WorldWideScience

Sample records for cascaded atomic-to-global length

  1. Salinization triggers a trophic cascade in experimental freshwater communities with varying food-chain length.

    Hintz, William D; Mattes, Brian M; Schuler, Matthew S; Jones, Devin K; Stoler, Aaron B; Lind, Lovisa; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-04-01

    The application of road deicing salts in northern regions worldwide is changing the chemical environment of freshwater ecosystems. Chloride levels in many lakes, streams, and wetlands exceed the chronic and acute thresholds established by the United States and Canada for the protection of freshwater biota. Few studies have identified the impacts of deicing salts in stream and wetland communities and none have examined impacts in lake communities. We tested how relevant concentrations of road salt (15, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg Cl - /L) interacted with experimental communities containing two or three trophic levels (i.e., no fish vs. predatory fish). We hypothesized that road salt and fish would have a negative synergistic effect on zooplankton, which would then induce a trophic cascade. We tested this hypothesis in outdoor mesocosms containing filamentous algae, periphyton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, several macroinvertebrate species, and fish. We found that the presence of fish and high salt had a negative synergistic effect on the zooplankton community, which in turn caused an increase in phytoplankton. Contributing to the magnitude of this trophic cascade was a direct positive effect of high salinity on phytoplankton abundance. Cascading effects were limited with respect to impacts on the benthic food web. Periphyton and snail grazers were unaffected by the salt-induced trophic cascade, but the biomass of filamentous algae decreased as a result of competition with phytoplankton for light or nutrients. We also found direct negative effects of high salinity on the biomass of filamentous algae and amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and the mortality of banded mystery snails (Viviparus georgianus) and fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile). Clam mortality was dependent on the presence of fish, suggesting a non-consumptive interactive effect with salt. Our results indicate that globally increasing concentrations of road salt can alter community structure via both direct

  2. Observation of a rainbow of visible colors in a near infrared cascaded Raman fiber laser and its novel application as a diagnostic tool for length resolved spectral analysis

    Aparanji, Santosh; Balaswamy, V.; Arun, S.; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we report and analyse the surprising observation of a rainbow of visible colors, spanning 390nm to 620nm, in silica-based, Near Infrared, continuous-wave, cascaded Raman fiber lasers. The cascaded Raman laser is pumped at 1117nm at around 200W and at full power we obtain 100 W at 1480nm. With increasing pump power at 1117nm, the fiber constituting the Raman laser glows in various hues along its length. From spectroscopic analysis of the emitted visible light, it was identified to be harmonic and sum-frequency components of various locally propagating wavelength components. In addition to third harmonic components, surprisingly, even 2nd harmonic components were observed. Despite being a continuous-wave laser, we expect the phase-matching occurring between the core-propagating NIR light with the cladding-propagating visible wavelengths and the intensity fluctuations characteristic of Raman lasers to have played a major role in generation of visible light. In addition, this surprising generation of visible light provides us a powerful non-contact method to deduce the spectrum of light propagating in the fiber. Using static images of the fiber captured by a standard visible camera such as a DSLR, we demonstrate novel, image-processing based techniques to deduce the wavelength component propagating in the fiber at any given spatial location. This provides a powerful diagnostic tool for both length and power resolved spectral analysis in Raman fiber lasers. This helps accurate prediction of the optimal length of fiber required for complete and efficient conversion to a given Stokes wavelength.

  3. Learning Cascading

    Covert, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for software developers, system architects and analysts, big data project managers, and data scientists who wish to deploy big data solutions using the Cascading framework. You must have a basic understanding of the big data paradigm and should be familiar with Java development techniques.

  4. Experimental study of flow through compressor Cascade

    Satyam Panchal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work is to study the behaviour of flow at the inlet, within the blade passage and at the exit of a compressor cascade. For this purpose, a cascade with six numbers of aerofoil blades was designed and constructed. The cascade was fitted on the cascade test tunnel. Out of six blades two were instrumented for measuring the pressure distribution on the pressure and suction surface. The blades had a parabolic camber line, with a maximum camber position at 40% of the chord from the leading edge of the blade. The profile of the blade was C4, height of the blade was 160 mm, chord length was 80 mm, camber angle was 45° and stagger angle was 30°. Similarly, the length of the cascade was 300 mm, span was 160 mm, pitch was 60 mm, the actual chord of the cascade was 80 mm, the axial chord of the cascade was 70 mm, the stagger angle of the cascade was 30° and the pitch-chord ratio was 0.75. The data was taken and analyzed at −500% of the axial chord before the cascade, −25% of the axial chord before the leading edge, 25%, 50%, 75% and 150% of the axial chord from the leading edge of the blade. The readings were taken from the cascade wall to the mid span position along the pitch wise direction. The angle of incidence was also changed during the experiment and varied from i=−50°, −30°, −10° to 5°.

  5. Cascade annealing: an overview

    Doran, D.G.; Schiffgens, J.O.

    1976-04-01

    Concepts and an overview of radiation displacement damage modeling and annealing kinetics are presented. Short-term annealing methodology is described and results of annealing simulations performed on damage cascades generated using the Marlowe and Cascade programs are included. Observations concerning the inconsistencies and inadequacies of current methods are presented along with simulation of high energy cascades and simulation of longer-term annealing

  6. Cascade quantum teleportation

    ZHOU Nan-run; GONG Li-hua; LIU Ye

    2006-01-01

    In this letter a cascade quantum teleportation scheme is proposed. The proposed scheme needs less local quantum operations than those of quantum multi-teleportation. A quantum teleportation scheme based on entanglement swapping is presented and compared with the cascade quantum teleportation scheme. Those two schemes can effectively teleport quantum information and extend the distance of quantum communication.

  7. Mechanisms of cascade collapse

    Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Smalinskas, K.; Averback, R.S.; Robertson, I.M.; Hseih, H.; Benedek, R.

