many physiological processes and are also important source of new therapeutic agents. Some thrombin-like enzymes are used as a reagent in laboratorial assays as well as in medical drugs. However, a neurotoxic syndrome called gyroxin syndrome or barrel rotation seems to be related to those enzymes. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies of these toxins can contribute to clarifly this mechanisms and consequently, it will help to elaborate safer clinical prescriptions giving more information about possible nocive effects. This paper describes the first step of these studies with the thrombin-like enzyme (or gyroxin) from Crotalus durissus terrificus`s venom. The purification and radioiodination methods as well as electrophoretic analysis and biological assay are presented. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. ACUTE-PHASE REACTIONS, INCLUDING CYTOKINES, IN PATIENTS BITTEN BY BOTHROPS AND CROTALUS SNAKES IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    B. Barraviera; B. Lomonte; Tarkowski, A; L. Å. HANSON; D. A. Meira

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-one patients bitten by venomous snakes in Botucatu area (State of São Paulo - Brazil), sixteen by Bothrops spp. and fifteen by Crotalus durissus terrificus, were studied. The group comprised twenty-nine males and two females, ranging from fourteen to sixty-three years of age (mean 33 ± 15). Leukocytosis with neutrophilia and lymphopenia, increase of mucoproteins and C-reactive protein, decrease of total serum protein and albumin, were observed on the first day after the accident. In ad...

  20. Avaliação farmacognóstica e microbiológica da droga vegetal camomila (Chamomilla recutita L. comercializada como alimento em Cascavel - Paraná Pharmacognostic and microbiological evaluation of the medicinal plant chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. commercialized as food in Cascavel Municipality, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.R Lucca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais, dentre elas a camomila, têm sido muito utilizadas na forma de droga vegetal pela população em geral, como importantes alternativas alimentícias e terapêuticas. Considerando que a fiscalização sanitária destes produtos é precária, este quadro torna-se preocupante, visto que, um produto em condições inadequadas para consumo pode acarretar vários riscos ao consumidor. Diante disso, este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar avaliação farmacognóstica e microbiológica em quinze amostras de chá de camomila comercializadas na cidade de Cascavel, Paraná. A metodologia adotada para a realização dos testes foi a preconizada pela Farmacopéia Brasileira (1988, 1996, 1998. O estudo de autenticidade revelou que todas as amostras eram constituídas por Chamomilla recutita L., porém na maioria das amostras os capítulos florais apresentavam-se excessivamente destruídos. Seis amostras apresentaram teor de materiais estranhos acima de 5%. Quanto ao doseamento de óleo essencial, todas as amostras foram insatisfatórias, visto que, apresentaram apenas traços de óleos essenciais, ou seja, valores abaixo de 0,4%, sendo este valor o mínimo exigido pela Farmacopéia. Com relação às análises de bolores e leveduras foi verificado que quatro amostras apresentaram valores acima do limite de 10(4 UFC mL-1, conforme preconizado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. A partir dos dados obtidos concluiu-se que a camomila comercializada na cidade de Cascavel - Paraná apresenta problemas com relação à qualidade, sendo necessário definir medidas adequadas de controle higiênico sanitário ao longo da cadeia de produção, para garantir a qualidade e segurança destes produtos.Medicinal plants, including chamomile, have been largely used by the general population as important food and therapeutic alternatives. Considering that the sanitary control of such products is precarious, this situation becomes worrisome since a

  1. Estimativa da irradiação solar global com partição mensal e sazonal para a região de Cascavel - PR Evaluation of global solar irradiation with sazonal and monthly partition for the area of Cascavel - PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania I. Valiati

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, mostram-se equações de estimativa da irradiação solar global (R G, por meio do modelo de Angstrom, com partições sazonal e mensal para a região de Cascavel - PR. Os dados experimentais foram cedidos pelo IAPAR, coletados na sua estação meteorológica localizada na COODETEC/Cascavel - PR, no período de 1983 a 1998. Dos 16 anos de dados, 12 anos foram utilizados para cálculo dos coeficientes (a e b e quatro anos para a validação das equações. Os coeficientes de determinação encontrados foram superiores a 80% para as duas partições. O mínimo da R G é superestimado e o máximo é subestimado quando comparados com o mínimo e o máximo para dados reais, sendo esses encontrados no solstício de inverno e equinócio de primavera, respectivamente. A variação sazonal e mensal do coeficiente "a" foi menor (0,16 a 0,19 e 0,14 a 0,21 e do coeficiente "b" maior (0,34 a 0,43 e 0,32 a 0,44. As maiores variações dos erros médios diários ocorreram no equinócio de primavera (-19,45% a 27,28% e as menores no equinócio de outono (-11,32% a 10,61%. O ajuste mais eficaz das equações foi encontrado para a partição mensal.This research shows equations of evaluation of global solar irradiation (GR through Angstrom's model with seasonal monthly partitions for the region of Cascavel -PR, Brazil. The experimental data were given by IAPAR and collected in its meteorological station located in COODETEC/Cascavel - PR, Brazil, from 1983 to 1998. Twelve of the sixteen years of data were used for calculation of the coefficients (a and b and four years for the validation of the equations. The determination coefficients found were superior to 80% for both partitions. The minimum (GR is overestimated and the maximum is underestimated when compared to the minimum and maximum for real data, been these found in the winter solstice and spring equinox, respectively. The seasonal and monthly variation of the coefficient "a" was lower

  2. AVALIAÇÃO NUTRICIONAL DE PRATICANTES DE MUSCULAÇÃO COM OBJETIVO DE HIPERTROFIA MUSCULAR DO MUNICÍPIO DE CASCAVEL, PR

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    Ana Flávia de Oliveira1

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess diet and investigate the use of nutritional supplements and anabolic steroids in practicing workout. Eleven male gender individuals were evaluated for who practice workout with the objective of muscle hypertrophy of the municipality of Cascavel – Paraná. The dietary evaluation was carried out through dietary investigators. The micronutrients intake, macronutrients and dietary fibers were analyzed according to the Recommended Dietary Allowances. It was collected information about the use of nutritional supplements and anabolic steroids. In regard to the nutritional orientation only four (36.4% individuals have received this type of service. Regarding the use of food supplements, five (45.5% make use, and cited seven different types. Regarding the use of anabolic steroids three of the individuals (27.3% reported using or have already made use Eight (72.7% had energy consumption more than 3000 kcal/d and the average of micronutrients intake presented a non balanced diet, low in carbohydrates (40.2 ± 8.4% and high in fat (36.0 ± 5.9%. Through this study, it was observed that the individuals evaluated are conscious about the appropriate food to obtain muscle hypertrophy, there is erroneous eating habits, indicating possible risks to health in the long term and even decrease in athletic performance.

  3. Studies of agregates produced during venom irradiation of Crotalus durissus terrificus with gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature data show that 2.0 kGy dose of gamma radiation, generated by 60 Co source, reduces the toxic activity of Crotalus durissus terrificus venon, without altering its immunogenic capacity. When crotoxin, main toxin from crotalic venom, was irradiated with the same dose, toxicity was laos reduced and the immunogenicity was maintained. This fact was attributed to aggregates(compounds with high molecular weight generated during irradiation), that showed no toxicity but were able to induce the antibodies formation against native venom. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradied with 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy doses and submitted to molecular exclusion chromatography, in order to find an efficient dose that produces large amounts of non toxic but still immunogeneic aggregates. After being isolated, the products of irradiation were evaluated for the amount produced, molecular ateration, and toxic and immunogenic activities. The results from different doses irradiated venom were compared with native one, and 2.0 kGg dose was confirmed to be most efficient in the association of toxicity attenuation with maintenance of immunogenicity of the crotalic venom, while other doses, in spite of being efficient in the toxicity attenuation, they were not able to keep the immunogenicity property. So, the dose of 2.0 kGy could be used to immunize animals in order to improve anticrotalic sera production. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  4. EFFECT OF Crotalus durissus terrificus (LAURENTI, 1768 VENOM ON THE EVOLUTION OF EHRLICH ASCITES TUMOR

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    R. J. DA SILVA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Crotalus durissus terrificus (LAURENTI, 1768 venom on the evolution of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was evaluated. Thus, 30-day-old male mice of the Swiss strain were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1x10 tumor cells. Then, 7 groups of animals were formed: 3 control groups (physiological, venom and tumor and 4 experimental groups that received different doses of venom. The experimental groups received 5 intraperitoneal venom injections on the 1 , 4 , 7 , 10 and 13 days after tumor implantation. On the 14 day, 5 animals from each one of the groups were sacrificed, and the variables such as the total and differential counts of cells in the peritoneal cavity and functional state of peritoneal macrophages by macrophage spreading were evaluated. The other 5 remaining animals were kept in the laboratory for 60 days for observation of their survival percentage. The results obtained were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5% significance level. It was observed that Crotalus durissus terrificus venom increases survival time of mice, but does not increase mortality percentage. This venom also increases the percentage of macrophage spreading. We suggest that snake venoms can cause inhibition of tumor growth by activating the inflammatory reaction, mainly the macrophages, stimulating the production of TNF- , IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8. These cytokines may act on tumor cells by different mechanisms, inducing its complete elimination.

  5. Qualidade de medicamentos isentos de prescrição: um estudo com marcas de dipirona comercializadas em uma drogaria de Cascavel (PR, Brasil Quality of over-the-counter medicines: a study with dipyrone brands commercialized in a drugstore in Cascavel city (Paraná, Brazil

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    André Leandro Knappmann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A dipirona é um fármaco muito utilizado pela população brasileira. É considerado seguro mesmo em gestantes, lactentes e crianças, mas é proibido em alguns países do mundo pelo suposto papel de causar agranulocitose e anemia aplástica. Em 2001, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa considerou que os medicamentos com esse fármaco apresentavam bom risco-benefício em relação a outros de indicação semelhante. Porém, de nada adianta segurança no uso de um medicamento se este é de baixa qualidade. É comum encontrar no mercado brasileiro medicamentos fora dos padrões, o que se constitui em um risco para a população em geral. Dessa forma, foram analisadas sete amostras de marcas diferentes de dipirona solução oral comercializados em uma farmácia de Cascavel (PR. Os resultados demonstram que a fiscalização quanto à qualidade de medicamentos similares precisa ser aprimorada, pois eles foram os que mais apresentaram desvios de qualidade.Dipyrone is an antipyretic and analgesic medicine very used by the Brazilian population. The administration is considered safe even in pregnant women, nurseling and children, but is forbidden in some countries, as supposedly causes agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. In 2001, National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa approved the commercialization of this medicine in Brazil. However, it does not matter the safeness in the use of a medicine advances, if it does not have quality. Based on this quality, this work was elaborated, that analyzes seven samples of commercialized different marks of dipyrone oral solution in pharmaceutical establishment in the Cascavel city, Paraná, Brazil. The results demonstrate that the quality control of similar drugs must be improved as were the ones that presented quality deviations.

  6. Análise comparativa do conteúdo Filo Mollusca em livro didático e apostilas do ensino médio de Cascavel, Paraná Comparative analysis of the Phylum Mollusca contents in a high school instructional book and in teacher's notes/handouts at Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma análise comparativa entre um livro didático de Biologia utilizado na terceira série do Ensino Médio, da rede estadual de ensino do município de Cascavel, PR, e apostilas utilizadas por duas escolas da rede privada. Após o levantamento e escolha, os materiais didáticos foram submetidos a uma análise geral em relação à capa, encadernação, espaçamento entre linhas, tamanho da letra, ilustrações, quadros e tabelas, e, também, a uma análise específica do conteúdo Filo Mollusca, considerando-se conceitos; sugestões de leituras complementares; erros ortográficos e conceituais; erros de impressão e revisão; ilustrações. Verificou-se que todos os materiais didáticos analisados apresentam falhas. No entanto, em umas das apostilas, foram encontradas mais falhas, pois além do seu conteúdo ser extremamente sucinto e não apresentar um planejamento em relação às atividades propostas, continha imagens incorretas e sem legendas auto-explicativas.The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative analysis between an instructional Biology book used in the junior year of high school in the school network system of the State of Paraná at the municipality of Cascavel, PR, and teacher's notes/handouts used by two schools in the private school network. After surveying and selecting the materials, these were submitted to a general analysis with regard to their cover, binding, line spacing, font size, illustrations, charts and tables, and also to a specific analysis in relation to their Phylum Mollusca contents, in which concepts, supplementary reading suggestions, typos and conceptual errors, printing and proofreading errors, and illustrations were taken into consideration. It was observed that all learning materials analyzed showed imperfections; however, a higher number of imperfections was found in one set of teacher's notes, because besides having an extremely succinct content and

  7. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and its zoonotic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, T C S; Santos, A L Q; Lima, A M C; Gomes, D O; Brites, V L C

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide spread zoonosis that can affect all groups of vertebrates, including reptiles. Because it has been little studied in snakes, this study focused on determining the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in 64 Crotalus durissus collilineatus kept in captivity and on identifying the most common serovars in these animals, using the microscopic agglutination test. Of these, almost 90% were positive and there were reactions to the 22 serovars used in the study. The most common serovar in these snakes was Javanica, Andamana and Patoc. Most frequent titers were 25 and 50, although high titers (such as 1600) were also recorded, despite the absence of clinical symptoms. The possibility should be considered of captive snakes serving as a serious source of leptospiral infection in humans, which is why it is essential to study, prevent and control the disease in breeding centers and serpentariums. PMID:26875762

  8. Purification and radiodination of gyroxin, toxin like trombin, of crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snake's venoms have attracted special interest in research because they are rich in bioactive compounds, which are scientific tools to study many physiological processes and are also important source of new therapeutic agents. Some thrombin-like enzymes are used as a reagent in laboratorial assays as well as in medical drugs. However, a neurotoxic syndrome called gyroxin syndrome or barrel rotation seems to be related to those enzymes. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies of these toxins can contribute to clarifly this mechanisms and consequently, it will help to elaborate safer clinical prescriptions giving more information about possible nocive effects. This paper describes the first step of these studies with the thrombin-like enzyme (or gyroxin) from Crotalus durissus terrificus's venom. The purification and radioiodination methods as well as electrophoretic analysis and biological assay are presented. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Interaction study of water radiolysis products with Crotalus durissus terrificus miotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation has been satisfactorily employed for venoms detoxification. In this report, the radiation was employed to verify the effects caused by the radiolysis products of water on the Crotamine, toxin purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. These effects were analyzed using some substances called 'scavengers', those substances competes for specific reactive species hindering them to act on the toxins molecules. In order to study the possible structural damages caused on the toxins, circular dichroism, fluorescence, nuclear magnetic resonance, amino acids analysis and intravital microscopy were employed. Our results indicate that ionizing radiation caused structure alterations, mainly, in secondary and tertiary structure of crotamine. In the irradiated crotamine, was not possible to determine tridimensional structure. And the crotamine toxic effect was removed by ionizing radiation. (author)

  10. Effects of gamma radiation on crotoxin (toxin of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crotoxin in a great neurotoxin found on Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. This protein was isolated using molecular exclusion cromatrography with Sephadex G-75 and irradiated in a source of 60Co GAMMACELL in the concentration of 2 mg/ml 0.85% NaCl with dose rate of 1.19 x 103 Gy/hr. The doses used were 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Gy. It was determinated for this samples, the proteic concentration, the diffusion immunoassay using crotalic antiserum and eletrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed some changes on the irradiated toxin. Preliminary results with doses of radiation of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 Gy showed that the letal dose 50% (LD50) in mice increase greatly with the increase of radiation's dose. (author)

  11. Age-related biological activity of South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

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    M. F. D. Furtado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro and in vivo comparative study was performed on the effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms from a mother and its 15 newborns. The venoms were tested for protein content, lethality, proteolytic, myotoxic, hemorrhagic, and phospholipase A2 activity. The minimum coagulant dose in plasma and human fibrinogen, protrhombin, and Factor II activations were analyzed. The venoms were also analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. This showed that despite similar total protein content, the biological effects of the venoms were different. Venom from young snakes exhibited higher enzymatic and coagulant activities and higher myotoxicity compared to the mother’s. In addition, the PLA2 content paralleled myotoxicity. However, no difference could be detected in their toxicity (LD50 0.08 mg/Kg. High incidence of blood coagulation disorders and elevated circulating myoglobin may characterize systemic envenoming by young C. d. terrificus.

  12. Effects of radiolysis products on crotamine (toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing Radiations changes the molecular structure due to chemical bond destruction. These chemical alterations are able to change the biological properties of the biomolecules. Crotamine was obtained from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by molecular exclusion cromatography and irradiated in a concentration of 1 mg/ml in aqueous solution with gamma radiation produced by a 60Co source. We used doses of 100 Gy, 2000 Gy and 5000 Gy (dose rate = 1,14 x 103 Gy/h). We performed the following experiments: proteic concentration, SDS-PAGE and immunodiffusion. Preliminary results showed a reduction of 55% in proteic concentration; with dose of 5000 Gy; an increase of the number of bands in SDS-PAGE suggesting the appearance of protein aggregates that was proportional as the dose increases. The immunodifusion data showed a reduction of the immunochemical activity against the Butantan antisera. (author)

  13. Gamma radiation effects on crotoxin (toxin of crotalus durissus terrificus venom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crotoxin is a great neurotoxin found on Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. This protein was isolated using molecular exclusion cromatography with Sephadex G-75 and irradiated in a source of 60 Co GAMMA-CELL in the concentration of 2 mg/ml 0.85% NaCl with dose rate of 1.19 x 103 Gy/hr. The doses used were 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Gy. It was determinated for this samples, the proteic concentration, the diffusion immunoassay using crotalic antiserum and eletrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed some changes on the irradiated toxin. Preliminary results with doses of radiation of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 Gy showed that the letal dose 50% (LD50) in mice increase greatly with the increase of radiation's dose. (author)

  14. Ecology and behavior of the Midget Faded Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor) in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J.M.; Anderson, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a three-year study to describe the ecology and behavior of the Midget Faded Rattlesnake, Crotalus organus concolor. We encountered 426 and telemetered 50 C. o. concolor between 2000 and 2002. We found that their primary diet was lizards (associated with rock outcrops), though they will consume small mammals and birds. They den in aggregations, although in low numbers when compared to other subspecies. Movements and activity ranges were among the largest reported for rattlesnakes. Minimum convex polygon area was 117.8 ha for males, 63.9 ha for nongravid females, and 4.8 ha for gravid females. Mean distances traveled per year were 2122.0 m for males, 1956.0 m for nongravid females, and 296.7 m for gravid and postpartum females. Following emergence from hibernation, they spent several weeks shedding, often in aggregations before migration, and migrations occurred in early summer. Most snakes made straight-line movements to and from discrete summer activity ranges where short, multidirectional movements ensued, although others made multidirectional movements throughout the active season. We observed mating behavior between 21 July and 12 August. Gravid females gave birth during the third week of August. Mean clutch size was 4.17 (range 2-7). We found that the sex ratio was skewed favoring females 1:1.24, and they were sexually dimorphic in size (males SVL = 44.1 cm; females SVL = 40.8 cm). Our data further illustrate the diversity within the large group of Western Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis). Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  15. Modulation of the Pharmacological Activities of Secretory Phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus cascavella Induced by Naringin

    OpenAIRE

    Toyama, Marcos H; Ricardo Aparicio; Soares, Veronica C G; Fagundes, Fábio H. R.; Diz-Filho, Eduardo B. S.; Simone C. B. Oliveira; Marcelo L. Santos; Camila A. Cotrim; Toyama, Daniela O

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have characterized the action of the naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and known for its various pharmacological effects, which include antioxidant blood lipid lowering and anticancer activity, on the structure and biochemical activities of a secretory phospholipase A (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus cascavella, an important protein involved in the releasinge of arachidonic acid in phospholipid membranes. sPLA2 was incubated with naringin (mol:mol) at 37 °C and a discret...

  16. Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis)

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Mark A.; Marlis R Douglas; Collyer, Michael L.; Michael E Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Morphological data are a conduit for the recognition and description of species, and their acquisition has recently been broadened by geometric morphometric (GM) approaches that co-join the collection of digital data with exploratory 'big data' analytics. We employed this approach to dissect the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) species-complex in North America, currently partitioned by mitochondrial (mt)DNA analyses into eastern and western lineages (two and seven subspecies, respective...

  17. Isolation and characterization of delta toxin from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus; Isolamento e caracterizacao da delta toxina do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Lucelia de Almeida

    2006-07-01

    The Crotalus durissus terrificus venom has been so far described as being of low complexity, with four major components described: convulxin, gyroxin, crotoxin and crotamine. In recent studies, other components of this venom were characterized as, for example, an analgesic factor. In 1980, Vital Brazil predicted the existence of a toxin which could be involved in platelet aggregation, and named it delta toxin. However, this toxin has never been isolated or characterized. The aim of the present work was to purify and characterize this toxin. After FPLC size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse phase HPLC, an homogeneous fraction was obtained, with a molecular weight of 14,074.92 Da. When analyzed by SOS-PAGE, this toxin presented an anomalous behavior, with a molecular weight of 14 kDa, while in 2D gels, spots around 40 kDa and with an isoelectrical point between 4 and 5 were observed suggesting isoforms with glicosilation microheterogeneity. After trypsin digestion, the fragments were submitted to the swissprot databank showing high homology (43% coverage, 15 matching peptides) with trocarin, a prothrombin activator from Tropidechis carinatus. These data were further confirmed by aminoacid analysis. The toxin was tested for its ability to activate factor II and X using synthetic substrates. Our data indicate a direct activation of factor X. The same toxin also behaved as a potent direct platelet aggregation activator on washed platelets. Assays with specific inhibitors indicate that neither metalloproteinase, nor serinoproteinase or t lectin domains are involved in the aggregating activity, since EDTA, benzamidin and D-galactose did not inhibit the toxin. In the present work, we were able to identify, purify and characterize a new toxin from the brazilian rattlesnake. It behaved as predicted by Vital-Brazil and displayed direct factor X activating properties, also inducing platelet aggregation, even at low concentrations. Our data also indicate that it is

  18. Antropometria, maturação sexual e idade da menarca de acordo com o nível socioeconômico de meninas escolares de Cascavel (PR Antropometry, sexual maturation and menarcheal age according to socioeconomic status of schoolgirls from Cascavel (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Paulo Roman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a idade da menarca e a antropometria de meninas escolares de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos em Cascavel (Estado do Paraná -Região Sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado no ano de 2006 com 2.761 meninas em 27 escolas públicas e particulares. A idade da menarca foi obtida pelo método status quo. Para a avaliação da maturação sexual foi realizada a autoavaliação de acordo com os critérios descritos por Tanner. O nível socioeconômico foi obtido por meio do questionário da ABEP (2003. Avaliou-se o peso e a estatura, obtendo-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC. Foram utilizados a análise estatística descritiva e o teste de Mann-Whitney, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A idade da menarca geral foi 12,2±1,2 anos e 12,1±1,1; 12,3±1,2 e 12,4±1,2 anos para os tercis alto, médio e baixo de nível socioeconômico, respectivamente. Foram constatados valores superiores para as meninas pós-menarca no peso e na estatura dos 10 aos 17 anos de idade e no IMC dos 11 aos 14 anos de idade. CONCLUSÕES: As meninas de nível socioeconômico alto apresentaram idade da menarca em idade inferior aos demais níveis socioeconômicos. Embora estas diferenças tenham sido observadas em níveis socioeconômicos distintos, biologicamente foram consideradas pequenas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate age of menarche and anthropometric data of schoolgirls of different socioeconomic levels in Cascavel, state of Parana, in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 with 2,761 girls evaluated in 27 private and public schools. Age at menarche was obtained by the status quo method. Sexual maturity was assessed by self evaluation, according to Tanner's criteria. Socioeconomic level was obtained through the ABEP (2003 questionnaire. Data of weight, stature and Body Mass Index (BMI were obtained. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney test at 5% significance. RESULTS: Age

  19. Responses of infrared-sensitive tectal units of the pit viper Crotalus atrox to moving objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldenbach, Felix; Bleckmann, Horst; Kohl, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Rattlesnakes perceive IR radiation with their pit organs. This enables them to detect and strike towards warm-blooded prey even in the dark. In addition, the IR sense allows rattlesnakes to find places for thermoregulation. Animate objects (e.g., prey) tend to move and thus cause moving IR images across the pit membrane. Even when an object is stationary, scanning head movements of rattlesnakes will result in moving IR images across the pit membrane. We recorded the neuronal activity of IR-sensitive tectal neurons of the rattlesnake Crotalus atrox while stimulating the snakes with an IR source that moved horizontally at various velocities. As long as object velocity was low (angular velocity of ~5°/s) IR-sensitive tectal neurons hardly showed any responses. With increasing object velocity though, neuronal activity reached a maximum at ~50°/s. A further increase in object velocity up to ~120°/s resulted in a slight decrease of neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate the importance of moving stimuli for the snake's IR detection abilities: in contrast to fast moving objects, stationary or slowly moving objects will not be detected when the snake is motionless, but might be detected by scanning head movements. PMID:26906281

  20. Retinal afferents and efferents of an infrared sensitive snake, Crotalus viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retinal afferents and efferents were examined in Crotalus viridis. Retinofugal fibers were traced by injecting horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or tritiated leucine into the eye, or by removing the eye and staining degenerating axons with silver methods. Terminations were seen contralaterally in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the dorsal and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei (extensive), the pretectal nuclei, including the nucleus posterodorsalis (a very heavy input), the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, nucleus geniculatus pretectalis, and nucleus pretectalis, the superficial layers of the optic tectum, including the stratum zonale, the stratum opticum, the stratum griseum et fibrosum centrale and the upper portion of stratum griseum centrale, and the basal optic nucleus. Ipsilateral input reaches the intermediate portion of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, a small portion of the pretectal nucleus and nucleus posterodorsalis, and the basal optic nucleus (very minimally). Retinopedal fibers were traced with the HRP method. The cell bodies lie in the ventral thalamus within the nucleus of the ventral supraoptic decussation. These neurons project primarily to the contralateral retina, but some more rostrally located neurons project to the ipsilateral retina

  1. Massive Muscular Infection by a Sarcocystis Species in a South American Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J F; Wellehan, J F X; Weisman, J L; Rush, M; Childress, A L; Lindsay, David S

    2015-06-01

    Massive numbers of sarcocysts of a previously undescribed species of Sarcocystis were observed in the skeletal muscles throughout the body of an adult, female South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus). Examination of tissue sections by light microscopy demonstrated that sarcocysts were present in 20 to 40% of muscle fibers from 5 sampled locations. Sarcocysts were not present in cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, or other organs. Sarcocysts were 0.05-0.15 mm wide, had variable length depending on the viewed orientation and size of the muscle fiber, and had a sarcocyst wall less than 1-μm thick. Sarcocysts were subdivided by septa and had central degeneration in older sarcocysts. Host induced secondary encapsulation or an inflammatory response was not present. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the sarcocyst wall was Type I, with a parasitophorous membrane of approximately 100 nanometers in width arranged in an undulating pattern and intermittently folded inward in a branching pattern. The sarcocysts contained metrocytes in different stages of development and mature bradyzoites. The nucleic acid sequence from a section of the 18S small subunit rRNA gene was most closely related to S. mucosa that uses marsupials as intermediate hosts and has an unknown definitive host. This is apparently the third report of muscular Sarcocystis infection in snakes and is the first to describe the ultrastructure of the sarcocysts and use sequencing methods to aid in identification. PMID:25658773

  2. Biochemical and biological evaluation of gyroxin isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

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    LC Barros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gyroxin, a thrombin-like enzyme isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and capable of converting fibrinogen into fibrin, presents coagulant and neurotoxic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate such coagulant and toxic properties. Gyroxin was isolated using only two chromatographic steps - namely gel filtration (Sephadex G-75 and affinity (Benzamidine Sepharose 6B - resulting in a sample of high purity, as evaluated by RP-HPLC C2/C18 and electrophoretic analysis that showed a molecular mass of 30 kDa. Gyroxin hydrolyzed specific chromogenic substrates, which caused it to be classified as a serine proteinase and thrombin-like enzyme. It was stable from pH 5.5 to 8.5 and inhibited by Mn²+, Cu²+, PMSF and benzamidine. Human plasma coagulation was more efficient at pH 6.0. An in vivo toxicity test showed that only behavioral alterations occurred, with no barrel rotation. Gyroxin was not able to block neuromuscular contraction in vitro, which suggests that its action, at the studied concentrations, has no effect on the peripheral nervous system.

  3. Metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiota of the Timber Rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Richard William; Cochran, Philip A; Dowd, Scot E

    2015-07-01

    Snakes are capable of surviving long periods without food. In this study we characterized the microbiota of a Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), devoid of digesta, living in the wild. Pyrosequencing-based metagenomics were used to analyze phylogenetic and metabolic profiles with the aid of the MG-RAST server. Pyrosequencing of samples taken from the stomach, small intestine and colon yielded 691696, 957756 and 700419 high quality sequence reads. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated Eukarya was the most predominant domain, followed by bacteria and then viruses, for all three tissues. The most predominant phylum in the domain Bacteria was Proteobacteria for the tissues examined. Functional classifications by the subsystem database showed cluster-based subsystems were most predominant (10-15 %). Almost equally predominant (10-13 %) was carbohydrate metabolism. To identify bacteria in the colon at a finer taxonomic resolution, a 16S rRNA gene clone library was created. Proteobacteria was again found to be the most predominant phylum. The present study provides a baseline for understanding the microbial ecology of snakes living in the wild. PMID:25663091

  4. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae in Brazil

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    Karasawa Andréa Satie Matsubara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae. Fifty animals were evaluated for the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. at the time of arrival and 30 and 60 days later. Intestinal washings with saline solution (1% body weight, fecal samples, and organ scrapings were collected during the study. Oocysts were concentrated by an ether-phosphate-buffered saline sedimentation technique and then separated by a density gradient centrifugation technique. Smears were made with the sediment and submitted to modified acid-fast and auramine-rhodamine staining. Cryptosporidium-positive smears were used as controls for the experimental findings. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was 14%. Among the positive snakes, oocysts were detected only in the intestinal washing in two specimens, only in the feces in four specimens, and in both materials at least once in one specimen. The positive snakes were predominantly from Santa Maria da Serra city State of São Paulo (57.1%. We also observed that all of the examinations that presented positive results were obtained at least 27 days after the capture of the animals.

  5. Envenomations by Bothrops and Crotalus snakes induce the release of mitochondrial alarmins.

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    Irene Zornetta

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle necrosis is a common manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomations. Venoms from snakes of the genus Bothrops, such as that of B. asper, induce muscle tissue damage at the site of venom injection, provoking severe local pathology which often results in permanent sequelae. In contrast, the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, induces a clinical picture of systemic myotoxicity, i.e., rhabdomyolysis, together with neurotoxicity. It is known that molecules released from damaged muscle might act as 'danger' signals. These are known as 'alarmins', and contribute to the inflammatory reaction by activating the innate immune system. Here we show that the venoms of B. asper and C. d. terrificus release the mitochondrial markers mtDNA (from the matrix and cytochrome c (Cyt c from the intermembrane space, from ex vivo mouse tibialis anterior muscles. Cyt c was released to a similar extent by the two venoms whereas B. asper venom induced the release of higher amounts of mtDNA, thus reflecting hitherto some differences in their pathological action on muscle mitochondria. At variance, injection of these venoms in mice resulted in a different time-course of mtDNA release, with B. asper venom inducing an early onset increment in plasma levels and C. d. terrificus venom provoking a delayed release. We suggest that the release of mitochondrial 'alarmins' might contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory events characteristic of snakebite envenomations.

  6. Shallow phylogeographic structure in the declining Mexican Lance-headed Rattlesnake, Crotalus polystictus (Serpentes: Viperidae

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    Jesse M. Meik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated matrilineal relationships among populations of the Mexican lance-headed rattlesnake (Crotalus polystictus, a pitviper inhabiting high-elevation valleys of the densely populated southernMexican Plateau. A fragment of the mitochondrial ATPase 8 and 6 genes (589 base pairs revealed comparatively low levels of genetic diversity, with few nucleotide polymorphisms across the portion of the geographic distribution sampled. The shallow intraspecificsequence divergence (1.0% in C. polystictus ATPase 8 and 6 genes contrasts with deep divergences (~1.0–14.1% observed within other montane rattlesnake lineages from the Mexican highlands, and is more typical of intraspecific variation observed in lowland rattlesnake species with similar distributional extents (e.g., C. tigris. We posit that the low genetic diversity in C. polystictus relative to that of other highland rattlesnakes may reflect ecological differences resulting in a different evolutionary response to Pleistocene climatic events. Our finding of apparently low genetic diversity in C. polystictus highlights the importance of conservation initiatives to protect high elevation grasslands in central Mexico.

  7. Comprometimento respiratório secundário a acidente ofídico crotálico (Crotalus durissus Respiratory abnormalities following Crotalus durissus snakebite

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    Carlos Faria Santos Amaral

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available São analisados três pacientes que apresentaram comprometimento da função respiratória após acidente por Crotalus durissus. As manifestações respiratórias surgiram nas primeiras 48 horas após a picada do ofídio e consistiram de dispnéia, taquipnéia, uso da musculatura acessória da respiração (casos 1 e 2 e batimento das aletas nasais (caso 2. Dois pacientes (casos 1 e 2 apresentaram insuficiência respiratória aguda. O diagnóstico desta complicação no caso 1 foi clínico pois o paciente apresentou apnéia. O paciente do caso 2, 24 horas após o acidente ofídico apresentou dificuldade respiratória intensa e períodos de apnéia sendo intubado, permanecendo em respiração espontânea. Houve agravamento dos sinais clínicos de insuficiência respiratória e a determinação de pH e gases do sangue arterial mostrou em relação ao exame inicial elevação da pressão parcial de gás carbônico (40 mmHg para 50,3 mm Hg caracterizando insuficiência ventilatória aguda. Ambos foram tratados com emprego de ventilação artificial mecânica, tendo o paciente do caso 1 permanecido no ventilador durante 33 dias e o do caso 2 durante 15 dias. Ambos desenvolveram insuficiência renal aguda, necessitaram de diálise peritoneal e recuperaram a função renal. A paciente do caso 3, apesar dos sintomas e sinais de comprometimento respiratório não apresentou alterações do pH e gases arteriais. Espirometria realizada 58 horas após o acidente mostrou capacidade vital forçada (CVF e volume espirado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 abaixo do previsto (60 e 67% respectivamente. As espirometrias realizadas nos dias subseqüentes evidenciaram melhora progressiva destes parâmetros. No 10º dia após o acidente constatou-se aumento de 20% da CVF e de 17% do VEF1 comparativamente ao exame inicial. A relação entre VEF1 e a CVF manteve-se praticamente inalterada e em valores próximos ao previsto, caracterizando distúrbio ventilatório do tipo

  8. Distribución y representatividad de las especies del género Crotalus en las áreas naturales protegidas de México Distribution and representation of Crotalus species within the natural protected areas of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Dinorah Malinaly Paredes-García; Aurelio Ramírez-Bautista; Miguel Angel Martínez-Morales

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un análisis sistemático de la distribución de las especies del género Crotalus en México para conocer los sitios de mayor concentración y evaluar su nivel de representatividad dentro del esquema federal de áreas naturales protegidas (ANP). A partir de registros georreferenciados se construyeron los modelos de distribución potencial de las especies con un número suficiente de registros, empleando los algoritmos GARP y MaxEnt. Con estos mapas de distribución se dedujeron las áreas de...

  9. Phylogeographic structure and historical demography of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox): A perspective on North American desert biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoe, Todd A; Spencer, Carol L; Parkinson, Christopher L

    2007-01-01

    The western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) is a prominent member of North American desert and semi-arid ecosystems, and its importance extends from its impact on the region's ecology and imagery, to its medical relevance as a large deadly venomous snake. We used mtDNA sequences to identify population genetic structure and historical demographic patterns across the range of this species, and relate these to broader patterns of historical biogeography of desert and semi-arid regions of the southwestern USA and adjacent Mexico. We inferred a Late Pliocene divergence between peninsular and continental lineages of Crotalus, followed by an Early Mid Pleistocene divergence across the continental divide within C. atrox. Within desert regions (Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts, Southern Plains, and Tamaulipan Plain) we observed population structure indicating isolation of populations in multiple Pleistocene refugia on either side of the continental divide, which we attempt to identify. Evidence of post-glacial population growth and range expansion was inferred, particularly in populations east of the continental divide. We observed clear evidence of (probably recent) gene flow across the continental divide and secondary contact of haplotype lineages. This recent gene flow appears to be particularly strong in the West-to-East direction. Our results also suggest that Crotalus tortugensis (Tortuga Island rattlesnake) and a population of 'C. atrox' inhabiting Santa Cruz Island (in the Gulf of California) previously suggested to be an unnamed species, are in fact deeply phylogenetically nested within continental lineages of C. atrox. Accordingly, we suggest C. tortugensis and 'C. atrox' from Santa Cruz Island be placed in the synonymy of C. atrox. PMID:16934495

  10. Lesões neurológicas na blastomicose sul-americana estudo anatomopatológico de 14 casos

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    Walter C. Pereira

    1965-06-01

    Full Text Available Several case reports of involvement of the nervous system by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis have been published, changing thus the concept that the nervous system would no be adequate to the proliferation of this fungus. In the material of the Department of Pathology of the University of São Paulo Medical School, collected up to September 1964, 145 cases of paracoccidioidomycosis were found. In 14 of them there were lesions of the nervous system, giving an incidence of 9,65%. This high incidence contradicts the frequent assumption that the involvement of the nervous system in cases of South American blastomycosis is exceptional. In our material most of the cases of neuroblastomycosis had not systemic lesions, 2 of them having isolated involvement of the nervous system. This fact does not agree with the frequent observation of patients with lesions in all organs but the nervous system. There are no pathophysiologic reasons to explain such contradiction, but it can be assumed that individual conditions, in some cases, make the nervous system vulnerable to the parasite. Of the 14 cases studied, 5 had lesions of the meninges and 9 had gra-nulomata of the brain. Of the 5 cases with meningitis, 3 had an isolated basilar leptomeningitis; in 1 case lesions of the pia-arachnoid of the brain convexity were also found, and in another one the spinal meninges were also involved as well the spinal roots. The granulomata of the brain were isolated in 5 cases and multiple in 4. The most frequent site of the lesions was the cerebral hemispheres (6 cases; in 2 cases the cerebellum was involved; the thalamus, pons and medulla were involved in one case each. This predominance of the hemispheric localization must be related to the larger blood supply of this parte of the nervous system, owing to the hematogenic route followed by the parasite. In our material no lesions of the spinal cord were found. However, no definitive conclusions can be drawn, as there was no systematic study of that parte of the nervous system. From a histopathologic viewpoint the meningeal inflammatory lesions were of the productive type, with a nodular or diffuse distribution. The characteristic cellular elements of this process are the gigantocytes of the Langhans type, the histiocytes, lymphocytes and plasmocytes, the two latter showing a predominant perivascular distribution. In the nodular forms there is a trend to the confluence of the granulomata and focal zones of caseous or gummous necrosis can be found. Arterites also can be found, causing degeneration of the nervous structures. The Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are generally abundantly found either free or phagocyted by histiocytes or gigantocytes. The inflammatory infiltrate grows along the Virchow-Robin's spaces, reaching the outer layers of the nervous parenchyma. The parenchymatous forms present a large central necrotic areas, with the characteristics of caseous or gummous necrosis, surrounded by histiocytes, gigantocytes, lymphocytes and plasmocytes. Fibroblasts and collagenous fibers surround and limit these granulomata of the encephalic parenchyma. Arterites are also observed and seem to play an importante role in the necrotic processes. The fungi are generally abundant, being found especially at the periphery of the necrotic areas or within the inflammatory tissues, free or phagocyted by histiocytes. In the nervous tissue neighboring the granulomata various degrees of degenerative processes of the neurons and glia are observed, as well as hyperplastic reaction of the oligodendroglia, microglia and astroglia. The inflammatory reaction of South American blastomycosis of the nervous system is not specific and, by itself, does not permit the etiologic diagnosis of the process. Only the finding of the parasite, with its characteristic forms, make it possible to establish the cause of the lesion.

  11. O futuro duvidoso da água: observações sobre a conjuntura mundial, sul-americana e brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, Daniel Santiago

    2009-01-01

    No atual momento histórico, a questão da água, substância essencial a qualquer forma de vida, assume uma dimensão estratégica em todo o planeta. As discussões sobre sustentabilidade a nível mundial e o cenário – para o presente e não mais para um futuro remoto – dos problemas na saúde e do esgotamento das fontes não-renováveis de energia mistura-se invariavelmente com a carência de água potável em todo o mundo. O assunto assume grande gravidade e se impõe não só na atuação já famosa das ONGs ...

  12. South America electric power integration: an utopia or a reality?; Integracao eletrica sul-americana: utopia ou realidade?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, Jaime

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this chapter is the discussing on the economic and institutional conditions necessary to the South America electric power integration in the context of the changes in the electric industry initiated on the 1980's years.

  13. Diversity-dependent cladogenesis throughout western Mexico: Evolutionary biogeography of rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalinae: Crotalus and Sistrurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Christopher; Sánchez-Ramírez, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    Rattlesnakes (Crotalus and Sistrurus) represent a radiation of approximately 42 species distributed throughout the New World from southern Canada to Argentina. Interest in this enigmatic group of snakes continues to accrue due, in part, to their ecomorphological diversity, contributions to global envenomations, and potential medicinal importance. Although the group has garnered substantial attention from systematists and evolutionary biologists for decades, little is still known regarding patterns of lineage diversification. In addition, few studies have statistically quantified broad-scale biogeographic patterns in rattlesnakes to ascertain how dispersal occurred throughout the New World, particularly among the different major biomes of the Americas. To examine diversification and biogeographic patterns in this group of snakes we assemble a multilocus data set consisting of over 6700bp encompassing three nuclear loci (NT-3, RAG-1, C-mos) and seven mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, ATPase6, ATPase8, ND4, ND5, cytb). Fossil-calibrated phylogenetic and subsequent diversification rate analyses are implemented using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, to examine their evolutionary history and temporal dynamics of diversity. Based on ancestral area reconstructions we explore dispersal patterns throughout the New World. Cladogenesis occurred predominantly during the Miocene and Pliocene with only two divergences during the Pleistocene. Two different diversification rate models, advocating diversity-dependence, are strongly supported. These models indicate an early rapid radiation followed by a recent speciation rate decline. Biogeographic analyses suggest that the high elevation pine-oak forests of western Mexico served as a major speciation pump for the majority of lineages, with the desert biome of western North America colonized independently at least twice. All together, these results provide evidence for rapid diversification of rattlesnakes throughout the

  14. Isolation and characterization of delta toxin from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Crotalus durissus terrificus venom has been so far described as being of low complexity, with four major components described: convulxin, gyroxin, crotoxin and crotamine. In recent studies, other components of this venom were characterized as, for example, an analgesic factor. In 1980, Vital Brazil predicted the existence of a toxin which could be involved in platelet aggregation, and named it delta toxin. However, this toxin has never been isolated or characterized. The aim of the present work was to purify and characterize this toxin. After FPLC size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse phase HPLC, an homogeneous fraction was obtained, with a molecular weight of 14,074.92 Da. When analyzed by SOS-PAGE, this toxin presented an anomalous behavior, with a molecular weight of 14 kDa, while in 2D gels, spots around 40 kDa and with an isoelectrical point between 4 and 5 were observed suggesting isoforms with glicosilation microheterogeneity. After trypsin digestion, the fragments were submitted to the swissprot databank showing high homology (43% coverage, 15 matching peptides) with trocarin, a prothrombin activator from Tropidechis carinatus. These data were further confirmed by aminoacid analysis. The toxin was tested for its ability to activate factor II and X using synthetic substrates. Our data indicate a direct activation of factor X. The same toxin also behaved as a potent direct platelet aggregation activator on washed platelets. Assays with specific inhibitors indicate that neither metalloproteinase, nor serinoproteinase or t lectin domains are involved in the aggregating activity, since EDTA, benzamidin and D-galactose did not inhibit the toxin. In the present work, we were able to identify, purify and characterize a new toxin from the brazilian rattlesnake. It behaved as predicted by Vital-Brazil and displayed direct factor X activating properties, also inducing platelet aggregation, even at low concentrations. Our data also indicate that it is

  15. Ontogenetic shift in response to prey-derived chemical cues in prairie rattlesnakes Crotalus viridis viridis

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    Anthony J. SAVIOLA, David CHISZAR, Stephen P. MACKESSY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Snakes often have specialized diets that undergo a shift from one prey type to another depending on the life stage of the snake. Crotalus viridis viridis (prairie rattlesnake takes different prey at different life stages, and neonates typically prey on ectotherms, while adults feed almost entirely on small endotherms. We hypothesized that elevated rates of tongue flicking to chemical stimuli should correlate with particular prey consumed, and that this response shifts from one prey type to another as individuals age. To examine if an ontogenetic shift in response to chemical cues occurred, we recorded the rate of tongue flicking for 25 neonate, 20 subadult, and 20 adult (average SVL = 280.9, 552, 789.5 mm, respectively wild-caught C. v. viridis to chemical stimuli presented on a cotton-tipped applicator; water-soluble cues from two ectotherms (prairie lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, and house gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, two endotherms (deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus and lab mouse, Mus musculus, and water controls were used. Neonates tongue flicked significantly more to chemical cues of their common prey, S. undulatus, than to all other chemical cues; however, the response to this lizard’s chemical cues decreased in adult rattlesnakes. Subadults tongue flicked with a higher rate of tongue flicking to both S. undulatus and P. maniculatus than to all other treatments, and adults tongue flicked significantly more to P. maniculatus than to all other chemical cues. In addition, all three sub-classes demonstrated a greater response for natural prey chemical cues over chemical stimuli of prey not encountered in the wild (M. musculus and H. frenatus. This shift in chemosensory response correlated with the previously described ontogenetic shifts in C. v. viridis diet. Because many vipers show a similar ontogenetic shift in diet and venom composition, we suggest that this shift in prey cue discrimination is likely a general phenomenon among viperid

  16. ISOLATION OF AN OPHIDIAN PARAMYXOVIRUS (OPMV IN A CAPTIVE RATTLESNAKE (Crotalus durissus terrificus FROM BOTUCATU, SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

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    M. F. NOGUEIRA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the isolation of an Ophidian Paramyxovirus (OPMV in sputum of a captive rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus kept in a serpentarium located in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and nested-PCR were performed for the identification of the isolated virus.

  17. Proteomic analysis of the rare Uracoan rattlesnake Crotalus vegrandis venom: Evidence of a broad arsenal of toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viala, Vincent Louis; Hildebrand, Diana; Fucase, Tamara Mieco; Sciani, Juliana Mozer; Prezotto-Neto, José Pedro; Riedner, Maria; Sanches, Leonardo; Nishimura, Paula Juliana; Oguiura, Nancy; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho; Schlüter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswami; Spencer, Patrick Jack

    2015-12-01

    The investigation of venoms has many clinical, pharmacological, ecological and evolutionary outcomes. The Crotalus spp. venom can cause hemorrhage, neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, coagulopathy and hypotension. Although neurotoxicity and hemorrhage usually does not occur for the same species, the rare Venezuelan species Crotalus vegrandis presents both characteristic. Different from the other species it has a restricted ecological niche and geographical distribution. Nevertheless, it has a raising medical importance as this rattlesnake population is increasing. Few works describe its neurotoxic and hemorrhagic features, but other toxins might play an important role in envenomation. We combined proteomic methods to identify for the first time the main components of it venom: 2D SDS-PAGE and gel-filtration chromatography for protein mixture decomplexation; LC-MS(2) of low molecular mass fractions and tryptic peptides; bioinformatic identification of toxin families and specific protein species based on unique peptide analysis and sequence database enriched with species-specific venom gland transcripts; and finally polyclonal anti-crotamine Western-blotting. Our results point to a broad arsenal of toxins in C. vegrandis venom: PIII and PII metalloproteases, crotoxin subunits, other phospholipases, isoforms of serine proteases and lectins, l-amino-acid oxidase, nerve growth factor, as well as other less abundant toxins. PMID:26403864

  18. Preparation, characterization, and biodistribution study of technetium-99m labelled crotalus venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) is a radionuclide widely used for nuclear medical examination. Called the workhorse of nuclear medicine, 99mTc is the favoured choice because it has the appropriate physical and chemical characteristics for imaging. The gamma radiation emitted by 99mTc has the appropriate energy (140 keV) to provide high efficiency detection with the advantage of reduced radiation burden for the patient and environmental (half-life of 6 h). Crotalus venom (CV) has been tested in a very few human cases and it has been shown to reduce tumours. Our group has shown that CV has antitumoural effects against some brain tumours in vitro. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution studies are very important for clinical use. The aim of the present study was to obtain an analogue of CV labelled with 99mTc which preserves its biological activity for use in biodistribution and binding studies. A direct method for 99mTc-labelling venom has been evaluated according to Pauwels, et al. The method employs stannous chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. By altering the reaction conditions high yield of labelled venom was achieved. Labeling yield was estimated using chromatographic systems. Biological activity was assessed by haemolytic activity study. Comparing haemolytic activities of labelled and unlabeled venom we observed that neither 99mTc-CV nor CV caused direct lysis on washed erythrocytes. However, both of them caused indirect hemolysis provided that the incubation medium contained an exogenous source of lecithin. So, the biological activity of CV was preserved after labeling. Biodistribution of 99mTc-CV was evaluated in mice. Male swiss mice were injected i.p. with 99mTc-CV, vital organs were isolated and their respective radioactivities were measured. High radioactivity was found in the kidneys suggesting renal excretion. On the other hand, this radioactivity was displaced in animals pre-treated with excess of non labelled CV (not shown). These data show

  19. [Hemolytic activity of venoms from snakes of the genera Bothrop, Lachesis, Crotalus, and Micrurus (Serpentes: Viperidae and Elapidae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cadillo, E; Bonilla Ferreyra, C; Zvealeta, A

    1991-11-01

    Hemolytic activity of eight Peruvian snake venoms from the families Viperidae and Elapidae (Bothrops atrox, B. pictus, B. hyoprorus, B. bilineatus, B. neuwedii, Lachesis m. muta, Crotalus d. terrificus, Micrurus tschudi), and three Brazilian viperids (B. jararacussu, B. alternatus and C. d. collilineatus) is described. None of the venoms caused direct lysis on washed human erythrocytes. However, all of them caused indirect hemolysis provided that the incubation medium contains an exogenous source of lecithin. Venom of Micrurus tschudi was the most hemolytic (HD50 2.8 ug/ml) while that of B. bilineatus was the least (HD50 681.3 ug/ml). Only six of eleven venoms showed parallel curves of hemolytic activity, and the HD50 varied from 198 to 681 ug/ml and the following decreasing order of hemolytic activity was obtained: L. muta, C. d. terrificus, C. d. collilineatus, B. hyoprorus, B. bilineatus, B. alternatus. PMID:1844159

  20. Pulmonary, microbiological and hematological changes in Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae) parasitized by nematodes of the genus Rhabdias (Nematoda, Rhabdiasidae) Alterações Pulmonares, microbiológicas e hematológicas em Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae) parasitadas pelos nematódeos do gênero Rhabdias (Nematoda, Rhabdiasidae)

    OpenAIRE

    K.R. Santos; R. K. Takahira; V.L.M. Rall; Calderón, C.; J.L. Sequeira; R.J. Silva

    2008-01-01

    This study reported the pulmonary, microbiological, and hematological alterations in Crotalus durissus terrificus parasitized by nematodes of the genus Rhabdias. Histological, microbiological, and hematological analysis were performed on parasitized (n=6) and non-parasitized (n=6) snakes. Granulocytic and mononuclear cell infiltrates in the pulmonary parenchyma and epithelium were also observed during the histological analysis of parasitized snakes. Microbiological analysis of parasitized ani...

  1. Eficiência da remoção de óleos e graxas de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto sanitário, Cascavel - Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Orsatto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The oils and greases are organic substances of mineral, vegetal or animal origin, being the third constituent of the domestic sewer in quantitative terms. In digestors, if in great amount, they cause problems, therefore they form a dense scum layer in the surface of the same ones, harming the process of treatment of the sewer and when depositing itself in the interior of the tubings, it can provoke restrictions to the liquid flow, reduction of the speed of the draining, rise of the height of the liquid blade, solid deposition in transport for hidric saw and consequences cloggings. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the removal efficiency of mineral and vegetal/animal oils in a sanitary sewer treatment station. The data had been gotten in a sewer treatment station in the city of Cascavel-Paraná, enter the months of January and December of 2008, totalizing 12 samples. The collection points be situated at the beginning of the station, after Ralf 1 and 2 and in the end, before the launching of the effluent one to the receiving body. All the mineral oil samples and vegetal/animal oils meet below of the maximum limits established by Resolution CONAMA 357/2005. The efficiency of removal of mineral oils in a general way was above of 70% and to vegetal/animal oils only one sample did not present efficiency above of 70%.

