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Sample records for cascaded quadratic soliton

  1. Compression limits in cascaded quadratic soliton compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw;

    2008-01-01

    Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency.......Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency....

  2. Critical Boundary of Cascaded Quadratic Soliton Compression in PPLN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Zeng, Xianglong; Zhou, Binbin;

    2012-01-01

    Cascaded quadratic soliton compression in PPLN is investigated and a general critical soliton number is found as the compression boundary. An optimal-parameter diagram for compression at 1550 nm is presented.......Cascaded quadratic soliton compression in PPLN is investigated and a general critical soliton number is found as the compression boundary. An optimal-parameter diagram for compression at 1550 nm is presented....

  3. Cascaded quadratic soliton compression at 800 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Moses, Jeffrey;

    2007-01-01

    We study soliton compression in quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion.......We study soliton compression in quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion....

  4. Cascaded Quadratic Soliton Compression in Waveguide Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun

    -energy, high-repetition-rate pulsed lasers with the beam finely confined by the waveguide structure. Therefore, nano-joule, mega-hertz fiber laser pulses with ~100 fs durations can be compressed to few-cycle. We investigate quadratic waveguides with both small and large refractive index (RI) changes. Robust...

  5. Accurate nonlocal theory for cascaded quadratic soliton compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Moses, Jeffrey;

    2007-01-01

    We study soliton compression in bulk quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion.......We study soliton compression in bulk quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion....

  6. Soliton compression to few-cycle pulses by cascaded quadratic nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Moses, Jeffrey; Bang, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical investigation of pulse-compression in a nonlinear crystal is presented. SHG soliton number is introduced and show that compression only takes place when it is larger than the "usual" Kerr soliton number. Pulse compression with cascaded quadratic nonlinearities requires...... that the ratio of the SHG and Kerr soliton numbers N>1....

  7. Quadratic solitons as nonlocal solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov; Neshev, D.; Bang, Ole; Królikowski, W.

    2003-01-01

    We show that quadratic solitons are equivalent to solitons of a nonlocal Kerr medium. This provides new physical insight into the properties of quadratic solitons, often believed to be equivalent to solitons of an effective saturable Kerr medium. The nonlocal analogy also allows for novel analytical solutions and the prediction of novel bound states of quadratic solitons.

  8. Cascaded quadratic soliton compression of high-power femtosecond fiber lasers in Lithium Niobate crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Moses, Jeffrey; Wise, Frank W.

    2008-01-01

    The output of a high-power femtosecond fiber laser is typically 300 fs with a wavelength around $\\lambda=1030-1060$ nm. Our numerical simulations show that cascaded quadratic soliton compression in bulk LiNbO$_3$ can compress such pulses to below 100 fs....

  9. Quadratic solitons as nonlocal solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov; Neshev, D.; Bang, Ole;

    2003-01-01

    We show that quadratic solitons are equivalent to solitons of a nonlocal Kerr medium. This provides new physical insight into the properties of quadratic solitons, often believed to be equivalent to solitons of an effective saturable Kerr medium. The nonlocal analogy also allows for analytical...

  10. Soliton pulse compression through cascaded quadratic nonlinearity in difference-frequency generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke; QIAN LieJia; ZHU HeYuan

    2008-01-01

    Cascaded nonlinearity based soliton pulse compression in the process of femtosecond difference frequency generation is studied theoretically. A set of simplified coupled wave equations under the conditions of large phase mismatch and matched group velocities is obtained, which reveals the physical mechanism of soliton compression in this process. Numerical simulations demonstrate that in the presence of group velocity dispersion and equivalent cross phase modulation, both the pump and the signal pulses can be compressed with a high compression ratio.

  11. Quadratic spatial soliton interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Ladislav

    Quadratic spatial soliton interactions were investigated in this Dissertation. The first part deals with characterizing the principal features of multi-soliton generation and soliton self-reflection. The second deals with two beam processes leading to soliton interactions and collisions. These subjects were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were performed by using potassium niobate (KNBO 3) and periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystals. These particular crystals were desirable for these experiments because of their large nonlinear coefficients and, more importantly, because the experiments could be performed under non-critical-phase-matching (NCPM) conditions. The single soliton generation measurements, performed on KNBO3 by launching the fundamental component only, showed a broad angular acceptance bandwidth which was important for the soliton collisions performed later. Furthermore, at high input intensities multi-soliton generation was observed for the first time. The influence on the multi-soliton patterns generated of the input intensity and beam symmetry was investigated. The combined experimental and theoretical efforts indicated that spatial and temporal noise on the input laser beam induced multi-soliton patterns. Another research direction pursued was intensity dependent soliton routing by using of a specially engineered quadratically nonlinear interface within a periodically poled KTP sample. This was the first time demonstration of the self-reflection phenomenon in a system with a quadratic nonlinearity. The feature investigated is believed to have a great potential for soliton routing and manipulation by engineered structures. A detailed investigation was conducted on two soliton interaction and collision processes. Birth of an additional soliton resulting from a two soliton collision was observed and characterized for the special case of a non-planar geometry. A small amount of spiraling, up to 30

  12. Impurity solitons with quadratic nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Torres, Juan P-; Torner, Lluis

    1998-01-01

    We fmd families of solitary waves mediated by parametric mixing in quadratic nonlinear media that are localized at point-defect impurities. Solitons localized at attractive impurities are found to be dynamically stable. It is shown that localization at the impurity modifies strongly the soliton...

  13. On type I cascaded quadratic soliton compression in lithium niobate: Compressing femtosecond pulses from high-power fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Bache, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The output pulses of a commercial high-power femtosecond fiber laser or amplifier are typically around 300-500 fs with a wavelength around 1030 nm and 10s of $\\mu$J pulse energy. Here we present a numerical study of cascaded quadratic soliton compression of such pulses in LiNbO$_3$ using a type I phase matching configuration. We find that because of competing cubic material nonlinearities compression can only occur in the nonstationary regime, where group-velocity mismatch induced Raman-like nonlocal effects prevent compression to below 100 fs. However, the strong group velocity dispersion implies that the pulses can achieve moderate compression to sub-130 fs duration in available crystal lengths. Most of the pulse energy is conserved because the compression is moderate. The effects of diffraction and spatial walk-off is addressed, and in particular the latter could become an issue when compressing in such long crystals (around 10 cm long). We finally show that the second harmonic contains a short pulse locke...

  14. Designing microstructured polymer optical fibers for cascaded quadratic soliton compression of femtosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The dispersion of index-guiding microstructured polymer optical fibers is calculated for second-harmonic generation. The quadratic nonlinearity is assumed to come from poling of the polymer, which in this study is chosen to be the cyclic olefin copolymer Topas. We found a very large phase mismatch...

  15. Few-cycle solitons and supercontinuum generation with cascaded quadratic nonlinearities in unpoled lithium niobate ridge waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Zeng, Xianglong; Zhou, Binbin;

    2014-01-01

    inherent material self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity is overcome over a wide wavelength range, and self-defocusing solitons are supported from 1100 to 1900 nm, covering the whole communication band. Single cycle self-compressed solitons and supercontinuum generation spanning 1.3 octaves are observed when...

  16. Quadratic soliton self-reflection at a quadratically nonlinear interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Ladislav; Kim, Hongki; Stegeman, George; Carrasco, Silvia; Torner, Lluis; Katz, Mordechai

    2003-11-01

    The reflection of bulk quadratic solutions incident onto a quadratically nonlinear interface in periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate was observed. The interface consisted of the boundary between two quasi-phase-matched regions displaced from each other by a half-period. At high intensities and small angles of incidence the soliton is reflected.

  17. Solitons in quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with modulation of both the linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We derive averaged equations that include induced cubic nonlinearities, which can be defocusing, and we numerically find previously unknown soliton familie...

  18. Generating energetic few-cycle pulses at 800 nm using soliton compression with type 0 cascaded quadratic interaction in lithium niobate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Zhou, Binbin; Chong, A.;

    2010-01-01

    We show that ultra-short few-cycle pulses can be generated through soliton compression of energetic femtosecond pulses from a Ti:Sapphire regenerative amplifier. The compression relies on cascaded type 0 second-harmonic generation in mm-length lithium niobate crystals.......We show that ultra-short few-cycle pulses can be generated through soliton compression of energetic femtosecond pulses from a Ti:Sapphire regenerative amplifier. The compression relies on cascaded type 0 second-harmonic generation in mm-length lithium niobate crystals....

  19. Evolution of Dark Spatial Soliton in Quasi-phase-matched Quadratic Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei-Yu; CHEN Xian-Feng; CHEN Yu-Ping; YANG Yi; XIA Yu-Xing

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the evolvement of dark spatial soliton with cascading quadratic nonlinearity in quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation. It is shown that the dark solitary wave can propagate stably when background intensity is large enough, in which diffraction of beam can be balanced by the cascading quadratic nonlinearity. We also analyze the influence of phase-mismatch on the stability of dark soliton propagation.

  20. Modulational stability and dark solitons in periodic quadratic nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2000-01-01

    We show that stable dark solitons exist in quadratic nonlinear media with periodic linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We investigate the modulational stability of plane waves in such systems, a necessary condition for stable dark solitons....

  1. Dynamics of Soliton Cascades in Fiber Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga-Sierra, F R; Agrawal, Govind P

    2016-01-01

    We study numerically the formation of cascading solitons when femtosecond optical pulses are launched into a fiber amplifier with less energy than required to form a soliton of equal duration. As the pulse is amplified, cascaded fundamental solitons are created at different distances, without soliton fission, as each fundamental soliton moves outside the gain bandwidth through the Raman-induced spectral shifts. As a result, each input pulse creates multiple, temporally separated, ultrashort pulses of different wavelengths at the amplifier output. The number of pulses depends not only on the total gain of the amplifier but also on the width of input pulses.

  2. Solitary wave solution to the nonlinear evolution equation in cascaded quadratic media beyond the slowly varying envelope approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Amarendra K

    2012-01-01

    We report exact bright and dark soliton solution to the nonlinear evolution equation derived by Moses and Wise [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073903, (2006)] for cascaded quadratic media beyond the slowly varying envelope approximations. The integrability aspects of the model are addressed. The traveling wave hypothesis as well as the ansatz method is employed to obtain an exact 1-soliton solution. Both bright and dark soliton solutions are obtained. The corresponding constraint conditions are obtained in order for the soliton solutions to exist.

  3. Approximate solutions and scaling transformations for quadratic solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.

    1999-01-01

    We study quadratic solitons supported by two- and three-wave parametric interactions in chi-2 nonlinear media. Both planar and two-dimensional cases are considered. We obtain very accurate, 'almost exact', explicit analytical solutions, matching the actual bright soliton profiles, with the help of a specially-developed approach, based on analysis of the scaling properties. Additionally, we use these approximations to describe the linear tails of solitary waves which are related to the propert...

  4. Soliton and Periodic Travelling Wave Solutions for Quadratic Nonlinear Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ji; CHENG Xue-Ping; YE Li-Jun

    2006-01-01

    Many sets of the soliton and periodic travelling wave solutions for the quadratic χ(2) nonlinear system are obtained by the B(a)cklund transformation and the trial method. The property of the propagation for some travelling waves is investigated.

  5. Soliton interaction in quadratic and cubic bulk media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. The understanding of how and to what extend the cubic nonlinearity affects beam propagation and spatial soliton formation in quadratic media is of vital importance in fundamental and applied nonlinear physics. We consider beam propagation under type-I SHG conditions...

  6. Cascaded generation of coherent Raman dissipative solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharenko, Denis S; Bednyakova, Anastasia E; Podivilov, Evgeniy V; Fedoruk, Mikhail P; Apolonski, Alexander; Babin, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    The cascaded generation of a conventional dissipative soliton (at 1020 nm) together with Raman dissipative solitons of the first (1065 nm) and second (1115 nm) orders inside a common fiber laser cavity is demonstrated experimentally and numerically. With sinusoidal (soft) spectral filtering, the generated solitons are mutually coherent at a high degree and compressible down to 300 fs. Numerical simulation shows that an even higher degree of coherence and shorter pulses could be achieved with step-like (hard) spectral filtering. The approach can be extended toward a high-order coherent Raman dissipative soliton source offering numerous applications such as frequency comb generation, pulse synthesis, biomedical imaging, and the generation of a coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum. PMID:26696187

  7. Cascaded Soliton Compression of Energetic Femtosecond Pulses at 1030 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Zhou, Binbin

    2012-01-01

    We discuss soliton compression with cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses at 1030 nm. We discuss problems encountered with soliton compression of long pulses and show that sub-10 fs compressed pulses can be achieved.......We discuss soliton compression with cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses at 1030 nm. We discuss problems encountered with soliton compression of long pulses and show that sub-10 fs compressed pulses can be achieved....

  8. Spatial quadratic solitons guided by narrow layers of a nonlinear material

    CERN Document Server

    Shapira, Asia; Malomed, Boris A; Arie, Ady

    2011-01-01

    We report analytical solutions for spatial solitons supported by layers of a quadratically nonlinear material embedded into a linear planar waveguide. A full set of symmetric, asymmetric, and antisymmetric modes pinned to a symmetric pair of the nonlinear layers is obtained. The solutions describe a bifurcation of the subcritical type, which accounts for the transition from the symmetric to asymmetric modes. The antisymmetric states (which do not undergo the bifurcation) are completely stable (the stability of the solitons pinned to the embedded layers is tested by means of numerical simulations). Exact solutions are also found for nonlinear layers embedded into a nonlinear waveguide, including the case when the uniform and localized nonlinearities have opposite signs (competing nonlinearities). For the layers embedded into the nonlinear medium, stability properties are explained by comparison to the respective cascading limit.

  9. Quadratic solitons for negative effective second-harmonic diffraction as nonlocal solitons with periodic nonlocal response function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B.K.; Bache, Morten; Krolikowski, W.;

    2012-01-01

    We employ the formal analogy between quadratic and nonlocal solitons to investigate analytically the properties of solitons and soliton bound states in second-harmonic generation in the regime of negative diffraction or dispersion of the second harmonic. We show that in the nonlocal description...... this regime corresponds to a periodic nonlocal response function. We then use the strongly nonlocal approximation to find analytical solutions of the families of single bright solitons and their bound states in terms of Mathieu functions....

  10. Spatial soliton by cascading χ(2) effect and its self-induced wave-guide in quasi-phase-matched media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kezhu Hong(洪克柱); Xianfeng Chen(陈险峰); Guangqie Gao(高光且); Yingli Chen(陈英礼)

    2003-01-01

    The formation of the spatial solitons in the quadratic nonlinearity χ(2) media by cascading second harmonicgeneration (SHG) in quasi-phase-matched (QPM) sample is studied on the basis of nonlinear Schrodingerequation (NLSE). When the solitary wave propagates in the QPM media, it formed optical wave-guidesthrough cascading χ(2) effect called self-induced soliton wave-guide. Transverse refractive index distribu-tion of the self-induced soliton wave-guide of fundamental and SHG wave is obtained by cascading process.Analysis of guided-mode of such self-induced soliton wave-guide is first proposed to our knowledge. Be-cause the power needed for forming the spatial solitons in cascading process is much lower than that inKerr media, this kind of self-induced soliton wave-guide shows potential applications in all-optical signalprocess.

  11. Coalescence cascade of dissipative solitons in parametrically driven systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, M G; Coulibaly, S; Gordillo, L; Mujica, N; Navarro, R

    2011-09-01

    Parametrically driven spatially extended systems exhibit uniform oscillations which are modulationally unstable. The resulting periodic state evolves to the creation of a gas of dissipative solitons. Driven by the interaction of dissipative solitons, the multisoliton state undergoes a cascade of coalescence processes, where the average soliton separation distance obeys a temporal self-similar law. Starting from the soliton pair interaction law, we have derived analytically and characterized the law of this multisoliton coarsening process. A comparison of numerical results obtained with different models such as the parametrically driven damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation, a vertically driven chain of pendula, and a parametrically forced magnetic wire, shows remarkable agreement. Both phenomena, the pair interaction law and the coarsening process, are also observed experimentally in a quasi-one-dimensional layer of Newtonian fluid which is oscillated vertically. PMID:22060473

  12. Generating mid-IR octave-spanning supercontinua and few-cycle pulses with solitons in phase-mismatched quadratic nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin

    2013-01-01

    investigate the so-called noncritical SHG case, where no phase matching can be achieved but as a compensation the largest quadratic nonlinearities are exploited. A self-defocusing temporal soliton can be excited if the cascading nonlinearity is larger than the competing material self-focusing nonlinearity......We discuss a novel method for generating octave-spanning supercontinua and few-cycle pulses in the important mid-IR wavelength range. The technique relies on strongly phase-mismatched cascaded second-harmonic generation (SHG) in mid-IR nonlinear frequency conversion crystals. Importantly we here...

  13. TEMPORAL OPTICAL SOLITONS VIA MULTISTEP x(2) CASCADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG GUO-XIANG

    2001-01-01

    We consider a multistep X(2) cascading for light pulses with the dispersion of the system taken into account. Using the method of multiple scales we derive a set of coupled envelope equations governing the nonlinear evolution of the fundamental, second and third harmonic waves involved simultaneously in two nonlinear optical processes, i.e. second harmonic generation and sum frequency mixing. We show that three-wave temporal optical solitons are possible in three- and four-step cascading in the presence of a group-velocity mismatch between different pulses.

  14. Limits to compression with cascaded quadratic soliton compressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw;

    2008-01-01

    that it is theoretically possible to reach the single-cycle regime by compressing high-energy fs pulses for wavelengths λ = 1.0−1.3 μm in a β -barium-borate crystal, and it requires that the system is in the stationary regime, where the phase mismatch is large enough to overcome the detrimental GVM effects. however...

  15. Improving Soliton Compression Quality with Cascaded Nonlinearities by Engineered Multi-section Quasi-phase-matching Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Xianglong; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin;

    2012-01-01

    In few-cycle soliton generation with large compression factors using cascaded nonlinearities the pulse quality can be improved by engineering quasi-phase-matching structures. The soliton-induced mid-IR optical Cherenkov wave is also enhanced.......In few-cycle soliton generation with large compression factors using cascaded nonlinearities the pulse quality can be improved by engineering quasi-phase-matching structures. The soliton-induced mid-IR optical Cherenkov wave is also enhanced....

  16. Energetic mid-IR femtosecond pulse generation by self-defocusing soliton-induced dispersive waves in a bulk quadratic nonlinear crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2015-01-01

    and without critical phase-matching requirements. Pumping a bulk quadratic nonlinear crystal (unpoled LiNbO3 cut for noncritical phase-mismatched interaction) with sub-mJ near-IR 50-fs pulses, tunable and broadband (∼ 1,000 cm−1) mid-IR pulses around 3.0 μm are generated with excellent spatio-temporal pulse...... quality, having up to 10.5 μJ energy (6.3% conversion). The mid-IR pulses are dispersive waves phase-matched to near-IR self-defocusing solitons created by the induced self-defocusing cascaded nonlinearity. This process is filament-free and the input pulse energy can therefore be scaled arbitrarily...

  17. Mid-IR femtosecond frequency conversion by soliton-probe collision in phase-mismatched quadratic nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xing; Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun;

    2015-01-01

    in a quadratic nonlinear crystal (beta-barium borate) in the normal dispersion regime due to cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation, and the mid-IR converted wave is formed in the anomalous dispersion regime between. lambda = 2.2-2.4 mu m as a resonant dispersive wave. This process relies...

  18. Energetic mid-IR femtosecond pulse generation by self-defocusing soliton-induced dispersive waves in a bulk quadratic nonlinear crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, B B; Bache, M

    2014-01-01

    Generating energetic femtosecond mid-IR pulses is crucial for ultrafast spectroscopy, and currently relies on parametric processes that, while efficient, are also complex. Here we experimentally show a simple alternative that uses a single pump wavelength without any pump synchronization and without critical phase-matching requirements. Pumping a bulk quadratic nonlinear crystal (unpoled LiNbO$_3$ cut for noncritical phase-mismatched interaction) with sub-mJ near-IR 50-fs pulses, tunable and broadband ($\\sim 1,000$ cm$^{-1}$) mid-IR pulses around $3.0~\\mu\\rm m$ are generated with excellent spatio-temporal pulse quality, having up to 10.5 $\\mu$J energy (6.3% conversion). The mid-IR pulses are dispersive waves phase-matched to near-IR self-defocusing solitons created by the induced self-defocusing cascaded nonlinearity. This process is filament-free and the input pulse energy can therefore be scaled arbitrarily by using large-aperture crystals. The technique can readily be implemented with other crystals and la...

  19. Sub-20 fs energetic near-IR pulses generated with cascaded soliton compression in short lithium niobate crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Chong, Andy; Wise, Frank W.;

    2011-01-01

    We show experimentally that sub-20 fs near-infrared pulses can be generated through soliton compression of energetic femtosecond pulses.e compression relies on cascaded type-0 second-harmonic generation in a just 1 mm long lithium niobate crystal.......We show experimentally that sub-20 fs near-infrared pulses can be generated through soliton compression of energetic femtosecond pulses.e compression relies on cascaded type-0 second-harmonic generation in a just 1 mm long lithium niobate crystal....

  20. Spatial Solitons and Induced Kerr Effects in Quasi-Phase-Matched Quadratic Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Bang, Ole; Kivshar, Yu.S.

    1997-01-01

    We show that the evolution of the average intensity of cw beams in a quasi-phase-matched quadratic (or chi((2))) medium is strongly influenced by induced Kerr effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation. We prove the existence of rapidly oscillating solitary waves (a spatial analog of the...

  1. Designing quadratic nonlinear photonic crystal fibers for soliton compression to few-cycle pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Moses, Jeffrey; Lægsgaard, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    phase shifts accessible. This self-defocusing nonlinearity can be used to compress a pulse when combined with normal dispersion, and problems normally encountered due to self-focusing in cubic media are avoided. Thus, having no power limit, in bulk media a self-defocusing soliton compressor can create...... high-energy near single-cycle fs pulses (Liu et al., 2006). However, the group-velocity mismatch (GVM) between the FW and second harmonic (SH), given by the inverse group velocity difference d12=1/Vg,1 - 1/Vg,2, limits the pulse quality and compression ratio. Especially very short input pulses (...

  2. Cascade of Solitonic Excitations in a Superfluid Fermi gas: From Planar Solitons to Vortex Rings and Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Mark J. H.; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Yefsah, Tarik; Zwierlein, Martin W.

    2016-01-01

    We follow the time evolution of a superfluid Fermi gas of resonantly interacting 6 atoms after a phase imprint. Via tomographic imaging, we observe the formation of a planar dark soliton, its subsequent snaking, and its decay into a vortex ring, which, in turn, breaks to finally leave behind a single solitonic vortex. In intermediate stages, we find evidence for an exotic structure resembling the Φ soliton, a combination of a vortex ring and a vortex line. Direct imaging of the nodal surface reveals its undulation dynamics and its decay via the puncture of the initial soliton plane. The observed evolution of the nodal surface represents dynamics beyond superfluid hydrodynamics, calling for a microscopic description of unitary fermionic superfluids out of equilibrium.

  3. Cascade of Solitonic Excitations in a Superfluid Fermi gas: From Planar Solitons to Vortex Rings and Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Mark J H; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Yefsah, Tarik; Zwierlein, Martin W

    2016-01-29

    We follow the time evolution of a superfluid Fermi gas of resonantly interacting ^{6}Li atoms after a phase imprint. Via tomographic imaging, we observe the formation of a planar dark soliton, its subsequent snaking, and its decay into a vortex ring, which, in turn, breaks to finally leave behind a single solitonic vortex. In intermediate stages, we find evidence for an exotic structure resembling the Φ soliton, a combination of a vortex ring and a vortex line. Direct imaging of the nodal surface reveals its undulation dynamics and its decay via the puncture of the initial soliton plane. The observed evolution of the nodal surface represents dynamics beyond superfluid hydrodynamics, calling for a microscopic description of unitary fermionic superfluids out of equilibrium. PMID:26871342

  4. Widely tunable mid-IR femtosecond resonant radiation induced by self-defocusing solitons in a quadratic nonlinear medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Liu, Xing; Guo, Hairun;

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally observe widely tunable mid-IR femtosecond pulses by resonant radiation, generated by direct three-wave-mixing from a soliton in PPLN. The poling pitch gives a parametrically tunable resonant radiation, a feature absent in Kerr media....

  5. Dispersive waves induced by self-defocusing temporal solitons in a beta-barium-borate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally observe dispersive waves in the anomalous dispersion regime of a beta-barium-borate (BBO) crystal, induced by a self-defocusing few-cycle temporal soliton. Together the soliton and dispersive waves form an energetic octave-spanning supercontinuum. The soliton was excited...... in the normal dispersion regime of BBO through a negative cascaded quadratic nonlinearity. Using pump wavelengths from 1.24 to 1.4 μm, dispersive waves are found from 1.9 to 2.2 μm, agreeing well with calculated resonant phasematching wavelengths due to degenerate four-wave mixing to the soliton. We also...

  6. Few-cycle nonlinear mid-IR pulse generated with cascaded quadratic nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Liu, Xing; Zhou, Binbin

    Generating few-cycle energetic and broadband mid-IR pulses is an urgent current challenge in nonlinear optics. Cascaded second-harmonic generation (SHG) gives access to an ultrafast and octave-spanning self-defocusing nonlinearity: when ΔkL >> 2π the pump experiences a Kerr-like nonlinear index...

  7. Spatial solitons in nonlinear photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2000-01-01

    We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with periodic linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We show that such crystals support stable bright and dark solitons, even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity is zero....

  8. Generating ultra-short energetic pulses with cascaded soliton compression in lithium niobate crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten; Chong, A.;

    2010-01-01

    By launching energetic femtosecond pulses in a lithium niobate crystal, the phase mismatched second-harmonic generation process compresses the 50 fs input pulse at 1250 nm to 30 fs through a soliton effect.......By launching energetic femtosecond pulses in a lithium niobate crystal, the phase mismatched second-harmonic generation process compresses the 50 fs input pulse at 1250 nm to 30 fs through a soliton effect....

  9. Dispersive waves induced by self-defocusing temporal solitons in a beta-barium-borate crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten

    2015-09-15

    We experimentally observe dispersive waves in the anomalous dispersion regime of a beta-barium-borate (BBO) crystal, induced by a self-defocusing few-cycle temporal soliton. Together the soliton and dispersive waves form an energetic octave-spanning supercontinuum. The soliton was excited in the normal dispersion regime of BBO through a negative cascaded quadratic nonlinearity. Using pump wavelengths from 1.24 to 1.4 μm, dispersive waves are found from 1.9 to 2.2 μm, agreeing well with calculated resonant phase-matching wavelengths due to degenerate four-wave mixing to the soliton. We also observe resonant radiation from nondegenerate four-wave mixing between the soliton and a probe wave, which was formed by leaking part of the pump spectrum into the anomalous dispersion regime. We confirm the experimental results through simulations.

  10. Dispersive waves induced by self-defocusing temporal solitons in a beta-barium-borate crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten

    2015-09-15

    We experimentally observe dispersive waves in the anomalous dispersion regime of a beta-barium-borate (BBO) crystal, induced by a self-defocusing few-cycle temporal soliton. Together the soliton and dispersive waves form an energetic octave-spanning supercontinuum. The soliton was excited in the normal dispersion regime of BBO through a negative cascaded quadratic nonlinearity. Using pump wavelengths from 1.24 to 1.4 μm, dispersive waves are found from 1.9 to 2.2 μm, agreeing well with calculated resonant phase-matching wavelengths due to degenerate four-wave mixing to the soliton. We also observe resonant radiation from nondegenerate four-wave mixing between the soliton and a probe wave, which was formed by leaking part of the pump spectrum into the anomalous dispersion regime. We confirm the experimental results through simulations. PMID:26371910

  11. Type-I cascaded quadratic soliton compression in lithium niobate: Compressing femtosecond pulses from high-power fiber lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Wise, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    using second-harmonic generation in a type-I phase-matching configuration. We find that because of competing cubic material nonlinearities, compression can only occur in the nonstationary regime, where group-velocity-mismatch–induced Raman-like nonlocal effects prevent compression to less than 100 fs...

  12. Spatial optical solitons supported by mutual focusing

    OpenAIRE

    Salgueiro, Jose R.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2003-01-01

    We study composite spatial optical solitons supported by two-wave mutual focusing induced by cross-phase modulation in Kerr-like nonlinear media. We find the families of both single- and two-hump solitons and discuss their properties and stability. We also reveal remarkable similarities between recently predicted holographic solitons in photorefractive media and parametric solitons in quadratic nonlinear crystals.

  13. Stability of temporal solitons in uniform and "managed" quadratic nonlinear media with opposite group-velocity dispersions at fundamental and second harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Peter Y P

    2008-01-01

    The problem of the stability of solitons in second-harmonic-generating media with normal group-velocity dispersion (GVD) in the second-harmonic (SH) field, which is generic to available chi^(2) materials, is revisited. Using an iterative numerical scheme to construct stationary soliton solutions, and direct simulations to test their stability, we identify a full soliton-stability range in the space of the system's parameters, including the coefficient of the group-velocity-mismatch (GVM). The soliton stability is limited by an abrupt onset of growth of tails in the SH component, the relevant stability region being defined as that in which the energy loss to the tail generation is negligible under experimentally relevant conditions. We demonstrate that the stability domain can be readily expanded with the help of two "management" techniques (spatially periodic compensation of destabilizing effects) - the dispersion management (DM) and GVM management. In comparison with their counterparts in optical fibers, DM ...

  14. Quasiperiodic Envelope Solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Bang, Ole;

    1999-01-01

    We analyze nonlinear wave propagation and cascaded self-focusing due to second-harmonic generation in Fibbonacci optical superlattices and introduce a novel concept of nonlinear physics. the quasiperiodic soliton, which describes spatially localized self-trapping of a quasiperiodic wave. We point...... out a link between the quasiperiodic soliton and partially incoherent spatial solitary waves recently generated experimentally....

  15. Multi-wavelength and multi-colour temporal and spatial optical solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Y. S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.;

    2000-01-01

    We present an overview of several novel types of multi- component envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for high performance computer networks, mult......-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons in Fibonacci optical superlattices....

  16. Two-color surface lattice solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhiyong; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2008-01-01

    We study the properties of surface solitons generated at the edge of a semi-infinite photonic lattice in nonlinear quadratic media, namely two-color surface lattice solitons. We analyze the impact of phase mismatch on existence and stability of surface modes, and find novel classes of two-color twisted surface solitons which are stable in a large domain of their existence.

  17. Multiple-octave spanning high-energy mid-IR supercontinuum generation in bulk quadratic nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Bright and broadband coherent mid-IR radiation is important for exciting and probing molecular vibrations. Using cascaded nonlinearities in conventional quadratic nonlinear crystals like lithium niobate, self-defocusing near-IR solitons have been demonstrated that led to very broadband superconti......Bright and broadband coherent mid-IR radiation is important for exciting and probing molecular vibrations. Using cascaded nonlinearities in conventional quadratic nonlinear crystals like lithium niobate, self-defocusing near-IR solitons have been demonstrated that led to very broadband...... supercontinuum generation in the visible, near-IR, and short-wavelength mid-IR. Here we conduct an experiment where a mid-IR crystal is pumped in the mid-IR. The crystal is cut for noncritical interaction, so the three-wave mixing of a single mid-IR femtosecond pump source leads to highly phase-mismatched second......-harmonic generation. This self-acting cascaded process leads to the formation of a self-defocusing soliton at the mid-IR pump wavelength and after the self-compression point multiple octave-spanning supercontinua are observed. The results were recorded in a commercially available crystal LiInS2 pumped in the 3-4 µm...

  18. Dissipative soliton comb

    CERN Document Server

    Podivilov, Evgeniy V; Bednyakova, Anastasia E; Fedoruk, Mikhail P; Babin, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    Dissipative solitons are stable localized coherent structures with linear frequency chirp generated in normal-dispersion mode-locked lasers. The soliton energy in fiber lasers is limited by the Raman effect, but implementation of intracavity feedback for the Stokes wave enables synchronous generation of a coherent Raman dissipative soliton. Here we demonstrate a new approach for generating chirped pulses at new wavelengths by mixing in a highly-nonlinear fiber of two frequency-shifted dissipative solitons, as well as cascaded generation of their clones forming a "dissipative soliton comb" in the frequency domain. We observed up to eight equidistant components in a 400-nm interval demonstrating compressibility from ~10 ps to ~300 fs. This approach, being different from traditional frequency combs, can inspire new developments in fundamental science and applications.

  19. Soliton-similariton switchable ultrafast fiber laser

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Junsong; Guo, Pan; Gu, Zhaochang; Zou, Weiwen; Luo, Shouyu; Shen, Qishun

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, we demonstrated alternative generation of dispersion-managed (DM) solitons or similaritons in an all-fiber Erbium-doped laser. DM solitons or similaritons can be chosen to emit at the same output port by controlling birefringence in the cavity. The pulse duration of 87-fs for DM solitons and 248-fs for similaritons have been observed. For proof of similaritons, we demonstrate that the spectral width depends exponentially on the pump power, consistent with theoretical studies. Besides, the phase profile measured by a frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) is quadratic corresponding to linear chirp. In contrast, DM solitons show non-quadratic phase profile.

  20. Quadratic Damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.

    2012-01-01

    Quadratic friction involves a discontinuous damping term in equations of motion in order that the frictional force always opposes the direction of the motion. Perhaps for this reason this topic is usually omitted from beginning texts in differential equations and physics. However, quadratic damping is more realistic than viscous damping in many…

  1. Soliton Formation in Neutral Ion Gases: Exact Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mirza, Babur M

    2015-01-01

    It is shown here that in neutral ion gases the thermal energy transport can occur in the form of new types of thermal soliton waves. The solitons can form under a vanishing net heating function, and for a quadratic net heating. It is predicted that these solitons play an important role in a diversity of terrestrial and astrophysical phenomena. We claim that the reported soliton waves can be observed under ordinary laboratory conditions.

  2. Knot Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    The existence of ring-like and knotted solitons in O(3) non-linear sigma model is analysed. The role of isotopy of knots/links in classifying such solitons is pointed out. Appearance of torus knot solitons is seen.

  3. Soliton-induced nonlocal resonances observed through high-intensity tunable spectrally compressed second-harmonic peaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    explains this as phase matching between a sideband in the broadband pump to its second harmonic. However, our experiment is conducted under high input intensities and instead shows excellent quantitative agreement with a nonlocal theory describing cascaded quadratic nonlinearities. This theory explains the...... detuned peak as a nonlocal resonance that arises due to phase matching between the pump and a detuned second-harmonic frequency, but where in contrast to the traditional theory the pump is assumed dispersion free. As a soliton is inherently dispersion free, the agreement between our experiment and the...