    1988-12-01

    The spontaneous collapse of energetic displacement cascades in metals into vacancy dislocation loops has been investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Simulations of 5 keV recoil events in Cu and Ni provide the following scenario of cascade collapse: atoms are ejected from the central region of the cascade by replacement collision sequences; the central region subsequently melts; vacancies are driven to the center of the cascade during resolidification where they may collapse into loops. Whether or not collapse occurs depends critically on the melting temperature of the metal and the energy density and total energy in the cascade. Results of TEM are presented in support of this mechanism. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Conjugation of cascades

    San Martin, Jesus; Rodriguez-Perez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Presented in this work are some results relative to sequences found in the logistic equation bifurcation diagram, which is the unimodal quadratic map prototype. All of the different saddle-node bifurcation cascades, associated with every last appearance p-periodic orbit (p=3,4,5,...), can also be generated from the very Feigenbaum cascade. In this way it is evidenced the relationship between both cascades. The orbits of every saddle-node bifurcation cascade, mentioned above, are located in different chaotic bands, and this determines a sequence of orbits converging to every band-merging Misiurewicz point. In turn, these accumulation points form a sequence whose accumulation point is the Myrberg-Feigenbaum point. It is also proven that the first appearance orbits in the n-chaotic band converge to the same point as the last appearance orbits of the (n + 1)-chaotic band. The symbolic sequences of band-merging Misiurewicz points are computed for any window.

  9. Learning optimal embedded cascades.

    Saberian, Mohammad Javad; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2012-10-01

    The problem of automatic and optimal design of embedded object detector cascades is considered. Two main challenges are identified: optimization of the cascade configuration and optimization of individual cascade stages, so as to achieve the best tradeoff between classification accuracy and speed, under a detection rate constraint. Two novel boosting algorithms are proposed to address these problems. The first, RCBoost, formulates boosting as a constrained optimization problem which is solved with a barrier penalty method. The constraint is the target detection rate, which is met at all iterations of the boosting process. This enables the design of embedded cascades of known configuration without extensive cross validation or heuristics. The second, ECBoost, searches over cascade configurations to achieve the optimal tradeoff between classification risk and speed. The two algorithms are combined into an overall boosting procedure, RCECBoost, which optimizes both the cascade configuration and its stages under a detection rate constraint, in a fully automated manner. Extensive experiments in face, car, pedestrian, and panda detection show that the resulting detectors achieve an accuracy versus speed tradeoff superior to those of previous methods.

  10. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  11. Flame Length

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  12. Cascade Organic Solar Cells

    Schlenker, Cody W.

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Energy cascades in Canada

    Hayden, A. C.; Brown, T. D.

    1979-03-15

    Combining energy uses in a cascade can result in significant overall reductions in fuel requirements. The simplest applications for a cascade are in the recovery of waste heat from existing processes using special boilers or turbines. Specific applications of more-complex energy cascades for Canada are discussed. A combined-cycle plant at a chemical refinery in Ontario is world leader in energy efficiency. Total-energy systems for commercial buildings, such as one installed in a school in Western Canada, offer attractive energy and operating cost benefits. A cogeneration plant proposed for the National Capital Region, generating electricity as well as steam for district heating, allows the use of a low-grade fossil fuel (coal), greatly improves energy-transformation efficiency, and also utilizes an effectively renewable resource (municipal garbage). Despite the widespread availability of equipment and technology of energy cascades, the sale of steam and electricity across plant boundaries presents a barrier. More widespread use of cascades will require increased cooperation among industry, electric utilities and the various levels of government if Canada is to realize the high levels of energy efficiency potential available.

  14. Cascade Organic Solar Cells

    Schlenker, Cody W.; Barlier, Vincent S.; Chin, Stephanie W.; Whited, Matthew T.; McAnally, R. Eric; Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Hadron cascades produced by electromagnetic cascades

    Nelson, W.R.; Jenkins, T.M.; Ranft, J.

    1986-12-01

    A method for calculating high energy hadron cascades induced by multi-GeV electron and photon beams is described. Using the EGS4 computer program, high energy photons in the EM shower are allowed to interact hadronically according to the vector meson dominance (VMD) model, facilitated by a Monte Carlo version of the dual multistring fragmentation model which is used in the hadron cascade code FLUKA. The results of this calculation compare very favorably with experimental data on hadron production in photon-proton collisions and on the hadron production by electron beams on targets (i.e., yields in secondary particle beam lines). Electron beam induced hadron star density contours are also presented and are compared with those produced by proton beams. This FLUKA-EGS4 coupling technique could find use in the design of secondary beams, in the determination high energy hadron source terms for shielding purposes, and in the estimation of induced radioactivity in targets, collimators and beam dumps

  16. Fundamental length

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  17. Cascade reactor: introduction

    Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Cascade is a concept for an ultrasafe, highly efficient, easily built reactor to convert inertial-confinement fusion energy into electrical power. The Cascade design includes a rotating double-cone-shaped chamber in which a moving, 1-m-thick ceramic granular blanket is held against the reactor wall by centrifugal action. The granular material absorbs energy from the fusion reactions. Accomplishments this year associated with Cascade included improvements to simplify chamber design and lower activation. The authors switched from a steel chamber wall to one made from silicon-carbide (SiC) panels held in compression by SiC-fiber/Al-composite tendons that gird the chamber both circumferentially and axially. The authors studies a number of heat-exchanger designs and selected a gravity-flow cascade design with a vacuum on the primary side. This design allows granules leaving the chamber to be transported to the heat exchangers using their own peripheral speed. The granules transfer their thermal energy and return to the chamber gravitationally: no vacuum locks or conveyors are needed

  18. Stability of cascade search

    Fomenko, Tatiana N [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-22

    We find sufficient conditions on a searching multi-cascade for a modification of the set of limit points of the cascade that satisfy an assessing inequality for the distance from each of these points to the initial point to be small, provided that the modifications of the initial point and the initial set-valued functionals or maps used to construct the multi-cascade are small. Using this result, we prove the stability (in the above sense) of the cascade search for the set of common pre-images of a closed subspace under the action of n set-valued maps, n{>=}1 (in particular, for the set of common roots of these maps and for the set of their coincidences). For n=2 we obtain generalizations of some results of A. V. Arutyunov; the very statement of the problem comes from a recent paper of his devoted to the study of the stability of the subset of coincidences of a Lipschitz map and a covering map.