  2. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Zancolli; Timothy G. Baker; Axel Barlow; Rebecca K. Bradley; Calvete, Juan J.; Kimberley C. Carter; Kaylah de Jager; John Benjamin Owens; Jenny Forrester Price; Libia Sanz; Amy Scholes-Higham; Liam Shier; Liam Wood; Catharine E. Wüster; Wolfgang Wüster

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hy...

  3. Bordonein-L, a new L-amino acid oxidase from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom: isolation, preliminary characterization and enzyme stability

    OpenAIRE

    Bordon, Karla C. F.; Wiezel, Gisele A.; Cabral, Hamilton; Arantes, Eliane C

    2015-01-01

    Background Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CdtV) is one of the most studied snake venoms in Brazil. Despite presenting several well known proteins, its L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) has not been studied previously. This study aimed to isolate, characterize and evaluate the enzyme stability of bordonein-L, an LAAO from CdtV. Methods The enzyme was isolated through cation exchange, gel filtration and affinity chromatography, followed by a reversed-phase fast protein liquid chromatography to c...

  4. Type specimens of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) re-examined, with new evidence after more than a century of confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael D.; Gotte, Steve W.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Gilmore, Ned; Poindexter, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The original description of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) was published in 1861 by Robert Kennicott, who did not identify a type specimen or a type locality. We review the history of specimens purported to be the type(s) and various designations of type locality. We provide evidence that ANSP 7069 (formerly one of two specimens of USNM 5027) is the holotype and that the appropriate type locality is Fort Buchanan, near present-day Sonoita, in Santa Cruz County, Arizona.

  5. Distribución y representatividad de las especies del género Crotalus en las áreas naturales protegidas de México Distribution and representation of Crotalus species within the natural protected areas of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah Malinaly Paredes-García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis sistemático de la distribución de las especies del género Crotalus en México para conocer los sitios de mayor concentración y evaluar su nivel de representatividad dentro del esquema federal de áreas naturales protegidas (ANP. A partir de registros georreferenciados se construyeron los modelos de distribución potencial de las especies con un número suficiente de registros, empleando los algoritmos GARP y MaxEnt. Con estos mapas de distribución se dedujeron las áreas de mayor concentración de especies y se estimó su presencia en las ANP. La mayor riqueza de especies se concentra en las regiones de la sierra Madre Occidental, el noroeste del Altiplano Mexicano, la porción norte de la sierra Madre Oriental y el extremo oeste de la Faja Volcánica Transmexicana. Se estima que el 84.4% de las ANP incluyen al menos 1 especie de Crotalus y que el 88.2% de las especies que se distribuyen en México están presentes al menos dentro de 1 ANP. En este contexto de alta representatividad, el plantear la incorporación de ANP adicionales para la protección y conservación de crotalinos se dificulta, por lo que debe optarse por estrategias alternativas, tales como educación ambiental, conservación de hábitats mediante el uso sustentable de recursos, y el manejo y reproducción en cautiverio de especies en riesgo; además, se debe fomentar la investigación y el monitoreo de poblaciones.We performed a systematic analysis of the distribution of the Crotalus species in Mexico to depict the places of high species concentration and to evaluate its representation within the federal natural protected areas (NPAs scheme. Based on geo-referenced records, we built distribution models for species with enough records using the GARP and MaxEnt algorithms. We then deduced areas of high species concentration and estimated its presence in the NPAs. The regions with the highest species richness are the Sierra Madre Occidental, the

  6. Comparison of wildlife and captivity rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus terrificus microbiota Comparação da microbiota de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus terrificus de vida-livre e cativeiro

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    Rui S. Ferreira Junior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated and compared the aerobic microbiota from the oral cavity, cloaca and venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes, recently caught from the wild and kept under quarantine (WQ, individual captivity (IC and collective captivity (CC. Antimicrobial drug effectiveness on isolated agents also was assayed. From group I, II and III were isolated, respectively, 29 (63.04%, 38 (90.48% and 21 (42.86% microorganisms from the cloaca; 15 (32.61%, 3 (7.14% and 25 (51.02% microorganisms from the oral cavity; and, 2 (4.35%, 1 (2.38% and 3 (6.12% microorganisms from venom. The most frequent bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Morganella morganii, with sensitivity to amikacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, sulfazotrin and tobramycin. Snakes kept in semi-open captivity exhibited the fewest microorganisms in oral cavities, perhaps due to the environment in captivity, with different temperature gradients, running water, absence of daily handling, circulating air, possibility of moving around, daily cleaning, and sunlight access.Este estudo avaliou e comparou a microflora aeróbica da cavidade oral, cloaca e veneno de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus recém-capturadas da natureza e mantidas sob quarentena (WQ, mantidas em cativeiro coletivo (CC e em cativeiro individual (IC. A eficácia de drogas antimicrobianas de agentes isolados foi também avaliada. Foram isolados microorganismos dos grupos I, II e III respectivamente: 29 (63.04%, 38 (90.48% e 21 (42.86% da cloaca; 15 (32.61%, 3 (7.14% e 25 (51.02% da cavidade oral, e finalmente 2 (4.35%, 1 (2.38% e 3 (6.12% do veneno. As bactérias mais frequentes foram Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris e Morganella morganii, com sensibilidade para amikacina, gentamicina, norfloxacina, sulfazotrina e tobramicina. Serpentes mantidas no cativeiro semi-aberto mostraram menor número de agentes infecciosos em cavidade oral, talvez devido ao ambiente de cativeiro com diferentes

  7. Eficiência de um conjunto fotovoltaico em condições reais de trabalho na região de Cascavel - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v30i2.5496

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    Estor Gnoatto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foi desenvolvido um estudo sobre um sistema fotovoltaico autônomo, com armazenamento de energia, instalado na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Campus Cascavel, a uma Latitude 24°59' Sul, Longitude de 53°26' Oeste, com altitude de 682 m, em condições reais de campo, durante o ano de 2002. Foi avaliada a eficiência dos painéis fotovoltaicos em condições reais de campo, sua curva característica foi determinada utilizando, na aquisição de dados, um micrologger da Campbell Scientific-Inc, modelo CR10X, programado para realizar uma leitura por segundo de cada canal e armazenar a média aritmética de 5 minutos dos dados das componentes de radiação solar global no plano horizontal e global na incidência do painel; temperatura ambiente e temperatura de operação do painel; tensão e corrente do sistema fotovoltaico. Os resultados mostram que a eficiência média mensal registrou valores na faixa de 8,65 a 9,17%, com uma média de 8,84%, com variação percentual entre o índice máximo e mínimo de 5,67%. Pode, assim, representar fornecimento médio mensal de energia de 5,57 kWh por painel.

  8. A utilização da fitoterapia e de plantas medicinais em unidades básicas de saúde nos municípios de Cascavel e Foz do Iguaçu - Paraná: a visão dos profissionais de saúde The use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in primary healthcare units in the cities of Cascavel and Foz do Iguaçu - Paraná: the viewpoint of health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Ribeiro Bruning

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A fitoterapia e o uso de plantas medicinais fazem parte da prática da medicina popular, que complementa o tratamento usualmente empregado para a população de menor renda. O trabalho analisou o conhecimento de gestores e profissionais de saúde que atuam na atenção primária (APS, sobre fitoterapia, nos municípios de Cascavel e Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná. Entre fevereiro e julho de 2009, realizou-se estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo, empregando entrevistas e questionário estruturado. Um gestor relatou interesse na implantação do programa, os demais profissionais entrevistados não receberam formação sobre o tema durante a graduação ou nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS onde trabalham. Seis profissionais (60% relataram ter acesso às informações sobre fitoterapia através do conhecimento popular, uma (10% formação na UBS, dois (20% através de periódicos, quatro (40% através de meio de comunicação e quatro citaram mais que uma das opções. Em Foz do Iguaçu, nas UBS onde a terapêutica foi introduzida, os profissionais não foram consultados antes de sua implantação. Para instituir a fitoterapia nas UBS desses dois municípios é necessário capacitar os profissionais quanto ao tema, desde o cultivo até a prescrição, melhorando o uso racional desses medicamentos.Phytotherapy and the use of medicinal plants are part of the practice of folk medicine, which complements treatment traditionally employed for the lower income population. This work analyzed the knowledge of health managers and professionals who work in primary health care (PHC about phytotherapy in the cities of Cascavel and Foz do Iguaçu in the State of Paraná. An exploratory, descriptive, and qualitative study using a structured questionnaire was conducted between February and July 2009. A health manager manifested interest in introducing the program. The other professionals interviewed did not receive training during undergraduate studies or

  9. Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits ³H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Kattah

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of ³H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0.03-1 µM and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased ³H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 µM the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on ³H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits ³H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 ± 5 nM. We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.

  10. Amino acid sequence of phospholipase A/sub 2/-. cap alpha. from the venom of Crotalus adamanteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrikson, R.L.; Krueger, E.T.; Keim, P.S.

    1977-07-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of Crotalus adamanteus venom phospholipase A/sub 2/-..cap alpha.. has been determined by analysis of the five tryptic peptides from the citraconylated, reduced, and S-(/sup 14/C)carboxamidomethylated enzyme. Earlier studies provided the information necessary to align the tryptic fragments so that secondary cleavage procedures to establish overlaps were unnecessary. The subunit in the phospholipase A/sub 2/-..cap alpha.. dimer is a single polypeptide chain containing 122 amino acids and seven disulfide bonds. The histidine residue implicated in the active site of mammalian phospholipases is at position 47 in the C. adamanteus enzyme and is located in a domain of the molecule which is highly homologous in sequence with corresponding regions of phospholipases from a variety of venom and pancreatic sources. Comparative sequence analysis has revealed insights with regard to the function and evolution of phospholipases A/sub 2/. Primary structural relationships observed among the snake venom enzymes parallel the phylogenetic classification of the venomous reptiles from which they were derived. It is proposed that phospholipases A/sub 2/ of this general type be divided into two groups depending upon the presence or absence of distinctive structural features elucidated in this study.

  11. Modulation of the Pharmacological Activities of Secretory Phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus cascavella Induced by Naringin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos H. Toyama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have characterized the action of the naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and known for its various pharmacological effects, which include antioxidant blood lipid lowering and anticancer activity, on the structure and biochemical activities of a secretory phospholipase A (sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus cascavella, an important protein involved in the releasinge of arachidonic acid in phospholipid membranes. sPLA2 was incubated with naringin (mol:mol at 37 °C and a discrete reduction in the UV scanning signal and a modification of the circular dichroism spectra were observed after treatment with naringin, suggesting modifications of the secondary structure of the protein. This flavonoid was able to decrease enzymatic activity and some pharmacological effects, such as myonecrosis, platelet aggregation, and neurotoxic activity caused by sPLA2, however, the inflammatory effect was not affected by naringin. In addition, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS data were collected for sPLA2 and naringin-treated sPLA2 to evaluate possible modifications of the protein structure. These structural investigations have shown that sPLA2 is an elongated dimer in solution and after treatment with naringin a conformational change in the dimeric configuration was observed. Our results suggest that structural modification may be correlated with the loss of enzymatic activity and alterations in pharmacological properties.

  12. Single-step purification of crotapotin and crotactine from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom using preparative isoelectric focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the isolation of crotoxin, a presynaptic B-neurotoxin, as well as its subunits B (crotactine and A (crotapotin from lyophilized Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by a single-step preparative isoelectric focusing procedure. From 98 mg of dried venom protein 20.1 mg of crotactine and 13.1 mg of crotapotin were recovered in the first step of focalization and 4.2 mg in a second run. These values correspond to 35.7% of the total venom protein applied. Crotactine separated in the 9.3-7.0 pH range (tubes 1-6 and crotapotin in the 1.8-2.8 pH range (tubes 15-19 and both were homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and N-terminal amino acid analysis. Crotactine, a 12-kDa protein, presented hemolytic and phospholipase A2 activity. Thus, using isoelectric focusing we simultaneously purified both toxins in high yields. This method can be used as an alternative for the purification and characterization of proteins from other snake venoms under conditions in which biological activity is retained

  13. Identification of Lys49-PLA2 from crude venom of Crotalus atrox as a human neutrophil-calcium modulating protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Md Tipu; Li, Hong-Mei; Lee, Yong Zu; Lim, Soon Sung; Song, Dong-Keun

    2016-03-01

    We fortuitously observed a human neutrophil intracellular free-calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) increasing activity in the commercially available phosphodiesterase I (PDE I), which is actually dried crude venom of Crotalus atrox. As this activity was not observed with another commercially available pure PDE I, we tried to find out the causative molecule(s) present in 'crude' PDE, and identified Lys49-phospholipase A2 (Lys49-PLA2 or K49-PLA2), a catalytically inactive protein which belongs to the phospholipase A2 family, by activity-driven three HPLC (reverse phase, size exclusion, reverse phase) steps followed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. K49-PLA2 induced Ca(2+) infl ux in human neutrophils without any cytotoxic eff ect. Two calcium channel inhibitors, 2-aminoetoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) (30 µM) and SKF-96365 (20 µM) signifi cantly inhibited K49-PLA2-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase. These results suggest that K49-PLA2 modulates [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils via 2-APB- and SKF-96365-sensitive calcium channels without causing membrane disruption. PMID:26937214

  14. A low-cost method to test cytotoxic effects of Crotalus vegrandis (Serpentes: Viperidae) venom on kidney cell cultures Un método de bajo costo para probar los efectos citotóxicos del veneno de Crotalus vegrandis (Serpentes: Viperidae) en cultivos de células renales

    OpenAIRE

    Girón, María E.; Irma Aguilar; Lisandro Romero; Sánchez, Elda E.; Pérez, John C.; Alexis Rodriguez-Acosta

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the renal lesion upon envenomation by snakebite has been related to myolysis, hemolysis, hypotension and/or direct venom nephrotoxicity caused by the venom. Both primary and continuous cell culture systems provide an in vitro alternative for quantitative evaluation of the toxicity of snake venoms. Crude Crotalus vegrandis venom was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. The toxicity of C. vegrandis crude venom, hemorrhagic, and neurotoxic fractions were evalua...

  15. IgG antibodies against phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus: cross-reaction with venoms from Bothrops species from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    JP Rodríguez; MC De Marzi; S Maruñak; P Teibler; O Acosta; EL Malchiodi; LC Leiva

    2009-01-01

    We examined the ability of IgG anti-crotalic PLA2 to cross-react with Bothrops spp. venoms, from snakes found in the northeast of Argentina. Immunoblotting and ELISA tests showed that IgG anti-crotalic PLA2 recognize antigens of bothropic venoms. Indirect hemolytic activity tests showed that the quantity of antibodies that neutralized 50% of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (ED50: 2.1 mg IgG anti-crotalic PLA2/100 µg of venom) were also able to neutralize venom from other snakes in the foll...

  16. Influência da temperatura corporal de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus submetidas à anestesia com cetamina Influence of body temperature on rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus anesthetized with ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano B. Carregaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou verificar a influência da temperatura corporal nos parâmetros fisiológicos e nos períodos de indução e recuperação anestésicos de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus anestesiadas com cetamina. Os animais foram previamente submetidos à hipotermia (HIPO (The aim of the study was to verify the influence of the body temperature under physiological values and latency and recovery times on rattlesnakes anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were previously submitted to hypothermia (HYPO (<22°C and normothermia (30°C (NORMO and then, anesthetized with 80 mg/kg IM of ketamine. Latency and recovery times were evaluated by head tonus, muscular tonus and righting reflex. Heart rate (HR, time of apnea and body temperature were measured before and 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ketamine administration. Blood gases parameters were measured before, 30 and 60 minutes. It was not observed difference on latency time in both groups. The recovery time was higher on HYPO (5,5 hours compared to NORMO (3,5 hours. HR was higher on NORMO compared to HYPO. Time of apnea was the same pattern on both groups. Compared to basal levels, time of apnea was shorter between 5 to 30 min on both groups. Respiratory acidosis was observed only at 0 min in NORMO. SvO2 was higher after 30 min, the same as with PvO2 in both groups. PvCO2 reduced after 30 min in both groups. It was evident that body temperature exerts intense influence on the recovery time on rattlesnakes anesthetized with ketamine.

  17. Hematological changes in sheep inoculated with natural and Cobalt60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural (NV) and Cobalt60-irradiated (IrV) Crotalus durissus terrificus venom were used to evaluate serum production capacity of sheep and possible hematological and biochemical effects. Freeze-dried venom aliquots were diluted in acidified saline solution (NaCl 150 m M, p H 3.0) and irradiated by a Cobalt 60 source at a dose of 5.54 x 102 Gy/h and a concentration of 2.000 Gy. Twelve sheep were divided into two groups of six animals. One group received irradiated venom (IrV) and the other natural venom (NV). Three antigen doses (venom) were administered at monthly intervals. Blood samples were collected weekly for analysis of serum neutralization potency and capacity, complete blood count, total plasma protein, fibrinogen, albumin, and globulin. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD50 for sheep and showed no signs of envenoming. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. Results of the total leukocyte count did not present interaction or time factor effect for both groups, but there was a different action between them, with the NV group presenting more cells than the IrV group. The leukocyte increase to 13,000/μl indicates that slight leucocytosis occurred in the week after the first inoculation in the NV group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the absolute count of segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes but there were statistically significant oscillations in values at the different collecting times. The NV group presented an increase in the absolute neutrophil count after the first inoculation that persisted for 5 weeks. In the IrV group, the increase in neutrophils occurred only in the first week returning to normal in the following weeks. The alterations in the neutrophil count are indicative of systemic inflammatory response related to cytokine release; response was more marked in the N V group, showing its greater toxicity. (author)

  18. EFECTO DEL AZUL DE METILENO EN LA HIPOTENSIÓN Y BRADICARDIA ASOCIADAS A LA ADMINISTRACIÓN DE UNA DOSIS LETAL DEL VENENO TOTAL DE CASCABEL VENEZOLANA (Crotalus durissus cumanensis) EN RATAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briceno, Elena; Zerpa, Hector; Ascanio, Elias;

    2010-01-01

    The effects of pre treatment with methylene blue (MB) on the cardiovascular effect caused by the administration of total venom (TV) of Crotalus durissus cumanensis was studied in adult rats, allocated into two groups: group I, six rats treated with TV (single dose: 1.5 mg/kg, IV) and group II, si...

  19. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancolli, Giulia; Baker, Timothy G.; Barlow, Axel; Bradley, Rebecca K.; Calvete, Juan J.; Carter, Kimberley C.; de Jager, Kaylah; Owens, John Benjamin; Price, Jenny Forrester; Sanz, Libia; Scholes-Higham, Amy; Shier, Liam; Wood, Liam; Wüster, Catharine E.; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species. PMID:27322321

  20. Hematological changes in sheep inoculated with natural and Cobalt{sub 60}-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netto, D.P.; Alfieri, A.A.; Balarim, M.R.S. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva]. E-mail: rnetto@uel.br; Chiacchio, S.B.; Bicudo, P.L. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Nascimento, N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radiobiologia

    2004-07-01

    Natural (NV) and Cobalt{sub 60}-irradiated (IrV) Crotalus durissus terrificus venom were used to evaluate serum production capacity of sheep and possible hematological and biochemical effects. Freeze-dried venom aliquots were diluted in acidified saline solution (NaCl 150 m M, p H 3.0) and irradiated by a Cobalt 60 source at a dose of 5.54 x 102 Gy/h and a concentration of 2.000 Gy. Twelve sheep were divided into two groups of six animals. One group received irradiated venom (IrV) and the other natural venom (NV). Three antigen doses (venom) were administered at monthly intervals. Blood samples were collected weekly for analysis of serum neutralization potency and capacity, complete blood count, total plasma protein, fibrinogen, albumin, and globulin. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD{sub 50} for sheep and showed no signs of envenoming. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. Results of the total leukocyte count did not present interaction or time factor effect for both groups, but there was a different action between them, with the NV group presenting more cells than the IrV group. The leukocyte increase to 13,000/{mu}l indicates that slight leucocytosis occurred in the week after the first inoculation in the NV group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the absolute count of segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes but there were statistically significant oscillations in values at the different collecting times. The NV group presented an increase in the absolute neutrophil count after the first inoculation that persisted for 5 weeks. In the IrV group, the increase in neutrophils occurred only in the first week returning to normal in the following weeks. The alterations in the neutrophil count are indicative of systemic inflammatory response related to cytokine release; response was more marked in the N V group, showing its greater toxicity. (author)

  1. Crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus is able to down-modulate the acute intestinal inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Souza Almeida

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD is the result of dysregulation of mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Factors such as genetic, microbial and environmental are involved in the development of these disorders. Accordingly, animal models that mimic human diseases are tools for the understanding the immunological processes of the IBD as well as to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. Crotoxin (CTX is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom and has an immunomodulatory effect. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of CTX in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6- trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. The CTX was administered intraperitoneally 18 hours after the TNBS intrarectal instillation in BALB/c mice. The CTX administration resulted in decreased weight loss, disease activity index (DAI, macroscopic tissue damage, histopathological score and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity analyzed after 4 days of acute TNBS colitis. Furthermore, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were lower in colon tissue homogenates of TNBS-mice that received the CTX when compared with untreated TNBS mice. The analysis of distinct cell populations obtained from the intestinal lamina propria showed that CTX reduced the number of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3 and Th17 population; CTX decreased IL-17 secretion but did not alter the frequency of CD4+Tbet+ T cells induced by TNBS instillation in mice. In contrast, increased CD4+FoxP3+ cell population as well as secretion of TGF-β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and lipoxin A4 (LXA4 was observed in TNBS-colitis mice treated with CTX compared with untreated TNBS-colitis mice. In conclusion, the CTX is able to modulate the intestinal acute inflammatory response induced by TNBS, resulting in the improvement of clinical status of the mice. This effect of CTX is complex and involves the suppression of the pro-inflammatory environment elicited by intrarectal instillation of TNBS due to the

  2. Avaliação da resposta inflamatória hematológica em cascavéis (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 inoculadas com BCG Assessment of blood inflammatory response in BCG stimulated rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bandeira da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A criação de serpentes peçonhentas em cativeiro para produção de soros antipeçonhas possui crescente importância para a saúde pública devido ao aumento do número de notificações de acidentes ofídicos a cada ano no Brasil. Iniciado no século XX, ainda hoje essa atividade apresenta alguns desafios como a instalação de doenças no plantel. O hemograma é um exame de triagem clínica que auxilia no diagnóstico de diversas moléstias que acometem diferentes espécies de animais, no entanto ainda pouco estudado em serpentes. A caracterização das alterações hematológicas em cascavéis inoculadas experimentalmente com BCG pode servir de base na utilização deste exame no auxílio ao diagnóstico de infecções bacterianas na espécie. Dessa forma, foram realizados exames hematológicos em 10 serpentes da espécie Crotalus durissus pertencentes ao plantel da Divisão de Herpetologia do Instituto Vital Brazil. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos (Grupos 1 e 2, homogêneos entre si em relação ao peso e proporção sexual. Os dois grupos foram inoculados com BCG e submetidos à coleta de sangue antes da inoculação e em três momentos pós-inoculação (3º, 5º, e 7º dias para o Grupo 1 e 11º, 17º e 21º dias para o Grupo 2. O hemograma foi realizado por método semidireto pela utilização de líquido de Natt e Herrick e as lâminas foram coradas pelo Giemsa. Observou-se anemia discreta, com redução dos valores de concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média e da hemoglobina globular média no Grupo 1 que foi relacionada à doença inflamatória. A trombocitopenia observada no Grupo 2 sugeriu a atuação deste tipo celular em processos inflamatórios. Um único animal do Grupo 1 apresentou granulocitose e alguns animais apresentaram discreta azurofilia. Observaram-se alterações morfológicas nos leucócitos. Os granulócitos apresentaram granulações grosseiras e os azurófilos apresentaram aumento de tamanho e

  3. The South American energy policies: regional problems and national logics; As politicas energeticas Sul-Americanas: problemas regionais e logicas nacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Prioux, Bruna [Centro de Pesquisa e Documentacao da America Latina (CREDAL) (France)

    2010-07-01

    The international energy context in the first decade of the 21st century can be described by the following points. First, the growing concerns with climatic changes and the greenhouse effect, which the main cause is the massive use of fossil fuels. Second, the energy vulnerability, due to the mistrust in the main hydrocarbon producers, to the increasing consumption from the so-called developing countries and to the idea of a possible end of oil reserves. And third, as a consequence of the least factor, an intense speculation in international market has increased the prices of oil barrel and gas since 2005. In this context, each country tries to adapt to their way of such changes. Beyond local solutions, South American countries have historic attempts of regional integration through energy, which can be presented as a complement of national policies. This research focuses on the study of the gas energy policy of some producers' and consumers' countries in South America, their choices and procedures in the national and international scope. Thus, the main goal of this article is to analyze how national energy policies affect the regional energy action of these South American countries. In order to answer this question, our goals are: (1) diagnosing the energy potentialities and disadvantages of each country; (2) identifying concepts related to energy questions; and (3) relating the two past steps to analyze the energy interaction in South America. The countries selected to this research are: Brazil, Argentina and Chile, due to their economic magnitude in South America and their intense energy consumption; and Bolivia and Venezuela, due to their energy reserves and surplus. The study of national energy systems was made through SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threat), in order to have a synthetically diagnosis about the energetic potentials and disadvantages of each country. Thereafter, we intersect this data with concepts as sustainable development, interdependence and energy governance, to relate the national and international energy policies. Energy national policies are relevant factors to be considered when a regional integration is studied. In fact, energy advantages and deficiencies emerge in regional scenario, showing that the interdependences depend on national logics and strategies. In this sense, we consider that the effect of energy integration in South America is unsatisfying because national policies do not converge. The advantages of integration (i.e. commerce increase, ensuring supplies and reducing price volatility) are neutralized without this countries' coordination. (author)

  4. Crustal evolution of South American Platform based on Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry; Evolucao crustal da plataforma sul americana com base na geoquimica isotopica Sm-Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kei

    1998-07-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic systematics is relevant to the topics of origin and evolution the of continental crust, where model ages refer to the time when crustal material was differentiated from the upper mantle. Alternative interpretations are due to a lack of adequate information on crustal processes and the variable composition of the mantle sources. The Sm-Nd methods are presented, and applied on rock materials from the South American Platform. The main conclusions indicate juvenile accretion with higher growth rates (peaks), around 3.7-3.5 Ga ({approx} 0.5% in volume), 3.1 - 2.9 Ga ({approx}16%), 2.7 - 2.6 ({approx} 9%), 2.2 - 1.9 (35%) and 1.3-1.0 (7%). The continental growth curve indicates that about 35 % of the crust was formed by 2.5 Ga, 88% by 1.8 Ga and 99% by 1.0 Ga, and the remaining {approx} 1 % was added in the Phanerozoic. Rapid crustal growth occurred between 2.2 and 1.9 Ga. The main period of continental crust formation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding to 54 % in volume. Sm-Nd model ages, when compared with the crystallisation ages of granitoid rocks, furnish a rough estimate of juvenile vs. reworked material. Within the South American Platform about 45% of juvenile continental crust is still preserved within tectonic provinces of different ages. The remainder represents continental crust reworked in younger tectono-thermal events. In particular crustal reworking was predominating over juvenile accretion during Meso-Neoproterozoic. The Transbrasiliano Lineament is a megasuture, active in the Neoproterozoic, which separates a large northwestern mass, including the Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons, from a southeastern mass, formed by a collage of cratonic fragments, of which the Sao Francisco and Rio de La Plata are the largest. The crustal evolutions of these two large continental masses are considered individually, and can be resumed following form: I - Old Archean rocks (>3.4 Ga) are found only within the south-eastern part (Gaviao Block, Contendas-Mirante Complex (Sao Francisco Craton) and Caldas Brandao Massif (Borborema Province); 2 - On both continental masses, crustal evolution between 3.0 and 1.7 Ga is very similar; 3 - During Meso and Neoproterozoic times, the northwestern mass (Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons) remained virtually unaffected by tectono-orogenic events, while the southeastern mass is composed of smaller cratonic fragments, which later took part in the formation of two large supercontinents: Rodinia during the Mesoproterozoic, and Gondwana in the Neoproterozoic. (author)

  5. Três novas espécies sul-americanas de Cryptachaea e acréscimos taxonômicos em Achaearanea (Araneae, Theridiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Helena Buckup

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Três espécies de Cryptachaea Archer, 1946 são descritas, duas delas para o Brasil: C. amazonas sp. nov. da Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas e Cryptachaea maldonado sp. nov. da Base de Operações Geólogo Pedro de Moura, Porto Urucu, rio Urucu, Coari, Amazonas, com base em machos. Uma nova associação de macho e fêmea é proposta para Achaearanea hieroglyphica (Mello-Leitão, 1940. O macho da Guiana Francesa, atribuído à última espécie, é considerado uma espécie nova de Cryptachaea, C. ingijonathorum. O macho de Achaearanea tingo Levi, 1963 é descrito pela primeira vez. Novas ocorrências são listadas para A. trapezoidalis (Taczanowski, 1873.

  6. The energy geopolitics interests: the Initiative for South American Regional Integration - ISARI; Os interesses da geopolitica energetica: a Iniciativa para Integracao Regional Sul Americana - IIRSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeronymo, Alexandre; Roig, Carla de Almeida; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet Guy [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], e-mail: alexandre.jeronymo@ufabc.edu.br, e-mail: carla.roig@ufabc.edu.br, e-mail: sguerra@ufabc.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    This work adds itself to the debates on the project Integration of South America Regional Infrastructure - ISARI. Its focus is related with Energy Geopolitics and the South America integration under the world system of commodities production. The ISARI, as a project oriented to the viability of low value aggregated which should be transported from the south american continent for consumption at the world market.

  7. The challenge for integration of South American focusing the energy; O desafio da integracao sul-americana com enfoque a energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeira, Rogerio Londero [Universitetet i Stavanger (Norway)]. E-mail: rlboeira@uol.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The challenge for integration in the South American continent is huge, but feasible as one takes technical decisions instead of political ones. The technique here is so spoken as the one responsible to be the most capable issue to guarantee mercantile actions that objective the investment return. It is not only with this return that it is possible to keep the investment attractiveness for the investors. It also requires the establishment of well-defined and clear rules, as well as of the transparency priority in all the energy market transactions. Political actions for the integration, as the ones that have been taken in the beginning of this century, promote the Idea of the union. However, they are confused and vague as they try to explain how and mainly how much the implementation of such union will cost to the public capital. This present work shows the lack of clearness and discrepancy in the energy commodities supply and demand data in the countries of South America, which would be vital for the implementation of any energy project. The importance of this work is to create consciousness in the society. Like that, it will sustain that political decision for energy investment will not be taken without a clear purpose to foment the society development at a defined cost. (author)

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of crotamine, a myotoxic polypeptide from the Brazilian snake Crotalus durissus terrificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotamine from C. durissus terrificus was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.9 Å. Crotamine, a highly basic myotoxic polypeptide (molecular mass 4881 Da) isolated from the venom of the Brazilian rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, causes skeletal muscle contraction and spasms, affects the functioning of voltage-sensitive sodium channels by inducing sodium influx and possesses antitumour activity, suggesting potential pharmaceutical applications. Crotamine was purified from C. durissus terrificus venom; the crystals diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group I212121 or I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.75, b = 74.4, c = 81.01 Å. The self-rotation function indicated that the asymmetric unit contained three molecules. However, structure determination by molecular replacement using NMR-determined coordinates was unsuccessful and a search for potential derivatives has been initiated

  9. Cytoskeleton, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus alterations in CHO-K1 cell line after Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake venom treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Tamieti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are toxic to a variety of cell types. However, the intracellular damages and the cell death fate induced by venom are unclear. In the present work, the action of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on CHO-K1 cell line was analyzed. The cells CHO-K1 were incubated with C. d. terrificus venom (10, 50 and 100g/ml for 1 and 24 hours, and structural alterations of actin filaments, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus were assessed using specific fluorescent probes and agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation. Significant structural changes were observed in all analyzed structures. DNA fragmentation was detected suggesting that, at the concentrations used, the venom induced apoptosis.

  10. The comparison between the humoral response and the neutralizing capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural venom and Co60 irradiated venom from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with Co60 to investigate the effects of antigen-irradiation on antivenom production in sheep. Twelve sheep were divided in two groups of 6. One group received irradiated, while the other received natural venom. Three doses of antigen were given at monthly intervals. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD50 in mice. Weekly blood samples were obtained to evaluate anti-crotalic serum titers by indirect ELISA, neutralization capacity, and serum potency. A complete blood count, plasma protein and fibrinogen concentration, and serum albumin and globulin were also determined. At end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with ovine LD50, without clinical abnormalities. (author)

  11. The rattling sound of rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) as a communicative resource for ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) and burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owings, Donald H; Rowe, Matthew P; Rundus, Aaron S

    2002-06-01

    Animal communication involves very dynamic processes that can generate new uses and functions for established communicative activities. In this article, the authors describe how an aposematic signal, the rattling sound of rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis), has been exploited by 2 ecological associates of rattlesnakes: (a) California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) use incidental acoustic cues in rattling sounds to assess the danger posed by the rattling snake, and (b) burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) defend themselves against mammalian predators by mimicking the sound of rattling. The remarkable similarity between the burrowing owl's defensive hiss and the rattlesnake's rattling reflects both exaptation and adaptation. Such exploitation of the rattling sound has favored alternations in both the structure and the deployment of rattling by rattlesnakes. PMID:12083617

  12. Activity cycles and foraging behaviors of free-ranging sidewinder rattlesnakes (Crotalus cerastes): the ontogeny of hunting in a precocial vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rulon W; Dorr, Scott W; Whitford, Malachi D; Freymiller, Grace A; Putman, Breanna J

    2016-06-01

    Predators often employ a complex series of behaviors to overcome antipredator defenses and effectively capture prey. Although hunting behaviors can improve with age and experience, many precocial species are necessarily effective predators from birth. Additionally, many predators experience innate ontogenetic shifts in predatory strategies as they grow, allowing them to adapt to prey more appropriate for their increased size and energetic needs. Understanding how the relative roles of innate age-specific adaptation and learning have evolved requires information on how predation behavior develops in situ, in free-ranging predators. However, most of the research on the ontogeny of predation behavior is based on laboratory studies of captive animals, largely due to the difficulty of following newborn individuals in nature. Here, we take advantage of the unique tracks left by juveniles of a precocial viperid, the sidewinder rattlesnake (Crotalus cerastes), which we used to follow free-ranging snakes in the field. We recorded details of their ambush hunting behavior, and compared the behaviors of these juveniles to adult snakes that we monitored in the field via radio telemetry. Although juvenile and adult behaviors were similar in most respects, we did find that adults chose more effective ambush sites, which may be due to their increased experience. We also found that juveniles (but typically not adults) perform periodic tail undulations while in ambush, and that juveniles displayed slightly different activity cycles. Both of these latter differences are likely the result of age-specific adaptations for juveniles' greater reliance on lizards versus small mammals as prey. We also compared the general predatory behavior of sidewinders to that of other species in the genus Crotalus. These findings will provide important baseline field information for more detailed empirical research on the ontogeny of predation behavior in precocial vertebrates. PMID:26997261

  13. Internal dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals derived of antitumor polypeptide isolated from venoms: Crotalus durissus terrifucus and Scorpaena plumieri;Dosimetria interna de radiofarmacos derivados de polipeptideos antitumorais isolados dos venenos de: Crotalus durissus terrificus e Scorpaena plumieri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de

    2009-07-01

    The identification of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents capable of inhibiting tumor growth is essential for improving the prognosis of patients suffering from malignant tumors (glioma, breast and others). In this context, natural products (plants and animals) are a rich source of substances with potential antitumor. Despite knowledge of the etiology and pathology of tumors little progress has been observed in the area of diagnosis. Molecules of snake venoms have been shown to play an important role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the process of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Polypeptides isolated from the venom of the snake, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Crtx, and Scorpaena plumieri fish, SPGP, have antitumor activity against malignant tumors. It was shown that similar radio iodines Crtx and SPGP, {sup 125}I-Crtx and {sup 125}I-SPGP, can interact specifically with malignant tumors and induce cell death. Prototype-based radiopharmaceuticals Crtx and SPGP containing radioiodine 1311 were able to produce diagnostic images to accumulate specifically in the tumor site. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential radiological safety and diagnostic/therapeutic efficacy of {sup 131}I-Crtx {sup l31}I-SPGP and (evaluated from the biokinetic data in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor) were treated by the MIRD formalism to carry out internal dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the uptake of {sup 131}I-Crtx and {sup 131}I-SPGP were determined in various organs of mice and implanted into the tumor. The results obtained for the animal model were extrapolated to humans by assuming a similar concentration ratio among the various tissues between mice and humans. In extrapolation, we used the masses of human organs of the phantom of Cristy/Eckerman. Both radiation penetrating and non penetrating of {sup 131}I on the tissue were considered in dose calculations. The absorbed dose in the bone marrow due to the

  14. Internal dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals derived of antitumor polypeptide isolated from venoms: Crotalus durissus terrifucus and Scorpaena plumieri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents capable of inhibiting tumor growth is essential for improving the prognosis of patients suffering from malignant tumors (glioma, breast and others). In this context, natural products (plants and animals) are a rich source of substances with potential antitumor. Despite knowledge of the etiology and pathology of tumors little progress has been observed in the area of diagnosis. Molecules of snake venoms have been shown to play an important role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the process of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Polypeptides isolated from the venom of the snake, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Crtx, and Scorpaena plumieri fish, SPGP, have antitumor activity against malignant tumors. It was shown that similar radio iodines Crtx and SPGP, 125I-Crtx and 125I-SPGP, can interact specifically with malignant tumors and induce cell death. Prototype-based radiopharmaceuticals Crtx and SPGP containing radioiodine 1311 were able to produce diagnostic images to accumulate specifically in the tumor site. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential radiological safety and diagnostic/therapeutic efficacy of 131I-Crtx l31I-SPGP and (evaluated from the biokinetic data in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor) were treated by the MIRD formalism to carry out internal dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the uptake of 131I-Crtx and 131I-SPGP were determined in various organs of mice and implanted into the tumor. The results obtained for the animal model were extrapolated to humans by assuming a similar concentration ratio among the various tissues between mice and humans. In extrapolation, we used the masses of human organs of the phantom of Cristy/Eckerman. Both radiation penetrating and non penetrating of 131I on the tissue were considered in dose calculations. The absorbed dose in the bone marrow due to the administration of 131 I-Crtx was 0.01 mGy/370MBq for

  15. Pulmonary, microbiological and hematological changes in Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae parasitized by nematodes of the genus Rhabdias (Nematoda, Rhabdiasidae Alterações Pulmonares, microbiológicas e hematológicas em Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae parasitadas pelos nematódeos do gênero Rhabdias (Nematoda, Rhabdiasidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reported the pulmonary, microbiological, and hematological alterations in Crotalus durissus terrificus parasitized by nematodes of the genus Rhabdias. Histological, microbiological, and hematological analysis were performed on parasitized (n=6 and non-parasitized (n=6 snakes. Granulocytic and mononuclear cell infiltrates in the pulmonary parenchyma and epithelium were also observed during the histological analysis of parasitized snakes. Microbiological analysis of parasitized animals revealed the following Gram-negative bacteria: Citrobacter divergens, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter ammnigenus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pantoea sp. and Providencia rettgeri. In non-parasitized snakes, the following species were identified: B. cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Acinetobacter baumanii. Increased levels of plasmatic protein, decreased lymphocyte counts, and normal red blood cell values were observed in parasitized animals.Este trabalho relata as alterações pulmonares, microbiológicas e hematológicas em Crotalus durissus terrificus parasitadas pelo nematódeo do gênero Rhabdias. As análises histológicas, microbiológicas e hematológicas foram realizadas em serpentes parasitadas (n=6 e não parasitadas (n=6. Foram observados infiltrados de células granulocíticas e mononucleares no parênquima pulmonar durante a análise histopatológica das serpentes parasitadas. A análise microbiológica revelou as seguintes bactérias Gram-negativas; Citrobacter divergens, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter ammnigenus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pantoea sp. e Providencia rettgeri. Nas serpentes não parasitadas foram identificadas: B. cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens e Acinetobacter baumanii. Nos animais parasitados observaram-se: aumento da concentração de proteína plasmática, diminuição da

  16. Humoral response and neutralization capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural and Cobalt 60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Netto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate antigen irradiation on crotalic antivenom and the capacity of sheep as serum producers. Twelve sheep in two groups of six were inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. One group was inoculated with natural venom (NV and the other with Cobalt 60 gamma-irradiated venom (IrV. Three antigen doses were given to the animals at monthly intervals for immunization. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD50 determination in mice. Blood samples were collected weekly analyses of serum neutralization capacity and potency. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD50 for sheep showed no signs of envenoming. These results showed that toxicity of the irradiated venom was 4.4 times less than the natural venom. The sera from the irradiated group neutralized LD50 14.6 times, and the sera from the natural group 4.4 times. Sera from the irradiated group were five times more potent. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. The results of this study show the potential for using sheep in crotalic antivenom production. The use of irradiated venom in sheep immunization induces a powerful and lasting humoral immune response shown by both the in vitro neutralization and potency tests and by the indirect ELISA antibody level detection technique.

  17. Evidence for a respiratory component, similar to mammalian respiratory sinus arrhythmia, in the heart rate variability signal from the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Hamish A; Leite, Cleo A C; Wang, Tobias; Skals, Marianne; Abe, Augusto S; Egginton, Stuart; Rantin, F Tadeu; Bishop, Charles M; Taylor, Edwin W

    2006-07-01

    Autonomic control of heart rate variability and the central location of vagal preganglionic neurones (VPN) were examined in the rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus), in order to determine whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) occurred in a similar manner to that described for mammals. Resting ECG signals were recorded in undisturbed snakes using miniature datalogging devices, and the presence of oscillations in heart rate (fh) was assessed by power spectral analysis (PSA). This mathematical technique provides a graphical output that enables the estimation of cardiac autonomic control by measuring periodic changes in the heart beat interval. At fh above 19 min(-1) spectra were mainly characterised by low frequency components, reflecting mainly adrenergic tonus on the heart. By contrast, at fh below 19 min(-1) spectra typically contained high frequency components, demonstrated to be cholinergic in origin. Snakes with a fh >19 min(-1) may therefore have insufficient cholinergic tonus and/or too high an adrenergic tonus acting upon the heart for respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) to develop. A parallel study monitored fh simultaneously with the intraperitoneal pressures associated with lung inflation. Snakes with a fhVPN). This is consistent with the suggestion that generation of ventilatory components in the heart rate variability (HRV) signal are dependent on spatially distinct loci for cardiac VPN. Therefore, this study has demonstrated the presence of RSA in the HRV signal and a dual location for VPN in the rattlesnake. We suggest there to be a causal relationship between these two observations. PMID:16809454

  18. Humoral response and neutralization capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural and Cobalt 60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netto, D.P.; Alfieri, A.A. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva; Chiacchio, S.B.; Bicudo, P.L. [UNESP, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Nascimento, N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radiobiologia]. E-mail: rnetto@uel.br

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate antigen irradiation on crotalic antivenom and the capacity of sheep as serum producers. Twelve sheep in two groups of six were inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. One group was inoculated with natural venom (N V) and the other with Cobalt 60 gamma-irradiated venom (Ir V). Three antigen doses were given to the animals at monthly intervals for immunization. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 determination in mice. Blood samples were collected weekly analyses of serum neutralization capacity and potency. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD 50 for sheep showed no signs of envenoming. These results showed that toxicity of the irradiated venom was 4.4 times less than the natural venom. The sera from the irradiated group neutralized LD 50 14.6 times, and the sera from the natural group 4.4 times. Sera from the irradiated group were five times more potent. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. The results of this study show the potential for using sheep in crotalic antivenom production. The use of irradiated venom in sheep immunization induces a powerful and lasting humoral immune response shown by both the in vitro neutralization and potency tests and by the indirect ELISA antibody level detection technique. (author)

  19. Humoral response and neutralization capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural and Cobalt 60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to investigate antigen irradiation on crotalic antivenom and the capacity of sheep as serum producers. Twelve sheep in two groups of six were inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. One group was inoculated with natural venom (N V) and the other with Cobalt 60 gamma-irradiated venom (Ir V). Three antigen doses were given to the animals at monthly intervals for immunization. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 determination in mice. Blood samples were collected weekly analyses of serum neutralization capacity and potency. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD 50 for sheep showed no signs of envenoming. These results showed that toxicity of the irradiated venom was 4.4 times less than the natural venom. The sera from the irradiated group neutralized LD 50 14.6 times, and the sera from the natural group 4.4 times. Sera from the irradiated group were five times more potent. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. The results of this study show the potential for using sheep in crotalic antivenom production. The use of irradiated venom in sheep immunization induces a powerful and lasting humoral immune response shown by both the in vitro neutralization and potency tests and by the indirect ELISA antibody level detection technique. (author)

  20. cDNA and deduced primary structure of basic phospholipase A2 with neurotoxic activity from the venom secretion of the Crotalus durissus collilineatus rattlesnake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.R. Fagundes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the construction of precursor complementary DNAs, we isolated mRNAs from whole venom samples. After reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, we amplified the cDNA coding for a neurotoxic protein, phospholipase A2 D49 (PLA2 D49, from the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc PLA2. The cDNA encoding Cdc PLA2 from whole venom was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA has high overall sequence identity with the group II PLA2 protein family. Cdc PLA2 has 14 cysteine residues capable of forming seven disulfide bonds that characterize this group of PLA2 enzymes. Cdc PLA2 was isolated using conventional Sephadex G75 column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular mass was estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We tested the neuromuscular blocking activities on chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of Cdc PLA2 showed the existence of two lines of N6-PLA2, denominated F24 and S24. Apparently, the sequences of the New World’s N6-F24-PLA2 are similar to those of the agkistrodotoxin from the Asian genus Gloydius. The sequences of N6-S24-PLA2 are similar to the sequence of trimucrotoxin from the genus Protobothrops, found in the Old World.

  1. Sulfated polysaccharide extracted of the green algae Caulerpa racemosa increase the enzymatic activity and paw edema induced by sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila L. Pires

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides derived from seaweed have shown great potential for use in the development of new drugs. In this study, we observed that a low-molecular-weight sulfated polysaccharide from Caulerpa racemosa, termed CrSP, could interact with secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. When native sPLA2 (14 kDa was incubated with CrSP, they formed a molecular complex (sPLA2:CrSP with a molecular mass of 32 kDa, approximately. Size exclusion chromatography experiments suggested that CrSP formed a stable complex with sPLA2. We belived that sPLA2 and SPCr are involved an ionic interaction between negatively charged CrSP and the positively charged basic amino acid residues of sPLA2, because this interaction induced significant changes in sPLA2 enzymatic and pharmacological activities. CrSP caused a significant increase in sPLA2 enzymatic and bactericidal activity and increased its edematogenic effect. A pharmacological assay showed that the myotoxic activity of sPLA2:CrSP is unrelated to its enzymatic activity and that sPLA2:CrSP may have a practical application as a natural antibacterial agent for use in humans and commercially raised animals.