  4. Multiple-octave spanning mid-IR supercontinuum generation in bulk quadratic nonlinear crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Binbin

    2016-01-01

    Bright and broadband coherent mid-IR radiation is important for exciting and probing molecular vibrations. Using cascaded nonlinearities in conventional quadratic nonlinear crystal like lithium niobate, self-defocusing near-IR solitons have been demonstrated that led to very broadband supercontinuum generation in the visible, near-IR and short-wavelength mid-IR. Here we conduct an experiment where a mid-IR crystal pumped in the mid-IR gives multiple-octave spanning supercontinua. The crystal is cut for noncritical interaction, so the three-wave mixing of a single mid-IR femtosecond pump source leads to highly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation. This self-acting cascaded process leads to the formation of a self-defocusing soliton at the mid-IR pump wavelength and after the self-compression point multiple octave-spanning supercontinua are observed (covering 1.6-$7.0~\\mu$m). The results were recorded in a commercially available crystal LiInS$_2$ pumped in the 3-$4~\\mu$m range, but other mid-IR crystals ...

  5. Fusion arrest and collapse phenomena due to Kerr-nonlinearity in quadratic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Emphasizing collapse phenomena it is investigated to what extend the always present cubic nonlinearity affects the properties of soliton interaction in quadratic bulk media. An effective particle approach is applied and verified by numerical simulations.......Emphasizing collapse phenomena it is investigated to what extend the always present cubic nonlinearity affects the properties of soliton interaction in quadratic bulk media. An effective particle approach is applied and verified by numerical simulations....

  6. Theory of Multidimensional Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, L. D.; Brand, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    We review a number of topics germane to higher-dimensional solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates. For dark solitons, we discuss dark band and planar solitons; ring dark solitons and spherical shell solitons; solitary waves in restricted geometries; vortex rings and rarefaction pulses; and multi-component Bose-Einstein condensates. For bright solitons, we discuss instability, stability, and metastability; bright soliton engineering, including pulsed atom lasers; solitons in a thermal bath; sol...

  7. Supercontinuum generation in quadratic nonlinear waveguides without quasi-phase matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin; Steinert, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    Supercontinuum generation (SCG) is most efficient when the solitons can be excited directly at the pump laser wavelength. Quadratic nonlinear waveguides may induce an effective negative Kerr nonlinearity, so temporal solitons can be directly generated in the normal (positive) dispersion regime...

  8. Escape angles in bulk chi((2)) soliton interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2002-01-01

    We develop a theory for nonplanar interaction between two identical type I spatial solitons propagating at opposite, but arbitrary transverse angles in quadratic nonlinear (or so-called chi((2))) bulk, media. We predict quantitatively the outwards escape angle, below which the solitons turn around...... and collide, and above which they continue to move-away from each other. For in-plane interaction, the theory allows prediction of the Outcome of a collision through the inwards escape angle, i.e., whether the solitons fuse or cross. We find an analytical expression determining the inwards escape angle using...... Gaussian approximations for the solitons. The theory is verified numerically....

  9. Noncommutative Solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solitonic objects play a central role in gauge and string theory (as, e.g., monopoles, black holes, D-branes, etc.). Certain string backgrounds produce a noncommutative deformation of the low-energy effective field theory, which allows for new types of solitonic solutions. I present the construction, moduli spaces and dynamics of Moyal-deformed solitons, exemplified in the 2+1 dimensional Yang-Mills-Higgs theory and its Bogomolny system, which is gauge-fixed to an integrable chiral sigma model (the Ward model). Noncommutative solitons for various 1+1 dimensional integrable systems (such as sine-Gordon) easily follow by dimensional and algebraic reduction. Supersymmetric extensions exist as well and are related to twistor string theory

  10. Vortex solitons in an off-resonant Raman medium

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbach, A V; Harvey, C N

    2008-01-01

    We investigate existence and linear stability of coupled vortex solitons supported by cascaded four-wave mixing in a Raman active medium excited away from the resonance. We present a detailed analysis for the two- and three-component vortex solitons and demonstrate the formation of stable and unstable vortex solitons, and associated spatio-temporal helical beams, under the conditions of the simultaneous frequency and vortex comb generation.

  11. Invited Article: Multiple-octave spanning high-energy mid-IR supercontinuum generation in bulk quadratic nonlinear crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten

    2016-08-01

    Bright and broadband coherent mid-IR radiation is important for exciting and probing molecular vibrations. Using cascaded nonlinearities in conventional quadratic nonlinear crystals like lithium niobate, self-defocusing near-IR solitons have been demonstrated that led to very broadband supercontinuum generation in the visible, near-IR, and short-wavelength mid-IR. Here we conduct an experiment where a mid-IR crystal is pumped in the mid-IR. The crystal is cut for noncritical interaction, so the three-wave mixing of a single mid-IR femtosecond pump source leads to highly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation. This self-acting cascaded process leads to the formation of a self-defocusing soliton at the mid-IR pump wavelength and after the self-compression point multiple octave-spanning supercontinua are observed. The results were recorded in a commercially available crystal LiInS2 pumped in the 3-4 μm range with 85 fs 50 μJ pulse energy, with the broadest supercontinuum covering 1.6-7.0 μm. We measured up 30 μJ energy in the supercontinuum, and the energy promises to scale favorably with an increased pump energy. Other mid-IR crystals can readily be used as well to cover other pump wavelengths and target other supercontinuum wavelength ranges.

  12. Solvable quadratic Lie algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A Lie algebra endowed with a nondegenerate, symmetric, invariant bilinear form is called a quadratic Lie algebra. In this paper, the author investigates the structure of solvable quadratic Lie algebras, in particular, the solvable quadratic Lie algebras whose Cartan subalgebras consist of semi-simple elements, the author presents a procedure to construct a class of quadratic Lie algebras from the point of view of cohomology and shows that all solvable quadratic Lie algebras can be obtained in this way.

  13. Nonlinear tunneling of optical soliton in 3 coupled NLS equation with symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the soliton solution for N coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations. These equations are coupled due to the cross-phase-modulation (CPM). Lax pair of this system is obtained via the Ablowitz–Kaup–Newell–Segur (AKNS) scheme and the corresponding Darboux transformation is constructed to derive the soliton solution. One and two soliton solutions are generated. Using two soliton solutions of 3 CNLS equation, nonlinear tunneling of soliton for both with and without exponential background has been discussed. Finally cascade compression of optical soliton through multi-nonlinear barrier has been discussed. The obtained results may have promising applications in all-optical devices based on optical solitons, study of soliton propagation in birefringence fiber systems and optical soliton with distributed dispersion and nonlinearity management. -- Highlights: •We consider the nonlinear tunneling of soliton in birefringence fiber. •3-coupled NLS (CNLS) equation with variable coefficients is considered. •Two soliton solutions are obtained via Darboux transformation using constructed Lax pair. •Soliton tunneling through dispersion barrier and well are investigated. •Finally, cascade compression of soliton has been achieved

  14. Homogeneous Cotton solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Calviño-Louzao, E.; Hervella, L. M.; Seoane-Bascoy, J.; Vázquez-Lorenzo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Left-invariant Cotton solitons on homogeneous manifolds are determined. Moreover, algebraic Cotton solitons are studied providing examples of non-invariant Cotton solitons, both in the Riemannian and Lorentzian homogeneous settings.

  15. Induced Kerr effects and self-guided beams in quasi-phase-matched quadratic media [CBC4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Bang, Ole; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    1997-01-01

    We show that quasi-phase-matching of quadratic media induces Kerr effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation, and leads to the existence of a novel class of solitary waves, QPM-solitons......We show that quasi-phase-matching of quadratic media induces Kerr effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation, and leads to the existence of a novel class of solitary waves, QPM-solitons...

  16. SESAM modelocked Yb:CaGdAlO4 laser in the soliton modelocking regime with positive intracavity dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C R; Mayer, A S; Klenner, A; Keller, U

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate femtosecond SESAM modelocking in the near-infrared by using cascaded quadratic nonlinearities (phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation, SHG), enabling soliton modelocking in the normal dispersion regime without any dispersion compensating elements. To obtain large and negative self-phase modulation (SPM) we use an intracavity LBO crystal, whose temperature and angles are optimized with respect to SPM, nonlinear losses, and self-starting characteristics. To support femtosecond pulses, we use the very promising Yb:CaGdAlO(4) (CALGO) gain material, operated in a bulk configuration. The LBO crystal provides sufficient negative SPM to compensate for its own GDD as well as the positive GDD and SPM from the gain crystal. The modelocked laser produces pulses of 114 fs at 1050 nm, with a repetition rate of 113 MHz (average output power 1.1 W). We perform a detailed theoretical study of this soliton modelocking regime with positive GDD, which clearly indicates the important design constraints in an intuitive and systematic way. In particular, due to its importance in avoiding multi-pulsed modelocking, we examine the nonlinear loss associated with the cascading process carefully and show how it can be suppressed in practice. With this modelocking regime, it should be possible to overcome the limits faced by current state of the art modelocked lasers in terms of dispersion compensation and nonlinearity management at high powers, suppression of Q-switching in compact GHz lasers, and enabling femtosecond soliton modelocking at very high repetition rates due to the high nonlinearities accessible via cascading combined with eliminating the need for intracavity dispersion compensation. PMID:24663941

  17. Soliton mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gunasekaran, Sharmila; Kunduri, Hari K

    2016-01-01

    The domain of outer communication of five-dimensional asymptotically flat stationary spacetimes may possess non-trivial 2-cycles (bubbles). Spacetimes containing such 2-cycles can have non-zero energy, angular momenta, and charge even in the absence of horizons. A mass variation formula has been established for spacetimes containing bubbles and possibly a black hole horizon. This `first law of black hole and soliton mechanics' contains new intensive and extensive quantities associated to each 2-cycle. We consider examples of such spacetimes for which we explicitly calculate these quantities and show how regularity is essential for the formulae relating them to hold. We also derive new explicit expressions for the angular momenta and charge for spacetimes containing solitons purely in terms of fluxes supporting the bubbles.

  18. Stable helical solitons in optical media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boris Malomed; G D Peng; P L Chu; Isaac Towers; Alexander V Buryak; Rowland A Sammut

    2001-11-01

    We present a review of new results which suggest the existence of fully stable spinning solitons (self-supporting localised objects with an internal vorticity) in optical fibres with self-focusing Kerr (cubic) nonlinearity, and in bulk media featuring a combination of the cubic self-defocusing and quadratic nonlinearities. Their distinctive difference from other optical solitons with an internal vorticity, which were recently studied in various optical media, theoretically and also experimentally, is that all the spinning solitons considered thus far have been found to be unstable against azimuthal perturbations. In the first part of the paper, we consider solitons in a nonlinear optical fibre in a region of parameters where the fibre carries exactly two distinct modes, viz., the fundamental one and the first-order helical mode. From the viewpoint of application to communication systems, this opens the way to doubling the number of channels carried by a fibre. Besides that, these solitons are objects of fundamental interest. To fully examine their stability, it is crucially important to consider collisions between them, and their collisions with fundamental solitons, in (ordinary or hollow) optical fibres. We introduce a system of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations for the fundamental and helical modes with nonstandard values of the cross-phase-modulation coupling constants, and show, in analytical and numerical forms, results of collisions between solitons carried by the two modes. In the second part of the paper, we demonstrate that the interaction of the fundamental beam with its second harmonic in bulk media, in the presence of self-defocusing Kerr nonlinearity, gives rise to the first ever example of completely stable spatial ring-shaped solitons with intrinsic vorticity. The stability is demonstrated both by direct simulations and by analysis of linearized equations.

  19. SOLITONS: Dynamics of solitons in the model of nonlinear Schrödinger equation with an external harmonic potential: I. Bright solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Tenorio, C.; Villagran Vargas, E.; Serkin, Vladimir N.; Aguero Granados, M.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Pena Moreno, R.; Morales Lara, L.

    2005-09-01

    The dynamics of nonlinear solitary waves is studied by using the model of nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NSE) with an external harmonic potential. The model allows one to analyse on the general basis a variety of nonlinear phenomena appearing both in a Bose—Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap, whose profile is described by a quadratic function of coordinates, and in nonlinear optics, physics of lasers, and biophysics. It is shown that exact solutions for a quantum-mechanical particle in a harmonic potential and solutions obtained within the framework of the adiabatic perturbation theory for bright solitons in a parabolic trap are completely identical. This fact not only proves once more that solitons behave like particles but also that they can preserve such properties in different traps for which the parabolic approximation is valid near potential energy minima. The conditions are found for formation of stable stationary states of antiphase solitons in a harmonic potential. The interaction dynamics of solitons in nonstationary potentials is studied and the possibility of the appearance of a soliton parametric resonance at which the amplitude of soliton oscillations in a trap exponentially increases with time is shown. It is shown that exact solutions of the problem found using the Miura transformation open up the possibility to control the dynamics of solitons. New effects are predicted, which are called the reversible and irreversible denaturation of solitons in a nonstationary harmonic potential.

  20. Multivariate Nonnegative Quadratic Mappings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Z-Q; Sturm, J.F.; Zhang, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study several issues related to the characterization of speci c classes of multivariate quadratic mappings that are nonnegative over a given domain, with nonnegativity de ned by a pre-speci ed conic order.In particular, we consider the set (cone) of nonnegative quadratic mappings de

  1. Generation of χ(2) solitons from the Airy wave through the parametric instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai; Malomed, Boris A

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous creation of solitons in quadratic media by the downconversion (i.e., parametric instability against the generation of fundamental-frequency excitations) from the truncated Airy-wave (AW) mode in the second-harmonic component is studied. Parameter regions are identified for the generation of one, two, and three solitons, with additional small-amplitude "jets." Shares of the total power carried by individual solitons are found. Also considered are soliton patterns generated by the downconversion from a pair of AWs bending in opposite directions. PMID:26512490

  2. Generation of \\c{hi}2 solitons from the Airy wave through the parametric instability

    CERN Document Server

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous creation of solitons in quadratic media by the downconversion, i.e., parametric instability against the generation of fundamental-frequency excitations, from the truncated Airy-wave (AW) mode in the second-harmonic component is studied. Parameter regions are identified for the generation of one, two, and three solitons, with additional small-amplitude "jets". Shares of the total power carried by individual solitons are found. Also considered are soliton patterns generated by the downconversion from a pair of AWs bending in opposite directions.

  3. Dispersive waves in fs cascaded second-harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw;

    2009-01-01

    Dispersive waves are observed in simulations of cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation. When generating ultra-short fs compressed near-IR solitons the dispersive waves are strongly red-shifted, depending on the soliton wavelength. Semi-analytical calculations predict the wavelengths....

  4. Topological Solitons in Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Zohreh

    1979-01-01

    A broad definition of solitons and a discussion of their role in physics is given. Vortices and magnetic monopoles which are examples of topological solitons in two and three spatial dimensions are described in some detail. (BB)

  5. Two-photon cavity solitons in a laser: radiative profiles, interaction and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the properties of two-photon cavity solitons that appear in a broad-area cascade laser. These vectorial solitons consist of islands of two-photon emission emerging over a background of single-photon emission. Analysis of their structural properties reveals singular features such as their short distance radiation of outgoing waves, which can be interpreted in terms of the soliton frequency profile. However, the phase of these solitons is not determined by any external factor, which influences the way in which the structures can be written and erased. We also examine ways of controlling the cavity-soliton position, and analyse the interaction between neighbouring cavity solitons. Finally, investigation of the parameter dependence of these structures shows a route from soliton-dominated to defect-mediated turbulence

  6. OPTICAL SOLITONS: Excitation of two-dimensional soliton matrices by fundamental Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovkova, O. V.; Chuprakov, D. A.; Sukhorukov, Anatolii P.

    2005-01-01

    The excitation of two-dimensional periodic structures of fields of the first and second radiation harmonics due to the modulation instability of fundamental Gaussian beams is studied in a medium with a quadratic nonlinearity. The distances are found at which soliton matrix structures with a specified period are formed and destroyed. Optical gratings formed due to nonlinear aberration of broad Gaussian beams are considered.

  7. Vector Lattice Vortex Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-Dong; YE Fang-Wei; DONG Liang-Wei; LI Yong-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ Two-dimensional vector vortex solitons in harmonic optical lattices are investigated. The stability properties of such solitons are closely connected to the lattice depth Vo. For small Vo, vector vortex solitons with the total zero-angular momentum are more stable than those with the total nonzero-angular momentum, while for large Vo, this case is inversed. If Vo is large enough, both the types of such solitons are stable.

  8. Dark Soliton Fiber Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, H.; Tang, D. Y.; L.M. Zhao; Wu, X; Bao, Q. L.; Loh, K. P.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the experimental observation of stable dark solitons in an all normal dispersion fiber laser. We found experimentally that dark soliton formation is a generic feature of the fiber laser under strong continuous wave (CW) emission. However, only under appropriate pump strength and negative cavity feedback, stable single or multiple dark soliton could be achieved. Furthermore, we show that the features of the observed dark solitons could be well understood based on the nonlinear Sch...

  9. Vector Soliton Fiber Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Han

    2011-01-01

    Solitons, as stable localized wave packets that can propagate long distance in dispersive media without changing their shapes, are ubiquitous in nonlinear physical systems. Since the first experimental realization of optical bright solitons in the anomalous dispersion single mode fibers (SMF) by Mollenauer et al. in 1980 and optical dark solitons in the normal dispersion SMFs by P. Emplit et al. in 1987, optical solitons in SMFs had been extensively investigated. In reality a SMF always suppo...

  10. Introduction to solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Miki Wadati

    2001-11-01

    As an introduction to the special issue on nonlinear waves, solitons and their significance in physics are reviewed. The soliton is the first universal concept in nonlinear science. Universality and ubiquity of the soliton concept are emphasized.

  11. Ultra-slow Bright and Dark Optical Solitons in Cold Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic study on the formation of ultra-slow bright and dark optical solitons in highly resonant media. By investigating four life-time broadened atomic systems, i.e., three-state A-type and cascade-type schemes, and four-state N-type and cascade-type schemes, we show that the formation of such ultra-slow solitons in cold atomic systems is a fairly universal phenomenon.

  12. Soliton Fay identities: I. Dark soliton case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive a set of bilinear identities for the determinants of the matrices that have been used to construct dark soliton solutions for various models. To give examples of the application of the obtained identities, we present soliton solutions for the equations describing multidimensional quadrilateral lattices, Darboux equations, and multidimensional multicomponent systems of the nonlinear Schrödinger type. (paper)

  13. Soliton fay identities: II. Bright soliton case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a set of bilinear matrix identities that generalize the ones that have been used to construct the bright soliton solutions for various models. As an example of an application of these identities, we present a simple derivation of the N-bright soliton solutions for the Ablowitz–Ladik hierarchy. (paper)

  14. Multicolor Bound Soliton Molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Rui; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We show a new class of bound soliton molecule that exists in a parametrically driven nonlinear optical cavity with appropriate dispersion characteristics. The composed solitons exhibit distinctive colors but coincide in time and share a common phase, bound together via strong inter-soliton four-wave mixing and Cherenkov radiation. The multicolor bound soliton molecule shows intriguing spectral locking characteristics and remarkable capability of spectrum management to tailor soliton frequencies, which may open up a great avenue towards versatile generation and manipulation of multi-octave spanning phase-locked Kerr frequency combs, with great potential for applications in frequency metrology, optical frequency synthesis, and spectroscopy.

  15. On the exact solutions of nonlinear diffusion-reaction equations with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Kaushal; Ranjit Kumar; Awadhesh Prasad

    2006-08-01

    Attempts have been made to look for the soliton content in the solutions of the recently studied nonlinear diffusion-reaction equations [R S Kaushal, J. Phys. 38, 3897 (2005)] involving quadratic or cubic nonlinearities in addition to the convective flux term which renders the system nonconservative and the corresponding Hamiltonian non-Hermitian.

  16. On Quadratic Differential Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.C.; Trentelman, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a theory around the notion of quadratic differential forms in the context of linear differential systems. In many applications, we need to not only understand the behavior of the system variables but also the behavior of certain functionals of these variables. The obvious cases w

  17. Nonlocal description of X waves in quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Ulrik Vingaard; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Bang, Ole;

    2006-01-01

    We study localized light bullets and X-waves in quadratic media and show how the notion of nonlocality can provide an alternative simple physical picture of both types of multi-dimensional nonlinear waves. For X-waves we show that a local cascading limit in terms of a nonlinear Schrodinger equation...

  18. Nonlinearly Driven Second Harmonics of Alfven Cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent experiments on Alcator C-Mod, measurements of density fluctuations with Phase Contrast Imaging through the plasma core show a second harmonic of the basic Alfven Cascade (AC) signal. The present work describes the perturbation at the second harmonic as a nonlinear sideband produced by the Alfven Cascade eigenmode via quadratic terms in the MHD equations. (author)

  19. Pure-quartic solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; de Sterke, C Martijn; Martijn, de Sterke C; Sipe, J E; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Husko, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers. PMID:26822758

  20. Pure-Quartic Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; Sipe, John E; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Husko, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we report the discovery of an entirely new class of bright solitons arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. Using analytic theory, we derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by the unique dispersion of photonic crystal waveguides, could find applications i...

  1. Vortex Solitons, Soliton Clusters, and Vortex Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desyatnikov A.S.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce novel types of self-trapped extended optical structures, which can be generated in both self-focusing and self-defocusing nonlinear media in the form of two-dimensional vortex lattices. We discuss a link of these novel objects with other types of spatially local-ised self-trapped states, such as vortex solitons and ring-shaped rotating clusters of solitons.

  2. Extended gcd of quadratic integers

    CERN Document Server

    Miled, Abdelwaheb

    2010-01-01

    Computation of the extended gcd of two quadratic integers. The ring of integers considered is principal but could be euclidean or not euclidean ring. This method rely on principal ideal ring and reduction of binary quadratic forms.

  3. The Versatile Soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Filippov, Alexandre T

    2010-01-01

    If you have not already heard about solitons, you will sooner or later encounter them. The soliton, a solitary wave impulse preserving its shape and strikingly similar to a particle, is one of the most fascinating and beautiful phenomena in the physics of nonlinear waves. In this engaging book, the concept of the soliton is traced from the beginning of the last century to modern times, with recent applications in biology, oceanography, solid state physics, electronics, elementary particle physics, and cosmology. The main concepts and results of theoretical physics related to solitons can be ex

  4. Solitons, monopoles and bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in the theory of solitons and related objects in the fields of high energy physics and nuclear physics are reviewed. The aim is to concentrate on the physical aspects and explain why these objects have awakened the interest of physicists. The physics of solitons is discussed with the help of a simple one-dimensional soliton. Then the physically more interesting monopole-soliton is considered and its connection with the original Dirac monopole is pointed out. The ''revolutionary'' possibility of making fermions as composites of bosons is indicated. Both the one-dimensional solitons and the monopole-soliton are examples of ''topological solitons'' and the role of topology in the physics of solitons is explained. The possible importance of topological quantum numbers in providing a fundamental understanding of the basic conservation laws of physics is pointed out. Two examples of non-topological solitons namely, the nucleon as a bag of almost-massless quarks and the abnormal nucleons as a bag of almost massless nucleons is discussed. (auth.)

  5. Quadratic Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu

    2015-01-01

    This monograph treats the classical theory of quadratic Diophantine equations and guides the reader through the last two decades of computational techniques and progress in the area. These new techniques combined with the latest increases in computational power shed new light on important open problems. The authors motivate the study of quadratic Diophantine equations with excellent examples, open problems, and applications. Moreover, the exposition aptly demonstrates many applications of results and techniques from the study of Pell-type equations to other problems in number theory. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers. It challenges the reader to apply not only specific techniques and strategies, but also to employ methods and tools from other areas of mathematics, such as algebra and analysis.

  6. Low-energy Self-defocusing Soliton Compression at Optical Communication Wavelengths in Unpoled Lithium Niobate Ridge Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Zeng, Xianglong; Zhou, Binbin;

    2014-01-01

    Self-defocusing soliton compression supported by the cascaded phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation process is numerically demonstrated in unpoled lithium niobate ridge waveguides where nano-joule pulses are operated and quasi-phase-matching is unnecessary. The soliton range is 1100-1800 nm....

  7. Two-dimensional χ2 solitons generated by the downconversion of Airy waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai; Malomed, Boris A

    2016-07-01

    Conversion of truncated Airy waves (AWs) carried by the second-harmonic (SH) component into axisymmetric χ2 solitons is considered in a 2D system with quadratic nonlinearity. The spontaneous conversion is driven by the parametric instability of the SH wave. The input in the form of the AW vortex is also considered. As a result, one, two, or three stable solitons emerge in a well-defined form, unlike the recently studied 1D setting, where the picture is obscured by radiation jets. Shares of the total power captured by the emerging solitons and conversion efficiency are found as functions of parameters of the AW input. PMID:27367065

  8. Solitons reduced from Heterotic fivebranes

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    1992-01-01

    In view of the expectation that the solitonic sector of the lower dimensional world may be originated from the solitonic sector of string theory, various solitonic solutions are reduced from the heterotic fivebrane solutions in the ten-dimensional heterotic string theory. These solitons in principle can appear after proper compactifications, {\\it e.g.} toroidal compactifications.

  9. Lossless polariton solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komineas, Stavros; Shipman, Stephen P.; Venakides, Stephanos

    2016-02-01

    Photons and excitons in a semiconductor microcavity interact to form exciton-polariton condensates. These are governed by a nonlinear quantum-mechanical system involving exciton and photon wavefunctions. We calculate all non-traveling harmonic soliton solutions for the one-dimensional lossless system. There are two frequency bands of bright solitons when the inter-exciton interactions produce an attractive nonlinearity and two frequency bands of dark solitons when the nonlinearity is repulsive. In addition, there are two frequency bands for which the exciton wavefunction is discontinuous at its symmetry point, where it undergoes a phase jump of π. A band of continuous dark solitons merges with a band of discontinuous dark solitons, forming a larger band over which the soliton far-field amplitude varies from 0 to ∞; the discontinuity is initiated when the operating frequency exceeds the free exciton frequency. The far fields of the solitons in the lowest and highest frequency bands (one discontinuous and one continuous dark) are linearly unstable, whereas the other four bands have linearly stable far fields, including the merged band of dark solitons.

  10. Semirelativity and Kink Solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Mariusz Karol

    2014-01-01

    It is hard to observe relativistic effects in everyday life. However, table experiments using a mechanical transmission line for solitons may be an efficient and simple way to show effects such as Lorentz contraction in a classroom. A kink soliton is a deformation of a lattice of several dozen or more pendulums placed on a wire and connected by a…

  11. Geometry of Ricci Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-Dong CAO

    2006-01-01

    Ricci solitons are natural generalizations of Einstein metrics on one hand, and are special solutions of the Ricci flow of Hamilton on the other hand. In this paper we survey some of the recent developments on Ricci solitons and the role they play in the singularity study of the Ricci flow.

  12. Solitons in optomechanical arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jing-Hui; Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Ying

    2016-06-15

    We show that optical solitons can be obtained with a one-dimensional optomechanical array that consists of a chain of periodically spaced identical optomechanical systems. Unlike conventional optical solitons, which originate from nonlinear polarization, the optical soliton here stems from a new mechanism, namely, phonon-photon interaction. Under proper conditions, the phonon-photon induced nonlinearity that refers to the optomechanical nonlinearity will exactly compensate the dispersion caused by photon hopping of adjacent optomechanical systems. Moreover, the solitons are capable of exhibiting very low group velocity, depending on the photon hopping rate, which may lead to many important applications, including all-optical switches and on-chip optical architecture. This work may extend the range of optomechanics and nonlinear optics and provide a new field to study soliton theory and develop corresponding applications. PMID:27304261

  13. Stokes Soliton in Optical Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Qi-Fan; Yang, Ki Youl; Vahala, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Solitons are wavepackets that resist dispersion through a self-induced potential well. They are studied in many fields, but are especially well known in optics on account of the relative ease of their formation and control in optical fiber waveguides. Besides their many interesting properties, solitons are important to optical continuum generation, in mode-locked lasers and have been considered as a natural way to convey data over great distances. Recently, solitons have been realized in microcavities thereby bringing the power of microfabrication methods to future applications. This work reports a soliton not previously observed in optical systems, the Stokes soliton. The Stokes soliton forms and regenerates by optimizing its Raman interaction in space and time within an optical-potential well shared with another soliton. The Stokes and the initial soliton belong to distinct transverse mode families and benefit from a form of soliton trapping that is new to microcavities and soliton lasers in general. The di...

  14. F-Quadratic

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição, Ana; PEREIRA, José; Silva, Cátia; Simão, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The article (see http://hdl.handle.net/10400.1/1105) was first presented in the 1st National Conference on Symbolic Computation in Education and Research, IST Portugal 2012, where distinguished with the Timberlake Award for Best Article by a Young Researcher. On how to work with the CDF format please see http://www.wolfram.com/cdf-player/. F-Quadratic is a F-Tool (see http://hdl.handle.net/10400.1/1105), that is, a visual, dynamic, and interactive teaching tool that allow to explore in an ...

  15. Quantum Solitons with Cylindrical Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Chepilko, N.; Kobushkin, A.; Syamtomov, A.

    1993-01-01

    Soliton solutions with cylindrical symmetry are investigated within the nonlinear $\\sigma $-model disregarding the Skyrme-stabilization term. The solitons are stabilized by quantization of collective breathing mode and collapse in the $\\hbar \\to 0$ limit. It is shown that for such stabilization mechanism the model, apart from solitons with integer topological number $B$, admits the solitons with half-odd $B$. The solitons with integer $B$ have standard spin-isospin classification, while $B={\\...

  16. Manakov spatial solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J. U.; Stegeman, G. I.; Aitchison, J. S.; Akhmediev, N.

    1996-12-01

    The Manakov soliton is a two-component soliton that was first considered by Manakov in the early 1970s.1 Based on the work of Zakharov and Shabat,2 Manakov found that the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger (CNSE) equations with special choice of the coefficients in front of nonlinear terms can be solved exactly. This system is integrable and solitons have therefore a number of special properties which might be useful in practice. In particular, for same total power, the soliton of a single nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Manakov soliton behave similarly. There are certain conditions for the integrability of the CNSE. Namely, for the coupled set of equations with cubic nonlinearity, the ratio between the self-phase modulation (SPM) to the cross-phase modulation coefficients has to be equal to unity, and the SPM coefficients need to be equal for the two polarizations. Moreover, the energy exchange terms or four-wave mixing (FWM) terms must be zero. Physically, the Manakov soliton is a mutually trapped state of two orthogonally polarized beams where each component of the soliton experiences exactly the same index potential which is proportional to the total intensity of the beam. There are no crystal symmetries that a priori lead to a SPM/XPM ratio of unity. Thus, the Manakov soliton has not been observed experimentally prior to the work we reported.3 Based on our previous work, we found that in AlGaAs, for photon energies just below half the band gap, the conditions for integrability can be satisfied. This led to the first experimental observation of spatial Manakov solitons.

  17. The electrical soliton oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, David Shawn

    Solitons are a special class of pulse-shaped waves that propagate in nonlinear dispersive media while maintaining their spatial confinement. They are found throughout nature where the proper balance between nonlinearity and dispersion is achieved. Examples of the soliton phenomena include shallow water waves, vibrations in a nonlinear spring-mass lattice, acoustic waves in plasma, and optical pulses in fiber optic cable. In electronics, the nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) serves as a nonlinear dispersive medium that propagates voltage solitons. Electrical solitons on the NLTL have been actively investigated over the last 40 years, particularly in the microwave domain, for sharp pulse generation applications and for high-speed RF and microwave sampling applications. In these past studies the NLTL has been predominantly used as a 2-port system where a high-frequency input is required to generate a sharp soliton output through a transient process. One meaningful extension of the past 2-port NLTL works would be to construct a 1-port self-sustained electrical soliton oscillator by properly combining the NLTL with an amplifier (positive active feedback). Such an oscillator would self-start by growing from ambient noise to produce a train of periodic soliton pulses in steady-state, and hence would make a self-contained soliton generator not requiring an external high-frequency input. While such a circuit may offer a new direction in the field of electrical pulse generation, there has not been a robust electrical soliton oscillator reported to date to the best of our knowledge. In this thesis we introduce the first robust electrical soliton oscillator, which is able to self-generate a stable, periodic train of electrical solitons. This new oscillator is made possible by combining the NLTL with a unique nonlinear amplifier that is able to "tame" the unruly dynamics of the NLTL. The principle contribution of this thesis is the identification of the key instability

  18. Compactons versus solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paulo E G Assis; Andreas Fring

    2010-06-01

    We investigate whether the recently proposed $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric extensions of generalized Korteweg–de Vries equations admit genuine soliton solutions besides compacton solitary waves. For models which admit stable compactons having a width which is independent of their amplitude and those which possess unstable compacton solutions the Painlevé test fails, such that no soliton solutions can be found. The Painlevé test is passed for models allowing for compacton solutions whose width is determined by their amplitude. Consequently, these models admit soliton solutions in addition to compactons and are integrable.

  19. Solitons and ionospheric modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.; Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of Langmuir soliton formation and collapse during ionospheric modification is investigated. Parameters characterizing former facilities, existing facilities, and planned facilities are considered, using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. At a spatial location corresponding to the exact classical reflection point of the modifier wave, the Langmuir wave evolution is found to be dominated by modulational instability followed by soliton formation and three-dimensional collapse. The earth's magnetic field is found to affect the shape of the collapsing soliton. These results provide an alternative explanation for some recent observations.

  20. Helmholtz algebraic solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Materials and Physics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P, E-mail: j.christian@salford.ac.u [Departamento de Teoria de la Senal y Comunicaciones e Ingenieria Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-02-26

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first exact analytical algebraic solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic Helmholtz equation. This class of governing equation plays a key role in photonics modelling, allowing a full description of the propagation and interaction of broad scalar beams. New conservation laws are presented, and the recovery of paraxial results is discussed in detail. The stability properties of the new solitons are investigated by combining semi-analytical methods and computer simulations. In particular, new general stability regimes are reported for algebraic bright solitons.

  1. Scalar - vector soliton fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhichao; Li, Lei; Luo, Yiyang; Tang, Dingyuan; Shen, Deyuan; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Zhao, Luming

    2016-01-01

    Rapid progress in passively mode-locked fiber lasers is currently driven by the recent discovery of vector feature of mode-locking pulses, namely, the group velocity-locked vector solitons, the phase locked vector solitons, and the high-order vector solitons. Those vector solitons are fundamentally different from the previously known scalar solitons. Here, we report a fiber laser where the mode-locked pulse evolves as a vector soliton in the strong birefringent segment and is transformed into a regular scalar soliton after the polarizer within the laser cavity. The existence of solutions in a polarization-dependent cavity comprising a periodic combination of two distinct nonlinear waves is novel and likely to be applicable to various other nonlinear systems. For very large local birefringence, our laser approaches the working regime of vector soliton lasers, while it approaches scalar soliton fiber lasers under the conditions of very small birefringence.

  2. QUANTUM GAP SOLITON IN PARAMETRIC PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XIANG; GUO GUANG-CAN

    2000-01-01

    The Hamiltonian of the process of cascaded second harmonic generation is found from Maxwell equations. Inthe double-gap model and under rotating-wave and effective-mass approximations, it is quantized and the generalizedquantum nonlinear Shrodinger equation (GQNSE) is obtained. Tri-photon and quadri-photon bound states are foundbased on general solutions of GQNSE solved via Bethe's Ansatz method. Quantum parametric gap soliton (QPGS)solution is constructed consequently, and the existence of the double-gap QPGS is predicted for the first time.