  19. Hadronic cascade processes

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Kripfganz, J.; Moehring, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The analytical treatment of hadronic decay cascades within the framework of the statistical bootstrap model is demonstrated on the basis of a simple variant. Selected problems for a more comprehensive formulation of the model such as angular momentum conservation, quantum statistical effects, and the immediate applicability to particle production processes at high energies are discussed in detail

  20. Integrated Broadband Quantum Cascade Laser

    Mansour, Kamjou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A broadband, integrated quantum cascade laser is disclosed, comprising ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers formed by applying standard semiconductor process techniques to a monolithic structure of alternating layers of claddings and active region layers. The resulting ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers may be individually controlled by independent voltage potentials, resulting in control of the overall spectrum of the integrated quantum cascade laser source. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  1. Information cascade on networks

    Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model by considering three different kinds of networks: a random graph, the Barabási-Albert (BA) model, and a fitness model. A voting model represents the way in which public perceptions are conveyed to voters. Our voting model is constructed by using two types of voters-herders and independents-and two candidates. Independents conduct voting based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, herders base their voting on the number of previous votes. Hence, herders vote for the majority candidates and obtain information relating to previous votes from their networks. We discuss the difference between the phases on which the networks depend. Two kinds of phase transitions, an information cascade transition and a super-normal transition, were identified. The first of these is a transition between a state in which most voters make the correct choices and a state in which most of them are wrong. The second is a transition of convergence speed. The information cascade transition prevails when herder effects are stronger than the super-normal transition. In the BA and fitness models, the critical point of the information cascade transition is the same as that of the random network model. However, the critical point of the super-normal transition disappears when these two models are used. In conclusion, the influence of networks is shown to only affect the convergence speed and not the information cascade transition. We are therefore able to conclude that the influence of hubs on voters' perceptions is limited.

  2. Cascade ICF power reactor

    Hogan, W.J.; Pitts, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The double-cone-shaped Cascade reaction chamber rotates at 50 rpm to keep a blanket of ceramic granules in place against the wall as they slide from the poles to the exit slots at the equator. The 1 m-thick blanket consists of layers of carbon, beryllium oxide, and lithium aluminate granules about 1 mm in diameter. The x rays and debris are stopped in the carbon granules; the neutrons are multiplied and moderated in the BeO and breed tritium in the LiAlO 2 . The chamber wall is made up of SiO tiles held in compression by a network of composite SiC/Al tendons. Cascade operates at a 5 Hz pulse rate with 300 MJ in each pulse. The temperature in the blanket reaches 1600 K on the inner surface and 1350 K at the outer edge. The granules are automatically thrown into three separate vacuum heat exchangers where they give up their energy to high pressure helium. The helium is used in a Brayton cycle to obtain a thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency of 55%. Studies have been done on neutron activation, debris recovery, vaporization and recondensation of blanket material, tritium control and recovery, fire safety, and cost. These studies indicate that Cascade appears to be a promising ICF reactor candidate from all standpoints. At the 1000 MWe size, electricity could be made for about the same cost as in a future fission reactor

  3. Molecular-dynamics simulation of displacement cascades in Cu: analysis of replacement sequences

    King, W.E.; Benedek, R.

    1981-01-01

    Molecular-dynamics computer simulations of displacement cascades in copper have been performed for recoil energies up to 450 eV. Statistical analyses of the atomic replacements are presented. Linear replacement sequence lengths are extremely short on the average. The effect of the cooling phase of the cascade is discussed

  4. Cascading Corruption News

    Damgaard, Mads

    2018-01-01

    Through a content analysis of 8,800 news items and six months of front pages in three Brazilian newspapers, all dealing with corruption and political transgression, this article documents the remarkable skew of media attention to corruption scandals. The bias is examined as an information...... phenomenon, arising from systemic and commercial factors of Brazil’s news media: An information cascade of news on corruption formed, destabilizing the governing coalition and legitimizing the impeachment process of Dilma Rousseff. As this process gained momentum, questions of accountability were disregarded...

  5. Cascading Corruption News

    Damgaard, Mads

    2018-01-01

    Through a content analysis of 8,800 news items and six months of front pages in three Brazilian newspapers, all dealing with corruption and political transgression, this article documents the remarkable skew of media attention to corruption scandals. The bias is examined as an information...... phenomenon, arising from systemic and commercial factors of Brazil’s news media: An information cascade of news on corruption formed, destabilizing the governing coalition and legitimizing the impeachment process of Dilma Rousseff. As this process gained momentum, questions of accountability were disregarded...... by the media, with harmful effects on democracy....

  6. Multicomponent gas analysis using broadband quantum cascade laser spectroscopy

    Reyes Reyes, A.; Hou, Z.; Van Mastrigt, E.; Horsten, R.C.; De Jongste, J.C.; Pijnenburg, M.W.; Urbach, H.P.; Bhattacharya, N.

    2014-01-01

    We present a broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopic system covering the region between 850 and 1250 cm?1. Its robust multipass cavity ensures a constant interaction length over the entire spectral region. The device enables the detection and identification of numerous molecules present

  7. Cascade of circulations in fluid turbulence.

    Eyink, Gregory L

    2006-12-01

    Kelvin's theorem on conservation of circulations is an essential ingredient of Taylor's theory of turbulent energy dissipation by the process of vortex-line stretching. In previous work, we have proposed a nonlinear mechanism for the breakdown of Kelvin's theorem in ideal turbulence at infinite Reynolds number. We develop here a detailed physical theory of this cascade of circulations. Our analysis is based upon an effective equation for large-scale coarse-grained velocity, which contains a turbulent-induced vortex force that can violate Kelvin's theorem. We show that singularities of sufficient strength, which are observed to exist in turbulent flow, can lead to nonvanishing dissipation of circulation for an arbitrarily small coarse-graining length in the effective equations. This result is an analog for circulation of Onsager's theorem on energy dissipation for singular Euler solutions. The physical mechanism of the breakdown of Kelvin's theorem is diffusion of lines of large-scale vorticity out of the advected loop. This phenomenon can be viewed as a classical analog of the Josephson-Anderson phase-slip phenomenon in superfluids due to quantized vortex lines. We show that the circulation cascade is local in scale and use this locality to develop concrete expressions for the turbulent vortex force by a multiscale gradient expansion. We discuss implications for Taylor's theory of turbulent dissipation and we point out some related cascade phenomena, in particular for magnetic flux in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

  8. Cascade Error Projection Learning Algorithm

    Duong, T. A.; Stubberud, A. R.; Daud, T.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed mathematical analysis is presented for a new learning algorithm termed cascade error projection (CEP) and a general learning frame work. This frame work can be used to obtain the cascade correlation learning algorithm by choosing a particular set of parameters.