  2. Immunohistochemical changes in kidney glomerular and tubular proteins caused by rattlesnake (Crotalus vegrandis venom Cambios inmunohistoquímicos en proteínas de túbulo y glomérulo renal causadas por el veneno de la serpiente de cascabel (Crotalus vegrandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Girón

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal damage is an important cause of death in patients who have survived the early effects of severe crotalid envenomation. Extracellular matrix of renal tissue is altered by Crotalus toxin activities. The aim of this study was to describe how cytoskeletal proteins and basal membrane components undergo substantial alterations under the action of Crotalus vegrandis crude venom and its hemorrhagic fraction (Uracoina-1 in mice. To detect the proteins in question, the immunoperoxidase method with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies was used. Cell types within renal lesions were characterized by phenotypic identification, by means of immunohistologic analysis of marker proteins using different primary antibodies against mesangial cells, endothelial cells, cytoskeletal proteins (intermediate filament, extracellular matrix and basal membranes. Samples for morphological study by standard procedures (biotin-streptavidin-peroxidase technique using light microscopy were processed. Positive and negative controls for each antigen tested in the staining assay were included. After crude venom and hemorrhagic fraction inoculation of mice, the disappearance of cytoskeletal vimentin and desmin and collagen proteins in the kidney was observed. In extracellular matrix and basal membranes, collagen type IV from envenomed animals tends to disappear from 24 h to 120 h after venom injection.El daño renal es una causa importante de muerte en pacientes que sobreviven a los efectos iniciales de los severos envenenamientos crotálicos. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido el describir como las proteínas del citoesqueleto y los componentes de membrana basal muestran alteraciones importantes en su manifestación, bajo la acción del veneno crudo de Crotalus vegrandis y una fracción hemorrágica (Uracoina-1 del mismo veneno ya que, la matriz extracelular del tejido renal es alterada por la actividad de estas toxinas. Para detectar las proteínas en cuestión se utiliz

  3. Expression of a new serine protease from Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom in Pichia pastoris and functional comparison with the native enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini-França, Johara; Santos Rodrigues, Renata; Santos-Silva, Ludier Kesser; de Souza, Dayane Lorena Naves; Gomes, Mário Sérgio Rocha; Cologna, Camila Takeno; de Pauw, Edwin; Quinton, Loïc; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; de Melo Rodrigues, Veridiana; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2015-12-01

    Snake venom serine proteases (SVSPs) act primarily on plasma proteins related to blood clotting and are considered promising for the treatment of several hemostatic disorders. We report the heterologous expression of a serine protease from Crotalus durissus collilineatus, named collinein-1, in Pichia pastoris, as well as the enzymatic comparative characterization of the toxin in native and recombinant forms. The complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding collinein-1 was amplified from cDNA library of C. d. collilineatus venom gland and cloned into the pPICZαA vector. The recombinant plasmid was used to transform cells of KM71H P. pastoris. Heterologous expression was induced by methanol and yielded 56 mg of recombinant collinein-1 (rCollinein-1) per liter of culture. The native collinein-1 was purified from C. d. collilineatus venom, and its identity was confirmed by amino acid sequencing. The native and recombinant enzymes showed similar effects upon bovine fibrinogen by releasing preferentially fibrinopeptide A. Although both enzymes have induced plasma coagulation, native Colinein-1 has shown higher coagulant activity. The serine proteases were able to hydrolyze the chromogenic substrates S-2222, S-2238, and S2302. Both enzymes showed high stability on different pH and temperature, and their esterase activities were inhibited in the presence of Zn2+ and Cu2+. The serine proteases showed similar k cat/K m values in enzyme kinetics assays, suggesting no significant differences in efficiency of these proteins to hydrolyze the substrate. These results demonstrated that rCollinein-1 was expressed with functional integrity on the evaluated parameters. The success in producing a functionally active recombinant SVSP may generate perspectives to their future therapeutic applications. PMID:26227411

  4. Isolation and characterization of two disintegrins inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation from the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disintegrins and disintegrin-like proteins are molecules found in the venom of four snake families (Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae, and Colubridae). The disintegrins are nonenzymatic proteins that inhibit cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix interactions, and signal transduction, and may have potential in the treatment of strokes, heart attacks, cancers, and osteoporosis. Prior to 1983, the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake) was known to be only neurotoxic; however, now there is evidence that these snakes can contain venom with: (1) neurotoxins; (2) hemorrhagins; and (3) both neurotoxins and hemorrhagins. In this study, two disintegrins, mojastin 1 and mojastin 2, from the venom of a Mohave rattlesnake collected in central Arizona (Pinal County), were isolated and characterized. The disintegrins in these venoms were identified by mass-analyzed laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry as having masses of 7.436 and 7.636 kDa. Their amino acid sequences are similar to crotratroxin, a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the western diamondback rattlesnake (C. atrox). The amino acid sequence of mojastin 1 was identical to the amino acid sequence of a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the Timber rattlesnake (C. horridus). The disintegrins from the Mohave rattlesnake venom were able to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole human blood both having IC5s of 13.8 nM, but were not effective in inhibiting the binding of human urinary bladder carcinoma cells (T24) to fibronectin

  5. A low-cost method to test cytotoxic effects of Crotalus vegrandis (Serpentes: Viperidae venom on kidney cell cultures Un método de bajo costo para probar los efectos citotóxicos del veneno de Crotalus vegrandis (Serpentes: Viperidae en cultivos de células renales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Girón

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of the renal lesion upon envenomation by snakebite has been related to myolysis, hemolysis, hypotension and/or direct venom nephrotoxicity caused by the venom. Both primary and continuous cell culture systems provide an in vitro alternative for quantitative evaluation of the toxicity of snake venoms. Crude Crotalus vegrandis venom was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. The toxicity of C. vegrandis crude venom, hemorrhagic, and neurotoxic fractions were evaluated on mouse primary renal cells and a continuous cell line of Vero cells maintained in vitro. Cells were isolated from murine renal cortex and were grown in 96 well plates with Dulbecco's Modified Essential Medium (DMEM and challenged with crude and venom fractions. The murine renal cortex cells exhibited epithelial morphology and the majority showed smooth muscle actin determined by immune-staining. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the tetrazolium colorimetric method. Cell viability was less for crude venom, followed by the hemorrhagic and neurotoxic fractions with a CT50 of 4.93, 18.41 and 50.22 µg/mL, respectively. The Vero cell cultures seemed to be more sensitive with a CT50 of 2.9 and 1.4 µg/mL for crude venom and the hemorrhagic peak, respectively. The results of this study show the potential of using cell culture system to evaluate venom toxicity.La patogénesis de la lesion renal ha sido relacionada a la miolisis, hemólisis, hipotensión y/o el efecto directo del veneno. Tanto el cultivo primario o el cultivo celular continuo proveen una alternativa in vitro para la evaluación cuantitativa de la toxicidad de venenos de serpiente. El veneno crudo de Crotalus vegrandis fue fraccionado por una cromatografía de exclusión molecular. La toxicidad del veneno crudo de C. vegrandis, sus fracciones hemorrágicas y neurotóxicas fueron evaluadas en células renales primarias de ratón y una línea continua de células Vero mantenidas in vitro. Las c

  6. Rabbit IgG antibodies against Phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus neutralize the lethal activity of the venom Los anticuerpos IgG de conejos anti-fosfolipasa A2 de Crotalus durissus terrificus neutralizan la actividad letal del veneno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Crotalus durissus terrificus (C.d.t. (South American rattlesnake venom possesses myotoxic and neurotoxic activities, both of which are also expressed by crotoxin, the principal toxin of this venom. Crotoxin contains a basic phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and a non toxic acidic protein, crotapotin. We have produced and investigated the ability of IgG antibodies raised in rabbits against PLA2 to neutralize the lethality of the whole venom. PLA2 was isolated by gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-75. Specific antibodies were obtained by subcutaneous and intramuscular inoculation of PLA2 (700 µg with Freund adjuvant. Groups of six mice (20 + 2 g were inoculated with 0.5 ml i.p. of C. d. t. venom (4 µg or a mixture of venom that had been preincubated with the desired volume of IgG antibodies. Mortality, recorded 24 and 48 h after inoculation, showed that IgG anti-PLA2 were more effective than anticrotalic serum in neutralizing the lethal activity. These results demonstrate that it could be possible to obtain an anti-venom made by specific antibodies with a high level of protection against the lethal component of C.d.t. venom, and/or the inclusion of these antibodies as a supplement in heterologous anti-venoms.El veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus (C.d.t. (Cascabel de Sud América posee actividad miotóxica y neurotóxica, actividades que también exhibe el complejo crotoxina, principal componente tóxico de este veneno. El complejo crotoxina está constituido por una fosfolipasa A2 básica (PLA2 y una proteína acídica no tóxica, el crotapotín. En este trabajo se estudió la capacidad neutralizante de anticuerpos IgG anti-PLA2 sobre la letalidad inducida por el veneno entero. El antígeno PLA2, fue aislado por cromatografía de filtración en gel (Sephadex G-75. Se inocularon conejos machos por vía subcutánea e intramuscular, con 700 µg de PLA2 y adyuvante para la obtención de anticuerpos específicos. La capacidad neutralizante del

  7. The comparison between the humoral response and the neutralizing capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural venom and Co{sup 60} irradiated venom from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netto, D.P. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva]. E-mail: mnetto@uel.br

    2000-07-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with Co{sup 60} to investigate the effects of antigen-irradiation on antivenom production in sheep. Twelve sheep were divided in two groups of 6. One group received irradiated, while the other received natural venom. Three doses of antigen were given at monthly intervals. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD{sub 50} in mice. Weekly blood samples were obtained to evaluate anti-crotalic serum titers by indirect ELISA, neutralization capacity, and serum potency. A complete blood count, plasma protein and fibrinogen concentration, and serum albumin and globulin were also determined. At end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with ovine LD{sub 50}, without clinical abnormalities. (author)

  8. Quadros clínico-patológicos do envenenamento ofídico por Crotalus durissus terrificus e Bothrops spp. em animais de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma revisão dos quadros clínico-patológicos causados pelos venenos de Crotalus durissus terrificus e Bothrops spp. em bovinos, búfalos, ovinos equinos e suínos. Foram compilados os dados obtidos pela experimentação em animais de produção encontrados na literatura e os obtidos através de experimentação realizada por nossa equipe. Também foram revisados os casos naturais de envenenamento ofídico comunicados. Em dois Quadros foram lançados os mais importantes dados dessas revisões, que revelou diversos aspectos interessantes: 1 em nossos experimentos, o veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus, quando injetado por via subcutânea em cavalos, causou um edema acentuado no local da aplicação, ao contrário do que tem sido observado em todas as outras espécies animais, aspecto não relatado na literatura; 2 em nossos experimentos, o veneno de diversas espécies de Bothrops, quando injetado por via subcutânea em bovinos, ovinos e equinos, não causou edema como em geral é relatado na literatura, e sim hemorragias subcutâneas acentuadas no local da aplicação. Nos casos não fatais este sangue era reabsorvido em poucos dias sem deixar sequelas. Exceção foi a reação ao veneno de Bothrops jararacussu, que causou edema nos ovinos experimentais, e tumefação acentuada que resultou em fístula com eliminação de líquido seroso nos equinos experimentais. O objetivo do presente estudo visa contribuir para o aperfeiçoamento do diagnóstico de acidentes ofídicos em animais de produção.

  9. Self-association and active enzyme forms of Naja naja naja and Crotalus atrox phospholipase A2 studied by analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, T; Teller, D C

    1986-12-01

    The dimerization of phospholipase A2 (PLPA2) from Naja naja naja (Pakistani cobra) and Crotalus atrox (Western Diamondback rattlesnake) has been studied from pH 2.5 to 11 at 20 degrees C in 1 mM CaCl2, 0.21 M ionic strength. For the C. atrox enzyme, it was found necessary to use a combination of sedimentation equilibrium and fluorescence yield data to analyze the association. Sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge sufficed for the study of the N. naja PLPA2. In the region of enzymatic activity at pH 8, the dimerization association constants found were k2 = 2.8 X 10(6) L/mol and k2 = 6.9 X 10(4) L/mol for the C. atrox and N. naja enzymes, respectively. Analytical linked functions are presented which describe the data. Because the associations are linked to Ca2+ as well as the hydrogen ion, no attempt was made to interpret the ionization of residues in terms of the molecular structure. Active-enzyme sedimentation velocity experiments have been used to study the relation between enzymatic activity and association for both the C. atrox and N. naja enzymes. The substrate 1,2-dibutyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (diC4PC) did not dissociate the C. atrox PLPA2. The substrate 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (diC6PC) at 7.5 mM dissociated the C. atrox PLPA2 when monitored either as the active enzyme or as the Sr2+-inhibited enzyme. At low enzyme concentrations, 40 mM diC4PC had no effect on N. naja PLPA2 dimerization. However, the sedimentation coefficients observed at enzyme concentrations above 0.2 mg/mL in active-enzyme sedimentation velocity experiments were larger than the values predicted from the thermodynamic studies. Sedimentation coefficients observed for the N. naja PLPA2 acting on diC6PC were larger than those of the monomeric protein, which was the form layered on this substrate. The dissociation of the C. atrox PLPA2 effected by diC6PC was analyzed by the thermodynamics of association and the kinetic Michaelis constant. The

  10. The system of dispute settlement in MERCOSUL: considerations about the South American energy issue; O sistema de resolucao de disputas do MERCOSUL: consideracoes acerca da questao energetica sul-americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Pedro Lucas de Moura [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis

    2009-08-15

    With the advent of globalization, the current tendency is for countries to join in to economic blocs, as such, there is a mutual strengthening. In this context, as this model is developed giving rise to blocks such as MERCOSUL or the European Union, it is necessary that within the block is created a dispute settlement system, marked by the pacifism of their decisions. In this study, we try to show, in general, the operation of the MERCOSUL dispute settlement from the viewpoint of the need for proper functioning of this system and its operation on issues involving energy. For this, we analyzed their normative basements, focusing on the Brasilia Protocol and the Protocol of Olivos, which created and reformulated, respectively, the dispute settlement system of the MERCOSUL.

  11. The streets as examples of "true" democracy? = the South-American experience = As ruas como "verdadeira" democracia?: a experiência Sul-Americana = Las calles como experiencia de "verdadera" democracia?: la experiencia en America del Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Torre , Carlos de la

    2015-01-01

    Com base na literatura existente este estudo analisa como – na virada do século e no século 21 – ativistas no Equador, Venezuela e Bolívia construíram narrativas voltadas para “o povo em ação”. Os defensores das insurreições enquadraram as suas ações em mitos dos povos puros e oprimidos se revoltando contra a tirania das elites econômicas e políticas. Elites responderam diferenciando “o povo autêntico” da turba. Manifestantes pobres, não-brancos e indígenas foram retratados pelas elites como ...

  12. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles Crotoxina em humanos: estudo da ação em músculos extraoculares e faciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.OBJETIVO: A crotoxina é a principal neurotoxina da cascavel sul-americana Crotalus durissus terrificus e sua ação neurotóxica caracteriza-se por um bloqueio pr

  13. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NV< IrV). There was no significant difference (p<5%) for biochemical tests, complete blood count, and animals weight between the three groups tested. The group immunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  14. Biochemical characterization of two crotamine isoforms isolated by a single step RP-HPLC from Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake) venom and their action on insulin secretion by pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, M H; Carneiro, E M; Marangoni, S; Barbosa, R L; Corso, G; Boschero, A C

    2000-03-01

    Crotamine, a neurotoxin present in the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durrisus terrificus exists as several polymorphic variants, as demonstrated by recombinant DNA technology (Smith and Schmidt, Toxicon 28 (1990) 575-585). We have isolated native crotamine by chromatography on Sephadex G75, and have purified two crotamine isoforms (F2 and F3) by a single step of RP-HPLC. Native crotamine and RP-HPLC fractions F2 and F3 produced skeletal muscle spasms and spastic paralysis in mice. At low glucose concentrations (2.8-5.6 mmol/l), none of the crotamines altered the insulin secretion by rat isolated islets. In the presence of 16.7 mmol glucose/l, F2 (5 microg/ml), but not F3, increased insulin secretion two-fold, whereas native crotamine (1.5, 5 and 16.5 microg/ml) potentiated the secretion dose-dependently. The increase in insulin secretion induced by F2 fraction (5 microg/ml) was similar to that obtained with 16.5 microg of native crotamine/ml. These results indicate that the mode of action of the F2 and F3 isoforms in beta-cells is different from that in muscle cells. This difference may be related to the binding affinity of each isoform for the Na(+) channels located in the beta-cell membrane. Crotamine isoforms may be valuable tools for studying the involvement of Na(+) channels in the mechanism of insulin secretion. PMID:10699490

  15. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S. E-mail: rseabra@cevap.org.br

    2005-07-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NV

  16. Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus) in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark A; Douglas, Marlis R; Webb, Colleen T; Collyer, Michael L; Holycross, Andrew T; Painter, Charles W; Kamees, Larry K; Douglas, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs) are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO), an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas) is numerically constricted (N = 151), with few breeding adults (Nb = 24) and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years). Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

  17. Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Davis

    Full Text Available Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO, an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas is numerically constricted (N = 151, with few breeding adults (Nb = 24 and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years. Mean home range (0.07 km2 is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

  18. Energy integration experiences at the Europe, at the Nordic countries and at the Central America: considerations relevant to the South America integration process; Experiencias de integracao energetica na Europa, nos paises nordicos e na America Central: consideracoes relevantes ao processo de integracao Sul-Americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriana Fiorotti; Andreza, Fernanda Marques Pereira; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Bacile; Oliveira, Ricardo Gorini de [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: adriana.campos@epe.gov.br, fernanda.andreza@epe.gov.br; jeferson.soares@epe.gov.br, maria.pinheiro, ricardo.gorini@epe.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In view of institutional/contractual regulatory problems at the South America, some experiences of energy integration at the electrical sectors and natural gas (Nordic countries. European Union and Central America), identifying related vantages and advantageous. Besides, there is an attempt of characterization of the process step of energy integration, and the fitting of regions in these steps, observing that the process of energy integration in the South America it is found in a initial step yet if it is considered the used methodology by the Colombian enterprise Interconexion Electrica S.A.E.S.P. - ISA (2007)

  19. Desenvolvimento e aplicação de metodologia por cromatografia em camada delgada para determinação do perfil de alcalóides oxindólicos pentacíclicos nas espécies sul-americanas do gênero Uncaria Development and application of a thin layer chromatographic method for the determination of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid profile in South-American species of the genus Uncaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia M.M. Valente

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Uncaria (Rubiaceae é representado na América do Sul e Central por duas espécies: U. tomentosa (Willd. DC. e U. guianensis (Aubl. Gmel., conhecidas popularmente como unha-de-gato. Ambas são trepadeiras perenes, sendo empregadas na prevenção e cura de várias doenças. Nessas plantas são encontrados alcalóides oxindólicos e indólicos, triterpenos glicosilados, taninos e flavonóides. Seis alcalóides oxindólicos pentacíclicos, considerados seus marcadores: especiofilina, mitrafilina, uncarina F, isomitrafilina, pteropodina e isopteropodina, são usados na padronização do material vegetal e fitoterápicos derivados. O presente trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento de metodologia analítica qualitativa utilizando cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD para determinação do perfil dos seis alcalóides oxindólicos pentacíclicos marcadores das espécies. O desenvolvimento do método incluiu a comparação entre o uso do extrato metanólico bruto, e de frações enriquecidas obtidas por partição ácido-base clássica ou pelo uso de resina básica Poliamida 6. Utilizou-se gel de sílica como fase estacionária, e variaram-se alguns parâmetros como: eluentes, concentração da amostra, espaço de eluição e tipos de reveladores. O método desenvolvido em CCD mostrou-se confiável, reprodutível e seletivo para os alcalóides alvos, sendo aplicado na análise de amostras de folhas e caule das duas espécies e também de fitoterápicos comerciais à base de U. tomentosa.The species Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. DC. and U. guianensis Gmel. (Rubiaceae, known as cat's claw, are large woody vines occurring in the Amazon rain forest and other tropical areas of South and Central America. It has been used medicinally by indigenous peoples for at least 2,000 years for several diseases. Tetra- and pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids, triterpenoid glycosides, sterols and flavonoids are found in these plants. Among these metabolites, six pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids, speciophylline, mitraphylline, pteropodine, uncarine F, isopteropodine and isomitraphylline, are considered to be the biochemical markers and are used to standardize commercial herbal medicines. The present study describes the development of an analytical methodology to determine the profile of these alkaloid markers through thin layer chromatography (TLC. This development has also included a comparison among the use of the crude methanol extract and fractions obtained through the classical acid-base partition or by using the basic resin Polyamide 6. Silica gel was used as stationary phase with the variation of some parameters such as solvent systems, sample concentration, distance of development and detection method. The TLC method developed was shown to be reliable, reproducible and selective for the target alkaloids. It has been applied to the analysis of leaves and stems from both species as well as phytopharmaceutical derivatives based on U. tomentosa.

  20. Gopherus agassizii (desert tortoise) and Crotalus ruber (red diamond rattlesnake). Burrow co-occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    I observed an adult Desert Tortoise and an adult Red Diamond Rattlesnake (sexes unknown) in a shallow tortoise burrow on 6 January 1997 at a wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, Riverside Co., California, USA (33.9599°N, 116.6613°W).

  1. Effects of ionizing radiation in crotamine from Crotalus durissus terrificus venous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations are sufficiently energetic and able to cleave any chemical bond. Molecules of substances present in solution have been shown either by direct or indirect action of ionizing radiations loss of biological activity. Crotamine obtained from C. d. terrificus venom by molecular exclusion cromatography was irradiated in aqueous solution of 1 mg/ml by gamma rays produced on a 60Co source. Doses of 100 Gy, 2000 Gy and 5000 Gy (Dose rate = 1,14 x 103 Gy/h) in presence of O2 were used for the comparison of properties of irradiated and non irradiated samples; the following assays were performed: determination of protein concentration, presence of free SH groups, SDS-Page and Ouchterlony's immunodiffusion. The Ellman's reaction for free SH groups was positive in the irradiated protein and negative one. The protein concentration was not altered up to the dose of 2000 Gy in relation to the native protein: at the dose of 5000 Gy was observed a loss of 55% of the proteic material. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed the formation of protein aggregates in the dose of 2000 Gy and 5000 Gy. A loss of the antigenic activity was observed both in the dose of 2000 Gy and 5000 Gy againt sera anticrotalic. Further studies was perfomed with crotamine irradiated at the dose of 2000 Gy in aqueous solution, O2 absence and in presence of different concentrations of radioprotectors such as: cystein, sodium nitrate and tert-butanol. The level of the radioprotection to the toxin was estimated through the simple radical immunodiffusion technique. According to the technique the best radioprotective agent was cysteine. Since the antigenic determinants were preserved and in the SDS-PAGE analysis the crotamine structure was maintained entire like the non irradiated toxin. (author)

  2. Labio leporino bilateral en una nidada de cascabel (Crotalus durissus terrificus)

    OpenAIRE

    Grisolia, Carlos S.; Stanchi, Néstor Oscar

    1989-01-01

    El Laboratorio y Museo de Animales Venenosos (LYMAV) realiza desde hace más de 15 años estudios relacionados con ofidios y sus venenos; es así que recibe cotidianamente ejemplares provenientes de distintas zonas del país y del exterior. Los hallazgos teratológicos en ofidios no son frecuentes de encontrar (Bellairs y Boyd, 1957; García de Langlada, 1973; Dean et al., 1980), ya que la reproducción en cautiverio no es algo común, más aún, la mayor parte de los ejemplares que se reciben son adul...

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation on crotoxin (toxin of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom): molecular studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is know that the ionizing radiation is able to change significantly the biological and antigenic response of a toxin depending of the dose and irradiation's conditions, probable by structural alterations caused by radiation. In this work, the crotoxin, principal neurotoxin of the South American rattlesnake venom, was isolated using molecular exclusion chromatography with Sephadex G-75 and follwed by precipitation on the isoelectric point. Fractions in the concentration of 2 mg of protein/m1 0.85% NaCl were irradiated in a source of sup(60)Co GAMMACELL with dose rate of 1100 Gy/h using doses of 250, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 Gy. It was determinated for these samples, the proteic concentration (Lowry's method), the content sulphydryl (Ellman's method), the profile electrophoretic (SDS-PAGE), the toxicity by lethal dose 50% in mice and the antigenic response using crotalic antiserum by the diffusion imunoassay (Ouchterlony's method). The results showed the formation of aggregates and loss of protein in solution by precipitation. In the dose of 1000 Gy and higher it was possible to observe the presence of sulphydryl groups indicating the breakage of S-S bridges. The lethal dose 50% increased 2 times for the dose of 1000 Gy and 3.5 times for 1500 Gy shoding a detoxication. By the other hand, the antigenic response seems to be still intact at doses up to 1000 Gy. (author)

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on isolated toxin of Crotalus durissus terrificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is know that the ionizing radiation is able to change significantly the biological and antigenic behaviour of a toxin depending of the dose and radiation's conditions, probably by structural alterations caused by radiation. In this paper, the crotoxin, principal neurotoxin of the south american rattlesnake venom, was isolated using molecular exclusion cromatography with Sephadex G-75 and followed by precipitation of the isoeletric point. (pI 4.7.). Fractions in the concentration of 2 mg toxin/ml 0.85 % NaCl were irradiated in a source of 60Co GAMMACELL with dose rate of 1100 Gy/hr using doses of 250,500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 Gy. It was determinated for this samples, the proteic concentration (Lowry's method), the antigenic capability using crotalic antiserum by the diffusion imunoassay (Ouch - terlony's method), the DL50 in mice and eletrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed that the antigenic capability seems to be intact until dose of 1000 Gy. By the other hand, the LD50 in the same radiation dose increases more than two times when compared with the native sample. As the radiation dose increases, the solutions became turbid showing loss of protein probably by the presence of aggregates as can be seen by the determination of the proteic concentration and the eletrophoretic control. Other important changs were observed with the irrdiated samples in comparison with the native crotoxin that can given us additional information about dose-effect event. (author)

  5. In vitro evaluation of copaiba oil as a kojic acid skin enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Vicente Machado de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of copaíba oil to act as a skin penetration enhancer for the depigmenting agent kojic acid was evaluated using an in vitro diffusion system with static flux and shed rattlesnake skin membrane, Crotalus durissus terrificus, in saline solution at 34±2 ºC as the fluid receptor. The quantities of kojic acid liberated into the fluid receptor were determined by spectrophotometry at 268 nm with intervals of one and a half hours. The membranes, pretreated with copaíba oil at 25% and 50% v/v, gave flux values of 8.0 and 12.7 µg/cm²/h, permeability values of 2.0 and 3.3 cm×10-4/h, and promotion factors of 4.1 and 3.7, respectively. These results indicate that copaíba oil, at the two concentrations studied, has the capacity to promote penetration of kojic acid.A propriedade do óleo de copaíba como agente promotor de penetração cutânea do despigmentante ácido kójico foi avaliada utilizando-se sistema de difusão in vitro com fluxo estático, membrana de pele da serpente cascavel - Crotalus durissus terrificus e solução salina a 34±2 ºC como fluido receptor. As quantidades liberadas do ácido kójico no fluido receptor foram determinadas por espectrofotometria em 268 nm em intervalos de 1:30 h. As membranas pré-tratadas com óleo de copaíba a 25 e 50% v/v apresentaram valores de fluxo de 8,0 e 12,7 µg/cm²/h, permeabilidade de 2,0 e 3,3 cm×10-4/h, e fatores de promoção de 4,1 e 3,7, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o óleo de copaíba, nas duas concentrações estudadas, apresentou capacidade de promoção da penetração do ácido kójico.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of two vascular apoptosis-inducing proteins (VAPs) from Crotalus atrox venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (VAP1) and VAP2 from C. atrox venom were crystallized in variety of different crystal forms. Diffraction data sets were obtained to 2.5 and 2.15 Å resolution for VAP1 and VAP2, respectively. VAPs are haemorrhagic snake-venom toxins belonging to the reprolysin family of zinc metalloproteinases. In vitro, VAPs induce apoptosis specifically in cultured vascular endothelial cells. VAPs have a modular structure that bears structural homology to mammalian ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases). VAP1 is a homodimer with a MW of 110 kDa in which the monomers are connected by a single disulfide bridge. VAP2 is homologous to VAP1 and exists as a monomer with a MW of 55 kDa. In the current study, several crystal forms of VAP1 and VAP2 were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data sets were collected using SPring-8 beamlines. The best crystals of VAP1 and VAP2 generated data sets to 2.5 and 2.15 Å resolution, respectively

  7. Eficiência da remoção de óleos e graxas de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto sanitário, Cascavel - Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Orsatto; Eliane Hermes; Marcio Antonio Vilas Boas

    2010-01-01

    The oils and greases are organic substances of mineral, vegetal or animal origin, being the third constituent of the domestic sewer in quantitative terms. In digestors, if in great amount, they cause problems, therefore they form a dense scum layer in the surface of the same ones, harming the process of treatment of the sewer and when depositing itself in the interior of the tubings, it can provoke restrictions to the liquid flow, reduction of the speed of the draining, rise of the height of ...

  8. DISCURSO POLÍTICO E O SOCIALISMO DO SÉCULO XXI NA AMÉRICA DO SUL

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Pinheiro de Araujo

    2015-01-01

    A política sul-americana transformou-se na primeira década do século XXI. Presenciamos um conjunto de processos insurrecionais que fizeram das novas formas de movimentos sociais os protagonistas das lutas na região. Na Bolívia, no Equador e na Venezuela o recrudescimento da luta de classes propiciou a ascensão de governos que expressaram esse novo momento. Evo Morales, Rafael Corrêa e Hugo Chávez simbolizaram a emergência de um novo momento político na América do Sul. Diferentemente de períod...

  9. Diversidade alfa e beta no cerrado sensu strictu da Chapada Pratinha, Brasil Alfa and Beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Felfili; Jeanine Maria Felfili

    2001-01-01

    O bioma cerrado possui uma das mais ricas floras dentre as savanas mundiais com mais de 6000 espécies, abrange uma vasta extensão territorial, contém as três maiores bacias hidrográficas sul americanas, e se destaca pela elevada biodiversidade. O objetivo deste trabalho, que faz parte do Projeto Biogeografia do Bioma Cerrado, foi analisar as diversidades alfa e beta em comunidades de cerrado sensu stricto. Foram amostrados o Parque Nacional de Brasília, a Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas,...

  10. Teoria Geopolítica e interpretações do continente sul-americano: marco geopolítico regional e a formação da Unasul

    OpenAIRE

    Bragatti, Milton Carlos

    2016-01-01

    As dimensões continentais da América do Sul, suas tensões e arranjos geopolíticos, são objeto de adaptações e recontextualizações de conceitos-chave da “teoria geopolítica clássica”: na obra de vários autores, podemos encontrar claramente a utilização e releitura de formulações elaboradas por Ratzel, Mackinder, Haushofer e Mahan, entre outros. O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar uma breve bibliografia de estudos de Geopolítica sul-americana, especialmente trabalhos que apresentam “re-interpre...

  11. Análise cladística e biogeográfica dos gêneros do grupo Sitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini) Cladistic and biogeographic analysis of the genera of the group Sitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kátia Matiotti da Costa; Augusto Ferrari; Gervásio Silva Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    Uma análise cladística do relacionamento entre as espécies sul-americanas do grupo Sitalces (Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Psilocirtus Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Robustusacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Arimacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Salvadoracris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 e Caruaruacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006) é apresentada. A análise incluiu 14 espécies com três grupos-externos e 34 caracteres morfológicos. A monofilia do gr...

  12. The unequal influences of the left and right vagi on the control of the heart and pulmonary artery in the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, E.W.; Andrade, Denis V.; Abe, Augusto A.;

    2009-01-01

    Autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in reptiles includes sympathetic components but heart rate (fH), pulmonary blood flow ( pul) and cardiac shunt patterns are primarily controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. The vagus innervates both the heart and a sphincter on the pulmona...... paves the way for an investigation of the role of the cardiac shunt in regulating metabolic rate, as chronic left vagotomy will cause a pronounced left–right shunt in recovered animals, whilst leaving intact control of the heart, via the right vagus....... artery. The present study reveals that whereas both the left and right vagi influence fH, it is only the left vagus that influences pulmonary vascular resistance. This is associated with the fact that rattlesnakes, in common with some other species of snakes, have a single functional lung, as the other...... lung regresses during development. Stimulation of the left cervical vagus in anaesthetised snakes slowed the heart and markedly reduced blood flow in the pulmonary artery whereas stimulation of the right cervical vagus slowed the heart and caused a small increase in stroke volume (VS) in both the...

  13. Anti-invasive and anti-adhesive activities of a recombinant disintegrin, r-viridistatin 2, derived from the Prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucena, Sara E; Jia, Ying; Soto, Julio G.; Parral, Jessica; Cantu, Esteban; Brannon, Jeremy; Lardner, Kristina; Ramos, Carla J.; Seoane, Agustin I.; Sánchez, Elda E

    2012-01-01

    Snake venom disintegrins inhibit platelet aggregation and have anti-cancer activities. In this study, we report the cloning, expression, and functional activities of a recombinant disintegrin, r-viridistatin 2 (GenBank ID: JQ071899), from the Prairie rattlesnake. r-Viridistatin 2 was tested for anti-invasive and anti-adhesive activities against six different cancer cell lines (human urinary bladder carcinoma (T24), human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080), human skin melanoma (SK-Mel-28), human colorecta...

  14. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value. PMID:26658410

  15. As relações Colômbia, países vizinhos e Estados Unidos: visões em torno da agenda de segurança Relations between Colombia, its neighbours and the United States: views on the Security Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Duarte Villa; Maria del Pilar Ostos

    2005-01-01

    Este artigo trabalha a tese de que a agenda de segurança dos EUA para Colômbia, que adquire expressão concreta em mecanismos como o Plano Colômbia e a Iniciativa Regional Andina, continuará sendo o eixo central da política de segurança na região sul-americana. No entanto, a noção de segurança que têm em mente os decisions makers dos EUA no caso colombiano reflete uma visão nas percepções de ameaças na que se misturam fortemente elementos novos ("as novas ameaças"), como o tráfico de drogas e ...

  16. Transfronteirizações na América do Sul: uma agenda de pesquisa sobre dinâmicas territoriais nas fronteiras meridional e setentrional do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldomar Arnaldo Rückert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma agenda de pesquisa em desenvolvimento sobre cenários de dinâmicas territoriais transfronteiriças com atenção em políticas territoriais dirigidas às conexões de infraestruturas sul-americanas e a áreas protegidas no norte amazônico / Planalto das Guianas. A agenda de pesquisa e seus problemas regionais estão localizados em regiões de fronteiras brasileiras no extremos sul e norte, isto é: i as fronteiras do Mercosul no Arco Sul do Brasil - estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná ao longo do Uruguai, Argentina e Paraguai (macrorregião da Bacia do Prata e ii a fronteira franco-brasileira no Arco Norte do Brasil - Estado do Amapá ao longo da Guiana Francesa (macrorregião do Planalto das Guianas.

  17. Geoconservação da Ilha da Trindade: Principais Aspectos e Potencial de Uso

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Luiz Campos Pires; Kátia Leite Mansur; Everton Marques Bongiolo

    2013-01-01

    A Ilha da Trindade situa-se próxima ao paralelo de Vitória (ES) a 1.167 km da costa brasileira. É considerada como a manifestação vulcânica alcalina mais recente do Brasil (< 3,6 Ma). Ela representa o extremo leste de uma cadeia E-W de guyots (cadeia VitóriaTrindade), gerada ao longo de uma zona de fraturas e lineamentos submarinos associados à passagem de uma pluma mantélica sob a placa Sul-americana. A ilha é composta por ciclos de vulcanismo olivina-nefelinítico a fonolítico em um...

  18. Podem as novas tecnologias de informação e comunicação auxiliar na consolidação das democracias? Um estudo sobre a informatização dos órgãos legislativos na América do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Soares Braga

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os resultados de pesquisa sobre a informatização dos órgãos legislativos da América do Sul. Procuramos refletir sobre o impacto da internet no funcionamento das instituições democráticas sul-americanas através do exame comparado da organização dos websites dos órgãos parlamentares dos diferentes países. Esse objetivo geral desdobra-se em dois objetivos específicos: a) Apresentar uma proposta de mensuração do grau de informatização destes órgãos parlamentar...

  19. A construção do herói: Francisco Solano López e os livros didáticos de história = Building the hero: Francisco Solano Lopez and history textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Leonardo Poltozi

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho que tem por título “A construção do Herói: Francisco Solano López e os livros didáticos de História” visou possibilitar uma reflexão acerca da tentativa de construção da imagem deste personagem ora como ditador, ora libertador dentro da historiografia sul-americana e mais propriamente nos livros didáticos dos países envolvidos no maior confronto bélico sul-americano, conhecido como Guerra do Paraguai (1864 – 1870). A proposta foi averiguar o olhar que alguns autores brasil...

  20. Structure of an Engineered Porcine Phospholipase A2 with Enhanced Activity at 2.1 Å Resolution. Comparison with the Wild-type Porcine and Crotalus atrox Phospholipase A2

    OpenAIRE

    Thunnissen, Marjolein M. G. M.; Kalk, Kor H.; Drenth, Jan; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1990-01-01

    The crystal structure of an engineered phospholipase A2 with enhanced activity has been refined to an R-factor of 18.6% at 2.1 Å resolution using a combination of molecular dynamics refinement by the GROMOS package and least-squares refinement by TNT. This mutant phospholipase was obtained previously by deleting residues 62 to 66 in porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2, and changing Asp59 to Ser, Ser60 to Gly and Asn67 to Tyr. The refined structure allowed a detailed comparison with wild-type ...

  1. Energy inputs and outputs in the wheat production at different localizations; Balanco de energia na producao de trigo em diferentes locais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollmann, Pedro; Greco, Marcelo; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: jefersonklein@yahoo.com.br; Klein, Jeferson [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil); Palagi, Celso A.; Jurach, Jorge J. [Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agricola Tecnologia da Nossa Terra (COODETEC), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The intensifying and modernization of agriculture, in spite of improving the productivity, it caused a complete petroleum derived dependence, so much in the form of fuels, lubricants and machinery, as in the form of inputs for the production. This work had as objective to esteem the energy inputs and outputs and the energy conversion, in two different local, in the west of Parana State/Brazil. The largest consumption was observed for the direct energy category, with 95.6% and 95.28% in Cascavel and Palotina, respectively. In the direct energy flow, the Palotina production spent 5,0% more. The consumption of fossil energy was of 22.32% for the Palotina farm and of 23.84% for the Cascavel farm. The energy conversion was of 3.2 and 1.8, for the wheat productions in Cascavel and Palotina, respectively. (author)

  2. Descrição da larva de último estádio de Micrathyria pseudeximia Westfall (Odonata, Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Schmidt Dalzochio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A larva de último estádio de Micrathyria pseudeximia Westfall, 1992 é descrita e ilustrada a partir de material procedente de Cascavel, Paraná, Brasil. A caracterização do gênero com base nas larvas é ampliada.Description of the Ultimate Stadium Larva of Micrathyria pseudeximia Westfall(Odonata, Libellulidae.Abstract. The larva of ultimate stadium of Micrathyria pseudeximia Westfall, 1992 is described and illustrated based on material collected in Cascavel Municipality, Paraná State, Brazil. The generic concept based on the larvae is amplified.

  3. Snakebite-induced acute kidney injury in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Fábia M Oliveira; Yu, Luis; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2008-07-01

    There are 4 genera of venomous snakes in Latin America: Bothrops, Crotalus, Lachesis, and Micrurus. Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported consistently after Bothrops and Crotalus envenomations. In fact, these 2 genera of snakes are responsible, along with the Russell's viper, for the majority of cases of snakebite-induced AKI reported worldwide. Although the Bothrops snakes are the leading cause of venomous snakebites in Latin America, the absolute number of AKI cases seen after Bothrops and Crotalus snakebites is similar. In this article the main characteristics of Bothrops and Crotalus snakes and their venoms, the clinical picture, and the pattern of accidents, risk factors, and mechanisms of renal injury are reviewed. PMID:18620958

  4. Management of venomous snakebites in dogs and cats in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    R. S. FERREIRA JÚNIOR; B. Barravieira

    2004-01-01

    Snake envenoming is a major problem both to veterinary and human medicine in tropical countries due to high incidence, severity, and sequelae. In Brazil, most envenomings involving animals are caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snakes; these are the highest risk to animals. This study reports on Bothrops and Crotalus envenomings in dogs, the main species responsible for epidemiology, pathogenesis, venom action, clinical signs, sequelae and complications, clinical pathology, necropsy findings, di...

  5. Companhia docas do Pará (CDP: plataforma logística do capital internacional na Amazônia oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jondison Cardoso Rodrigues

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 2007, começa a ser constituída uma estratégica nacional, no seio do governo federal. Estratégia essa direcionada por meio de investimentos estratégicos relacionados à logística de transportes, portos e ao setor energético. Foram reproduzidas políticas, programas e projetos. Entre os principais estão: o Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento - PAC, o Plano Nacional de Logística e Transportes - PNLT, a Iniciativa de Integração Sul-americana - IIRSA. A Companhia Docas do Pará (CDP se insere nesse contexto por ser a empresa que administra e explora as áreas portuárias paraenses (porto de Santarém, Vila do Conde, Belém, Itaituba, Óbidos, Altamira, Miramar e Outeiro. Considerando tal discussão, o objetivo deste artigo é analisar, criticamente, o papel da CDP e dos seus portos diante do avanço das frentes econômicas em direção à Amazônia Oriental, os investimentos e as suas adequações para o recebimento do capital internacional.

  6. Sistemas de Salud en Suramérica: desafios para la universalidad, la integralidad y la equidad; Ligia Giovanella, Oscar Feo, Mariana Faria, Sebastián Tobar (orgs., ISAGS/UNASUR, Rio de Janeiro, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cris na Souto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O livro aqui apresentado não é resultado apenas de um projeto editorial, mas de um importante avanço que tem ocorrido nos países da América do Sul nesses últimos anos: a criação da União das Nações Sul-americanas (Unasul e do Instituto Sul-americano de Governo em Saúde (Isags, instituição integrante dessa União. Com o propósito de circular conhecimento, realizar debates e análise conjuntural e política, além de buscar o estreitamento dos 12 países membros, o Isags tem realizado importantes eventos. Este livro é fruto de uma de suas iniciativas, a Ofi cina Sistemas de Saúde na América do Sul: desafi os para a universalidade, a integralidade e a equidade, ocorrida em julho de 2011 na cidade do Rio de Janeiro.

  7. As relações Colômbia, países vizinhos e Estados Unidos: visões em torno da agenda de segurança Relations between Colombia, its neighbours and the United States: views on the Security Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trabalha a tese de que a agenda de segurança dos EUA para Colômbia, que adquire expressão concreta em mecanismos como o Plano Colômbia e a Iniciativa Regional Andina, continuará sendo o eixo central da política de segurança na região sul-americana. No entanto, a noção de segurança que têm em mente os decisions makers dos EUA no caso colombiano reflete uma visão nas percepções de ameaças na que se misturam fortemente elementos novos ("as novas ameaças", como o tráfico de drogas e fatores clássicos.This article works the thesis that the security agenda of the USA for Colombia, that acquires a concrete expression in mechanisms like the Colombia Plan and the Andean Regional Initiative, will remain as the central axis of the security policy in the South-American region. However, the notion of security that the decision makers of the USA have in mind in the Colombian case reflects a vision focused on the perceptions of threat in which new elements ("the new threats", such as traffic, and classical factors are mixed.

  8. Clinical presentation and management of an Aruban rattlesnake bite in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, Marieke A; Damhuis, Dorien E M; Meulenbelt, Jan; de Vries, Irma

    2016-06-01

    Bites by Aruban Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus unicolor) are rare and not known to induce severe envenomations. Here, we present a case of a 57 year-old man bitten by his pet Aruban Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus unicolor). He was admitted to hospital within 15 min. Three and a half hours later his fibrinogen concentration decreased to 0.6 g/L (normal: 2.0-4.0). Nine hours post-bite, he was treated with polyvalent snake antivenom covering Crotalus durissus. Three hours later his fibrinogen became undetectable while at that time clotting times were prolonged (PT 38.7 s (normal: 12.5-14.5) and aPTT 40 s (normal: 25-35)). His platelet count remained within normal limits. Creatine kinase (CK) concentrations reached a maximum of 1868 U/L (normal: <200) 16 h post-bite. After a second antivenom dose, 10.5 h after the first antivenom administration, clotting times returned to normal. Fibrinogen was restored to normal within three days. He was discharged from hospital on day five. In conclusion, administration of polyvalent snake antivenom covering Crotalus durissus snakebites shows cross-neutralization and is effective in the treatment of patients bitten by Crotalus durissus unicolor. PMID:27023827

  9. MANAGERS CONNECTED THROUGH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Osmarina Pedro Garcia Garcia; Claudio Mioranza; Edison Luiz Leismann

    2015-01-01

    This study had as its central objective to ascertain how managers connect with information technology. The methodology applied was an exploratory research, through a structured questionnaire survey based on qualitative and quantitative approach. The study interviewed eighteen managers in a city in Brazil (Cascavel – Paraná), from the industrial segment distributed in several areas, selected by the non-probabilistic method, considering the samples by convenience. The research results showed...

  10. Lipid profiles and inflammatory markers after periodontal treatment in children with congenital heart disease and at risk for atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bresolin AC; Pronsatti MM; Pasqualotto LN; Nassar PO; Jorge AS; Silva EA; Nassar CA

    2013-01-01

    Adriana Chassot Bresolin,1 Mariana Menegassi Pronsatti,2 Larissa Nicole Pasqualotto,2 Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar,3 Alex Sandro Jorge,4 Edson Antonio Alves da Silva,5 Carlos Augusto Nassar3 1Department of Biosciences and Health, 2School of Dentistry, 3Department of Periodontology, 4School of Biochemistry, 5Graduate Program, Western Paraná State University (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: Due to the biological associations between periodontal and cardiovascul...

  11. Allelopathy of Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae) on germination and early development of Bidens pilosa (L.) and Glycine max (L.) Merr

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica da Silva; Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes; Fernanda Melo Gomes; Tassiane Terezinha Pinto; Thaliny Bonamigo; Nayara Parisoto Boiago

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the possible presence of allelopathic potential in camelina, as well as its effect on germination and early growth of soybean seedlings and beggarticks, in order, to verify the possibility of cultivating it with soybeans in a culture rotation system and its use as a herbicide. The experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. The design was completely randomized and the evaluations...

  12. Frontières vivantes, frontières mouvantes – flux et reflux entre le Brésil et les pays voisins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mérian, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A marcha para o oeste, a conquista do espaço interior, foi uma característica fundamental da história da colônia e posteriormente do Brasil independente. No século XX o espírito “bandeirante” vem se manifestando de forma diferente. A geopolítica definida na era Vargas insiste no destino manifesto do Brasil, no papel de futura potência regional na América do sul. Estas previsões estão se realizando no começo do século XXI. O crescimento econômico (agro-indústria exportadora e a realização de grandes obras ao longo das fronteiras com os países vizinhos, assim como a instalação de quase meio milhão de brasileiros, os “brasiguaios”, se instalaram na região leste do Paraguai e um fenômeno semelhante está em andamento no nordeste da Bolívia, onde se instalam os chamados “brasivianos”. Esssses [sic] fluxos populacionais, muito mais importantes que aqueles constituídos por bolivianos e paraguaios que se instalam nas grandes cidades brasileiras, levantam problemas de índole diversa: geopolíticos, implicando questões relativas à integração sul americana, a integração e a assimilação desses migrantes e os diversos problemas que acarreta. O tema das “fronteiras vivas” é polêmico. Este artigo procura tratá-lo sem preconceitos, com a consciência de que nenhuma solução pré estabelecida existe para os problemas novos que se apresentam nessas sociedades em mutação.

  13. Política externa brasileira: as diferentes percepções sobre o Mercosul = Brazilian foreign policy: the dissimilar perceptions about Mercosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiva, Miriam Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A eleição de Lula para a presidência, junto com as eleições de Néstor Kirchner e Tabaré Vásquez, abriu caminho para a construção de expectativas sobre um avanço do Mercosul. No entanto, esta expectativa confirmou-se apenas parcialmente e, pouco a pouco, a dimensão mais sul-americana sob a liderança brasileira foi ocupando um lugar prioritário na política externa brasileira. Suas lacunas passaram a ser então objeto de atenção de estudiosos brasileiros. Com esta preocupação, um dos elementos que limitam seu aprofundamento refere-se às percepções e expectativas diferentes que existem sobre o bloco no interior de seus estados membros, perpassando tanto os diplomatas, burocratas de outras agências governamentais. O artigo avalia o caso do Mercosul acudindo à análise das ideias sobre as quais se fundamentam as iniciativas de integração, tomando como base as ideias dos atores governamentais brasileiros – com destaque para a diplomacia – desde os anos 80 até nossos dias. O artigo é dividido em quatro partes: a apresentação das percepções do processo de integração que permearam o aparato governamental brasileiro; descrição e análise da evolução destas ideias; as ideias presentes no governo de Lula; e as conclusões.

  14. As estratégias de cooperação Sul-Sul nos marcos da política externa brasileira de 1993 a 2007 South-South cooperation strategies in Brazilian Foreign Policy from 1993 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Gomes Saraiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é analisar as duas vertentes da cooperação sul-sul adotadas pela política externa brasileira entre 1993 e 2007. Por um lado, o artigo examina a política externa brasileira em face da América do Sul: o Mercosul e a cooperação sul-americana em termos mais gerais que, dentro do arco das atuações externas do país, é o tipo de cooperação sul-sul identificada como prioritária. Por outro lado, dedicará também algumas reflexões para a cooperação do Brasil com outros países considerados emergentes e system-affecting, em outros continentes, como é o caso da África do Sul, Índia, China e, em diferente medida, da Rússia.The aim of this article is to analyze the two approaches to South-South cooperation evident in Brazilian foreign policy between 1993 and 2007. On one hand the article examines Brazilian foreign policy towards South America. Specifically, cooperation with Mercosur members and South-American cooperation broadly conceptualized. The region is a foreign policy priority among its south-south cooperation activities. On the other hand, this paper reflects on Brazilian cooperation with other emerging and "system-affecting" countries that belong to other continents, such as South Africa, India and China, and to a certain extent, Russia.

  15. Em busca de uma nova inserção da América Latina na economia global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Cacciamali

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir, de forma interdisciplinar, as condições necessárias e os caminhos para concretizar um modelo econômico e político de maior autonomia no cenário mundial para os países da América do Sul. O enfoque parte das condições políticas e sociais configuradas pela região ao fim da primeira década do presente século, enfatizando o papel do Brasil e considerando as relações econômicas e políticas do contexto internacional, a estabilidade política e o crescente protagonismo da China nos países da região. Analisa ainda aspectos referentes à importância da política social e da política de defesa comum sob a União das Nações Sul-Americanas (Unasul.The aim of this paper is to discuss, in an interdisciplinary way, the necessary conditions and steps to achieve a more autonomous political and economic model on the world stage for South America countries. It departs from the political and social conditions of the region by the end of the first decade of this century. Emphasis is placed on the role of Brazil across the region in the light of the economic and political relations in the international arena, political stability and the growing influence of China. It also examines issues concerning the importance of maintaining an inclusive social policy and a common defense policy under the Southern America Nations Union (Unasur.

  16. Premissas da história do estabelecimento dos contatos entre o Brasil e a Rússia Premises of the history of the contacts establishment between Brazil and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena AZ Zhebit

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O Imperador Russo e o eminente reformador da Rússia, Pedro, o Grande, "abriu" a Rússia para a Europa e, principalmente, deu aos russos a oportunidade de conhecer o mundo. Várias expedições foram lançadas para explorar novas terras. Neste contexto, surgiram alguns projetos no início do século XIX, estimulando a penetração russa na América Latina. O interesse geopolítico da coroa russa era bastante ambicioso por estabelecer comércio direto com as colônias sul-americanas a fim de facilitar o "abastecimento" da Kamchatka e da América Russa em cereais, rum e açúcar. Esse objetivo foi atingido com o dinheiro da Companhia Russo-Americana, inclusive com os investimentos dos grandes comerciantes russos – membros da Companhia.The Russian Emperor and the eminent Russian reformer Peter, the Great, "opened" Russia to Europe and, basically, gave the Russians a chance to know the world. Several expeditions were launched to discover new lands. In this context, various projects of a Latin American exploration appear at the beginning of the XIXth century, favouring Russian penetration into Latin America. The geo-political interest of the Russian Crown was ambitious enough to establish a direct trade with Southern American colonies with the aim of "contributing" to provide Kamchatka peninsula and the Russian America with grain, rum and sugar. This purpose was achieved by the money of the Russian-American Company, as well as through the investments of big Russian merchants, members of the Company.

  17. PRODUCTION OF AN EFFECTIVE ANTI-Bothrops-TETANUS MIXED HYPERIMMUNE SERUM OF EQUINE ORIGIN

    OpenAIRE

    R. GUIDOLIN; M. A. STEPHANO; J.F. Morais; E. H. SAKAGUTI; S. M. A. PRADO; F. FRATELLI; M. D. C. VANCETTO; H. G. HIGASHI

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation reveals the possibility of simultaneous immunization of horses with Bothrops or Crotalus snake venoms and Tetanus antigens for the production of anti-Bothrops-Tetanus or anti-Crotalus-Tetanus mixed serum, with high titers of the respective specific antibodies. Bothrops antivenoms with an average neutralizing titer of 4.16 mg venom/ml were obtained from plasma of horses with titers lower than 0.5 mg venom/ml when Tetanus antigens were not used. This suggests the exist...

  18. Organization of phospholipids in human red cell membranes as detected by the action of various purified phospholipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaal, R.F.A.; Roelofsen, B.; Comfurius, P.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1975-01-01

    1. 1. The action of eight purified phospholipases on intact human erythrocytes has been investigated. Four enzymes, e.g. phospholipases A2 from pancreas and Crotalus adamanteus, phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus, and phospholipase D from cabbage produce neither haemolysis nor hydrolysis of phosph

  19. 77 FR 70457 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... (Nesoenas mayeri) Panamanian golden frog (Atelopus zeteki). Applicant: Staten Island Zoo, Staten Island, NY... (Crotalus unicolor) Panamanian golden frog (Atelopus zeteki) Applicant: Lionshare Farm Zoological...

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the heterodimeric crotoxin complex and the isolated subunits crotapotin and phospholipase A2

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, K. F.; Murakami, M T; Cintra, A. C. O.; Toyama, M. H.; Marangoni, S.; Forrer, V. P.; Brandão Neto, J. R.; Polikarpov, I.; Arni, R. K.

    2007-01-01

    Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, exists as a heterodimer formed between a phospholipase A2 and a catalytically inactive acidic phospholipase A2 analogue (crotapotin). Large single crystals of the crotoxin complex and of the isolated subunits have been obtained.

  1. Contribuições do PIBID para a formação do pedagogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Rechia Schroeder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta as contribuições do Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação à Docência (PIBID para a formação do Pedagogo/professor da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE, campus de Cascavel no período de 2010 a 2012. O programa se configura como uma política nacional de apoio aos cursos de licenciatura no Brasil no que se refere ao fortalecimento da docência como identidade profissional. Neste sentido o Curso de Pedagogia da UNIOESTE/campus de Cascavel, institucionaliza, juntamente com outras licenciaturas da universidade, o projeto intitulado Vivenciando a Escola: Incentivo à Prática Docente. O projeto do Curso de Pedagogia enfatiza os processos de alfabetização inserindo um grupo de 12 bolsistas acadêmicos em turmas das escolas municipais que estão no ciclo de alfabetização recebendo orientação de professoras de carreira das escolas onde atuam e da professora universitária coordenadora do projeto. Os acadêmicos realizam atividades na Universidade e nas Escolas alvos do PIBID, utilizando o Método de Investigação-ação que lhes proporciona uma melhor compreensão da articulação entre a teoria e a prática. Em que pese a recente inserção dos acadêmicos de Pedagogia da UNIOESTE de Cascavel no PIBID já se constata que o subprojeto vem contribuindo para uma formação mais eficaz do futuro professor/pedagogo, bem como promovendo uma valorização desta profissão.

  2. Plano de amostragem para Dichopelmus notus (Eriophyidae) na cultura da erva-mate Sampling plan for Dichopelmus notus (Eriophyidae) on mate-tea orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Bertoldo; Alfredo de Gouvea; Luis Francisco Angeli Alves

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a amostragem presença-ausência para Dichopelmus notus Keifer (Eriophyidae) na cultura da erva-mate. O trabalho foi realizado em plantação comercial, em Cascavel, PR, entre abril de 1999 e julho de 2000. Procederam-se a coletas quinzenais de 240 folhas em diferentes partes de 10 plantas. A contagem dos ácaros nas folhas foi realizada, em laboratório, com auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico. Foi determinado o padrão de agregação com o modelo da potência d...

  3. Força de tração necessária em função do número de linhas de semeadura utilizadas por uma semeadora-adubadora de precisão Traction force necessary in function of the number of sowing lines used by a seed-drill

    OpenAIRE

    Alcir J. Modolo; Antonio Gabriel Filho; Suedêmio de L. Silva; Estor Gnoatto

    2005-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento da força de tração solicitada por uma semeadora-adubadora, variando o número de linhas de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido no Núcleo Experimental de Engenharia Agrícola - NEEA, pertencente à UNIOESTE - Câmpus de Cascavel - PR, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférico com relevo plano e textura argilosa. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, composto por cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram utilizados os ...