  3. Quantum Soliton Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Villari, Leone Di Mauro; Biancalana, Fabio; Conti, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We have very little experience of the quantum dynamics of the ubiquitous nonlinear waves. Observed phenomena in high energy physics are perturbations to linear waves, and classical nonlinear waves, like solitons, are barely affected by quantum effects. We know that solitons, immutable in classical physics, exhibit collapse and revivals according to quantum mechanics. However this effect is very weak and has never been observed experimentally. By predicting black hole evaporation Hawking first introduced a distinctly quantum effect in nonlinear gravitational physics.Here we show the existence of a general and universal quantum process whereby a soliton emits quantum radiation with a specific frequency content, and a temperature given by the number of quanta, the soliton Schwarzschild radius, and the amount of nonlinearity, in a precise and surprisingly simple way. This result may ultimately lead to the first experimental evidence of genuine quantum black hole evaporation. In addition, our results show that bla...

  4. Nonlocal incoherent solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Wyller, John

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons.

  5. Color chiral solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Novozhilov, V Yu; Novozhilov, Victor; Novozhilov, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    We discuss specific features of color chiral solitons (asymptotics, possibility of confainment, quantization) at example of isolated SU(2) color skyrmions, i.e. skyrmions in a background field which is the vacuum field forming the gluon condensate.

  6. Temporal dark polariton solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Skryabin, Dmitry V

    2016-04-15

    We predict that strong coupling between waveguide photons and excitons of quantum well embedded into waveguide results in the formation of hybrid-dark and antidark light-matter solitons. Such temporal solitons exist due to interplay between repulsive excitonic nonlinearity and giant group-velocity dispersion arising in the vicinity of excitonic resonance. Such fully conservative states do not require external pumping to counteract losses and form continuous families parameterized by the power-dependent phase shift and velocity of their motion. Dark solitons are stable in the considerable part of their existence domain, while antidark solitons are always unstable. Both families exist outside the forbidden frequency gap of the linear system. PMID:27082338

  7. Nonlocal incoherent solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Wyller, John

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons.......We investigate the propagation of partially coherent beams in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media with a logarithmic type of nonlinearity. We derive analytical formulas for the evolution of the beam parameters and conditions for the formation of nonlocal incoherent solitons....

  8. Gap polariton solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbach, A V; Skryabin, D V

    2009-01-01

    We report the existence, and study mobility and interactions of gap polariton solitons in a microcavity with a periodic potential, where the light field is strongly coupled to excitons. Gap solitons are formed due to the interplay between the repulsive exciton-exciton interaction and cavity dispersion. The analysis is carried out in an analytical form, using the coupled-mode (CM) approximation, and also by means of numerical methods.

  9. Scattering of periodic solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cova, R.J. [Carleton University, School of Mathematics and Statistics, 1125 Colonel by Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Zakrzewski, W.J. [University of Durham, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)]. e-mail: rcova@math.carleton.ca

    2004-07-01

    Through numerical simulations we study N-soliton scattering (N = 3, 4) in the (2 + 1)-dimensional CP{sup 1} model with periodic boundary conditions. Solitons colliding from symmetrical configurations scatter at {pi}/ N, as observed in the usual model with standard boundary conditions. When the initial configurations are not symmetric the angles differ from {pi}/ N. We describe our observed patterns based on a properly formulated geodesic approximation. (Author) 11 refs., 10 figs.

  10. The Effects of Five-Order Nonlinear on the Dynamics of Dark Solitons in Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Tao He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the influence of five-order nonlinear on the dynamic of dark soliton. Starting from the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrodinger equation with the quadratic phase chirp term, by using a similarity transformation technique, we give the exact solution of dark soliton and calculate the precise expressions of dark soliton's width, amplitude, wave central position, and wave velocity which can describe the dynamic behavior of soliton's evolution. From two different kinds of quadratic phase chirps, we mainly analyze the effect on dark soliton’s dynamics which different fiver-order nonlinear term generates. The results show the following two points with quintic nonlinearities coefficient increasing: (1 if the coefficients of the quadratic phase chirp term relate to the propagation distance, the solitary wave displays a periodic change and the soliton’s width increases, while its amplitude and wave velocity reduce. (2 If the coefficients of the quadratic phase chirp term do not depend on propagation distance, the wave function only emerges in a fixed area. The soliton’s width increases, while its amplitude and the wave velocity reduce.

  11. Students' Understanding of Quadratic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jonathan; Robles, Izraim; Martínez-Planell, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Action-Process-Object-Schema theory (APOS) was applied to study student understanding of quadratic equations in one variable. This required proposing a detailed conjecture (called a genetic decomposition) of mental constructions students may do to understand quadratic equations. The genetic decomposition which was proposed can contribute to help…

  12. Deformations of quadratic Diophantine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, V G [Vladimir State Pedagogical University, Vladimir (Russian Federation)

    2001-12-31

    We consider specializations of quadratic matrix equations preserving the invariant type of the equation and the weight formula for representations of the quadratic form by a genus of positive definite forms. We apply our results to the forms of cubic and Gosset lattices.

  13. Quadratic brackets from symplectic forms

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, A; Alekseev, Anton; Todorov, Ivan

    1994-01-01

    We give a physicist oriented survey of Poisson-Lie symmetries of classical systems. We consider finite dimensional geometric actions and the chiral WZNW model as examples for the general construction. An essential point is that quadratic Poisson bracets appear for group--like variables. It is believed that after quantization they lead to quadratic exchange algebras.

  14. The soliton stars evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarek, I; Bednarek, Ilona; Manka, Ryszard

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of a soliton star filled with fermions is studied in the framework of general relativity. Such a system can be described by the surface tension $\\sigma$, the bag constant $B$, and the fermion number density affects the spacetime inside the soliton. Whether it is described by Friedman or de Sitter metric depends on the prevailing parameter. The whole spacetime is devided by the surface of the soliton into the false vacuum region inside the soliton and the true vacuum region outside, the latter being described by the Schwarzschild line element. The aim of this paper is to study the equations of motion of the domain wall in two cases. In the first case the de Sitter metric describes the interior in the first case, and in the second case it is replaced by the Friedman metric. In both of them the Schwarzschild metric is outside the soliton. From the analysis of obtained equations one can draw conclusions concerning further evolution of a soliton star.

  15. Stable One-Dimensional Periodic Wave in Kerr-Type and Quadratic Nonlinear Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Savastru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the propagation of optical beams and the properties of one-dimensional (1D spatial solitons (“bright” and “dark” in saturated Kerr-type and quadratic nonlinear media. Special attention is paid to the recent advances of the theory of soliton stability. We show that the stabilization of bright periodic waves occurs above a certain threshold power level and the dark periodic waves can be destabilized by the saturation of the nonlinear response, while the dark quadratic waves turn out to be metastable in the broad range of material parameters. The propagation of (1+1 a dimension-optical field on saturated Kerr media using nonlinear Schrödinger equations is described. A model for the envelope one-dimensional evolution equation is built up using the Laplace transform.

  16. Efficient supercontinuum generation in quadratic nonlinear waveguides without quasi-phase matching

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Hairun; Steinert, Michael; Setzpfandt, Frank; Pertsch, Thomas; Chung, Hung-ping; Chen, Yen-Hung; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Efficient supercontinuum generation (SCG) requires excitation of solitons at the pump laser wavelength. Quadratic nonlinear waveguides may support an effective self-defocusing nonlinearity so solitons can directly be generated at common ultrafast laser wavelengths without any waveguide dispersion engineering. We here experimentally demonstrate efficient SCG in a standard lithium niobate (LN) waveguide without using quasi-phase matching (QPM). By using femtosecond pumps with wavelengths in the $1.25-1.5 \\mu\\rm m$ range, where LN has normal dispersion and thus supports self-defocusing solitons, octave-spanning SCG is observed. An optimized mid-IR waveguide design is expected to support even broader spectra. The QPM-free design reduces production complexity, allows longer waveguides, limits undesired spectral resonances and effectively allows using nonlinear crystals where QPM is inefficient or impossible. This result is important for mid-IR SCG, where QPM-free self-defocusing waveguides in common mid-IR nonline...

  17. 基于级联形式的线性切换系统的稳定性%Stability of switched linear systems via cascading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚红; 程代展; 席在荣

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the problem of quadratic stability of switched linear systems via cascading, all the real invariant subspaces of a given linear system were investigated, and the result was used to provide comparable cascading form of switching models. Using the common cascading form, a common quadratic Lyapunov function (CQLF) can be found by the set of CQLF of diagonal blocks.

  18. Rigidity of gradient Ricci Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Peter; Wylie, William

    2007-01-01

    We define a gradient Ricci soliton to be rigid if it is a flat bundle $% N\\times_{\\Gamma}\\mathbb{R}^{k}$ where $N$ is Einstein. It is known that not all gradient solitons are rigid. Here we offer several natural conditions on the curvature that characterize rigid gradient solitons. Other related results on rigidity of Ricci solitons are also explained in the last section.

  19. Bright solitons from defocusing nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    Borovkova, Olga V.; Kartashov, Yaroslav; Torner Sabata, Lluís; Malomed, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    We report that defocusing cubic media with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearity, whose strength increases rapidly enough toward the periphery, can support stable bright localized modes. Such nonlinearity landscapes give rise to a variety of stable solitons in all three dimensions, including one-dimensional fundamental and multihump states, two-dimensional vortex solitons with arbitrarily high topological charges, and fundamental solitons in three dimensions. Solitons maintain their coherence ...

  20. A Simple Classification of Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi, Yousef; Muminov, Khikmat Kh.

    2012-01-01

    In this report, fundamental educational concepts of linear and non-linear equations and solutions of nonlinear equations from the book High-Temperature Superconductivity: The Nonlinear Mechanism and Tunneling Measurements (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2002, pages 101-142) is given. There are a few ways to classify solitons. For example, there are topological and nontopological solitons. Independently of the topological nature of solitons, all solitons can be divided into two groups ...

  1. Transverse stability of Kawahara solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpman, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The transverse stability of the planar solitons described by the fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries equation (Kawahara solitons) is studied. It is shown that the planar solitons are unstable with respect to bending if the coefficient at the fifth-derivative term is positive and stable if it is negative....... This is in agreement with the dynamics of the two-dimensional Kawahara solitons....

  2. Scattering of solitons on resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Kiselev, O M; Glebov, S. G.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate a propagation of solitons for nonlinear Schrodinger equation under small driving force. The driving force passes the resonance. The process of scattering on the resonance leads to changing of number of solitons. After the resonance the number of solitons depends on the amplitude of the driving force.

  3. Special solitons on 3-manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Malekzadeh, Nasrin; Abedi, Esmaiel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study solitons on $3$-dimensional manifolds. In particular, we show that $3$-dimensional pseudo-symmetric gradient Ricci solitons and nontrivial gradient Yamabe solitons are locally isometric to either $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$, $\\mathbb{S}^{3}$, $\\mathbb{H}^{3}$, $\\mathbb{R} \\times \\mathbb{S}^{2}$ or $\\mathbb{R} \\times \\mathbb{H}^{2}$.

  4. Quadratic Inverse Function Tsallis Entropy Multi-modulus Blind Equalization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Yecai; Gong Xiuli; Chen Qu; Gong Xi

    2013-01-01

    In underwater acoustic communication systems, inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by communication channel distortion is the main factor affecting the quality of communication. Aiming at the shortcomings of computational complexity, slow convergence rate, and poor stability of Multi-Modulus Algorithm (MMA), a quadratic inverse function Tsallis entropy of Cascade Multi-Modulus blind equalization Algorithm (TCMMA) was proposed. In the proposed algorithm, quadratic inverse function Tsallis en...

  5. Annihilation Solitons and Chaotic Solitons for the (2+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By means of an improved mapping method and a variable separation method, a scries of variable separation solutions (including solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and rational function solutions) to the (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton system is derived. Based on the derived solitary wave excitation, we obtain some special annihilation solitons and chaotic solitons in this short note.

  6. Two-Photon Cavity Solitons in Active Optical Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that broad-area cascade lasers with no absorbing intracavity elements support the spontaneous formation of two-dimensional bright localized structures in a dark background. These cavity solitons consist of islands of two-photon emission embedded in a background of single-photon emission. We discuss the mechanisms through which these structures are formed and interact, along with their properties and stability

  7. SMOOTHING BY CONVEX QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-sheng He; Yu-mei Wang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relaxed smoothing problems with general closed convex constraints. It is pointed out that such problems can be converted to a convex quadratic minimization problem for which there are good programs in software libraries.

  8. Timing jitter of Raman solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gengji; Xin, Ming; Kaertner, Franz X; Chang, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    We study the relative intensity noise (RIN) and timing jitter of a Raman soliton. We demonstrate that the RIN of an excitation pulse causes center-wavelength fluctuations of the resulting Raman soliton which translates by fiber dispersion into relative timing jitter (RTJ) between the Raman soliton and the excitation pulse. The Raman soliton's absolute timing jitter is dominated by the excitation pulse's timing jitter at low frequency and by the RTJ at high frequency. The experimental study reveals that RTJ can be significantly reduced by reducing the accumulated fiber dispersion (e.g., using less dispersive fibers with shorter length) experienced by the Raman soliton. PMID:26512530

  9. Oscillating solitons in nonlinear optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lin Xiao-Gang; Liu Wen-Jun; Lei Ming

    2016-03-01

    Oscillating solitons are obtained in nonlinear optics. Analytical study of the variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is used to describe the soliton propagation in those systems, is carried out using the Hirota’s bilinear method. The bilinear forms and analytic soliton solutions are derived, and the relevant properties and features of oscillating solitons are illustrated. Oscillating solitons are controlled by the reciprocal of the group velocity and Kerr nonlinearity. Results of this paper will be valuable to the study of dispersion-managed optical communication system and mode-locked fibre lasers.

  10. Solitons and chaos in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yoshi H.

    1990-08-01

    The present discussion of the structure of soliton equations and dynamics of low-dimensional Hamiltonian nonlinear plasma systems emphasizes the universality of solitonic and chaotic concepts for other branches of physical research and engineering applications. Attention is given to the significance of the inverse-scattering transformation for the KdV equation in soliton-phenomena studies, as well as to the multidimensional behavior of solitons and their Alfvenic and optical-fiber types. An account is given of the development status of computational physics and integrable mapping methodologies applicable to solitonic plasma phenomena.

  11. The linear-quadratic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several letters discuss the short-comings of the use of the linear quadratic model in fractionated radiotherapy and the validity of the prediction of hyperfractionation as the operational strategy for most human tumours. Particular points discussed are the absence of a time factor in the linear quadratic model, corrections in regard to OER and the clinical implications of isoeffect relationships for normal tissue damage. (U.K.)

  12. Soliton driven angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, L. L.; Carretero, M.; Terragni, F.; Birnir, B.

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenesis is a multiscale process by which blood vessels grow from existing ones and carry oxygen to distant organs. Angiogenesis is essential for normal organ growth and wounded tissue repair but it may also be induced by tumours to amplify their own growth. Mathematical and computational models contribute to understanding angiogenesis and developing anti-angiogenic drugs, but most work only involves numerical simulations and analysis has lagged. A recent stochastic model of tumour-induced angiogenesis including blood vessel branching, elongation, and anastomosis captures some of its intrinsic multiscale structures, yet allows one to extract a deterministic integropartial differential description of the vessel tip density. Here we find that the latter advances chemotactically towards the tumour driven by a soliton (similar to the famous Korteweg-de Vries soliton) whose shape and velocity change slowly. Analysing these collective coordinates paves the way for controlling angiogenesis through the soliton, the engine that drives this process.

  13. Three-dimensional collinearly propagating solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is modified in order to describe three-dimensional solitons propagating collinearly with a constant velocity. One- and two-soliton solutions are obtained and analysed. When the frequencies of the respective solitons approach, then the effect of the repulsion of the solitons is observed. These solitons are proposed to model photons. (paper)

  14. Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Daniel C; Del'Haye, Pascal; Diddams, Scott A; Papp, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    Solitons are pulses that propagate without spreading due to a balance between nonlinearity and dispersion (or diffraction), and are universal features of systems exhibiting these effects. Solitons play an important role in plasma physics, fluid dynamics, atomic physics, biology, and optics. In the context of integrated photonics, bright dissipative cavity solitons in Kerr-nonlinear resonators are envisioned to play an important role in next-generation communication, computation, and measurement systems. Here we report the discovery of soliton crystals in Kerr resonators-collectively ordered ensembles of co-propagating solitons with discrete allowed temporal separations. Through analysis of optical spectra, we identify a complicated but discrete space of interacting soliton configurations, including crystals exhibiting vacancies (Schottky defects), shifted pulses (Frenkel defects), and superstructure. Time-domain characterization of the output-coupled soliton pulse train directly confirms our inference of the ...

  15. Defect solitons in photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianke; Chen, Zhigang

    2006-02-01

    Nonlinear defect modes (defect solitons) and their stability in one-dimensional photonic lattices with focusing saturable nonlinearity are investigated. It is shown that defect solitons bifurcate out from every infinitesimal linear defect mode. Low-power defect solitons are linearly stable in lower bandgaps but unstable in higher bandgaps. At higher powers, defect solitons become unstable in attractive defects, but can remain stable in repulsive defects. Furthermore, for high-power solitons in attractive defects, we found a type of Vakhitov-Kolokolov (VK) instability which is different from the usual VK instability based on the sign of the slope in the power curve. Lastly, we demonstrate that in each bandgap, in addition to defect solitons which bifurcate from linear defect modes, there is also an infinite family of other defect solitons which can be stable in certain parameter regimes. PMID:16605473

  16. Semiclassical geons as solitonic black hole remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D., E-mail: flobo@cii.fc.ul.pt, E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@csic.es, E-mail: drubiera@fisica.ufpb.br2 [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia - CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    We find that the end state of black hole evaporation could be represented by non-singular and without event horizon stable solitonic remnants with masses of the order the Planck scale and up to ∼ 16 units of charge. Though these objects are locally indistinguishable from spherically symmetric, massive electric (or magnetic) charges, they turn out to be sourceless geons containing a wormhole generated by the electromagnetic field. Our results are obtained by interpreting semiclassical corrections to Einstein's theory in the first-order (Palatini) formalism, which yields second-order equations and avoids the instabilities of the usual (metric) formulation of quadratic gravity. We also discuss the potential relevance of these solutions for primordial black holes and the dark matter problem.

  17. Noncommutative solitonic black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value. (paper)

  18. Noncommutative Solitonic Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Chang-Young, Ee; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2012-01-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field using the Moyal product expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in the two noncommutative spatial directions. By numerical simulation we look for black hole solutions by increasing the non- commutativity parameter value starting from regular solutions with vanishing noncommutativity. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.

  19. Noncommutative solitonic black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2012-05-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.

  20. Scattering of periodic solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Cova, R J

    2003-01-01

    With the help of numerical simulations we study N-soliton scattering (N=3,4) in the (2+1)-dimensional CP^1 model with periodic boundary conditions. When the solitons are scattered from symmetrical configurations the scattering angles observed agree with the earlier \\pi/N predictions based on the model on R_2 with standard boundary conditions. When the boundary conditions are not symmetric the angles are different from \\pi/N. We present an explanation of our observed patterns based on a properly formulated geodesic approximation.

  1. Self-trapped optical beams: Spatial solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrey A Sukhorukov; Yuri S Kivshar

    2001-11-01

    We present a brief overview of the basic concepts of the theory ofspatial optical solitons, including the soliton stability in non-Kerr media, the instability-induced soliton dynamics, and collision of solitary waves in nonintegrable nonlinear models.

  2. RICCI SOLITONS IN CONTACT METRIC MANIFOLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Mukut

    2011-01-01

    In $N(k)$-contact metric manifolds and/or $(k,\\mu)$-manifolds, gradient Ricci solitons, compact Ricci solitons and Ricci solitons with $V$ pointwise collinear with the structure vector field $\\xi $ are studied.

  3. Solitons on the Supermembrane

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, E A

    1999-01-01

    Energy bounds are derived for planar and compactified M2-branes in a hyper-Kähler background. These bounds are saturated, respectively, by lump and Q-kink solitons, which are shown to preserve a half of the worldvolume supersymmetry. The Q-kinks have a dual IIB interpretation as strings that migrate between fivebranes.

  4. Topological soliton in magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kamchatnov, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    We use the Hopf mapping to construct a magnetic configuration consisting of closed field lines, each of which is linked with all the other ones. We obtain in this way a solution of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics of an ideal incompressible fluid with infinite conductivity, which describes a localized topological soliton.

  5. Solitons and ionospheric heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.; Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that for parameters characterizing the Platteville ionospheric heating facility, the Langmuir wave evolution at the exact reflection point of the heater wave involves an oscillating two-stream instability followed by a collisionally damped three-dimensional soliton collapse. The result gives an alternative explanation for certain experimental observations.

  6. Solitons in Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A. V.

    1998-11-01

    Magnetic flux quanta in Josephson junctions, often called fluxons, in many cases behave as solitons. A review of recent experiments and modelling of fluxon dynamics in Josephson circuits is presented. Classic quasi-one-dimensional junctions, stacked junctions (Josephson superlattices), and discrete Josephson transmission lines (JTLs) are discussed. Applications of fluxon devices as high-frequency oscillators and digital circuits are also addressed.

  7. Students' understanding of quadratic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jonathan; Robles, Izraim; Martínez-Planell, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Action-Process-Object-Schema theory (APOS) was applied to study student understanding of quadratic equations in one variable. This required proposing a detailed conjecture (called a genetic decomposition) of mental constructions students may do to understand quadratic equations. The genetic decomposition which was proposed can contribute to help students achieve an understanding of quadratic equations with improved interrelation of ideas and more flexible application of solution methods. Semi-structured interviews with eight beginning undergraduate students explored which of the mental constructions conjectured in the genetic decomposition students could do, and which they had difficulty doing. Two of the mental constructions that form part of the genetic decomposition are highlighted and corresponding further data were obtained from the written work of 121 undergraduate science and engineering students taking a multivariable calculus course. The results suggest the importance of explicitly considering these two highlighted mental constructions.

  8. Exact periodic and solitonic states of the spinor condensates in a uniform external potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hai; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method to analytically solve the one-dimensional coupled nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equations which govern the motion of the spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. In a uniform external potential, several classes of exact periodic and solitonic solutions, either in real or in complex forms, are obtained for both the F=1 and F=2 condensates for the Hamiltonian comprising the kinetic energy, the linear and the quadratic Zeeman energies. Real solutions take the form of composite soliton trains. Complex solutions correspond to the mass counter-flows as well as spin currents. These solutions are general that contains neither approximations nor constraints on the system parameters.

  9. Successive quadratic programming multiuser detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xuewen; Zhang Yaling; Liu Sanyang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the semidefinite programming relaxation of the CDMA maximum likelihood multiuser detection problem,a detection strategy by the successive quadratic programming algorithm is presented. Coupled with the randomized cut generation scheme, the suboptimal solution of the multiuser detection problem in obtained. Compared to the interior point methods previously reported based on semidefinite programming, simulations demonstrate that the successive quadratic programming algorithm often yields the similar BER performances of the multiuser detection problem. But the average CPU time of this approach is significantly reduced.

  10. Interaction of spatial photorefractive solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Królikowski, W.; Denz, C.; Stepken, A.;

    1998-01-01

    We present a review of our recent theoretical and experimental results on the interaction of two-dimensional solitary beams in photorefractive SBN crystals. We show that the collision of coherent solitons may result in energy exchange, fusion of the interacting solitons, the birth of a new solitary...... beam or the complete annihilation of some of them, depending on the relative phase of the interacting beams. In the case of mutually incoherent solitons, we show that the photorefractive nonlinearity leads to an anomalous interaction between solitons. Theoretical and experimental results reveal that a...... soliton pair may experience both attractive and repulsive forces; depending on their mutual separation. We also show that strong attraction leads to periodic collision or helical motion of solitons depending on initial conditions....

  11. Formation of quasiparallel Alfven solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, R. L.; Kennel, C. F.; Mjolhus, E.

    1992-01-01

    The formation of quasi-parallel Alfven solitons is investigated through the inverse scattering transformation (IST) for the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation. The DNLS has a rich complement of soliton solutions consisting of a two-parameter soliton family and a one-parameter bright/dark soliton family. In this paper, the physical roles and origins of these soliton families are inferred through an analytic study of the scattering data generated by the IST for a set of initial profiles. The DNLS equation has as limiting forms the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS), Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-de-Vries (MKdV) equations. Each of these limits is briefly reviewed in the physical context of quasi-parallel Alfven waves. The existence of these limiting forms serves as a natural framework for discussing the formation of Alfven solitons.

  12. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P [Departmento de TeorIa de la Senal y Comunicaciones e IngenierIa Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-02-16

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts.

  13. Soliton dynamics in complex potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliton propagation dynamics under the presence of a complex potential are investigated. Cases of both symmetric and non-symmetric potentials are studied in terms of their effect on soliton dynamics. The existence of an invariant of soliton propagation under specific symmetry conditions for the real and the imaginary part of the potential is shown. The rich set of dynamical features of soliton propagation include dynamical trapping, periodic and nonperiodic soliton mass variation and non-reciprocal dynamics. These features are systematically investigated with the utilization of an effective particle phase space approach which is shown in remarkable agreement with direct numerical simulations. The generality of the results enables the consideration of potential applications where the inhomogeneity of the gain and loss is appropriately engineered in order to provide desirable soliton dynamics

  14. Soliton-soliton and wave-soliton collisions in Skyrme-like [sigma]-models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, A. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom)); Piette, B. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom)); Zakrzewski, W.J. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1993-12-01

    A skyrme-like inversion of the (2+1)-dimensional classical [sigma]-model is considered. Some aspects of soliton-soliton collisions are studied using both the numerical and phenomenological approaches. In particular, the problem of 90 scattering of solitons in the head-on collisions is analyzed. Properties of the two-soliton configurations for v[proportional to]v[sub cr] are discussed in terms of a specific solution, which may be called a 'disoliton'. This solution corresponds to a saddle point in the space of field configurations and is unstable with respect to the decay into two well separated solitons. Different classes of field configurations, which may be called 'one-dimensional' wave packets, are also studied as well as the interaction of these wave packets with a soliton. (orig.)

  15. Simerka - Quadratic Forms and Factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmermeyer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    In this article we show that the Czech mathematician Vaclav Simerka discovered the factorization of (10^17-1)/9 using a method based on the class group of binary quadratic forms more than 120 years before Shanks and Schnorr developed similar algorithms. Simerka also gave the first examples of what later became known as Carmichael numbers.

  16. Interaction Between Line Soliton and Algebraic Soliton for Asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Yuan-Peng; RUAN Hang-Yu; XIE Wen-Fang; LI Zhi-Fang

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the variable separation approach, the algebraic soliton solution and the solution describing the interaction between line soliton and algebraic soliton are obtained by selecting appropriate seed solution for (2+1)-dimensional ANNV equation. The behaviors of interactions are discussed in detail both analytically and graphically. It is shown that there are two kinds of singular interactions between line soliton and algebraic soliton: 1) the resonant interaction where the algebraic soliton propagates together with the line soliton and persists infinitely; 2) the extremely repulsive interaction where the algebraic soliton affects the motion of the line soliton infinitely apart.

  17. Ultra-short laser pulse compression by using the group-velocity-matched cascaded quadratic nonlinearity∗%利用群速度匹配的级联二阶非线性实现超短激光脉冲压缩*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶荣; 张彬; 李恪宇

    2013-01-01

      提出了一种采用倾斜脉冲的级联二阶非线性来实现超短激光脉冲压缩的方法.对基于单块BBO晶体中基频光与倍频光群速度匹配的级联二阶非线性的脉冲压缩方案进行了理论分析.对比研究了群速度匹配与失配情况下利用级联二阶非线性进行脉冲压缩的效果,并模拟分析了基频光与倍频光的位相失配量、非线性晶体长度、基频光初始峰值光强和初始脉宽等因素对脉冲压缩效果的影响.结果表明,基频光与倍频光的群速度匹配将会大幅度改善压缩脉冲的时间波形和频谱分布.通过对位相失配量、晶体长度、初始光强等参数的优化和选取可获得较理想的压缩效果.采用倾斜脉冲的级联二阶非线性的脉宽压缩方法,针对中心波长800 nm、脉宽100 fs,峰值光强为50 GW/cm2的基频光脉冲,采用25 mm厚BBO晶体,当基频光与倍频光位相失配量∆k=60 mm−1(对应失谐角1.98◦),晶体外部脉冲前沿倾斜角γ0=74◦时,计算获得了质量较好的20 fs剩余基频光,并同时产生了14 fs的倍频光.%A new method for compressing ultra-short laser pulse has been proposed in which cascaded quadratic nonlinearity with tilt pulse is used. The pulse compression scheme with group velocity matching between fundamental harmonic (FH) and second harmonic (SH) pulses in a single BBO crystal has been analyzed theoretically. The compressed results have been investigated and compared between the cases of group velocity matching and mismatching. Furthermore, the influences of the phase mismatching between the FH and SH pulses, the length of the nonlinear crystal, the initial peak intensity and pulse-duration of the FH pulse on the pulse-duration compression have been analyzed and simulated. The results show that the matched group velocity between FH and SH pulses can improve significantly both the temporal profile and the spectrum distribution of the compressed pulse. High

  18. Noncommutative Solitonic Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2011-01-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find t...

  19. Diffusion of Classical Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Dziarmaga, J.; Zakrzewski, W.

    1998-01-01

    We study the diffusion and deformation of classical solitons coupled to thermal noise. The diffusion coefficient for kinks in the $\\phi^4$ theory is predicted up to the second order in $kT$. The prediction is verified by numerical simulations. Multiskyrmions in the vector O(3) sigma model are studied within the same formalism. Thermal noise results in a diffusion on the multisoliton collective coordinate space (moduli space). There are entropic forces which tend, for example, to bind pairs of...

  20. SOLITONS: Dynamics of strong coupling formation between laser solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanov, Nikolai N.; Fedorov, S. V.; Shatsev, A. N.

    2005-03-01

    The dynamics of the strong coupling formation between two solitons with the unit topological charge is studied in detail for a wide-aperture class A laser. The sequence of bifurcations of the vector field of energy fluxes in the transverse plane was demonstrated during the formation of a soliton complex.

  1. A new cascadic multigrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Zhongci

    2001-01-01

    [1]Bornemann, F., Deuflhard, P., The cascadic multigrid method for elliptic problems, Numer. Math., 996, 75: 35.[2]Bornemann, F., Deuflhard, P., The cascadic multigrid method, The Eighth International Conference on Domain Decomposition Methods for Partial Differential Equations (eds. Glowinski, R., Periaux, J., Shi, Z. et al.), New York: John Wiley and Sons, 997.[3]Bornemann, F., Krause, R., Classical and cascadic multigrid-methodogical comparison, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Domain Decomposition (eds. Bjorstad, P., Espedal, M., Keyes, D.), New York: John Wiley and Sons, 998.[4]Shaidurov, V., Some estimates of the rate of convergence for the cascadic conjugate gradient method, Comp. Math. Applic., 996, 3: 6.[5]Shi, Z., Xu, X., Cascadic multigrid method for the second order elliptic problem, East-West J. Numer. Math., 998, 6: 309.[6]Shi, Z., Xu, X., Cascadic multigrid for elliptic problems, East-West J. Numer. Math., 999, 7: 99.[7]Shi, Z., Xu, X., Cascadic multigrid method for the plate bending problem, East-West J. Numer. Math., 998, 6: 37.[8]Braess, D., Dahmen, W., A cascade multigrid algorithm for the Stokes equations, Number. Math., 999, 82: 79.[9]Shi, Z., Xu, X., Cascadic multigrid for parabolic problems, J. Comput. Math., 2000, 8: 450.[10]Ciarlet, P.,The Finite Element Method for Elliptic Problems, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 978.[11]Zienkiewicz, O. C., The Finite Element Method, 3rd. ed., London: McGraw-Hill, 977.[12]Powell, M. J. D., Sabin, M. A., Piecewise quadratic approximations on triangles, ACM Trans. Mat. Software, 977, 3: 36.[13]Xu, J., The auxiliary space method and optimal multigrid precondition techniques for unstructured grids, Computing, 996, 56: 25.[14]Bank, R., Dupont, T., An optimal order process for solving finite element equations, Math. Comput., 980, 36: 35.[15]Brenner, S., Convergence of nonconforming multigrid methods without full elliptic regularity, Math

  2. Consensus-ADMM for General Quadratically Constrained Quadratic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kejun; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.

    2016-10-01

    Non-convex quadratically constrained quadratic programming (QCQP) problems have numerous applications in signal processing, machine learning, and wireless communications, albeit the general QCQP is NP-hard, and several interesting special cases are NP-hard as well. This paper proposes a new algorithm for general QCQP. The problem is first reformulated in consensus optimization form, to which the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be applied. The reformulation is done in such a way that each of the sub-problems is a QCQP with only one constraint (QCQP-1), which is efficiently solvable irrespective of (non-)convexity. The core components are carefully designed to make the overall algorithm more scalable, including efficient methods for solving QCQP-1, memory efficient implementation, parallel/distributed implementation, and smart initialization. The proposed algorithm is then tested in two applications: multicast beamforming and phase retrieval. The results indicate superior performance over prior state-of-the-art methods.

  3. Analytical design of soliton molecules in fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubissi, A.-B.; Nse Biyoghe, S.; Mback, C. B. L.; Ekogo, T. B.; Ben-Bolie, G. H.; Kofane, T. C.; Tchofo Dinda, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present an analytical method for designing fiber systems for a highly stable propagation of soliton molecules. This analytical design uses the variational equations of the soliton molecule to determine the parameters of the most suitable fiber system for any desired soliton, thus reducing dramatically the cost of the whole procedure of design, for both the appropriate fiber system and the desired soliton molecule.

  4. Observations of ion-acoustic cylindrical solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Romesser, T.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental observations of cylindrical solitons in a collisionless plasma are presented. The data obtained show that cylindrical solitonlike objects exist and that their properties are consistent with those of one- and three-dimensional solitons. It is found that compressive density perturbations evolve into solitons. The number of the solitons is determined by the width and amplitude of the applied pulse.

  5. Semiconductor resonator solitons above band gap

    OpenAIRE

    Taranenko, V. B.; Weiss, C. O.; Stolz, W.

    2001-01-01

    We show experimentally the existence of bright and dark spatial solitons in semiconductor resonators for excitation above the band gap energy. These solitons can be switched on, both spontaneously and with address pulses, without the thermal delay found for solitons below the band gap which is unfavorable for applications. The differences between soliton properties above and below gap energy are discussed.

  6. Solitons: mathematical methods for physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilenberger, G.

    1981-01-01

    The book is a self-contained introduction to the theory of solitons. The Korteweg-de Vries equation is investigated and the inverse scattering transformation is treated in detail. Techniques are applied to the Toda lattice and solutions of the sine-Gordon equation. An introduction to the thermodynamics of soliton systems is given. (KAW)

  7. Spatial Solitons in Algaas Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ung

    In this work, by measuring the two-, three-photon absorption, and the nonlinear refractive index coefficients, a useful bandwidth for an all-optical switching applications in the AlGaAs below half the band gap is identified. Operating in this material system, several types of spatial solitons such as fundamental bright solitons, Vector solitons, and Manakov solitons are experimentally demonstrated. The propagation and the interaction behaviors of these solitons are studied experimentally and numerically. The distinct properties of each soliton are discussed along with some possible applications. Some applications, such as all -optical switching based on spatial soliton dragging and the efficient guiding of orthogonally polarized femtosecond pulses by a bright spatial soliton, are experimentally demonstrated. The signal gain due to an ultrafast polarization coupling, better known as Four Wave Mixing (FWM) is demonstrated in a channel waveguide. The effects of FWM are studied experimentally and numerically. This effect is also used to demonstrate polarization switching. The linear and nonlinear properties of AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well waveguides are measured. Anisotropic two photon absorption and nonlinear refractive indices near half the band gap are measured along with the linear birefringence for several different quantum well structures. The usefulness of multiple quantum well structures for an all -optical switching because of anisotropic nature of this material system is discussed.