  9. Interband cascade lasers

    Vurgaftman, I; Meyer, J R; Canedy, C L; Kim, C S; Bewley, W W; Merritt, C D; Abell, J; Weih, R; Kamp, M; Kim, M; Höfling, S

    2015-01-01

    We review the current status of interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting in the midwave infrared (IR). The ICL may be considered the hybrid of a conventional diode laser that generates photons via electron–hole recombination, and an intersubband-based quantum cascade laser (QCL) that stacks multiple stages for enhanced current efficiency. Following a brief historical overview, we discuss theoretical aspects of the active region and core designs, growth by molecular beam epitaxy, and the processing of broad-area, narrow-ridge, and distributed feedback (DFB) devices. We then review the experimental performance of pulsed broad area ICLs, as well as the continuous-wave (cw) characteristics of narrow ridges having good beam quality and DFBs producing output in a single spectral mode. Because the threshold drive powers are far lower than those of QCLs throughout the λ = 3–6 µm spectral band, ICLs are increasingly viewed as the laser of choice for mid-IR laser spectroscopy applications that do not require high output power but need to be hand-portable and/or battery operated. Demonstrated ICL performance characteristics to date include threshold current densities as low as 106 A cm −2 at room temperature (RT), cw threshold drive powers as low as 29 mW at RT, maximum cw operating temperatures as high as 118 °C, maximum cw output powers exceeding 400 mW at RT, maximum cw wallplug efficiencies as high as 18% at RT, maximum cw single-mode output powers as high as 55 mW at RT, and single-mode output at λ = 5.2 µm with a cw drive power of only 138 mW at RT. (topical review)

  10. Primary defect production by high energy displacement cascades in molybdenum

    Selby, Aaron P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Xu, Donghua, E-mail: xudh@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Juslin, Niklas; Capps, Nathan A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS6003, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of primary damage in molybdenum produced by high energy displacement cascades on the femto- to pico-second and Angstrom to nanometer scales. Clustering directly occurred for both interstitials and vacancies in the 1–50 keV cascade energy range explored. Point defect survival efficiency and partitioning probabilities into different sized clusters were quantified. The results will provide an important reference for kinetic models to describe the microstructural evolution in Mo under ion or neutron irradiations over much longer time and length scales.

  11. Inferring network structure from cascades

    Ghonge, Sushrut; Vural, Dervis Can

    2017-07-01

    Many physical, biological, and social phenomena can be described by cascades taking place on a network. Often, the activity can be empirically observed, but not the underlying network of interactions. In this paper we offer three topological methods to infer the structure of any directed network given a set of cascade arrival times. Our formulas hold for a very general class of models where the activation probability of a node is a generic function of its degree and the number of its active neighbors. We report high success rates for synthetic and real networks, for several different cascade models.

  12. Cascade energy amplifier

    Barzilov, A.P.; Gulevich, A.V.; Kukharchuk, O.F.

    2000-01-01

    The technical problem of long-life fission product and minor actinide incineration and production of plutonium fuel in the prospective nuclear systems will arise at significant scales of nuclear power industry development. Subcritical nuclear reactors driven by extemal neutron sources (energy amplifiers) are considered as incinerators of toxicity of complete nuclear industry. In the frames of this concept, the subcritical reactor part consisting of two coupled blanket regions (inner fast neutron spectrum core and outer thermal core) driven by extemal neutron source is discussed. Two types of source are studied: spallation target and 14-MeV fusion bum of micropellets. Liquid metal Pb-Bi is considered as target material and coolant of inner fast core. Thermal core is a heavy-water subcritical reactor of the Candu-type. The fast core is protected from thermal neutrons influence with the boron shield. All reactor technologies used in this concept are tested during years of operation and commercially available. Thus, the cascade energy amplifiers have a set of advantages in comparison with traditional concepts: in energy production, in transmutation efficiency, and in economics. (authors)

  13. Ultrarelativistic cascades and strangeness production

    Kahana, D.E. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Kahana, S.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.

    1998-08-24

    A two-phase cascade code, LUCIFER II, developed for the treatment of ultra high energy-ion-ion collisions is applied to the production of strangeness at SPS energies {radical}(s)=17-20. This simulation is able to simultaneously describe both hard processes such as Drell-Yan and slower, soft processes such as the production of light mesons by separating the dynamics into two steps, a fast cascade involving only the nucleons in the original colliding relativistic ions followed, after an appropriate delay, by a normal multiscattering of the resulting excited baryons and mesons produced virtually in the first step. No energy loss can take place in the short time interval over which the first cascade takes place. The chief result is a reconciliation of the important Drell-Yan measurements with the apparent success of standard cascades to describe the nucleon stopping and meson production in heavy-ion experiments at the CERN SPS. (orig.) 26 refs.

  14. Ultrarelativistic cascades and strangeness production

    Kahana, D.E.; Kahana, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase cascade code, LUCIFER II, developed for the treatment of ultra high energy-ion-ion collisions is applied to the production of strangeness at SPS energies √(s)=17-20. This simulation is able to simultaneously describe both hard processes such as Drell-Yan and slower, soft processes such as the production of light mesons by separating the dynamics into two steps, a fast cascade involving only the nucleons in the original colliding relativistic ions followed, after an appropriate delay, by a normal multiscattering of the resulting excited baryons and mesons produced virtually in the first step. No energy loss can take place in the short time interval over which the first cascade takes place. The chief result is a reconciliation of the important Drell-Yan measurements with the apparent success of standard cascades to describe the nucleon stopping and meson production in heavy-ion experiments at the CERN SPS. (orig.)