  4. Caracterização físico-química do mel de abelhas proveniente da florada do cajueiro Physicochemical characterization of the bee honey originating in the cashew flowering

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana do Nascimento Bendini; Darcet Costa Souza

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivos identificar e caracterizar o mel proveniente da florada do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.). O estudo foi realizado a partir de 24 amostras de mel coletadas em apiários distribuídos num cajueiral de aproximadamente 1000 hectares, localizado no município de Cascavel, Estado do Ceará, Brasil. As mesmas foram submetidas a análises melissopalinológicas e físico-químicas (umidade, acidez total, cinzas, açúcares totais, Lund, pH, condutividade elétrica, H...

  5. Workplace health promotion: analysis of actions proposed by graduates of a training course (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Bertusso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of the workers knowledge in the actions of health promotion and prevention can strengthen the search for better working conditions and the protection of workers' health. This bibliographic study aimed to analyze, from the theoretical framework of occupational health, the actions proposed by graduates of a training course for health promotion for healthcare workers in 2012. Of the 221 projects analyzed, 1Enfermeira, aluna especial do Programa de Mestrado em Biociências e Saúde da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, campus de Cascavel. E-mail: franbertusso@hotmail.com 2 Doutora em Saúde Coletiva, Professora adjunta do Curso de Enfermagem do Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, campus de Cascavel, Pr. 3 Enfermeiro da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde do Paraná - SESA. Aluno especial do Programa de Mestrado em Biociências e Saúde da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Campus de Cascavel, Pr. 4 Doutora em Enfermargem pela Universidade de São Paulo. Professora do Programa de Mestrado em Biociências e Saúde do Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, campus de Cascavel health workers were the priority target audience (84%, as well as managers (12%, from various regions of the country with a predominance of proposals from the southeast region (107 projects and northeast region (55 projects, and in several workplace activities. Program proposals attempted to solve or minimize three sets of problems: a related to the work environment, b labor management and c the workers' health. Examination of the proposals pointed to a working reality permeated by incidents of accidents by exposure to biological material, ionizing radiation, needlestick and sharps injuries, and injuries related to musculoskeletal overload, mental health and mental and behavioral disorder such as depression, alcoholism, stress, burnout and moral

  6. O tornar-se cuidadora na senescência Conviertendo cuidador en la vejez Becoming caregiver in the old age

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Braz; Suely Itsuko Ciosak

    2009-01-01

    Este estudo, desenvolvido no município de Cascavel PR, com senescentes cuidadoras domiciliares de idosos dependentes, teve como objetivo verificar os motivos que as levaram a executarem esse papel. A metodologia utilizada foi a qualitativa, e a Representação Social foi eleita como caminho teórico. Foram critérios de inclusão: sexo feminino; idade superior ou igual a 60 anos; cuidadores domiciliares principais de idosos dependentes por um período igual ou superior a três meses. A coleta de dad...

  7. Características espectrais da soja ao longo do ciclo vegetativo com imagens landsat 5/TM em área agrícola no oeste do Paraná Spectral characteristics of soybean during the vegetative cycle with landsat 5/TM images in the western Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Erivelto Mercante; Lamparelli, Rubens A. C.; Miguel A. Uribe-Opazo; Jansle V. Rocha

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as mudanças no comportamento espectral da cultura da soja, por meio dos perfis espectrais temporais dos índices de vegetação NDVI e GVI, expressos em diferentes valores físicos: fator de reflectância bidirecional (FRB) aparente, de superfície e normalizado derivados de imagens Landsat 5/TM. Foi monitorada área de cultura de soja localizada próxima ao município de Cascavel - PR, utilizando cinco imagens da safra de 2004/2005, sendo realizados nessas imagen...

  8. Estudo da morbidade em uma população idosa Estudio de la morbilidad en la población de ancianos Morbidity study in an elder population

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Aparecida de Souza; Maria José Scochi; Maristela Salete Maraschin

    2011-01-01

    Este estudo objetivou identificar os agravos que mais acometeram os idosos no período de 1998 a 2005 e a capacidade funcional dos residentes na área de abrangência de quatro unidades básicas de saúde de diferentes regiões, no Município de Cascavel, Paraná, em 2007. Os dados de morbidade foram pesquisados no Sistema de Informações Hospitalar do Sistema Único de Saúde, e foram realizadas entrevistas com 141 idosos. No período estudado, a morbidade pouco variou: as doenças do aparelho circulatór...

  9. Mudanças no trabalho e na vida de bancários portadores de Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos: LER Cambios en el trabajo y en la vida de bancarios portadores de Lesiones por Esfuerzos Repetitivos: LER Changes in the work and life of bank employees with Repetitive Strain Injury: RSI

    OpenAIRE

    Neide Tiemi Murofuse; Maria Helena Palucci Marziale

    2001-01-01

    A LER constitui-se num dos graves problemas de saúde dos trabalhadores na atualidade. Com o objetivo de analisar as principais mudanças no trabalho e na vida dos portadores de LER de membros de uma Associação de Portadores de LER de Cascavel-PR, foi desenvolvido o estudo, de natureza qualitativa. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas, com nove bancários. Os primeiros sintomas surgiram no período coincidente com a automação e a introdução de novas tecnologias no sistema financeiro bra...

  10. Caracterização morfológica de espécies de Hemerobius Linnaeus, 1758 (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae associadas a cultivos de café (Coffea arabica L., milho (Zea mays L. e erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Rogéria Inês Rosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The predators were collected in mate crop in Cascavel and São Mateus do Sul, Paraná, Brazil and some other additional specimens in coffee and maize crops in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Illustrations obtained by SEM are given by the first time to the principal structures. Three species of Hemerobius were identified: H. bolivari Banks, 1910; H. domingensis Banks, 1941 and H. gaitoi Monserrat, 1996. H. domingensis is recorded for the first time to Brazil.

  11. Acompanhamento farmacoterapêutico e freqüência de efeitos adversos no uso de antiparasitários na atenção primária a saúde, Sudoeste do Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Galhardo Demarchi, Izabel; Mioranza, Sônia de Lucena; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Takizawa, Maria G.; Melito, Melina O.; Mallmann, Larissa

    2009-01-01

    O estudo teve como objetivo identificar a ocorrência de efeitos adversos durante o acompanhamento da terapia antiparasitária em indivíduos de um bairro de Cascavel – Paraná, Brasil, no período de março a junho de 2005. A Amostra foi constituída de 63 pacientes parasitados submetidos a quimioterapia. Dentre os 40 pacientes tratados, 27 apresentaram efeitos adversos, onde o Albendazol respondeu por 77,78% e o Metronidazol 22,22% dos casos. Todos os pacientes com diagnóstico positivo aderi...

  12. Formação docente e sustentabilidade: Um studo sobre ambientalização curricular no curso de pedagogia da Universidade Stadual do Oeste do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Talita Rechia Vasconcellos da; Malacarne, Vilmar

    2016-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta os resultados da análise documental do curso de Pedagogia da Universidade Estadual do Oeste (Unioeste), campus de Cascavel, Paraná, Brasil. O objetivo desse artigo é expor como está o processo de ambientalização curricular deste curso a partir da análise dos ementários das disciplinas, utilizando como parâmetros os indicadores da Rede de Ambientalização Curricular do Ensino Superior (ACES), as Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Ambiental (DCNEA) e a Polí...

  13. Diagnóstico da área cultivada com uva fina de mesa (Vitis vinifera L sob cobertura plástica e do manejo de pragas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Formolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi realizado o censo das áreas cultivadas com uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido e a identificação das principais espécies de pragas e estratégias de controle empregadas pelos produtores, no município de Caxias do Sul-RS. Na safra de 2007/2008, foram identificados os produtores envolvidos com a atividade no município e através de entrevista presencial e semiestruturada ao estabelecimento produtivo, registrou-se a área cultivada e variedades. Para produtores com cultivo de áreas superiores a 2.000m² da cultivar Itália, com dois anos ou mais de produção, foi aplicado outro questionário na safra de 2008/2009 com o objetivo de levantar as informações referentes: a espécies de insetos e ácaros-praga que danificam as uvas finas de mesa na propriedade, segundo o viticultor; b conhecer a realidade do manejo de insetos e ácaros-praga na cultura; c verificar os parâmetros que o produtor utiliza para a aplicação de inseticidas; d conhecer os produtos aplicados, e e identificar o tipo de assistência técnica recebida pelo viticultor. Foram identificados 43 produtores de uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido com área total cultivada de 30,36 ha, sendo 70,31% desta área da cultivar Itália. As pragas mais importantes mencionadas pelos produtores foram tripes - Frankliniella rodeos Moulton e a mosca-das-frutas-sul-americana Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. O manejo realizado para controle destas pragas é através da aplicação de inseticidas com os ingredientes ativos acefato e fentiona, respectivamente, com base em calendário. Os principais problemas enfrentados para implementar estratégias de manejo de pragas no cultivo são a falta de assistência técnica, a ausência de metodologias confiáveis para o monitoramento e o reduzido número de inseticidas autorizados para a cultura.

  14. Effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae against immature stages of Anastrepha fraterculus fruitfly (Diptera : Tephritidae Eficácia de Metarhizium anisopliae a estágios imaturos de Anastrepha fraterculus a mosca das frutas (Diptera : Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Henry Rodrigues Destéfano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Hyphomycetes : Moniliales strain E9, isolated from the pasture spittlebug Deois flavopicta (Hemiptera : Cercopidae, against larvae, prepupae and pupae stage and emergent adults of Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruitfly. The bioassay was carried out simulating field conditions, on autoclaved (AS and non-autoclaved (NAS soil from typical citrus orchards in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil. Various concentrations of conidia were incorporated into the soil the mortality, calculated based on the percentage of adult emergence, was 86% for the highest conidia concentrations: 2.52 x 10(10 for AS and 2.52 x 10(10 for NAS. The lethal concentration (LC50, expressed as conidia concentration, was 8.44 x 10(9 conidia/g of soil (S for AS and 12.23 x 10(9 conidia/g of soil for NAS.O estudo avaliou a eficácia de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, (Hyphomycetes : Moniliales linhagem E9, isolada da cigarrinha das pastagens Deois flavopicta (Hemiptera : Cercopidae, contra larvas, prepupas, pupas e adultos emergentes de Anastreha fraterculus, a mosca Sul Americana das frutas. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos simulando condições de campo em solo autoclavado (AS e não autoclavado (NAS de pomares típicos de citros no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Várias concentrações de conídios foram incorporadas no solo. A mortalidade calculada sobre a porcentagem de adultos emergentes, foi de 86% para as concentrações mais altas de conídios: 2,52 x 10(10 para AS e 2,52 x 10(10 para NAS. A concentração letal (LC50 expressa pela concentração de conídios, foi 8,44 x 10(9 conídios/g de solo para AS e 12,2 x 10(9 conídios/g/S para NAS.

  15. Bauxitas refratárias: composição química, fases e propriedades - parte II Refractory bauxites: chemical composition, phases and properties - part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pascoal

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A bauxita apresenta uma ampla faixa de aplicações industriais, de acordo com sua composição química e mineralógica. No setor de refratários, esta matéria-prima tem adquirido grande importância, uma vez que pode substituir parcial ou totalmente agregados de alumina eletrofundida em formados e monolíticos, devido a sua alta refratariedade e custo inferior. Entre os maiores produtores mundiais encontram-se a China, a Guiana e o Brasil. Embora seja um dos maiores produtores mundiais de bauxita refratária, no Brasil pouco se conhece de suas características químicas e mineralógicas, bem como suas propriedades em serviço a altas temperaturas. Esta seqüência de artigos apresenta uma revisão sobre as aplicações, fases cristalinas, características e propriedades a alta temperatura de bauxitas refratárias chinesas e sul-americanas. Nesta segunda parte serão consideradas suas propriedades mecânicas a alta temperatura e um problema freqüente na utilização de bauxitas refratárias, a expansão térmica secundária.Bauxite shows a wide range of applications, according to its chemical and mineralogical composition. In the refractory industry, this raw material has partially or totally substituted fused alumina in bricks and castables, due to its high refractoriness and low cost. The major producers of refractory grade bauxite are, in this order, China, Guyana and Brazil. Although Brazil is one of the major suppliers of this raw material, very few studies have been carried out to understand its chemical, mineralogical and high-temperature properties. These papers present a review regarding the applications of South American and Chinese refractory grade bauxites, including the microchemistry of their crystalline phases and their hot properties. This second part will focus mechanical properties at high temperatures, and a common problem in refractory bauxites, the secondary thermal expansion.

  16. Bauxitas refratárias: composição química, fases e propriedades - Parte I Refractory bauxites: chemical composition, phases and properties - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pascoal

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A bauxita apresenta uma ampla faixa de aplicações industriais, de acordo com sua composição química e mineralógica. No setor de refratários, esta matéria-prima tem adquirido grande importância, uma vez que pode substituir parcial ou totalmente agregados de alumina eletrofundida em formados e monolíticos, devido a sua alta refratariedade e custo inferior. Entre os maiores produtores mundiais encontram-se a China, a Guiana e o Brasil. Embora seja um dos maiores produtores mundiais de bauxita refratária, no Brasil pouco se conhece de suas características químicas e mineralógicas, bem como suas propriedades em serviço a altas temperaturas. Esta seqüência de artigos apresenta uma revisão sobre as aplicações, fases cristalinas, características e propriedades a alta temperatura de bauxitas refratárias chinesas e sul-americanas. Nesta primeira parte serão consideradas as aplicações da matéria-prima, as transformações que ocorrem durante a calcinação das bauxitas e a formação de fases cristalinas.Bauxite shows a wide range of applications, according to its chemical and mineralogical composition. In the refractory industry, this raw material has partially or totally substituted fused alumina in bricks and castables, due to its high refractoriness and low cost. The major producers of refractory grade bauxite are, in this order, China, Guyana and Brazil. Although Brazil is one of the major suppliers of this raw material, very few studies have been carried out to understand its chemical, mineralogical and high-temperature properties. These papers present a review regarding the applications of South American and Chinese refractory grade bauxites, including the microchemistry of their crystalline phases and their hot properties. This first part will focus the applications of this raw material, the changes that occur during calcination of the crude mineral, and the formation of the crystalline phases.

  17. Analyses of DNA from ancient bones of a pre-Columbian Cuban woman and a child

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    Ricardo Lleonart

    1999-09-01

    restos no haplogrupo A, comumente encontrado em populações ameríndias. Baseado nesses resultados, nós especulamos a respeito de uma origem sul-americana para as populações pré-colombianas das Antilhas e possíveis práticas infanticidas nessas populações. Este constitui o primeiro relato de análise de DNA em populações cubanas pré-colombianas antigas.

  18. Análise cladística e biogeográfica dos gêneros do grupo Sitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini Cladistic and biogeographic analysis of the genera of the group Sitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini

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    Maria Kátia Matiotti da Costa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma análise cladística do relacionamento entre as espécies sul-americanas do grupo Sitalces (Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Psilocirtus Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Robustusacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Arimacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Salvadoracris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 e Caruaruacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 é apresentada. A análise incluiu 14 espécies com três grupos-externos e 34 caracteres morfológicos. A monofilia do grupo é suportada por três sinapomorfias com índices de consistência e retenção de 100%: prozona maior que a metazona, borda posterior do pronoto não angulada e placa supranal mais curta em relação aos cercos. A análise resultou em um único cladograma: (P. olivaceus (E. vittatus (L. dorsualis; L. punctifrons (R. balzapambae (A. trinitatis (S. nigritus; C. bivittatus (S. volxemi (P. vulneratus; P. sexnotata. Comentários biogeográficos são apresentados e relacionados com padrões pré-estabelecidos.A cladistic analysis of the relationships among the species of the South American genera of the group Sitalces (Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Psilocirtus Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Robustusacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Arimacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Salvadoracris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 and Caruaruacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 is presented. The analysis included 14 species with three outgroups and 34 morphological characters. The monophyly of the group is supported by three sinapomorphies with 100% consistency and retention indices: prozona larger than the metazona, posterior border of the pronotum not angulated and supranal plate shorter than cerci. The analysis resulted in a single cladogram: (P. olivaceus (E. vittatus (L. dorsualis; L. punctifrons (R. balzapambae (A. trinitatis (S. nigritus; C. bivittatus (S. volxemi (P. vulneratus; P. sexnotata. Biogeographic comments are

  19. Global solar irradiation in function of the insolation reason; Irradiacao solar global em funcao da razao de insolacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recieri, Reinaldo Prandini; Ferruzzi, Yuri; Silva, Suedemio de Lima [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Fac. de Agronomia; Quallio, Silvana [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil). Fac. de Biologia; Batista, Vitor Roberto Lourenco [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica

    2004-07-01

    The present work shows the reason (K{sub t}=R{sub G}/R{sub o}) of global solar irradiation for the irradiation in the top of the atmosphere in the horizontal incidence in function of the insolation reason (n/N), objectifying itself to find an equation esteem the daily global solar irradiation in the region of Cascavel/PR. The experimental data had been gotten in Station Agrometeorological of the IAPAR (Agronomic Institute of the Parana) mounted in the Coodetec/Cascavel-PR (Latitude 24,89 deg S, Longitude 53,40 deg O and altitude of 682m). The component of global the solar irradiation was monitored by an actinograph and the hour of solar brightness (n) through a heliograph (R. FUESS Berlin-stegutz) in a period of 17 years, of which four had been used in the validation of the model. The distribution of the daily values (K{sub t} x n/N), related through simple linear regression, supplied an equation of R{sub G}/R{sub o}=0,16+0,40n/N estimate with raised determination coefficient (R{sup 2} = 88.89%), in the validation of the model got a -9,76% shunting line varying 11,44% with average error in the 0,84% order, these statistical values shows that global the solar irradiation, in the region of Rattlesnake, can be esteem with good precision. (author)

  20. Incidência e aspectos clínico-laboratoriais do Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico em cidade do Sul do Brasil Incidence and clinical-laboratory aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus in a Southern brazilian city

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    Carlos Alberto Kenji Nakashima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos epidemiológicos brasileiros sobre o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES são bastante escassos e os dados existentes hoje são praticamente todos de literatura internacional. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência e algumas características clínicas e laboratoriais de pacientes com LES em Cascavel, Paraná - Brasil. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados entre agosto de 2007 e julho de 2008 em todos os serviços de saúde do município que possuíam atendimentos na especialidade de Reumatologia: um hospital universitário, um ambulatório público e três clínicas privadas da cidade. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 14 pacientes com diagnóstico de LES, resultando em uma incidência estimada de 4,8 casos/100.000 habitantes/ano. Todos os pacientes eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 41,5 anos. A faixa etária com maior incidência foi a de 30 - 39 anos e 92,8% apresentaram quatro ou mais dos 11 critérios do American College of Rheumatology (ACR para o diagnóstico de LES. O tratamento farmacológico dos pacientes também foi avaliado e mostrou estar de acordo com o Consenso Brasileiro para o tratamento de LES. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência obtida em Cascavel/PR está próxima das incidências observadas em estudos internacionais.INTRODUCTION: Brazilian epidemiological studies on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are scarce, and currently available data originate almost entirely from international literature. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and some clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with SLE in the municipality of Cascavel, state of Paraná, Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected from August 2007 to July 2008 in all health services of Cascavel providing health care in rheumatology: a university-affiliated hospital, a public outpatient clinic, and three private clinics. RESULTS: The study identified 14 patients diagnosed with SLE, which resulted in an estimated incidence of 4

  1. Quadro clínico-patológico do envenenamento crotálico experimental em bubalinos comparado com o de bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    José Diomedes Barbosa; Melina Garcia Saraiva de Sousa; Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia; Marilene de Farias Brito; Alessandra dos Santos Belo Reis; Henrique dos Anjos Bomjardim; Cinthia Távora de Albuquerque Lopes; Carlos Magno Chaves Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    O estudo teve por objetivo verificar a sensibilidade dos bubalinos à peçonha de Crotalus durissus terriiicus, estudar o quadro clínico-patológico e laboratorial nessa espécie e estabelecer comparações com o verificado em bovinos. A inoculação do veneno liofilizado de Crotalus durissus terriiicus, diluído em 1ml de solução fisiológica, foi feita na região da articulação úmero-rádio-ulnar, por via subcutânea, em três bubalinos (doses de 0,015; 0,03; e 0,066mg/kg) e em dois bovinos (doses de 0,0...

  2. Immunological studies on BaH1 and BaP1, two hemorrhagic metalloproteinases from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucavado, A; Borkow, G; Ovadia, M; Gutiérrez, J M

    1995-08-01

    No immunological cross-reactivity was observed between BaH1 and BaP1, two hemorrhagic metalloproteinases isolated from B. asper venom, by gel immunodiffusion, Western blotting and neutralization studies. Cross-reactivity was detected with antisera against these toxins in several crotaline and viperine snake venoms by ELISA, whereas no reactivity was observed with either antiserum against the venoms of Bothrops nummifer, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Vipera russelli and several elapid venoms. Antiserum against native BaH1 neutralized hemorrhagic activity of the venoms of B. asper, B. atrox, B. jararaca, Crotalus atrox, C. durissus durissus, Echis carinatus and Trimeresurus flavoviridis, being ineffective against the venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus and Lachesis muta. PMID:8533144

  3. Acute kidney injury caused by bothrops snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Sgrignolli, Lívia; Florido Mendes, Glória Elisa; Carlos, Carla Patricia; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2011-01-01

    Medically important venomous snakes in Latin America belong to the genus Bothrops, Crotalus, Lachesis and Micrurus. The Bothrops genus is responsible for the majority of accidents. The WHO globally estimates 2,500,000 poisonous snakebites and 125,000 deaths annually. In its last report in 2001, the Brazilian Ministry of Health accounted 359 deaths due to snakebites, of which the Bothrops genus was responsible for 185. Snake venoms cause local and systemic damage, including acute kidney injury, which is the most important cause of death among patients surviving the early effects of envenoming by the Crotalus and Bothrops genuses. Venom-induced acute kidney injury is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite, carrying relevant morbidity and mortality. PMID:21757950

  4. Rattlesnake Envenomation in Three Dairy Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Smith; David Kovalik; Anita Varga

    2015-01-01

    Cases of rattlesnake envenomation in dairy goats are lacking. These cases present three dairy goats presented to a veterinary referral hospital for envenomation of Northern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus). Treatments and clinical characteristics reported are similar to those for llamas, alpacas, and horses. These cases suggest that quick treatment in the event of a bite may have a more favorable clinical response. Existing rattlesnake bite scoring systems applicable to other species m...

  5. Composition and ecological patterns of snake assemblages in an Amazon-Cerrado Transition Zone in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leandra C. Pinheiro; Pedro S. Abe; Youszef O. C. Bitar; Luiz P. P. Albarelli; Maria C. Santos-Costa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study encompasses the species composition and ecological characteristics of the snake community in a Cerrado-Amazon transition zone in Midwest of Brazil (state of Mato Grosso). The data were collected during six excursions to the "Tanguro" (study area) by visual encounter survey, pitfall traps with drift fences and non-systematic sampling. We collected 194 specimens, distributed in 34 species, 26 genera, and eight families. The most abundant species were Crotalus durissus...

  6. Can north american fish passage tools work for South american migratory fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún

    2007-01-01

    that they could be used to develop, calibrate and validate a South American version of the NFS.Na América do Norte, o Numerical Fish Surrogate (NFS é utilizado no projeto de sistemas de transposição de juvenis de salmão em seus deslocamentos dos habitats de desova e desenvolvimento inicial para o de adultos, no oceano. O NFS é estruturado em três módulos interconectados: 1 um modelo computacional de dinâmica de fluidos (CFD que descreve o complexo escoamento acima da barragem em uma escala suficientemente apropriada para analisar, entender e prever os movimentos dos peixes, 2 um modelo de rastreamento de partículas que interpola informações hidráulicas dos nós da malha do modelo computacional para localizações múltiplas relevantes ao peixe em migração, 3 um modelo comportamental que simula o conhecimento e o comportamento de cada peixe em resposta à dinâmica do escoamento predita pelo modelo computacional. Esses três módulos juntos criam uma realidade virtual onde peixes virtuais exibem um comportamento realístico de aproximação da barragem e podem ser contados de uma forma similar a do mundo real. Uma vez calibrado e validado com medições do movimento dos peixes e dados de passagem, o NFS pode predizer acuradamente a proporção de passagem de peixes, com suficiente precisão para permitir que engenheiros selecionem uma alternativa ótima dentre as várias opções estruturais e operacionais. Embora as espécies de peixes Sul Americanas sejam diferentes das espécies da América do Norte, é provável que a arquitetura computacional básica e os métodos numéricos do NFS possam ser usados para a conservação de peixes na América do Sul. Consequentemente, o grande investimento feito na criação do NFS não precisa ser repetido na América do Sul. Contudo, seu uso na América do Sul exigirá que a resposta comportamental dessa fauna aos sinais hidrodinâmicos seja descrita, codificada e testada antes que o NFS possa ser usado na conserva

  7. Acompanhamento de enfermagem em saúde pública, assessoramento pedagógico e agrícola numa comunidade de assentados sem-terra na zona rural: relato de experiência Acompañamiento de enfermería en salud pública, asesoramiento pedagógico y agrícola en una comunidad de asentados "sin tierra" en la zona rural: relato de experiencia Public health nursing, pedagogical and agricultural ad vice in a rural community of settled landless people: an experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacó Fernando Schneider

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo relata uma experiência no acompanhamento de Enfermagem, assessoramento pedagógico e agrícola desenvolvido em uma comunidade de assentados sem-terra na zona rural da cidade de Cascavel, estado do Paraná, que teve como premissa básica a integração docente/discente, oferecendo oportunidade de socialização do saber, integração teoria e prática e contato direto com a comunidade. Aponta para a necessidade da enfermagem compreender melhor este tipo de realidade buscando, através da observação e vivência, uma visão crítica com possibilidades de intervenção.El estudio relata una experiencia en el acompañamiento de enfermería, asesoramiento pedagógico y agrícola desarrollado en una comunidad de asentados "sin tierra" en la zona rural perteneciente al municipio de Cascavel, estado del Paraná, que tuvo como principio básico la integración docente/alumno, ofreciendo oportunidad de socialización del saber, integración teoría y práctica y contacto directo con la comunidad. Señala la necessidad de la enfermería comprender mejor este tipo de realidad, buscando por medio de la observación y vivencia, una visión crítica con posibilidades de intervención.This study reports an experience in nursing accompaniment, pedagogical and agricultural advice in a community of settled people without land in the countryside of Cascavel, state of Paraná. The basic premise was student/teacher integration offering the opportunity of knowledge socialization, integration of theory and practice and direct contact with the community. It points out that nursing needs a better understanding of this type of reality seeking, by observation and living, a critical vision with the possibility of intervention.

  8. Criança hospitalizada: percepção das mães sobre o vínculo afetivo criança-família Niño hospitalizado: el vinculo afectivo niño-família Hospitalized children: mothers' perception about the affective child-family link

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de Oliveira; Neusa Collet

    1999-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou verificar a percepção da mãe que tem seu filho doente hospitalizado, sobre a importância de sua permanência durante o período de internação para manutenção do vínculo afetivo criança-família. Os dados empíricos foram coletados com mães de crianças hospitalizadas, que não estavam acompanhando a internação do seu filho, num hospital público em Cascavel - Paraná, utilizando-se entrevista semi-estruturada. A análise dos dados demonstrou que as mães reconhecem a importância...

  9. [Evaluation and design of a political-pedagogical project for nursing undergraduate programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves; Schneider, Jacó Fernando; Rizzotto, Maria Lucia Frizon; Rodrigues, Rosa Maria

    2003-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experience which aimed primarily at the evaluation of the Political-Pedagogical Project--PPP of the nursing undergraduate program from UNIOESTE (Cascavel town Campus) and at pondering on a new curricular proposal for that program. Thus, a research project was designed to be used by all professors teaching that program, with the participation of students, former students, and professionals working on the health care delivery network, where field work can be carried out through practical activities and training periods for the students. The data gathered by them have been used as subsidies for a proposal to build a new political-pedagogical project, that was took effect in the year 2003. Besides designing a new pedagogical proposal, strategies for a continued evaluation of the PPP implantation process have been defined. This evaluation is to be performed at the end of each term. PMID:14699755

  10. THE ISSUE OF EDUCATION IN MARX: SOME NOTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available : Article as a result of readability and reflections carried out in the study group on the works of Marx and Engels, within the group of search HISTEDOPR - GT, Cascavel, PR. The question educational not received a specific treatment in the work of Marx, even if many seek in their formulations, theoreticalmethodological principles for the process of teaching-learning. Its educational thinking must be observed in the whole production marxist. This text to understand, in the light of historical change, the question educational, based on some of his writings. Their conception of education is immersed in horizon of socioeconomic relations, central object of discussion. We will see that education, in Marx, presents a politicalideological perspective, even before the determinant economic. Understand the analysis of Marx about the educative phenomenon does without to observe its way to understand the society.

  11. MANAGERS CONNECTED THROUGH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

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    Osmarina Pedro Garcia Garcia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study had as its central objective to ascertain how managers connect with information technology. The methodology applied was an exploratory research, through a structured questionnaire survey based on qualitative and quantitative approach. The study interviewed eighteen managers in a city in Brazil (Cascavel – Paraná, from the industrial segment distributed in several areas, selected by the non-probabilistic method, considering the samples by convenience. The research results showed that the respondents connect with information technology through social networks, applications and technological devices in a normal deliberated way. Literature has showed that Brazil is the second most connected country in social networks, which shows that managers tend to increase the use of information technology over time. We concluded that when managers use those technological tools, are online frequently, to fulfill their entrepreneurial functions, they remain attentive to everything that is happening around them and globally.

  12. Rede e apoio social familiar no seguimento do recém-nascido pré-termo e baixo peso ao nascer

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Falleiros de Mello; Cláudia Silveira Viera; Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de Oliveira; Maria Cândida de Carvalho Furtado

    2010-01-01

    Um dos aspectos ligados à sobrevida do recém-nascido (RN) pré-termo (PT) e de baixo peso ao nascer (BPN) é relativo ao período após a alta hospitalar. Este estudo tem por objetivo identificar a rede social e o apoio social de famílias com filho PT e BPN egresso da UTI neonatal, a partir da utilização dos instrumentos genograma e ecomapa com estas famílias no município de Cascavel-Paraná. É um estudo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa, sendo que a partir dos relatos de seis famílias com fil...

  13. QTL mapping for protein content in soybean cultivated in two tropical environments Mapeamento de QTL quanto ao conteúdo de proteína em soja cultivada em dois ambientes tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Cristina Bastos Soares

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL for protein content in soybean grown in two distinct tropical environments and to build a genetic map for protein content. One hundred eighteen soybean recombinant inbred lines (RIL, obtained from a cross between cultivars BARC 8 and Garimpo, were used. The RIL were cultivated in two distinct Brazilian tropical environments: Cascavel county, in Paraná, and Viçosa county, in Minas Gerais (24º57'S, 53º27'W and 20º45'S, 42º52'W, respectively. Sixty-six SSR primer pairs and 65 RAPD primers were polymorphic and segregated at a 1:1 proportion. Thirty poorly saturated linkage groups were obtained, with 90 markers and 41 nonlinked markers. For the lines cultivated in Cascavel, three QTL were mapped in C2, E and N linkage groups, which explained 14.37, 10.31 and 7.34% of the phenotypic variation of protein content, respectively. For the lines cultivated in Viçosa, two QTL were mapped in linkage groups G and #1, which explained 9.51 and 7.34% of the phenotypic variation of protein content. Based on the mean of the two environments, two QTL were identified: one in the linkage group E (9.90% and other in the group L (7.11%. In order for future studies to consistently detect QTL effects of different environments, genotypes with greater stability should be used.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram detectar QTL relativos ao conteúdo de proteína, em soja cultivada em dois ambientes tropicais divergentes, e construir um mapa genético para o conteúdo de proteína em genótipos adaptados a condições tropicais. Foram usadas 118 linhagens recombinantes endogâmicas de soja, obtidas do cruzamento entre as cultivares BARC 8 e Garimpo. A população de linhagens recombinantes endogâmicas foi cultivada em dois ambientes contrastantes: Cascavel, PR, e Viçosa, MG (24º57'S, 53º27'W; e 20º45'S, 42º52'W, respectivamente. Sessenta e seis pares de iniciadores SSR e 65 iniciadores RAPD

  14. Análise comparativa entre duas bacias hidrográficas utilizando um protocolo de avaliação rápida da diversidade de habitats / Comparative analysis between two hydrographic basin using a rapid habitats diversity evaluation protocol

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    Rogério Antonio Krupek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo utilizar um protocolo de avaliação rápida da diversidade de habitats como ferramenta para comparar duas bacias de drenagem localizadas no município de Guarapuava, estado do Paraná: a bacia hidrográfica do rio Cascavel (25º23’03”S-51º28’12”W e a bacia hidrográfica do rio das Pedras (25º13’10”S-51º28’40”W, que se encontram relativamente próximas e estão sob diferentes intensidades de influências antrópicas. Este protocolo tem como finalidade avaliar características da água e do entorno de ecossistemas aquáticos a partir da atribuição de pontuação a cada um dos parâmetros com base na observação das condições do habitat. As coletas de dados foram realizadas no período de 10 de junho a 30 de julho de 2007 em vinte pontos de amostragem estabelecidos em cada uma das bacias de drenagem estudadas. Comparativamente, a grande maioria dos parâmetros apresentou diferenças significativas entre os dois sistemas, sendo que os rios e riachos da bacia do rio das Pedras encontram-se nitidamente em melhores condições que a bacia do rio Cascavel, onde seus ecossistemas aquáticos apresentam visíveis sinais de degradação. O uso de avaliações rápidas como este protocolo é uma importante ferramenta no desenvolvimento de programas de monitoramento ecológico e na restauração de ambientes lóticos. AbstractThe main object of the present work was to use a protocol of rapid habitat diversity evaluation as tool to compare two drainage basin located in the municipality of Guarapuava, mid-southern region of Paraná state: Cascavel river basin (25º23’03”S-51º28’12”W and Pedras river basin (25º13’10”S-51º28’40”W, which meets relatively near and under different intensities of entropic influences. This protocol has the purpose of evaluating water and riparian characteristics of the aquatic ecosystems from the attribution of values to each parameter through observation of

  15. The Defense of Socio-Educational Internment: Feature of the Hygienist Principles

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    Juliana Biazze Feitosa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth violence and interventions to affront it are the focus of our scientific research. The aim of this study is evaluate the existence of the aspects contained in the justifications of hygienism judgments of teenagers who meet admission youth work. In this sense, we 21 sentences that determined the internment and its supporting materials which makes up the judicial process of teenagers that have entered the year 2010 in the Center of Socio-education II in Cascavel Paraná State. The results led us to conclude that nowadays, notwithstanding the Children and Adolescent, we are still, by judicial determination, removing the Teen Delinquency situation and closed the judicial term returning it to the same context from which it was withdrawn. Enshrined due differences in shape and time note this routing aspects of the ideology of mental hygiene and the minor doctrine.

  16. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935 Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935

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    Dina Lúcia Moraes Falavigna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. O material fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/díspar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  17. Aspectos morfológicos de frutos e sementes e caracterização citogenética de Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae Morphological aspects of fruits and seeds and cytogenetic characterization of Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae

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    Débora Aparecida Verde de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos, sementes e plântulas de Crotalaria lanceolata, conhecida popularmente como guizo-de-cascavel, chocalho-de-cobra, xique-xique ou feijão-de-guizo, planta tóxica infestante que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, foram estudadas morfologicamente e citogeneticamente. Os frutos são secos, deiscentes, polispérmicos e do tipo legume. As sementes são reniformes e o embrião é constituído de eixo embrionário e dois cotilédones. A testa pode apresentar variadas tonalidades de castanhos. A germinação é epígea e fanerocotiledonar. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico diplóide 2n = 16 com formulação cariotípica 12M + 4SM e comprimento cromossômico médio geral de 3,340 ± 0,689.Crotalaria lanceolata, known popularly as "guizo-de-cascavel", "xique-xique" or "feijão-de-guizo", is a toxic weed that occurs in the state of Sao Paulo. Fruits, seeds and seedlings were studied morphologically and cytogenetically. The fruits are dry, dehiscent, polyspermic legumes. The seeds are kidney shaped and the embryo consists of an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. The seed tegument comes in various chestnut tones. Germination is phanerocotylar and epigeal. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 16 with karyotype formula 12M + 4SM; overall mean chromosome length is 3.340 ± 0.689.

  18. Diagnóstico da área cultivada com uva fina de mesa (Vitis vinifera L sob cobertura plástica e do manejo de pragas Area grown with table grape (Vitis vinifera L under protected cultivation and pest management practices used by growers in Caxias do Sul, RS

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    Rodrigo Formolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi realizado o censo das áreas cultivadas com uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido e a identificação das principais espécies de pragas e estratégias de controle empregadas pelos produtores, no município de Caxias do Sul-RS. Na safra de 2007/2008, foram identificados os produtores envolvidos com a atividade no município e através de entrevista presencial e semiestruturada ao estabelecimento produtivo, registrou-se a área cultivada e variedades. Para produtores com cultivo de áreas superiores a 2.000m² da cultivar Itália, com dois anos ou mais de produção, foi aplicado outro questionário na safra de 2008/2009 com o objetivo de levantar as informações referentes: a espécies de insetos e ácaros-praga que danificam as uvas finas de mesa na propriedade, segundo o viticultor; b conhecer a realidade do manejo de insetos e ácaros-praga na cultura; c verificar os parâmetros que o produtor utiliza para a aplicação de inseticidas; d conhecer os produtos aplicados, e e identificar o tipo de assistência técnica recebida pelo viticultor. Foram identificados 43 produtores de uvas finas de mesa sob cultivo protegido com área total cultivada de 30,36 ha, sendo 70,31% desta área da cultivar Itália. As pragas mais importantes mencionadas pelos produtores foram tripes - Frankliniella rodeos Moulton e a mosca-das-frutas-sul-americana Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. O manejo realizado para controle destas pragas é através da aplicação de inseticidas com os ingredientes ativos acefato e fentiona, respectivamente, com base em calendário. Os principais problemas enfrentados para implementar estratégias de manejo de pragas no cultivo são a falta de assistência técnica, a ausência de metodologias confiáveis para o monitoramento e o reduzido número de inseticidas autorizados para a cultura.The area grown with table grapes (Vitis vinifera under protected cultivation, pests associated with the crop and control

  19. Percepção química e visual de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae em laboratório Chemical and visual perception of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae in laboratory

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    Patrícia L. F. Gregorio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-das-frutas-sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830, é uma das principais pragas da fruticultura no Brasil. Durante a alimentação, as larvas fazem galerias nos frutos, alterando o sabor e prejudicando a produção e comercialização dos mesmos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar fatores envolvidos na escolha do hospedeiro por A. fraterculus. Foram avaliadas as respostas eletroantenográficas de machos e fêmeas a extratos etanólicos de frutos verdes e maduros de pessegueiro - Prunus persica, cultivar Chimarrita (Rosaceae, pitangueira - Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae, guabirobeira - Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Myrtaceae e araçazeiro - Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae. Foram também observadas as influências da cor (amarela, verde e vermelha e da composição do substrato de oviposição (polpas de araçá, guabiroba, pitanga e pêssego na fecundidade da espécie. As respostas eletroantenográficas de fêmeas foram significativamente distintas para os extratos de guabiroba verde e madura, araçá maduro e pitanga verde. Em antenas de machos, as maiores despolarizações médias foram registradas em resposta aos extratos de guabiroba verde e madura, araçá verde e maduro e pitanga verde. As respostas eletrofisiológicas geradas não diferiram estatisticamente entre os sexos, para todos os tratamentos. A cor do substrato não afetou a oviposição. As fêmeas ovipositaram mais nos substratos contendo polpa de pêssego e de guabiroba, quando comparados aos respectivos controles.The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 is one of the greatest threats to the fruit growing industry in Brazil. During the feeding process, the larvae build galleries within the fruit, altering the flavor and damaging its production and commercialization. The present work had as its objective to study the factors involved in the choice of the host by A. fraterculus. Electroantennographic responses of the males and

  20. Flutuação populacional de adultos de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. em cultivo protegido e convencional de videira Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied. adult seasonal fluctuation in plastic covering and conventional grapevine cultivation

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    Geraldo Chavarria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-das-frutas sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Tephritidae, é considerada praga-chave das fruteiras de clima temperado na região Sul do Brasil. No entanto, poucas informações encontram-se disponíveis quando a espécie está associada à cultura da videira. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da cobertura plástica sobre a população de adultos de A. fraterculus durante o ciclo de cultivo da videira cv. Moscato Giallo. O experimento foi conduzido nos ciclos de 2005/06 e 2006/07, em vinhedo comercial localizado em Flores da Cunha-RS (latitude 29° 06' sul, longitude 51° 20' oeste e altitude de 541 m, coberto com plástico impermeável tipo ráfia (160 µm de 12 fileiras com 35 m, deixando-se cinco fileiras sem cobertura (controle. Os adultos foram monitorados nas duas áreas com armadilhas McPhail, utilizando-se como atrativo de proteína hidrolisada (BioAnastrepha® a 5%, no período de outubro a abril, nos dois ciclos. O pico populacional da espécie, nos dois ciclos, foi observado no período de maturação da uva. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas nas capturas entre as áreas, concluindo-se que a cobertura plástica não afeta a mobilidade e a flutuação populacional de A. fraterculus em cultivo protegido de videira.The South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the most important pests of temperate fruits in Southern Brazil. Little information regarded to pest damage is available when this insect is associated with vineyards. In this work was evaluated the plastic cover effect on seasonal fluctuation of A. fraterculus adults in vineyards of cv. Moscato Giallo. The experiment was conducted on 2005/06 and 2006/07 seasons in a vineyard located in Flores da Cunha, RS (latitude 29° 06' South, longitude 51° 20' West and altitude 541 m, covered with an impermeable plastic cloth (2.65 m x 160 µm, in 12 rows with 35 m, with five rows

  1. Evolução e gênese de um Plintossolo Pétrico concrecionário êutrico argissólico no município de Ouro Verde de Goiás Evolution and genesis of a petroferric eufrophic alfisol in Ouro Verde de Goiás, Brazil

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    Hilton Lenzi Moreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Solos concrecionários (Plintossolo Pétrico concrecionário nas Regiões Central e Norte do Brasil são muito comuns, ocorrendo em áreas baixas e nas bordas das chapadas, constituindo geralmente solos distróficos,pobres em nutrientes. A ocorrência de solo concrecionário eutrófico no município de Ouro Verde de Goiás, em área de borda de chapada motivou esta pesquisa, desenvolvida com a finalidade de verificar a relação eutrofia/solo/material litológico subjacente, provável fonte das bases trocáveis. As relações pedológicas e geoquímicas do solo com as concreções e a rocha de origem foram pesquisadas por meio de determinações da constituição química total dos elementos maiores, utilizando ICP-AES (espectrometria de emissão atômica por plasma acoplado indutivamente, análise mineralógica da fração argila por DRX, análise mineralógica da fração areia, além da caracterização analítica de rotina em pedologia. Os resultados analíticos de amostras de rocha, concreções ferruginosas e TFSA, as relações moleculares Ki e Kr e bases/R2O3 e a relação Zr/Ti são abordados e discutidos. Ocorrências mais significativas quanto a alguns elementos móveis são creditadas ao conteúdo elevado de matéria orgânica no horizonte superficial do solo, ao acúmulo residual de quartzo e à contribuição de material externo nos horizontes superiores . A relação solo/material litológico subjacente indica para o perfil de origem a partir de um metatonalito, atribuindo-se ao material petroplíntico presente na porção superior do solo, origem relacionada à desagregação e arraste de materiais relacionados à Superfície de Aplanamento Sul-Americana.The occurrence of concretionary soils in the Central and Northern Brazil is very common. They are found in low areas and on plateau edges, usually constituting dystrophic soils,poor in nutrients. The finding of an eutrophicc concretionary soil in the edge of a plateau in Ouro

  2. Phylogenetic correlograms and the evolution of body size in South American owls (Strigiformes

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    José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho

    2000-06-01

    ção interespecífica no tamanho do corpo de 19 espécies de corujas (Strigiformes sul-americanas através de correlogramas filogenéticos, construídos utilizando índices I de Moran em quatro classes de distância. A filogenia entre as espécies foi definida com base em dados de hibridização de DNA. O correlograma observado foi então comparado a 500 correlogramas obtidos através de simulações de evolução por movimento Browniano e pelo processo O-U, sobre essa mesma filogenia. Esses correlogramas foram comparados entre si utilizando análises de variância (ANOVA e MANOVA e através das correlações entre os índices I de Moran e as classes de distância filogenética. O correlograma observado indica a existência de um gradiente filogenético de variação até cerca de 45 milhões de anos, quando os índices se estabilizam, e é similar aos correlogramas obtidos através do processo O-U, considerando tanto a correlação do gradiente quanto a sua alocação aos dois grupos de processos através de análise discriminante. Esse padrão é esperado, considerando a importância do tamanho do corpo e sua correlação com diversos caracteres ecológicos e de história de vida, que produzem muitas restrições que podem de fato ser modeladas por um processo O-U expressando seleção estabilizadora.

  3. Diversidade alfa e beta no cerrado sensu strictu da Chapada Pratinha, Brasil Alfa and Beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto

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    Maria Cristina Felfili

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O bioma cerrado possui uma das mais ricas floras dentre as savanas mundiais com mais de 6000 espécies, abrange uma vasta extensão territorial, contém as três maiores bacias hidrográficas sul americanas, e se destaca pela elevada biodiversidade. O objetivo deste trabalho, que faz parte do Projeto Biogeografia do Bioma Cerrado, foi analisar as diversidades alfa e beta em comunidades de cerrado sensu stricto. Foram amostrados o Parque Nacional de Brasília, a Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, a Area de Proteção Ambiental (APA Gama-Cabeça de Veado, Silvânia-GO, Paracatu-MG e Patrocínio-MG. A amostragem foi aleatória com 10 parcelas de 20x50m em cada área de estudo. Foram incluídas plantas lenhosas, exceto lianas, que tivessem no mínimo 5cm de diâmetro. Foi calculada a diversidade alfa pelo teste de Shannon & Wienner e o de Simpson. A diversidade beta foi calculada pelo índice de Whittaker que mede a mudança ou taxa de substituição na composição de espécies de um local para outro. Foi efetuada a curva espécie-área para as 60 parcelas amostradas e efetuada a classificação por TWINSPAN. O cerrado sensu stricto da Chapada Pratinha pode ser diferenciado em duas zonas fitogeográficas: Distrito Federal-Silvânia e Paracatu-Patrocínio. Estas coincidem com um zoneamento por sistemas de terra que classifica a primeira zona como terras altas em contraposição à segunda.The cerrado flora is one of the richest among the world's savannas with more than 6000 species. The cerrado covers a large territory, contains the three most important hydrographycal basins in South America and a high diversity. The objective of this work, that is part of the project Biogeography of the Cerrado Biome, was to analyse alfa and beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto. The sampled places were: Brasília National Park -- DF, Águas Emendadas Ecological Station -- DF, Environmentally protected Area of Gama-Cabeça de Veado -- DF, Silv

  4. De homens, árvores e sapos: forma, espaço e tempo em Tapirapé

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    Yonne Leite

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Em várias línguas não-indo-européias, categorias gramaticais como nome, verbo, numerais etc. são classificadas segundo propriedades ou características físicas de seus referentes. Apresenta-se aqui a classificação que expressa, em tapirapé (família tupi-guarani, Brasil, as propriedades de forma ("chata", "redonda", "alta" que se aliam, com restrições combinatórias, à posição ("deitado", "sentado", "de pé" do objeto referenciado. A comparação feita com sistemas de classificação de línguas sul-americanas indica que, apesar da diversidade categorial aparente, é possível detectar não só um número reduzido de componentes semânticos geométricos sempre atuantes, mas também coincidências na inclusão ou exclusão dos membros nas diferentes classes. O exame, mesmo superficial, parece contrariar os pressupostos das versões, moderada ou extremada, do relativismo lingüístico ou de uma infinidade de recortes de um mundo que lá está. No caso tapirapé, o que está em jogo não é a expressão culturalmente filtrada de um mundo preexistente, mas antes a apreensão de uma realidade que se constrói a partir da perspectiva que o falante tem de um evento, de um fato ou de uma existência, que se consubstancia através de uma geometria extremamente simples, mas altamente rentável, em que forma, espaço, tempo/aspecto são interdependentes.In various non-Indo-European languages, grammatical categories such as name, verb and number are classified according to the physical properties or characteristics of their referents. Presenting material on the Tapirapé language (Tupi-Guarani family, Brazil, this paper focuses on a linguistic classification which expresses formal properties ("flat", "round", "tall" in alliance with the position of the referred object ("lying", "seated", "standing" within a system subject to combinatory restrictions. Comparison with classificatory systems of other South American Indian languages reveals that

  5. In vitro evaluation of copaiba oil as a kojic acid skin enhancer

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    Robson Vicente Machado de Oliveira; Mitsuko Taba Ohara; Marta Maria Duarte Carvalho Vila; Marcos Moisés Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of copaíba oil to act as a skin penetration enhancer for the depigmenting agent kojic acid was evaluated using an in vitro diffusion system with static flux and shed rattlesnake skin membrane, Crotalus durissus terrificus, in saline solution at 34±2 ºC as the fluid receptor. The quantities of kojic acid liberated into the fluid receptor were determined by spectrophotometry at 268 nm with intervals of one and a half hours. The membranes, pretreated with copaíba oil at 25% and 50% ...

  6. Rattlesnake Envenomation in Three Dairy Goats

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    Joseph Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of rattlesnake envenomation in dairy goats are lacking. These cases present three dairy goats presented to a veterinary referral hospital for envenomation of Northern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus. Treatments and clinical characteristics reported are similar to those for llamas, alpacas, and horses. These cases suggest that quick treatment in the event of a bite may have a more favorable clinical response. Existing rattlesnake bite scoring systems applicable to other species may be applicable to goats, and existing respiratory pathology may predispose goats to a less favorable outcome.

  7. Structural studies of the oligomeric formation crotoxin and their complexes; Estudos estruturais da formacao oligomerica da crotoxina e seus complexos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, Humberto A.S.; Fernandes, Carlos A.H.; Magro, Angelo J.; Fontes, Marcos R.M.; Fernandez, Roberto M., E-mail: rmorato@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica; Bicev, Renata N.; Oliveira, Cristiano L.P. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Experimental; Barioni, Marina B.; Ito, Amando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica

    2013-08-15

    The crotoxin is a phospholipase A{sub 2} that is the mainly responsible for the neurotoxic effect of the snakes' venom of the species Crotalus durissus, popularly known as rattlesnakes. In the crotoxin there are two subunits: an acidic, non-toxic and devoid of enzymatic action, (called crotoxin A or CA); and a basic, toxic with enzymatic activity (called crotoxin B or CB). The main objective of this work is to study the CA, CB and the complex CA + CB using the Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Optical absorption spectrometry and static fluorescence techniques. (author)

  8. Boletín de la AHA | Volumen 5 | Número 1-2

    OpenAIRE

    Asociación Herpetológica Argentina (AHA)

    1989-01-01

    - VI Reunión de Comunicaciones Herpetológioas (Circular Nro. 1) - II Congreso Argentino de Herpetología - Notas Herpetológicas -- Grisolia, C. S.; N. O. Stanchi. Labio leporino bilateral en una nidada de cascabel (Crotalus durissus terrificus) -- Martori, R.; L. J. Ávila. Partenogénesis en el género Teius (Sauria: Teiidae) - Novedades Zoogeográficas -- Filipello, A. M.; D. D. Echeverría. Acerca de la presencia de Leptodactylus latinasus anceps Gallardo 1964 (Anura: Leptodac...