  8. Primordial origin of nontopological solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of nontopological solitons in a second-order phase transition in the early universe is discussed. Ratios of dimensionless coupling constants in the Lagrangian determine their abundance and mass. For a large range of parameters, nontopological solitons can be cosmologically significant, contributing a significant fraction of the present mass density of the universe.

  9. Quadratic and 2-Crossed Modules of Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Arvasi; E. Ulualan

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we define the quadratic modules for commutative algebras and give relations among 2-crossed modules, crossed squares, quadratic modules and simplicial commutative algebras with Moore complex of length 2.

  10. Phase interaction of short vector solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interaction of vector solitons in the frame of coupled third-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations taking into account third-order linear dispersion, nonlinear dispersion, and cross-phase modulation terms is considered. Phase nature of the solitons' interaction is shown. In particular, dependence of solitons' trajectories on initial distance between solitons is shown. Conditions of reflection and propagation of solitons through each other are obtained. -- Highlights: ► Short vector soliton's interaction in the frame of CTNSE without SRS is studied. ► Analytical and numerical approaches are considered. ► Phase effects lead to short vector soliton's interaction character change.

  11. Breather soliton dynamics in microresonators

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Mengjie; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Griffith, Austin G; Luke, Kevin; Miller, Steven A; Ji, Xingchen; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    The generation of temporal cavity solitons in microresonators results in low-noise optical frequency combs which are critical for applications in spectroscopy, astronomy, navigation or telecommunications. Breather solitons also form an important part of many different classes of nonlinear wave systems with a localized temporal structure that exhibits oscillatory behavior. To date, the dynamics of breather solitons in microresonators remains largely unexplored, and its experimental characterization is challenging. Here, we demonstrate the excitation of breather solitons in two different microresonator platforms based on silicon nitride and on silicon. We investigate the dependence of the breathing frequency on pump detuning and observe the transition from period-1 to period-2 oscillation in good agreement with the numerical simulations. Our study presents experimental confirmation of the stability diagram of dissipative cavity solitons predicted by the Lugiato-Lefever equation and is importance to understandin...

  12. Solitons in generalized galileon theories

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo-Gonzalez, Mariana; Solomon, Adam R; Trodden, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We consider the existence and stability of solitons in generalized galileons, scalar field theories with higher-derivative interactions but second-order equations of motion. It has previously been proven that no stable, static solitons exist in a single galileon theory using an argument invoking the existence of zero modes for the perturbations. Here we analyze the applicability of this argument to generalized galileons and discuss how this may be avoided by having potential terms in the energy functional for the perturbations, or by including time dependence. Given the presence of potential terms in the Lagrangian for the perturbations, we find that stable, static solitons are not ruled out in conformal and (A)dS galileons. For the case of DBI and conformal galileons, we find that solitonic solutions moving at the speed of light exist, the former being stable and the latter unstable if the background soliton satisfies a certain condition.

  13. Modified Korteweg-de Vries solitons at supercritical densities in two-electron temperature plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Verheest, Frank; Hereman, Willy A

    2016-01-01

    The supercritical composition of a plasma model with cold positive ions in the presence of a two-temperature electron population is investigated, initially by a reductive perturbation approach, under the combined requirements that there be neither quadratic nor cubic nonlinearities in the evolution equation. This leads to a unique choice for the set of compositional parameters and a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation (mKdV) with a quartic nonlinear term. The conclusions about its one-soliton solution and integrability will also be valid for more complicated plasma compositions. Only three polynomial conservation laws can be obtained. The mKdV equation with quartic nonlinearity is not completely integrable, thus precluding the existence of multi-soliton solutions. Next, the full Sagdeev pseudopotential method has been applied and this allows for a detailed comparison with the reductive perturbation results. This comparison shows that the mKdV solitons have slightly larger amplitudes and widths than those obta...

  14. Quantum bouncer with quadratic dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G. [NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States)]. e-mail: ggonzalez@physics.ucf.edu

    2008-07-01

    The energy loss due to a quadratic velocity-dependent force on a quantum particle bouncing off a perfectly reflecting surface is obtained for a full cycle of motion. We approach this problem by means of a new, effective, phenomenological Hamiltonian which corresponds to the actual energy of the system and obtain the correction to the eigenvalues of the energy in first-order quantum perturbation theory for the case of weak dissipation. (Author)

  15. Quantum bouncer with quadratic dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, G.

    2008-02-01

    The energy loss due to a quadratic velocity dependent force on a quantum particle bouncing on a perfectly reflecting surface is obtained for a full cycle of motion. We approach this problem by means of a new effective phenomenological Hamiltonian which corresponds to the actual energy of the system and obtained the correction to the eigenvalues of the energy in first order quantum perturbation theory for the case of weak dissipation.

  16. Natural Exponential Families with Quadratic Variance Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Carl N.

    1982-01-01

    The normal, Poisson, gamma, binomial, and negative binomial distributions are univariate natural exponential families with quadratic variance functions (the variance is at most a quadratic function of the mean). Only one other such family exists. Much theory is unified for these six natural exponential families by appeal to their quadratic variance property, including infinite divisibility, cumulants, orthogonal polynomials, large deviations, and limits in distribution.

  17. Fully Localized Two-dimensional Embedded Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jianke

    2010-01-01

    We report the first prediction of fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons. These solitons are obtained in a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide array which is periodic along one spatial direction and localized along the orthogonal direction. Under appropriate nonlinearity, these solitons are found to exist inside the Bloch bands (continuous spectrum) of the waveguide, and thus are embedded solitons. These embedded solitons are fully localized along both spatial directions. In addition, ...

  18. On gradient Ricci solitons with Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Peter; Wylie, William

    2007-01-01

    We study gradient Ricci solitons with maximal symmetry. First we show that there are no non-trivial homogeneous gradient Ricci solitons. Thus the most symmetry one can expect is an isometric cohomogeneity one group action. Many examples of cohomogeneity one gradient solitons have been constructed. However, we apply the main result in our paper "Rigidity of gradient Ricci solitons" to show that there are no noncompact cohomogeneity one shrinking gradient solitons with nonnegative curvature.

  19. Solitons supported by localized parametric gain

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Fangwei; HUANG, CHANGMING; Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Malomed, Boris A.

    2013-01-01

    We address the existence and properties of one-dimensional solitons maintained by localized parameter gain in focusing and defocusing lossy nonlinear media. Localized parametric gain supports both fundamental and multipole solitons. We found that the family of fundamental solitons is partly stable in focusing nonlinear medium, and completely stable in defocusing medium, while all higher-order solitons are unstable. In addition to numerical results, the existence threshold for the solitons, an...

  20. Interface solitons in thermal nonlinear media

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xuekai; Yang, Zhenjun; Lu, Daquan; Hu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of fundamental and dipole interface solitons in one-dimensional thermal nonlinear media with a step in linear refractive index. Fundamental interface solitons are found to be always stable and the stability of dipole interface solitons depends on the difference in linear refractive index. The mass center of interface solitons always locates in the side with higher index. Two intensity peaks of dipole interface solitons are unequal except some specific conditions, ...

  1. Learning Cascading

    CERN Document Server

    Covert, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for software developers, system architects and analysts, big data project managers, and data scientists who wish to deploy big data solutions using the Cascading framework. You must have a basic understanding of the big data paradigm and should be familiar with Java development techniques.

  2. Solitons riding on solitons and the quantum Newton's cradle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Manjun; Navarro, R.; Carretero-González, R.

    2016-02-01

    The reduced dynamics for dark and bright soliton chains in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used to study the behavior of collective compression waves corresponding to Toda lattice solitons. We coin the term hypersoliton to describe such solitary waves riding on a chain of solitons. It is observed that in the case of dark soliton chains, the formulated reduction dynamics provides an accurate an robust evolution of traveling hypersolitons. As an application to Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standard harmonic potential, we study the case of a finite dark soliton chain confined at the center of the trap. When the central chain is hit by a dark soliton, the energy is transferred through the chain as a hypersoliton that, in turn, ejects a dark soliton on the other end of the chain that, as it returns from its excursion up the trap, hits the central chain repeating the process. This periodic evolution is an analog of the classical Newton's cradle.

  3. Solitons riding on solitons and the quantum Newton's cradle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Manjun; Navarro, R; Carretero-González, R

    2016-02-01

    The reduced dynamics for dark and bright soliton chains in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used to study the behavior of collective compression waves corresponding to Toda lattice solitons. We coin the term hypersoliton to describe such solitary waves riding on a chain of solitons. It is observed that in the case of dark soliton chains, the formulated reduction dynamics provides an accurate an robust evolution of traveling hypersolitons. As an application to Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in a standard harmonic potential, we study the case of a finite dark soliton chain confined at the center of the trap. When the central chain is hit by a dark soliton, the energy is transferred through the chain as a hypersoliton that, in turn, ejects a dark soliton on the other end of the chain that, as it returns from its excursion up the trap, hits the central chain repeating the process. This periodic evolution is an analog of the classical Newton's cradle. PMID:26986326

  4. Dynamics of bound vector solitons induced by stochastic perturbations: Soliton breakup and soliton switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We respectively investigate breakup and switching of the Manakov-typed bound vector solitons (BVSs) induced by two types of stochastic perturbations: the homogenous and nonhomogenous. Symmetry-recovering is discovered for the asymmetrical homogenous case, while soliton switching is found to relate with the perturbation amplitude and soliton coherence. Simulations show that soliton switching in the circularly-polarized light system is much weaker than that in the Manakov and linearly-polarized systems. In addition, the homogenous perturbations can enhance the soliton switching in both of the Manakov and non-integrable (linearly- and circularly-polarized) systems. Our results might be helpful in interpreting dynamics of the BVSs with stochastic noises in nonlinear optics or with stochastic quantum fluctuations in Bose–Einstein condensates.

  5. Generation of bright soliton through the interaction of black solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Losano, L; Bazeia, D

    2001-01-01

    We report on the possibility of having two black solitons interacting inside a silica fiber that presents normal group-velocity dispersion, to generate a pair of solitons, a vector soliton of the black-bright type. The model obeys a pair of coupled nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations, that follows in accordance with a Ginzburg-Landau equation describing the anisotropic XY model. We solve the coupled equations using a trial-orbit method, which plays a significant role when the Schr\\"odinger equations are reduced to first order differential equations.

  6. Deceleration of the small solitons in the soliton lattice: KdV-type framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurgalina, Ekaterina; Gorshkov, Konstantin; Talipova, Tatiana; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2016-04-01

    As it is known the solitary waves (solitons) in the KdV-systems move with speed which exceeds the speed of propagation of long linear waves (sound speed). Due to interaction between them, solitons do not lose their individuality (elastic interaction). Binary interaction of neigborough solitons is the major contribution in the dynamics of soliton gas. Taking into account the integrability of the classic and modified Korteweg-de Vries equations the process of the soliton interaction can be analyzed in the framework of the rigorous analytical two-soliton solutions. Main physical conclusion from this solution is the phase shift which is positive for large solitons and negative for small solitons. This fact influences the average velocity of individual soliton in the soliton lattice or soliton gas. We demonstrate that soliton of relative small amplitude moves in soliton gas in average in opposite (negative) direction, meanwhile a free soliton moves always in the right direction. Approximated analytical theory is created for the soliton motion in the periodic lattice of big solitons of the same amplitudes, and the critical amplitude of the small soliton changed its averaged speed is found. Numerical simulation is conducted for a statistical assembly of solitons with random amplitudes and phases. The application of developed theory to the long surface and internal waves is discussed.

  7. Effect of third-order dispersion on dark solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasjev, Vsevolod V.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Menyuk, Curtis R.

    1996-12-01

    Third-order dispersion has a detrimental effect on dark solitons, leading to resonant generation of growing soliton tails and soliton decay. This effect is shown to be much stronger than that for bright solitons.

  8. Chirped Dissipative Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashnikov, Vladimir L

    2010-01-01

    The analytical theory of chirped dissipative soliton solutions of nonlinear complex Ginzburg-Landau equation is exposed. Obtained approximate solutions are easily traceable within an extremely broad range of the equation parameters and allow a clear physical interpretation as a representation of the strongly chirped pulses in mode-locked both solid-state and fiber oscillators. Scaling properties of such pulses demonstrate a feasibility of sub-mJ pulse generation in the continuous-wave mode-locking regime directly from an oscillator operating at the MHz repetition rate.

  9. Topics in soliton theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, RW

    1991-01-01

    When soliton theory, based on water waves, plasmas, fiber optics etc., was developing in the 1960-1970 era it seemed that perhaps KdV (and a few other equations) were really rather special in the set of all interesting partial differential equations. As it turns out, although integrable systems are still special, the mathematical interaction of integrable systems theory with virtually all branches of mathematics (and with many currently developing areas of theoretical physics) illustrates the importance of this area. This book concentrates on developing the theme of the tau function. KdV and K

  10. Peaked Traveling Wave Solutions to a Generalized Novikov Equation with Cubic and Quadratic Nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Camassa-Holm equation, Degasperis—Procesi equation and Novikov equation are the three typical integrable evolution equations admitting peaked solitons. In this paper, a generalized Novikov equation with cubic and quadratic nonlinearities is studied, which is regarded as a generalization of these three well-known studied equations. It is shown that this equation admits single peaked traveling wave solutions, periodic peaked traveling wave solutions, and multi-peaked traveling wave solutions. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  11. Stability and Stabilization of Block-cascading Switched Linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Hong Zhu; Dai-Zhan Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the problem of quadratic stability and stabilization in switched linear systems using reducible Lie algebra. First, we investigate the structure of all real invariant subspaces for a given linear system. The result is then used to provide a comparable cascading form for switching models. Using the commoncascading form, a common quadratic Lyapunov function is (QLFs) is explored by finding common QLFs of diagonal blocks.In addition, a cascading Quaker Lemma is proved. Combining it with stability results, the problem of feedback stabilization for a class of switched linear systems is solved.

  12. Algebraic Ricci Solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups

    OpenAIRE

    Batat, Wafaa; Onda, Kensuke

    2011-01-01

    We classify Algebraic Ricci Solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups. All algebraic Ricci solitons that we obtain are sol-solitons. In particular, we prove that, contrary to the Riemannian case, Lorentzian Ricci solitons need not to be algebraic Ricci solitons. We classify Algebraic Ricci Solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups. All algebraic Ricci solitons that we obtain are solvsolitons. In particular, we obtain new solitons on $G_{2}$, $G_{5}$, and $G_{6}$, and we pr...

  13. Basic methods of soliton theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednik, I

    1996-01-01

    In the 25 years of its existence Soliton Theory has drastically expanded our understanding of "integrability" and contributed a lot to the reunification of Mathematics and Physics in the range from deep algebraic geometry and modern representation theory to quantum field theory and optical transmission lines.The book is a systematic introduction to the Soliton Theory with an emphasis on its background and algebraic aspects. It is the first one devoted to the general matrix soliton equations, which are of great importance for the foundations and the applications.Differential algebra (local cons

  14. High-order polarization vortex spatial solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the formation of high-order polarization vortex spatial solitons. The high-order polarization vortex solitons have novel polarization states which are different from fundamental polarization vortex solitons and have rotational symmetry only in intensity. It is proved that the polarization vortex solitons cannot carry vortex phase. The existence domain and dynamical characteristic of these high-order polarization vortex solitons in Bessel optical lattices are discussed in detail. -- Highlights: ► It is proved that the polarization vortex solitons cannot carry vortex phase. ► Polarization vortex solitons formed by cylindrical vector beams must be first-order solitons. ► New high-order polarization vortex solitons are investigated in Bessel optical lattices.

  15. quadratic spline finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bahadir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of heat transfer in a Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC thermistor, which may form one element of an electric circuit, is solved numerically by a finite element method. The approach used is based on Galerkin finite element using quadratic splines as shape functions. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved by the finite difference method. Comparison is made with numerical and analytical solutions and the accuracy of the computed solutions indicates that the method is well suited for the solution of the PTC thermistor problem.

  16. Optimal control linear quadratic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2007-01-01

    This augmented edition of a respected text teaches the reader how to use linear quadratic Gaussian methods effectively for the design of control systems. It explores linear optimal control theory from an engineering viewpoint, with step-by-step explanations that show clearly how to make practical use of the material.The three-part treatment begins with the basic theory of the linear regulator/tracker for time-invariant and time-varying systems. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is introduced using the Principle of Optimality, and the infinite-time problem is considered. The second part outlines the

  17. Quadratic minima and modular forms

    OpenAIRE

    Brent, Barry

    1998-01-01

    We give upper bounds on the size of the gap between the constant term and the next non-zero Fourier coefficient of an entire modular form of given weight for \\Gamma_0(2). Numerical evidence indicates that a sharper bound holds for the weights h \\equiv 2 . We derive upper bounds for the minimum positive integer represented by level two even positive-definite quadratic forms. Our data suggest that, for certain meromorphic modular forms and p=2,3, the p-order of the constant term is related to t...

  18. Solitons and vortices in nonlinear two-dimensional photonic crystals of the Kronig-Penney type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai; Malomed, Boris A; Roeksabutr, Athikom

    2011-08-29

    Solitons in the model of nonlinear photonic crystals with the transverse structure based on two-dimensional (2D) quadratic- or rhombic-shaped Kronig-Penney (KP) lattices are studied by means of numerical methods. The model can also applies to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a superposition of linear and nonlinear 2D periodic potentials. The analysis is chiefly presented for the self-repulsive nonlinearity, which gives rise to several species of stable fundamental gap solitons, dipoles, four-peak complexes, and vortices in two finite bandgaps of the underlying spectrum. Stable solitons with complex shapes are found, in particular, in the second bandgap of the KP lattice with the rhombic structure. The stability of the localized modes is analyzed in terms of eigenvalues of small perturbations, and tested in direct simulations. Depending on the value of the KP's duty cycle (DC, i.e., the ratio of the void's width to the lattice period), an internal stability boundary for the solitons and vortices may exist inside of the first bandgap. Otherwise, the families of the localized modes are entirely stable or unstable in the bandgaps. With the self-attractive nonlinearity, only unstable solitons and vortices are found in the semi-infinite gap.

  19. Quadratic Goldreich-Levin Theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Tulsiani, Madhur

    2011-01-01

    Decomposition theorems in classical Fourier analysis enable us to express a bounded function in terms of few linear phases with large Fourier coefficients plus a part that is pseudorandom with respect to linear phases. The Goldreich-Levin algorithm can be viewed as an algorithmic analogue of such a decomposition as it gives a way to efficiently find the linear phases associated with large Fourier coefficients. In the study of "quadratic Fourier analysis", higher-degree analogues of such decompositions have been developed in which the pseudorandomness property is stronger but the structured part correspondingly weaker. For example, it has previously been shown that it is possible to express a bounded function as a sum of a few quadratic phases plus a part that is small in the $U^3$ norm, defined by Gowers for the purpose of counting arithmetic progressions of length 4. We give a polynomial time algorithm for computing such a decomposition. A key part of the algorithm is a local self-correction procedure for Re...

  20. Scalar Solitons on the Fuzzy Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Austing, P; Thorlacius, L; Austing, Peter; Jonsson, Thordur; Thorlacius, Larus

    2002-01-01

    We study scalar solitons on the fuzzy sphere at arbitrary radius and noncommutativity. We prove that no solitons exist if the radius is below a certain value. Solitons do exist for radii above a critical value which depends on the noncommutativity parameter. We construct a family of soliton solutions which are stable and which converge to solitons on the Moyal plane in an appropriate limit. These solutions are rotationally symmetric about an axis and have no allowed deformations. Solitons that describe multiple lumps on the fuzzy sphere can also be constructed but they are not stable.

  1. Bell's Theorem and Entangled Solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakov, Yu. P.; Kamalov, T. F.

    2016-09-01

    Entangled solitons construction being introduced in the nonlinear spinor field model, the Einstein—Podolsky—Rosen (EPR) spin correlation is calculated and shown to coincide with the quantum mechanical one for the 1/2-spin particles.

  2. Hairy AdS Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Anabalon, Andres; Choque, David

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for planar hairy black holes within these theories.

  3. Noncommutative Solitons and Integrable Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamanaka, M

    2005-01-01

    We review recent developments of soliton theories and integrable systems on noncommutative spaces. The former part is a brief review of noncommutative gauge theories focusing on ADHM construction of noncommutative instantons. The latter part is a report on recent results of existence of infinite conserved densities and exact multi-soliton solutions for noncommutative Gelfand-Dickey hierarchies. Some examples of noncommutative Ward's conjecture are also presented. Finally, we discuss future directions on noncommutative Sato's theories and twistor theories.

  4. Langmuir Solitons in Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, Hans;

    1978-01-01

    The authors have considered the nonlinear interaction between a high frequency (Langmuir) wave, which propagates at an arbitrary angle to a weak, constant magnetic field, and low frequency (ion-cyclotron or ion-sound) perturbations. In studying Langmuir envelope solitons they have unified and exp...... expanded the previous theories. They also discuss the possibilities of steady-state solitons both in 1-dimension (filamentation) and higher dimensions...

  5. On magnetohydrodynamic solitons in jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear solitary wave propagation in a compressible magnetic beam model of an extragalactic radio jet is examined and shown to lead to solitons of the Benjamin-Ono type. A number of similarities between such magnetic beam models of jets and models of solar photospheric flux tubes are pointed out and exploited. A single soliton has the appearance of a symmetric bulge on the jet which propagates faster than the jet's flow.

  6. Kink solitons in DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Zdravković, S; Daniel, M

    2012-01-01

    We here examine the nonlinear dynamics of artificial homogeneous DNA chain relying on the plain-base rotator model. It is shown that such dynamics can exhibit kink and antikink solitons of sine-Gordon type. In that respect we propose possible experimental assays based on single molecule micromanipulation techniques. The aim of these experiments is to excite the rotational waves and to determine their speeds along excited DNA. We propose that these experiments should be conducted either for the case of double stranded (DS) or single stranded (SS) DNA. A key question is to compare the corresponding velocities of the rotational waves indicating which one is bigger. The ratio of these velocities appears to be related with the sign of the model parameter representing ratio of the hydrogen-bonding and the covalent-bonding interaction within the considered DNA chain.

  7. Experimental investigation of the extraction of solitons at the initial stage of the soliton formation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Jiménez, M; Kuzin, E A; Pottiez, O; Ibarra-Escamilla, B; Flores-Rosas, A; Durán-Sánchez, M

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrate the extraction of a single soliton from a bunch of solitons generated by the pulse breakup effect. The bunch of solitons was generated in a 500-m fiber pumped by 25-ps pulses. For the extraction of single soliton from the bunch we use a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM). At its output we detected a pulse with full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 0.99 ps whose autocorrelation trace corresponds to that of a soliton. Our results demonstrate that the suggested method can be useful for soliton generation, and also for investigations of the initial stage of the soliton formation process. PMID:20174037

  8. Geometrical and Graphical Solutions of Quadratic Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, E. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are several geometrical and graphical methods of solving quadratic equations. Discussed are Greek origins, Carlyle's method, von Staudt's method, fixed graph methods and imaginary solutions. (CW)

  9. Geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-known that the LIE (Locally Induction Equation) admit soliton-type solutions and same soliton solutions arise from different and apparently irrelevant physical models. By comparing the solitons of LIE and Killing magnetic geodesics, we observe that these solitons are essentially decided by two families of isometries of the domain and the target space, respectively. With this insight, we propose the new concept of geometric solitons of Hamiltonian flows on manifolds, such as geometric Schrödinger flows and KdV flows for maps. Moreover, we give several examples of geometric solitons of the Schrödinger flow and geometric KdV flow, including magnetic curves as geometric Schrödinger solitons and explicit geometric KdV solitons on surfaces of revolution

  10. Parametric solitons in nonlinear photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    K Gallo; Stivala, S; Pasquazi, A.; Assanto, G

    2007-01-01

    We present theoretical and experimental investigations on the soliton dynamics associated to multiple second harmonic generation resonances in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals, highlighting a wealth of new possibilities for soliton management in such structures.

  11. On the structure of gradient Yamabe solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Huai-Dong; Zhang, Yingying

    2011-01-01

    We show that every complete nontrivial gradient Yamabe soliton admits a special global warped product structure with a one-dimensional base. Based on this, we prove a general classification theorem for complete nontrivial locally conformally flat gradient Yamabe solitons.

  12. Analytical theory of dark nonlocal solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Qian; Wang, Qi; Bang, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    We investigate properties of dark solitons in nonlocal materials with an arbitrary degree of nonlocality. We employ the variational technique and describe dark solitons, for the first time to our knowledge, in the whole range of degree of nonlocality....

  13. Alfven solitons in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovenden, C.; Schwartz, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    A nonlinear Alfven soliton solution of the MHD equations is presented. This solution represents the final state of modulationally unstable Alfven waves. A model of the expected turbulent spectrum due to a collection of such solitons is briefly described.

  14. Three-dimensional homogeneous generalized Ricci solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Calvaruso, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We study three-dimensional generalized Ricci solitons, both in Riemannian and Lorentzian settings. We shall determine their homogeneous models, classifying left-invariant generalized Ricci solitons on three-dimensional Lie groups.

  15. Coherent switching of semiconductor resonator solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Taranenko, V. B.; Ahlers, F. -J.; Pierz, K.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate switching on and off of spatial solitons in a semiconductor microresonator by injection of light coherent with the background illumination. Evidence results that the formation of the solitons and their switching does not involve thermal processes.

  16. Cascading Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Nishant; Khoury, Justin; Trodden, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We develop a fully covariant, well-posed 5D effective action for the 6D cascading gravity brane-world model, and use this to study cosmological solutions. We obtain this effective action through the 6D decoupling limit, in which an additional scalar degree mode, \\pi, called the brane-bending mode, determines the bulk-brane gravitational interaction. The 5D action obtained this way inherits from the sixth dimension an extra \\pi self-interaction kinetic term. We compute appropriate boundary terms, to supplement the 5D action, and hence derive fully covariant junction conditions and the 5D Einstein field equations. Using these, we derive the cosmological evolution induced on a 3-brane moving in a static bulk. We study the strong- and weak-coupling regimes analytically in this static ansatz, and perform a complete numerical analysis of our solution. Although the cascading model can generate an accelerating solution in which the \\pi field comes to dominate at late times, the presence of a critical singularity prev...

  17. Bright-dark incoherently coupled soliton pairs composed of spatially incoherent solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jielong Shi; Yuanyuan Chen; Qi Wang

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that bright-dark incoherently coupled soliton pairs can exist in photorefractive (PR) crystals under steady-state conditions, each soliton constituent of which is spatially incoherent. The characteristics of bright-dark incoherently coupled soliton pairs are studied by the coherent density approach and the intensity expressions of soliton pairs are obtained. The propagation properties of coherent components of each constituent in a soliton pair are also discussed in detail.

  18. Surface dark solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xinghui; Zhou, Luohong; Yang, Zhenjun; Ma, Xuekai; Lu, Daquan; Hu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    We predict the existence of surface dark solitons at the interface between a self-defocusing nonlocal nonlinear medium and a linear medium. The fundamental and higher-order surface dark solitons can exist when the linear refractive index of the self-defocusing media is much larger than that of the linear media. The fundamental solitons are stable and the stabilities of higher-order solitons depend on both nonlocality degree and propagation constant.

  19. Solitons and vortices in ultracold fermionic gases

    OpenAIRE

    Karpiuk, T.; Brewczyk, M.; Rzazewski, K.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the possibilities of generation of solitons and vortices in a degenerate gas of neutral fermionic atoms. In analogy with, already experimentally demonstrated, technique applied to gaseous Bose-Einstein condensate we propose the phase engineering of a Fermi gas as a practical route to excited states with solitons and vortices. We stress that solitons and vortices appear even in a noninteracting fermionic gas. For solitons, in a system with sufficiently large number of fermions a...

  20. Evolution of envelope solitons of ionization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time evolution of a particle-like envelope soliton of ionization waves in plasma was investigated theoretically. The hydrodynamic equations of one spatial dimension were solved and the nonlinear dispersion relation was derived. For the amplitude of the wave the nonlinear Schroedinger equation was derived. Its soliton solution was interpreted as the envelope soliton which was experimentally found. The damping rate of the envelope soliton was estimated. (D.Gy.)

  1. Properties of an optical soliton gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwache, A.; Mitschke, F.

    1997-06-01

    We consider light pulses propagating in an optical fiber ring resonator with anomalous dispersion. New pulses are fed into the resonator in synchronism with its round-trip time. We show that solitary pulse shaping leads to a formation of an ensemble of subpulses that are identified as solitons. All solitons in the ensemble are in perpetual relative motion like molecules in a fluid; thus we refer to the ensemble as a soliton gas. Properties of this soliton gas are determined numerically.

  2. Cascaded Construction of Semi-Bent and Bent Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-peng; WU Xiao-xiong; YU Xin-hua

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theory of quadratic forms over finite fields,a new construction of semi-bent and bent functions is presented.The proposed construction has a cascaded characteristic.Some previously known constructions of semi-bent and bent functions are special cases of the new construction.

  3. Solitons supported by complex PT symmetric Gaussian potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Sumei; Ma, Xuekai; Lu, Daquan; Yang, Zhenjun; Zheng, Yizhou; Hu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The existence and stability of fundamental, dipole, and tripole solitons in Kerr nonlinear media with parity-time symmetric Gaussian complex potentials are reported. Fundamental solitons are stable not only in deep potentials but also in shallow potentials. Dipole and tripole solitons are stable only in deep potentials, and tripole solitons are stable in deeper potentials than for dipole solitons. The stable regions of solitons increase with increasing potential depth. The power of solitons i...

  4. Compression of Soliton Pairs in Dispersion-Decreasing Fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Hu; XU Wen-Cheng; LIU Song-Hao

    2004-01-01

    @@ The compression of soliton pairs in fibres with decreasing dispersion is studied. The results show that generation of high-quality stable pedestal-free pulses is strongly affected by the interaction between soliton pairs. The initial phase difference between two solitons can modify soliton interaction and can make the neighbouring solitons never collide periodically. The soliton pairs can be compressed selectively so that one of the two solitons can achieve enhanced compression by controlling the initial phase difference.

  5. Two-Dimensional Spatial Solitons in Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wei-Ping; YANG Zheng-Ping; XIE Rui-Hua; Milivoj Be-lie; Goong Chen

    2009-01-01

    We study the propagation of spatial solitons in nematic liquid crystals, using the self-similar method.Analytical solutions in the form of self-similar solitons are obtained exactly.We confirm the stability of these solutions by direct numerical simulation, and find that the stable spatial solitons can exist in various forms, such as Gaussian solitons, radially symmetric solitons, multipoIe solitons, and soliton vortices.

  6. Control of optical solitons by light waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, V S; Hasegawa, A; Maruta, A

    1995-04-15

    A new method of controlling optical solitons by means of light wave(s) in fibers is presented. By a proper choice of light wave(s), parametric four-wave mixing can control the soliton shape as well as the soliton parameters (amplitude, frequency, velocity, and position).

  7. Incoherently Coupled Grey Photovoltaic Spatial Soliton Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-Cheng; SHE Wei-Long

    2005-01-01

    @@ A theory is developed for incoherently coupled grey photovoltaic soliton families in unbiased photovoltaic crystals.Both the properties and the forming conditions of these soliton families are discussed in detail The theory canalso be used to investigate the dark photovoltaic soliton families. Some relevant examples are presented, in which the photovoltaic-photorefractive crystal is of lithium niobate type.

  8. Ricci Solitons On Warped Product Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Shenawy, Sameh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study Ricci soliton on warped product manifolds. First, various properties of conformal and concurrent vector fields on warped product manifolds have been obtained. Then we study Ricci soliton on warped product manifolds admitting either a conformal vector field or a concurrent vector field. Finally, we study Ricci soliton on some space- times.

  9. THE PHYSICAL MECHANISM OF COLLISION BETWEEN SOLITONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓; 唐翌; 颜晓红

    2001-01-01

    An easy and general way to access more complex soliton phenomena is introduced in this paper. The collisionprocess between two solitons of the KdV equation is investigated in great detail with this novel approach, which is different from the sophisticated method of inverse scattering transformation. A more physical and transparent picture describing the collision of solitons is presented.

  10. Sine-Gordon Solitons as Heterotic Fivebranes

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    1992-01-01

    The Euclidean analogues of the sine-Gordon solitons are used as sources of the heterotic fivebrane solutions in the ten-dimensional heterotic string theory. Some properties of these soliton solutions are discussed. These solitons in principle can appear as string-like objects in 4-dimensional space-time after proper compactifications.

  11. Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.

    2002-01-01

    A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.

  12. Mid-Band Dissipative Spatial Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Staliunas, Kestutis

    2003-01-01

    We show dissipative spatial solitons in nonlinear optical micro-resonators in which the refractive index is laterally modulated. In addition to "normal" and "staggered" dissipative solitons, similar to those in spatially modulated conservative systems, a narrow "mid-band" soliton is shown, having no counterparts in conservative systems.

  13. Critical density of a soliton gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El, G. A., E-mail: g.el@lboro.ac.uk [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    We quantify the notion of a dense soliton gas by establishing an upper bound for the integrated density of states of the quantum-mechanical Schrödinger operator associated with the Korteweg–de Vries soliton gas dynamics. As a by-product of our derivation, we find the speed of sound in the soliton gas with Gaussian spectral distribution function.

  14. On 4-dimensional gradient shrinking solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Lei; Wallach, Nolan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we classify the four dimensional gradient shrinking solitons under certain curvature conditions satisfied by all solitons arising from finite time singularities of Ricci flow on compact four manifolds with positive isotropic curvature. As a corollary we generalize a result of Perelman on three dimensional gradient shrinking solitons to dimension four.

  15. On the classification of gradient Ricci solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Peter; Wylie, William

    2007-01-01

    We show that the only complete shrinking gradient Ricci solitons with vanishing Weyl tensor are quotients of the standard ones. This gives a new proof of the Hamilton-Ivey-Perel'man classification of 3-dimensional shrinking gradient solitons. We also prove a classification for expanding gradient Ricci solitons with constant scalar curvature and suitably decaying Weyl tensor.

  16. Entanglement generation by collisions of quantum solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Lewenstein, Maciej; Malomed, Boris A.

    2009-01-01

    We present analytic expressions describing generation of the entanglement in collisions of initially uncorrelated quantum solitons. The results, obtained by means of the Born's approximation (for fast solitons), are valid for both integrable and non-integrable quasi-one-dimensional systems supporting soliton states.