  15. Ultrarelativistic cascades and strangeness production

    Kahana, D.E.; Kahana, S.H.

    1998-02-01

    A two phase cascade, LUCIFER II, developed for the treatment of ultra high energy Ion-Ion collisions is applied to the production of strangeness at SPS energies. This simulation is able to simultaneously describe both hard processes such as Drell-Yan and slower, soft processes such as the production of light mesons by separating the dynamics into two steps, a fast cascade involving only the nucleons in the original colliding relativistic ions followed, after an appropriate delay, by a normal multiscattering of the resulting excited baryons and mesons produced virtually in the first step. No energy loss can take place in the short time interval over which the first cascade takes place. The chief result is a reconciliation of the important Drell-Yan measurements with the apparent success of standard cascades to describe the nucleon stopping and meson production in heavy ion experiments at the CERN SPS

  16. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  17. Stochastic background of atmospheric cascades

    Wilk, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Fluctuations in the atmospheric cascades developing during the propagation of very high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere are investigated using stochastic branching model of pure birth process with immigration. In particular, we show that the multiplicity distributions of secondaries emerging from gamma families are much narrower than those resulting from hadronic families. We argue that the strong intermittent like behaviour found recently in atmospheric families results from the fluctuations in the cascades themselves and are insensitive to the details of elementary interactions

  18. Computation of inverse magnetic cascades

    Montgomery, D.

    1981-10-01

    Inverse cascades of magnetic quantities for turbulent incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are reviewed, for two and three dimensions. The theory is extended to the Strauss equations, a description intermediate between two and three dimensions appropriate to tokamak magnetofluids. Consideration of the absolute equilibrium Gibbs ensemble for the system leads to a prediction of an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which may manifest itself as a major disruption. An agenda for computational investigation of this conjecture is proposed

  19. Positional information generated by spatially distributed signaling cascades.

    Javier Muñoz-García

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporal and stationary behavior of protein modification cascades has been extensively studied, yet little is known about the spatial aspects of signal propagation. We have previously shown that the spatial separation of opposing enzymes, such as a kinase and a phosphatase, creates signaling activity gradients. Here we show under what conditions signals stall in the space or robustly propagate through spatially distributed signaling cascades. Robust signal propagation results in activity gradients with long plateaus, which abruptly decay at successive spatial locations. We derive an approximate analytical solution that relates the maximal amplitude and propagation length of each activation profile with the cascade level, protein diffusivity, and the ratio of the opposing enzyme activities. The control of the spatial signal propagation appears to be very different from the control of transient temporal responses for spatially homogenous cascades. For spatially distributed cascades where activating and deactivating enzymes operate far from saturation, the ratio of the opposing enzyme activities is shown to be a key parameter controlling signal propagation. The signaling gradients characteristic for robust signal propagation exemplify a pattern formation mechanism that generates precise spatial guidance for multiple cellular processes and conveys information about the cell size to the nucleus.

  20. Gradients in Catostomid assemblages along a reservoir cascade

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Keretz, Kevin R.; Gilliland, Chelsea R.

    2017-01-01

    Serial impoundment of major rivers leads to alterations of natural flow dynamics and disrupts longitudinal connectivity. Catostomid fishes (suckers, family Catostomidae) are typically found in riverine or backwater habitats yet are able to persist in impounded river systems. To the detriment of conservation, there is limited information about distribution of catostomid fishes in impounded rivers. We examined the longitudinal distribution of catostomid fishes over 23 reservoirs of the Tennessee River reservoir cascade, encompassing approximately 1600 km. Our goal was to develop a basin-scale perspective to guide conservation efforts. Catostomid species composition and assemblage structure changed longitudinally along the reservoir cascade. Catostomid species biodiversity was greatest in reservoirs lower in the cascade. Assemblage composition shifted from dominance by spotted sucker Minytrema melanops and buffalos Ictiobus spp. in the lower reservoirs to carpsuckers Carpiodes spp. midway through the cascade and redhorses Moxostoma spp. in the upper reservoirs. Most species did not extend the length of the cascade, and some species were rare, found in low numbers and in few reservoirs. The observed gradients in catostomid assemblages suggest the need for basin-scale conservation measures focusing on three broad areas: (1) conservation and management of the up-lake riverine reaches of the lower reservoirs, (2) maintenance of the access to quality habitat in tributaries to the upper reservoirs and (3) reintroductions into currently unoccupied habitat within species' historic distributions

  1. Energy Cascade Analysis: from Subscale Eddies to Mean Flow

    Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Wonnell, Louis; Chen, James

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the energy transfer between eddies and mean flow can provide insights into the energy cascade process. Much work has been done to investigate the energy cascade at the level of the smallest eddies using different numerical techniques derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. These methodologies, however, prove to be computationally inefficient when producing energy spectra for a wide range of length scales. In this regard, Morphing Continuum Theory (MCT) resolves the length-scales issues by assuming the fluid continuum to be composed of inner structures that play the role of subscale eddies. The current study show- cases the capabilities of MCT in capturing the dynamics of energy cascade at the level of subscale eddies, through a supersonic turbulent flow of Mach 2.93 over an 8× compression ramp. Analysis of the results using statistical averaging procedure shows the existence of a statistical coupling of the internal and translational kinetic energy fluctuations with the corresponding rotational kinetic energy of the subscale eddies, indicating a multiscale transfer of energy. The results show that MCT gives a new characterization of the energy cascade within compressible turbulence without the use of excessive computational resources. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-17-1-0154.