  9. Prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae among recently captured Brazilian snakes Prevalência de Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae em serpentes recém-capturadas no Brasil

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    L.H. O'Dwyer

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in recently captured snakes from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Blood was collected from all snakes by ventral tail venipuncture. Blood smears were air dried, fixed with methanol, and stained with 10% Giemsa solution. The slides were microscopically examined for detection of hemoparasites by light microscopy at 250x magnification. A total of 238 snakes from 23 species were examined, of which 135 (56.7% were venomous and 103 (43.3% non-venomous snakes. The more numerous venomous species sampled were Crotalus durissus terrificus (n=108 and Bothrops jararaca (n=17 and non-venomous snakes were Oxyrhopus guibei (n=35, Boa constrictor amarali (n=18, and Waglerophis merremi (n=13. Hepatozoon spp. infection was detected in 39 (16.4% snakes. The prevalence in venomous and non-venomous snakes was 20.0% and 11.7%, respectively. The highest prevalences observed were 38.9% for Boa constrictor amarali, 35.3% for Bothrops jararaca, and 19.4% for Crotalus durissus terrificus.O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência da infecção por Hepatozoon spp. em serpentes recém-capturadas da região de Botucatu, São Paulo. O sangue foi coletado de todas as serpentes por punção da veia caudal. Os esfregaços foram secos ao ar, fixados com metanol e corados com solução de Giemsa a 10%. Examinaram-se 238 serpentes pertencentes a 23 espécies, das quais 135 (56,7% eram venenosas e 103 (43,3% não venenosas. As espécies venenosas mais representativas foram Crotalus durissus terrificus (n=108 e Bothrops jararaca (n=17 e as não venenosas foram Oxyrhopus guibei (n=35, Boa constrictor amarali (n=18 e Waglerophis merremi (n=13. A infecção por Hepatozoon spp. foi detectada em 39 (16,4% serpentes. As prevalências em serpentes venenosas e não venenosas foram 20,0% e 11,7%, respectivamente. As maiores prevalências foram 38,9% para Boa constrictor amarali, 35

  10. NOVEL SNAKE VENOM PROTEINS CYTOLYTIC TO CANCER CELLS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. LIPPS

    1999-01-01

    Cancer cell inhibitors, named Atroporin and Kaotree, having molecular weights of 35 kDa and 6 kDa have been isolated from the venoms of Crotalus atrox and Naja naja kaouthia, respectively, by fractionation on high pressure liquid chromatography. The purified Atroporin and Kaotree showed killing effects on various types of human (breast, colon, liver, ovary, etc.) and animal cancer cells in concentrations as low as 0.5µg/ml, and having no effect on normal mouse kidney, liver, spleen, and eryth...

  11. Microscopic agglutination test on captive rattlesnakes : Data on serovars and titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, T C S; Santos, A L Q; Lima, A M C; Gomes, D O; Cardoso, G F; Brites, V L C

    2016-06-01

    The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is considered the "golden standard" leptospirosis serodiagnostic test, but there is little information about it as it pertains to snakes. To fill this information gap, we provide data on serovars and titers of fifty-six Crotalus durissus collilineatus sera samples that tested positive by MAT (10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.02.006 (Rodrigues et al., 2016) [5]). These data are presented in a table, along with a description of the methodology used for sample collection and serologic testing. PMID:27077089

  12. Crotamine and crotoxin interact with tumor cells and trigger cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotoxin (Crtx) and Crotamine (Crota) are polypeptides isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (CV). Previous reports have been shown therapeutic effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and Crtx on skin, breast and lung tumours, although, the mechanisms of this antitumoral effect are still unknown. The aim of this work was to investigate the antitumoral effect of Crtx and Crota on brain tumours cells (GH3 and RT2) in vitro and their capacity of interaction with these tumour cells membranes. Cell survival after Crtx and Crota treatment was evaluated by MTT assay in different times post-treatment and apoptosis was evaluated by DAPI staining. In order to evaluate the specific interaction of Crtx and Crota, these polypeptides were radiolabelled, using 125I as radiotracer and binding assays were performed. The results were compared with the binding in nontumoral brain tissue. Crtx and Crota induced apoptosis on both tumour cells lineages but, Crota was more powerful than Crtx 90% and 20% cell death for RT2 cells; 80% and 20% cell death for GH3 cells, respectively). Both 125I-Crtx and 125I-Crota bound specifically in glioblastoma membranes. Nonetheless, CV polypeptides recognised glioblastoma cells with higher specificity than normal brain tissue. These results suggest that the Crtx and Crota interactions with the plasmatic membrane of tumour cells may be the first step of the cascade of signalling that trigger their antitumoral effect. (author)

  13. Identification and functional analysis of a novel bradykinin inhibitory peptide in the venoms of New World Crotalinae pit vipers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel undecapeptide has been isolated and structurally characterized from the venoms of three species of New World pit vipers from the subfamily, Crotalinae. These include the Mexican moccasin (Agkistrodon bilineatus), the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis), and the South American bushmaster (Lachesis muta). The peptide was purified from all three venoms using a combination of gel permeation chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Automated Edman degradation sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry established its peptide primary structure as: Thr-Pro-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-Asp-Val-Gly-Pro-Arg-OH, with a non-protonated molecular mass of 1063.18 Da. A synthetic replicate of the peptide was found to be an antagonist of bradykinin action at the rat vascular B2 receptor. This is the first bradykinin inhibitory peptide isolated from snake venom. Database searching revealed the peptide to be highly structurally related (10/11 residues) with a domain residing between the bradykinin-potentiating peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide domains of a recently cloned precursor from tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom gland. BIP thus represents a novel biological entity from snake venom

  14. Identification and functional analysis of a novel bradykinin inhibitory peptide in the venoms of New World Crotalinae pit vipers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Robert Leslie James; Graham, Ciaren; McClean, Stephen; Chen, Tianbao; O'Rourke, Martin; Hirst, David; Theakston, David; Shaw, Chris

    2005-12-23

    A novel undecapeptide has been isolated and structurally characterized from the venoms of three species of New World pit vipers from the subfamily, Crotalinae. These include the Mexican moccasin (Agkistrodon bilineatus), the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis), and the South American bushmaster (Lachesis muta). The peptide was purified from all three venoms using a combination of gel permeation chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Automated Edman degradation sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry established its peptide primary structure as: Thr-Pro-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-Asp-Val-Gly-Pro-Arg-OH, with a non-protonated molecular mass of 1063.18 Da. A synthetic replicate of the peptide was found to be an antagonist of bradykinin action at the rat vascular B2 receptor. This is the first bradykinin inhibitory peptide isolated from snake venom. Database searching revealed the peptide to be highly structurally related (10/11 residues) with a domain residing between the bradykinin-potentiating peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide domains of a recently cloned precursor from tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom gland. BIP thus represents a novel biological entity from snake venom. PMID:16277978

  15. Toxicity attenuation optimization of crotalic venom by gamma radiation and studies of its immunogenic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature data show that 2.0 kGy dose of gamma radiation, generated by 60 source, reduces the toxic activity of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, without altering its immunogenic capacity. When crotoxin, main toxin from crotalic venom, was irradiated with the same dose, toxicity was also reduced and the immunogenicity was maintained. This fact was attributed to aggregates (compounds with high molecular weight generated during irradiation), that showed no toxicity but were able to induce the antibodies formation against native venom. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy doses and submitted to molecular exclusion chromatography, in order to find an efficient dose that produces large amounts of non toxic but still immunogenic aggregates. After being isolated, the products of irradiation were evaluated for the amount produced, molecular alteration, and toxic and immunogenic activities. These parameters were also analyzed for the whole venom irradiated. The results from different doses irradiated venom were compared with native one, and 2.0 kGy dose was confirmed to be the most efficient in the association of toxicity attenuation with maintenance of immunogenicity of the crotalic venom, while other doses, in spite of being efficient in the toxicity attenuation, they were not able to keep the immunogenicity property. So, the dose of 2.0 kGy could be used to immunize animals in order to improve anticrotalic sera production. (author)

  16. No safety in the trees: Local and species-level adaptation of an arboreal squirrel to the venom of sympatric rattlesnakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomento, Abby M; Perry, Blair W; Denton, Robert D; Gibbs, H Lisle; Holding, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    Within some species, squirrels respond to variable selection from venomous snake predators by showing population-level variation in resistance, while between species, some rattlesnakes possess venom that is more effective at overcoming venom resistance in different species of squirrels. A functional evaluation of resistance variation to venom within and between species of squirrels and snakes can link resistance variation to its evolutionary causes across these different evolutionary scales. To do this, we compared the effectiveness of squirrel sera in inhibiting rattlesnake (Crotalus spp.) venom metalloproteinase activity between populations and between species to test for a response to local variation in selection from a single rattlesnake predator and for specialization of two resistant squirrel species to each of their distinct sympatric snake predators. We found that Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) venom inhibition by Eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) is higher at a site where the rattlesnakes are present, which suggests selection may maintain venom resistance in populations separated by short distances. Next, we performed a reciprocal cross of venoms and sera from two rattlesnake and two squirrel species. This showed that squirrel resistance is lower when tested against venom from allopatric compared to sympatric rattlesnake species, demonstrating that squirrel inhibitors are specialized to sympatric venom and suggesting a tradeoff in terms of specialization to the venom of a specific species of rattlesnake predator. This pattern can be explained if inhibitors must recognize venom proteins and resistance evolution tracks venom evolution. PMID:27158112

  17. ANTITUMOR EFFECT OF SNAKE VENOMS

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    R. J. DA SILVA

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for biological antitumor agents has been pursued for over half a century. Snake venom has been shown to possess a wide spectrum of biological activities. The objectives of the present review are to evaluate the existing controversies on this subject published in a number of papers and to propose probable explanations for the phenomena observed. We reported our results obtained in a study, in which we evaluated the action of the venoms of Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops jararaca on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. We noticed an important antitumor effect, mainly with Bothrops jararaca venom, as well as an increase in the functional activity of macrophages. We also observed an increase in the number of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells with Bothrops jararaca venom. Considering these findings, we postulate that both Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms can act directly on tumor cells. In addition, we propose an indirect mechanism, based on the stimulation of the inflammatory response, to inhibit tumor growth and to promote its rejection.

  18. Structural aspects of crotalic venom proteins modified by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the Ministry of Health notified around 26 000 accidents in 2008. The genus Crotalus (rattlesnakes) accounts for approximately 7% of the total, with a high mortality rate of 72% when untreated with the specific serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites. In Brazil, the serum is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool for reducing the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins, resulting in better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum producing animals. Since the action of gamma radiation on venoms and toxins has not been yet fully clarified from the structural point of view, we proposed in this paper, to characterize two toxins of the species Crotalus durissus terrificus: crotoxin and crotamine. After isolation of the toxins of interest by chromatographic techniques, they were subjected to structural analysis with the application of the following methods: Fluorescence, Circular Dichroism, Differential Calorimetry and Infrared Spectroscopy. These tests showed that both crotamine as crotoxin when subjected to gamma radiation, showed changes in their structural conformation compared with the samples in the native state. Such changes probably occur in the secondary and tertiary structure and may explain the changes on the biological activity of these toxins. (author)

  19. Structural aspects of crotalic venom proteins modified by ionizing radiation; Aspectos estruturais de proteinas do veneno crotalico modificadas por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de

    2010-07-01

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the Ministry of Health notified around 26 000 accidents in 2008. The genus Crotalus (rattlesnakes) accounts for approximately 7% of the total, with a high mortality rate of 72% when untreated with the specific serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites. In Brazil, the serum is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool for reducing the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins, resulting in better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum producing animals. Since the action of gamma radiation on venoms and toxins has not been yet fully clarified from the structural point of view, we proposed in this paper, to characterize two toxins of the species Crotalus durissus terrificus: crotoxin and crotamine. After isolation of the toxins of interest by chromatographic techniques, they were subjected to structural analysis with the application of the following methods: Fluorescence, Circular Dichroism, Differential Calorimetry and Infrared Spectroscopy. These tests showed that both crotamine as crotoxin when subjected to gamma radiation, showed changes in their structural conformation compared with the samples in the native state. Such changes probably occur in the secondary and tertiary structure and may explain the changes on the biological activity of these toxins. (author)

  20. Criança hospitalizada: percepção das mães sobre o vínculo afetivo criança-família Niño hospitalizado: el vinculo afectivo niño-família Hospitalized children: mothers' perception about the affective child-family link

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    Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de Oliveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou verificar a percepção da mãe que tem seu filho doente hospitalizado, sobre a importância de sua permanência durante o período de internação para manutenção do vínculo afetivo criança-família. Os dados empíricos foram coletados com mães de crianças hospitalizadas, que não estavam acompanhando a internação do seu filho, num hospital público em Cascavel - Paraná, utilizando-se entrevista semi-estruturada. A análise dos dados demonstrou que as mães reconhecem a importância em permanecer com seu filho num período de estresse como o da hospitalização, porém, os fatores externos que influenciam seu cotidiano, muitas vezes não permitem que exerçam sua vontade de ficar com seus filhos.Este trabajo tiene como objetivo verificar la percepción de la madre que tiene su hijo enfermo hospitalizado, sobre la importancia de su permanencia durante el periodo de internación para la manutención del vinculo afectivo del niño-familia. Los dados empíricos fueron colectados con madres de niños hospitalizados, que no estaban acompañando la internación de su hijo, en un hospital publico en Cascavel ¾ Paraná, utilizase una entrevista semi-estructurada. El análisis de los datos demostró que las madres reconocen la importancia en permanecer con su hijo en un periodo de estrés como de la hospitalización, sin embargo, los factores externos que influencian su cotidiano, muchas veces no permiten que ejerzan su voluntad de quedar con sus hijos.This purpose of this research was to verify the perception of the mother who has her child sick and hospitalized, about the importance of her permanence during the hospitalization time for the maintenance of the affective child-family link. Empiric data were collected with mother's of hospitalized children, who were accompanying the hospitalization of their children in a public hospital at the Cascavel city in the West of Paraná, Brazil, through semi-structured interviews

  1. Estudo da morbidade em uma população idosa Estudio de la morbilidad en la población de ancianos Morbidity study in an elder population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou identificar os agravos que mais acometeram os idosos no período de 1998 a 2005 e a capacidade funcional dos residentes na área de abrangência de quatro unidades básicas de saúde de diferentes regiões, no Município de Cascavel, Paraná, em 2007. Os dados de morbidade foram pesquisados no Sistema de Informações Hospitalar do Sistema Único de Saúde, e foram realizadas entrevistas com 141 idosos. No período estudado, a morbidade pouco variou: as doenças do aparelho circulatório foram responsáveis pelo maior número de internamentos. A média geral de doenças referidas pelos idosos foi de 2, com destaque para as cardiovasculares. Dentre os entrevistados, 136 (96,5% afirmaram realizar todas as atividades cotidianas, sem o auxílio de outras pessoas. O estudo mostra que é necessário implantar serviços voltados para as doenças crônicas, com foco na manutenção da máxima capacidade funcional pelo maior tempo possível, valorizando a autonomia e a autodeterminação dos idosos.El objetivo del estudio fue identificar las enfermedades que más afectaron a los ancianos en el período entre 1998 y 2005 y la capacidad funcional de los residentes en el área de cobertura de cuatro unidades básicas de salud de diferentes regiones en la cuidad de Cascavel, Paraná, en 2007. Los datos de morbilidad fueron investigados en el Sistema de Información Hospitalario del Sistema Único de Salud, e se realizaron encuestas con 141 ancianos. En el periodo estudiado, la morbilidad ha variado poco, las enfermedades del sistema circulatorio fueron responsables por el mayor número de internamientos. El promedio general de las enfermedades referidas por los mayores fue de 2, con relieve para las cardiovasculares. Entre los encuestados, 136 (o sea el 96,5% afirmaron realizar todas las actividades cotidianas sin la ayuda de los demás. El estudio muestra la necesidad de implementar servicios dirigidos a las enfermedades crónicas, con

  2. O tornar-se cuidadora na senescência Conviertendo cuidador en la vejez Becoming caregiver in the old age

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    Elizabeth Braz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo, desenvolvido no município de Cascavel PR, com senescentes cuidadoras domiciliares de idosos dependentes, teve como objetivo verificar os motivos que as levaram a executarem esse papel. A metodologia utilizada foi a qualitativa, e a Representação Social foi eleita como caminho teórico. Foram critérios de inclusão: sexo feminino; idade superior ou igual a 60 anos; cuidadores domiciliares principais de idosos dependentes por um período igual ou superior a três meses. A coleta de dados deu-se entre novembro de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. A população constituiu-se de 13 senescentes, sendo 46,1% esposas, o que atribuímos a própria representação social construída. A representação social também está relacionada à figura da mulher, geralmente a mais velha da família, viúva ou solteira. Sem recursos e tratados com desigualdade pelo sistema, o idoso cuidador e, nesse caso, a idosa cuidadora senescente tornam-se mais um ponto vulnerável em nossa sociedade.Estudio, desarrollado en la ciudad de Cascavel-PR, con los cuidadoras ancianas domiciliarios de dependientes envejecidos, tenía como el objetivo, verificar las razones para ejecutar este papel. La metodología usada era cualitativa y como camino teórico la representación social. Los criterios de inclusión fueran: sexo femenino, edad igual o superior a los sesenta años, cuidadores principales domiciliarios de dependientes envejecidos, por un período igual o superior los tres meses. La recogida de datos fue hecha desde noviembre de 2006 hasta enero de 2007. La población consistió en 13 envejecido, siendo 46.1% esposas, qué atribuimos la representación social construida. La representación social también está relacionada, a la figura de la mujer, generalmente más vieja de la familia, viuda o soltera. Tratados sin recursos, el cuidador envejecido y en este caso, la cuidadora envejecida, se convierte en más un punto vulnerable en nuestra sociedad.The present study

  3. Mudanças no trabalho e na vida de bancários portadores de Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos: LER Cambios en el trabajo y en la vida de bancarios portadores de Lesiones por Esfuerzos Repetitivos: LER Changes in the work and life of bank employees with Repetitive Strain Injury: RSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Tiemi Murofuse

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A LER constitui-se num dos graves problemas de saúde dos trabalhadores na atualidade. Com o objetivo de analisar as principais mudanças no trabalho e na vida dos portadores de LER de membros de uma Associação de Portadores de LER de Cascavel-PR, foi desenvolvido o estudo, de natureza qualitativa. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas, com nove bancários. Os primeiros sintomas surgiram no período coincidente com a automação e a introdução de novas tecnologias no sistema financeiro brasileiro e as mudanças na organização do trabalho. Aumento do volume de trabalho e da digitação, horas-extra, ausências de pausas, monotonia, repetitividade, ritmo intenso e controle da produtividade e tensão constituíram os principais elementos. O agravamento das lesões afetou a capacidade produtiva e implicou na dependência para execução de atividades no trabalho e fora dele. O desafio está em garantir os direitos desses trabalhadores.Las LER constituyen uno de los grandes problemas de salud de los trabajadores en la actualidad. Con el objetivo de analizar los principales cambios en el trabajo y en la vida de los portadores de LER de los miembros de una Asociación de Portadores de LER de la ciudad de Cascavel-Paraná, fue desarrollado el estudio, de naturaleza cualitativa. Fueron realizadas entrevistas semi-estructuradas, con nueve bancarios. Los primeros síntomas surgieron en el periodo coincidente con la automatización y la introducción de nuevas tecnologías en el sistema financiero brasileño y los cambios en la organización del trabajo. Aumento del volumen de trabajo y de la digitación, horas extras, ausencia de pausas, monotonía, repetición, ritmo intenso y control de la productividad, tensión y presión constituyeron los principales elementos. El agravamiento de las lesiones limitó físicamente afectando la capacidad productiva y tuvo implicaciones en la dependencia para la ejecución de actividades en el trabajo y

  4. Alelopatia de cultivos de cobertura vegetal sobre plantas infestantes = Allelopathy of cover crop on weed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Kazue Tokura

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o potencial alelopático de cultivos de cobertura vegetal de trigo, aveia preta, milheto, nabo forrageiro e colza sobre o desenvolvimento de plantas infestantes e verificou qual das coberturas vegetais exerce maior controle sobre as mesmas. Os cultivos de cobertura vegetal foram implantados sob preparo convencional (uma aração e uma gradagem no Núcleo Experimental de Engenharia Agrícola (NEEA, da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (Unioeste, Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Mensalmente, realizou-se o acompanhamento e identificação das plantas infestantes emersas nas áreas de cobertura vegetal no período de agosto de 2000 a agosto de 2001. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que das espécies encontradas, o capim marmelada foi o que apresentou maior potencial alelopático e a erva-de-santa-maria o menor. As coberturasvegetais que apresentaram melhor controle do total de plantas infestantes presentes na área experimental, incluindo àquelas com reconhecido potencial alelopático, foram aveia preta, colza, nabo forrageiro e milheto.This work evaluated the cover crop allelopathic potential of wheat, black oat, pearl millet, turnip and rape on the development of weed plants. It also verified which cover crop has larger control on the weed plants. The cover crop was implanted under conventional tillage (one disk plowing plus one disk harrowing in the Experimental Nucleus of Agricultural Engineering (NEEA, of the State University of the West of Paraná (Unioeste, Cascavel, Paraná State. Monthly (from August 2000 to August 2001, weed plants identification in the cover crop area was made. Results showed that from the found species, the alexander grass was the one that presented larger allelopathic potential, and, the mexican-tea was the one that presented smaller control. The vegetable coverings that presented larger control of the total of weed plants in the experimental area, including those with

  5. Determinação da curva característica de um painel fotovoltaico em condições reais de trabalho = Determination of the characteristic curve of a photovoltaic panel in real conditions of work

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    Estor Gnoatto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi desenvolvido um estudo sobre um sistemafotovoltaico autônomo, com armazenamento de energia, instalado na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Estado do Paraná, Campus Cascavel, a uma latitude 24º 59’ Sul, longitude de 53º 26’ Oeste, com altitude de 682 metros, sob condições reais de campo, durante o ano de 2002. Foi determinada a curva característica do painel, utilizando uma aquisição de dados um "micrologger" da Campbell Scientific-INC modelo CR10X, programado para realizar uma leitura por segundo de cada canal e armazenar a média aritmética de cinco minutos dos dados das componentes detemperatura de operação do painel; tensão e corrente do sistema fotovoltaico. Baseando-se nesses dados pode-se determinar que a curva característica do painel em condições reais de campo apresenta uma perda de 24% em seu rendimento em relação ao padrão STC (condições padrão de teste.The purpose of the present work was to develop the study of anautonomous photovoltaic system, with storage of energy, installed in the Agrometeorological Experimental Station of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, State of Paraná, Campus Cascavel, at 24º 59’ latitude south, 53º26 longitude west, 682 meters of altitude, under real field conditions, during the year 2002. Efficacy of the photovoltaic panels has been evaluated under real field conditions, as well as to determine its characteristic linear fit. A 'micrologger' Campbell Scientific-INC model CR10X was used to acquire data, and it was programmed to accomplish a reading per second in each channel and to store the arithmetic average of data from five minutes of operational temperature of the panel, photovoltaic system tension and current. According to results, it could determined that the panel characteristic linear fit in real field conditions shows 24% less field than standard STC (Standard Test Conditions.

  6. Força de tração necessária em função do número de linhas de semeadura utilizadas por uma semeadora-adubadora de precisão Traction force necessary in function of the number of sowing lines used by a seed-drill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcir J. Modolo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento da força de tração solicitada por uma semeadora-adubadora, variando o número de linhas de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido no Núcleo Experimental de Engenharia Agrícola - NEEA, pertencente à UNIOESTE - Câmpus de Cascavel - PR, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférico com relevo plano e textura argilosa. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, composto por cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: semeadora equipada com uma, duas, três, quatro e cinco linhas de semeadura, deslocada à velocidade média de 5,5 km h-1. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros de profundidade do sulco, área de solo mobilizada, força de tração média e força de tração máxima. Com o aumento do número de linhas de semeadura de uma para cinco, a força de tração média na barra aumentou de 3,7 para 8,6 kN, ou seja, houve acréscimo de 131,9%.This work aimed to evaluate the behavior of the traction force requested by a seeder-drill varying the number of lines of sowing. The experiment was leaded in the Experimental Nucleus of Agricultural Engineering - NEEA, belonging to the UNIOESTE - Campus of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil, in Red Latosoil Haplortox with plane relief and loamy texture. The experimental design used was of blocks by chance with five treatments and four repetitions. It was used the following treatments: seeder equipped with one, two, three, four and five sowing lines, which were moved in an average speed of 5.5 km h-1. The parameters evaluated were: depth of the furrow, soil area mobilized, average traction force and maximum traction force. With the increase of the number of sowing lines of one for five, the average traction force in the bar increased from 3.7 to 8.6 kN, in other words, there was an increment of 131.9%.

  7. Análise de um sistema de aquecimento de água para residências rurais, utilizando energia solar A water heating system analysis for rural residences, using solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz H. Basso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A conscientização da importância do meio ambiente tem incentivado o estudo de novas fontes energéticas renováveis e menos poluentes. Dentre essas fontes, a energia solar destaca-se por ser perene e limpa. A utilização da energia solar em sistemas de aquecimento de água residencial rural pode colaborar com a economia de energia elétrica, base da matriz energética brasileira. Conhecer os fatores que influenciam na operação de um sistema de aquecimento de água por energia solar é importante na determinação de sua viabilidade técnica, visando a sua difusão em residências rurais. Para tanto, construiu-se um protótipo, no câmpus da Faculdade Assis Gurgacz, em Cascavel - PR, com características similares a um equipamento utilizado em residências para dois habitantes, para funcionar com circulação natural ou termossifão e sem auxílio de sistema de aquecimento complementar. O equipamento mostrou-se viável tecnicamente, alcançando a temperatura mínima para banho de 35 °C, sempre que a radiação solar foi superior a 3.500 Wh m-2, o que aconteceu para a maioria dos dias estudados.The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new renewed energy sources and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of agricultural residential water heating, can complement the economy of electric energy, base of the Brazilian energy matrix. Knowing the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy is important in determining their technical viabilities targeting their distribution in agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy, a prototype was constructed in the campus of Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel,State of Paraná, Brazil, with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants, to function with natural circulation or

  8. Tolerância à germinação na espiga em cultivares de trigo colhido na maturação fisiológica Sprouting tolerance on spikes in wheat cultivars harvested in the physiological ripening

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    Francisco de Assis Franco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as diferenças de tolerância à germinação na pré-colheita em espigas de cultivares de trigo, submetidas a um sistema de chuva artificial. Foram realizados experimentos em duas localidades do Paraná (Palotina e Cascavel com 12 cultivares. Quando as cultivares atingiram a maturidade fisiológica, as espigas foram colhidas e secadas em temperatura ambiente por um período de 20 dias. Foram analisadas 10 espigas por cultivar e submetidas a um sistema de chuva artificial. Após o período de molhamento, foram realizadas leituras pela escala de notas de 1 a 11. As espigas foram então debulhadas e submetidas à contagem de grãos germinados e não germinados. Esses resultados possibilitaram identificar as cultivares 'Frontana', 'IAPAR 53', 'ONIX', 'CD 108' e 'IPR 85' como as de maior nível de tolerância. Considerando todas as características avaliadas, 'Frontana' foi a cultivar com maior potencial de utilização no melhoramento genético. O emprego de notas visuais de germinação na espiga foi vantajoso porque permitiu a realização de avaliações rápidas e precisas em um grande número de cultivares, sem comprometer os resultados de seleção dos genótipos tolerantes.The objective of the study was to identify the differences in pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in wheat spikes cultivars analyzed in artificial rain. Experiments were carried out in two locations of Paraná, Brazil (Palotina and Cascavel with 12 cultivars. Spikes from plants in physiological maturation were harvested and dried at room temperature for 20 days. Ten spikes per cultivar were used and subjected to artificial rain. After the wetness duration were recorded notes from scale 1 to 11. In the next step, spikes were threshed and subjected to counting of sprouted and nonsprouted seeds. This results made possible to identify 'Frontana', 'IAPAR 53', 'ONIX', 'CD 108' and 'IPR 85' as the cultivars with the best level of tolerance

  9. Plano de amostragem para Dichopelmus notus (Eriophyidae na cultura da erva-mate Sampling plan for Dichopelmus notus (Eriophyidae on mate-tea orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Bertoldo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a amostragem presença-ausência para Dichopelmus notus Keifer (Eriophyidae na cultura da erva-mate. O trabalho foi realizado em plantação comercial, em Cascavel, PR, entre abril de 1999 e julho de 2000. Procederam-se a coletas quinzenais de 240 folhas em diferentes partes de 10 plantas. A contagem dos ácaros nas folhas foi realizada, em laboratório, com auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico. Foi determinado o padrão de agregação com o modelo da potência de Taylor, e também a proporção de folhas infestadas e o número de amostras requeridas foram estimados por análise de regressão. D. notus apresentou distribuição agregada. A proporção de folhas infestadas estimadas pelo modelo matemático mostrou ser um parâmetro confiável para se estimar a densidade populacional do ácaro, sendo que o número de amostras requeridas foi pequeno, o que viabiliza a aplicação prática do método.The objective of this research was to evaluate presence-absence sampling plan for Dichopelmus notus Keifer (Eriophyidae on mate-tea orchard. This study was conducted in Cascavel, State of Paraná, Brazil, from April 1999 to July 2000, in a mate-tea tree commercial plantation. Biweekly sampling of 240 leaves in different parts of 10 plants was conducted, and the number of mites was registered. The aggregation pattern was determined using the Taylor’s power law model. The proportion of the infested leaves and the number of required samples were estimated by regression analysis. D. notus presented aggregated distribution. The estimated proportion of infested leaves showed to be reliable in order to estimate the population density of mites. The number of sample unities required to estimate infestation density was low, which makes practical application of this sampling method to be feasible.

  10. Interferência de capim-marmelada na cultura da soja Alexandergrass interference in soybean

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    Dagoberto Martins

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de diferentes períodos de controle e convivência de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento e produção da soja (Glycine max, variedade OCEPAR 4 - lguaçu, foi instalado e conduzido a presente pesquisa em Cascavel/PR, em um latossolo roxo distrófico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em dois grupos: no primeiro, a cultura foi mantida livre da comunidade infestante desde a emergência da cultura até 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 e 100 dias de seu ciclo, após o qual as plantas daninhas foram deixadas crescer livremente e, no segundo, a cultura foi mantida no mato por períodos equivalentes ao primeiro grupo, após o qual foi mantida no limpo. Capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea foi a principal planta daninha da área experimental, originando a quase a totalidade da matéria seca da comunidade infestante. O estande, o número de vagens por planta, o tamanho de vagens, a altura de inserção de primeira vagem e o rendimento de grãos foram afetados pela interferência da comunidade infestante. O período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI e o período anterior a interferência (PAI sobre a produtividade da cultura foram de 20 e 30 dias respectivamente, a partir da emergência da soja.The objective of this trial, carried out in Cascavel (PR, Brazil, was to study the weed competition period over some productives parameters of soybean (Glycine max. The experimental design used was the randomized complete block with three replications and the treatments were divided into two groups: in the first the crop was maintained free of weed competition and in the second it one was maintained in weed competition. The periods extensions studied were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 days after soybeans emergence to two groups. Alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea was the most important weed of

  11. EXPERIÊNCIAS, SEMELHANÇAS E ALGUMAS PARTICULARIDADES NA ORGANIZAÇÃO DO TRABALHO NA CATAÇÃO DE MATERIAIS RECICLÁVEIS NAS COOPERATIVAS DE RECICLAGEM: COAAFI E COOTACAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Queiroz Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem como foco principal entender o trabalho coletivo de dois grupos de trabalhadores catadores organizados em cooperativas de reciclagem, mais propriamente, visando apreender a organização do trabalho como enfrentamento as questões conflitantes do capital, assim como, a luta para além da organização interna e a trajetória dos trabalhadores na catação dos resíduos sólidos, compostos por materiais recicláveis, que sobrevivem a partir do que é considerado lixo para alguns e meio de sobrevivência para outros, nos municípios de Cascavel e Foz do Iguaçu, região Oeste do Paraná. O estudo revela sua importância no sentido de entender a dinâmica geográfica do trabalho na catação dos resíduos, pois a Geografia enquanto ciência humana permite entender suas relações sociais, assim como é o caso destes trabalhadores. Palavras chave: Organização do trabalho; trabalho; catação de recicláveis; Geografia. 

  12. Determinação da curva característica de um painel fotovoltaico em condições reais de trabalho - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v27i2.1484

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    Estor Gnoatto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi desenvolvido um estudo sobre um sistema fotovoltaico autônomo, com armazenamento de energia, instalado na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Estado do Paraná, Campus Cascavel, a uma latitude 24º 59’ Sul, longitude de 53º 26’ Oeste, com altitude de 682 metros, sob condições reais de campo, durante o ano de 2002. Foi determinada a curva característica do painel, utilizando uma aquisição de dados um "micrologger" da Campbell Scientific-INC modelo CR10X, programado para realizar uma leitura por segundo de cada canal e armazenar a média aritmética de cinco minutos dos dados das componentes de temperatura de operação do painel; tensão e corrente do sistema fotovoltaico. Baseando-se nesses dados pode-se determinar que a curva característica do painel em condições reais de campo apresenta uma perda de 24% em seu rendimento em relação ao padrão STC (condições padrão de teste

  13. A water heating system analysis for rural residences, using solar energy; Analise de um sistema de aquecimento de agua para residencias rurais, utilizando energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Luiz H.; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Siqueira, Jair A.C.; Nogueira, Carlos E.C.; Santos, Reginaldo F. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], emails: melegsouza@yahoo.com, ssouza@unioeste.br, jairsiqueira@unioeste.br, cecn1@yahoo.com.br, rfsantos@unioeste.br

    2010-01-15

    The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new renewed energy sources and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of agricultural residential water heating, can complement the economy of electric energy, base of the Brazilian energy matrix. Knowing the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy is important in determining their technical viabilities targeting their distribution in agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy, a prototype was constructed in the campus of Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel,State of Parana, Brazil, with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants, to function with natural circulation or thermo siphon and without help of a complementary heating system. The equipment revealed technical viability, reaching the minimum temperature for shower, of 35 deg C, whenever the solar radiation was above the 3,500 Wh m{sup -2}, for the majority of the studied days. (author)

  14. ANÁLISES COPROPARASITOLÓGICAS DE AVES SILVESTRES CATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Snak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most instances of parasitism in captive birds there is no expression of clinical signs. This fact underscores the importance of performing frequent parasitological examinations in these animals. The aim of this study was to do a coproparasitological analysis to monitor parasitic infections in captive birds in Danilo Galafassi Municipal Park (Municipal Zoo of Cascavel-PR, project approved by the Committee of Ethics and Animal Welfare (CEBEA Campus Palotina-UFPR, protocol nº 29/2010. A total of 228 fecal samples were analyzed from 37 species of captive birds from 22 enclosures in the period from August 2010 to July 2012. Chilled feces were analyzed through flotation methods of Willis-Mollay and simple sedimentation of Hoffmann, Pons and Janer. Out of the analyzed samples, 127 (55.7% were positive and among these 55 (43.3% presented mixed infection. The parasites that were found belonged to the genus Strongyloides, Eimeria, Capillaria, Deletrocephalus and Isospora, the superfamilies Strongyloidea, Ascaroidea and Spiruroidea, the order Trichurida and the class Cestoda. The examinations results of the enclosure of Jabiru mycteia (tuiuiú and Cariama cristata (seriema were negative throughout the study period. Hygienic-sanitary measures and movement control measures of animals and people circulation were introduced to minimize bird’s infection, but it requires further analysis to assess their impact.

  15. Aerobic fitness and biological and sociodemographic indicators in female school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Régis Ribeiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness is an important health-related fitness component. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of age, growth, body composition, sexual maturation and socioeconomic status on the aerobic fitness of female school children attending public schools in Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Across-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 2006 on 1,317 school children aged 8 to17 years. Body mass, height and triceps and medial calf skinfold thickness were measured and relative body fat (%BF was calculated. Sexual maturation was self-assessed using a breast development scale (M1 to M5. The questionnaire proposed by the Brazilian Association of Research Companies was used to assess socioeconomic status. Aerobic fitness was estimated by the 20-m shuttle runtest. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, Tukey post hoc test, Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression with 95% confidence intervals. Three variables (age, %BF and socioeconomic status showed an interaction (p<0.05 in the prediction of VO2peakrel (R2=0.73. All independent variables (body mass, height, age, %BF, socioeconomic status, and sexual maturation were significant predictors (p<0.05 of VO2picoabs (R2=0.88. In conclusion, chronological age and sexual maturation were the best predictors of VO2peakabs (positive and VO2peakrel (negative.

  16. Acesso ao cuidado à saúde da criança em serviços de atenção primária

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    Rosane Meire Munhak da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se uma pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa com base no referencial metodológico da hermenêutica dialética, com o objetivo de identificar o atributo acesso da atenção primária para a resolução dos problemas de saúde de crianças menores de um ano a partir dos relatos de pais e cuidadores. Envolveram-se 16 cuidadores de crianças atendidas em unidades de pronto atendimento de Cascavel-PR, em 2010. Foram reconhecidas quatro categorias temáticas: Aconselhamento familiar ao buscar atenção à saúde da criança; Ausência de acolhimento ao primeiro contato; Presença de classificação de risco para atenção à saúde da criança; Barreiras que impedem o acesso à atenção à saúde. Concluiu-se que as famílias exibiram dificuldades para alcançar resolutividade aos problemas de saúde dos filhos, mediante a falta de acesso aos serviços de atenção primária.

  17. Uso de álcool entre adolescentes escolares: um estudo-piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Dallo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de álcool entre adolescentes é um tema que preocupa profissionais da saúde pelos prejuízos acarretados e pela displicência da sociedade quanto ao uso desta droga por essa faixa etária. Este artigo analisa o consumo de álcool entre alunos do ensino médio de três escolas de Cascavel-PR. O instrumento utilizado foi o Alcohol Use Disordens Identification Test (AUDIT, além de levantamento de informações sobre o nível socioeconômico, religião e o beber problemático de familiar. O resultado mostrou que 34,7% dos estudantes bebem de maneira arriscada, não havendo diferenças significativas por escola, gênero e nível socioeconômico. Ter familiar que bebe foi considerado fator de risco e ter religião, fator protetor. Esta pesquisa pode alertar a sociedade paranaense para a necessidade de estudos mais amplos, com o objetivo de desenvolver políticas públicas que incluam projetos de prevenção e intervenção dirigidos à população jovem.

  18. Processo de ressocialização de usuários de substâncias lícitas e ilícitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Possa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación intentó conocer el modo de vida de ocho individuos, habitantes de la calle, usuarios de substancias lícitas e ilícitas, con edad de 21 a 50 años, en proceso de resocialización, en una organización no-gubernamental: Asociación Nova Alianza – A.N.A., en la municipalidad de Cascavel - PR, en 2003. El estudio se basó en los conceptos teóricos de la rehabilitación psicosocial emanados del Movimiento de la Reforma Psiquiátrica. Se trata de una investigación de naturaleza cualitativa, descriptiva, con la participación de 8 usuarios. Los datos fueron colectados por medio de 3 preguntas orientadoras, siendo analizados cualitativamente a la luz del referencial teórico. Este estudio nos mostró que el aspecto para trabajar la resocialización seria priorizar los aspectos sociales y económicos implicando en el aumento de su contractualidad afectiva, social y económica, viabilizando su autonomía.

  19. Correlation between COD and BOD5 and tracking of a sewage treatment station through statistical techniques for processes control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Antonio Vilas Boas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study had the objective to determine the correlation between COD and BOD5 and evaluate the performance of a sewage treatment station by means of techniques of statistical process control considering the parameters of COD and BOD5. For the correlation were used the values for entry and exit from a sewage treatment station (STS in the city of Cascavel-Paraná, between the months of January of 2005 to June of 2006 and for the application of statistical process control were use only the values from the point before the launch in the water course, in the period of January of 2006 to January of 2009 with monthly frequency. For the raw sewage (influent, the linear regression equation showed r equal to 0,987 which indicate that the BOD5 can be replaced by the parameter of COD. For the effluent, the linear regression equation showed r equals 0,76, which can be considered high. The treatment station showed not be able to answer always the legislation for both the parameter of COD and BOD5, because the process capacity rates were low.

  20. Mineral content of young leaves of yerba mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Camotti Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate is largely used to produce drinks to human consume. In Spring the plants develop tender young leaves that could represent a new market niche in the yerba-mate industry; this period is called as ”pressafrinha” in this study. This study aimed to analyze the total and hydro soluble nutritional values of young leaves collected in the Spring season and its nutritional potential for human consumption. To represent the ”pressafrinha” young leaves, the collected vegetal material was limited to the third terminal bud. The total and hydro soluble chemical analysis of leaves in the provenances Cascavel (progeny 174, Ivaí (progeny 6, Barão de Cotegipe (progenies 68 and 69 included the following elements: P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. The content of elements in the beverage obtained from the infusion of young leaves of yerba mate in the recommended daily intake ranges from 0.5% to 11.5% and was in the following order: Cu > Mn > K > P > Mg > Fe > Zn > Ca > Na. Progenies and morphotypes of yerba mate showed little variation in the total nutrient content and did not differ in the content of soluble nutrients evaluated in young leaves. The extract obtained from young leaves of yerba mate presents potential to be used for human consumption.

  1. Models in the estimate of the diffuse solar radiation; Modelos de estimativa da radiacao solar difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recieri, Reinaldo Prandini; Ferruzzi, Yuri; Silva, Suedemio de Lima [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Agricola; Quallio, Silvana [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Biologia; Batista, Vitor Roberto Lourenco [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica

    2004-07-01

    In this work we evaluate, by means of polynomial regression analysis, several models that relate the diffuse fraction of the global radiation (K{sub d}) with the clearness index (K{sub t}). The experiment was conducted in the Solar Radiometry Station of Cascavel/PR from the first of January to the 31st of December, in the year of 2001. The solar radiation components were monitored by the following manufactured instruments: pyranometer (KIPP and ZONEN CM3) and pirheliometer (EPPLEY NIP) connected in a sun tracker (ST-1 model). A datalogger CR10X from the CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC was used in the data acquisition. This datalogger was programmed in the frequency of 1 Hz storing an average of 5 minutes of collected data. Among the equations the best values of RMSE an MBE were find in the fourth and third degrees, respectively. We also find that the fourth degree polynomial equation (K{sub d}=1,172-1,001K{sub t}+3,992K{sub t}{sup 2}-11,742K{sub t}{sup 3}+7,698K{sub t}{sup 4}) generalizes the utilization of equations for diffuse solar radiation estimation. This means that this equation probably can be applied for any place and climatic conditions. (author)

  2. Allelopathy of Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae on germination and early development of Bidens pilosa (L. and Glycine max (L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the possible presence of allelopathic potential in camelina, as well as its effect on germination and early growth of soybean seedlings and beggarticks, in order, to verify the possibility of cultivating it with soybeans in a culture rotation system and its use as a herbicide. The experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. The design was completely randomized and the evaluations were held daily. The parameters under analysis were: germination percentage, time and average speed of germination, and average root lenght. The data obtained underwent the F-Test and the mean values were compared through Tukey’s test, at a 5% probability level. The results confi rm the presence of allelopathic potential in camelina. It was found that this species can be considered an option for cultivating with soybean, due to the positive allelophatic interference caused in the culture and because it can be used in the control of weeds such as beggartick, having in mind that that it has delayed the development of the seedlings tested.

  3. Calorific value for compositions with biodiesel of fat chicken and diesel oil; Valor calorifico para composicoes com biodiesel da gordura de frango e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose da [Universidade de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], email: marcelo.jose@feagri.unicamp.br; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Souza, Abel A. de; Martins, Gislaine I. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, abel.sza@hotmail.com, iastiaque@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    The biodiesel fuel is a renewable source of alternative fuel used in diesel cycle engines. The production of biodiesel involves the reaction of methanol with fatty acids of animal or vegetable. The production of biodiesel from chicken fat can be very attractive for some regions from Brazil with high poultry production, as in the Parana West and Santa Catarina West. In this study , the goal was the lower calorific value of the compositions between biodiesel and diesel oil: 100% Diesel oil (B0), 20% biodiesel (B20), 40% biodiesel (B40), 60% biodiesel (B60), 80% biodiesel (B80 ), 100% biodiesel (B100). The biodiesel used was acquired in the Centre for Development and Diffusion of technologies on the Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel city. The nominal production capacity of the unit is 900 liters on period of 8 hours. The model of the calorimeter used, was the E2K. The lower calorific value of B100 composition was 35.388 MJ kg-1 and the diesel oil was 41.299 MJ kg-1. With the measuring of the caloric value of six samples mix of diesel oil and biodiesel, was obtained a linear function decrease of the calorific value when increased it the proportion of biodiesel from chicken fat into fuel. (author)

  4. Association between vitamin D deficiency, adiposity and solar exposure in participants with arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus

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    Fabiana Silva Ruiz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, several studies have shown a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The major cause of vitamin D deficiency is the lack of adequate sun exposure. The objective of the study was to evaluate serum vitamin D level and to verify its association with vitamin D ingestion, body composition and solar exposure in patients participating in the Hypertension and Diabetes System in Cascavel, PR. A total of 304 adult and elder patients from both genders participated in the study. Demographic and anthropometric data, lifestyle, presence of previous diseases, dietary and serum levels of vitamin D were evaluated. We used the chi square test for association verification and compliance and the Kruskal-Wallis test to compare medians between variables. It was verified serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD deficiency (<20ng/mL in 52.6%, overweight and obesity in 73.4%, increase in abdominal circumference in 77.6% and in body fat percentage in 95.6% of the patients. There was no association between ingestion and serum vitamin D levels. Significant association was found between abdominal circumference (p

  5. [Cytotoxicity induced by Peruvian snake venom on fibroblasts of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, M; Vaisberg, A; Zavaleta, A

    1992-04-01

    The cytotoxic effect of venoms from six crotalinae Peruvian snakes (Bothrops atrox; B. brazili; B. pictus; B. barnetti; Lachesis m. muta y Crotalus durissus terrificus) was studied in an in vitro system of BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts grown in Dulbecco modified minimal essential medium at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2-95% air. The viability of the cells was evaluated 24 hours after the treatment with the different venoms, using the method of exclusion of trypan blue. The six venoms produced cytotoxic effects at 24 hours on the 3T3 fibroblasts. The venom from B. atrox was the most potent (DE50 = 162 ng/ml) and that from B. barnetti the least (DE50 = 7182 ng/ml). PMID:1297169

  6. Software system for three-dimensional volumetric reconstruction of histological sections: a case study for the snake chondrocranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadler-Deiques, Clarice; Walter, Marcelo; Mierlo, Fábio; Ruduit, Rodrigo

    2005-10-01

    Volumetric digital computer-assisted reconstruction of histological sections is an attractive possibility for developmental studies. Commercial solutions are very expensive for many educational institutions. Therefore, we developed a software system for three-dimensional reconstruction of anatomical virtual models. The input data for the system are the digitized images from the histological samples of the chondrocranium of two crotalines, Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus, and one colubrid, Philodryas olfersii, using a stereomicroscope connected to a digital camera. These images are then manually registered and segmented. We use computer graphics visualization algorithms such as marching cubes and ray casting to generate three-dimensional visualizations of the volumes. The results show that the digital reconstruction is as good as the manual reconstruction with the advantages of speed of reconstruction, accuracy, and flexibility to handle and study the volume. Compared with commercial options, our system has approximately the same features, and it is available free for the scientific community. PMID:16114067

  7. Composition and ecological patterns of snake assemblages in an Amazon-Cerrado Transition Zone in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra C. Pinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study encompasses the species composition and ecological characteristics of the snake community in a Cerrado-Amazon transition zone in Midwest of Brazil (state of Mato Grosso. The data were collected during six excursions to the "Tanguro" (study area by visual encounter survey, pitfall traps with drift fences and non-systematic sampling. We collected 194 specimens, distributed in 34 species, 26 genera, and eight families. The most abundant species were Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 50, Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823 (n = 15, Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (n = 13, Xenodon rabdocephalus (Wied, 1824 (n = 12, Lachesis muta (Linnaeus, 1766 (n = 10 and Erythrolamprus almadensis (Wagler, 1824 (n = 10. The composition of species found here represents a combination of Cerrado and Amazonian savanna fauna.

  8. Minimal volume regulation after shrinkage of red blood cells from five species of reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Karina; Berenbrink, Michael; Koldkjær, Pia;

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from most vertebrates restore volume upon hypertonic shrinkage and the mechanisms underlying this regulatory volume increase (RVI) have been studied extensively in these cells. Despite the phylogenetically interesting position of reptiles, very little is known about their red...... cell function. The present study demonstrates that oxygenated RBCs in all major groups of reptiles exhibit no or a very reduced RVI upon ~ 25% calculated hyperosmotic shrinkage. Thus, RBCs from the snakes Crotalus durissus and Python regius, the turtle Trachemys scripta and the alligator Alligator...... mississippiensis showed no statistically significant RVI within 120 min after shrinkage, while the lizard Tupinambis merianae showed 22% volume recovery after 120 min. Amiloride (10- 4 M) and bumetanide (10- 5 M) had no effect on the RVI in T. merianae, indicating no involvement of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) or...

  9. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini; Rita Maria Zucatelli Mendonça; Aurora Marques Cianciarullo; Leonardo Setsuo Kobashi; Hermínio Gomes Trindade; Wilson Fernandes; José Ricardo Pinto

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino d...

  10. Rosmarinic acid in Argusia argentea inhibits snake venom-induced hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Hnin Thanda; Nikai, Toshiaki; Niwa, Masatake; Takaya, Yoshiaki

    2010-10-01

    A methanolic extract of Argusia (or Messerschmidia or Tournefortia) argentea (Boraginaceae) significantly inhibited hemorrhage induced by crude venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis. The extract was then separated according to antivenom activity by using silica gel column chromatography and HPLC equipped with an octadecylsilanized silica gel (ODS) column to afford rosmarinic acid (RA) (1) as an active principle. RA (1) significantly inhibited the hemorrhagic effect of crude venoms of T. flavoviridis, Crotalus atrox, Gloydius blomhoffii, Bitis arietans as well as snake venom metalloproteinases, HT-b (C. atrox), bilitoxin 2 (Agkistrodon bilineatus), HF (B. arietans), and Ac1-proteinase (Deinagkistrodon acutus). This is the first report of the antihemorrhage activity of RA (1), and RA (1) greatly contributes to the antihemorrhagic efficiency of A. argentea against crude snake venoms and hemorrhagic toxins. PMID:20512530

  11. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storz, Jay F.; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki;

    2015-01-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer- dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for...... snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying - and -type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the...... oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis...

  12. ELISA for the detection of toxic antigens in experimental and clinical envenoming by Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Olórtegui, C; Fonseca, S C; Campolina, D; Amaral, C F; Diniz, C R

    1994-12-01

    An ELISA was developed for identification of circulating toxic antigens from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom. The toxic fraction from the scorpion venom was purified by Sephadex G-50 chromatography and immunoaffinity techniques were used for identifying antibodies that reacted with this fraction. These antibodies were used to develop a sandwich-type ELISA. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by its capacity for identifying mice that were experimentally inoculated with T. serrulatus venom from those inoculated with Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom, Apis mellifera bee venom and Bothrops atrox, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Lachesis muta muta and Micrurus frontalis snake venoms. Measurable absorbance signals were obtained with 0.1 ng of venom per assay. The ELISA also detected antigens in the sera of patients systemically envenomed by T. serrulatus. Therefore, this ELISA could be a valuable tool for clinicians and epidemiologists, owing to its sensitivity and specificity. PMID:7725332

  13. Influence of the main reactive species formed during the detoxication process of toxins by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation has been satisfactorily employed for venoms detoxification. In this report, the radiation was employed to verify the effects caused by the radiolysis products of water on two toxins (Crotoxin and Crotamine) purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. These effects were analyzed using some substances called 'scavengers', those substances competes for specific reactive species hindering them to act on the toxins molecules. In order to study the possible structural damages caused on the toxins, UV spectra, fluorescence, mass spectrometry, enzymatic activity were employed. In addition, biochemical techniques were employed to evaluate the decrease of toxicity and the immunogenicity of toxins before and after the irradiation. Our results indicate that the irradiation promotes structural damages, even at low doses. These modifications lead to a gradual decrease in toxicity, however, the immunogenic properties of the toxins are preserved. (author)

  14. 131I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. 125I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, 125I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for 131I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  15. Evaluation of snake venom phospholipase A{sub 2}: hydrolysis of non-natural esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirolla, Renan A.S.; Baldasso, Paulo A.; Marangoni, Sergio; Moran, Paulo J.S.; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto R., E-mail: jaugusto@iqm.unicamp.b [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry. Dept. of Organic Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Phospholipase A2 from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus was employed for the first time to test its enantioselectivity on the hydrolysis of different non-natural esters. It was observed that the structure of this small enzyme is restrictive in the choice of its lipase action with non-natural substrates. Two forms of the enzyme were used; free and as its cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA). With all substrates, the free enzyme showed activity similar to the CLEA preparation. The advantage of the CLEA phospholipase is the possibility to reuse it in several consecutive reactions without a decrease of activity and selectivity with good but higher yields and ee than with the free enzyme. (author)

  16. Evaluation of snake venom phospholipase A2: hydrolysis of non-natural esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phospholipase A2 from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus was employed for the first time to test its enantioselectivity on the hydrolysis of different non-natural esters. It was observed that the structure of this small enzyme is restrictive in the choice of its lipase action with non-natural substrates. Two forms of the enzyme were used; free and as its cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA). With all substrates, the free enzyme showed activity similar to the CLEA preparation. The advantage of the CLEA phospholipase is the possibility to reuse it in several consecutive reactions without a decrease of activity and selectivity with good but higher yields and ee than with the free enzyme. (author)

  17. POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS AS A TOOL FOR THE TAXONOMIC IDENTIFICATION OF SNAKES FROM THE ELAPIDAE AND VIPERIDAE FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. SOARES

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE for basic proteins may be a useful tool for the characterization of whole snake venoms and for the taxonomic classification of snakes of the Elapidae and Viperidae families. However, due to the close proximity of molecular weights among toxins bearing different net charges, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS - PAGE was not able to provide an efficient differentiation. This article reports the electrophoretic analysis of several venoms from the genera Micrurus, Bothrops, Bothriopsis, Crotalus and Lachesis and shows a typical and distinctive electrophoretic profile for each species, with intraspecific and geographic variations. Even in cases in which extreme morphological similarities were present, such as between B. jararacussu and B. pirajai ("Bahia jararacuçu", differentiation could be evidenced by PAGE. This simple and sensitive procedure may be applied to similar cases involving basic toxins.