  17. Soliton bunching in annular Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernik, I.V; Lazarides, Nickos; Sørensen, Mads Peter;

    1996-01-01

    By studying soliton (fluxon) motion in long annular Josephson junctions it is possible to avoid the influence of the boundaries and soliton-soliton collisions present in linear junctions. A new experimental design consisting of a niobium coil placed on top of an annular junction has been used...

  18. Binary Quadratic Forms: A Historical View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Azar N.; Beintema, Mark B.

    2006-01-01

    We present an expository account of the development of the theory of binary quadratic forms. Beginning with the formulation and proof of the Two-Square Theorem, we show how the study of forms of the type x[squared] + ny[squared] led to the discovery of the Quadratic Reciprocity Law, and how this theorem, along with the concept of reduction relates…

  19. The Sakai-Sugimoto soliton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sakai-Sugimoto model is the preeminent example of a string theory description of holographic QCD, in which baryons correspond to topological solitons in the bulk. Here we investigate the validity of various approximations of the Sakai-Sugimoto soliton that are used widely to study the properties of holographic baryons. These approximations include the flat space self-dual instanton, a linear expansion in terms of eigenfunctions in the holographic direction and an asymptotic power series at large radius. These different approaches have produced contradictory results in the literature regarding properties of the baryon, such as relations for the electromagnetic form factors. Here we determine the regions of validity of these various approximations and show how to relate different approximations in contiguous regions of applicability. This analysis clarifies the source of the contradictory results in the literature and resolves some outstanding issues, including the use of the flat space self-dual instanton, the detailed properties of the asymptotic soliton tail, and the role of the UV cutoff introduced in previous investigations. A consequence of our analysis is the discovery of a new large scale, that grows logarithmically with the ’t Hooft coupling, at which the soliton fields enter a nonlinear regime. Finally, we provide the first numerical computation of the Sakai-Sugimoto soliton and demonstrate that the numerical results support our analysis

  20. Complex solitons with real energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Julia; Fring, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Using Hirota’s direct method and Bäcklund transformations we construct explicit complex one and two-soliton solutions to the complex Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation, the complex modified KdV (mKdV) equation and the complex sine-Gordon equation. The one-soliton solutions of trigonometric and elliptic type turn out to be { P }{ T }-symmetric when a constant of integration is chosen to be purely imaginary with one special choice corresponding to solutions recently found by Khare and Saxena. We show that alternatively complex { P }{ T }-symmetric solutions to the KdV equation may also be constructed alternatively from real solutions to the mKdV by means of Miura transformations. The multi-soliton solutions obtained from Hirota’s method break the { P }{ T }-symmetric, whereas those obtained from Bäcklund transformations are { P }{ T }-invariant under certain conditions. Despite the fact that some of the Hamiltonian densities are non-Hermitian, the total energy is found to be positive in all cases, that is irrespective of whether they are { P }{ T }-symmetric or not. The reason is that the symmetry can be restored by suitable shifts in space–time and the fact that any of our N-soliton solutions may be decomposed into N separate { P }{ T }-symmetrizable one-soliton solutions.

  1. Inelastic soliton-soliton interaction in coninin models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field equations with nonlinearity proportional to |PSI|sup(-α)PSI, α>0 (model 1 of Simonov-Tjon) are solved in one spatial dimension with initial conditions corresponding to two colliding solitons. One or several breathers are generated during the collision process and the solitons remain stable after collision. An extensive study is done of the collision process and the breather generation for different values of the interaction parameter α, velocities and relative phase in the initial state. In addition the collision of two breathers is considered. Some comparative study of one dimensional model of the Werle type is also done

  2. On Quadratic Variation of Martingales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajeeva L Karandikar; B V Rao

    2014-08-01

    We give a construction of an explicit mapping $$\\Psi: D([0,∞),\\mathbb{R})→ D([0,∞),\\mathbb{R}),$$ where $D([0,∞), \\mathbb{R})$ denotes the class of real valued r.c.l.l. functions on $[0,∞)$ such that for a locally square integrable martingale $(M_t)$ with r.c.l.l. paths, $$\\Psi(M.())=A.()$$ gives the quadratic variation process (written usually as $[M,M]_t$) of $(M_t)$. We also show that this process $(A_t)$ is the unique increasing process $(B_t)$ such that $M_t^2-B_t$ is a local martingale, $B_0=0$ and $$\\mathbb{P}(( B)_t=[( M)_t]^2, 0 < ∞)=1.$$ Apart from elementary properties of martingales, the only result used is the Doob’s maximal inequality. This result can be the starting point of the development of the stochastic integral with respect to r.c.l.l. martingales.

  3. Quadratic Hedging of Basis Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Hulley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a simple basis risk model based on correlated geometric Brownian motions. We apply quadratic criteria to minimize basis risk and hedge in an optimal manner. Initially, we derive the Föllmer–Schweizer decomposition for a European claim. This allows pricing and hedging under the minimal martingale measure, corresponding to the local risk-minimizing strategy. Furthermore, since the mean-variance tradeoff process is deterministic in our setup, the minimal martingale- and variance-optimal martingale measures coincide. Consequently, the mean-variance optimal strategy is easily constructed. Simple pricing and hedging formulae for put and call options are derived in terms of the Black–Scholes formula. Due to market incompleteness, these formulae depend on the drift parameters of the processes. By making a further equilibrium assumption, we derive an approximate hedging formula, which does not require knowledge of these parameters. The hedging strategies are tested using Monte Carlo experiments, and are compared with results achieved using a utility maximization approach.

  4. L -functions and class numbers of imaginary quadratic fields and of quadratic extensions of an imaginary quadratic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louboutin, Stephane

    1992-07-01

    Starting from the analytic class number formula involving its L-function, we first give an expression for the class number of an imaginary quadratic field which, in the case of large discriminants, provides us with a much more powerful numerical technique than that of counting the number of reduced definite positive binary quadratic forms, as has been used by Buell in order to compute his class number tables. Then, using class field theory, we will construct a periodic character &chi , defined on the ring of integers of a field K that is a quadratic extension of a principal imaginary quadratic field k, such that the zeta function of K is the product of the zeta function of k and of the L-function L(s,χ) . We will then determine an integral representation of this L-function that enables us to calculate the class number of K numerically, as soon as its regulator is known. It will also provide us with an upper bound for these class numbers, showing that Hua's bound for the class numbers of imaginary and real quadratic fields is not the best that one could expect. We give statistical results concerning the class numbers of the first 50000 quadratic extensions of {Q}(i) with prime relative discriminant (and with K/Q a non-Galois quartic extension). Our analytic calculation improves the algebraic calculation used by Lakein in the same way as the analytic calculation of the class numbers of real quadratic fields made by Williams and Broere improved the algebraic calculation consisting in counting the number of cycles of reduced ideals. Finally, we give upper bounds for class numbers of K that is a quadratic extension of an imaginary quadratic field k which is no longer assumed to be of class number one.

  5. Quark structure of chiral solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonov, D

    2004-01-01

    There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ``chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ``soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.

  6. Solitons in Bose–Einstein condensates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radha Balakrishnan; Indubala I Satija

    2011-11-01

    The Gross–Pitaevskii equation (GPE) describing the evolution of the Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) order parameter for weakly interacting bosons supports dark solitons for repulsive interactions and bright solitons for attractive interactions. After a brief introduction to BEC and a general review of GPE solitons, we present our results on solitons that arise in the BEC of hard-core bosons, which is a system with strongly repulsive interactions. For a given background density, this system is found to support both a dark soliton and an antidark soliton (i.e., a bright soliton on a pedestal) for the density profile. When the background has more (less) holes than particles, the dark (antidark) soliton solution dies down as its velocity approaches the sound velocity of the system, while the antidark (dark) soliton persists all the way up to the sound velocity. This persistence is in contrast to the behaviour of the GPE dark soliton, which dies down at the Bogoliubov sound velocity. The energy–momentum dispersion relation for the solitons is shown to be similar to the exact quantum low-lying excitation spectrum found by Lieb for bosons with a delta-function interaction.

  7. Algebraic Ricci Solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Batat, Wafaa

    2011-01-01

    We classify Algebraic Ricci Solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups. All algebraic Ricci solitons that we obtain are sol-solitons. In particular, we prove that, contrary to the Riemannian case, Lorentzian Ricci solitons need not to be algebraic Ricci solitons.

  8. Edge Solitons in Nonlinear Photonic Topological Insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Leykam, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We show theoretically that a photonic topological insulator can support edge solitons that are strongly self-localized and propagate unidirectionally along the lattice edge. The photonic topological insulator consists of a Floquet lattice of coupled helical waveguides, in a medium with local Kerr nonlinearity. The soliton behavior is strongly affected by the topological phase of the linear lattice. The topologically nontrivial phase gives a continuous family of solitons, while the topologically trivial phase gives an embedded soliton that occurs at a single power, and arises from a self-induced local nonlinear shift in the inter-site coupling. The solitons can be used for nonlinear switching and logical operations, functionalities that have not yet been explored in topological photonics. We demonstrate using solitons to perform selective filtering via propagation through a narrow channel, and using soliton collisions for optical switching.

  9. Supersymmetric Self-Gravitating Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, G W; London, L A J; Townsend, P K; Traschen, J

    1994-01-01

    We show that the `instantonic' soliton of five-dimensional Yang-Mills theory and the closely related BPS monopole of four-dimensional Yang-Mills/Higgs theory continue to be exact static, and stable, solutions of these field theories even after the inclusion of gravitational, electromagnetic and, in the four-dimensional case, dilatonic interactions, provided that certain non-minimal interactions are included. With the inclusion of these interactions, which would be required by supersymmetry, these exact self-gravitating solitons saturate a gravitational version of the Bogomol'nyi bound on the energy of an arbitrary field configuration.

  10. Phase structure of soliton molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal optical soliton molecules were recently demonstrated; they potentially allow further increase of data rates in optical telecommunication. Their binding mechanism relies on the internal phases, but these have not been experimentally accessible so far. Conventional frequency-resolved optical gating techniques are not suited for measurement of their phase profile: Their algorithms fail to converge due to zeros both in their temporal and their spectral profile. We show that the VAMPIRE (very advanced method of phase and intensity retrieval of E-fields) method performs reliably. With VAMPIRE the phase profile of soliton molecules has been measured, and further insight into the mechanism is obtained

  11. Phase structure of soliton molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, A.; Hartwig, H.; Seifert, B.; Stolz, H.; Böhm, M.; Mitschke, F.

    2007-06-01

    Temporal optical soliton molecules were recently demonstrated; they potentially allow further increase of data rates in optical telecommunication. Their binding mechanism relies on the internal phases, but these have not been experimentally accessible so far. Conventional frequency-resolved optical gating techniques are not suited for measurement of their phase profile: Their algorithms fail to converge due to zeros both in their temporal and their spectral profile. We show that the VAMPIRE (very advanced method of phase and intensity retrieval of E -fields) method performs reliably. With VAMPIRE the phase profile of soliton molecules has been measured, and further insight into the mechanism is obtained.

  12. Regularized degenerate multi-solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We report complex PT-symmetric multi-soliton solutions to the Korteweg de-Vries equation that asymptotically contain one-soliton solutions, with each of them possessing the same amount of finite real energy. We demonstrate how these solutions originate from degenerate energy solutions of the Schroedinger equation. Technically this is achieved by the application of Darboux-Crum transformations involving Jordan states with suitable regularizing shifts. Alternatively they may be constructed from a limiting process within the context Hirota's direct method or on a nonlinear superposition obtained from multiple Baecklund transformations. The proposed procedure is completely generic and also applicable to other types of nonlinear integrable systems.

  13. Computer simulation of solitary waves in a common or auxetic elastic rod with both quadratic and cubic nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui Dinh, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Gora, ul. Prof. A. Szafrana 4a, 65-516 Zielona Gora (Poland); Vinh University, 182 Duong Le Duan, Nghe An (Viet Nam); Long, V. Cao [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Gora, ul. Prof. A. Szafrana 4a, 65-516 Zielona Gora (Poland); Xuan, K. Dinh [Vinh University, 182 Duong Le Duan, Nghe An (Viet Nam); Wojciechowski, K.W. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznan (Poland)

    2012-07-15

    Results of numerical simulations are presented for propagation of solitary waves in an elastic rod of positive or negative Poisson's ratio, i.e. of a common or auxetic material. Splitting of various initial pulses during propagation into a sequence of solitary waves is considered in frames of a model which contains both quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms. The obtained results are compared with some exact analytic solutions, called solitons, what leads to the conclusion that the solitons describe well the more complicated wave fields which are obtained by numerical simulations. This is because the analytic solutions reflect complete balance between various orders of nonlinearity and dispersion. Collisions between some obtained solitary waves are also presented. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. New Soliton-like Solutions and Multi-soliton Structures for Broer-Kaup System with Variable Coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    By using the further extended tanh method [Phys. Lett. A 307 (2003) 269; Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 17(2003) 669] to the Broer-Kaup system with variable coefficients, abundant new soliton-like solutions and multi-soliton-like solutions are derived. Based on the derived multi-soliton-like solutions which contain arbitrary functions, some interesting multi-soliton structures are revealed.

  15. Highly coherent mid-IR supercontinuum by self-defocusing solitons in lithium niobate waveguides with all-normal dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin; Zeng, Xianglong; Bache, Morten

    2014-05-19

    We numerically investigate self-defocusing solitons in a lithium niobate (LN) waveguide designed to have a large refractive index (RI) change. The waveguide evokes strong waveguide dispersion and all-normal dispersion is found in the entire guiding band spanning the near-IR and the beginning of the mid-IR. Meanwhile, a self-defocusing nonlinearity is invoked by the cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation under a quasi-phase-matching pitch. Combining this with the all-normal dispersion, mid-IR solitons can form and the waveguide presents the first all-nonlinear and solitonic device where no linear dispersion (i.e. non-solitonic) regimes exist within the guiding band. Soliton compressions at 2 μm and 3 μm are investigated, with nano-joule single cycle pulse formations and highly coherent octave-spanning supercontinuum generations. With an alternative design on the waveguide dispersion, the soliton spectral tunneling effect is also investigated, with which few-cycle pico-joule pulses at 2 μm are formed by a near-IR pump. PMID:24921341

  16. The Pure Virtual Braid Group Is Quadratic

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Peter

    2011-01-01

    If an augmented algebra K over Q is filtered by powers of its augmentation ideal I, the associated graded algebra gr_I K need not in general be quadratic: although it is generated in degree 1, its relations may not be generated by homogeneous relations of degree 2. In this paper we give a criterion which is equivalent to gr_I K being quadratic. We apply this criterion to the group algebra of the pure virtual braid group (also known as the quasi-triangular group), and show that the corresponding associated graded algebra is quadratic.

  17. GENERATORS BY THE QUADRATIC EXPONENTIAL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Bochui; Qi Wenfeng

    2006-01-01

    Based on the quadratic exponential method, this paper constructs two types of generators over finite field Fq, the digital quadratic exponential generator and quadratic exponential pseudorandom vector generator. We investigate the distribution of the sequence generated by the generators, and present results about their one dimensional discrepancy. The proofs are based on the estimate of certain character sum over Fq. If t is the least period of the sequence and t ≥ q1/2+2ε, then the bound of the discrepancy is O(t-1/4q1/8+ε logq) for any ε> 0. It shows that the sequence is asymptotically uniformly distributed.

  18. SOLITONS: Stimulated decay of N-soliton pulses and optimal separation of one-soliton components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshkevich, Viktor A.; Vysloukh, Victor A.; Zhukarev, A. S.; Kartashev, Ya V.; Sinilo, P. V.

    2003-05-01

    The decay of an N-soliton optical pulse in optical fibres induced by the nonlinear interaction with a perturbing pulse is analysed numerically. The main attention is paid to the analysis of conditions under which the separation of soliton components occurs over a minimal distance. The analysis was performed by varying the carrier frequency of the perturbing pulse, its shift in time, and the phase difference. The numerical calculations are confirmed for the zero time shift by analytic calculations performed by the method of inverse scattering problem.

  19. Route to nonlocality and observation of accessible solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Claudio; Peccianti, Marco; Assanto, Gaetano

    2003-01-01

    We develop a general theory of spatial solitons in a liquid crystalline medium exhibiting a nonlinearity with an arbitrary degree of effective nonlocality. The model accounts the observability of "accessible solitons" and establishes an important link with parametric solitons.

  20. Solitons in a wave tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    1984-01-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment...

  1. Approximate sine-Gordon solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratopoulos, G.N. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom)); Zakrzewski, W.J. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1993-08-01

    We look at the recently proposed scheme of approximating a sine-Gordon soliton by an expression derived from two dimensional instantons. We point out that the scheme of Sutcliffe in which he uses two dimensional instantons can be generalised to higher dimensions and that these generalisations produce even better approximations than the original approximation. We also comment on generalisations to other models. (orig.)

  2. Vectorial coupled-mode solitons in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱善华; 黄国翔; 崔维娜

    2002-01-01

    We study the dynamics of vectorial coupled-mode solitons in one-dimensional photonic crystals with quadraticand cubic nonlinearities. Starting from Maxwell's equations, the vectorial coupled-mode equations for the envelopesof two fundamental-frequency optical mode and one low-frequency mode components due to optical rectification arederived by means of the method of multiple scales. A set of coupled soliton solutions of the vectorial coupled-modeequations is provided. The results show that a modulation of the fundamental-frequency optical modes occurs due tothe optical rectification field resulting from the quadratic nonlinearity. The optical rectification field disappears whenthe frequency of the fundamental-frequency optical fields approaches the edge of the photonic bands.

  3. Observation of soliton-induced resonant radiation due to three-wave mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, B; Guo, H R; Zeng, X L; Chen, X F; Chung, H P; Chen, Y H; Bache, M

    2016-01-01

    We show experimental proof that three-wave mixing can lead to formation of resonant radiation when interacting with a temporal soliton. This constitutes a new class of resonant waves, and due to the parametric nature of the three-wave mixing nonlinearity, the resonant radiation frequencies are widely tunable over broad ranges in the visible and mid-IR. The experiment is conducted in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, where a femtosecond self-defocusing soliton is excited in the near-IR, and resonant radiation due to the sum- and difference-frequency generation quadratic nonlinear terms are observed in the near- and mid-IR, respectively. Their spectral positions are widely tunable by changing the poling pitch and are in perfect agreement with theoretical calculations.

  4. Stability and bifurcation of quasiparallel Alfven solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, R. L.; Kennel, C. F.; Mjolhus, E.

    1992-01-01

    The inverse scattering transformation (IST) is used to study the one-parameter and two-parameter soliton families of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation. The two-parameter soliton family is determined by the discrete complex eigenvalue spectrum of the Kaup-Newell scattering problem and the one-parameter soliton family corresponds to the discrete real eigenvalue spectrum. The structure of the IST is exploited to discuss the existence of discrete real eigenvalues and to prove their structural stability to perturbations of the initial conditions. Also, though the two-parameter soliton is structurally stable in general, it is shown that a perturbation of the initial conditions may change the two-parameter soliton into a degenerate soliton which, in turn, is structurally unstable. This degenerate, or double pole, soliton may bifurcate due to a perturbation of the initial conditions into a pair of one-parameter solitons. If the initial profile is on compact support, then this pair of one-parameter solitons must be compressive and rarefactive respectively. Finally, the Gelfand-Levitan equations appropriate for the double pole soliton are solved.

  5. A NEW INEXACT SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪勤

    2002-01-01

    This paper represents an inexact sequential quadratic programming (SQP ) algorithm which can solve nonlinear programming (NLP ) problems. An inexact solution of the quadratic programming subproblem is determined by a projection and contraction method such that only matrix-vector product is required. Some truncated criteria are chosen such that the algorithm is suitable to large scale NLP problem. The global convergence of the algorithm is proved.

  6. Structure of Solvable Quadratic Lie Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lin-sheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Killing form plays a key role in the theory of semisimple Lie algebras. It is natural to extend the study to Lie algebras with a nondegenerate symmetric invariant bilinear form. Such a Lie algebra is generally called a quadratic Lie algebra which occur naturally in physics[10,12,13]. Besides semisimple Lie algebras, interesting quadratic Lie algebras include the Kac-Moody algebras and the Extended Affine Lie algebras.

  7. Quadratic Chaotic Inflation from Higgs Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Ichiro; Tomoyose, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Stimulated with the recent discovery of B-mode by BICEP2, we discuss the relation between a Higgs inflation and a chaotic inflation with quadratic potential. Starting with a generalized Higgs inflation model, we derive a condition for obtaining the quadratic chaotic inflation. It is shown that the running of the Higgs self-coupling constant in the Jordan frame plays a decisive role when the generalized Higgs inflation model coincides with the Higgs inflation model in a small-field limit.

  8. Radiotherapy treatment planning linear-quadratic radiobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, J Donald

    2015-01-01

    Understand Quantitative Radiobiology from a Radiation Biophysics PerspectiveIn the field of radiobiology, the linear-quadratic (LQ) equation has become the standard for defining radiation-induced cell killing. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning: Linear-Quadratic Radiobiology describes tumor cell inactivation from a radiation physics perspective and offers appropriate LQ parameters for modeling tumor and normal tissue responses.Explore the Latest Cell Killing Numbers for Defining Iso-Effective Cancer TreatmentsThe book compil

  9. Peregrine solitons and algebraic soliton pairs in Kerr media considering space–time correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exact unified rational solutions describing a family of Peregrine solitons as well as related algebraic soliton pairs in either self-focusing or self-defocusing Kerr media are presented, with distinct defining regimes and an explicit relationship for those of opposite nonlinearity. The active role of the space–time correction effect that plays in these soliton species is highlighted, leading to unique dynamics such as the persistence of Peregrine solitons in a defocusing Kerr medium, the availability of giant peak amplitude for the bright–bright soliton pair, and the existence of so-called bright–dark soliton pair. The evolution dynamics of the algebraic two-soliton state toward a spliced single soliton is also discussed.

  10. OPTICAL SOLITONS: Optical solitons appearing during propagation of whispering-gallery waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchigin, V. P.; Torchigin, S. V.

    2003-10-01

    The properties of solitons appearing during the propagation of whispering-gallery waves in a homogeneous glass cylinder are considered. It is shown that such solitons can be used for the light frequency conversion.

  11. The explicit dependence of quadrat variance on the ratio of clump size to quadrat size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandino, Francis J

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT In the past decade, it has become common practice to pool mapped binary epidemic data into quadrats. The resultant "quadrat counts" can then be analyzed by fitting them to a probability distribution (i.e., betabinomial). Often a binary form of Taylor's power law is used to relate the quadrat variance to the quadrat mean. The fact that there is an intrinsic dependence of such analyses on quadrat size and shape is well known. However, a clear-cut exposition of the direct connection between the spatial properties of the two-dimensional pattern of infected plants in terms of the geometry of the quadrat and the results of quadrat-based analyses is lacking. This problem was examined both empirically and analytically. The empirical approach is based on a set of stochastically generated "mock epidemics" using a Neyman-Scott cluster process. The resultant spatial point-patterns of infected plants have a fixed number of disease foci characterized by a known length scale (monodisperse) and saturated to a known disease level. When quadrat samples of these epidemics are fit to a beta-binomial distribution, the resulting measures of aggregation are totally independent of disease incidence and most strongly dependent on the ratio of the length scale of the quadrat to the length scale of spatial aggregation and to a lesser degree on disease saturation within individual foci. For the analytical approach, the mathematical form for the variation in the sum of random variates is coupled to the geometry of a quadrat through an assumed exponential autocorrelation function. The net result is an explicit equation expressing the intraquadrat correlation, quadrat variance, and the index of dispersion in terms of the ratio of the quadrat length scale to the correlative length scale.

  12. Solitons on a background, rogue waves, and classical soliton solutions of the Sasa–Satsuma equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the most general multi-parameter family of a soliton on background solutions to the Sasa–Satsuma equation. These solutions contain a set of several free parameters that control the background amplitude as well as the soliton itself. This family of solutions admits nontrivial limiting cases, such as rogue waves and classical solitons, that are considered in detail. (paper)

  13. Soliton dynamics in the multiphoton plasma regime

    CERN Document Server

    Husko, Chad A; Colman, Pierre; Zheng, Jiangjun; De Rossi, Alfredo; Wong, Chee Wei; 10.1038/srep01100

    2013-01-01

    Solitary waves have consistently captured the imagination of scientists, ranging from fundamental breakthroughs in spectroscopy and metrology enabled by supercontinuum light, to gap solitons for dispersionless slow-light, and discrete spatial solitons in lattices, amongst others. Recent progress in strong-field atomic physics include impressive demonstrations of attosecond pulses and high-harmonic generation via photoionization of free-electrons in gases at extreme intensities of 1014 Wcm2. Here we report the first phase-resolved observations of femtosecond optical solitons in a semiconductor microchip, with multiphoton ionization at picojoule energies and 1010 Wcm2 intensities. The dramatic nonlinearity leads to picojoule observations of free-electron-induced blue-shift at 1016 cm3 carrier densities and self-chirped femtosecond soliton acceleration. Furthermore, we evidence the time-gated dynamics of soliton splitting on-chip, and the suppression of soliton recurrence due to fast free-electron dynamics. Thes...

  14. A theoretical description for solitons in polyacetylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田强; 周会; 朱瑞

    2002-01-01

    The bond-alternation domain walls or the solitons in the dimerized polyacetylene are analyzed theoretically. The width of the soliton is many times the period of the chain, so that the soliton can be reasonably well described by a continuum model. Because of the existence of the bond-alternation domain walls, the electron density is different definitely. Thus the electron density can be used to describe the formation of the domain walls, and a self-trapped potential is discussed and introduced in the Hamiltonian. It is shown that the envelope of the wave functions of the chain is governed by the nonlinear Schr?dinger equation which has soliton solutions. Then the shape of the soliton is determined analytically which is in accordance with the numerical calculations by Su, Schrieffer and Heeger. This implies that the bond-alternation domain wall or the soliton is observed as the envelope of the wave function.

  15. Dynamics of Incoherent Photovoltaic Spatial Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-Qi; LU Ke-Qing; ZHANG Mei-Zhi; LI Ke-Hao; LIU Shuang; ZHANG Yan-Peng

    2009-01-01

    Propagation properties of bright and dark incoherent beams are numerically studied in photovoltaic-photorefractive crystal by using coherent density approach for the first time.Numerical simulations not only exhibit that bright incoherent photovoltaic quasi-soliton,grey-like incoherent photovoltaic soliton,incoherent soliton doublet and triplet can be established under proper conditions,but also display that the spatial coherence properties of these incoherent beams can be significantly affected during propagation by the photovoltaic field.

  16. Grey solitons in doped nonlinear fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Challenger; Panigrahi, P K

    2011-01-01

    Grey solitons, with complex envelope, are obtained as exact solutions of the coupled system describing doped optical nonlinear fibers. The phase degree of freedom plays a crucial role in removing the restrictive equal frequency conditions on the tanh-sech paired pulses, identified earlier [1]. The cross-phase modulation is found to control the speed of the grey soliton, which has an upper bound. The coupled soliton solution obtained here was found to be stable in a wide parameter range.

  17. Baryons with Two Heavy Quarks as Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Bander, Myron; Subbaraman, Anand

    1994-01-01

    Using the chiral soliton model and heavy quark symmetry we study baryons containing two heavy quarks. If there exists a stable (under strong interactions) meson consisting of two heavy quarks and two light ones, then we find that there always exists a state of this meson bound to a chiral soliton and to a chiral anti-soliton, corresponding to a two heavy quark baryon and a baryon containing two heavy anti-quarks and five light quarks, or a ``heptaquark".

  18. Observation of noise-like solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yandong; Shum, Ping; Tang, M.; Tang, Ding Y.; Lu, C.; Guo, Xin; Qi, Z. W.; Lin, Feng

    2004-05-01

    Noise-like ultra-short soliton pulses train of 72fs without CW components are observed from Figure-8 passively mode locked fiber laser; noise-like bound states of asymmetrical solitons train with pulse width of 103fs and separation of 585.5fs are also observed. The bound soliton separation and pulsewidth keep unchanged even after 1.2Km Single Mode Fiber transmission.

  19. Stationary nonlinear Alfven waves and solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, T.; Kennel, C. F.; Buti, B.

    1989-01-01

    Stationary solutions of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation are discussed and classified by using a pseudopotential formulation. The solutions consist of a rich family of nonlinear Alfven waves and solitons with parallel and oblique propagation directions. Expressions for the envelope and the phase of nonlinear waves with periodic envelope modulation, and 'hyperbolic' and 'algebraic' solitons are given. The propagation angle for the slightly modulated elliptic, periodic waves and for oblique solitons is evaluated.

  20. The Worldvolume Action of Kink Solitons in AdS Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Justin; Stokes, James

    2012-01-01

    A formalism is presented for computing the higher-order corrections to the worldvolume action of co-dimension one solitons. By modifying its potential, an explicit "kink" solution of a real scalar field in AdS space-time is found. The formalism is then applied to explicitly compute the kink worldvolume action to quadratic order in its extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures. Two alternative methods are given for doing this. In addition to conformal Galileon interactions, we find a non-Galileon term which is never sub-dominant. This method can be extended to any conformally flat bulk space-time.

  1. Electrical solitons theory, design, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ricketts, David S

    2010-01-01

    The dominant medium for soliton propagation in electronics, nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) has found wide application as a testbed for nonlinear dynamics and KdV phenomena as well as for practical applications in ultra-sharp pulse/edge generation and novel nonlinear communication schemes in electronics. While many texts exist covering solitons in general, there is as yet no source that provides a comprehensive treatment of the soliton in the electrical domain.Drawing on the award winning research of Carnegie Mellon's David S. Ricketts, Electrical Solitons Theory, Design, and Applications i

  2. Solitons in nonlocal chiral quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Broniowski, W; Ripka, G; Broniowski, Wojciech; Golli, Bojan; Ripka, Georges

    2002-01-01

    Properties of hedgehog solitons in a chiral quark model with nonlocal regulators are described. We discuss the formation of the hedgehog soliton, the quantization of the baryon number, the energetic stability, the gauging and construction of Noether currents with help of path-ordered P-exponents, and the evaluation of observables. The issue of nonlocality is thoroughly discussed, with a focus on contributions to observables related to the Noether currents. It is shown that with typical model parameters the solitons are not far from the weak nonlocality limit. The methods developed are applicable to solitons in models with separable nonlocal four-fermion interactions.

  3. Soliton coding for secured optical communication link

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Iraj Sadegh; Idrus, Sevia Mahdaliza

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear behavior of light such as chaos can be observed during propagation of a laser beam inside the microring resonator (MRR) systems. This Brief highlights the design of a system of MRRs to generate a series of logic codes. An optical soliton is used to generate an entangled photon. The ultra-short soliton pulses provide the required communication signals to generate a pair of polarization entangled photons required for quantum keys. In the frequency domain, MRRs can be used to generate optical millimetre-wave solitons with a broadband frequency of 0?100 GHz. The soliton signals are multi

  4. Soliton splitting in quenched classical integrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayun, O.; Semenyakin, M.

    2016-08-01

    We take a soliton solution of a classical non-linear integrable equation and quench (suddenly change) its non-linearity parameter. For that we multiply the amplitude or the width of a soliton by a numerical factor η and take the obtained profile as a new initial condition. We find the values of η for which the post-quench solution consists of only a finite number of solitons. The parameters of these solitons are found explicitly. Our approach is based on solving the direct scattering problem analytically. We demonstrate how it works for Korteweg–de Vries, sine-Gordon and non-linear Schrödinger integrable equations.

  5. Temperature effects on the Davydov soliton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruzeiro, L.; Halding, J.; Christiansen, Peter Leth;

    1988-01-01

    As a possible mechanism for energy storage and transport in proteins, Davydov has proposed soliton formation and propagation. In this paper we investigate the stability of Davydov solitons at biological temperatures. From Davydov’s original theory evolution equations are derived quantum mechanica......As a possible mechanism for energy storage and transport in proteins, Davydov has proposed soliton formation and propagation. In this paper we investigate the stability of Davydov solitons at biological temperatures. From Davydov’s original theory evolution equations are derived quantum...

  6. Two-soliton interaction as an elementary act of soliton turbulence in integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-soliton interactions play a definitive role in the formation of the structure of soliton turbulence in integrable systems. To quantify the contribution of these interactions to the dynamical and statistical characteristics of the nonlinear wave field of soliton turbulence we study properties of the spatial moments of the two-soliton solution of the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation. While the first two moments are integrals of the KdV evolution, the 3rd and 4th moments undergo significant variations in the dominant interaction region, which could have strong effect on the values of the skewness and kurtosis in soliton turbulence.

  7. Regularized degenerate multi-solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Francisco; Fring, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    We report complex {P}{T} -symmetric multi-soliton solutions to the Korteweg de-Vries equation that asymptotically contain one-soliton solutions, with each of them possessing the same amount of finite real energy. We demonstrate how these solutions originate from degenerate energy solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Technically this is achieved by the application of Darboux-Crum transformations involving Jordan states with suitable regularizing shifts. Alternatively they may be constructed from a limiting process within the context Hirota's direct method or on a nonlinear superposition obtained from multiple Bäcklund transformations. The proposed procedure is completely generic and also applicable to other types of nonlinear integrable systems.

  8. Nonlinear compression of optical solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M N Vinoj; V C Kuriakose

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, we consider nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations, both in the anomalous and normal dispersive regimes, which govern the propagation of a single field in a fiber medium with phase modulation and fibre gain (or loss). The integrability conditions are arrived from linear eigen value problem. The variable transformations which connect the integrable form of modified NLS equations are presented. We succeed in Hirota bilinearzing the equations and on solving, exact bright and dark soliton solutions are obtained. From the results, we show that the soliton is alive, i.e. pulse area can be conserved by the inclusion of gain (or loss) and phase modulation effects.

  9. Binary classification posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic programming and solved using particle swarm optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DEEPAK KUMAR; A G RAMAKRISHNAN

    2016-03-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used in several combinatorial optimization problems. In this work, particle swarms are used to solve quadratic programming problems with quadratic constraints. The central idea is to use PSO to move in the direction towards optimal solution rather than searching the entire feasibleregion. Binary classification is posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic problem and solved using the proposed method. Each class in the binary classification problem is modeled as a multidimensional ellipsoid to forma quadratic constraint in the problem. Particle swarms help in determining the optimal hyperplane or classification boundary for a data set. Our results on the Iris, Pima, Wine, Thyroid, Balance, Bupa, Haberman, and TAE datasets show that the proposed method works better than a neural network and the performance is close to that of a support vector machine

  10. Soliton for Radio Wave Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new system for radio wave generation using a soliton pulse within a micro and nano waveguide. The system consists of two micro ring resonators and a nano ring resonator that can be integrated into a single system in order to generate millimeter or radio wave. Results obtained have shown the potential of using this system for a broad light spectra generation. (author)

  11. Solitons and deformed lattices I

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Betti; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2002-01-01

    We study a model describing some aspects of the dynamics of biopolymers. The models involve either one or two finite chains with a number N of sites that represent the "units" of a biophysical system. The mechanical degrees of freedom of these chains are coupled to the internal degrees of freedom through position dependent excitation transfer functions. We reconsider the case of the one chain model discussed by Mingaleev et al. and present new results concerning the soliton sector of this mod...

  12. How to kick a soliton ?

    OpenAIRE

    Dziarmaga, J.; Zakrzewski, W.