  2. Cascading walks model for human mobility patterns.

    Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Xiang-Wen; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the mechanism behind the scaling laws and series of anomalies in human trajectories is of fundamental significance in understanding many spatio-temporal phenomena. Recently, several models, e.g. the explorations-returns model (Song et al., 2010) and the radiation model for intercity travels (Simini et al., 2012), have been proposed to study the origin of these anomalies and the prediction of human movements. However, an agent-based model that could reproduce most of empirical observations without priori is still lacking. In this paper, considering the empirical findings on the correlations of move-lengths and staying time in human trips, we propose a simple model which is mainly based on the cascading processes to capture the human mobility patterns. In this model, each long-range movement activates series of shorter movements that are organized by the law of localized explorations and preferential returns in prescribed region. Based on the numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show more than five statistical characters that are well consistent with the empirical observations, including several types of scaling anomalies and the ultraslow diffusion properties, implying the cascading processes associated with the localized exploration and preferential returns are indeed a key in the understanding of human mobility activities. Moreover, the model shows both of the diverse individual mobility and aggregated scaling displacements, bridging the micro and macro patterns in human mobility. In summary, our model successfully explains most of empirical findings and provides deeper understandings on the emergence of human mobility patterns.

  3. Period adding cascades: experiment and modeling in air bubbling.

    Pereira, Felipe Augusto Cardoso; Colli, Eduardo; Sartorelli, José Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Period adding cascades have been observed experimentally/numerically in the dynamics of neurons and pancreatic cells, lasers, electric circuits, chemical reactions, oceanic internal waves, and also in air bubbling. We show that the period adding cascades appearing in bubbling from a nozzle submerged in a viscous liquid can be reproduced by a simple model, based on some hydrodynamical principles, dealing with the time evolution of two variables, bubble position and pressure of the air chamber, through a system of differential equations with a rule of detachment based on force balance. The model further reduces to an iterating one-dimensional map giving the pressures at the detachments, where time between bubbles come out as an observable of the dynamics. The model has not only good agreement with experimental data, but is also able to predict the influence of the main parameters involved, like the length of the hose connecting the air supplier with the needle, the needle radius and the needle length.

  4. Congestion and cascades in payment systems

    Beyeler, Walter E.; Glass, Robert J.; Bech, Morten L.; Soramäki, Kimmo

    2007-10-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of the interbank payment system. The model incorporates an endogenous instruction arrival process, a scale-free topology of payments between banks, a fixed total liquidity which limits banks’ capacity to process arriving instructions, and a global market that distributes liquidity. We find that at low liquidity the system becomes congested and payment settlement loses correlation with payment instruction arrival, becoming coupled across the network. The onset of congestion is evidently related to the relative values of three characteristic times: the time for banks’ net position to return to 0, the time for a bank to exhaust its liquidity endowment, and the liquidity market relaxation time. In the congested regime settlement takes place in cascades having a characteristic length scale. A global liquidity market substantially attenuates congestion, requiring only a small fraction of the payment-induced liquidity flow to achieve strong beneficial effects.

  5. Time structure of cascade showers

    Nakatsuka, Takao

    1984-01-01

    Interesting results have been reported on the time structure of the electromagnetic components of air showers which have been obtained by using recent fast electronic circuit technology. However, these analyses and explanations seem not very persuasive. One of the reasons is that there is not satisfactory theoretical calculation yet to explain the delay of electromagnetic components in cascade processes which are the object of direct observation. Therefore, Monte Carlo calculation was attempted for examining the relationship between the altitude at which high energy γ-ray is generated up in the air and the time structure of cascade showers at the level of observation. The investigation of a dominant factor over the delay of electromagnetic components indicated that the delay due to the multiple scattering of electrons was essential. The author used the analytical solution found by himself of C. N. Yang's equation for the study on the delay due to multiple scattering. The results were as follows: The average delay time and the spread of distribution of electromagnetic cascades were approximately in linear relationship with the mass of a material having passed in a thin uniform medium; the rise time of arrival time distribution for electromagnetic cascade showers was very steep under the condition that they were generated up in the air and observed on the ground; the subpeaks delayed by tens of ns in arrival time may sometimes appear due to the perturbation in electromagnetic cascade processes. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Space-time evolution of electron cascades in diamond

    Ziaja, Beata; Szoeke, Abraham; Spoel, David van der; Hajdu, Janos

    2002-01-01

    The impact of a primary electron initiates a cascade of secondary electrons in solids, and these cascades play a significant role in the dynamics of ionization. Here we describe model calculations to follow the spatiotemporal evolution of secondary electron cascades in diamond. The band structure of the insulator has been explicitly incorporated into the calculations as it affects ionizations from the valence band. A Monte Carlo model was constructed to describe the path of electrons following the impact of a single electron of energy E∼250 eV. This energy is similar to the energy of an Auger electron from carbon. Two limiting cases were considered: the case in which electrons transmit energy to the lattice, and the case where no such energy transfer is permitted. The results show the evolution of the secondary electron cascades in terms of the number of electrons liberated, the spatial distribution of these electrons, and the energy distribution among the electrons as a function of time. The predicted ionization rates (∼5-13 electrons in 100 fs) lie within the limits given by experiments and phenomenological models. Calculation of the local electron density and the corresponding Debye length shows that the latter is systematically larger than the radius of the electron cloud, and it increases exponentially with the radial size of the cascade. This means that the long-range Coulomb field is not shielded within this cloud, and the electron gas generated does not represent a plasma in a single impact cascade triggered by an electron of E∼250 eV energy. This is important as it justifies the independent-electron approximation used in the model. At 1 fs, the (average) spatial distribution of secondary electrons is anisotropic with the electron cloud elongated in the direction of the primary impact. The maximal radius of the cascade is about 50 A at this time. At 10 fs the cascade has a maximal radius of ∼70 A, and is already dominated by low-energy electrons

  7. Rescuing Ecosystems from Extinction Cascades

    Sahasrabudhe, Sagar; Motter, Adilson

    2010-03-01

    Food web perturbations stemming from climate change, overexploitation, invasive species, and natural disasters often cause an initial loss of species that results in a cascade of secondary extinctions. Using a predictive modeling framework, here we will present a systematic network-based approach to reduce the number of secondary extinctions. We will show that the extinction of one species can often be compensated by the concurrent removal of a second specific species, which is a counter-intuitive effect not previously tested in complex food webs. These compensatory perturbations frequently involve long-range interactions that are not a priori evident from local predator-prey relationships. Strikingly, in numerous cases even the early removal of a species that would eventually be extinct by the cascade is found to significantly reduce the number of cascading extinctions. Other nondestructive interventions based on partial removals and growth suppression and/or mortality increase are shown to sometimes prevent all secondary extinctions.