  18. Molecular exclusion chromatographic analysis on 60Co irradiated rattlesnake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations are sufficiently energetic to be able of breaking chemical bonds and as result of that molecules of substances present in the irradiated will be chemically changed and their biological properties affected also. In this paper the effects of gamma radiation of Co-60 on the rattlesnake venom were studied. A pool of positive crotamina Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was dissolved in 0,15 M NaCl and irradiated with Co-60. Doses of 100, 250, 500, 750, 1500 and 2000 Gy were applied at the dose rate of 1190 Gy/h. With doses over 500 Gy the solutions became turbid, suggesting the presence of aggregates and structural changes of the proteins. The concentration of proteins from the filtered solution was measured by the Lowry method. One ml samples were measured at 230 nm. The partition coefficients and the areas of the three main fraction obtained were calculated. (author)

  19. [Influenza in heterothermic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari; Mendonça, Rita Maria Zucatelli; Cianciarullo, Aurora Marques; Kobashi, Leonardo Setsuo; Trindade, Hermínio Gomes; Fernandes, Wilson; Pinto, José Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus) and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana) were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin) or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza virus and also susceptibility to the infection. PMID:15330057

  20. Sidewinding with minimal slip: Snake and robot ascent of sandy slopes

    CERN Document Server

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Gravish, Nick; Astley, Henry; Travers, Matthew; Hatton, Ross L; Mendelson, Joseph R; Choset, Howie; Hu, David L; Goldman, Daniel I

    2014-01-01

    Limbless organisms such as snakes can navigate nearly all terrain. In particular, desert-dwelling sidewinder rattlesnakes (Crotalus cerastes) operate effectively on inclined granular media (such as sand dunes) that induce failure in field-tested limbless robots through slipping and pitching. Our laboratory experiments reveal that as granular incline angle increases, sidewinder rattlesnakes increase the length of their body in contact with the sand. Implementing this strategy in a physical robot model of the snake enables the device to ascend sandy slopes close to the angle of maximum slope stability. Plate drag experiments demonstrate that granular yield stresses decrease with increasing incline angle. Together, these three approaches demonstrate how sidewinding with contact-length control mitigates failure on granular media.

  1. Gamma radiation damage in crotamine (venom of Brazilian rattlesnake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing Radiations changes the molecular structure due to chemical bond destruction. These chemical alterations is able to change the biological properties of the macro-molecules. Crotamine was obtained from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by molecular exclusion cromatography and irradiated in concentration of 2 mg/ml of NaCl 0,85% with gamma radiation produced by a 60Co source. We used doses of 100 Gy, 250 Gy, 500 Gy, 1000 Gy and 2000 Gy (dose rate = 1,19.103Gy/h). We performed the following experiments: presence of free SH groups, proteic concentration,SDS-PAGE and immunodifusion. Preliminary results showed an increase of the number of bands in SDS-PAGE suggesting the appearence of protein aggregates that proportional to the dose increasing. The immunodiffusion data showed no modification of the immunochemical activity against theButantan anti - sera. (author)

  2. Óbitos por serpentes peçonhentas no Estado de São Paulo: avaliação de 43 casos, 1988/93 Obits by venomous snakes in the State of São Paulo: evaluation of 43 cases from 1988 to 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ribeiro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available São ainda mal estabelecidos os fatores prognósticos para a ocorrência de óbito nos envenenamentos por serpentes e as causas que o determinam. OBJETIVO: Determinar, no envenenamento ofídico, os fatores prognósticos e as causas mais prováveis do óbito. MÉTODOS: No período de 1988 a 1993 foram notificados 12.639 casos de acidentes por serpentes peçonhentas no Estado de São Paulo, com 43 óbitos (0,34%. Foram comparadas as variáveis obtidas das fichas de notificação dos acidentes com aquelas dos prontuários e/ou dos relatórios médicos dos casos de óbito. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico quanto ao gênero da serpente foi realizado em 11.297 acidentes, sendo 9.828 (87% por Bothrops, 1.359 (12% por Crotalus e 110 (1% por Micrurus, e em 41 casos de óbito, sendo 28 (68,3% por Bothrops e 13 (31,7% por Crotalus (p0,05. Tinham 50 anos ou mais 15,9% dos pacientes picados e 41,8% daqueles que faleceram (pThe prognostic factors and the causes for obit occurrence in ophidian envenoming are yet not completely clear. PURPOSE: To determine the prognostic factors and the most probable causes for obit occurrence in ophidian envenoming. METHODS: In the State of São Paulo were notified 12,639 cases of accidents by venomous snakes from 1988 to 1993. There were 43 deaths (0.34%. The variables from the accident notification reports were compared with the promptuary notes and/or with the death records (in lethal cases. RESULTS: The snake genus was classified in 11,297 accidents and in 41 from the lethal ones. Bothrops was responsible for 9,828 (87% accidents and 28 (68.3% deaths, Crotalus for 1,359 (12.0% accidents and 13 deaths (31.7% and Micrurus for 110 (1% accidents and no death (p 0.05. Regarding to age, 15.9% of the patients and 41.8% of the ones who died were 50 years-old or more (p<0.05. The most frequently bitten anatomic regions were: foot (42.2%, hand (20.6%, leg (17.6%, and ankle (13.1% in the accidents, and foot (35.7% and leg (35.7% in the

  3. Pro and antiinflammatory properties of toxins from animal venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsky, Sandra H P; Antunes, Edson; Mello, Suzana B V

    2005-06-01

    Accidents evoked by venomous animals are common in tropical regions. In Brazil, envenomation evoked by snakes, spiders and scorpions are an important public health problem. Their venoms are composed of a great number of toxins, which are capable of acting on tissue and plasma components with consequent toxic and pharmacological effects. On the other hand, the diversity of venom composition makes them important source of toxins that can be employed as scientific tools. Here we describe the mechanisms of anti and pro-inflammatory properties of toxins of Bothrops and Crotalus genus snakes and Loxosceles and Phoneutria genus spider venoms. The emphasis was to summarise, both in vivo and in vitro, studies that focused on the action of phospholipases, metalloproteinases and sphingomyelinase D on vascular and cellular aspects of the process as well as the complex network of chemical mediators involved. PMID:16101549

  4. Epidemiologia dos acidentes por serpentes peçonhentas no Estado do Ceará - Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Fátima Gonçalves Feitosa; Iva Maria Lima Araújo Melo; Helena Serra Azul Monteiro

    1997-01-01

    Foram notificados à Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Ceará, no período de 1992 a 1995, 688 acidentes causados por serpentes peçonhentas (média anual de 172 casos), com coeficiente de incidência variando entre 0,9 e 5,8 por 100.000 habitantes. Dentre 473 casos em que houve referência ao gênero da serpente 88,3% foram por Bothrops, 10,6% por Crotalus, 0,8% por Micrurus e 0,2% por Lachesis. Os meses de abril a setembro apresentaram maior incidência. Houve predominância de pacientes do sexo mascu...

  5. Effects of gamma radiation on snake venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, N.; Spencer, P. J.; Andrade, H. F.; Guarnieri, M. C.; Rogero, J. R.

    1998-06-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venoms, without affecting significantly their immunogenic properties. Inn order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative pharmacological study between native and irradiated (2,000 Gy) crotoxin, the main toxin of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and, susbequentely submitted to irradiaiton. Gel filtration of the irradiated toxin resulted in some high molecular weight aggregates formation. Crotoxin toxicity decreased two folds after irradiation, as determined by LD 50 in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution ocured in the same general manner, with renal elimination. However, in contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native form was initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3 hr) appeared in phagocytic mononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junction rich organs (muscle and brain).

  6. Obtained and evaluation of antisera raised against irradiated crotalic whole venom or crotoxin in 60 Co source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snake bite is a great Public Health problem in our country. The accidents with snakes from Crotalus genus are the most severe. About 1% of the victims die without seratherapy. The antivenons are obtained from hyper immune horse plasma. During the production these animals present signs of envenoming that result in a decrease of organic resistance besides the horses maintenance is very expensive and the producers are fewer, so the sera production is restrict. Many techniques which could reduce the venoms toxicity and increase the sera production using chemical and physical agents have been studied. The gamma rays are excellent tool to detoxify venoms and toxins. It is able to modify protein structures that decrease lethally, toxic and enzymatic activities without modifying the immunogenicity. So, it is important evaluate the sera production in rabbits using gamma rays detoxified venom and crotoxin as immunogen and their power as reagents in immuno assays. In order to obtain the antisera, Crotalus durissus terrificus whole venom or isolated crotoxin was irradiated with 2.000 Gy in 60 Co source, in a 150 mM NaCl solution, and inoculated in rabbits. The sera production were screened by immunoprecipitation, immuno enzymatic (ELISA) and immunoradiometric (IRMA) assays. The specificity was studied by immuno-electrophoresis, ELISA and western blot techniques. The neutralizing power was evaluated by neutralization of phospholipase A2 activity of toxin in vitro. The antisera were used as reagents in antigen capture assays ELISA and IRMA immuno assays to detect circulant antigens in sera of mice experimentally inoculated with crotalic venom or crotoxin. The results showed that both detoxified venom or crotoxin were good immunogens, and they were able to induce antibodies that could recognize non-irradiated venom or isolated crotoxin. The data suggest that those antibodies present more specificity and higher in vitro neutralizing power, when compared with commercial

  7. A importância dos acidentes ofídicos como causa de mortes em bovinos no Brasil The importance of snake bites as cause of cattle death in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A revisão da literatura pertinente indica que as opiniões sobre a importância dos acidentes ofídicos, como causa de mortes em bovinos no Brasil, são divergentes no meio veterinário. Enquanto alguns acreditam que são pouco importantes, ou que têm menor significado do que lhes é atribuído, outros são da opinião que esses acidentes são freqüentes. Verificou-se que só foi relatado diagnóstico fundamentado de dois casos fatais de envenenamento por Bothrops spp em bovinos, e de nenhum por Crotalus spp. Um questionário por nós submetido a patologistas e clínicos veterinários que atuam em diversos Estados do país, revelou apenas raros casos suspeitos de envenenamento ofídico fatal em bovinos no Brasil. Em nossas viagens de estudo e nos trabalhos de diagnóstico nunca estabelecemos o diagnóstico de morte por acidente ofídico em bovinos. Os casos tidos como envenenamento ofídico, na sua grande maioria, são apenas suposições, sem embasamento. Esses "diagnósticos", em geral, são feitos à distância dos animais que morreram, à revelia de exame clínico, necropsia e estudo histopatológico. Importante foi a constatação de que, no Brasil, embora algumas serpentes do gênero Bothrops possam, teoricamente, produzir quantidades suficientes de veneno para matar um bovino adulto, em experimentos realizados, apenas Bothrops alternatus foi capaz de levar a morte um dos três bovinos experimentalmente por ela picados; esse animal tinha apenas 279 kg. Já as serpentes do gênero Crotalus poderiam inocular quantidades letais de veneno para bovinos adultos. Mesmo assim, tanto para Bothrops spp, como para Crotalus spp, há que se considerar que as serpentes, em geral, só inoculam parte do veneno disponível. Esse estudo indica que é necessário melhor investigar as mortes suspeitas de terem sido causadas por acidente ofídico em bovinos no Brasil. O estabelecimento do diagnóstico de morte por envenenamento ofídico, porém, só é poss

  8. O cuidado nos centros municipais educacionais infantis em relação às infecções respiratórias agudas = The care in the municipal centers for children education about acute respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloeth Kaliska Piva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As infecções respiratórias agudas (IRA são causa de morbidade e mortalidade na infância, e sua crescente manifestação e transmissão nos centros educacionais infantis têm sugestionado maior atenção aos cuidados prestados nesses locais as crianças. Este estudo teve por objetivo conhecer as atitudes preventivas e curativas do cuidado proporcionado pelos monitores educacionais dos Centros Municipais Educacionais Infantis da Cidade de Cascavel - PR diante das IRA. Para tanto, realizamos entre novembro a dezembro de 2008, uma pesquisa qualitativa com 12 monitores educacionais, por meio da entrevista semi-estruturada gravada. Os aspectos emergentes das entrevistas foram pontuados e orientado na ótica do cuidado integral de José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita Ayres. As ações das monitoras educacionais em relação as IRA têm caráter curativo, sendo fundamentadas no cuidado técnico e entendimentos causais. Nessas ações faltam elementos que compõem o cuidado integral como o movimento, a interação, a reconstrução de identidades e alteridades, a não-causalidade, a plasticidade, a temporalidade e a responsabilidade. Diante disso, enfatiza-se a necessidade de preparar os monitores e as instituições para o cuidado integral. E, sobretudo, a articulação dos centros educacionais aos setores de saúde promovendo a aplicação de estratégias para o controle, prevenção e promoção da saúde das crianças.Acute respiratory infections are the causes of morbidity and mortality during infancy and childhood. Their increasing manifestation and transmission in day-care centers have demanded greater attention for children’ care in such institutions. Current research investigates prevention and care activities provided by educational monitors of day-care center in Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, with regard to acute respiratory infections. A qualitative research was undertaken with 12 educational monitors between November and December 2008

  9. Caracterização físico-química do mel de abelhas proveniente da florada do cajueiro Physicochemical characterization of the bee honey originating in the cashew flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana do Nascimento Bendini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos identificar e caracterizar o mel proveniente da florada do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.. O estudo foi realizado a partir de 24 amostras de mel coletadas em apiários distribuídos num cajueiral de aproximadamente 1000 hectares, localizado no município de Cascavel, Estado do Ceará, Brasil. As mesmas foram submetidas a análises melissopalinológicas e físico-químicas (umidade, acidez total, cinzas, açúcares totais, Lund, pH, condutividade elétrica, HMF, atividade de água e densidade. Com base nas análises melissopalinológicas, o mel foi considerado monofloral, proveniente da floradado cajueiro. Os intervalos de variação dos parâmetros físico-químicos analisados foram: 16,5-19,2% (umidade, 22-40meq kg-1 (acidez total, 0,182-0,301% (cinzas, 80,8-83,5% (açúcares totais, 1,0-2,0mL (Lund, 3,48-3,83 (pH, 179-198µS cm-1 (condutividade elétrica, 9,6-30,91mg kg-1 (HMF, 0,62-0,76 (atividade de água e 1,33-1,43g mL-1 (densidade. As análises mostraram que o mel da florada do cajueiro apresenta características físico-químicas dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação vigente.The present study was aimed at the identification and characterization of the bee honey (Apis mellifera derived from cashew flowers (Anacardium occidentale L.. The study was carried out through the analysis of 24 samples of honey collected from apiaries distributed in a cashew plantation of about 1000 hectares, located in the area around the town of Cascavel, in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The samples were submitted to melissopalinological and physicochemical analysis (humidity, total acidity, ashes, total sugars, Lund, pH, electrical conductivity, HMF, water activity, and density. On the basis of the melissopalinological analysis, the honey was considered unifloral, with its origin traced to the cashew flowering. The variation intervals of the physicochemical parameters under analysis were: 16

  10. Exame de caso sobre o método de graus-dia para avaliação do desempenho energético de uma edificação unifamiliar = Case analysis of the degree-days method for evaluating energy performance of a single-family construction

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    Aurea Lúcia Vendramin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho utilizou o método de graus-dia para avaliação dodesempenho energético de uma edificação unifamiliar ao mostrar que, na concepção de um projeto arquitetônico, devem ser sempre considerados os materiais empregados na edificação e o tamanho das aberturas. O desempenho energético foi obtido por meio domodelo de graus-dia, considerando-se a localização da residência unifamiliar nas cidades de Cascavel, Curitiba, Foz do Iguaçu e Londrina. Para isso, foram obtidos os dados climáticos dessas localidades e, em um segundo momento, obteve-se o coeficiente total de perda de calor na edificação unifamiliar preestabelecida, avaliando-se, assim, as condições de conforto térmico e o desempenho energético da edificação. Observou-se que graus-dia de aquecimento, no inverno, são de 77,78 para Curitiba e de 0,00 para Foz do Iguaçu, na temperatura-base de 14°C, e que os graus-dia de resfriamento são de 30,17 no inverno. A energia consumida em Foz do Iguaçu para aquecer a residência é de 2.367,88 kWh anual e o consumo de energia anual para aquecer a residência em Curitiba é de 6.277,02 kWh, paraITA = 2 e 20% de abertura, com vidros duplos.The present work used the method of degree-days in order to evaluate the energy performance of a single-family construction by showing that, in conceiving an architectural project, the materials used in the construction and size of the openings must always be taken in consideration. The energy performance was calculated by means of the degree-days model, considering the localization of the single-family residence in the cities of Cascavel, Curitiba, Foz do Iguaçu and Londrina. To that end, climatic data from those localities were obtained. Next, the total pre-established single-family construction heat loss coefficient was obtained, thereby evaluating the conditions of thermal comfort and energy performance of the building. It was observed that degree-days of heating in winter

  11. Teor de nitrato em alface hidropônica em função de vazões e períodos de pós-colheita Nitrate content in hydroponic lettuce in function of flow rate and post-harvest periods

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    Antonio Aprígio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o teor de nitrato (NO3- presente em plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. da cultivar Vera, conduzida por hidroponia, em função de vazões e períodos de pós-colheita. O experimento foi realizado no município de Cascavel, PR, em casa de vegetação da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE. As plantas foram nutridas mediante utilização de uma solução nutritiva caracterizada por possuir condutividade elétrica média de 1,2 dS m-1 e que, ao percorrer toda a bancada de cultivo, retornava ao tanque de irrigação e reiniciava o processo, constituindo, desta forma, um sistema fechado. No experimento, utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com oito repetições que foram representadas, individualmente, por duas plantas de alface, no esquema fatorial (3 x 4. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação entre três vazões (0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 L min-1 e quatro períodos de armazenamento pós-colheita (0; 24; 48 e 72 h. A determinação do teor de nitrato foi realizada por meio do método colorimétrico e os valores obtidos foram inferiores ao limite máximo exigido pela Comunidade Europeia. Os fatores investigados influenciaram significativamente os teores médios de nitrato.The objective of this study was to determine the nitrate (NO3- content present in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. of the Vera cultivar, produced under hydroponic system, in function of different flow rates and post-harvest periods. The experiment was conducted in the city of Cascavel-PR, in a greenhouse of the Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE. The plants were nourished by the use of a nutrient solution, characterized by mean electrical conductivity of 1.2 dS m-1 which after passing the entire growing bench, returned to the irrigation tank and restarted the process, forming a closed system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with eight replications, which were represented

  12. Efeito do armazenamento à baixa temperatura (-4 ºC na cor e no teor de acidez da farinha de trigo Effect of storage at low temperature (-4 ºC in the color and acidity content of wheat flour

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    Fernanda Ortolan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante o armazenamento de farinha de trigo, podem ocorrer mudanças bioquímicas que resultam em alterações nutricionais e tecnológicas, sendo que em baixa temperatura estas mudanças ocorrem mais lentamente. Entre as alterações, pode-se citar o aumento da acidez, a redução do pH e as modificações na sua cor. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos do armazenamento à baixa temperatura (-4 ºC na cor e na acidez da farinha de trigo durante seis meses e correlacionar os resultados obtidos para investigar se a acidez tem relação com a cor da farinha. Foram utilizadas farinhas provenientes de dez genótipos de trigo cultivados em Cascavel, no Estado do Paraná. A cor foi determinada no sistema CIEL*a*b* através dos parâmetros de cor: L* (luminosidade, a* e b* (coordenadas de cromaticidade. Usou-se procedimento da AOAC para determinação da acidez de lipídios. As farinhas apresentaram tendência ao branqueamento durante o período de seis meses de armazenamento, com ocorrência de leve aumento da acidez, mas dentro dos teores aceitáveis. A acidez não foi considerada um fator envolvido na alteração da cor das farinhas no armazenamento à baixa temperatura, pois não houve correlação entre estes dois parâmetros.During wheat flour storage, biochemical changes can occur which lead to nutritional and technological alterations, but in low temperature these changes can occur more slowly. Among the reactions, we may note are an increase in acidity, reduction of pH and modifications to its color. The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of storage at low temperature (-4 ºC on the color and acidity of wheat flour over six months and to correlate the results obtained to discover whether the acidity has any relationship with the color of the flour. Flours of ten wheat genotypes, cultivated in Cascavel, in Paraná State were used. The color was determined via the CIEL*a*b* system using the color parameters: L

  13. Ocorrência de Commelina villosa como planta daninha em áreas agrícolas no estado do Paraná-PR, Brasil Occurence of Commelina villosa as weed in Paraná State, Brazil

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    Dalva C. Rocha

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As trapoerabas pertencem à família Commelinaceae e são plantas daninhas de difícil controle em diferentes regiões do país. No Brasil, a espécie Commelina benghalensis destaca-se como a principal trapoeraba infestante nas culturas de soja, milho, café e citros. Outras duas espécies desse gênero, Commelina diffusa e Commelina erecta, também são conhecidas como infestantes de ocorrência freqüente no território nacional. Commelina villosa está registrada, até o momento, apenas para os Estados da Bahia e Goiás além do Distrito Federal. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar e registrar a ocorrência de C. villosa no Estado do Paraná, onde pode estar sendo confundida com outras trapoerabas, principalmente C. benghalensis. Exemplares de C. villosa e C. benghalensis foram coletados, de forma aleatória, em lavouras de soja, feijão e milho, nos municípios de Ponta Grossa, Tibagi, Piraí do Sul, Guarapuava, Pato Branco, Francisco Beltrão, Cascavel, Campo Mourão e Londrina. Parte desse material foi herborizado para a confecção de exsicatas e outra parte foi mantida in vivo, cultivada no Departamento de Botânica, do Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu-UNESP. Caracteres morfológicos descritivos e quantitativos foram avaliados e as espécies comparadas entre si. C. villosa distinguiu-se de C. benghalensis por apresentar folhas maiores (9,76 x 3,26 cm, elíptica a elípticaestreita, sésseis, de coloração verde escura com manchas violáceas na face inferior, filetes translúcidos, entre outras características. A ocorrência de C. villosa no Paraná foi constatada em todos os municípios amostrados, com exceção de Campo Mourão e Londrina.Commelinaceae are weeds with unsatisfactory control in different parts of the country. Commelina benghalensis is the main Commelinaceae weed in soybean, corn, coffee and orange crops in Brazil. Commelina diffusa and Commelina erecta are also known as common weeds in national

  14. Características espectrais da soja ao longo do ciclo vegetativo com imagens landsat 5/TM em área agrícola no oeste do Paraná Spectral characteristics of soybean during the vegetative cycle with landsat 5/TM images in the western Paraná, Brazil

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    Erivelto Mercante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as mudanças no comportamento espectral da cultura da soja, por meio dos perfis espectrais temporais dos índices de vegetação NDVI e GVI, expressos em diferentes valores físicos: fator de reflectância bidirecional (FRB aparente, de superfície e normalizado derivados de imagens Landsat 5/TM. Foi monitorada área de cultura de soja localizada próxima ao município de Cascavel - PR, utilizando cinco imagens da safra de 2004/2005, sendo realizados nessas imagens os procedimentos de transformação radiométrica, correção atmosférica e normalização, determinando valores físicos dos fatores de reflectância bidirecional aparente, de superfície e normalizado, respectivamente. Com o intuito de caracterizar a resposta espectral da biomassa da soja, geraram-se imagens referentes aos índices de vegetação NDVI e GVI. Como resultado, a cultura mostrou-se diferente para os tratamentos dos fatores de reflectância bidirecional aparente, de superfície e de normalização. Por meio dos perfis médios espectrais do NDVI e GVI, foi possível acompanhar todo o ciclo da cultura da soja, caracterizando o seu desenvolvimento. Observou-se, ainda, que os dados provenientes do fator de reflectância bidirecional normalizado descaracterizaram a curva espectral da cultura da soja, principalmente em meio à fase de crescimento vegetativo, na data de 9-12-2004.The objective of this study was to analyze changes in the spectral behavior of the soybean crop through spectral profiles of the vegetation indexes NDVI and GVI, expressed by different physical values such as apparent bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF, surface BRF, and normalized BRF derived from images of the Landsat 5/TM. A soybean area located in Cascavel, Paraná, was monitored by using five images of Landsat 5/TM during the 2004/2005 harvesting season. The images were submitted to radiometric transformation, atmospheric correction and normalization

  15. Propriedades físicas de Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico sob sistemas de manejo na sucessão soja-milho no período de três anos = Physical properties in distrofic Red Latosol under management systems in the succession soybean-maize in three years

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    Reny Adilmar Prestes Lopes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou alterações das propriedades físicas teor de água, densidade e porosidade do solo em áreas sob sistemas de semeadura direta e preparo convencional nas culturas de soja e milho em três anos agrícolas. O experimento foi instalado no NúcleoExperimental de Engenharia Agrícola da Unioeste (Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Nos dois primeiros anos foi implantada a cultura de soja; no terceiro ano, milho, como cultura de verão, e aveia preta e nabo forrageiro, como cobertura de inverno. Durante os três anos,foram observados redução do teor de água e densidade do solo e aumento da porosidade. As variações nas propriedades físicas do solo mostraram relação diretamente proporcional entre teor de água e densidade do solo e inversamente para porosidade. O solo apresentoumelhorias nas condições físicas pelo acréscimo de porosidade e redução de densidade com as culturas de aveia preta+nabo forrageiro e milho. O manejo soja/milho em rotação com aveia preta+nabo forrageiro mostrou-se mais adequado na melhoria das condições físicas dosolo do que os sistemas de manejo, uma vez que nenhum dos sistemas teve maior destaque na melhoria das propriedades físicas avaliadas em todo o período.This study evaluated alterations in the physical properties water content, soil density and porosity in areas under no tillage and tillage systems in the cultures of soybean and maize in three agricultural years. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Nucleus of Agricultural Engineering of Unioeste (Cascavel, state of Paraná. Soybean culture occurred in the first two years and in the third year maize, as summer crop, black oats and forage turnip as winter cover crops. During these three years the study observed reduction of water content and soil density andincrease of porosity . The variations as regards the physical properties of the soil showed direct proportional relation between water content and soil density and was

  16. Estudo retrospectivo das complicações intra-operatórias na cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio

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    Ariana Rodrigues Silva Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As complicações intra-operatórias na cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRM quando reconhecidas previamente podem guiar os cuidados prestados na sala operatória, dando continuidade na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e durante toda internação. Quando a equipe conhece essas complicações sofridas pelo indivíduo poderá prever e prover cuidados mais específicos na seqüência de sua evolução cirúrgica. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar a freqüência e tipos de complicações observadas no intra-operatório da CRM. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, transversal, baseado em dados secundários, com amostra intencional de 123 sujeitos. A coleta de dados realizou-se por meio do acesso ao banco de dados do Instituto de Moléstias Cardiovasculares do Oeste do Paraná, em Cascavel. Os dados foram analisados no programa computadorizado Statistic, versão 6,0. Os tipos de complicações observadas nesse período foram: cardiovasculares, pulmonares, alteração nos vasos do enxerto e sangramento. Dentre essas, a que obteve maior freqüência foi “alteração nos vasos do enxerto”, em 33 (26,8% casos. As complicações no intra-operatório podem não ser passíveis de prevenção quando consideradas as características individuais de cada sujeito, entretanto, todos os esforços precisam ser direcionados para que o evento, quando ocorrer, seja bem atendido, evitando dessa forma, complicações adicionais maiores.

  17. Lipid profiles and inflammatory markers after periodontal treatment in children with congenital heart disease and at risk for atherosclerosis

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    Bresolin AC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Chassot Bresolin,1 Mariana Menegassi Pronsatti,2 Larissa Nicole Pasqualotto,2 Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar,3 Alex Sandro Jorge,4 Edson Antonio Alves da Silva,5 Carlos Augusto Nassar3 1Department of Biosciences and Health, 2School of Dentistry, 3Department of Periodontology, 4School of Biochemistry, 5Graduate Program, Western Paraná State University (UNIOESTE, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: Due to the biological associations between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases, as well as the fact that atherosclerosis begins in childhood, behavior based on oral health care and metabolic control from an early age is essential for patients with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of full-mouth scaling and root planing on the reduction of periodontal disease in children with congenital heart disease. In this study, treatments were related to clinical periodontal parameters and also to blood ones, such as lipid profile and inflammatory markers. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=17, scaling and root planing; and group 2 (n=16, full-mouth scaling and root planing. The results showed a significant improvement in clinical periodontal parameters (P<0.05 in both groups. Considering lipid parameters, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein parameters showed significant improvement (P<0.05. There was also an improvement in C-reactive protein (ultrasensitive in the group treated with scaling and root planing (P<0.05. Fibrinogen and interleukin-6 parameters improved (P<0.05 in both groups. We suggest that both periodontal treatments were effective in children with congenital heart disease, though neither demonstrated superiority. Keywords: periodontal disease, heart defects, congenital, lipid metabolism, inflammation mediators, children

  18. Methodology for quantifying the technological level of energy in electric motors; Metodologia para quantificacao do nivel tecnologico energetico de motores eletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopatzki, Evandro Andre; Bianchessi, Joel Marcos [Faculdade Assis Gurgacz (FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA-USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos; Konopatzki, Angelica da Silva Lima [Faculdade de Ciencias Aplicadas de Cascavel (FACIAP), PR (Brazil). Curso de Ciencia da Computacao; Marim, Cesar [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The market competition created in agricultural industry because of its insertion in the domestic and foreign markets, verified by the increase in GDP share of agribusiness in the Brazilian GDP, led us to have better control of costs and inputs. Thus the final value of products sold by these agribusinesses can download increasing the space in the consumer market. Electricity is one of the inputs now being studied and this paper presents a model for determining the coefficients that allow the comparison of different existing technologies for electric motors inserting an indicator of technological innovation called Technological Level Energy (NTE). The NTE was developed and tested in Storage Units of Grain (UAG) in the region of Cascavel - Parana where data were collected in six UAG, analyzed in medium weighted, had levels of different energy technology development. The main elements used to create the NTE are the number of engines installed in UAG, the lifetime of the engine considered from its manufacture and motor plate data such as income and the power factor. As a comparative process, each region can create your NTE and analyze your situation in a national context. The UAG will use the NTE to technological innovation and planning projects such as depreciation, financing and cross-examination of financial resources for the exchange of electric motors. Thus the NTE will aid in comparative indication of the timing for replacement of electric motors. Moment from which the energy demand, according to the obsolescence of equipment, are considered excessive compared to other more modern UAG. (author)

  19. COMPOSITION, HOT-WATER SOLUBILITY OF ELEMENTS AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF FRUITS AND

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    Julierme Zimmer Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yerba mate leaves are the most studied and used parts of the tree, while fruits have been little investigated as to their elemental composition. The objective of this study was to characterize the composition, the hot-water solubility of the elements and the nutritional value of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill fruits and leaves. Both fruits and leaves were collected from four yerba mate provenances (cities of Cascavel, Quedas do Iguaçu and Ivaí in Paraná state and Barão de Cotegipe in Rio Grande do Sul state 17 years of age, grown in the city of Pinhais, Paraná state, Brazil. The total and hot water-soluble contents of 22 and 20 elements, respectively, were determined. The elemental composition of the fruits presented the following decreasing order: C, K, N, Mg, Ca, P, Al, Na, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ba, Cu, Ni, Mo, Pb, Cr, As, Co, Ag, V and Cd. For the leaves the decreasing order was: C, N, K, Ca, Mg, P, Al, Mn, Na, Fe, Zn, Ba, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr, Mo, As, Co, Ag, V and Cd. It was found than 2 to 8 elements in the fruit presented greater water solubility than in the leaves. In case of consumption via infusion of the fruits or leaves, there would be nutritive value for K, Mg, P, Mn, Cr, Mo, Cu and Zn, while consumption of capsules would have nutritive value only for Mn via the leaves. In general, the fruits have more distinct elemental composition, hot-water solubility and nutritional value than yerba mate leaves.

  20. Energy cost simulations for heating in greenhouses for five cities in Brazil; Simulacoes do custo de energia para calefacao em casas de vegetacao para cinco cidades brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: celsooli@unioeste.br; La Plaza, Saturnino de; Garcia, Jose Luis [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid, (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos

    2004-07-01

    Using the values of the global heat loss coefficient (U) calculated with the equations of the lineal model developed by OLIVEIRA (2003), and with the 30 year-old values, the energy can be calculated by square meter that would be necessary to obtain a temperature set point of 15 deg C, to a greenhouse of 132 m{sup 2}. They were chosen the cities of Cascavel, Curitiba, Florianopolis, Porto Alegre and Sao Paulo. To each place the medium day of the months was used to determine the convenience of the heating that the minimum average went under 15 deg C. Observing the medium minimum temperatures is easy to verify that the support of alone heat would be justified for a crop with high energy need and excellent commercial value, as it can be the case of the crop of some ornamental species. The value of estimated energy was multiplied by the Euros cost for Kwh for fuel-oil, natural gas and diesel, being simulate the heating use for heat fan and radiant floor, combined or not with two techniques of energy saving: use a double layer or plastic tunnel over the crop. Should even consider that in all the chosen places frost risk exists, what can influence in the profitability of many crops. The city of Florianopolis went to that presented smaller thermal solicitations and, therefore smaller costs, the city of Curitiba already demonstrated the needs of a support system for eight months and, therefore, larger costs. The technical more efficient it is the use of combined radiant floor with plastic tunnel, being the combustible more economic is fuel-oil. (author)

  1. Inoculation with Azospirillum, associated with nitrogen fertilization in maize

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    Maria do Carmo Lana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The biological nitrogen fixation is an alternative to supply the nitrogen needed for maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and yield of maize in response to inoculation with Azospirillum associated with nitrogen fertilization. We conducted two field experiments in the summer harvest, the first in the 2000/2001 crop year in the region of Marechal Cândido Rondon, under conventional tillage, and second in the 2002/2003 agricultural year in the region of Cascavel, under no tillage. The experimental design in both experiments was a randomized complete block, with four replications, 2x2x2 factorial, with two levels of nitrogen at sowing (zero and 20 kg ha-1, two levels of inoculum (zero and 200 g ha-1 and two levels of nitrogen in topdressing (zero and 100 kg ha-1. There was evaluated the height of ear insertion, total plant height, leaf N content, shoot dry biomass and grain yield. The height of ear insertion and total plant height were not influenced by the factors under study. Nitrogen fertilization at sowing increased the leaf N content, causing the opposite effect when combined with inoculation. Inoculation with Azospirillum in the absence of nitrogen, provide productivity increases of 15.4% and 7.4% for 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 crops, respectively. The inoculation provided productivity similar to that obtained with 100 kg ha-1 in topdressing in crop 2000/2001, while in association with the topdressing, reduced productivity and shoot dry biomass in crop 2002/2003.

  2. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics

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    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino do tipo A e tipo B. O mesmo ocorreu com serpentes recém chegadas. Quanto ao teste de inibição da hemaglutinação dos soros dos répteis observou-se títulos protetores de anticorpos aos vírus influenza tipo A (origens humana e eqüina e tipo B. Com soro de sapo não se observou reação de inibição da hemaglutinação porém, 83,3% das rãs obtiveram médias de 40UIH para algumas cepas. Conclui-se que animais heterotérmicos podem oferecer condições de hospedeiros aos vírus influenza, assim como susceptibilidade à infecção.The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza

  3. Reactividad inmunoquímica de sueros anti- Caiman yacare y Caiman latirostris frente a sueros de diferentes especies

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    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la reactividad inmunoquímica entre los sueros de distintas especies de reptiles frente a sueros hiperinmunes experimentales anti-suero de Caiman yacare y anti-suero de Caiman latirostris. Los sueros que se probaron fueron los homólogos de Caiman yacare, Caiman latirostris y los heterólogos de Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops diporus, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus y Gallus gallus. La reactividad inmunoquímica se determinó mediante las técnicas de doble inmunodifusión y ELISA, mostrándose importante entre los sueros de los crocodrílidos y baja entre estos y los de las otras especies de reptiles estudiadas. Se observó mayor reactividad entre los antisueros anti-Caiman respecto a los sueros de Caiman latirostris y Caiman yacare que frente al suero de Alligator missisipiensis. Además, se encontró una fuerte reactividad entre ambos sueros anti-Caiman y el de Gallus gallus poniendo en evidencia la fuerte reactividad entre los sueros de arcosaurios. In order to study the immunochemical reactivity among sera from different species of reptiles regarding sera from Caiman, the immunoreactivity of sera from reptiles against antisera to Caiman yacare or anti-Caiman latirostris sera was studied. These hiperimmune sera were tested against sera from Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops neuwiedii, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus and Gallus gallus. The immunochemical

  4. Novo método de dosagem de soros antipeçonhentos em camundongos lactentes: I - dosagem do soro anticrotálico New method for dosage of antivenoms sera in baby mice: I-Anticrotalic serum's dosage

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    Bruno Soerensen

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica dos soros antipeçonhentos pode ser determinada "in vivo" em pombos, coelhos, cobaios e camundongos adultos, não existindo, entretanto, nenhum método que possa ser recomendado internacionalmente. Estudou-se comparativamente aos métodos tradicionais de dosagem de soros em pombos e camundongos adultos, a validade do uso de camundongos lactentes de 6 a 7 dias, pesando 4 a 5g, inoculados pela via subcutânea. Inicialmente foi determinada a toxidez do veneno de Crotalus durissus terríficus através do estudo da sintomatologia do envenenamento e da atividade letal. O estudo comparativo dos três métodos forneceu maior concordância de resultados em DE100 entre as dosagens realizadas com camundongos lactentes e adultos. A DE100 e DL50 determinadas em camundongos lactentes forneceu resultados mais constantes que os dos métodos de camundongos adultos e pombos. O uso deste novo método permite eliminar a dificuldade de obtenção do atual animal de prova; a utilização de um maior número de animais por ponto de avaliação biológica, possibilitando uma maior precisão e conseguindo-se uma uniformidade nas características exigidas neste tipo de dosagem como peso, idade e linhagem, visando a reprodução sistemática dos resultados.The biological activity of antiserum against venoms can be assessed by "in vivo" tests using pigeons, rabbits, guinea-pigs and adult mice although there is no International standardized reaction for it. The traditional methods using pigeons and adult mice were comparatively studied with those using mice of 4-5 g (6-7 days of age, inoculated by subcutaneous injection. The toxicity of the Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was initially determined by studying the symptomatology after administration of venom and lethal activity. The comparative study of these three methods showed that the best concordance in the results of the ED100 was obtained using adult and baby mice. The most homogeneous ED100

  5. Epidemiologia dos acidentes por serpentes peçonhentas no Estado do Ceará - Brasil

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    Regina Fátima Gonçalves Feitosa

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram notificados à Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Ceará, no período de 1992 a 1995, 688 acidentes causados por serpentes peçonhentas (média anual de 172 casos, com coeficiente de incidência variando entre 0,9 e 5,8 por 100.000 habitantes. Dentre 473 casos em que houve referência ao gênero da serpente 88,3% foram por Bothrops, 10,6% por Crotalus, 0,8% por Micrurus e 0,2% por Lachesis. Os meses de abril a setembro apresentaram maior incidência. Houve predominância de pacientes do sexo masculino (75,6% e com idades entre 10 a 49 anos (72,3%. As regiões anatômicas mais freqüentemente picadas foram os membros inferiores (81,9% e superiores (14,7%. O atendimento na unidade de saúde que notificou o acidente ocorreu dentro de seis horas em 66,9% dos casos. A letalidade foi de 0,7%. Os acidentados foram sobretudo agricultores (62,7%, a maioria dos casos ocorreu no próprio local de trabalho. Os autores reforçam que os acidentes ofídicos no Estado do Ceará podem ser considerados acidentes de trabalho, acometem principalmente os trabalhadores rurais e constituem causa de óbito.From 1992 to 1995, 688 accidents by venomous snakes (mean of 192 cases/year have been notified to the Health Ministry of the State of Ceará, with an incidence between 0.9 and 5.8/100.000 inhabitants. Among 473 cases, 88.3% were of the genus Bothrops, 10.7% Crotalus, 0.8% Micrurus and 0.2% Lachesis. The highest incidence occurred from April to September. Male (75.6% predominated with ages from 10 to 49 years old (72.3%. The more frequently bitten anatomical region were the lower limbs (81.9% and upper limbs (14.7%. The attendance at health unit which notified the accident took place within 6 hours in 66.9% of the cases. Lethality was 0.7%. The afflicted people were mainly peasants (62.7%, and most of the accidents took place in their own work place. The authors emphasize that the snake bites in the State of Ceará may be considered work accidents, concern mainly

  6. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  7. In Vitro Antiophidian Properties of Dipteryx alata Vogel Bark Extracts

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    Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Dipteryx alata bark obtained with different solvents (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol were mixed in vitro with Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu, 40 μg/mL and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt, 15 μg/mL snake venoms, and applied to a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation to evaluate the possible neutralization of venom effects. Cdt venom neurotoxic effect was not inhibited by any of the extracts, while the neurotoxic and myotoxic actions of Bjssu venom were decreased by the methanolic extract. This inhibition appears to be augmented by tannins. Dichloromethane bark extract inhibited ~40% of Bjssu venom effects and delayed blockade induced by Cdt. The methodology used to determine which extract was active allows inferring that: (i phenolic acids and flavonoids contained in the methanolic extract plus tannins were responsible mostly for neutralization of Bjssu effects; (ii terpenoids from the dichloromethane extract may participate in the anti-Cdt and anti-Bjssu venom effects; (iii a given extract could not inhibit venoms from different species even if those belong to the same family, so it is improper to generalize a certain plant as antiophidian; (iv different polarity extracts do not present the same inhibitory capability, thus demonstrating the need for characterizing both venom pharmacology and the phytochemistry of medicinal plant compounds

  8. The use of ecological niche modeling to infer potential risk areas of snakebite in the Mexican state of Veracruz.

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    Carlos Yañez-Arenas

    Full Text Available Many authors have claimed that snakebite risk is associated with human population density, human activities, and snake behavior. Here we analyzed whether environmental suitability of vipers can be used as an indicator of snakebite risk. We tested several hypotheses to explain snakebite incidence, through the construction of models incorporating both environmental suitability and socioeconomic variables in Veracruz, Mexico.Ecological niche modeling (ENM was used to estimate potential geographic and ecological distributions of nine viper species' in Veracruz. We calculated the distance to the species' niche centroid (DNC; this distance may be associated with a prediction of abundance. We found significant inverse relationships between snakebites and DNCs of common vipers (Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper, explaining respectively 15% and almost 35% of variation in snakebite incidence. Additionally, DNCs for these two vipers, in combination with marginalization of human populations, accounted for 76% of variation in incidence.Our results suggest that niche modeling and niche-centroid distance approaches can be used to mapping distributions of environmental suitability for venomous snakes; combining this ecological information with socioeconomic factors may help with inferring potential risk areas for snakebites, since hospital data are often biased (especially when incidences are low.

  9. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

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    A Della Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 μg/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  10. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae of snakes

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    Moço Tatiana Cristina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatozoon species are the most abundant hemoparasites of snakes. Its identification has been based mainly on the morphologic characterization of the gamonts in the peripheral blood of the vertebrate host and also of the cysts found in the internal organs of the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Using a computerized image analysis system, we studied five species of Hepatozoon from recently captured snakes in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the importance of the morphology and morphometry of the gamonts for the characterization of Hepatozoon species and to analyze the morphologic changes induced in the erythrocytes by the parasite. The studied species were H. terzii of Boa constrictor amarali, Hepatozoon sp. of Crotalus durissusterrificus, H. philodryasi of Philodryas patagoniensis, and H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi of Hydrodynastes gigas. We observed three different groups, one of them including the species H. terzii, H. philodryasi and Hepatozoon sp. of C. durissus terrificus; and the other two consisting of H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi. Degree of alterations in the erythrocytes was variable and it may be useful for characterization of Hepatozoon species.

  11. Subcutaneous compliance and gravitational adaptation in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, H B

    1993-12-15

    Previous studies have implicated morphological adaptations as important counter-measures to gravitational stresses on the circulatory systems of arboreal or climbing snakes. Such features include tight skin and relatively non-compliant tissue compartments that oppose edema formation, but these traits have not been previously studied quantitatively. To provide information on this subject, interstitial fluid pressures were measured in eleven species of snakes using slit-end catheters positioned in subcutaneous tissue located at the base of the tail. Interstitial pressures in all species were typically 0 to +2 mm Hg in normally hydrated tissue, but varied widely when snakes were active or when the tail was curved at the site of measurement. Local compliance of the free fluid space was determined from measurements of pressure while saline was infused via the catheter tip. Such measurements varied from 0.18 microliters/mm Hg in Philodryas baroni, an arboreal species, to 2.3 microliters/mm Hg in Crotalus adamanteus, a ground-dwelling, terrestrial species. In general, compliance of the subcutaneous tissue space was greatest (P < 0.05) in non-climbing and aquatic species of snakes that do not face problems of gravitational edema in dependent tissues. Presumably, the compliance measurements reflect adaptive structural differences related to requirements for counteracting gravitational stresses in the various species. PMID:8277230

  12. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moço, Tatiana Cristina; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Vilela, Fabiana Custódio; Barrella, Thomaz Henrique; da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2002-12-01

    Hepatozoon species are the most abundant hemoparasites of snakes. Its identification has been based mainly on the morphologic characterization of the gamonts in the peripheral blood of the vertebrate host and also of the cysts found in the internal organs of the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Using a computerized image analysis system, we studied five species of Hepatozoon from recently captured snakes in Botucatu, State of S o Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the importance of the morphology and morphometry of the gamonts for the characterization of Hepatozoon species and to analyze the morphologic changes induced in the erythrocytes by the parasite. The studied species were H. terzii of Boa constrictor amarali, Hepatozoon sp. of Crotalus durissusterrificus, H. philodryasi of Philodryas patagoniensis, and H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi of Hydrodynastes gigas. We observed three different groups, one of them including the species H. terzii, H. philodryasi and Hepatozoon sp. of C. durissus terrificus; and the other two consisting of H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi. Degree of alterations in the erythrocytes was variable and it may be useful for characterization of Hepatozoon species. PMID:12563486

  13. Nucleotidase and DNase activities in Brazilian snake venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Paulo Bruno Valadão; Santoro, Marcelo L

    2008-01-01

    Among the myriad of enzymes present in animal venoms, nucleotidases and nucleases are poorly investigated. Herein, we studied such enzymes in 28 crude venoms of animals found in Brazil. Higher levels of ATPase, 5'-nucleotidase, ADPase, phosphodiesterase and DNase activities were observed in snake venoms belonging to Bothrops, Crotalus and Lachesis genera than to Micrurus genus. The venom of Bothrops brazili snake showed the highest nucleotidase and DNase activities, whereas that of Micrurus frontalis snake the highest alkaline phosphatase activity. On the other hand, the venoms of the snake Philodryas olfersii and the spider Loxosceles gaucho were devoid of most nucleotidase and DNase activities. Species that exhibited similar nucleotidase activities by colorimetric assays showed different banding pattern by zymography, suggesting the occurrence of structural differences among them. Hydrolysis of nucleotides showed that 1 mol of ATP is cleaved in 1 mol of pyrophosphate and 1 mol of orthophosphate, whereas 1 mol of ADP is cleaved exclusively in 2 mol of orthophosphates. Pyrophosphate is barely hydrolyzed by snake venoms. Phosphodiesterase activity was better correlated with 5'-nucleotidase, ADPase and ATPase activities than with DNase activity, evidencing that phosphodiesterases are not the main agent of DNA hydrolysis in animal venoms. The omnipresence of nucleotidase and DNase activities in viperid venoms implies a role for them within the repertoire of enzymes involved in immobilization and death of preys. PMID:17904425

  14. An electrophoretic study on phospholipase A2 isoenzymes in the venoms of Central American crotaline snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, C; Moreno, E; Sittenfeld, A; Lomonte, B; Gutiérrez, J M

    1992-08-01

    The number and isoelectric points of phospholipase A2 isoenzymes were studied in the venoms of 12 Central American crotaline snakes of the genera Bothrops, Crotalus, Lachesis and Agkistrodon. The study was carried out by using a methodology based on electrophoretic separation of venoms, transfer to nitrocellulose and detection of activity of the bands by an indirect hemolytic assay in agarose-erythrocyte-egg yolk gels. All venoms tested had indirect hemolytic activity, although they varied in the number and isoelectric point of their phospholipases A2. Most venoms had predominantly acidic isoenzymes, with the exception of A. bilineatus which had mainly basic isoenzymes and B. schlegelii which had both acidic and basic isoenzymes. Analysis of interindividual variability in B. asper venom demonstrated that two phospholipase A2 isoenzymes are present in some venoms but absent in others. Polyvalent antivenom was effective in neutralizing phospholipase A2 activity of the 12 venoms tested, when venoms and antivenom were incubated in the fluid phase. This work demonstrates a conspicuous interspecific variability in the number and isoelectric points of phospholipases A2 present in Central American crotaline snake venoms. PMID:1523675

  15. Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA for specific identification of Lachesis acrochorda venom

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    V Núñez Rangel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The snake genus Lachesis provokes 2 to 3% of snakebites in Colombia every year. Two Lachesis species, L. acrochorda and L. muta, share habitats with snakes from another genus, namely Bothrops asper and B. atrox. Lachesis venom causes systemic and local effects such as swelling, hemorrhaging, myonecrosis, hemostatic disorders and nephrotoxic symptoms similar to those induced by Bothrops, Portidium and Bothriechis bites. Bothrops antivenoms neutralize a variety of Lachesis venom toxins. However, these products are unable to avoid coagulation problems provoked by Lachesis snakebites. Thus, it is important to ascertain whether the envenomation was caused by a Bothrops or Lachesis snake. The present study found enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA efficient for detecting Lachesis acrochorda venom in a concentration range of 3.9 to 1000 ng/mL, which did not show a cross-reaction with Bothrops, Portidium, Botriechis and Crotalus venoms. Furthermore, one fraction of L. acrochorda venom that did not show crossreactivity with B. asper venom was isolated using the same ELISA antibodies; some of its proteins were identified including one Gal-specific lectin and one metalloproteinase. This test may be useful to physicians, since it could be applicable for tracking the kinetic distribution of antigens in patients or experimentally envenomed animals.

  16. Oral microbiota of Brazilian captive snakes

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    MG Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the oral microbiotic composition of snakes from São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Ten snake species, comprising the families Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae, were submitted to microbiological examination of their oral cavity, which indicated positivity for all buccal samples. Gram-negative bacilli, gram-negative cocci bacilli, gram-positive bacilli and gram-positive cocci were isolated from the snakes. Among isolated bacterium species, the occurrence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the buccal cavity of Crotalus durissus (Viperiade, Eunectes murinus (Boidae, Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae and Bacillus subtilis, common to oral cavity of Bothrops alternatus (Viperidae and Phalotris mertensi (Colubridae, was detected. It was observed higher diversity of isolated bacteria from the oral cavity of Micrurus frontalis (Elapidae and Philodryas nattereri (Colubridae, as well as the prevalence of gram-positive baccillus and gram-positive cocci. The composition of the oral microbiota of the studied snakes, with or without inoculating fangs, is diverse and also related to the formation of abscesses at the bite site in the victims of the ophidian accidents, and to pathogenic processes in the snakes that host these microorganisms.