    1997-01-01

    A simple method how to study response of solitons in dissipative systems to external impulsive perturbations is developed. Thanks to nontrivial choice of small parameter, the perturbative scheme captures genuine nonlinear phenomena. The method is developed and tested by numerical simulations for kinks in 1+1 dimensions and for skyrmions in 2+1 dimensions. Extension to models including second order time derivatives is discussed.

  13. Quadratic gravity: from weak to strong

    CERN Document Server

    Holdom, Bob

    2016-01-01

    More than three decades ago quadratic gravity was found to present a perturbative, renormalizable and asymptotically free theory of quantum gravity. Unfortunately the theory appeared to have problems with a spin-2 ghost. In this essay we revisit quadratic gravity in a different light by considering the case that the asymptotically free interaction flows to a strongly interacting regime. This occurs when the coefficient of the Einstein-Hilbert term is smaller than the scale $\\Lambda_{\\mathrm{QG}}$ where the quadratic couplings grow strong. Here QCD provides some useful insights. By pushing the analogy with QCD, we conjecture that the nonperturbative effects can remove the naive spin-2 ghost and lead to the emergence of general relativity in the IR.

  14. Stable isotropic cosmological singularities in quadratic gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that, in quadratic Lagrangian theories of gravity, isotropic cosmological singularities are stable to the presence of small scalar, vector, and tensor inhomogeneities. We study the effects of the quadratic Ricci term on the dynamics of the Universe at early times. Unlike in general relativity, a particular exact isotropic solution is shown to be the stable attractor on approach to the initial cosmological singularity. This solution is also known to act as an attractor in Bianchi universes of types I, II, and IX, and the results of this paper reinforce the hypothesis that small inhomogeneous and anisotropic perturbations of this attractor form part of the general cosmological solution to the field equations of quadratic gravity. Implications for the existence of a 'gravitational entropy' are also discussed

  15. Solitons in negative phase metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, A. D.; Mitchell-Thomas, R. C.; Rapoport, Y. G.; Egan, P.; King, N.

    2008-04-01

    The fundamental approach to a slowly varying amplitude formulation for nonlinear waves in metamaterials will be established. The weakly nonlinear slowly varying amplitude approach will be critically examined and some misunderstandings in the literature will be fully addressed. The extent to which negative phase behaviour has a fundamental influence upon soliton behaviour will be addressed and will include non-paraxiality, self-steepening and nonlinear diffraction. A Lagrangian approach will be presented as a way of developing a clear picture of dynamical behaviour. Exciting examples, involving waveguide and polarization coupling and interferometer systems will illustrate the extent to which non-paraxiality, self-steepening and nonlinear diffraction will be required as part of the soliton behaviour patterns, including coupler systems. In addition, a strongly nonlinear approach will be taken that seeks exact solutions to the nonlinear equations for a metamaterial. The investigations will embrace "optical needles", or autosolitons. A boundary field amplitude approach will be developed that leads to useful and elegant eigenvalue equations that expose in a very clear manner the dependence of wave number upon the optical power density. All the work will be beautifully illustrated with dramatic color-coded outcomes that will also embrace the soliton lens.

  16. SOLITONS: Optimal control of optical soliton parameters: Part 1. The Lax representation in the problem of soliton management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkin, Vladimir N.; Belyaeva, T. L.

    2001-11-01

    The existence of the Lax representation for a model of soliton management under certain conditions is shown, which proves a complete integrability of the model. The exact analytic solutions are obtained for the problem of the optimal control of parameters of Schrodinger solitons in nonconservative systems with the group velocity dispersion, nonlinear refractive index, and gain (absorption coefficient) varying over the length. The examples demonstrating the non-trivial amplification dynamics of optical solitons, which are important from practical point of view, are considered. The exact analytic solutions are obtained for problems of the optimal amplification of solitons in optical fibres with monotonically decreasing dispersion and of Raman pumping of solitons in fibreoptic communication systems.

  17. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd [Department of Computational and Theoretical Sciences, Faculty of Science International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 141, 25710 Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  18. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2003-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda...... on the simple observation that all functions in each component need the same extra parameters and thus a transitive closure is not needed. We therefore simplify the search for extra parameters by treating each strongly connected component instead of each function as a unit, thereby reducing the time complexity...

  19. Lambda-lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, O.; Schultz, U.P.

    2004-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda...... on the simple observation that all functions in each component need the same extra parameters and thus a transitive closure is not needed. We therefore simplify the search for extra parameters by treating each strongly connected component instead of each function as a unit, thereby reducing the time complexity...

  20. Stable Isotropic Cosmological Singularities in Quadratic Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, J D; Barrow, John D.; Middleton, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    We show that, in quadratic lagrangian theories of gravity, isotropic cosmological singularities are stable to the presence of small scalar, vector and tensor inhomogeneities. Unlike in general relativity, a particular exact isotropic solution is shown to be the stable attractor on approach to the initial cosmological singularity. This solution is also known to act as an attractor in Bianchi universes of types I, II and IX, and the results of this paper reinforce the hypothesis that small inhomogeneous and anisotropic perturbations of this attractor form part of the general cosmological solution to the field equations of quadratic gravity. Implications for the existence of a 'gravitational entropy' are also discussed.

  1. Binary quadratic forms an algorithmic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Buchmann, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    The book deals with algorithmic problems related to binary quadratic forms, such as finding the representations of an integer by a form with integer coefficients, finding the minimum of a form with real coefficients and deciding equivalence of two forms. In order to solve those problems, the book introduces the reader to important areas of number theory such as diophantine equations, reduction theory of quadratic forms, geometry of numbers and algebraic number theory. The book explains applications to cryptography. It requires only basic mathematical knowledge.

  2. Guises and disguises of quadratic divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchiglia, A.L., E-mail: adriano@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vieira, A.R., E-mail: arvieira@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hiller, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte@teor.fis.uc.pt [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Baêta Scarpelli, A.P., E-mail: scarpelli.apbs@dpf.gov.br [Setor Técnico-Científico, Departamento de Polícia Federal, Rua Hugo D’Antola, 95 - Lapa, São Paulo (Brazil); Sampaio, Marcos, E-mail: marcos.sampaio@durham.ac.uk [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centre for Particle Theory, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    In this contribution, we present a new perspective on the control of quadratic divergences in quantum field theory, in general, and in the Higgs naturalness problem, in particular. Our discussion is essentially based on an approach where UV divergences are parameterized, after being reduced to basic divergent integrals (BDI) in one internal momentum, as functions of a cutoff and a renormalization group scale λ. We illustrate our proposal with well-known examples, such as the gluon vacuum self energy of QCD and the Higgs decay in two photons within this approach. We also discuss frameworks in effective low-energy QCD models, where quadratic divergences are indeed fundamental.

  3. Bound constrained quadratic programming via piecewise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with bounded variables. A dual problem is derived using Lagrange duality. The dual problem is the minimization of an unconstrained, piecewise quadratic function. It involves a lower bound of lambda/sub 1/ , the smallest eigenvalue...... of a symmetric, positive definite matrix, and is solved by Newton iteration with line search. The paper describes the algorithm and its implementation including estimation of lambda/sub 1/ , how to get a good starting point for the iteration, and up- and downdating of Cholesky factorization. Results of extensive...

  4. Hermite's Constant for Quadratic Number Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Baeza, Ricardo; Coulangeon, Renaud; Icaza, Maria Ines; O'Ryan, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    We develop a method to compute the Hermite-Humbert constants $\\gam_{K,n}$ of a real quadratic number field $K$, the analogue of the classical Hermite constant $\\gam_n$ when $\\funnyQ$ is replaced by a quadratic extension. In the case $n=2$, the problem is equivalent to the determination of lowest points of fundamental domains in $\\H^2$ for the Hilbert modular group over $K$, that had been studied experimentally by H. Cohn. We establish the results he conjectured for the...

  5. Octave-Spanning Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation with Ultrafast Cascaded Nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Liu, Xing;

    2014-01-01

    An octave-spanning mid-IR supercontinuum is observed experimentally using ultrafast cascaded nonlinearities in an LiInS2 quadratic nonlinear crystal pumped with 70 fs energetic mid-IR pulses and cut for strongly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation.......An octave-spanning mid-IR supercontinuum is observed experimentally using ultrafast cascaded nonlinearities in an LiInS2 quadratic nonlinear crystal pumped with 70 fs energetic mid-IR pulses and cut for strongly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation....

  6. Observation of an octave-spanning supercontinuum in the mid-infrared using ultrafast cascaded nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Liu, Xing; Zhou, Binbin

    2014-01-01

    An octave-spanning mid-IR supercontinuum is observed experimentally using ultrafast cascaded nonlinearities in an LiInS2 quadratic nonlinear crystal pumped with 70 fs energetic mid-IR pulses and cut for strongly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation. ©OSA 2014.......An octave-spanning mid-IR supercontinuum is observed experimentally using ultrafast cascaded nonlinearities in an LiInS2 quadratic nonlinear crystal pumped with 70 fs energetic mid-IR pulses and cut for strongly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation. ©OSA 2014....

  7. Drift wave solitons in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shears of electron diamagnetic drift velocity and ExB drift velocity are theoretically verified to give nonlinearities and establish a soliton of drift wave. Experimentally, a drift wave soliton is observed. Both of the propagation velocity of the soliton and the inverse of the soliton width get large with an increase in amplitude. (author)

  8. On gradient solitons of the Ricci-Harmonic flow

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hongxin; Philipowski, Robert; Thalmaier, Anton

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study gradient solitons to the Ricci flow coupled with harmonic map heat flow. We derive new identities on solitons similar to those on gradient solitons of the Ricci flow. When the soliton is compact, we get a classification result. We also discuss the relation with quasi-Einstein manifolds.

  9. Spatial solitons in an optically pumped semiconductor microresonator

    OpenAIRE

    Taranenko, V. B.; Weiss, C. O.

    2002-01-01

    We show experimentally and numerically the existence of stable spatial solitons in an optically pumped semiconductor microresonator. We demonstrate that the pump substantially reduces the light intensity necessary to sustain the solitons and thereby reduces destabilizing thermal effects. We demonstrate coherent switching on and off of bright solitons. We discuss differences between pumped and unpumped below bandgap-solitons.

  10. Some Aspects of Optical Spatial Solitons in Photorefractive Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Konar, S.; Biswas, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    We have reviewed recent developments of some aspects of optical spatial solitons in photorefractive media. Underlying principles governing the dynamics of photorefractive nonlinearity have been discussed using band transport model. Nonlinear dynamical equations for propagating solitons have been derived considering single as well as two-photon photorefractive processes. Fundamental properties of three types of solitons, particularly, screening, photovoltaic and screening photovoltaic solitons...

  11. Formation of Optical Solitons in Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰胜; 陈雄文

    2004-01-01

    Relying on the huge group velocity dispersion available in photonic crystal (PC) waveguides, we observe the formation of both Bragg grating solitons and gap solitons in nonlinear PC waveguides in numericalexperiments. Also,we indicate the potential applications of optical solitons in optical limiting, optical delay, and pulse compression and the feasibility of observing optical solitons in practical experiments.

  12. Observation of attraction between dark solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreischuh, A.; Neshev, D.N.; Petersen, D.E.;

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate a dramatic change in the interaction forces between dark solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media. We present what we believe is the first experimental evidence of attraction of dark solitons. Our results indicate that attraction should be observable in other nonlocal systems...

  13. Attraction of nonlocal dark optical solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov; Neshev, Dragomir; Krolikowski, Wieslaw;

    2004-01-01

    We study the formation and interaction of spatial dark optical solitons in materials with a nonlocal nonlinear response. We show that unlike in local materials, where dark solitons typically repel, the nonlocal nonlinearity leads to a long-range attraction and formation of stable bound states...

  14. Strings And Non-Topological Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Fiore, R.; Galeazzi, D.; Masperi, L.; Megevand, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have numerically calculated topological andnon-topological solitons in two spatial dimensions with Chern-Simons term. Their quantum stability, as well as that of the Maxwell vortex, is analyzed by means of bounce instantons which involve three-dimensional strings and non-topological solitons.

  15. Modification of Plasma Solitons by Resonant Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpman, Vladimir; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul;

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results are compared with new theoretical results describing soliton propagation and deformation in a strongly magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide.......Experimental and numerical results are compared with new theoretical results describing soliton propagation and deformation in a strongly magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide....

  16. Dark Solitons in FPU Lattice Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on multiple scales method, we study the nonlinear properties of a new Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice model analytically. It is found that the lattice chain exhibits a novel nonlinear elementary excitation, i.e. a dark soliton.Moreover, the modulation depth of dark soliton is increasing as the anharmonic parameter increases.

  17. Nonplanar solitons collision in ultracold neutral plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tantawy, S. A.; Moslem, W. M.; El-Metwally, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Sabry, R. [Theoretical Physics Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Department of Physics, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia); El-Labany, S. K. [Theoretical Physics Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Schlickeiser, R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    Collisions between two nonplanar ion-acoustic solitons in strongly coupled ultracold neutral plasmas composed of ion fluid and non-Maxwellian (nonthermal or superthermal) electron distributions are investigated. The extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo method is used to obtain coupled nonplanar Kortweg-de Vries equations for describing the system. The nonplanar phase shifts after the interaction of the two solitons are calculated. It is found that the properties of the nonplanar colliding solitons and its corresponding phase shifts are different from those in the planar case. The polarity of the colliding solitons strongly depends on the type of the non-Maxwellian electron distributions. A critical nonthermality parameter β{sub c} is identified. For values of β ≤ β{sub c} solitons with double polarity exist, while this behavior cannot occur for superthermal plasmas. The phase shift for nonthermal plasmas increases below β{sub c} for a positive soliton, but it decreases for β > β{sub c} for a negative soliton. For superthermal plasmas, the phase shift enhances rapidly for low values of spectral index κ and higher values of ions effective temperature ratio σ{sub *}. For 2 ≲ κ<10, the phase shift decreases but does not change for κ > 10. The nonlinear structure, as reported here, is useful for controlling the solitons created in forthcoming ultracold neutral plasma experiments.

  18. Formation of multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuhong Zhang; Keqing Lu; Jianbang Guo; Xuewen Long; Xiaohong Hu; Kehao Li

    2012-02-01

    We theoretically study the formation of multiple dark photovoltaic soliton splitting in the quasi-steady-state and steady-state regimes under open-circuit conditions. We find that the initial width of the dark notch at the entrance face of the crystal is a key parameter for generating an even (or odd) number sequence of dark coherent photovoltaic solitons. If the initial width of the dark notch is small, only a fundamental soliton or Y-junction soliton pair is generated. As the initial width of the dark notch is increased, the dark notch tends to split into an odd (or even) number of multiple dark photovoltaic solitons, which realizes a progressive transition from a low-order soliton to a sequence of higher-order solitons. The soliton pairs far away from the centre have bigger width and less visibility. In addition, when the distance from the centre of the dark notch increases, the separations between adjacent dark stripes become slightly smaller.

  19. String solitons and T-duality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    We construct for arbitrary dimensions a universal T-duality covariant expression for the Wess-Zumino terms of supersymmetric String Solitons in toroidally compactified string theories with 32 supercharges. The worldvolume fields occurring in the effective action of these String Solitons form either

  20. Dispersion-tailored active-fiber solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tartwijk, Guido H. M.; Essiambre, René-Jean; Agrawal, Govind P.

    1996-12-01

    We show analytically that tailoring the fiber dispersion appropriately can cause optical solitons to propagate unperturbed, without emission of dispersive waves, in a distributed-gain fiber amplifier with a nonuniform gain profile. We apply our scheme to a bidirectionally pumped fiber amplifier and discuss the importance of higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects for short solitons.

  1. On fluctuations of closed string tachyon solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Razamat, Shlomo S.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss fluctuations on solitons in the dilaton/graviton/tachyon system using the low energy effective field theory approach. It is shown that closed string solitons are free of tachyons in this approximation, regardless of the exact shape of the tachyon potential.

  2. Spatial solitons in a semiconductor microresonator

    OpenAIRE

    Taranenko, V. B.; Ganne, I.; Kuszelewicz, R. J.; Weiss, C. O.

    2000-01-01

    We show experimentally the existence of bright and dark spatial solitons in a passive quantum-well-semiconductor resonator of large Fresnel number. For the wavelength of observation the nonlinearity is mixed absorptive/defocusing. Bright solitons appear more stable than dark ones.

  3. Discrete dark solitons with multiple holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, H.; Johansson, M.

    2005-01-01

    We consider staggered dark solitons admitted by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation with focusing cubic nonlinearity. In particular, we focus on the study of dark solitons with several holes characterized by the number of zeros in the uncoupled case. Such structures reveal interesting behavi

  4. Entire spacelike translating solitons in Minkowski space

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Qi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study entire spacelike translating solitons in Minkowski space. By constructing convex spacelike solutions to (1.3) in bounded convex domains, we obtain many entire smooth convex strictly spacelike translating solitons by prescribing boundary data at infinity.

  5. A characterization of Koiso's typed solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bo

    2008-01-01

    By extending Koiso's examples to the non-compact case, we construct complete gradient Kahler-Ricci solitons of various types on certain holomorphic line bundles over compact Kahler-Einstein manifolds. Moreover, a uniformization result on steady gradient Kahler-Ricci solitons with non-negative Ricci curvature is obtained under additional assumptions.

  6. Few-optical-cycle dissipative solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblond, H [Laboratoire de Photonique d' Angers EA 4464, Universite d' Angers, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Mihalache, D, E-mail: herve.leblond@univ-angers.f [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), 407 Atomistilor, Magurele-Bucharest, 077125 (Romania)

    2010-09-17

    By using a powerful reductive perturbation technique, or multiscale analysis, a generalized modified Korteweg-de Vries partial differential equation is derived, which describes the physics of few-optical-cycle dissipative solitons beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation. Numerical simulations of the formation of stable dissipative solitons from arbitrary breather-like few-cycle pulses are also given.

  7. Periodic solitons in dispersion decreasing fibers with a cosine profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periodic solitons are studied in dispersion decreasing fibers with a cosine profile. The variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which can be used to describe the propagation of solitons, is investigated analytically. Analytic soliton solutions for this equation are derived with the Hirota's bilinear method. Using the soliton solutions, we obtain periodic solitons, and analyze the soliton characteristics. Influences of physical parameters on periodic solitons are discussed. The presented results can be used in optical communication systems and fiber lasers. (general)

  8. Effects of correlated perturbations on dark soliton propagation and interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hong; Wang Tie-Jun; Huang De-Xiu; Wang D.N.

    2004-01-01

    Correlated perturbations are considered in a dark soliton system, and their effects on soliton propagation and interaction are investigated numerically. These perturbations result in large sidebands, lead to submergence of dark soliton, and enhance the interaction. The correlation amplifies these effects and shortens the distance until submergence.The comparison of the distinction is made between the degradations of these effects on dark soliton and the corresponding bright soliton. It is found that these effects on dark soliton are less than those on bright soliton. Finally the nonlinear gain is introduced to suppress efficiently these effects.

  9. Nuclei as superposition of topological solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rational map approximation provides an opportunity to describe light nuclei as classical solitons with baryon number B > 1 in the framework of the Skyrme model. The rational map ansatz yields a possibility of factorization of S3 baryon charge into S1 and S2 parts, the phenomenology of the model being strongly affected by the chosen factorization. Moreover, in the fundamental representation superposition of two different soliton factorizations can be used as solution ansatz. The canonical quantization procedure applied to collective degrees of freedom of the classical soliton leads to anomalous breaking of the chiral symmetry and exponential falloff of the energy density of the soliton at large distance, without explicit symmetry breaking terms included. The evolution of the shape of electric form factor as a function of two different factorization soliton mix ratio is investigated. Numerical results are presented. (author)

  10. Condition for convective instability of dark solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple derivation of the condition for the transition point from absolute instability of plane dark solitons to their convective instability is suggested. It is shown that unstable wave packet expands with velocity equal to the minimal group velocity of the disturbance waves propagating along a dark soliton. The growth rate of the length of dark solitons generated by the flow of Bose-Einstein condensate past an obstacle is estimated. Analytical theory is confirmed by the results of numerical simulations. -- Highlights: → Conditions for absolute or convective instability of dark solitons are derived. → Velocity of expansion of instability front equals to the minimal group velocity. → Growth rate of length of dark solitons generated by the flow is estimated.

  11. Kinetic slow mode-type solitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Baumgärtel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional hybrid code simulations are presented, carried out in order both to study solitary waves of the slow mode branch in an isotropic, collisionless, medium-β plasma (βi=0.25 and to test the fluid based soliton interpretation of Cluster observed strong magnetic depressions (Stasiewicz et al., 2003; Stasiewicz, 2004 against kinetic theory. In the simulations, a variety of strongly oblique, large amplitude, solitons are seen, including solitons with Alfvenic polarization, similar to those predicted by the Hall-MHD theory, and robust, almost non-propagating, solitary structures of slow magnetosonic type with strong magnetic field depressions and perpendicular ion heating, which have no counterpart in fluid theory. The results support the soliton-based interpretation of the Cluster observations, but reveal substantial deficiencies of Hall-MHD theory in describing slow mode-type solitons in a plasma of moderate beta.

  12. Quantum Bright Soliton in a Disorder Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, K.; Delande, D.; Zakrzewski, J.

    2009-11-01

    At very low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with attractive interactions tend to form a bright soliton. When exposed to a sufficiently weak external potential, the shape of the soliton is not modified, but its external motion is affected. We develop in detail the Bogoliubov approach for the problem, treating, in a non-perturbative way, the motion of the center of mass of the soliton. Quantization of this motion allows us to discuss its long time properties. In particular, in the presence of a disordered potential, the quantum motion of the center of mass of a bright soliton may exhibit Anderson localization, on a localization length which may be much larger than the soliton size and could be observed experimentally.

  13. The interaction of dual wavelength solitons in fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dual wavelength solitons with 41.2 nm spectral separation are achieved simultaneously via nonlinear polarization rotation technique. One is the picosecond soliton, the other is femtosecond soliton. The direct interaction of two solitons does not happen firstly for the temporal separation between them is beyond 5 times of their duration. When the continuous wave (CW), as the roles to cause the direct soliton interaction through shifting the central wavelength of the solitons, are excited to appear, the interaction of dual wavelength solitons happens. There are some dips present on the femtosecond soliton spectra, indicating the interaction between dual wavelength solitons. The power of CW affects the intensities of dips in the spectra and the pulse numbers and relative position of pulse bunches. The more the power of CW, the more the intensities of the dips at the femtosecond soliton spectra are

  14. Range-based estimation of quadratic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Podolskij, Mark

    This paper proposes using realized range-based estimators to draw inference about the quadratic variation of jump-diffusion processes. We also construct a range-based test of the hypothesis that an asset price has a continuous sample path. Simulated data shows that our approach is efficient, the...

  15. Range-based estimation of quadratic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Podolskij, Mark

    In this paper, we propose using realized range-based estimation to draw inference about the quadratic variation of jump-diffusion processes. We also construct a new test of the hypothesis that an asset price has a continuous sample path. Simulated data shows that our approach is efficient, the test...

  16. On Quadratic Twists of Hyperelliptic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Let C be a hyperelliptic curve of good reduction defined over a discrete valuation field K. Given $d\\in K^*\\setminus K^{*2}$, we find the minimal regular model of the quadratic twist of C by d. Then we prove that there exists an infinite family of hyperelliptic curves of genus 2 defined over Q violating the Hasse principle.

  17. Energy definition for quadratic curvature gravities

    OpenAIRE

    Baykal, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    A conserved current for generic quadratic curvature gravitational models is defined, and it is shown that, at the linearized level, it corresponds to the Deser-Tekin charges. An explicit expression for the charge for new massive gravity in three dimensions is given. Some implications of the linearized equations are discussed.

  18. On Quadratic Programming with a Ratio Objective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaskara, Aditya; Manokaran, Rajsekar; Vijayaraghavan, Aravindan

    2011-01-01

    Quadratic Programming (QP) is the well-studied problem of maximizing over {-1,1} values the quadratic form \\sum_ij a_ij x_i x_j. QP captures many known combinatorial optimization problems and SDP techniques have given optimal approximation algorithms for many of these problems. We extend this body of work by initiating the study of Quadratic Programming problems where the variables take values in the domain {-1,0,1}. The specific problem we study is: QP-Ratio: max_{-1,0,1}^n (x^T A x) / (x^T x). This objective function is a natural relative of several well studied problems. Yet, it is a good testbed for both algorithms and complexity because the techniques used for quadratic problems for the {-1,1} and {0,1} domains do not seem to carry over to the {-1,0,1} domain. We give approximation algorithms and evidence for the hardness of approximating the QP-Ratio problem. We consider an SDP relaxation obtained by adding constraints to the natural SDP relaxation for this problem and obtain an O(n^{2/7}) algorithm for...

  19. Distortion control of conjugacies between quadratic polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We use a new type of distortion control of univalent functions to give an alternative proof of Douady-Hubbard’s ray-landing theorem for quadratic Misiurewicz polynomials. The univalent maps arise from Thurston’s iterated algorithm on perturbation of such polynomials.

  20. Quadratic Forms%二次型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭亚茹

    2016-01-01

    The quadratic Higher Algebra is an important part of this paper, the definition of quadratic forms, introduces the second type of representation, and then describes how to use the allocation method, elementary transformation, orthogonal transformation method, etc. II second type into the standard form, and the second type of normal form, finally introduced posi-tive definite quadratic form and method for determining positive definite quadratic form.%二次型是高等代数的重要组成部分,本文从二次型的定义出发,介绍了二次型的表示方法,然后介绍了如何用配方法、初等变换法、正交变换法等将二次型化为标准形,以及二次型的规范形,最后介绍了正定二次型和判定正定二次型的方法。

  1. Test-assignment: a quadratic coloring problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duives, Jelle; Lodi, Andrea; Malaguti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of assigning the test variants of a written exam to the desks of a classroom in such a way that desks that are close-by receive different variants. The problem is a generalization of the Vertex Coloring and we model it as a binary quadratic problem. Exact solution methods bas

  2. Modulational instability in periodic quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the modulational instability of plane waves in quadratic nonlinear materials with linear and nonlinear quasi-phase-matching gratings. Exact Floquet calculations, confirmed by numerical simulations, show that the periodicity can drastically alter the gain spectrum but never complete...

  3. Quadratic phase matching in slot waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Di Falco, Andrea; Conti, Claudio; Assanto, Gaetano

    2006-01-01

    We analyze phase matching with reference to frequency doubling in nanosized quadratic waveguides encompassing form birefringence and supporting cross-polarized fundamental and second-harmonic modes. In an AlGaAs rod with an air void, we show that phase-matched second-harmonic generation could be achieved in a wide spectral range employing state-of-the-art nanotechnology.

  4. The GCD property and irreduciable quadratic polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Malik

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The proof of the following theorem is presented: If D is, respectively, a Krull domain, a Dedekind domain, or a Prüfer domain, then D is correspondingly a UFD, a PID, or a Bezout domain if and only if every irreducible quadratic polynomial in D[X] is a prime element.

  5. Quadratic minima and modular forms II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Barry

    We give upper bounds on the size of the gap between a non-zero constant term and the next non-zero Fourier coefficient of an entire level two modular form. We give upper bounds for the minimum positive integer represented by a level two even positive-definite quadratic form. These bounds extend partial results in part I.

  6. Extraction of a single soliton from a bunch of solitons generated by pulse breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Jimenez, Miguel A.; Kuzin, Evgeny A.; Pottiez, Olivier; Ibarra-Escamilla, Baldemar; Flores-Rosas, Ariel; Duran-Sanchez, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    Pulses propagating in the fiber with anomalous dispersion are broken up to the bunch of soliton. The extraction of an individual soliton from the bunch can be used for soliton generation and also for investigation of the process of the soliton formation. In this work we experimentally demonstrate that the NOLM allows extraction of an individual soliton. Earlier we have shown numerically that the NOLM has high transmission for the solitons with a range of durations while solitons with shorter and longer durations are rejected. The range of the durations with high transmission depends on the NOLM length and also can be moved by amplification of solitons before entering to the NOLM. In the experiment we launched 25-ps pulses with about 10 W of power to the 500-m single mode fiber with dispersion equal to 20 ps/nm-km. As a result of the pulse breakup, a bunch of solitons is formed at the fiber output. The resulting solitons are launched to the EDFA and then to the NOLM made from the 40-m of the same fiber. The NOLM parameters are adjusted to transmit the highest soliton in the bunch (about 50 W of power and 1 ps of duration according to theoretical estimations). In the experiment we detected at the NOLM output a single pulse with duration of 1.46 ps and autocorrelation function similar to that of the soliton. When a 1-km fiber was attached to the NOLM at the fiber output we detected a soliton with duration of 0.9 ps.

  7. Soliton collisions in soft magnetic nanotube with uniaxial anisotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Usov, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of stable magnetic solitons of various orders in soft magnetic nanotube with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy has been studied using numerical simulation. Solitons of even order are immobile in axially applied magnetic field. Odd solitons show decreased mobility with respect to that of head-to head domain wall. Solitons of various orders can participate in nanotube magnetization reversal process. Various coalescence and decomposition processes in soliton assembly are considered. It ...

  8. Solitons in the one-dimensional forest fire model

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Per; Chen, Kan; Paczuski, Maya

    2000-01-01

    Fires in the one-dimensional Bak-Chen-Tang forest fire model propagate as solitons, resembling shocks in Burgers turbulence. The branching of solitons, creating new fires, is balanced by the pair-wise annihilation of oppositely moving solitons. Two distinct, diverging length scales appear in the limit where the growth rate of trees, $p$, vanishes. The width of the solitons, $w$, diverges as a power law, $1/p$, while the average distance between solitons diverges much faster as $ d \\sim \\exp({...

  9. Supersonic Vibron Solitons and Their Possible Existence in Polypeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Takeno, Shozo

    1999-01-01

    Nonlinear interactions of vibrons with lattice solitons due to the soft cubic nonlinearity in a quasi-one-dimensional lattice yield supersonic vibron solitons. Their binding energy is larger than those of the conventional Davydov solitons and vibron solitons, and their propagation velocity is uniquely determined in contrast to the latter two. Examination of parameters in the model Hamiltonian for polypeptides leads to the result that the supersonic vibron solitons obtained here are more likel...

  10. SOLITON-LIKE SOLUTIONS FOR THE BLMP EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯仁道尔吉; 孙炯

    2001-01-01

    给出Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pempinelli方程的soliton-like解,并由此得出该方程的若干新的解.行波解只是soliton-like解的特例.%The soliton-like solutions of the Boiti-Leon-Manna-Pemp inelliequation are obtained.Some new solutions from those soliton-like solutio ns are also presented.Solitary waves are merely a special case of the soliton-l ike solutions.

  11. Soliton turbulence in shallow water ocean surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andrea; Osborne, Alfred R; Resio, Donald T; Alessio, Silvia; Chrivì, Elisabetta; Saggese, Enrica; Bellomo, Katinka; Long, Chuck E

    2014-09-01

    We analyze shallow water wind waves in Currituck Sound, North Carolina and experimentally confirm, for the first time, the presence of soliton turbulence in ocean waves. Soliton turbulence is an exotic form of nonlinear wave motion where low frequency energy may also be viewed as a dense soliton gas, described theoretically by the soliton limit of the Korteweg-deVries equation, a completely integrable soliton system: Hence the phrase "soliton turbulence" is synonymous with "integrable soliton turbulence." For periodic-quasiperiodic boundary conditions the ergodic solutions of Korteweg-deVries are exactly solvable by finite gap theory (FGT), the basis of our data analysis. We find that large amplitude measured wave trains near the energetic peak of a storm have low frequency power spectra that behave as ∼ω-1. We use the linear Fourier transform to estimate this power law from the power spectrum and to filter densely packed soliton wave trains from the data. We apply FGT to determine the soliton spectrum and find that the low frequency ∼ω-1 region is soliton dominated. The solitons have random FGT phases, a soliton random phase approximation, which supports our interpretation of the data as soliton turbulence. From the probability density of the solitons we are able to demonstrate that the solitons are dense in time and highly non-Gaussian. PMID:25238388

  12. On the Kinetic Properties of Solitons in Nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Baryakhtar, I. V.

    1996-01-01

    The Boltzmann type kinetic equation for solitons in Nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation has been constructed on the base of analysis of two soliton collision. Possible applications for Langmuir solitons in plasma and solitons in optic fiber are discussed.

  13. Wave Physics Oscillations - Solitons - Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Nettel, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This textbook is intended for those second year undergraduates in science and engineering who will later need an understanding of electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics. The classical physics of oscillations and waves is developed at a more advanced level than has been customary for the second year, providing a basis for the quantum mechanics that follows. In this new edition the Green's function is explained, reinforcing the integration of quantum mechanics with classical physics. The text may also form the basis of an "introduction to theoretical physics" for physics majors. The concluding chapters give special attention to topics in current wave physics: nonlinear waves, solitons, and chaotic behavior.

  14. Dynamics of matter wave solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Polo Gómez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Treball final de màster oficial fet en col·laboració amb Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB) i Institut de Ciències Fotòniques (ICFO) [ANGLÈS] We study the implementation of a matter wave bright soliton interferometer formed by a Gaussian potential barrier placed at the center of a harmonic trap potential. After numerically evaluating the transmission coefficient of the potential barrier as a function of the ratio between the kinetic energy of an incident...

  15. Cavity Solitons in VCSEL Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barbay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We review advances on the experimental study of cavity solitons in VCSELs in the past decade. We emphasize on the design and fabrication of electrically or optically pumped broad-area VCSELs used for CSs formation and review different experimental configurations. Potential applications of CSs in the field of photonics are discussed, in particular the use of CSs for all-optical processing of information and for VCSELs characterization. Prospects on self-localization studies based on vertical cavity devices involving new physical mechanisms are also given.

  16. Soliton equations and Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, L A

    2002-01-01

    The theory of soliton equations and integrable systems has developed rapidly during the last 30 years with numerous applications in mechanics and physics. For a long time, books in this field have not been written but the flood of papers was overwhelming: many hundreds, maybe thousands of them. All this output followed one single work by Gardner, Green, Kruskal, and Mizura on the Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV), which had seemed to be merely an unassuming equation of mathematical physics describing waves in shallow water. Besides its obvious practical use, this theory is attractive also becau

  17. Infinite Sequence Soliton-Like Exact Solutions of (2 + 1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taogetusang; Sirendaoerji; LI Shu-Min

    2011-01-01

    To seek new infinite sequence soliton-like exact solutions to nonlinear evolution equations (NEE(s)), by developing two characteristics of construction and mechanization on auxiliary equation method, the second kind of elliptic equation is highly studied and new type solutions and B(a)ckiund transformation are obtained. Then (2+ l)-dimensional breaking soliton equation is chosen as an example and its infinite sequence soliton-like exact solutions are constructed with the help of symbolic computation system Mathematica, which include infinite sequence smooth soliton-like solutions of Jacobi elliptic type, infinite sequence compact soliton solutions of Jacobi elliptic type and infinite sequence peak soliton solutions of exponential function type and triangular function type.