  8. Telomere Length and Mortality

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  9. Analysis on Invulnerability of Wireless Sensor Network towards Cascading Failures Based on Coupled Map Lattice

    Xiuwen Fu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research of wireless sensor networks (WSNs invulnerability mainly focuses on the static topology, while ignoring the cascading process of the network caused by the dynamic changes of load. Therefore, given the realistic features of WSNs, in this paper we research the invulnerability of WSNs with respect to cascading failures based on the coupled map lattice (CML. The invulnerability and the cascading process of four types of network topologies (i.e., random network, small-world network, homogenous scale-free network, and heterogeneous scale-free network under various attack schemes (i.e., random attack, max-degree attack, and max-status attack are investigated, respectively. The simulation results demonstrate that the rise of interference R and coupling coefficient ε will increase the risks of cascading failures. Cascading threshold values Rc and εc exist, where cascading failures will spread to the entire network when R>Rc or ε>εc. When facing a random attack or max-status attack, the network with higher heterogeneity tends to have a stronger invulnerability towards cascading failures. Conversely, when facing a max-degree attack, the network with higher uniformity tends to have a better performance. Besides that, we have also proved that the spreading speed of cascading failures is inversely proportional to the average path length of the network and the increase of average degree k can improve the network invulnerability.

  10. Multiplicity distributions in QCD cascades

    Gustafson, G.

    1992-03-01

    Multiplicity distributions for hadrons and for jets are studied in QCD parton cascades. The colour dipole formalism is used and earlier results in the double log approximation are generalized to include terms which are suppressed by colour factors or factors of ln s. The result is a set of coupled differential equations, together with appropriate boundary conditions

  11. A comparison of methods for cascade prediction

    Guo, Ruocheng; Shakarian, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Information cascades exist in a wide variety of platforms on Internet. A very important real-world problem is to identify which information cascades can go viral. A system addressing this problem can be used in a variety of applications including public health, marketing and counter-terrorism. As a cascade can be considered as compound of the social network and the time series. However, in related literature where methods for solving the cascade prediction problem were proposed, the experimen...

  12. Computer simulation of displacement cascades in copper

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1983-06-01

    More than 500 displacement cascades in copper have been generated with the computer simulation code MARLOWE over an energy range pertinent to both fission and fusion neutron spectra. Three-dimensional graphical depictions of selected cascades, as well as quantitative analysis of cascade shapes and sizes and defect densities, illustrate cascade behavior as a function of energy. With increasing energy, the transition from production of single compact damage regions to widely spaced multiple damage regions is clearly demonstrated

  13. Dynamics robustness of cascading systems.

    Jonathan T Young

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A most important property of biochemical systems is robustness. Static robustness, e.g., homeostasis, is the insensitivity of a state against perturbations, whereas dynamics robustness, e.g., homeorhesis, is the insensitivity of a dynamic process. In contrast to the extensively studied static robustness, dynamics robustness, i.e., how a system creates an invariant temporal profile against perturbations, is little explored despite transient dynamics being crucial for cellular fates and are reported to be robust experimentally. For example, the duration of a stimulus elicits different phenotypic responses, and signaling networks process and encode temporal information. Hence, robustness in time courses will be necessary for functional biochemical networks. Based on dynamical systems theory, we uncovered a general mechanism to achieve dynamics robustness. Using a three-stage linear signaling cascade as an example, we found that the temporal profiles and response duration post-stimulus is robust to perturbations against certain parameters. Then analyzing the linearized model, we elucidated the criteria of when signaling cascades will display dynamics robustness. We found that changes in the upstream modules are masked in the cascade, and that the response duration is mainly controlled by the rate-limiting module and organization of the cascade's kinetics. Specifically, we found two necessary conditions for dynamics robustness in signaling cascades: 1 Constraint on the rate-limiting process: The phosphatase activity in the perturbed module is not the slowest. 2 Constraints on the initial conditions: The kinase activity needs to be fast enough such that each module is saturated even with fast phosphatase activity and upstream changes are attenuated. We discussed the relevance of such robustness to several biological examples and the validity of the above conditions therein. Given the applicability of dynamics robustness to a variety of systems, it

  14. Cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics.

    Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Genty, G; Murdoch, S G

    2013-01-15

    We report on a theoretical and experimental study of cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics. We show that the usual energy-momentum conservation of Bragg scattering can be considerably relaxed via cascade-induced phase-matching. Experimentally we demonstrate frequency translation over six- and 11-fold cascades, in excellent agreement with derived phase-matching conditions.

  15. Atom-atom collision cascades localization

    Kirsanov, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of an impurity and thermal vibration influence on the atom-atom collision cascade development is analysed by the computer simulation method (the modificated dynamic model). It is discovered that the relatively low energetic cascades are localized with the temperature increase of an irradiated crystal. On the basis of the given effect the mechanism of splitting of the high energetic cascades into subcascades is proposed. It accounts for two factors: the primary knocked atom energy and the irradiated crystal temperature. Introduction of an impurity also localizes the cascades independently from the impurity atom mass. The cascades localization leads to intensification of the process of annealing in the cascades and reduction of the post-cascade vacancy cluster sizes. (author)

  16. Cascade Chaotic System With Applications.

    Zhou, Yicong; Hua, Zhongyun; Pun, Chi-Man; Chen, C L Philip

    2015-09-01

    Chaotic maps are widely used in different applications. Motivated by the cascade structure in electronic circuits, this paper introduces a general chaotic framework called the cascade chaotic system (CCS). Using two 1-D chaotic maps as seed maps, CCS is able to generate a huge number of new chaotic maps. Examples and evaluations show the CCS's robustness. Compared with corresponding seed maps, newly generated chaotic maps are more unpredictable and have better chaotic performance, more parameters, and complex chaotic properties. To investigate applications of CCS, we introduce a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a data encryption system using a chaotic map generated by CCS. Simulation and analysis demonstrate that the proposed PRNG has high quality of randomness and that the data encryption system is able to protect different types of data with a high-security level.