  17. A SENSITIVE AND SPECIFIC IMMUNOASSAY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF THE ANTIBODIES PRESENT IN HORSE ANTIVENOMS ENDOWED WITH THE CAPACITY TO BLOCK THE PHOSPHOLIPASE A2-DEPENDENT HEMOLYSIS INDUCED BY SNAKE VENOMS

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    A. C. M. ROCHA CAMPOS

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase A2 (PLA2, a component of most snake venom toxins, cleaves 3-sn-phosphoglycerides releasing lysophosphatidyl-choline. The indirect quantitative assay method for PLA2 was standardized for specific antivenom titration in a fast and sensitive assay by the similarity with the hemolysis induced by PLA2 and by complement system in sheep erythrocytes. The curves obtained by plotting the degree of hemolysis against the doses of snake venom are concave to the abscissa axis following an equation similar to that previously described for the hemolysis induced by the C system. We observed that venoms of some Bothrops, Crotalus and Micrurus species contained around 1 x 10 to 10 Z/mg of venom, while the venom of Naja contained over one million Z/mg. Antibodies against PLA2 were titrated by incubating amounts of venom predetermined to give 1 to 5 Z with various dilutions of the antivenoms, and the remaining active PLA2 was determined in the hemolytic assay. We observed the following: a the antivenoms contained specific antibodies against the PLA2 present in the corresponding venoms; b cross-reactivity was not detected among PLA2 epitopes from venoms and nonspecific antivenoms; and c the assay quantitatively performed determined the specific antibodies directed to epitopes on the molecule of PLA2. The method described in this paper is highly specific, sensitive and reproducible, besides being fast and inexpensive.

  18. A New Phospholipase A₂ from Lachesis muta rhombeata: Purification, Biochemical and Comparative Characterization with Crotoxin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Francielle A; Perini, Tibério G K; Bregge-Silva, Cristiane; Cremonez, Caroline M; Rodrigues, Renata S; Boldrini-França, Johara; Bordon, Karla de C F; De Souza, Dayane L N; Ache, David C; de M Rodrigues, Veridiana; Dos Santos, Wagner F; Rosa, Jose C; Arantesa, Eliane C

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes responsible for inflammatory effects, edema formation, myotoxicity, neurotoxicity and other manifestations from envenoming. In this paper we report the isolation and biochemical characterization of Lmr-PLA2, the first acidic PLA2 found in Lachesis muta rhombeata venom. Furthermore, this study compared biological effects of Lmr-PLA2 and crotoxin B (CB), a PLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Lmr-PLA2 was isolated by molecular exclusion and reversed phase chromatography. The purified enzyme showed a molecular mass of 13,975 Da, pI of 5.46 and its partial amino acid sequence showed a high identity with PLA2s already described in the literature. In addition, this enzyme possesses the residue D49 in its amino acid sequence, indicating that it is a catalytically active PLA2. Lmr-PLA2 presented high phospholipase activity and was able to inhibit platelet aggregation. Studies of biochemical characterization of new PLA2s, as Lmr-PLA2, are relevant since they help to clarify the structure-function relationship of this important class of toxins. PMID:26145564

  19. Physico-chemical characterization of gamma rays irradiated crotamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. It has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine, a toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed the characterization of irradiated crotamine using Circular Dichroism (CD), Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. We used size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography to purify it from Cdt crude venom. The pure crotamine was irradiated with 2.0 kGy from a 60Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were analyzed in a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi F-4500), under excitation wavelength at 275 nm and the emission was scanned from 300 to 500 nm. The analysis of fluorescence quenching showed that the irradiated form displayed a lower quantum yield when compared to the native form. CD spectra, obtained from a Jasco, J-180 spectropolarimeter, of native and irradiated crotamine solutions, showed a discrete change between the samples, from apparently ordered conformation to a random coil. Finally, the thermodynamics analysis, realized in a calorimeter METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e, showed that irradiation promoted changes in the calorimetric profile. Our results indicate that irradiation leads to progressive changes in the structure of the toxin, which could explain the decrease in myotoxic activity. (author)

  20. Biodistribution and SPECT imaging of 125/131I-crotoxin on mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search of specific radiopharmaceuticals to be used in breast tumour diagnosis is relevant to complement the techniques applied in conventional medicine. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CV) and its main polypeptide, Crotoxin (Crtx), are natural source of several bioactive substances with therapeutical potential. The aim of this work was to evaluate the binding of Crtx with tumour targets in vivo, as well as, evaluate its applicability for breast tumours diagnosis. Crtx was labelled with 125/131I using lactoperoxidase method and radiochemical analysis was performed by chromatography. 125I-Crtx was used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies on swiss mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour, while 131I-Crtx was used for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Crtx presented specific binding sites on Ehrlich tumour cells and had a rapid blood clearance (T1/2= 201.1 min.). Intratumoral administration increased significantly the activity delivered into the tumour site (128-fold higher) and reduced the kidney burden (7.2-fold lower). 131I-Crxt demonstrated to interact with tumour cells for until 72 hours allowing good quality images of tumour. Our results indicate the biotechnological potential of Crtx as template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  1. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

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    Alves Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the largest numbers of citations were: mammals (8 citations, insects (7, and reptiles (5. The most cited animal species were: Tubinambis merianae “teju” lizards (44 citations; Apis mellifera Italian honeybees (318 citations; Gallus gallus chickens (31 citations; Ovis aries sheep (31 citations; Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes (14 citations; Boa constrictor (12 citations; and Bos taurus cattle (12 citations. A significant number of illnesses and conditions treated with animal-based medicines were cited, and the category with the greatest number of citations was “problems affecting the respiratory system”. Our results suggest that the use of zootherapeutics in the region is persistent, and that knowledge about these curative practices is an integral part of the regional culture. As such, studies concerning the uses of zootherapeutics are important windows to understanding human/environmental/cultural interactions and a pathway to conciliating regional cultures with efforts to conserve the native fauna.

  2. Fatty acid analyses may provide insight into the progression of starvation among squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D

    2008-10-01

    Fasting-induced changes in fatty acid composition have been reported to occur within the body lipids of several types of animals; however, little is known about the changes in fatty acid profiles exhibited by reptiles subjected to prolonged fasting. This study characterizes the fatty acid profiles of six reptile species subjected to sublethal periods of fasting lasting 0, 56, 112, and 168 days. Analyses of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) conducted on the total body lipids of rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox), ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta), pythons (Python regius), boas (Boa constrictor), true vipers (Bitis gabonica), and monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus) revealed that all of the species exhibited similar characteristic changes in their fatty acid profiles during starvation stress. According to ANOVAs, the four most effective indicators of the onset of starvation were significant increases in the [1] fatty acid unsaturation index as well as ratios of [2] linoleic to palmitoleic acid, [3] oleic to palmitic, and [4] arachidonic to total fatty acid concentrations. The results of this study suggest that FAME analyses might be useful for identifying nutritional stress and/or starvation among squamate reptiles; however, forthcoming studies will be required to validate the generality of these responses. I also review the potential limitations of this approach, and suggest experiments that will be important for future applications of FAME analyses. Ultimately, it is hoped that FAME analyses can be used in conjunction with current practices as an additional tool to characterize the prevalence of starvation experienced by free-living reptiles. PMID:18657629

  3. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Neta, Rita Oliveira de Sousa; Trovão, Dilma Maria de Brito Melo; Barbosa, Jose Etham de Lucena; Barros, Adrianne Teixeira; Dias, Thelma Lucia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB) in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates) distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the largest numbers of citations were: mammals (8 citations), insects (7), and reptiles (5). The most cited animal species were: Tubinambis merianae "teju" lizards (44 citations); Apis mellifera Italian honeybees (318 citations); Gallus gallus chickens (31 citations); Ovis aries sheep (31 citations); Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes (14 citations); Boa constrictor (12 citations); and Bos taurus cattle (12 citations). A significant number of illnesses and conditions treated with animal-based medicines were cited, and the category with the greatest number of citations was "problems affecting the respiratory system". Our results suggest that the use of zootherapeutics in the region is persistent, and that knowledge about these curative practices is an integral part of the regional culture. As such, studies concerning the uses of zootherapeutics are important windows to understanding human/environmental/cultural interactions and a pathway to conciliating regional cultures with efforts to conserve the native fauna. PMID:23050756

  4. Stable isotopes may provide evidence for starvation in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Pollock, Erik D

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have attempted to correlate stable isotope signatures of tissues with the nutritional condition of birds, mammals, fishes, and invertebrates. Unfortunately, very little is known about the relationship between food limitation and the isotopic composition of reptiles. We examined the effects that starvation has on delta13C and delta15N signatures in the tissues (excreta, carcass, scales, and claws) of six, distantly related squamate reptiles (gaboon vipers, Bitis gabonica; ball pythons, Python regius; ratsnakes, Elaphe obsoleta; boa constrictors, Boa constrictor; western diamondback rattlesnakes, Crotalus atrox, and savannah monitor lizards, Varanus exanthematicus). Analyses revealed that the isotopic composition of reptile carcasses did not change significantly in response to bouts of starvation lasting up to 168 days. In contrast, the isotopic signatures of reptile excreta became significantly enriched in 15N and depleted in 13C during starvation. The isotopic signatures of reptile scales and lizard claws were less indicative of starvation time than those of excreta. We discuss the physiological mechanisms that might be responsible for the starvation-induced changes in 13C and 15N signatures in the excreta, and present a mixing model to describe the shift in excreted nitrogen source pools (i.e. from a labile source pool to a nonlabile source pool) that apparently occurs during starvation in these animals. The results of this study suggest that naturally occurring stable isotopes might ultimately have some utility for characterizing nitrogen and carbon stress among free-living reptiles. PMID:18613003

  5. Inhibitory effect of pinostrobin from Renealmia alpinia, on the enzymatic and biological activities of a PLA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Betancur, Isabel; Pereañez, Jaime Andrés; Patiño, Arley Camilo; Benjumea, Dora

    2016-08-01

    Pinostrobin is a flavanone isolated from Renealmia alpinia, a plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. We tested the inhibitory ability of pinostrobin on the enzymatic, anticoagulant, myotoxic and edema-inducing activities of a PLA2 isolated from Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom. The compound displayed IC50 values of 1.76mM and 1.85mM (95% Confidence intervals: 1.34-2.18 and 1.21-2.45) on the PLA2 enzymatic activity, when either aggregated or monodispersed substrates were used, respectively. When mice were injected with PLA2 preincubated with 0.4, 2.0 and 4.0mM of pinostrobin, myotoxic activity induced by the PLA2 was inhibited up to 87%. Nevertheless, these values decreased up to 56% when the pinostrobin was injected into muscle after PLA2. Pinostrobin inhibited edema-forming and anticoagulant activities of the PLA2. In order to have insights on the mode of action of pinostrobin, intrinsic fluorescence and ultraviolet studies were performed. Results suggest that pinostrobin interacts directly with the PLA2. These findings were supported by molecular docking results, which suggested that pinostrobin forms hydrogen bonds with residues His48 and Asp49 of PLA2, besides, a π-π stacking interactions with those of residues Phe5 and Trp31, and rings C of flavanone and Tyr52 of the toxin. PMID:27109758

  6. Stereospecific analysis of fatty acid esters of chloropropanediol isolated from fresh goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myher, J J; Kuksis, A; Marai, L; Cerbulis, J

    1986-05-01

    The fatty acid esters of chloropropanediol isolated from goat milk fat in small quantities were subjected to a stereospecific analysis via phospholipase C and phosphocholine esters as intermediates. Synthetic rac-1-chloro-2,3-dioleoyl-propanediol was prepared by standard methods and was used as a control. The stereospecific analyses were performed following a release of the fatty acids from the primary positions of each chloropropanediol diester with pancreatic lipase. The resulting X-1-chloro-2-acylpropanediols were then converted into the corresponding phosphocholine derivatives by a stepwise reaction with phosphorus oxychloride and choline chloride. The X-1-chloro-2-acyl-3-phosphocholinepropanediols were subjected to hydrolysis with phospholipase C (C. perfringens), which hydrolyzed 50% of the phosphatide within two min and the rest of it in two hr. From previous experience with glycerol esters, it was assumed that the more rapidly hydrolyzed molecules were the sn-1-chloro-2-acyl-propanediol derivatives and the more slowly hydrolyzed ones the sn-2-acyl-3-chloropropanediol derivatives. A hydrolysis with phospholipase A2 (Crotalus adamanteus) released 50% of the total fatty acid along with the corresponding lyso compound within 10 min, after which there was no further reaction. The hydrolysis products were assayed directly by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) or were isolated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) prior to quantitation by GLC. Both naturally occurring and synthetic chloropropanediol diesters behaved similarly on stereospecific analysis and were therefore concluded to be racemic. PMID:3724368

  7. Immunochemical aspects of crotoxim and its subunits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotamine and crotoxin with the subunits - phospholipase A and crotapotin - were obtained by purification from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Interaction studies of the subunits using crotalic antiserum, indicated that: crotoxin is formed of crotapotin and phospholipase A with the molar ratio of 1 to 1; using crotapotin 125I the presence of a soluble complex was shown with the same antiserum. Immunological precipitation reactions demonstrated that crotapotin is antigenic: crotapotin and phospholipase A presented similar antigenic determinants; crotoxin antiserum reacted with each one of the submits; when the subunits are mixed to form synthetic crotoxin some antigenic determinants are masked in the process of interaction. Crotamine, interacted with crotapotin 1:1, without hidden antigenic determinants crotapotin antigenic site seems to be formed by, at least, one lysine. Enzimatical activity of phospholipase A apreared to be dependent on some reaction conditions when its arginine residues are blocked. Tyrosines of phospholipase A are more susceptible to labelling with 131I than crotapotin. Gama irradiation of aqueous solutions of the subunits produced modifications in the ultraviolet spectra. A decrease of the enzymatic activity occured as a function of radiation dosis. Immunological activities of crotapotin and phospholipase A were not altered

  8. Ethnobotanic study of Randia aculeata (Rubiaceae in Jamapa, Veracruz, Mexico, and its anti-snake venom effects on mouse tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Gallardo-Casas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, medicinal plants are widely used. The use of Randia aculeata by healers against snakebites has never been scientifically tested in relation to possible effects on blood parameters and muscle tissue damage. Interviews were carried out in Jamapa, Veracuz, Mexico, with local residents to collect information about the traditional use of Randia aculeata. In this locality, seven pieces of fruit from the plant are mixed in a liter of alcohol, and then administered orally against snakebites. By using histological techniques and a murine model, we explored its cytoprotective properties against the effects of Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper venoms. Possible protections provided by the plant against tissue damage to skeletal and cardiac muscles and against the typical loss of red blood cells were analyzed. Randia aculeata caused an increase in microhematocrit and total hemoglobin, parameters that are often decremented in association with the loss of red blood cells, which is a characteristic effect of animal venom. Randia aculeata was also shown to protect against the lowering of platelet levels caused by Bothrops asper venom. Finally, Randia aculeata produced a partial inhibition of necrosis following administration of snake venom in skeletal and myocardial muscles. The present results provide solid evidence for the traditional use of Randia aculeata against snakebites, as demonstrated by protection against muscular tissue damage and the diminution of red blood cells.

  9. Problems with mitigation translocation of herpetofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brian K; Nowak, Erika M; Kwiatkowski, Matthew A

    2015-02-01

    Mitigation translocation of nuisance animals is a commonly used management practice aimed at resolution of human-animal conflict by removal and release of an individual animal. Long considered a reasonable undertaking, especially by the general public, it is now known that translocated subjects are negatively affected by the practice. Mitigation translocation is typically undertaken with individual adult organisms and has a much lower success rate than the more widely practiced conservation translocation of threatened and endangered species. Nonetheless, the public and many conservation practitioners believe that because population-level conservation translocations have been successful that mitigation translocation can be satisfactorily applied to a wide variety of human-wildlife conflict situations. We reviewed mitigation translocations of reptiles, including our own work with 3 long-lived species (Gila monsters [Heloderma suspectum], Sonoran desert tortoises [Gopherus morafkai], and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes [Crotalus atrox]). Overall, mitigation translocation had a low success rate when judged either by effects on individuals (in all studies reviewed they exhibited increased movement or increased mortality) or by the success of the resolution of the human-animal conflict (translocated individuals often returned to the capture site). Careful planning and identification of knowledge gaps are critical to increasing success rates in mitigation translocations in the face of increasing pressure to find solutions for species threatened by diverse anthropogenic factors, including climate change and exurban and energy development. PMID:25040040

  10. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C; Meik, J M; Dashevsky, D; Card, D C; Castoe, T A; Schaack, S

    2014-09-22

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. PMID:25080342

  11. Substituted thiobenzoic acid S-benzyl esters as potential inhibitors of a snake venom phospholipase A2: Synthesis, spectroscopic and computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao Castañeda, I. C.; Pereañez, J. A.; Jios, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    4-Chlorothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (I), 3-nitrothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (II), 4-nitrothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (III) and 4-methylthiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (IV) were prepared and characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, Mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations were performed with Gaussian 09 to calculate the geometric parameters and vibrational spectra. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was purified from Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom by molecular exclusion chromatography, followed by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. Two studies of the inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity were performed using phosphatidilcholine and 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxybenzoic acid as substrates, in both cases compound II showed the best inhibitory ability, with 74.89% and 69.91% of inhibition, respectively. Average percentage of inhibition was 52.49%. Molecular docking was carried out with Autodock Vina using as ligands the minimized structures of compounds (I-IV) and as protein PLA2 (PDB code 2QOG). The results suggest that compounds I-IV could interact with His48 at the active site of PLA2. In addition, all compounds showed Van der Waals interactions with residues from hydrophobic channel of the enzyme. This interaction would impede normal catalysis cycle of the PLA2.

  12. Comparative study of native and irradiated crotoxin. Biochemical and pharmacological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venom, without affecting significantly their antigenic and immunogenic properties. In order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative biochemical and pharmacological study between native and gamma irradiated (2000Gy) crotoxin, main toxin of south american rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified from crude venom by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and then irradiated. Immunodiffusion, electrophoresis and gel filtration showed that the molecular integrity was preserved after irradiation with some higher molecular weight aggregate formation and maintenance of its antigenic capacity. The antibodies induced by irradiated toxin had a similar titer to the antibodies induced by native crotoxin; however with higher protective effects in mice. Crotoxin toxicity became 15 times lower after irradiation, as determined by LD sub(50) in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution occurred with a similar general pattern, with renal elimination. In contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native crotoxin is initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3hs) occurs in phagocyticmononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junctions rich organs (muscle and brain). (author)

  13. NOVEL SNAKE VENOM PROTEINS CYTOLYTIC TO CANCER CELLS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. LIPPS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cell inhibitors, named Atroporin and Kaotree, having molecular weights of 35 kDa and 6 kDa have been isolated from the venoms of Crotalus atrox and Naja naja kaouthia, respectively, by fractionation on high pressure liquid chromatography. The purified Atroporin and Kaotree showed killing effects on various types of human (breast, colon, liver, ovary, etc. and animal cancer cells in concentrations as low as 0.5µg/ml, and having no effect on normal mouse kidney, liver, spleen, and erythrocytes up to 5.0µg/ml. Both Atroporin and Kaotree prevent the formation of ascitic tumors caused by myeloma cells in Balb/C mice. In addition, both Atroporin and Kaotree showed regression of ascitic tumors formed by myeloma cells. Atroporin and Kaotree complement each other, as in combination they showed elevated anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo systems. However, Atroporin and Kaotree are immunologically distinct proteins showing no cross reactivity. Atroporin and Kaotree, individually or in combination, have the potential for cancer biotherapy.

  14. Diagnostic uses of snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, N A

    2001-01-01

    Snake venom toxins are invaluable for the assay of coagulation factors and for the study of haemostasis generally. Thrombin-like enzymes (SVTLE) are used for fibrinogen and fibrinogen breakdown product assays as well as detecting dysfibrinogenaemias. Since SVTLE are not inhibited by heparin, they can be used for assaying antithrombin III in samples containing heparin. Snake venom prothrombin activators are utilised in prothrombin assays, whilst Russell's viper venom (RVV) can be used to assay clotting factors V, VII, X and lupus anticoagulants (LA). Activators from the taipan, Australian brown snake and saw-scaled viper have also been used to assay LA. Protein C (PC) and activated PC (APC) resistance can be measured by means of RVV, Protac (from Southern copperhead snake venom) and STA-Staclot (from Crotalus viridis helleri) whilst von Willebrand factor can be studied with Botrocetin (Bothrops jararaca). Finally, snake venom C-type lectins and metalloproteinase disintegrins are being used to study platelet glycoprotein receptors and show great potential for use in the routine coagulation laboratory. PMID:11910187

  15. Pioneers of anti-venomous serotherapy: Dr Vital Brazil (1865-1950).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawgood, B J

    1992-01-01

    Dr Vital Brazil was a great humanitarian and pioneer of medical science. His main work arose from his concern with poisonous snakebite accidents to labourers working the land. Vital Brazil estimated that, at the beginning of this century, deaths due to crotaline snakebites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were nearly 3000 per year, representing a mortality rate of about 25%, the majority being due to bothropic envenomation. After reading a report of Calmette's anti-Naja serum, Vital Brazil raised monovalent serum against the venom of Bothrops jararaca and the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus. In 1989 this led to the first demonstration of the specificity of anti-venomous serum and later, the first production of polyvalent serum for therapeutic use. As Director of the newly founded Institute Butantan in São Paulo, Vital Brazil was actively engaged in every aspect of serotherapeutic treatment. This included organizing a unique system of exchanging anti-ophidic serum for snakes as well as a wide-ranging teaching programme. His many outstanding contributions to the fields of immunology, public health, toxinology and herpetology required not only a very high level of observational, deductive and practical ability but also an unswerving vision and sense of duty; this was allied to great administrative skill and exceptional energy. PMID:1519249

  16. [The epidemiology of accidental bites by venomous snakes in the state of Ceará, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, R F; Melo, I M; Monteiro, H S

    1997-01-01

    From 1992 to 1995, 688 accidents by venomous snakes (mean of 192 cases/year) have been notified to the Health Ministry of the State of Ceará, with an incidence between 0.9 and 5.8/100.000 inhabitants. Among 473 cases, 88.3% were of the genus. Bothrops, 10.7% Crotalus, 0.8% Micrurus and 0.2% Lachesis. The highest incidence occurred from April to September. Male (75.6%) predominated with ages from 10 to 49 years old (72.3%). The more frequently bitten anatomical region were the lower limbs (81.9%) and upper limbs (14.7%). The attendance at health unit which notified the accident took place within 6 hours in 66.9% of the cases. Lethality was 0.7%. The afflicted people were mainly peasants (62.7%), and most of the accidents took place in their own work place. The authors emphasize that the snake bites in the state of Ceará may be considered work accidents, concern mainly peasants and constitute a cause of death. PMID:9265225

  17. [Epidemiological profile of snake poisoning accidents in the State of Amapá].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ana Cristina Silva Ferreira; Campos, Carlos Eduardo Costa; Ribeiro, José Renato

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the epidemiological profile of snake poisoning accidents notified to the Health Department of the State of Amapá. For this, 909 records over the period from 2003 to 2006 were analyzed. The greatest frequency of bites was in the year 2004, with 255 cases recorded, followed by the year 2006 with 246 cases. The largest numbers of patients were in the age range between 20 and 34 years (30%). The genera Bothrops and Crotalus accounted for 67.5% and 0.7% of the accidents, respectively. Snakes that are considered non-venomous caused 0.2% of the accidents, and it was not possible to identify the species in 31.2% of the cases. Male individuals were more affected (80.6%). The highest incidence of bites was on the lower limbs (68%). The accidents mostly occurred in rural areas (62.7%), during balanced work circumstances (60%) or leisure activities (15.6%). The time elapsed from the bite to attending the patient was 12 hours (29%). Among the snake poisoning accidents, 263 were classified as mild, 187 as moderate and 193 as serious. PMID:19684984

  18. Detoxification of the crotoxin complex by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotoxin, the major neurotoxin of the South American rattlesnake venom was irradiated with a Co-60 gamma source at a dose rate of 1100 Gy/h and at doses of 250, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 Gy. Irradiated crotoxin was analyzed for free S H-groups, protein concentration, electrophoretic profile (SDS-PAGE), 50% lethal dose (LD50) in mice, and antigenicity against crotalic antiserum by diffusion immunoassay. Irradiation led to the formation of protein aggregates and solubility was reduced at doses of 1000 Gy or higher. The LD50 increased about 2-fold for 1000 Gy and 3.5-fold for 1500 Gy. However, the antigenic response was not changed as judged by the capacity of irradiated protein receiving up to 1000 Gy to react with anti-Crotalus durissus terrificus venom horse serum. The dose of 1000 Gy cleaved 0,95 disulfide bridges/mol and 1500 Gy cleaved 1.42 bridges/mol, indicating the importance of disulfide bond integrity for toxicity. (author). 36 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH2, respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  20. Proposta de um Mapa Estratégico para uma Universidade Pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Abilio Martins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A ferramenta de tradução da estratégia, medição e avaliação do desempenho organizacional chamado Balanced Scorecard (BSC vem sendo estudada de forma crescente desde a sua publicação em 1990. O formato inicialmente proposto é aplicado muito bem às empresas privadas. Porém, sua aplicação em organizações não pertencentes ao ramo privado não foi contemplado nos estudos iniciais. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar uma proposição de um mapa estratégico na forma do Balanced Scorecard para a Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE, localizada na região Oeste daquele estado. Foram utilizados dados secundários relacionados ao Plano de Desenvolvimento Institucional, dentre outros documentos relacionados com a estratégia da instituição. Este estudo de caso se classifica como exploratório e qualitativo. A UNIOESTE possui, além da Reitoria, 5 campis localizados nas cidades de Cascavel, Toledo, Foz do Iguaçu, Marechal Cândido Rondon e Francisco Beltrão, além do Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná (HUOP. Conta com corpo docente composto por 1.229 docentes e 1.267 agentes universitários. Para o problema desta pesquisa, tem-se: é possível a criação de um Balanced Scorecard para uma Universidade Pública? Para o tratamento dos dados, utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo, apoiado pelo software ATLAS.ti. Ao final do trabalho, propôs-se um total de 5 perspectivas: Educacional, Financeira, Sociedade, Aprendizado e Crescimento e Processos Internos, distribuídos nestas perspectivas, 16 objetivos estratégicos e 30 indicadores estratégicos. A contribuição deste artigo consiste em apresentar as especificidades não abordadas no modelo tradicional, proposto por Kaplan e Norton, a uma instituição que se apresenta nas características de instituição pública e voltada para o ensino superior.

  1. Gênero e distribuição espacial da população no oeste do Paraná

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    Lucir Reinaldo Alves

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analisa-se o perfil da localização e distribuição espacial da população masculina e feminina no oeste do Paraná. Os dados de população coletados pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE foram desagrupados em quatro variáveis: população urbana feminina, população rural feminina, população urbana masculina e população rural masculina, distribuídos nos cinquenta municípios que compõem a Região. O período estudado abrangeu os anos de 2000 e 2010. Os dados foram analisados a partir de alguns indicadores de localização consagrados pela análise regional. Os resultados mostraram que Cascavel, Foz do Iguaçu e Toledo possuem uma população urbana masculina e feminina mais numerosa que os demais municípios. Já os demais municípios estão consolidando suas economias, seja na transformação agroalimentar, seja na prestação de serviços, fato que se reflete em uma maior participação da população urbana, que cresce mais rapidamente em relação a população rural.Palavras-chave | Distribuição espacial da população; gênero; oeste do Paraná; região.Código JEL | J16; R12; 018. GENDER AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION IN WESTERN PARANÁAbstractThis paper analyzes the profile of the location and spatial distribution of male and female population inWestern Paraná. Population data collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE were grouped into four variables: urban female population, rural female population, urban male population and rural male population, distributed in the fifty municipalities that comprise the region. The periods studied are the years of 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed from some location indicators established by the regional analysis. The results showed that Cascavel, Foz do Iguaçu andToledohave a male and female urban population larger than the other municipalities. The other municipalities are consolidating their economies, whether

  2. Geoprocessing applied to the phytosociological survey in permanent plots El geo-procesamiento aplicado al levantamiento fito-sociológico en parcelas permanentes Geoprocessamento aplicado ao levantamento fitossociológico em parcelas permanentes

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    Luiz Gilberto Bertotti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal with this work was to create a georeferenced data bank to follow the phytosociological changes of types of trees along the time and its geographic distribution in the field of study. To the phytosociological survey permanent parcels were plotted in the field of study along the floodplain of the rivers Carro Quebrado and Cascavel, both located in the Campus of the Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO – CEDETEG, in Guarapuava city, Parana state. In each part the attributes analyzed were: sociologic position (SP; class of crown (CC; characteristics of trees (CT; quality conditions of the trunk (QCT; conditions (Cs. These parts were put into spaces with use of the Global Positioning System (GPS and the data were sent to the SPRING software with the intention to build a cadastral data bank to follow and analyze the development of the local vegetation. The creation of this data bank allowed following the development of trees in a time scale, showing the evolution of the part of the forest studied.Este trabajo en su objeto pretende crear un banco de informaciones geo-referenciado para acompañar los cambios fitosociológicos de los indivíduos arbóreos a lo largo del tiempo y su distribuccíon geográfica en el área del estudio. Demarcamos parcelas permanentes a lo largo de la planicie de inundación de los rios “Carro  Quebrado” y Cascavel” que están localizados en el campus de la Universidad Estadual Del Centro Oeste del Estado del Paraná, municipalidad de Guarapuava ( UNICENTRO –CEDETEG.En cada parcela de tierra separada evaluamos distintos atributos: PS: localización sociológica; CC: tipo de copa; CA: características de los árboles; CCT: condiciones de calidad del tronco; Cs: otras condiciones.  Estas parcelas fueron especializadas a partir de la utilización del Sistema de  Pocsicionamiento Global (GPS y todos los datos fuero exportados para el sftware SPRING a fin de construir el banco de informaciones

  3. Serpentes peçonhentas e ofidismo em Cruzeiro do Sul, Alto Juruá, Estado do Acre, Brasil Venomous snakes and ophidism in Cruzeiro do Sul, Alto Juruá, State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Bernarde

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da importância dos acidentes ofídicos na Saúde Pública, são relativamente poucas as pesquisas realizadas sobre esse tema no Brasil. Devido aos poucos estudos sobre ofidismo na Amazônia e especialmente no estado do Acre, trabalhos epidemiológicos são de grande relevância. Esse estudo apresenta a lista de serpentes peçonhentas e aspectos epidemiológicos dos acidentes ofídicos em Cruzeiro do Sul, região do Alto Juruá (Acre, verificando quais gêneros de serpentes são responsáveis pelos envenenamentos e aspectos que envolvem o acidente e o atendimento hospitalar. Os dados epidemiológicos foram coligidos a partir do SINAN (Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação, no setor de vigilância epidemiológica do Hospital Regional do Juruá, no município de Cruzeiro do Sul. Sete espécies de serpentes peçonhentas foram registradas nesse município: três viperídeos (Bothrops atrox, Bothriopsis bilineata e Lachesis muta e quatro elapídeos (Micrurus hemprichii, M. lemniscatus, M. remotus and M. surinamensis. Durante o período de dois anos (agosto de 2007 a julho de 2009 foram registrados 195 casos de acidentes ofídicos. Cinquenta e um por cento dos acidentes foi classificado como laquético (Lachesis, seguido pelo botrópico (Bothrops e Bothriopsis com 38% e crotálico (Crotalus com 2%. Em 9% dos casos o gênero da serpente envolvida não foi informado. A maioria dos acidentes envolveu indivíduos adultos do gênero masculino em área rural, afetados principalmente nos membros inferiores. Os casos ocorreram mais frequentemente nos meses de novembro a abril, coincidindo com os maiores níveis pluviométricos. A maioria dos acidentes foi atribuída equivocadamente à serpente L. muta, tendo sido provavelmente causados por B. atrox.Despite the importance of accidents involving snakebites, research on this theme in Brazil is relatively rare, especially in the Amazon region. Due to the poor number of studies about ophidism

  4. Anti-tumor activity of CrTX in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin YE; Yan XIE; Zheng-hong QIN; Jun-chao WU; Rong HAN; Jing-kang HE

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To assess the cytotoxic effect of crotoxin (CrTX),a potent neurotoxin extracted from the venom of the pit viper Crotalus durissus terrificus,in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and investigated the underlying mechanisms.Methods:A549 cells were treated with gradient concentrations of CrTX,and the cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed using a flow cytometric assay.The changes of cellular effectors p53,caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3,total P38MAPK and pP38MAPK were investigated using Western blot assays.A549 xenograft model was used to examine the inhibition of CrTX on tumor growth in vivo.Results:Treatment of A549 cells with CrTX (25-200 μg/mL) for 48 h significantly inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner (IC50=78 μg/mL).Treatment with CrTX (25 iJg/mL) for 24 h caused G1 arrest and induced cell apoptosis.CrTX (25 μg/mL) significantly increased the expression of wt p53,cleaved caspase-3 and phospho-P38MAPK.Pretreatment with the specific P38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 (5 μmol/L) significantly reduced CrTX-induced apoptosis and cleaved caspase-3 level,but G1 arrest remained unchanged and highly expressed p53 sustained.Intraperitoneal injection of CrTX (10 μg/kg,twice a week for 4 weeks) significantly inhibited A549 tumor xenograft growth,and decreased MVD and VEGF levels.Conclusion:CrTX produced significant anti-tumor effects by inducing cell apoptosis probably due to activation of P38MAPK and caspase-3,and by cell cycle arrest mediated by increased wt p53 expression.In addition,CrTX displayed anti-angiogenic effects in vivo.

  5. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of Co60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms, leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective was to carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 m NaCl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD50), and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labeled with 29.6 MBq of I using chloramine T method and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35 @ 5 g) were injected IP with 0.1 mL (2.4x10 cpm/mouse) of I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10 cpm/mouse) of I irradiated crotamine. The animals were sacrificed by ether inhalation at 0.08, 0.25, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change protein concentration, electrophoretic profile, or protein primary structure, although differences could be seen by spectroscopic techniques. Gamma radiation reduced crotamine toxicity, but did not eliminate bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. Native and irradiated crotamine have an affinity to skeletal muscle and did not cross the blood-brain barrier. (author)

  6. Landscape-level influences of terrestrial snake occupancy within the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, David A; McClure, Christopher J W; Brock, Jean C; Rudolph, D Craig; Pierce, Josh B; Lee, James R; Humphries, W Jeffrey; Gregory, Beau B; Sutton, William B; Smith, Lora L; Baxley, Danna L; Stevenson, Dirk J; Guyer, Craig

    2012-06-01

    Habitat loss and degradation are thought to be the primary drivers of species extirpations, but for many species we have little information regarding specific habitats that influence occupancy. Snakes are of conservation concern throughout North America, but effective management and conservation are hindered by a lack of basic natural history information and the small number of large-scale studies designed to assess general population trends. To address this information gap, we compiled detection/nondetection data for 13 large terrestrial species from 449 traps located across the southeastern United States, and we characterized the land cover surrounding each trap at multiple spatial scales (250-, 500-, and 1000-m buffers). We used occupancy modeling, while accounting for heterogeneity in detection probability, to identify habitat variables that were influential in determining the presence of a particular species. We evaluated 12 competing models for each species, representing various hypotheses pertaining to important habitat features for terrestrial snakes. Overall, considerable interspecific variation existed in important habitat variables and relevant spatial scales. For example, kingsnakes (Lampropeltis getula) were negatively associated with evergreen forests, whereas Louisiana pinesnake (Pituophis ruthveni) occupancy increased with increasing coverage of this forest type. Some species were positively associated with grassland and scrub/shrub (e.g., Slowinski's cornsnake, Elaphe slowinskii) whereas others, (e.g., copperhead, Agkistrodon contortrix, and eastern diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus adamanteus) were positively associated with forested habitats. Although the species that we studied may persist in varied landscapes other than those we identified as important, our data were collected in relatively undeveloped areas. Thus, our findings may be relevant when generating conservation plans or restoration goals. Maintaining or restoring landscapes that

  7. Structural analysis of irradiated crotoxin by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina C. de; Fucase, Tamara M.; Silva, Ed Carlos S. e; Chagas, Bruno B.; Buchi, Alisson T.; Viala, Vincent L.; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: kcorleto@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite of their large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to attenuate the biological activity of animal toxins. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A{sub 2}. Previous data indicated that this protein, following irradiation process, undergoes unfolding and/or aggregation, resulting in a much lower toxic antigen. The exact mechanisms and structural modifications involved in aggregation process are not clear yet. This work investigates the effects of ionizing radiation on crotoxin employing Infrared Spectroscopy, Circular Dichroism and Dynamic Light Scattering techniques. The infrared spectrum of lyophilized crotoxin showed peaks corresponding to the vibrational spectra of the secondary structure of crotoxin, including β-sheet, random coil, α-helix and β-turns. We calculated the area of these spectral regions after adjusting for baseline and normalization using the amide I band (1590-1700 cm{sup -1}), obtaining the variation of secondary structures of the toxin following irradiation. The Circular Dichroism spectra of native and irradiated crotoxin suggests a conformational change within the molecule after the irradiation process. This data indicates structural changes between the samples, apparently from ordered conformation towards a random coil. The analyses by light scattering indicated that the irradiated crotoxin formed multimers with an average molecular radius 100 folds higher than the native toxin. (author)

  8. Binding studies of the antitumoral radiopharmaceutical 125I-Crotoxin to Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Marina B.; Santos, Raquel G. dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Dias, Consuelo L. Fortes [Fundacao Ezequiel Dias (FUNED), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: consuelo@pq.cnpq.br; Cassali, Geovanni D. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Patologia Comparada], e-mail: cassalig@icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The development of tools for functional diagnostic imaging is mainly based on radiopharmaceuticals that specifically target membrane receptors. Crotoxin (Crtx), a polypeptide isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, has been shown to have an antitumoral activity and is a promising bioactive tracer for tumor detection. More specific radiopharmaceuticals are being studied to complement the techniques applied in the conventional medicine against breast cancer, the most frequent cause of death from malignant disease in women. Crtx's effect has been shown to be related with the overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), present in high levels in 30 to 60% of breast tumor cells. Our objective was to evaluate Crtx as a tracer for cancer diagnosis, investigating its properties as an EGFR-targeting agent. Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT cells) were used due to its origin and similar characteristics to breast tumor cells, specially the presence of EGFR. Crtx was labeled with 125I and binding experiments were performed. To evaluate the specific binding in vitro of Crtx, competition binding assay was carried out in the presence of increasing concentrations of non-labelled crotoxin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Specific binding of 125I-Crtx to EAT cells was determined and the binding was considered saturable, with approximately 70% of specificity, high affinity (Kd = 19.7 nM) and IC50 = 1.6 x 10-11 M. Our results indicate that Crtx's interaction with EAT cells is partially related with EGFR and increases the biotechnological potential of Crtx as a template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  9. [Neutralization of toxic and enzyme activities of 4 venoms from snakes of Guatemala and Honduras by the polyvalent antivenin produced in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, G; Gutiérrez, J M; Gené, J A; Gómez, M; Cerdas, L

    1987-06-01

    We studied the ability of the polyvalent antivenom produced in Costa Rica to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, proteolytic, hemolytic, hyaluronidase and fibrinolytic activities of the venoms of Bothrops asper and B. nummifer from Honduras, and of Agkistrodon bilineatus and Crotalus durissus durissus from Guatemala. Neutralizing ability of antivenom was expressed as ED50 (effective dose 50%), defined as the antivenom/venom ratio at which the activity of the venom is reduced 50%. Antivenom is highly effective in the neutralization of lethal, hemorrhagic, hemolytic, hyaluronidase, and caseinolytic activities of B. asper, B. nummifer, and C. d. durissus venoms. In the case of B. nummifer venom, neutralization of fibrinolytic effect was only partial, whereas this activity was adequately neutralized when studying the venoms of B. asper and C. d. durissus. The venom of A. bilineatus was adequately neutralized by the antivenom, with the only exception of hemolytic effect that was reduced only partially. However, in quantitative terms, a relatively large volume of antivenom was required to neutralize some effects induced by A. bilineatus venom. Regarding edema-forming activity, antivenom neutralized efficiently the venoms of B. asper and A. bilineatus, whereas that of B. nummifer was neutralized only partially; on the other hand, edema induced by the venom of C. d. durissus was not neutralized at all. Immunochemical results indicate a close immunological relationship between venoms of B. asper, B. nummifer and C. d. durissus collected in Honduras and Guatemala with those of the same species collected in Costa Rica. Interspecies comparison, however, showed variation between venoms obtained from different species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3444924

  10. Anthropogenic impacts drive niche and conservation metrics of a cryptic rattlesnake on the Colorado Plateau of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, M R; Davis, M A; Amarello, M; Smith, J J; Schuett, G W; Herrmann, H-W; Holycross, A T; Douglas, M E

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystems transition quickly in the Anthropocene, whereas biodiversity adapts more slowly. Here we simulated a shifting woodland ecosystem on the Colorado Plateau of western North America by using as its proxy over space and time the fundamental niche of the Arizona black rattlesnake (Crotalus cerberus). We found an expansive (= end-of-Pleistocene) range that contracted sharply (= present), but is blocked topographically by Grand Canyon/Colorado River as it shifts predictably northwestward under moderate climate change (= 2080). Vulnerability to contemporary wildfire was quantified from available records, with forested area reduced more than 27% over 13 years. Both 'ecosystem metrics' underscore how climate and wildfire are rapidly converting the Plateau ecosystem into novel habitat. To gauge potential effects on C. cerberus, we derived a series of relevant 'conservation metrics' (i.e. genetic variability, dispersal capacity, effective population size) by sequencing 118 individuals across 846 bp of mitochondrial (mt)DNA-ATPase8/6. We identified five significantly different clades (net sequence divergence = 2.2%) isolated by drainage/topography, with low dispersal (F ST = 0.82) and small sizes (2N ef = 5.2). Our compiled metrics (i.e. small-populations, topographic-isolation, low-dispersal versus conserved-niche, vulnerable-ecosystem, dispersal barriers) underscore the susceptibility of this woodland specialist to a climate and wildfire tandem. We offer adaptive management scenarios that may counterbalance these metrics and avoid the extirpation of this and other highly specialized, relictual woodland clades. PMID:27152218

  11. Fluorometric assay using naphthylamide substrates for assessing novel venom peptidase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparello-Clemente, Elaine; Silveira, Paulo Flávio

    2002-11-01

    In the present study we examined the feasibility of using the fluorometry of naphthylamine derivatives for revealing peptidase activities in venoms of the snakes Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops atrox, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops insularis, Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bitis arietans, of the scorpions Tityus serrulatus and Tityus bahiensis, and of the spiders Phoneutria nigriventer and Loxosceles intermedia. Neutral aminopeptidase (APN) and prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPP IV) activities were presented in all snake venoms, with the highest levels in B. alternatus. Although all examined peptidase activities showed relatively low levels in arthropod venoms, basic aminopeptidase (APB) activity from P. nigriventer venom was the exception. Compared to the other peptidase activities, relatively high levels of acid aminopeptidase (APA) activity were restricted to B. arietans venom. B. arietans also exhibited a prominent content of APB activity which was lower in other venoms. Relatively low prolyl endopeptidase and proline iminopeptidase activities were, respectively, detectable only in T. bahiensis and B. insularis. Pyroglutamate aminopeptidase activity was undetectable in all venoms. All examined peptidase activities were undetectable in T. serrulatus venom. In this study, the specificities of a diverse array of peptidase activities from representative venoms were demonstrated for the first time, with a description of their distribution which may contribute to guiding further investigations. The expressive difference between snake and arthropod venoms was indicated by APN and DPP IV activities while APA and APB activities distinguished the venom of B. arietans from those of Brazilian snakes. The data reflected the relatively uniform qualitative distribution of the peptidase activities investigated, together with their unequal quantitative distribution, indicating the evolutionary divergence in the processing of peptides in these different

  12. Structural analysis of irradiated crotoxin by spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite of their large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to attenuate the biological activity of animal toxins. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A2. Previous data indicated that this protein, following irradiation process, undergoes unfolding and/or aggregation, resulting in a much lower toxic antigen. The exact mechanisms and structural modifications involved in aggregation process are not clear yet. This work investigates the effects of ionizing radiation on crotoxin employing Infrared Spectroscopy, Circular Dichroism and Dynamic Light Scattering techniques. The infrared spectrum of lyophilized crotoxin showed peaks corresponding to the vibrational spectra of the secondary structure of crotoxin, including β-sheet, random coil, α-helix and β-turns. We calculated the area of these spectral regions after adjusting for baseline and normalization using the amide I band (1590-1700 cm-1), obtaining the variation of secondary structures of the toxin following irradiation. The Circular Dichroism spectra of native and irradiated crotoxin suggests a conformational change within the molecule after the irradiation process. This data indicates structural changes between the samples, apparently from ordered conformation towards a random coil. The analyses by light scattering indicated that the irradiated crotoxin formed multimers with an average molecular radius 100 folds higher than the native toxin. (author)

  13. Biochemical, pharmacological, and structural characterization of new basic PLA2 Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corasolla Carregari, Victor; Stuani Floriano, Rafael; Rodrigues-Simioni, Lea; Winck, Flavia V; Baldasso, Paulo Aparecido; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Marangoni, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Bbil-TX, a PLA2, was purified from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom after only one chromatographic step using RP-HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18 column. A molecular mass of 14243.8 Da was confirmed by Q-Tof Ultima API ESI/MS (TOF MS mode) mass spectrometry. The partial protein sequence obtained was then submitted to BLASTp, with the search restricted to PLA2 from snakes and shows high identity values when compared to other PLA2s. PLA2 activity was presented in the presence of a synthetic substrate and showed a minimum sigmoidal behavior, reaching its maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 25-37°C. Maximum PLA2 activity required Ca(2+) and in the presence of Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), and Mg(2+) it was reduced in the presence or absence of Ca(2+). Crotapotin from Crotalus durissus cascavella rattlesnake venom and antihemorrhagic factor DA2-II from Didelphis albiventris opossum sera under optimal conditions significantly inhibit the enzymatic activity. Bbil-TX induces myonecrosis in mice. The fraction does not show a significant cytotoxic activity in myotubes and myoblasts (C2C12). The inflammatory events induced in the serum of mice by Bbil-TX isolated from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom were investigated. An increase in vascular permeability and in the levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1 was was induced. Since Bbil-TX exerts a stronger proinflammatory effect, the phospholipid hydrolysis may be relevant for these phenomena. PMID:23509754

  14. Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structural Characterization of New Basic Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata Snake Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Corasolla Carregari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bbil-TX, a PLA2, was purified from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom after only one chromatographic step using RP-HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18 column. A molecular mass of 14243.8 Da was confirmed by Q-Tof Ultima API ESI/MS (TOF MS mode mass spectrometry. The partial protein sequence obtained was then submitted to BLASTp, with the search restricted to PLA2 from snakes and shows high identity values when compared to other PLA2s. PLA2 activity was presented in the presence of a synthetic substrate and showed a minimum sigmoidal behavior, reaching its maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 25–37∘C. Maximum PLA2 activity required Ca2+ and in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+ it was reduced in the presence or absence of Ca2+. Crotapotin from Crotalus durissus cascavella rattlesnake venom and antihemorrhagic factor DA2-II from Didelphis albiventris opossum sera under optimal conditions significantly inhibit the enzymatic activity. Bbil-TX induces myonecrosis in mice. The fraction does not show a significant cytotoxic activity in myotubes and myoblasts (C2C12. The inflammatory events induced in the serum of mice by Bbil-TX isolated from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom were investigated. An increase in vascular permeability and in the levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1 was was induced. Since Bbil-TX exerts a stronger proinflammatory effect, the phospholipid hydrolysis may be relevant for these phenomena.

  15. Study of crotoxin on the induction of paralysis in extraocular muscle in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the major toxin of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, capable of causing a blockade of the neurotransmitters at the neuromuscular junction. The objective of this study was to appraise the action and effectiveness of the crotoxin induced paralysis of the extraocular muscle and to compare its effects with the botulinum toxin type A (BT-A. METHODS: The crotoxin, with LD50 of 1.5 µg, was injected into the superior rectus muscle in ten New Zealand rabbits. The concentration variance was 0.015 up to 150 µg. Two rabbits received 2 units of botulinum toxin type A for comparative analysis. The evaluation of the paralysis was performed using serial electromyography. After the functional recovery of the muscles, which occurred after two months, six rabbits were sacrificed for anatomopathology study. RESULTS: The animals did not show any evidence of systemic toxicity. Transitory ptosis was observed in almost every animal and remained up to fourteen days. These toxins caused immediate blockade of the electrical potentials. The recovery was gradual in the average of one month with regeneration signs evident on the electromyography. The paralysis effect of the crotoxin on the muscle was proportional to its concentration. The changes with 1.5 µg crotoxin were similar to those produced by the botulinum toxin type A. The histopathology findings were localized to the site of the injection. No signs of muscle fiber's necrosis were seen in any sample. The alterations induced by crotoxin were also proportional to the concentration and similar to botulinum toxin type A in concentration of 1.5 µg. CONCLUSION: Crotoxin was able to induce transitory paralysis of the superior rectus muscle. This effect was characterized by reduction of action potentials and non-specific signs of fibrillation. Crotoxin, in concentration of 1.5 µg was able to induce similar effects as botulinum toxin type A.