  18. The Geometrodynamics of Sine-Gordon Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Gegenberg, J

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between N-soliton solutions to the Euclidean sine-Gordon equation and Lorentzian black holes in Jackiw-Teitelboim dilaton gravity is investigated, with emphasis on the important role played by the dilaton in determining the black hole geometry. We show how an N-soliton solution can be used to construct ``sine-Gordon'' coordinates for a black hole of mass M, and construct the transformation to more standard ``Schwarzchild-like'' coordinates. For N=1 and 2, we find explicit closed form solutions to the dilaton equations of motion in soliton coordinates, and find the relationship between the soliton parameters and the black hole mass. Remarkably, the black hole mass is non-negative for arbitrary soliton parameters. In the one-soliton case the coordinates are shown to cover smoothly a region containing the whole interior of the black hole as well as a finite neighbourhood outside the horizon. A Hamiltonian analysis is performed for slicings that approach the soliton coordinates on the interior, a...

  19. Solitons of axion-dilaton gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    1996-01-01

    We use soliton techniques of the two-dimensional reduced beta-function equations to obtain non-trivial string backgrounds from flat space. These solutions are characterized by two integers (n, m) referring to the soliton numbers of the metric and axion-dilaton sectors respectively. We show that the Nappi-Witten universe associated with the SL(2) x SU(2) / SO(1, 1) x U(1) CFT coset arises as an (1, 1) soliton in this fashion for certain values of the moduli parameters, while for other values of the soliton moduli we arrive at the SL(2)/SO(1, 1) x SO(1, 1)^2 background. Ordinary 4-dim black-holes arise as 2-dim (2, 0) solitons, while the Euclidean worm-hole background is described as a (0, 2) soliton on flat space. The soliton transformations correspond to specific elements of the string Geroch group. These could be used as starting point for exploring the role of U-dualities in string compactifications to two dimensions.

  20. SOLITONS AND OPTICAL FIBERS: On the problem of ideal amplification of optical solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Melchor, G.; Agüero Granados, M.; Corro, G. H.

    2002-11-01

    The new possibilities of almost ideal amplification of optical solitons during the incoherent interaction of light pulses with a resonantly amplifying medium are considered. The mechanism of two-photon amplification of optical solitons with an optimal frequency-modulation law is proposed. It is shown that the entirely ideal amplification of solitons cannot be achieved because the law of phase modulation of radiation differs from a parabolic law. The possibility of using the phase cross modulation to produce the required initial phase of amplified solitons is studied.

  1. Darboux transformation of generalized coupled KdV soliton equation and its odd-soliton solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping

    2008-01-01

    Based on the resulting Lax pairs of the generalized coupled KdV soliton equation,a new Darboux transformation with multi-parameters for the generalized coupled KdV soliton equation is derived with the help of a gauge transformation of the spectral problem.By using Darboux transformation,the generalized odd-soliton solutions of the generalized coupled KdV soliton equation are given and presented in determinant form.As an application,the first two cases are given.

  2. Temperature effects of dark solitons on the self-deflection of bright solitons in a separate bright-dark soliton pair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG GuangYong; LIU JinSong; ZHANG HuiLan; WANG Cheng; LIU ShiXiong

    2007-01-01

    Based on the theory of one-dimensional separate soliton pairs formed in a serial photorefractive crystal circuit, we investigated the temperature effects of the dark soliton on the self-deflection of the bright soliton in a bright-dark soliton pair. The numerical results obtained by solving the nonlinear propagation equation showed that the bright soliton moves on a parabolic trajectory in the crystal and its spatial shift changed with the temperature of the dark soliton. The higher the temperature of the dark soliton was, the smaller the spatial shift of the bright soliton was. The self-bending process was further studied by the perturbation technique, and the results were found to be in good agreement with that obtained by the numerical method.

  3. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.;

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation and propagation of two-dimensional vortex solitons, i.e. solitons with a phase singularity, in optical materials with a nonlocal focusing nonlinearity. We show that nonlocality stabilizes the dynamics of an otherwise unstable vortex beam. This occurs for either single...... or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  4. Nonlinear soliton matching between optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Christian; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Thomsen, Carsten L.;

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a generic nonlinear coupling coefficient, η2 NL ¼ ηjγ=β2jfiber2=jγ=β2jfiber1, which gives a quantitative measure for the efficiency of nonlinear matching of optical fibers by describing how a fundamental soliton couples from one fiber into another. Specifically, we use η......NL to demonstrate a significant soliton selffrequency shift of a fundamental soliton, and we show that nonlinear matching can take precedence over linear mode matching. The nonlinear coupling coefficient depends on both the dispersion (β2) and nonlinearity (γ), as well as on the power coupling efficiency η. Being...

  5. Effect of Soliton Propagation in Fiber Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of optical solitons in fiber amplifiers is discussed by considering a model that includes linear high order dispersion, two-photon absorption, nonlinear high-order dispersion, self-induced Ramam and five-order nonlinear effects. Based on travelling wave method, the solutions of the nonlinear Schrdinger equations, and the influence on soliton propagation as well as high-order effect in the fiber amplifier are discussed in detail. It is found that because of existing five-order nonlinear effect, the solution is not of secant hyperbola type, but shows high gain state of the fiber amplifier which is very favourable to the propagation of solitons.

  6. Gradient Yamabe Solitons on Warped Products

    OpenAIRE

    He, Chenxu

    2011-01-01

    The special nature of gradient Yamabe soliton equation which was first observed by Cao-Sun-Zhang\\cite{CaoSunZhang} shows that a complete gradient Yamabe soliton with non-constant potential function is either defined on the Euclidean space with rotational symmetry, or on the warped product of the real line with a manifold of constant scalar curvature. In this paper we consider the classification in the latter case. We show that a complete gradient steady Yamabe soliton on warped product is nec...

  7. Topological solitons in DNA with modified potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Behjat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA is not only an essential research subject for biologists, but also it raises very interesting questions for physicists.The open states in DNA double helix can lead to topological solitons. Since DNA is a very long molecule of order a meter or so long and nano-scale width, solitons can propagate along the molecule. In this paper, considering a correction term in the interaction potential between two chains, we study the dispersion relation analytically, and obtain the soliton solutions using a new relaxation method. Then we compare our solutions and its energy with those obtained by others without the proposed correction term.

  8. Rarefaction solitons initiated by sheath instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levko, Dmitry [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The instability of the cathode sheath initiated by the cold energetic electron beam is studied by the one-dimensional fluid model. Numerical simulations show the generation of travelling rarefaction solitons at the cathode. It is obtained that the parameters of these solitons strongly depend on the parameters of electron beam. The “stretched” variables are derived using the small-amplitude analysis. These variables are used in order to obtain the Korteweg-de Vries equation describing the propagation of the rarefaction solitons through the plasma with cold energetic electron beam.

  9. Solitons for optical time-domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, Amikam; Friberg, Stephen R.; Fujii, Yoichi

    1996-06-01

    We describe the propagation of solitons in an optical time-domain reflectometry geometry. Intense nonsolitons usually broaden nonlinearly as they propagate out to a scatterer and broaden linearly as they return to their origin. In contrast, solitons propagate with a fixed pulse width or narrow on their way out to the scatterer. Returning, they broaden or narrow depending on their chirp at the scattering point. For a fixed return-pulse timing resolution we find 2.6 times or more energy can be launched when solitons are used than for normal dispersion pulses.

  10. Quantum bright soliton in a disorder potential

    OpenAIRE

    Sacha, K.; Delande, D; Zakrzewski, J.

    2009-01-01

    At very low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with attractive interactions tend to form a bright soliton. When exposed to a sufficiently weak external potential, the shape of the soliton is not modified, but its external motion is affected. We develop in detail the Bogoliubov approach for the problem, treating, in a non-perturbative way, the motion of the center of mass of the soliton. Quantization of this motion allows us to discuss its long time properties. In particula...

  11. Higgsed Stueckelberg vector and Higgs quadratic divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmuş Ali Demir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we show that, a hidden vector field whose gauge invariance is ensured by a Stueckelberg scalar and whose mass is spontaneously generated by the Standard Model Higgs field contributes to quadratic divergences in the Higgs boson mass squared, and even leads to its cancellation at one-loop when Higgs coupling to gauge field is fine-tuned. In contrast to mechanisms based on hidden scalars where a complete cancellation cannot be achieved, stabilization here is complete in that the hidden vector and the accompanying Stueckelberg scalar are both free from quadratic divergences at one-loop. This stability, deriving from hidden exact gauge invariance, can have important implications for modeling dark phenomena like dark matter, dark energy, dark photon and neutrino masses. The hidden fields can be produced at the LHC.

  12. On the Equivalence of Quadratic APN Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Eimear; McGuire, Gary; Nebe, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Establishing the CCZ-equivalence of a pair of APN functions is generally quite difficult. In some cases, when seeking to show that a putative new infinite family of APN functions is CCZ inequivalent to an already known family, we rely on computer calculation for small values of n. In this paper we present a method to prove the inequivalence of quadratic APN functions with the Gold functions. Our main result is that a quadratic function is CCZ-equivalent to an APN Gold function if and only if it is EA-equivalent to that Gold function. As an application of this result, we prove that a trinomial family of APN functions that exist on finite fields of order 2^n where n = 2 mod 4 are CCZ inequivalent to the Gold functions. The proof relies on some knowledge of the automorphism group of a code associated with such a function.

  13. Weak and strong interactions between dark solitons and dispersive waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshnikov, I; Driben, R; Yulin, A V

    2015-11-01

    The effect of mutual interactions between dark solitons and dispersive waves is investigated numerically and analytically. The condition of the resonant scattering of dispersive waves on dark solitons is derived and compared against the results of the numerical simulations. It is shown that the interaction with intense dispersive waves affects the dynamics of the solitons by accelerating, decelerating, or destroying them. It is also demonstrated that two dark solitons can form a cavity for dispersive waves bouncing between the two dark solitons. The differences of the resonant scattering of the dispersive waves on dark and bright solitons are discussed. In particular, we demonstrate that two dark solitons and a dispersive wave bouncing in between them create a solitonic cavity with convex "mirrors," unlike the concave "mirror" in the case of bright solitons. PMID:26512471

  14. Dirac-Point Solitons in Nonlinear Optical Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Kang; Boardman, Allan D; Guo, Qi; Shi, Zhiwei; Jiang, Haiming; Hu, Zhijia; Zhang, Wei; Mao, Qiuping; Hu, Lei; Yang, Tianyu; Wen, Fei; Wang, Erlei

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a new type of solitons occuring in periodic systems without photonic bandgaps is reported. Solitons are nonlinear self-trapped wave packets. They have been extensively studied in many branches of physics. Solitons in periodic systems, which have become the mainstream of soliton research in the past decade, are localized states supported by photonic bandgaps. In this Letter, we report the discovery of a new type of solitons located at the Dirac point beyond photonic bandgaps. The Dirac point is a conical singularity of a photonic band structure where wave motion obeys the famous Dirac equation. These new solitons are sustained by the Dirac point rather than photonic bandgaps, thus provides a sort of advance in conceptual understanding over the traditional gap solitons. Apart from their theoretical impact within soliton theory, they have many potential uses because such solitons have dramatic stability characteristics and are possible in both Kerr material and photorefractive crystals that poss...

  15. Spatial Patterns of Dissipative Polariton Solitons in Semiconductor Microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chana, J K; Sich, M; Fras, F; Gorbach, A V; Skryabin, D V; Cancellieri, E; Cerda-Méndez, E A; Biermann, K; Hey, R; Santos, P V; Skolnick, M S; Krizhanovskii, D N

    2015-12-18

    We report propagating bound microcavity polariton soliton arrays consisting of multipeak structures either along (x) or perpendicular (y) to the direction of propagation. Soliton arrays of up to five solitons are observed, with the number of solitons controlled by the size and power of the triggering laser pulse. The breakup along the x direction occurs when the effective area of the trigger pulse exceeds the characteristic soliton size determined by polariton-polariton interactions. Narrowing of soliton emission in energy-momentum space indicates phase locking between adjacent solitons, consistent with numerical modeling which predicts stable multihump soliton solutions. In the y direction, the breakup originates from inhomogeneity across the wave front in the transverse direction which develops into a stable array only in the solitonic regime via phase-dependent interactions of propagating fronts. PMID:26722931

  16. Spatial solitons in photonic lattices with large-scale defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiao-Yu; Zheng Jiang-Bo; Dong Liang-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We address the existence, stability and propagation dynamics of solitons supported by large-scale defects surrounded by the harmonic photonic lattices imprinted in the defocusing saturable nonlinear medium. Several families of soliton solutions, including flat-topped, dipole-like, and multipole-like solitons, can be supported by the defected lattices with different heights of defects. The width of existence domain of solitons is determined solely by the saturable parameter. The existence domains of various types of solitons can be shifted by the variations of defect size, lattice depth and soliton order. Solitons in the model are stable in a wide parameter window, provided that the propagation constant exceeds a critical value, which is in sharp contrast to the case where the soliton trains is supported by periodic lattices imprinted in defocusing saturable nonlinear medium. We also find stable solitons in the semi-infinite gap which rarely occur in the defocusing media.

  17. Soliton Management in Periodic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Malomed, Boris A

    2006-01-01

    During the past ten years, there has been intensive development in theoretical and experimental research of solitons in periodic media. This book provides a unique and informative account of the state-of-the-art in the field. The volume opens with a review of the existence of robust solitary pulses in systems built as a periodic concatenation of very different elements. Among the most famous examples of this type of systems are the dispersion management in fiber-optic telecommunication links, and (more recently) photonic crystals. A number of other systems belonging to the same broad class of spatially periodic strongly inhomogeneous media (such as the split-step and tandem models) have recently been identified in nonlinear optics, and transmission of solitary pulses in them was investigated in detail. Similar soliton dynamics occurs in temporal-domain counterparts of such systems, where they are subject to strong time-periodic modulation (for instance, the Feshbach-resonance management in Bose-Einstein conde...

  18. Cubic Lienard Equations with Quadratic Damping (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-quan Wang; Zhu-jun Jing

    2002-01-01

    Applying Hopf bifurcation theory and qualitative theory, we show that the general cubic Lienard equations with quadratic damping have at most three limit cycles. This implies that the guess in which the system has at most two limit cycles is false. We give the sufficient conditions for the system has at most three limit cycles or two limit cycles. We present two examples with three limit cycles or two limit cycles by using numerical simulation.

  19. Multiperfect Numbers in Certain Quadratic Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Defant, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Using an extension of the abundancy index to imaginary quadratic rings that are unique factorization domains, we investigate what we call $n$-powerfully $t$-perfect numbers in these rings. This definition serves to extend the concept of multiperfect numbers that have been defined and studied in the integers. At the end of the paper, as well as at various points throughout the paper, we point to some potential areas for further research.

  20. Quadratic integer programming and the slope conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Garoufalidis, Stavros; van der Veen, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The Slope Conjecture relates a quantum knot invariant, (the degree of the colored Jones polynomial of a knot) with a classical one (boundary slopes of incompressible surfaces in the knot complement). The degree of the colored Jones polynomial can be computed by a suitable (almost tight) state sum and the solution of a corresponding quadratic integer programming problem. We illustrate this principle for a 2-parameter family of 2-fusion knots. Combined with the results of Dunfield and the first...

  1. Quadratic Interval Refinement for Real Roots

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, John

    2012-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for refining a real interval containing a single real root: the new method combines characteristics of the classical Bisection algorithm and Newton's Iteration. Our method exhibits quadratic convergence when refining isolating intervals of simple roots of polynomials (and other well-behaved functions). We assume the use of arbitrary precision rational arithmetic. Unlike Newton's Iteration our method does not need to evaluate the derivative.

  2. SOLITONS: Optimal control of optical soliton parameters: Part 2. Concept of nonlinear Bloch waves in the problem of soliton management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkin, Vladimir N.; Belyaeva, T. L.

    2001-11-01

    It is shown that optical solitons in nonlinear fibre-optic communication systems and soliton lasers can be represented as nonlinear Bloch waves in periodic structures. The Bloch theorem is proved for solitons of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation in systems with the dispersion, the nonlinearity, and the gain (absorption coefficient) periodically changing over the length. The dynamics of formation and interaction, as well as stability of the coupled states of nonlinear Bloch waves are investigated. It is shown that soliton Bloch waves exist only under certain self-matching conditions for the basic parameters of the system and reveal a structural instability with respect to the mismatch between the periods of spatial modulation of the dispersion, nonlinearity or gain.

  3. A Finite Continuation Algorithm for Bound Constrained Quadratic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, Mustafa C.

    1999-01-01

    The dual of the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with unit bounds is posed as a linear $\\ell_1$ minimization problem with quadratic terms. A smooth approximation to the linear $\\ell_1$ function is used to obtain a parametric family of piecewise-quadratic approximation problems...

  4. Prime valued polynomials and class numbers of quadratic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Mollin

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available It is the purpose of this paper to give a survey of the relationship between the class number one problem for real quadratic fields and prime-producing quadratic polynomials; culminating in an overview of the recent solution to the class number one problem for real quadratic fields of Richaud-Degert type. We conclude with new conjectures, questions and directions.

  5. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF QUADRATS FOR MEASURING VASCULAR PLANT DIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrats are widely used for measuring characteristics of vascular plant communities. It is well recognized that quadrat size affects measurements of frequency and cover. The ability of quadrats of varying sizes to adequately measure diversity has not been established. An exha...

  6. Models of few optical cycle solitons beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblond, H., E-mail: herve.leblond@univ-angers.fr [LUNAM University, Université d’Angers, Laboratoire de Photonique d’Angers, EA 4464, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Mihalache, D. [LUNAM University, Université d’Angers, Laboratoire de Photonique d’Angers, EA 4464, 2 Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientists, 54 Splaiul Independentei, 050094 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-02-15

    In the past years there was a huge interest in experimental and theoretical studies in the area of few-optical-cycle pulses and in the broader fast growing field of the so-called extreme nonlinear optics. This review concentrates on theoretical studies performed in the past decade concerning the description of few optical cycle solitons beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA). Here we systematically use the powerful reductive expansion method (alias multiscale analysis) in order to derive simple integrable and nonintegrable evolution models describing both nonlinear wave propagation and interaction of ultrashort (femtosecond) pulses. To this aim we perform the multiple scale analysis on the Maxwell–Bloch equations and the corresponding Schrödinger–von Neumann equation for the density matrix of two-level atoms. We analyze in detail both long-wave and short-wave propagation models. The propagation of ultrashort few-optical-cycle solitons in quadratic and cubic nonlinear media are adequately described by generic integrable and nonintegrable nonlinear evolution equations such as the Korteweg–de Vries equation, the modified Korteweg–de Vries equation, the complex modified Korteweg–de Vries equation, the sine–Gordon equation, the cubic generalized Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation, and the two-dimensional sine–Gordon equation. Moreover, we consider the propagation of few-cycle optical solitons in both (1+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional physical settings. A generalized modified Korteweg–de Vries equation is introduced in order to describe robust few-optical-cycle dissipative solitons. We investigate in detail the existence and robustness of both linearly polarized and circularly polarized few-cycle solitons, that is, we also take into account the effect of the vectorial nature of the electric field. Some of these results concerning the systematic use of the reductive expansion method beyond the SVEA can be relatively easily extended to few

  7. Optical Cherenkov radiation by cascaded nonlinear interaction: an efficient source of few-cycle energetic near- to mid-IR pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Zhou, Binbin;

    2011-01-01

    When ultrafast noncritical cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses occur in a bulk lithium niobate crystal optical Cherenkov waves are formed in the near- to mid-IR. Numerical simulations show that the few-cycle solitons radiate Cherenkov (dispersive) waves in the λ = 2...... efficiency is up to 25%. Thus, optical Cherenkov waves formed with cascaded nonlinearities could become an efficient source of energetic near- to mid-IR few-cycle pulses....

  8. Interaction of high-order solitons with external dispersive waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshnikov, I; Driben, R; Yulin, A V

    2015-12-01

    The effect of mutual interaction between second-order soliton and dispersive waves (DWs) is investigated. It is predicted analytically and confirmed numerically that DWs (both transmitted and reflected components) become polychromatic after interaction with the soliton. Collision with DWs of considerable intensity can lead to acceleration/deceleration and central frequency shift of the soliton, while still preserving the soliton's oscillating structure. Two second-order solitons with resonant DWs trapped between them can form an effective solitonic cavity with "flat" or "concave mirrors," depending on the intensity of the input. PMID:26625049

  9. Non-BPS Dirac-Born-Infeld Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Papadopoulos, George; Sutcliffe, Paul(Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, U.K.)

    1999-01-01

    We show that CPn sigma model solitons solve the field equations of a Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action and, furthermore, we prove that the non-BPS soliton/anti-soliton solutions of the sigma model also solve the DBI equations. Using the moduli space approximation we compare the dynamics of the BPS sigma model solitons with that of the associated DBI solitons. We find that for the CP1 case the metric on the moduli space of sigma model solitons is identical to that of the moduli space of DBI solit...

  10. Ion-acoustic solitons in multispecies spatially inhomogeneous plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarsem Singh Gill; Harvinder Kaur; Nareshpal Singh Saini

    2006-06-01

    Ion-acoustic solitons are investigated in the spatially inhomogeneous plasma having electrons-positrons and ions. The soliton characteristics are described by Korteweg-de Vries equation which has an additional term. The density and temperature of different species play an important role for the amplitude and width of the solitons. Numerical calculations show only the possibility of compressive solitons. Further, analytical results predict that the peak amplitude of soliton decreases with the decrease of density gradient. Soliton characteristics like peak amplitude and width are substantially different from those based on KdV theory for homogeneous plasmas.

  11. Soliton collisions in soft magnetic nanotube with uniaxial anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Usov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of stable magnetic solitons of various orders in soft magnetic nanotube with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy has been studied using numerical simulation. Solitons of even order are immobile in axially applied magnetic field. Odd solitons show decreased mobility with respect to that of head-to head domain wall. Solitons of various orders can participate in nanotube magnetization reversal process. Various coalescence and decomposition processes in soliton assembly are considered. It is shown that the general magnetization state of magnetic nanotube consists of chains of magnetic solitons of various orders.

  12. Interactions of adjacent pulsating, erupting and creeping solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Li-Jun; Li Lu; Zhou Guo-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the adjacent interactions of three novel solitons for the quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, which are plain pulsating, erupting and creeping solitons. It is found that different performances are presented for different solitons due to isolated regions of the parameter space where they exist. For example, plain pulsating and erupting solitons exhibit mutual annihilation during collisions with the decrease of total energy, but for creeping soliton,the two adjacent pulses present soliton fusion without any loss of energy. Otherwise, the method for restraining the interactions is also found and it can suppress interacions between these two adjacent pulses effectively.

  13. Dark solitons in laser radiation build-up dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R I; Kelleher, E J R

    2016-03-01

    We reveal the existence of slowly decaying dark solitons in the radiation build-up dynamics of bright pulses in all-normal dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers, numerically modeled in the framework of a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The evolution of noise perturbations to quasistationary dark solitons is examined, and the significance of background shape and soliton-soliton collisions on the eventual soliton decay is established. We demonstrate the role of a restoring force in extending soliton interactions in conservative systems to include the effects of dissipation, as encountered in laser cavities, and generalize our observations to other nonlinear systems. PMID:27078358

  14. Gap solitons attached to a gapless layer

    CERN Document Server

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai

    2015-01-01

    We consider linear and nonlinear modes pinned to a grating-free (gapless) layer placed between two symmetric or asymmetric semi-infinite Bragg gratings (BGs), with a possible phase shift between them, in a medium with the uniform Kerr nonlinearity. The asymmetry is defined by a difference between bandgap widths in the two BGs. In the linear system, exact defect modes (DMs) are found. Composite gap solitons pinned to the central layer are found too, in analytical and numerical forms, in the nonlinear model. In the asymmetric system, existence boundaries for the DMs and gap solitons, due to the competition between attraction to the gapless layer and repulsion from the reflectivity step, are obtained analytically. Stability boundaries for solitons in the asymmetric system are identified by means of direct simulations. Collisions of moving BG solitons with the gapless layer are studied too.

  15. Two-dimensional dissipative gap solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a model which integrates the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in two dimensions (2Ds) with the linear-cubic-quintic combination of loss and gain terms, self-defocusing nonlinearity, and a periodic potential. In this system, stable 2D dissipative gap solitons (DGSs) are constructed, both fundamental and vortical ones. The soliton families belong to the first finite band gap of the system's linear spectrum. The solutions are obtained in a numerical form and also by means of an analytical approximation, which combines the variational description of the shape of the fundamental and vortical solitons and the balance equation for their total power. The analytical results agree with numerical findings. The model may be implemented as a laser medium in a bulk self-defocusing optical waveguide equipped with a transverse 2D grating, the predicted DGSs representing spatial solitons in this setting.

  16. Novel energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Kanna; K Sakkaravarthi; M Vijayajayanthi

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss the fascinating energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons in certain incoherently coupled and coherently coupled nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations arising in the context of nonlinear optics.

  17. Envelope Solitons in Acoustically Dispersive Vitreous Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic radiation-induced static strains, displacements, and stresses are manifested as rectified or dc waveforms linked to the energy density of an acoustic wave or vibrational mode via the mode nonlinearity parameter of the material. An analytical model is developed for acoustically dispersive media that predicts the evolution of the energy density of an initial waveform into a series of energy solitons that generates a corresponding series of radiation-induced static strains (envelope solitons). The evolutionary characteristics of the envelope solitons are confirmed experimentally in Suprasil W1 vitreous silica. The value (-11.9 plus or minus 1.43) for the nonlinearity parameter, determined from displacement measurements of the envelope solitons via a capacitive transducer, is in good agreement with the value (-11.6 plus or minus 1.16) obtained independently from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The agreement provides strong, quantitative evidence for the validity of the model.

  18. Cascade quantum teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Nan-run; GONG Li-hua; LIU Ye

    2006-01-01

    In this letter a cascade quantum teleportation scheme is proposed. The proposed scheme needs less local quantum operations than those of quantum multi-teleportation. A quantum teleportation scheme based on entanglement swapping is presented and compared with the cascade quantum teleportation scheme. Those two schemes can effectively teleport quantum information and extend the distance of quantum communication.

  19. Research of Chaotic Dynamics of 3D Autonomous Quadratic Systems by Their Reduction to Special 2D Quadratic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    New results about the existence of chaotic dynamics in the quadratic 3D systems are derived. These results are based on the method allowing studying dynamics of 3D system of autonomous quadratic differential equations with the help of reduction of this system to the special 2D quadratic system of differential equations.

  20. Spatial solitons in nonlinear liquid waveguides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Barillé; G Rivoire

    2001-11-01

    Spatial solitons are studied in a planar waveguide filled with nonlinear liquids. Spectral and spatial measurements for different geometries and input power of the laser beam show the influence of different nonlinear effects as stimulated scatterings on the soliton propagation and in particular on the beam polarization. The stimulated scattering can be used advantageously to couple the two polarization components. This effect can lead to multiple applications in optical switching.

  1. Synchrotron radiation of higher order soliton

    OpenAIRE

    Driben, Rodislav; Yulin, Alexey; Efimov, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate radiation mechanism exhibited by higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution higher order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in appearance of multipeak frequency comb like spectral band. The shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is completely corroborated by numerical simulations. An analogy between this radiation and the radiation of moving cha...

  2. Weakly relativistic electromagnetic solitons in warm plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sita

    2016-06-01

    For slowly propagating electromagnetic solitons, validity of the cold plasma model is addressed using a more realistic model involving effects arising due to temperature as well as ion dynamics. Small amplitude single peak structures which are quasineutral are studied, and different regions of existence of bright and dark classes of solitons are delineated. Influence of temperature on spectral characteristics of the solitary structures is presented.

  3. Optical Soliton Trapping for Quantum Key Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a system of continuous variable quantum key distribution (QKD) is presented. Chaotic signals are generated by an optical soliton or Gaussian pulse within a NMRR system. In this work, frequency band of 10.7 MHz and 16 MHz and wavelengths of 206.9 nm, 1.448 μm, 2.169 μm and 2.489 μm can be obtained for QKD by using input optical soliton and Gaussian beam. (author)

  4. Stationary dissipative solitons of Model G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulver, Matthew; LaViolette, Paul A.

    2013-07-01

    Model G, the earliest reaction-diffusion system proposed to support the existence of solitons is shown to do so under distant steady-state boundary conditions. Subatomic particle physics phenomenology, including multi-particle bonding, movement in concentration gradients, and a particle structure matching Kelly's charge distribution model of the nucleon, are observed. Lastly, it is shown how a three-variable reversible Brusselator, a close relative of Model G, can also support solitons.

  5. Exact Kink Solitons in Skyrme Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shouxin; Yang, Yisong

    2013-01-01

    We present an explicit integration of the kink soliton equation obtained in a recent interesting study of the classical Skyrme model where the field configurations are of a generalized hedgehog form which is of a domain-wall type. We also show that in such a reduced one-dimensional setting the first-order and second-order equations are equivalent. Consequently, in such a context, all finite-energy solitons are BPS type and precisely known.

  6. Solitons and spin transport in graphene boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kumar Abhinav; Vivek M Vyas; Prasanta K Panigrahi

    2015-11-01

    It is shown that in (2+1)-dimensional condensed matter systems, induced gravitational Chern–Simons (CS) action can play a crucial role for coherent spin transport in a finite geometry, provided zero-curvature condition is satisfied on the boundary. The role of the resultant KdV solitons is explicated. The fact that KdV solitons can pass through each other without interference, represent `resistanceless' spin transport.

  7. Phase-locked Josephson soliton oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, T.; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Grønbech-Jensen, N.;

    1991-01-01

    Detailed experimental characterization of the phase-locking at both DC and at microwave frequencies is presented for two closely spaced Josephson soliton (fluxon) oscillators. In the phase-locked state, the radiated microwave power exhibited an effective gain. With one common bias source, a...... frequency tunability of the phase-locked oscillators up to 7% at 10 GHz was observed. The interacting soliton oscillators were modeled by two inductively coupled nonlinear transmission lines...

  8. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.;

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic solitons and radio knots in jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, R.

    1986-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear surface waves are examined in the context of the beam model for jetlike radio sources. By introducing a finite scale length, viz. the beam radius, geometrical dispersion can act to balance nonlinear wave growth and thereby produce solitons, localized wave packets of stable waveform. A method for obtaining a soliton equation from the MHD equations is presented and then applied to radio knots in jets.

  10. Optical Cherenkov radiation by cascaded nonlinear interaction: an efficient source of few-cycle energetic near- to mid-IR pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Bache, M; Zhou, B B; Moses, J; Wise, F W

    2011-01-01

    When ultrafast noncritical cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses occur in a bulk lithium niobate crystal optical Cherenkov waves are formed in the near- to mid-IR. Numerical simulations show that the few-cycle solitons radiate Cherenkov (dispersive) waves in the $\\lambda=2.2-4.5\\mic$ range when pumping at $\\lambda_1=1.2-1.8\\mic$. The exact phase-matching point depends on the soliton wavelength, and we show that a simple longpass filter can separate the Cherenkov waves from the solitons. The Cherenkov waves are born few-cycle with an excellent Gaussian pulse shape, and the conversion efficiency is up to 25%. Thus, optical Cherenkov waves formed with cascaded nonlinearities could become an efficient source of energetic near- to mid-IR few-cycle pulses.

  11. Solitons in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai

    2008-01-01

    We report results of a systematic analysis of spatial solitons in the model of 1D photonic crystals, built as a periodic lattice of waveguiding channels, of width D, separated by empty channels of width L-D. The system is characterized by its structural "duty cycle", DC = D/L. In the case of the self-defocusing (SDF) intrinsic nonlinearity in the channels, one can predict new effects caused by competition between the linear trapping potential and the effective nonlinear repulsive one. Several species of solitons are found in the first two finite bandgaps of the SDF model, as well as a family of fundamental solitons in the semi-infinite gap of the system with the self-focusing nonlinearity. At moderate values of DC (such as 0.50), both fundamental and higher-order solitons populating the second bandgap of the SDF model suffer destabilization with the increase of the total power. Passing the destabilization point, the solitons assume a flat-top shape, while the shape of unstable solitons gets inverted, with loc...

  12. Numerical investigation of soliton dynamics, injection into the transition region of a soliton diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Antisolitons can, under the right conditions, annihilate solitons, which are oppositely directed. • Here, we are introducing a locally lossy junction in which annihilation occurs while the rest of the junction is low loss. • It was shown that annihilation can be controlled by locally manipulating the loss inside the junction. -- Abstract: We investigate soliton–antisoliton interactions by numerical simulation of a nonlinear transmission line. Long Josephson junction acts as a nonlinear transmission line in which soliton solutions are obtained form Sine–Gordon equation. By proper initial and boundary conditions solitons and antisolitons are obtained inside the same junction, simulating the so called soliton diode. The role of loss in the annihilation of solitons and antisolitons injected to the transition region of the soliton diode is investigated by numerical simulation of their dynamics and phase revolution along the junction. It is shown that such loss can greatly reduce the speed of solitons and antisolitons, lowering the frequency response of the device. A so called “locally-lossy” soliton diode is proposed and it is shown that this configuration maintains annihilation process without much degradation of the device speed

  13. SOLITONS: Dark photovoltaic spatial solitons in a planar waveguide obtained by proton implantation in lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglov, V. G.; Shandarov, V. M.; Tan, Ya; Chen, F.; Kip, D.

    2008-11-01

    A photovoltaic dark spatial soliton is generated in a planar waveguide produced by the implantation of protons into a copper-doped lithium niobate crystal. Stationary soliton regimes are achieved at powers 90 and 30 μW at wavelengths 633 and 532 nm, respectively.

  14. Dynamics of the soliton bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT bag was one of the earliest and most successful models of QCD, imposing confinement and including perturbative gluon interactions. An evolution of the MIT bag came with the introduction of the chiral and cloudy bags, which treat pions as elementary particles. As a model of QCD, the soliton model proposed by Friedberg and Lee is particularly attractive. It is based on a covariant field theory and is sufficiently general so that, for certain limiting cases of the adjustable parameters, it can describe either the MIT or SLAC (string) bags. The confinement mechanism appears as a dynamic field. This allows non-static processes, such as bag oscillations and bag collisions, to be calculated utilizing the well-developed techniques of nuclear many-body theory. The utilization of the model for calculating dynamical processes is discussed. 14 references

  15. Radiating subdispersive fractional optical solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, J., E-mail: fujioka@fisica.unam.mx; Espinosa, A.; Rodríguez, R. F. [Departamento de Física Química, Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Malomed, B. A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2014-09-01

    It was recently found [Fujioka et al., Phys. Lett. A 374, 1126 (2010)] that the propagation of solitary waves can be described by a fractional extension of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation which involves a temporal fractional derivative (TFD) of order α > 2. In the present paper, we show that there is also another fractional extension of the NLS equation which contains a TFD with α < 2, and in this case, the new equation describes the propagation of radiating solitons. We show that the emission of the radiation (when α < 2) is explained by resonances at various frequencies between the pulses and the linear modes of the system. It is found that the new fractional NLS equation can be derived from a suitable Lagrangian density, and a fractional Noether's theorem can be applied to it, thus predicting the conservation of the Hamiltonian, momentum and energy.

  16. Radiating subdispersive fractional optical solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, J.; Espinosa, A.; Rodríguez, R. F.; Malomed, B. A.