  16. Binding studies of the antitumoral radiopharmaceutical 125I-Crotoxin to Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of tools for functional diagnostic imaging is mainly based on radiopharmaceuticals that specifically target membrane receptors. Crotoxin (Crtx), a polypeptide isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, has been shown to have an antitumoral activity and is a promising bioactive tracer for tumor detection. More specific radiopharmaceuticals are being studied to complement the techniques applied in the conventional medicine against breast cancer, the most frequent cause of death from malignant disease in women. Crtx's effect has been shown to be related with the overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), present in high levels in 30 to 60% of breast tumor cells. Our objective was to evaluate Crtx as a tracer for cancer diagnosis, investigating its properties as an EGFR-targeting agent. Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT cells) were used due to its origin and similar characteristics to breast tumor cells, specially the presence of EGFR. Crtx was labeled with 125I and binding experiments were performed. To evaluate the specific binding in vitro of Crtx, competition binding assay was carried out in the presence of increasing concentrations of non-labelled crotoxin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Specific binding of 125I-Crtx to EAT cells was determined and the binding was considered saturable, with approximately 70% of specificity, high affinity (Kd = 19.7 nM) and IC50 = 1.6 x 10-11 M. Our results indicate that Crtx's interaction with EAT cells is partially related with EGFR and increases the biotechnological potential of Crtx as a template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  17. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of irradiated crotamine by gamma rays of 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serum production in Brazil, the only effective treatment in cases of snakebites, uses horses that although large size, have reduced l lifespan compared with horses not immunized. Ionizing radiation has been shown as an excellent tool in reducing the toxicity of venoms and toxins isolated, and promote the achievement of better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. It is known, however, that the effects of ionizing radiation on protein are characterized by various chemical modifications, such as fragmentation, cross-linking due to aggregation and oxidation products generated by water radiolysis. However, the action of gamma radiation on toxins is not yet fully understood structurally and pharmacologically, a fact that prevents the application of this methodology in the serum production process. So we proposed in this paper the characterization of crotamine, an important protein from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus species, irradiated with 60Co gamma rays. After isolating the toxin by chromatographic techniques and testing to prove the obtaining of pure crotamine, it was irradiated with gamma rays and subjected to structural analysis, Fluorescence and Circular Dichroism. Using high hydrostatic pressure tests were also conducted in order to verify that the conformational changes caused by radiation suffer modifications under high pressures. From the pharmacological point of view, muscle contraction tests were conducted with the objective of limiting the action of crotamine in smooth muscle as well as the change in the action of toxin caused structural changes to the front. Analysis of Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence showed changes in structural conformation of crotamine when subjected to gamma radiation and that such changes possibly occurring in the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. The observed in pharmacological tests showed that the irradiated crotamine was less effective in

  18. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: I. Snake-species discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of species than adults. Our field study examined age-related differences in the snake-directed antipredator behavior of infant, juvenile, and adult white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in terms of alarm calling, looking behavior, and aggressive behavior. In the first experiment, we exposed infant and juvenile white-faced capuchins to realistic-looking inflatable models of their two snake predators, the boa constrictior (Boa constrictor) and neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) and a white airplane as a novel control. In the second experiment, infants, juveniles, and adults were presented photographic models of a coiled boa constrictor, rattlesnake, indigo snake (Drymarchon corais), a noncapuchin predator, and a white snake-like model. We found that antipredator behavior changed during the immature stage. Infants as young as 4 months old were able to recognize snakes and display antipredator behavior, but engaged in less snake-model discrimination than juveniles. All age classes exhibited a lower response to the white snake-like model, indicating that the absence of color and snake-scale patterns affected snake recognition. Infants also showed a higher level of vigilance after snake-model detection as exhibited by a higher proportion of time spent looking and head cocking at the models. Aggressive antipredator behavior was found in all age classes, but was more prevalent in juveniles and adults than infants. This study adds to the knowledge of development of antipredator behavior in primates by showing that, although alarm calling behavior and predator recognition appear at a very young age in capuchins, snake-species discrimination does not become apparent until the juvenile stage. PMID:23229464

  19. Molecular identification of Spirometra spp. (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) in some wild animals from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Gregório Guilherme; Coscarelli, Daniel; Melo, Maria Norma; Melo, Alan Lane; Pinto, Hudson Alves

    2016-10-01

    Species of the genus Spirometra are diphyllobothriid tapeworms with complex life cycles and are involved in human sparganosis, a neglected disease that affects individuals worldwide. Although some species were reported in wild felids and human cases of sparganosis were described in Brazil, the biology and taxonomy of these parasites are poorly understood. In the present study, samples of diphyllobothriids (eggs and/or proglottids) obtained from the stools of wild carnivores (Leopardus pardalis and Lycalopex vetulus) and plerocercoid larvae found in a snake (Crotalus durissus) from Brazil were analysed by amplifying a fragment of the gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1). The DNA sequences obtained here for the first time from the Spirometra spp. from Brazil were used to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships with other species. Molecular data identified two species in the Brazilian samples (evolutionary divergence of 17.8-19.2%). The species were identified as Spirometra sp. 1, found in Le. pardalis, and Spirometra sp. 2 found in Ly. vetulus and C. durissus, and they differed from Asian isolates of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (17.5-20.2% and 12.2-15.6%, respectively), a species previously considered to be distributed worldwide. Moreover, Spirometra sp. 1 is genetically distinct from Sparganum proliferum from Venezuela (19.6-20.4%), while Spirometra sp. 2 is more closely related with the Venezuelan species (6.1-7.0%). Sequences of Spirometra sp. 2 revealed that it is conspecific with the Argentinean isolate of Spirometra found in Lycalopex gymnocercus (1.9-2.2%). Taxonomic and phylogenetic aspects related to New World species of Spirometra are briefly discussed. PMID:27235572

  20. Rattlesnake Phospholipase A2 Increases CFTR-Chloride Channel Current and Corrects ∆F508CFTR Dysfunction: Impact in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Grazyna; Bakouh, Naziha; Lourdel, Stéphane; Odolczyk, Norbert; Premchandar, Aiswarya; Servel, Nathalie; Hatton, Aurélie; Ostrowski, Maciej K; Xu, Haijin; Saul, Frederick A; Moquereau, Christelle; Bitam, Sara; Pranke, Iwona; Planelles, Gabrielle; Teulon, Jacques; Herrmann, Harald; Roldan, Ariel; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Dadlez, Michal; Lukacs, Gergely L; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Ollero, Mario; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Edelman, Aleksander

    2016-07-17

    Deletion of Phe508 in the nucleotide binding domain (∆F508-NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR; a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel) is the most frequent mutation associated with cystic fibrosis. This mutation affects the maturation and gating of CFTR protein. The search for new high-affinity ligands of CFTR acting as dual modulators (correctors/activators) presents a major challenge in the pharmacology of cystic fibrosis. Snake venoms are a rich source of natural multifunctional proteins, potential binders of ion channels. In this study, we identified the CB subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus as a new ligand and allosteric modulator of CFTR. We showed that CB interacts with NBD1 of both wild type and ∆F508CFTR and increases their chloride channel currents. The potentiating effect of CB on CFTR activity was demonstrated using electrophysiological techniques in Xenopus laevis oocytes, in CFTR-HeLa cells, and ex vivo in mouse colon tissue. The correcting effect of CB was shown by functional rescue of CFTR activity after 24-h ΔF508CFTR treatments with CB. Moreover, the presence of fully glycosylated CFTR was observed. Molecular docking allowed us to propose a model of the complex involving of the ABCβ and F1-like ATP-binding subdomains of ΔF508-NBD1. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange analysis confirmed stabilization in these regions, also showing allosteric stabilization in two other distal regions. Surface plasmon resonance competition studies showed that CB disrupts the ∆F508CFTR-cytokeratin 8 complex, allowing for the escape of ∆F508CFTR from degradation. Therefore CB, as a dual modulator of ΔF508CFTR, constitutes a template for the development of new anti-CF agents. PMID:27241308

  1. Novo método de dosagem de soros antipeçonhentos em camundongos lactentes: I - dosagem do soro anticrotálico

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    Bruno Soerensen

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica dos soros antipeçonhentos pode ser determinada "in vivo" em pombos, coelhos, cobaios e camundongos adultos, não existindo, entretanto, nenhum método que possa ser recomendado internacionalmente. Estudou-se comparativamente aos métodos tradicionais de dosagem de soros em pombos e camundongos adultos, a validade do uso de camundongos lactentes de 6 a 7 dias, pesando 4 a 5g, inoculados pela via subcutânea. Inicialmente foi determinada a toxidez do veneno de Crotalus durissus terríficus através do estudo da sintomatologia do envenenamento e da atividade letal. O estudo comparativo dos três métodos forneceu maior concordância de resultados em DE100 entre as dosagens realizadas com camundongos lactentes e adultos. A DE100 e DL50 determinadas em camundongos lactentes forneceu resultados mais constantes que os dos métodos de camundongos adultos e pombos. O uso deste novo método permite eliminar a dificuldade de obtenção do atual animal de prova; a utilização de um maior número de animais por ponto de avaliação biológica, possibilitando uma maior precisão e conseguindo-se uma uniformidade nas características exigidas neste tipo de dosagem como peso, idade e linhagem, visando a reprodução sistemática dos resultados.

  2. Structural and evolutionary insights into endogenous alpha-phospholipase A2 inhibitors of Latin American pit vipers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevão-Costa, Maria Inácia; Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre H; Mudadu, Maurício de Alvarenga; Franco, Glória Regina; Fontes, Marcos Roberto M; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre

    2016-03-15

    Phospholipases A2 are major components of snake venoms (svPLA2s) and are able to induce multiple local and systemic deleterious effects upon envenomation. Several snake species are provided with svPLA2 inhibitors (sbPLIs) in their circulating blood, which confer a natural resistance against the toxic components of homologous and heterologous venoms. The sbPLIs belong to any of three structural classes named α, β and γ. In the present study, we identified, characterized and performed structural and evolutionary analyses of sbαPLIs transcripts and the encoded proteins, in the most common Latin American pit vipers belonging to Crotalus, Bothrops and Lachesis genera. Mutation data indicated that sbαPLIs from Latin American snakes might have evolved in an accelerated manner, similarly to that reported for sbαPLIs from Asian snakes, and possibly co-evoluted with svPLA2s in response to the diversity of target enzymes. The importance of sbαPLI trimerization for the effective binding and inhibition of acidic svPLA2s is discussed and conserved cationic residues located at the central pore of the inhibitor trimer are suggested to be a significant part of the binding site of sbαPLIs to acidic svPLA2s. Our data contribute to the current body of knowledge on the structural and evolutionary characteristics of sbPLIs, in general, and may assist in the future development of selective inhibitors for secretory PLA2 from several sources. PMID:26806211

  3. Epidemiologia do acidente por serpentes peçonhentas: estudo de casos atendidos em 1988

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    Lindioneza Adriano Ribeiro

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados aspectos epidemiológicos de acidentes por serpentes peçonhentas no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com base em prontuários de 322 pacientes e em entrevistas feitas com 209 deles e/ou seus acompanhantes. Os acidentes ocorreram principalmente com pessoas de 10 a 20 anos de idade, do sexo masculino, nos meses de outubro a abril e no período diurno. As regiões anatômicas mais freqüentemente picadas foram os pés, as mãos e as pernas. Bothrops, Crotalus e Micrurus foram responsáveis por, respectivamente, 95,0%, 4,4% e 0,6% dos casos. Não ocorreram óbitos, mas 2,2% dos pacientes apresentaram seqüelas. Dentre os 209 entrevistados, a ocupação de lavrador foi a mais freqüentemente relacionada ao acidente que, em aproximadamente 60% das vezes, ocorreu durante o trabalho. O total de 160 pacientes (76,6% submeteram-se a alguma forma de tratamento antes de chegarem a um serviço de saúde: foram mais comuns o uso de torniquete (50,2%, a expressão local na tentativa de retirar parte do veneno (33,5%, a colocação das mais diversas substâncias sobre o local da picada (36,8% e a ingestão de outras (12,9%; pouco mais de um quarto dos pacientes submeteram-se a alguma forma de tratamento médico antes de chegar ao HVB sendo mais comum a antissepsia (8,2%, a administração do antiveneno (6,2%, de anti-histamínicos (5,7% e de analgésicos (5,3%.

  4. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of irradiated crotamine by gamma rays of {sup 60}Co; Caracterizacao bioquimica e farmacologica da crotamina irradiada por raios gama de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto

    2014-07-01

    The serum production in Brazil, the only effective treatment in cases of snakebites, uses horses that although large size, have reduced l lifespan compared with horses not immunized. Ionizing radiation has been shown as an excellent tool in reducing the toxicity of venoms and toxins isolated, and promote the achievement of better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. It is known, however, that the effects of ionizing radiation on protein are characterized by various chemical modifications, such as fragmentation, cross-linking due to aggregation and oxidation products generated by water radiolysis. However, the action of gamma radiation on toxins is not yet fully understood structurally and pharmacologically, a fact that prevents the application of this methodology in the serum production process. So we proposed in this paper the characterization of crotamine, an important protein from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus species, irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays. After isolating the toxin by chromatographic techniques and testing to prove the obtaining of pure crotamine, it was irradiated with gamma rays and subjected to structural analysis, Fluorescence and Circular Dichroism. Using high hydrostatic pressure tests were also conducted in order to verify that the conformational changes caused by radiation suffer modifications under high pressures. From the pharmacological point of view, muscle contraction tests were conducted with the objective of limiting the action of crotamine in smooth muscle as well as the change in the action of toxin caused structural changes to the front. Analysis of Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence showed changes in structural conformation of crotamine when subjected to gamma radiation and that such changes possibly occurring in the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. The observed in pharmacological tests showed that the irradiated crotamine was less effective

  5. Venoms, toxins and derivatives from the Brazilian fauna: valuable sources for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco Almeida, Flávia; de Castro Pimenta, Adriano Monteiro; Oliveira, Mônica Cristina; De Lima, Maria Elena

    2015-06-25

    Animal venoms have been widely investigated throughout the world. The great number of biotechnological articles as well as patent applications in the field of drug discovery based on these compounds indicates how important the source is. This review presents a list of the most studied Brazilian venomous animal species and shows the most recent patent applications filed from 2000 to 2013, which comprise Brazilian venoms, toxins and derivatives. We analyze the data according to the species, the type of products claimed and the nationality of the inventors. Fifty-five patent applications were found, involving 8 genera. Crotalus, Lachesis, Bothrops and Loxosceles represented 78% of the patent applications. The other 22% were represented by Phoneutria, Tityus, Acanthoscurria and Phyllomedusa. Most of the inventions (42%) involved anticancer, immunomodulator or antimicrobial drugs, while 13% involved anti-venoms and vaccines, 11% involved hypotensive compositions, 9% involved antinociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory compositions, and the other 25% involved methods, kits or compositions for various purposes. Brazilian inventors filed 49% of the patent applications, but other countries, mainly the United States of America, Germany, Russia and France, also filed patent applications claiming products comprising venoms, toxins and/or derivatives from the Brazilian fauna. Brazil holds an important number of patent applications which mostly belong to universities and research institutes, but the pharmaceutical industry in this field is still weak in Brazil. Although, Brazilian venomous animal species have been reported in drug discovery throughout the world, many species remain to be explored as valuable and promising tools for drug discovery and development. PMID:26109299

  6. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles

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    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.

  7. Estabilidade e estudo de penetração cutânea in vitro da rutina veiculada em uma emulsão cosmética através de um modelo de biomembrana alternativo Stability and in vitro penetration study of rutin incorporated in a cosmetic emulsion through an alternative model biomembrane

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    André Rolim Baby

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A rutina é empregada como antioxidante e na prevenção da fragilidade capilar. Estudos de penetração in vitro através da pele humana seria a situação ideal, entretanto, há dificuldades de sua obtenção e manutenção de sua viabilidade. Entre os demais modelos de membrana, a muda de pele de cobra se apresenta como estrato córneo puro, fornecendo barreira similar ao humano e é obtida sem a morte do animal. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram desenvolver e avaliar a estabilidade de uma emulsão cosmética contendo rutina e, como promotor de penetração cutânea, o propilenoglicol; e avaliar a penetração e a retenção cutânea in vitro da referida substância ativa da formulação, empregando um modelo de biomembrana alternativo. A emulsão foi desenvolvida com rutina e propilenoglicol, ambos a 5,0% p/p. Quantificou-se a rutina das emulsões por espectrofotometria a 361,0 nm, método previamente validado. A penetração e retenção cutânea in vitro foram realizadas em células de difusão vertical com muda de pele de cobra de Crotalus durissus, como modelo de biomembrana alternativo, e água destilada e álcool etílico absoluto 99,5% (1:1, como fluido receptor. O experimento foi conduzido em um período de seis horas, a 37,0 ± 0,5 ºC e agitação constante de 300 rpm. Empregou-se o método espectrofotométrico validado a 410,0 nm para a quantificação da rutina após penetração e retenção cutânea. A emulsão não promoveu a penetração cutânea da rutina através da muda de pele de C. durissus, retendo 0,931 ± 0,0391 mg de rutina/mg de muda de pele de cobra. Nas condições de armazenamento a 25,0 ± 2,0 ºC; 5,0 ± 0,5 ºC e 45,0 ± 0,5 ºC, a emulsão apresentou-se quimicamente estável durante 30 dias. De acordo com os resultados, a emulsão não favoreceu a penetração cutânea da rutina, mas apenas sua retenção no estrato córneo de C. durissus, condição considerada estável no período de 30 dias.Rutin is

  8. Homeopathy and Collective Health: The Case of Dengue Epidemics Homeopatia y Salud Coletiva: el caso de la epidemia de Dengue. Homeopatia e Saúde Coletiva: o caso da epidemia de Dengue

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    Renan Marino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes experiences of the use of homeopathy in the prevention and treatment Dengue fever in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. May 2001, a single dose of the homeopathic remedy Eupatorium perfoliatum 30cH was given to 40% of residents of the most highly affected neighborhood. Thereafter, Dengue incidence decreased by 81.5%, a highly significant decrease as compared with neighborhoods that did not receive homeopathic prophylaxis (p lower 0.0001. Between April and September 2007, a homeopathic complex composed of Eupatorium perfoliatum, Phosphorus and Crotalus horridus 30cH, given to 20,000 city residents. This trial was aborted prematurely due to national political intervention; therefore, only partial and isolated data could be recorded. However, the results suggest that homeopathy may be effective in the prevention and treatment of Dengue epidemics. Keywords: Homeopathy; public health; Epidemic; Dengue.   Homeopatia e Saúde Coletiva: o caso da epidemia de Dengue Resumo Este artigo descreve a prescrição do tratamento homeopático na prevenção e tratamento da Dengue, na cidade de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brasil. Em Maio de 2001, uma dose única do medicamento Eupatorium perfoliatum 30 cH foi adminstrado a 40% dos moradores de uma das regiões mais afetadas pelo vírus. Observou-se uma redução de 81,5% na incidência da Dengue, resultado altamente significativo quando comparado com as regiões vizinhas que não receberam o tratamento homeopático (p menor 0.0001. Entre Abril e Setembro de 2007, foi administrado um complexo homeopático composto de Eupatorium perfoliatum, Phosphorus and Crotalus horridus 30cH, para 20.000 moradores. O tratamento foi interrompido prematuramente devido à intervenção de órgãos oficial da Saúde. Em

  9. Contribution of homeopathy to the control of an outbreak of dengue in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro Contribuição da Homeopatia para o controle da epidemia de dengue em Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Contribución de la homeopatía para el control de un brote de dengue en Macaé, Río de Janeiro,

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    Laila Aparecida de Souza Nunes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy has contributed throughout history to the control and eradication of epidemic diseases. Facing the challenge of controlling an outbreak of dengue, the Secretary of Health of the county of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in early 2007 carried out a “Homeopathy Campaign against Dengue”. 156,000 doses of homeopathic remedy were freely distributed in April and May 2007 to asymptomatic patients and 129 doses to symptomatic patients treated in outpatient clinics, according to the notion of “epidemic genus”. The remedy used was a homeopathic complex against dengue containing Phosphorus 30cH, Crotalus horridus 30cH and Eupatorium perfoliatum 30cH. The incidence of the disease in the first three months of 2008 fell 93% by comparison to the corresponding period in 2007, whereas in the rest of the State of Rio de Janeiro there was an increase of 128%. While confounding factors were not controlled for, these results suggest that homeopathy may be an effective adjunct in Dengue outbreak prevention. Keywords: Homeopathy; Collective Health; Epidemics; Dengue.   Contribuição da Homeopatia para o controle da epidemia de dengue em Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Resumo A Homepatia tem contribuído através da História no controle e erradicação de epidemias. Em face ao desafio de controlar uma epidemia de dengue, a Secretaria de Saúde do município de Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, iniciou em 2007 a “Campanha da Homeopatia contra a Dengue”. 156,000 doses de medicamento foram gratuitamente distribuídas entre Abril e Maio de 2007 para pacientes assintomáticos e 129 doses para pacientes que já apresentavam os sintomas. Seguindo o conceito de “Gênio Epidêmico” foi usado um complexo homeopático contendo Phosphorus 30c

  10. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil

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    Wedson M.S. Souto

    2012-09-01

    principais espécies citadas foram: o carneiro - Ovis aries (UV=0,89, a raposa - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0,79, o camaleão - Iguana iguana (UV=0,79 e a cascavel - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758 (UV=0,74. Os tratamentos mais freqüentemente citados relacionaram-se a doenças inflamatórias, dermatológicas e desordens obstetrícias. Semelhante a outros estudos, a etnoveterinária local estabelece conexões com a etnomedicina para humanos. Os resultados sugerem que similaridades no repertório de recursos medicinais escolhidos pelos moradores locais refletem a acessibilidade/disponbilidade dos recursos. Nosso resultados ajudam a preservar o conhecimento etnoveterinário, o qual é importante para aumentar nossa compreensão das relações entre seres humanos, a sociedades e a natureza, e também elaborar estratégias mais efetivas para conservar os recursos naturais. Outros estudos para validação científica da eficácia e efeitos colaterais destes produtos zooterapêuticos são necessários antes que possam ser recomendados ou não para o uso.

  11. Revascularização do miocárdio em pacientes após a oitava década de vida

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    ALMEIDA Rui Manuel Sequeira de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a morbi-mortalidade hospitalar e a qualidade de vida de pacientes, acima de 70 anos de vida, submetidos à operação de revascularização do miocárdio (CRM. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: No período de julho de 1992 a fevereiro de 2000, foram realizadas 507 CRM, no Serviço de Cirurgia Cardiovascular do Instituto de Moléstias Cardiovasculares de Cascavel. Em 70 destes casos os pacientes tinham idade igual ou superior a 70 anos. Neste grupo predominou o sexo masculino, em 57% dos casos, e a idade média foi de 72,9 anos (70-85 anos. Vinte e seis pacientes apresentavam hipertensão arterial sistêmica, 25 doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica importante, 17 diabete melito e 8 insuficiência renal crônica, no pré-operatório. Trinta e sete pacientes apresentavam infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM pré-operatório, sete haviam sido submetidos à angioplastia transluminal percutânea, sete apresentavam lesão de tronco de artéria coronária esquerda e um havia sido submetido à CRM anteriormente. Foram realizados 2,8 enxertos/ paciente, sendo usados condutos arteriais em 53% dos casos. Foi realizada endarterectomia em sete artérias, aneurismectomia de ventrículo esquerdo em sete pacientes e ventriculectomia parcial esquerda em um. A operação foi realizada em caráter de emergência em nove casos. Houve necessidade de contrapulsação aórtica em quatro pacientes. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de permanência na UTI e no hospital foi de 4 (1-24 e 12,2 (3-34 dias, respectivamente. A mortalidade hospitalar geral foi de 7,1%. Quando analisada por subgrupos, a mortalidade dos pacientes de 70 a 74 anos (57 casos foi de 5,3%, e a dos últimos 35 casos de 2,8%. No pós-operatório imediato, as complicações mais freqüentes foram: insuficiência respiratória (10, arritmia atrial (7, alteração de conduta (6, infecção pulmonar (6, embolia pulmonar (5, síndrome de baixo débito (4, IAM (3, AVC (3, insuficiência renal aguda (4 e

  12. Milk line as an indicator of the harvesting time of three hybrid seeds of corn (Zea mays L.

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    Célio Trzeciak dos Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the time for harvesting seeds of three hybrids of corn (Zea mays L. at their best physiological quality and the use of the milk line as an indicator of the physiological seed maturity. Single hybrids CD 1723 and CD 5501 and double hybrid OC 705 seeds were collected for 59 days, every four days, starting 23 days after female flowering. Seed dry weight, moisture content, germination, vigour (cold and accelerated aging tests, black layer formation and seed milk line development were analysed. The harvesting time started 47 days after female flowering with high physiological quality of the seeds identified by a joint analysis of those seven characteristics of them. The milk line at stage 4 proved to be the best indicator of the time to harvest corn seeds for maximum physiological quality, because different stages of milk line development in corn seeds could be easily identified in the filed without any special equipment.O experimento foi conduzido durante o ano agrícola de 1996/97 em área experimental da Cooperativa de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Tecnológico (Coodetec, em Cascavel, Paraná, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da época de colheita de três híbridos de milho (Zea mays L. na qualidade fisiológica das sementes e o uso da linha de solidificação do endosperma como indicativo da maturidade fisiológica das sementes. O plantio foi realizado em 30 de setembro de 1996. Amostras de sementes dos híbridos simples CD 1723 e CD 5501, bem como do híbrido duplo OC 705, foram colhidas em intervalos de quatro dias, durante 59 dias, iniciando-se a colheita no vigésimo terceiro dia após o florescimento feminino. As características avaliadas nas sementes foram o acúmulo de matéria seca, o conteúdo de umidade, a germinação, o vigor (pelos testes de frio e de envelhecimento acelerado, a formação da camada preta e o desenvolvimento da linha de solidificação do endosperma. A colheita dos tr

  13. Profiling the venom gland transcriptomes of Costa Rican snakes by 454 pyrosequencing

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    Sanz Libia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A long term research goal of venomics, of applied importance for improving current antivenom therapy, but also for drug discovery, is to understand the pharmacological potential of venoms. Individually or combined, proteomic and transcriptomic studies have demonstrated their feasibility to explore in depth the molecular diversity of venoms. In the absence of genome sequence, transcriptomes represent also valuable searchable databases for proteomic projects. Results The venom gland transcriptomes of 8 Costa Rican taxa from 5 genera (Crotalus, Bothrops, Atropoides, Cerrophidion, and Bothriechis of pitvipers were investigated using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. 100,394 out of 330,010 masked reads produced significant hits in the available databases. 5.165,220 nucleotides (8.27% were masked by RepeatMasker, the vast majority of which corresponding to class I (retroelements and class II (DNA transposons mobile elements. BLAST hits included 79,991 matches to entries of the taxonomic suborder Serpentes, of which 62,433 displayed similarity to documented venom proteins. Strong discrepancies between the transcriptome-computed and the proteome-gathered toxin compositions were obvious at first sight. Although the reasons underlaying this discrepancy are elusive, since no clear trend within or between species is apparent, the data indicate that individual mRNA species may be translationally controlled in a species-dependent manner. The minimum number of genes from each toxin family transcribed into the venom gland transcriptome of each species was calculated from multiple alignments of reads matched to a full-length reference sequence of each toxin family. Reads encoding ORF regions of Kazal-type inhibitor-like proteins were uniquely found in Bothriechis schlegelii and B. lateralis transcriptomes, suggesting a genus-specific recruitment event during the early-Middle Miocene. A transcriptome-based cladogram supports the large

  14. Perfil bioquímico sorológico de bovinos inoculados experimentalmente com veneno crotálico iodado livre e iodado incorporado em liposomas Serological biochemical profile of bovines poisoned experimentally with free iodized crotalic poison and iodized incorporated in lipossomes

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    L.A. Lago

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o perfil sorológico de bovinos inoculados com veneno crotálico detoxificado pelo método de iodação e iodação com encapsulação em liposomas. Onze fêmeas com idade média de 18 meses e peso médio de160kg, foram inoculadas com 0,03mg/kg de peso vivo do veneno crotálico do tipo crotamina positivo. Cinco animais receberam o veneno iodado livre, cinco o iodado encapsulado em liposomas e um animal recebeu o mesmo veneno na forma natural, para controle da letalidade da amostra de veneno utilizada. Não houve alterações significativas na concentração de proteínas totais, uréia e creatinina em ambos os tratamentos. Foi observada diferença significativa na concentração de creatinafosfoquinase a partir de duas horas após a inoculação do veneno. A iodação do veneno crotálico, com ou sem incorporação em liposomas, suprimiu seus efeitos deletérios sobre o perfil bioquímico de bovinos.It was studied the activity of the Crotalus venom detoxified encapsulated in lipossomes or non-encapsulated by the method of controlled iodination on the biochemical profile of bovines. Eleven 18-months-old female bovines, weighting 160kg in average were used in this study. Groups of five animals were inoculated intramuscularly with a dose of 0,03mg/kg with either the detoxified non-encapsulated venom or the detoxified encapsulated venom. One control animal received the same dose of non detoxified venom by the same route. No significant differences were observed between the study groups for the parameters of total protein, urea and creatinine. Differences were observed for creatine phosfokinase at times T O and T12 for the group treated with the iodinated venom encapsulated in liposomes. The detoxification process abolished the activity of the venom in the encapsulated or nonencapsulated form on the biochemical parameters and renal activity of bovine.

  15. Study of crotoxin mechanism of action to mammary carcinomas and evaluation of its potential as a radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotoxin, the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, has been studied since 1938. It is a natural polypeptidic complex with pharmacological potential because of its antitumoral properties which has attracted great interest for diagnosis and therapy of oncological diseases. However, Crotoxin mechanism of action and sites of specific interaction on tumor cells are still misunderstood. Breast cancer is the second most frequent type in the world and the most common cancer in women. About 30 to 60% of mammary tumors overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a transmembrane protein related to cell proliferation. Since literature has reported that Crotoxin antitumoral effect is more potent on cells with EGFR overexpression the objectives of this work were to evaluate Crotoxin cytotoxic effects on mammary tumor cells human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and Ehrlich tumor cells (murine ascitics carcinoma), and to investigate the specific molecular interaction of Crotoxin on Ehrlich tumor cells. Initially, Crotoxin was radiolabelled with iodine-125 (125I-Crotoxin) and iodine-131 (131I-Crotoxin). Saturation and competition assay were carried out to characterize Crotoxin in vitro interaction; Crotoxin biodistribution studies and singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) of mice bearing Ehrlich tumor have been evaluated to describe in vivo interaction. Our results showed that Crotoxin presented cytotoxic effect against Ehrlich with DL50 in vitro (concentration of compound which is lethal for 50% of cells) of about one micromolar, but did not present significant effect against MCF-7. Morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis suggests programmed cell death. 125I-Crotoxin interaction with Ehrlich tumor cells was saturable with approximately 70% specificity, and presented Kd=24.98 nmol/L and Bmax=16,570 sites/cell for low affinity binding sites and Kd=0.06 nmol/L and Bmax=210 sites/cell high affinity binding sites; moreover, the

  16. Obtainment of crotoxin/phema-g-LDPE and crotoxin/PCL systems;Obtencao dos sistemas bioconjugados crotoxina/PEBD-g-phema e crotoxina/PCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzetti, Solange Gubbelini

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the work was the obtainment of polymeric matrices immobilized with crotoxin purified from crude venom of rattle snake. A matrix was processed by gamma irradiation by the grafting of a hydrogel onto a polymeric film which resulted in a copolymer for the chemical immobilization of crotoxin. The second matrix was attained by the entrapment of crotoxin in microspheres of epsilon-polycaprolactone. After the purification, the crotoxin proceeding from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus was evaluated biochemical and biologically. The lethal dose (LD50%) of the toxin was 0.09/kg animal. The test of cytotoxicity not revealed any significant difference between the tumoral cells and the respective normal control cells in culture. Grafting copolymers were used as scaffold for the chemical immobilization of the purified crotoxin. For this purpose the low density polyethylene (LDPE) and the hydrophilic monomer 2-hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate (HEMA) were copolymerized in a {sup 60}Co source. The copolymers (LDPE-g-PHEMA) showed grafting levels in the range of 2 and 50 %. In the infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR-ATR) it was observed in the copolymer, carbonyl groups (C=O) and hydroxyl groups -OH due to the grafting of PHEMA. The MEV micrographs showed a smooth surface for the virgin LDPE and a rough surface for the LDPE-g-PHEMA, owing to the presence of grafted PHEMA. The hydrophilicity was observed by the determination of water content in the copolymer after immersion in water. By the diffusion coefficient it was noted that from 30 % grafting degree, the copolymers become less hydrophilic due to the crosslinking increase among the chains in PHEMA. The biocompatibility of the LDPE-g-PHEMA was proved by the cytotoxicity test. At the end, the immobilized copolymer, the entrapped crotoxin and the free crotoxin was tested 'in vivo'. During 20 days, C3H strain mice were observed in their weight, behavior and motor changes. The results demonstrated that the group

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGIA DOS ACIDENTES COM ANIMAIS PEÇONHENTOS REGISTRADOS EM NOVA XAVANTINA – MT

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    Vivian Tallita Pinheiro Santana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivo: No Brasil os acidentes com animais peçonhentos constituem um problema de Saúde Pública, principalmente em municípios do interior do país. Informações regionais atualizadas são importantes para o desenvolvimento de ações de vigilância epidemiológica. Através desta pesquisa determinaram-se os aspectos epidemiológicos dos acidentes com animais peçonhentos registrados no município de Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, entre janeiro de 2007 e maio de 2013. Método: Foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico transversal, não probabilístico. Resultados: No período estudado foram registrados 68 acidentes, destes 44 ocasionados por serpentes, 19 por escorpiões e quatro por aranhas. A maioria dos acidentes com serpentes foram provocadas pelos gêneros Bothrops (79,5%, Crotalus (11,5% e Micrurus (2,3%. Quanto às vítimas, prevaleceram indivíduos do sexo masculino (76,5%, na faixa etária entre 30 a 49 anos (41,2%, de raça parda (72,1%, com ensino fundamental (55,9% envolvidos em atividades do campo como agricultura e pecuária (41,2%. Predominaram os acidentes de gravidade moderada (48,5% e todos os casos graves foram provocados por serpentes. Na maioria dos agravos (75,0%, não foi registrada relação entre o acidente e a atividade ocupacional. As regiões corpóreas mais atingidas foram pé (39,7%, perna (20,6% e mão (11,8%. As manifestações locais predominantes foram dor, edema e equimose. As manifestações sistêmicas de maior ocorrência foram hemorrágicas e vagais. Conclusão: Portanto, o período avaliado foi caracterizado pelo predomínio de acidentes com serpentes, no sexo masculino, em atividades do campo e de gravidade moderada. Assim, campanhas educativas e a adoção de medidas de prevenção são fundamentais para diminuir o registro desses agravos neste município. DESCRITORES: Envenenamento; Acidente ofídico; Picadas de escorpião.

  18. Construction of concept maps as tool for Biochemistry learning

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    Silvia Lopes de Menezes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of concept maps on the teaching of sciences has been object of worldwide research with different purposes: to detect the previous knowledge of the students on certain topics or to evaluate learning, among others. Based on Ausubel´s cognitive psychology, concept maps assume that the learning is accomplished by assimilation of new concepts and propositions to the students´ cognitive structure, contributing to establish links between the previous and new knowledge. It is especially interesting on the approach of interdisciplinary issues, as many studied in Biochemistry.The relevance of the use of concept maps on biochemistry learning was evaluated on a thirty-hour undergraduation optional course, with interdisciplinary topics, which are not usually included on introductory Biochemistry courses. The course Biochemistry of Animal Venoms was structured in seven module where the biochemical action mechanisms of the venoms of Crotalus sp (south american rattlesnake, Bothrops sp (jararaca, Loxosceles sp (brown spider, Tityus sp (yellow scorpion, Phoneutria sp (armed spider, Apis mellifera (honey bee and Latrodectus sp (black widowwere discussed. The students worked in small groups and, at each module, there were (1 an oriented study, guided by questions, texts and schemes, supervised by the teachers, (2 the construction of individual concept maps, where the local and systemic effects of the venoms should be predicted by their biochemical composition and (3 the construction of a new map by the group, incorporating the information of the individual maps. The difficulty level of these tasks was gradually increased throughout the course, with lesser time to carry out the tasks, lesser assistance during the oriented study and even lesser information on the venom effects.The course assessment was given by the number, quality and correction of the concepts relationship present in the concept maps, through a questionnaire and by the

  19. The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil

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    da S Mourão José

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary by the residents of the municipal district of Cubati, microregion of Seridó, Paraíba State, Brazil. It sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge. Methods Field research was undertaken on a weekly or biweekly basis during the period November, 2006, to January, 2007. Free, semi-structured, and open interviews were made with local residents of the municipal district of Cubati (in both urban and rural settings as well as with venders in public markets. A total of 25 individuals of both sexes were interviewed (with ages varying from 26 to 78 years although only 16 were finally chosen as informants as these people demonstrated the greatest degree of knowledge concerning zootherapeutics. Graphs and percentages were generated using Microsoft© Excel 2007 software, and the species were identified by photographic registration and subsequent bibliographical surveys. Results Mammals constitute the main medicinal zootherapeutic source for folk veterinary medicines in the studied area, both in terms of the total number of species used and the frequency of their citation. Sheep (Ovis aries, pigs (Sus scrofa, cattle (Bos taurus, and foxes (Cerdocyon thous were mentioned by 62.5, 43.75, 37.5, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively, as being used in folk veterinary medicine. Additionally, chameleons (Iguana iguana, chickens (Gallus domesticus, and rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus were mentioned by 75, 43.75, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively. Relatively simple animal illnesses, such as furuncles, or injuries resulting from embedded thorns or skin eruptions are responsible for the largest number of zootherapeutic treatment, while, diseases of greater complexity, such as rabies and brucellosis, were not even

  20. Modulation of the pharmacological effects of enzymatically-active PLA2 by BTL-2, an isolectin isolated from the Bryothamnion triquetrum red alga

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    Nagano Celso S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interaction between lectins from marine algae and PLA2 from rattlesnake was suggested some years ago. We, herein, studied the effects elicited by a small isolectin (BTL-2, isolated from Bryothamnion triquetrum, on the pharmacological and biological activities of a PLA2 isolated from rattlesnake venom (Crotalus durissus cascavella, to better understand the enzymatic and pharmacological mechanisms of the PLA2 and its complex. Results This PLA2 consisted of 122 amino acids (approximate molecular mass of 14 kDa, its pI was estimated to be 8.3, and its amino acid sequence shared a high degree of similarity with that of other neurotoxic and enzymatically-active PLA2s. BTL-2 had a molecular mass estimated in approximately 9 kDa and was characterized as a basic protein. In addition, BTL-2 did not exhibit any enzymatic activity. The PLA2 and BTL-2 formed a stable heterodimer with a molecular mass of approximately 24–26 kDa, estimated by molecular exclusion HPLC. In the presence of BTL-2, we observed a significant increase in PLA2 activity, 23% higher than that of PLA2 alone. BTL-2 demonstrated an inhibition of 98% in the growth of the Gram-positive bacterial strain, Clavibacter michiganensis michiganensis (Cmm, but only 9.8% inhibition of the Gram-negative bacterial strain, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae (Xap. PLA2 decreased bacterial growth by 27.3% and 98.5% for Xap and Cmm, respectively, while incubating these two proteins with PLA2-BTL-2 inhibited their growths by 36.2% for Xap and 98.5% for Cmm. PLA2 significantly induced platelet aggregation in washed platelets, whereas BTL-2 did not induce significant platelet aggregation in any assay. However, BTL-2 significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by PLA2. In addition, PLA2 exhibited strong oedematogenic activity, which was decreased in the presence of BTL-2. BTL-2 alone did not induce oedema and did not decrease or abolish the oedema induced by the 48

  1. Obtainment of crotoxin/phema-g-LDPE and crotoxin/PCL systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was the obtainment of polymeric matrices immobilized with crotoxin purified from crude venom of rattle snake. A matrix was processed by gamma irradiation by the grafting of a hydrogel onto a polymeric film which resulted in a copolymer for the chemical immobilization of crotoxin. The second matrix was attained by the entrapment of crotoxin in microspheres of epsilon-polycaprolactone. After the purification, the crotoxin proceeding from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus was evaluated biochemical and biologically. The lethal dose (LD50%) of the toxin was 0.09/kg animal. The test of cytotoxicity not revealed any significant difference between the tumoral cells and the respective normal control cells in culture. Grafting copolymers were used as scaffold for the chemical immobilization of the purified crotoxin. For this purpose the low density polyethylene (LDPE) and the hydrophilic monomer 2-hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate (HEMA) were copolymerized in a 60Co source. The copolymers (LDPE-g-PHEMA) showed grafting levels in the range of 2 and 50 %. In the infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR-ATR) it was observed in the copolymer, carbonyl groups (C=O) and hydroxyl groups -OH due to the grafting of PHEMA. The MEV micrographs showed a smooth surface for the virgin LDPE and a rough surface for the LDPE-g-PHEMA, owing to the presence of grafted PHEMA. The hydrophilicity was observed by the determination of water content in the copolymer after immersion in water. By the diffusion coefficient it was noted that from 30 % grafting degree, the copolymers become less hydrophilic due to the crosslinking increase among the chains in PHEMA. The biocompatibility of the LDPE-g-PHEMA was proved by the cytotoxicity test. At the end, the immobilized copolymer, the entrapped crotoxin and the free crotoxin was tested 'in vivo'. During 20 days, C3H strain mice were observed in their weight, behavior and motor changes. The results demonstrated that the group injected with

  2. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of this thesis was carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with 60 Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast Performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M Na Cl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a 60 Co source. The native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD50 and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labelled with 29.6 MBq of 125 I using chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35± 5 g), were injected i.p. with o.1 mL (2.4 x 106 cpm/mouse) of 125 I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 106 cpm/mouse) of 125 I irradiated crotamine. At 0.08; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 12 and 24 hours the animal were killed by ether inhalation. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration, the electroforetic profile or the primary structure of the protein, although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of crotamine, but it did not abolish bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. The native and irradiated crotamine have affinity by skeletal muscle and they did not pass the blood - brain

  3. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co; Estudo bioquimico e farmacologico das crotaminas nativa e irradiada com radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitake, Malvina Boni

    2000-07-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of this thesis was carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with {sup 60} Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast Performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M Na Cl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a {sup 60} Co source. The native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD{sub 50} and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labelled with 29.6 MBq of {sup 125} I using chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35{+-} 5 g), were injected i.p. with o.1 mL (2.4 x 10{sup 6} cpm/mouse) of {sup 125} I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10{sup 6} cpm/mouse) of {sup 125} I irradiated crotamine. At 0.08; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 12 and 24 hours the animal were killed by ether inhalation. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration, the electroforetic profile or the primary structure of the protein, although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of crotamine, but it did not abolish bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. The native and irradiated crotamine have affinity by skeletal

  4. Quadro clínico-patológico do envenenamento crotálico experimental em bubalinos comparado com o de bovinos

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    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo verificar a sensibilidade dos bubalinos à peçonha de Crotalus durissus terriiicus, estudar o quadro clínico-patológico e laboratorial nessa espécie e estabelecer comparações com o verificado em bovinos. A inoculação do veneno liofilizado de Crotalus durissus terriiicus, diluído em 1ml de solução fisiológica, foi feita na região da articulação úmero-rádio-ulnar, por via subcutânea, em três bubalinos (doses de 0,015; 0,03; e 0,066mg/kg e em dois bovinos (doses de 0,03 e 0,066mg/kg. O bubalino que recebeu a dose de 0,03mg/ kg apresentou sinais clínicos graves recuperou-se seis dias após, e o bovino que recebeu a mesma dose morreu com evolução de 22h56min. A dose de 0,066mg/kg causou a morte tanto do bovino quanto do bubalino, com evolução clínica de 4h23min e 8h12min, respectivamente. O bubalino que recebeu a dose de 0,015mg/kg, recuperou-se com evolução de 48 horas. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início dentro de 3h58min no bubalino que morreu, e nos bubalinos que adoeceram mas se recuperaram, dentro de 17h25min e 24h00min após a inoculação do veneno. Nos dois bovinos que morreram (com doses de 0,03 e 0,066mg/kg, os primeiros sinais clínicos foram observados 6h10min e 6h31min após a inoculação do veneno. A inoculação do veneno produziu nos búfalos e bovinos um quadro nervoso de paralisia flácida. Os principais sinais observados tanto nos búfalos quanto nos bovinos, foram discreto aumento de volume no local da inoculação, dificuldade respiratória caracterizada por respiração predominantemente abdominal, apatia, sialorreia, dificuldade para se levantar quando estimulados, evolução para decúbito esternal permanente, seguido de decúbito lateral e movimentos de pedalagem, e diminuição dos reflexos relacionados aos pares de nervos cranianos. Nos bubalinos adicionalmente foi observado aumento da base de sustentação, arrastar das pinças dos membros posteriores, marcha lenta e

  5. Mice plasma fibrinogen consumption by thrombin-like enzyme present in rattlesnake venom from the North-East region of Argentina Consumo de fibrinógeno plasmático en ratones por acción de enzima con actividad trombínica presente en el veneno de cascabel del nordeste argentino

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    Silvana L. Maruñak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to variability of venom components from the same species of snakes that inhabit different regions, particular properties of the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus that inhabits the North-East of Argentina were studied. Gyroxin, a thrombin-like enzyme, was isolated from this venom by gel filtration and affinity chromatography, it was found to be homogeneous according to SDS-PAGE, with a molecular weight of 33 kDa. "Gyroxin syndrome" in mice was tested and it showed changes in the animal behavior, confirming that the isolated thrombin-like enzyme is gyroxin. Effects of this enzyme and the crude venom on mice plasmatic fibrinogen levels were determined. The mice plasma fibrinogen decreased rapidly until incoagulability during the first hour after thrombin-Iike enzyme injection, then reaching its normal level 10 hours after injection; whereas crude venom resulted in a 60% decrease of the mice plasma fibrinogen, reaching its normal level after the same period of time. After 1 hour of gyroxin inoculation, intravascular coagulation was observed in histological cuttings of lung, cardiac muscle and liver. The isolated enzyme showed strong hydrolyzing activity on fibrinogen and fibrin in vitro, whereas the crude venom exhibited weak hydrolyzing activity on both substrates. It is probable that this very low activity is due to the low percentage of the enzyme in the crude venom. Decreasing of plasmatic fibrinogen levels may be due to either the coagulant or hydrolyzing actions of the enzyme.Teniendo en cuenta la variabilidad de los componentes del veneno de serpientes de una misma especie que habitan regiones diferentes, se decidió estudiar las propiedades particulares del veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus que habita el nordeste de Argentina, Giroxina, una enzima con actividad trombínica, fue aislada del veneno por cromatografía de filtración por gel y de afinidad; se comprobó su homogeneidad y se determinó su peso molecular, 33 kDa, por

  6. Epidemiologia dos acidentes ofídicos notificados pelo Centro de Assistência e Informação Toxicológica de Campina Grande (Ceatox-CG, Paraíba Epidemiologic profile of snakebites reported by the Poison Information Center of Campina Grande, Paraíba

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    Josiverton de Carvalho Lemos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os acidentes causados por animais peçonhentos ainda constituem problema de Saúde Pública no Brasil. Embora a produção e a distribuição dos soros no país encontrem-se estabilizadas, há problemas relacionados à notificação de acidentes deste tipo em várias regiões. Considerando esta realidade, foi realizado um estudo transversal entre janeiro e dezembro de 2005, utilizando documentação indireta sobre os acidentes ofídicos ocorridos em Campina Grande e 80 municípios adjacentes à região, com o objetivo de conhecer o perfil epidemiológico e clínico deste tipo de caso. Todos os pacientes atendidos tiveram diagnóstico médico de acidente por serpentes realizado pelo Centro de Atendimento Toxicológico de Campina Grande (Ceatox-CG. Os dados foram coletados através da ficha de notificação do Sinan (Sistema Nacional de Notificação de Agravo do Ministério da Saúde. Para análise dos dados, foi utilizada estatística descritiva e os dados foram tabulados no programa Microsoft Excel 2003. Dos 1.443 atendimentos no Centro, 737 foram causados por animais peçonhentos e, destes, 277 foram provocados por serpentes peçonhentas e não peçonhentas. Os acidentes predominaram no sexo masculino, na faixa etária de 10 a 29 anos, principalmente em agricultores na zona rural, entre maio e novembro de 2005. O gênero Bothrops foi responsável pelo maior número de casos (71,5%, e as extremidades superior e inferior do corpo foram os locais de maior predominância de ataques. Na extremidade inferior, foi atingido principalmente o pé. Em relação à gravidade, foram mais frequentes os acidentes classificados como leves causados pelo gênero Bothrops e apenas um paciente evoluiu para óbito. A média do tempo de atendimento, em horas, foi superior a 12 horas nos acidentes considerados graves, causados pelos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus. Nossos resultados concordam com o perfil epidemiológico nacional dos acidentes ofídicos, atingindo com

  7. Aspectos clínico-patológicos da intoxicação experimental pelas sementes de Crotalaria mucronata (Fabaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Crotalaria mucronata (Fabaceae seeds in cattle

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    Murilo R. Boghossian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Sementes moídas de Crotalaria mucronata Desv. (=Crotalaria striata DC., Crotalaria pallida Ait., Crotalaria saltiana, com nomes populares de "xique-xique" ou "guizo-de-cascavel", foram administradas por via oral a 9 bovinos. As doses diárias de 1g/kg, 2g/kg, 3g/kg cada uma a um bovino, e 5g/kg em dois de três bovinos, dadas durante 61 a 63 dias, não causaram intoxicação. A dose de 5g/kg em um bovino, 7,5g/kg em dois bovinos e 10g/kg em um bovino, dadas durante 47-61 dias, causaram sintomas entre 47 e 80 dias após o início da administração e a morte entre 3 horas e 5 dias após o início dos sintomas. Os principais sintomas foram pulso venoso positivo da veia jugular, respiração abdominal, taquicardia, inapetência, fezes ressequidas, edema sub-mandibular e fraqueza. Os achados de necropsia foram palidez pulmonar, hidropericárdio, hidrotórax, hidroperitôneo, edema de mesentério, aumento da consistência hepática, alterações de cor do fígado, dilatação de ventrículo cardíaco direito e edema da parede ruminal. As principais alterações histológicas concentraram-se nos pulmões, sob forma de espessamento das paredes alveolares e da parede das arteríolas com diminuição da luz e fibrose periarteriolar; havia também lesões hepáticas e cardíacas de menor importância. Pode-se concluir que as principais lesões causadas pela ingestão das sementes de C. mucronata durante períodos prolongados, devem-se à dificuldade de passagem do sangue pelos vasos pulmonares em função da hipertensão arterial decorrente de fibrose e espessamento arteriolar determinada pela ação pneumotóxica da planta.Experiments were performed to define the clinical and pathological picture of prolonged administration of the seeds of Crotalaria mucronata Desv. to cattle, in order to obtain additional information about this toxicosis. The ground seeds were administered orally to 9 bovines. Doses of 1g/kg/day, 2g/kg/day, 3g/kg/day each in one bovine

  8. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento crotálico experimental em equinos

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    Cinthia Távora A. Lopes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os quadros clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais de equinos inoculados experimentalmente com a peçonha de Caudisona durissa terrificus (Crotalus durissus terrificus na antiga nomenclatura, com a finalidade de fornecer subsídios que favoreçam a compreensão desse tipo de acidente ofídico em equinos. O veneno liofilizado foi diluído em 1ml de solução salina a 0,9% e inoculado por via subcutânea em cinco equinos, nas doses de 0,12mg/kg (um animal, 0,066mg/kg (dois animais e 0,03mg/kg (dois animais. O veneno causou a morte do equino que recebeu a dose de 0,12mg/kg e de um dos dois que receberam a dose de 0,066mg/kg, com evolução de 27h27min e 52h29min, respectivamente. O segundo animal que recebeu a dose de 0,066mg/kg também adoeceu, mas recuperou-se após 12 dias da inoculação. A dose de 0,03mg/kg determinou quadros não fatais do envenenamento, com período de evolução que variou entre 6 e 10 dias. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por considerável aumento de volume no local de inoculação (escápula que se estendeu por todo o membro, apatia e cabeça baixa, alterações locomotoras evidenciadas pelo arrastar das pinças no solo, decúbito e dificuldade para levantar, redução dos reflexos auricular, palatal, do lábio superior e de ameaça, e aumento das frequências cardíaca e respiratória. Os exames laboratoriais revelaram leucocitose por neutrofilia e linfocitose em apenas dois animais. Houve aumento das enzimas creatina quinase (CK, dehidrogenase láctica (DHL e da ureia, e também redução nos níveis séricos de cálcio, fósforo e magnésio. O tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA aumentou nos equinos que morreram. Os achados de necropsia foram edema do tecido subcutâneo em todo o membro em que foi aplicado o veneno, sufusões no epicárdio dos ventrículos cardíacos esquerdo e direito, e bexiga com áreas hemorrágicas em grande parte da mucosa. Ao exame histopatológico observaram-se f

  9. Study of crotoxin mechanism of action to mammary carcinomas and evaluation of its potential as a radiopharmaceutical; Estudo do mecanismo de acao da crotoxina em tumores mamarios e avaliacao do seu potenctial radiofarmaceutico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Marina Bicalho

    2010-07-01

    Crotoxin, the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, has been studied since 1938. It is a natural polypeptidic complex with pharmacological potential because of its antitumoral properties which has attracted great interest for diagnosis and therapy of oncological diseases. However, Crotoxin mechanism of action and sites of specific interaction on tumor cells are still misunderstood. Breast cancer is the second most frequent type in the world and the most common cancer in women. About 30 to 60% of mammary tumors overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a transmembrane protein related to cell proliferation. Since literature has reported that Crotoxin antitumoral effect is more potent on cells with EGFR overexpression the objectives of this work were to evaluate Crotoxin cytotoxic effects on mammary tumor cells human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and Ehrlich tumor cells (murine ascitics carcinoma), and to investigate the specific molecular interaction of Crotoxin on Ehrlich tumor cells. Initially, Crotoxin was radiolabelled with iodine-125 ({sup 125}I-Crotoxin) and iodine-131 ({sup 131}I-Crotoxin). Saturation and competition assay were carried out to characterize Crotoxin in vitro interaction; Crotoxin biodistribution studies and singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) of mice bearing Ehrlich tumor have been evaluated to describe in vivo interaction. Our results showed that Crotoxin presented cytotoxic effect against Ehrlich with DL{sub 50} in vitro (concentration of compound which is lethal for 50% of cells) of about one micromolar, but did not present significant effect against MCF-7. Morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis suggests programmed cell death. {sup 125}I-Crotoxin interaction with Ehrlich tumor cells was saturable with approximately 70% specificity, and presented K{sub d}=24.98 nmol/L and B{sub max}=16,570 sites/cell for low affinity binding sites and K{sub d}=0.06 nmol/L and B{sub max}=210 sites

  10. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2014 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Anderson, David C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Greger, Paul D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)

    2015-05-12

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2014. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2014, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives. Sensitive and protected/regulated species of the NNSS include 42 plants, 1 mollusk, 2 reptiles, 236 birds, and 27 mammals. These species are protected, regulated, or considered sensitive according to state or federal regulations and natural resource agencies and organizations. The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and the western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) are the only species on the NNSS protected under the Endangered Species Act, both listed as threatened. However, only one record of the cuckoo has ever been documented on the NNSS, and there is no good habitat for this species on the NNSS. It is considered a rare migrant. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources on which they depend were conducted for 18 projects. A total of 199.18 hectares (ha) was surveyed for these projects. Sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources found during these surveys included a predator burrow, one sidewinder rattlesnake (Crotalus cerastes), two mating speckled rattlesnakes