    2014-09-01

    It was recently found [Fujioka et al., Phys. Lett. A 374, 1126 (2010)] that the propagation of solitary waves can be described by a fractional extension of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation which involves a temporal fractional derivative (TFD) of order α > 2. In the present paper, we show that there is also another fractional extension of the NLS equation which contains a TFD with α < 2, and in this case, the new equation describes the propagation of radiating solitons. We show that the emission of the radiation (when α < 2) is explained by resonances at various frequencies between the pulses and the linear modes of the system. It is found that the new fractional NLS equation can be derived from a suitable Lagrangian density, and a fractional Noether's theorem can be applied to it, thus predicting the conservation of the Hamiltonian, momentum and energy.

  17. Relativistic quasi-solitons and embedded solitons with circular polarization in cold plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Arriaga, G

    2016-01-01

    The existence of localized electromagnetic structures is discussed in the framework of the 1-dimensional relativistic Maxwell-fluid model for a cold plasma with immobile ions. New partially localized solutions are found with a finite-difference algorithm designed to locate numerically exact solutions of the Maxwell-fluid system. These solutions are called quasi-solitons and consist of a localized electromagnetic wave trapped in a spatially extended electron plasma wave. They are organized in families characterized by the number of nodes $p$ of the vector potential and exist in a continuous range of parameters in the $\\omega-V$ plane, where $V$ is the velocity of propagation and $\\omega$ is the vector potential angular frequency. A parametric study shows that the familiar fully localized relativistic solitons are special members of the families of partially localized quasi-solitons. Soliton solution branches with $p>1$ are therefore parametrically embedded in the continuum of quasi-solitons. On the other hand,...

  18. The kink-soliton and antikink-soliton in quasi-one-dimensional nonlinear monoatomic lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Quan; TIAN; Qiang

    2005-01-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional nonlinear monoatomic lattice is analyzed. The kink-soliton and antikink-soliton are presented. When the interaction of the lattice is strong in the x-direction and weak in the y-direction, the two-dimensional (2D) lattice changes to a quasi-one-dimensional lattice. Taking nearest-neighbor interaction into account, the vibration equation can be transformed into the KPI, KPII and MKP equation. Considering the cubic nonlinear potential of the vibration in the lattice, the kink-soliton solution is presented. Considering the quartic nonlinear potential and the cubic interaction potential, the kink-soliton and antikink-soliton solutions are presented.

  19. A Branch and Bound Reduced Algorithm for Quadratic Programming Problems with Quadratic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelin Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a branch and bound reduced algorithm for quadratic programming problems with quadratic constraints. In this algorithm, we determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem by constructing a linear relaxation programming problem. At the same time, in order to improve the degree of approximation and the convergence rate of acceleration, a rectangular reduction strategy is used in the algorithm. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and effective and can solve small- and medium-sized problems.

  20. Holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Wall, Aron C.

    2015-09-01

    Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is nonstationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a second law.

  1. Unitary Multiperfect Numbers in Certain Quadratic Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Defant, Colin

    2014-01-01

    A unitary divisor $c$ of a positive integer $n$ is a positive divisor of $n$ that is relatively prime to $\\displaystyle{\\frac{n}{c}}$. For any integer $k$, the function $\\sigma_k^*$ is a multiplicative arithmetic function defined so that $\\sigma_k^*(n)$ is the sum of the $k^{th}$ powers of the unitary divisors of $n$. We provide analogues of the functions $\\sigma_k^*$ in imaginary quadratic rings that are unique factorization domains. We then explore properties of what we call $n$-powerfully ...

  2. Automatic differentiation for reduced sequential quadratic programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Liangcai; Li Jin; Tan Yuejin

    2007-01-01

    In order to slove the large-scale nonlinear programming (NLP) problems efficiently, an efficient optimization algorithm based on reduced sequential quadratic programming (rSQP) and automatic differentiation (AD) is presented in this paper. With the characteristics of sparseness, relatively low degrees of freedom and equality constraints utilized, the nonlinear programming problem is solved by improved rSQP solver. In the solving process, AD technology is used to obtain accurate gradient information. The numerical results show that the combined algorithm, which is suitable for large-scale process optimization problems, can calculate more efficiently than rSQP itself.

  3. Range-based estimation of quadratic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Podolskij, Mark

    In this paper, we propose using realized range-based estimation to draw inference about the quadratic variation of jump-diffusion processes. We also construct a new test of the hypothesis that an asset price has a continuous sample path. Simulated data shows that our approach is efficient, the te...... is well-sized and more powerful than a return-based t-statistic for sampling frequencies normally used in empirical work. Applied to equity data, we find that the intensity of the jump process is not as high as previously reported....

  4. Range-based estimation of quadratic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Podolskij, Mark

    This paper proposes using realized range-based estimators to draw inference about the quadratic variation of jump-diffusion processes. We also construct a range-based test of the hypothesis that an asset price has a continuous sample path. Simulated data shows that our approach is efficient, the ......, the test is well-sized and more powerful than a return-based t-statistic for sampling frequencies normally used in empirical work. Applied to equity data, we show that the intensity of the jump process is not as high as previously reported....

  5. A quadratic algorithm for road coloring

    CERN Document Server

    Béal, Marie-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The road coloring theorem states that every aperiodic directed graph with constant out-degree has a synchronized coloring. This theorem had been conjectured during many years as the road coloring problem before being settled by A. Trahtman. Trahtman's proof leads to an algorithm that finds a synchronized labeling with a cubic worst-case time complexity. We show a variant of his construction with a worst-case complexity which is quadratic in time and linear in space. We also extend the road coloring theorem to the periodic case.

  6. Vector pulsing soliton of self-induced transparency in waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theory of an optical resonance vector pulsing soliton in waveguide is developed. A thin transition layer containing semiconductor quantum dots forms the boundary between the waveguide and one of the connected media. Analytical and numerical solutions for the optical vector pulsing soliton in waveguide are obtained. The vector pulsing soliton in the presence of excitonic and bi-excitonic excitations is compared with the soliton for waveguide TM-modes with parameters that can be used in modern optical experiments. It is shown that these nonlinear waves have significantly different parameters and shapes. - Highlights: • An optical vector pulsing soliton in a planar waveguide is presented. • Explicit form of the optical vector pulsing soliton are obtained. • The vector pulsing soliton and the soliton have different parameters and profiles

  7. Pyroelectric photovoltaic spatial solitons in unbiased photorefractive crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of spatial solitons i.e. pyroelectric photovoltaic spatial solitons based on the combination of pyroelectric and photovoltaic effect is predicted theoretically. It shows that bright, dark and grey spatial solitons can exist in unbiased photovoltaic photorefractive crystals with appreciable pyroelectric effect. Especially, the bright soliton can form in self-defocusing photovoltaic crystals if it gives larger self-focusing pyroelectric effect. -- Highlights: ► A new type of spatial soliton i.e. pyroelectric photovoltaic spatial soliton is predicted. ► The bright, dark and grey pyroelectric photovoltaic spatial soliton can form. ► The bright soliton can also exist in self-defocusing photovoltaic crystals.

  8. On soliton solutions of the Wu-Zhang system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inc Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the extended tanh and hirota methods are used to construct soliton solutions for the WuZhang (WZ system. Singular solitary wave, periodic and multi soliton solutions of the WZ system are obtained.

  9. Spinning solitons in cubic-quintic nonlinear media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lucian-Cornel Crasovan; Boris A Malomed; Dumitru Mihalache

    2001-11-01

    We review recent theoretical results concerning the existence, stability and unique features of families of bright vortex solitons (doughnuts, or ‘spinning’ solitons) in both conservative and dissipative cubic-quintic nonlinear media.

  10. Stability of non compact steady and expanding gradient Ricci solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Deruelle, Alix

    2014-01-01

    We study the stability of non compact steady and expanding gradient Ricci solitons. We first show that strict linear stability implies dynamical stability. Then we give various sufficient geometric conditions ensuring the strict linear stability of such gradient Ricci solitons.

  11. Rotational Symmetry of Conical K\\"ahler-Ricci Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Chodosh, Otis; Fong, Frederick Tsz-Ho

    2013-01-01

    We show that expanding K\\"ahler-Ricci solitons which have positive holomorphic bisectional curvature and are asymptotic to K\\"ahler cones at infinity must be the U(n)-rotationally symmetric expanding solitons constructed by Cao.

  12. Lattice-supported surface solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    OpenAIRE

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Vysloukh, Victor A.; Torner, Lluis

    2006-01-01

    We reveal that lattice interfaces imprinted in nonlocal nonlinear media support surface solitons that do not exist in other similar settings, including interfaces of local and nonlocal uniform materials. We show the impact of nonlocality on the domains of existence and stability of the surface solitons, focusing on new types of dipole solitons residing partially inside the optical lattice. We find that such solitons feature strongly asymmetric shapes and that they are stable in large parts of...

  13. Algebraic bright and vortex solitons in defocusing media

    OpenAIRE

    Borovkova, Olga V.; Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Boris A. Malomed; Torner, Lluis

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that spatially inhomogeneous defocusing nonlinear landscapes with the nonlinearity coefficient growing toward the periphery as [1+abs(r)]**a support one- and two-dimensional fundamental and higher-order bright solitons, as well as vortex solitons, with algebraically decaying tails. The energy flow of the solitons converges as long as nonlinearity growth rate exceeds the dimensionality, i.e., a>D. Fundamental solitons are always stable, while multipoles and vortices are stable i...

  14. On the nonlinear dynamics of topological solitons in DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Yakushevich, L. V.; Savin, A. V.; Manevitch, L. I.

    2002-01-01

    Dynamics of topological solitons describing open states in the DNA double helix are studied in the frameworks of the model which takes into account asymmetry of the helix. It is shown that three types of topological solitons can occur in the DNA double chain. Interaction between the solitons, their interactions with the chain inhomogeneities and stability of the solitons with respect to thermal oscillations are investigated.

  15. On a classification of the quasi Yamabe gradient solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Guangyue; Li, Haizhong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of quasi Yamabe gradient solitons, which generalizes the concept of Yamabe gradient solitons. By using some ideas in [7,8], we prove that $n$-dimensional $(n\\geq3)$ complete quasi Yamabe gradient solitons with vanishing Weyl curvature tensor and positive sectional curvature must be rotationally symmetric. We also prove that any compact quasi Yamabe gradient solitons are of constant scalar curvature.

  16. The dark soliton on a cnoidal wave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find a solution of the dark soliton lying on a cnoidal wave background in a defocusing medium. We use the method of Darboux transformation, which is applied to the cnoidal wave solution of the defocusing nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Interesting characteristics of the dark soliton, i.e., the velocity and greyness, are calculated and compared with those of the dark soliton lying on a continuous wave background. We also calculate the shift of the crest of the cnoidal wave along the soliton

  17. Optical rogue waves and soliton turbulence in nonlinear fibre optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genty, G.; Dudley, J. M.; de Sterke, C. M.;

    2009-01-01

    We examine optical rogue wave generation in nonlinear fibre propagation in terms of soliton turbulence. We show that higher-order dispersion is sufficient to generate localized rogue soliton structures, and Raman scattering effects are not required.......We examine optical rogue wave generation in nonlinear fibre propagation in terms of soliton turbulence. We show that higher-order dispersion is sufficient to generate localized rogue soliton structures, and Raman scattering effects are not required....

  18. DIRECT APPROACH FOR SOLITON PERTURBATIONS BASED ON THE GREEN'S FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN LIU-XIAN; YAN JIA-REN; ZHOU GUANG-HUI

    2001-01-01

    A direct approach has been developed for soliton perturbations based on the Green's function. We first linearized the soliton equation, and then derived the Green's function corresponding to approximation equations of different orders. Finally, we obtained the effects of perturbation on a soliton, namely both the slow time dependence of the soliton parameters and the corrections up to the second-order approximation. The higher-order effects can also be obtained in the same way.

  19. Nonlocal gap soliton in liquid infiltrated photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, F.H.; Rosberg, C.R.; Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard;

    We report on the observation of nonlocal gap solitons in infiltrated photonic crystal fibres. We employ the thermal defocusing nonlinearity of the liquid to study soliton existence and effect of boundaries of the periodic structure.......We report on the observation of nonlocal gap solitons in infiltrated photonic crystal fibres. We employ the thermal defocusing nonlinearity of the liquid to study soliton existence and effect of boundaries of the periodic structure....

  20. Weak and strong interactions between dark solitons and dispersive waves

    OpenAIRE

    Oreshnikov, Ivan; Driben, Rodislav; Yulin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    The effect of mutual interaction between dark solitons and dispersive waves is investigated numerically and analytically. The condition of the resonant scattering of dispersive waves on dark solitons is derived and compared against the results of numerical simulations. It is shown that the interaction with intense dispersive waves affects the dynamics of the soltons strongly changing their frequencies and accelerating or decelerating the solitons. It is also demonstrated that two dark soliton...

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Solitons, Instantons, and Twistors Solitons, Instantons, and Twistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Donald M.

    2011-04-01

    Solitons and instantons play important roles both in pure and applied mathematics as well as in theoretical physics where they are related to the topological structure of the vacuum. Twistors are a useful tool for solving nonlinear differential equations and are useful for the study of the antiself-dual Yang-Mills equations and the Einstein equations. Many books and more advanced monographs have been written on these topics. However, this new book by Maciej Dunajski is a complete first introduction to all of the topics in the title. Moreover, it covers them in a very unique way, through integrable systems. The approach taken in this book is that of mathematical physics à la field theory. The book starts by giving an introduction to integrable systems of ordinary and partial differential equations and proceeds from there. Gauge theories are not covered until chapter 6 which means the reader learning the material for the first time can build up confidence with simpler models of solitons and instantons before encountering them in gauge theories. The book also has an extremely clear introduction to twistor theory useful to both mathematicians and physicists. In particular, the twistor theory presentation may be of interest to string theorists wanting understand twistors. There are many useful connections to research into general relativity. Chapter 9 on gravitational instantons is great treatment useful to anyone doing research in classical or quantum gravity. There is also a nice discussion of Kaluza-Klein monopoles. The three appendices A-C cover the necessary background material of basic differential geometry, complex manifolds, and partial differential equations needed to fully understand the subject. The reader who has some level of expertise in any of the topics covered can jump right into that material without necessarily reading all of the earlier chapters because of the extremely clear writing style of the author. This makes the book an excellent reference on

  2. Free energy cascade in gyrokinetic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro, A Bañón; Albrecht-Marc, M; Merz, F; Görler, T; Jenko, F; Carati, D

    2010-01-01

    In gyrokinetic theory, the quadratic nonlinearity is known to play an important role in the dynamics by redistributing (in a conservative fashion) the free energy between the various active scales. In the present study, the free energy transfer is analyzed for the case of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. It is shown that it shares many properties with the energy transfer in fluid turbulence. In particular, one finds a forward (from large to small scales), extremely local, and self-similar cascade of free energy in the plane perpendicular to the background magnetic field. These findings shed light on some fundamental properties of plasma turbulence, and encourage the development of large eddy simulation techniques for gyrokinetics.

  3. Regimes of operation states in passively mode-locked fiber soliton ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y. D.; Shum, P.; Tang, D. Y.; Lu, C.; Guo, X.; Paulose, V.; Man, W. S.; Tam, H. Y.

    2004-06-01

    The principal of passively mode-locked fiber soliton ring lasers is summarized, including its three output operation states: normal soliton, bound-solitons and noise-like pulse. The experimental results of the passively mode-locked fiber soliton ring lasers developed by us are given. Bound-solitons with different discrete separations and three-bound-solitons state have been observed in our fiber laser for the first time. The relationship among three operation states in fiber soliton laser is analyzed.

  4. THE CONCAVE OR CONVEX PEAKED AND SMOOTH SOLITON SOLUTIONS OF CAMASSA-HOLM EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田立新; 许刚; 刘曾荣

    2002-01-01

    The traveling wave soliton solutions and pair soliton solution to a class of newcompletely integrable shallow water equation, Camassa-Holm equation are studied. Theconcept of concave or convex peaked soliton and smooth soliton were introduced. And theresearch shows that the traveling wave solution of that equation possesses concave and conv-ex peaked soliton and smooth soliton solutions with the peakson. Simultaneously by applyingBacklund transformation the new pair soliton solutions to this class of equation are given.

  5. Facets for the Cardinality Constrained Quadratic Knapsack Problem and the Quadratic Selective Travelling Salesman Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Vicky; Thomadsen, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    A well-known extension of the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) is the Selective (or Prize-collecting) TSP: In addition to the edge-costs, each node has an associated reward (denoted the node-reward) and instead of visiting all nodes, only profitable nodes are visited. The Quadratic Selective TSP...

  6. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal optical media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Kivshar, Yuri S.;

    2006-01-01

    We reveal that nonlocality can provide a simplæe physical mechanism for stabilization of multihump optical solitons and present what we believe to be the first example of stable rotating dipole solitons and soliton spiraling, which we are known to be unstable in all types of realistic nonlinear...

  7. Disorder-induced soliton transmission in nonlinear photonic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis

    2011-01-01

    We address soliton transmission and reflection in nonlinear photonic lattices embedded into uniform Kerr nonlinear media. We show that by introducing disorder into the guiding lattice channels, one may achieve soliton transmission even under conditions where regular lattices reflect the input beam completely. In contrast, in the parameter range where the lattice is almost transparent for incoming solitons, disorder may induce a significant reflection.

  8. Anomalous interaction of spatial solitons in photorefractive media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, W.; Saffman, M.; Luther-Davies, B.;

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of mutually incoherent spatial solitons in photorefractive media with anisotropic nonlocal nonlinear response. We show that the photorefractive nonlinearity leads to an anomalous interaction between solitons. Theoretical and experimental results reveal that an...... incoherent soliton pair may experience both attractive and repulsive forces, depending on their mutual separation....

  9. Observation of Multimode Solitons in Few-Mode Fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zimu; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Wise, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally isolate and directly observe multimode solitons in few-mode graded-index fiber. By varying the input energy and modal composition of the launched pulse, we observe a continuous variation of multimode solitons with different spatiotemporal properties. They exhibit an energy-volume relation that is distinct from those of single-mode and fully spatiotemporal solitons.

  10. Resonant production of solitons in the RLW equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courtenay Lewis, J.; Tjon, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is found that soliton collisions in the RLW equation can produce numerous pairs of positive- and negative-amplitude solitons. If the initial solitons are parametrized by their areas, the inelasticity of their collision has a sharp maximum along a line which is close to the line of equal but oppos

  11. Twin-Pulse Soliton Operation of a Fiber Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.; S.; Man; H.; Y.; Tam

    2003-01-01

    We report on the experimental observation of a novel type of twin-pulse soliton in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser. Twin-pulse soliton interaction in the laser cavity are also experimentally investigated and compared with those of the single pulse soliton.

  12. Rational solitons in deep nonlinear optical Bragg grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alatas, H.; Iskandar, A.A.; Tjia, M.O.; Valkering, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the rational solitons in the Generalized Coupled Mode model for a deep nonlinear Bragg grating. These solitons are the degenerate forms of the ordinary solitons and appear at the transition lines in the parameter plane. A simple formulation is presented for the investigation of the

  13. Experimental Investigation of Trapped Sine-Gordon Solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, A.; Dueholm, B.; Kryger, B.;

    1985-01-01

    We have observed for the first time a single sine-Gordon soliton trapped in an annular Josephson junction. This system offers a unique possibility to study undisturbed soliton motion. In the context of perturbation theory, the soliton may be viewed as a relativistic particle moving under a uniform...

  14. A Technique for Calculating Quantum Corrections to Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Chris; Turok, Neil

    1997-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for calculating the first quantum corrections to the properties of static solitons. The technique is applicable to solitons of arbitrary shape, and may be used in 3+1 dimensions for multiskyrmions or other complicated solitons. We report on a test computation in 1+1 dimensions, where we accurately reproduce the analytical result with minimal numerical effort.

  15. Ricci Solitons on Lorentzian Manifolds with Large Isometry Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Batat, W.; Brozos-Vazquez, M.; Garcia-Rio, E.; Gavino-Fernandez, S.

    2010-01-01

    We show that Lorentzian manifolds whose isometry group is of dimension at least $\\frac{1}{2}n(n-1)+1$ are expanding, steady and shrinking Ricci solitons and steady gradient Ricci solitons. This provides examples of complete locally conformally flat and symmetric Lorentzian Ricci solitons which are not rigid.

  16. Hamiltonian L-stability of Lagrangian Translating Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Liuqing

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we compute the first and second variation formulas for the F-functional of translating solitons and study the Hamiltonian L-stability of Lagrangian translating solitons. We prove that any Lagrangian translating soliton is Hamiltonian L-stable.

  17. Random-phase spatial solitons in instantaneous nonlocal nonlinear media

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Oren; Buljan, Hrvoje; Schwartz, Tal; Fleischer, Jason W.; Segev, Mordechai

    2004-01-01

    We predict random-phase spatial solitons in instantaneous nonlocal nonlinear media. The key mechanism responsible for self-trapping of such incoherent wave-packets is played by the non-local (rather than the traditional non-instantaneous) nature of the nonlinearity. This new kind of incoherent solitons has profoundly different features than other incoherent solitons.

  18. On gradient Ricci solitons with constant scalar curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Lopez, Manuel; Garcia-Rio, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    We use the theory of isoparametric functions to investigate gradient Ricci solitons with constant scalar curvature. We show rigidity of gradient Ricci solitons with constant scalar curvature under some conditions on the Ricci tensor, which are all satisfied if the manifold is curvature homogeneous. This leads to a complete description of four- and six-dimensional Kaehler gradient Ricci solitons with constant scalar curvature.

  19. A new class of non-topological solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Lynn, Bryan W.

    1989-01-01

    A class of non-topological solitons was constructed in renormalizable scalar field theories with nonlinear self-interactions. For large charge Q, the soliton mass increases linearly with Q, i.e., the soliton mass density is approximately independent of charge. Such objects could be naturally produced in a phase transition in the early universe or in the decay of superconducting cosmic strings.

  20. Spiraling elliptic solitons in generic nonlocal nonlinear media

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Guo; Shou, Qian; Guo, Qi

    2011-01-01

    We have introduced a class of spiraling elliptic solitons in generic nonlocal nonlinear media. The spiraling elliptic solitons carry the orbital angular momentum. This class solitons are stable for any degree of nonlocality except for the local case when the response function of the material is Gaussian function.

  1. Model with solitons in (2+1) dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.M.; Rashid, M.S.; Piette, B.; Zakrzewski, W.J. (Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics)

    1992-01-01

    We consider various models in (2+1) dimensions which possess soliton-like solutions. We discuss the additional terms that must be added to the conventional S{sup 2} model in order that its solutions are stable and so can be treated as solitons. The role of various terms is analysed and some properties of the solitonic solutions are discussed. (orig.).

  2. Cascade Lake: A Novel

    OpenAIRE

    Pack, Camille Marian

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two-year-old Macy Oman narrates the book in retrospect from Cascade, Oregon, where she is visiting her mother. Macy's father moved with her to Portland shortly after the accidental death of her brother, Nick, seven years before the narration begins. Macy's mother stayed behind in Cascade. Thematically the work centers on the emotional repercussions of these losses. Macy's, and her older lover Jason's, involvement with Nick's death is unknown to everyone. Her guilt and her mother's perc...

  3. A harmonically mode-locked dark soliton and bright–dark soliton pair ytterbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhiguo; Teng, Hao; Fang, Shaobo; Jia, Haotian; Wang, Lina; Wang, Junli; Wei, Zhiyi

    2016-06-01

    We report on an experimental study of a dark soliton and bright–dark soliton pair, harmonically mode-locked, all normal dispersion (ANDi) ytterbium fiber laser with a long cavity length. Mode-locked output up to the fourth harmonic with respect to the fundamental repetition rate has been realized. To the best of our knowledge, this the first such demonstration so far in ANDi mode-locked ytterbium fiber lasers with a birefringence filter as spectral modulation component. The experimentally recorded mode-locked spectrum shows that the generation of a dark soliton is always accompanied by strong continuous-wave emission. Furthermore, by changing the pump power, the fundamental bright–dark soliton pair mode-locked operation can be evolved into the state of the second order bright soliton coexisting with the fundamental dark soliton. Additionally, bright–dark soliton pairs, which are symmetric relative to the vertical coordinate, can be interconverted by rotating waveplates in a fixed maximum pump power condition. The generation of the dark pulse is probably due to the large normal dispersion introduced in the ring cavity except for the nonlinearity.

  4. Laboratory realization of KP-solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama and his colleagues presented a classification theorem for exact soliton solutions of the quasi-two-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation. The classification theorem is related to non-negative Grassmann manifold, Gr(N, M) that is parameterized by a unique chord diagram based on the derangement of the permutation group. The cord diagram can infer the asymptotic behavior of the solution with arbitrary number of line solitons. Here we present the realization of a variety of the KP soliton formations in the laboratory environment. The experiments are performed in a water tank designed and constructed for precision experiments for long waves. The tank is equipped with a directional-wave maker, capable of generating arbitrary-shaped multi-dimensional waves. Temporal and spatial variations of water-surface profiles are captured using the Laser Induces Fluorescent method – a nonintrusive optical measurement technique with sub-millimeter precision. The experiments yield accurate anatomy of the KP soliton formations and their evolution behaviors. Physical interpretations are discussed for a variety of KP soliton formations predicted by the classification theorem

  5. On a general class of quadratic hopping sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA HuaDing; YUAN Ding; PENG DaiYuan; GUO Ling

    2008-01-01

    Based upon quadratic polynomials over the finite field, a new class of frequency hopping sequences with large family size suitable for applications in time/frequency hopping CDMA systems, multi-user radar and sonar systems is proposed and investigated. It is shown that the new time/frequency hopping sequences have at most one hit in their autocorrelation functions and at most two hits in their crosscorrelation functions except for a special case, and their family size is much larger than the conventional quadratic hopping sequences. The percentage of full collisions for the new quadratic hopping sequences is discussed. In addition, the average number of hits for the new quadratic hopping sequences, quadratic congruence sequences, extended quadratic congruence sequences and the general linear hopping sequences are also derived.

  6. Spherical Kadomtsev—Petviashvili Solitons in a Suprathermal Complex Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonlinear aspects of nonplanar dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves are investigated in an unmagnetized complex plasma comprising of cold dust grains, kappa-distributed ions as well as electrons. The nonplanar DA solitons are studied based on the reductive perturbation technique. It is shown that the evolution of DA solitons is governed by a spherical Kadomtsev—Petviashvili (sKP) equation and then the impact of suprathermality on the spatial structure as well as the nature of DA soliton is studied. It seems that the properties of DA solitons in nonplanar geometry are quite different from that of the planar solitons. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  7. Interaction of spatially overlapping standing electromagnetic solitons in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical investigations on mutual interactions between two spatially overlapping standing electromagnetic solitons in a cold unmagnetized plasma are reported. It is found that an initial state comprising of two overlapping standing solitons evolves into different end states, depending on the amplitudes of the two solitons and the phase difference between them. For small amplitude solitons with zero phase difference, we observe the formation of an oscillating bound state whose period depends on their initial separation. These results suggest the existence of a bound state made of two solitons in the relativistic cold plasma fluid model.

  8. Manakov Soliton Pairs in Biased Photovoltaic Photorefractive Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯春风; 杜春光; 阿不都热苏力; 李师群

    2002-01-01

    We study, theoretically, incoherently coupled screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs in biased photovoltaic photorefractive crystals. It is shown that when the total intensity of two coupled solitons is much lower than the effective dark irradiance, the coupled soliton equations reduce to the Manakov equations. The dark-dark, bright-bright and dark-bright soliton pair solutions of these Manakov equations are obtained under an appropriate external bias field and a photovoltaic field, and the characteristics of these Manakov soliton pairs are also discussed in detail.

  9. Quasi-periodic transformations of nonlocal spatial solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S

    2009-06-01

    We study quasi-periodic transformations between nonlocal spatial solitons of different symmetries triggered by modulational instability and resembling a self-induced mode converter. Transformation dynamics of solitons with zero angular momentum, e.g. the quadrupole-type soliton, reveal the equidistant spectrum of spatial field oscillations typical for the breather-type solutions. In contrast, the transformations of nonlocal solitons carrying orbital angular momentum, such as 2x3 soliton matrix, are accompanied by their spiralling and corresponding spectra of field oscillations show mixing of three characteristic spatial frequencies. PMID:19506609

  10. Kink-soliton explosions in generalized Klein-Gordon equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the dynamics of kink-solitons in generalized Klein-Gordon equations in the presence of nonlinear damping and spatiotemporal perturbations. We present different mechanisms for kink-soliton explosion and show that, in some cases while some analytically obtained conditions are satisfied, the kink-soliton breaks up becoming a permanent, extremely complex, spatiotemporal dynamics. We perform computer simulations in order to visualize and corroborate our analytical findings. The mechanisms presented for kink-soliton breakup can explain some of the phenomena that recently have been reported to occur in excitable media. Finally, we will present a way to control soliton breakup, using appropriate external perturbations

  11. Matter-wave bright solitons in effective bichromatic lattice potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Golam Ali Sekh

    2013-08-01

    Matter-wave bright solitons in bichromatic lattice potentials are considered and their dynamics for different lattice environments are studied. Bichromatic potentials are created from superpositions of (i) two linear optical lattices and (ii) a linear and a nonlinear optical lattice. Effective potentials are found for the solitons in both bichromatic lattices and a comparative study is done on the dynamics of solitons with respect to the effective potentials. The effects of dispersion on solitons in bichromatic lattices are studied and it is found that the dispersive spreading can be minimized by appropriate combinations of lattice and interaction parameters. Stability of nondispersive matter-wave solitons is checked from phase portrait analysis.

  12. Dark incoherent spatial solitons in logarithmically saturable nonlinear media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi-Qi; Lu Ke-Qing; Zhang Mei-Zhi; Li Ke-Hao; Liu Shuang; Zhang Yan-Peng

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies numerically the dark incoherent spatial solitons propagating in logarithmically saturable nonlinear media by using a coherent density approach and a split-step Fourier approach for the first time. Under odd and even initial conditions, a soliton triplet and a doublet are obtained respectively for given parameters. Simultaneously,coherence properties associated with the soliton triplet and doublet are discussed. In addition, if the values of the parameters are properly chosen, five and four splittings from the input dark incoherent spatial solitons can also form.Lastly, the grayness of the soliton triplet and that of the doublet are studied, in detail.

  13. Stabilization of spatiotemporal solitons in Kerr media by dispersive coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Konotop, Vladimir V; Lobanov, Valery E; Torner, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a mechanism to stabilize spatiotemporal solitons in Kerr nonlinear media, based on the dispersion of linear coupling between the field components forming the soliton states. Specifically, we consider solitons in a two-core guiding structure with inter-core coupling dispersion (CD). We show that CD profoundly affects properties of the solitons, causing the complete stabilization of the otherwise highly unstable spatiotemporal solitons in Kerr media with focusing nonlinearity. We also find that the presence of CD stimulates the formation of bound states, which however are unstable.

  14. Vector Dissipative Solitons in Graphene Mode Locked Fiber Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Luming; Bao, Qiaoliang; Loh, Kian Ping

    2010-01-01

    Vector soliton operation of erbium-doped fiber lasers mode locked with atomic layer graphene was experimentally investigated. Either the polarization rotation or polarization locked vector dissipative solitons were experimentally obtained in a dispersion-managed cavity fiber laser with large net cavity dispersion, while in the anomalous dispersion cavity fiber laser, the phase locked NLSE solitons and induced NLSE soliton were experimentally observed. The vector soliton operation of the fiber lasers unambiguously confirms the polarization insensitive saturable absorption of the atomic layer graphene when the light is incident perpendicular to its 2D atomic layer.

  15. A simple formula for the conserved charges of soliton theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, L A

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple formula for all the conserved charges of soliton theories, evaluated on the solutions belonging to the orbit of the vacuum under the group of dressing transformations. For pedagogical reasons we perform the explicit calculations for the case of the sine-Gordon model, taken as a prototype of soliton theories. We show that the energy and momentum are boundary terms for all the solutions on the orbit of the vacuum. That orbit includes practically all the solutions of physical interest, namely solitons, multi-solitons, breathers, and combinations of solitons and breathers.

  16. A simple formula for the conserved charges of soliton theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple formula for all the conserved charges of soliton theories, evaluated on the solutions belonging to the orbit of the vacuum under the group of dressing transformations. For pedagogical reasons we perform the explicit calculations for the case of the sine-Gordon model, taken as a prototype of soliton theories. We show that the energy and momentum are boundary terms for all the solutions on the orbit of the vacuum. That orbit includes practically all the solutions of physical interest, namely solitons, multi-solitons, breathers, and combinations of solitons and breathers. The example of the mKdV equation is also given explicitly

  17. A SPLITTING METHOD FOR QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏紫銮

    2001-01-01

    A matrix splitting method is presented for minimizing a quadratic programming (QP)problem, and a general algorithm is designed to solve the QP problem and generates a sequence of iterative points. We prove that the sequence generated by the algorithm converges to the optimal solution and has an R-linear rate of convergence if the QP problem is strictly convex and nondegenerate, and that every accumulation point of the sequence generated by the general algorithm is a KKT point of the original problem under the hypothesis that the value of the objective function is bounded below on the constrained region, and that the sequence converges to a KKT point if the problem is nondegenerate and the constrained region is bounded.

  18. Compact stars with quadratic equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Ngubelanga, Sifiso A; Ray, Subharthi

    2015-01-01

    We provide new exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations for matter configurations with anisotropy and charge. The spacetime is static and spherically symmetric. A quadratic equation of state is utilised for the matter distribution. By specifying a particular form for one of the gravitational potentials and the electric field intensity we obtain new exact solutions in isotropic coordinates. In our general class of models, an earlier model with a linear equation of state is regained. For particular choices of parameters we regain the masses of the stars PSR J1614-2230, 4U 1608-52, PSR J1903+0327, EXO 1745-248 and SAX J1808.4-3658. A comprehensive physical analysis for the star PSR J1903+0327 reveals that our model is reasonable.

  19. Linear ultrasonic motor using quadrate plate transducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiamei JIN; Chunsheng ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    A linear ultrasonic motor using a quadrate plate transducer was developed for precision positioning. This motor consists of two pairs of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 piezo-electric ceramic elements, which are piezoelectrically excited into the second-bending mode of the motor stator's neutral surface in two orthogonal directions, on which the tops of four projections move along an elliptical trajectory, which in turn drives a contacted slider into linear motion via frictional forces. The coincident frequency of the stator is easily obtained for its coincident characteristic dimen-sion in two orthogonal directions. The performance characteristics achieved by the motor are: 1) a maximum linear speed of more than 60 mm/s; 2) a stroke of more than 150 mm; 3) a driving force of more than 5.0 N; and 4) a response time of about 2 ms.

  20. Estimating quadratic variation using realized variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper looks at some recent work on estimating quadratic variation using realized variance (RV) - that is, sums of M squared returns. This econometrics has been motivated by the advent of the common availability of high-frequency financial return data. When the underlying process is a...... rather general SV model - which is a special case of the semimartingale model. Then QV is integrated variance and we can derive the asymptotic distribution of the RV and its rate of convergence. These results do not require us to specify a model for either the drift or volatility functions, although we...... have to impose some weak regularity assumptions. We illustrate the use of the limit theory on some exchange rate data and some stock data. We show that even with large values of M the RV is sometimes a quite noisy estimator of integrated variance. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....