  17. Cascade reactor: granule fabrication processes

    Erlandson, O.D.; Winkler, E.O.; Maya, I.; Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A key feature of Cascade is the granular blanket. Of the many blanket material options open to Cascade, fabrication of Li 2 O granules was felt to offer the greatest challenge. The authors explored available methods for initial Li 2 O granule fabrication. They identified three cost-effective processes for fabricating Li 2 O granules: the VSM drop-melt furnace process, which is based on melting and spheroidizing irregularly shaped Li 2 O feed granules; the LiOH process, which spheroidizes liquefied LiOH and uses GA Technologies' sphere-forming procedures; and the Li 2 CO 3 sol-gel process, used for making spherical fuel particles for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Each process is described below

  18. Bankruptcy cascades in interbank markets.

    Gabriele Tedeschi

    Full Text Available We study a credit network and, in particular, an interbank system with an agent-based model. To understand the relationship between business cycles and cascades of bankruptcies, we model a three-sector economy with goods, credit and interbank market. In the interbank market, the participating banks share the risk of bad debits, which may potentially spread a bank's liquidity problems through the network of banks. Our agent-based model sheds light on the correlation between bankruptcy cascades and the endogenous economic cycle of booms and recessions. It also demonstrates the serious trade-off between, on the one hand, reducing risks of individual banks by sharing them and, on the other hand, creating systemic risks through credit-related interlinkages of banks. As a result of our study, the dynamics underlying the meltdown of financial markets in 2008 becomes much better understandable.

  19. CNNcon: improved protein contact maps prediction using cascaded neural networks.

    Wang Ding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: Despite continuing progress in X-ray crystallography and high-field NMR spectroscopy for determination of three-dimensional protein structures, the number of unsolved and newly discovered sequences grows much faster than that of determined structures. Protein modeling methods can possibly bridge this huge sequence-structure gap with the development of computational science. A grand challenging problem is to predict three-dimensional protein structure from its primary structure (residues sequence alone. However, predicting residue contact maps is a crucial and promising intermediate step towards final three-dimensional structure prediction. Better predictions of local and non-local contacts between residues can transform protein sequence alignment to structure alignment, which can finally improve template based three-dimensional protein structure predictors greatly. METHODS: CNNcon, an improved multiple neural networks based contact map predictor using six sub-networks and one final cascade-network, was developed in this paper. Both the sub-networks and the final cascade-network were trained and tested with their corresponding data sets. While for testing, the target protein was first coded and then input to its corresponding sub-networks for prediction. After that, the intermediate results were input to the cascade-network to finish the final prediction. RESULTS: The CNNcon can accurately predict 58.86% in average of contacts at a distance cutoff of 8 Å for proteins with lengths ranging from 51 to 450. The comparison results show that the present method performs better than the compared state-of-the-art predictors. Particularly, the prediction accuracy keeps steady with the increase of protein sequence length. It indicates that the CNNcon overcomes the thin density problem, with which other current predictors have trouble. This advantage makes the method valuable to the prediction of long length proteins. As a result, the effective

  20. Cascades of pile-up and dead time

    Pomme, S.

    2008-01-01

    Count loss through a cascade of pile-up and dead time is studied. Time interval density-distribution functions and throughput factors are presented for counters with a series arrangement of pile-up and extending or non-extending dead time. A counter is considered, where an artificial dead time is imposed on every counted event, in order to control the length and type of dead time. For such a system, it is relatively easy to determine an average count-loss correction factor via a live-time clock gated by the imposed dead-time signal ('live-time mode'), or otherwise to apply a correction factor based on the inversion of the throughput function ('real-time mode'). However, these techniques do not account for additional loss through pulse pile-up. In this work, counting errors associated with neglecting cascade effects are calculated for measurements in live-time and real-time mode

  1. Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.

  2. Cascade damage in nickel: Production, saturation and recovery

    Birtcher, R.C.; Blewitt, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the electrical resistivity and length were simultaneously measured during the bombardment of nickel at 70 K with 235 U fission fragments and during a subsequent isothermal annealing program. The resistivity changes and length changes were linearly related during the damage production for damage concentrations less 80% of the defect saturation limit. The initial ratio of the length change to the resistivity change was 8.4x10 4 /Ω m. At high damage concentrations, the length change increased at a slightly higher rate than the resistivity change. During isothermal annealing of the near-saturation defect concentration, the resistivity and the length changes had identical recoveries through stage I and most of stage II. During stage III annealing, the ratio of the length change to the resistivity change showed a small increase. At temperatures above 475 K, this ratio showed a marked increase as the resistivity change exhibited recovery without a corresponding recovery of the length change. These differences, which are attributed to the direct formation and growth of three-dimensional vacancy agglomerates, and results of tranmission electron microscopy suggest that the sign of the third derivative of the resistivity with respect to fast-neutron fluence (the sense of curvature in the damage rate) is positive for materials in which cascades collapse to loops, and negative for materials in which three-dimensional vacancy agglomerates are stable. (orig.)

  3. Atomistic simulations of displacement cascades in Y2O3 single crystal

    Dholakia, Manan; Chandra, Sharat; Valsakumar, M.C.; Mathi Jaya, S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) The averaged distortion index and the Y–O bond length of the Y 2 O 3 octahedra as a function of the simulation time for 5 keV PKA. (b) Shows the nearest neighbourhood of one of the Y ions as a function of simulation time, showing the destruction and the recovery of the YO 6 octahedron during the cascade corresponding to 5 keV Y PKA. - Highlights: • Qualitative difference in displacement cascades exists for Y and O PKA. • Nearest neighbour correlation between Y and O ions exists even at cascade peak. • Cascade core in Y 2 O 3 does not undergo melting. • Topological connectivity of YO 6 polyhedra plays important role in stability of Y 2 O 3 . - Abstract: We study the characteristics of displacement cascades in single crystal Y 2 O 3 using classical molecular dynamics. There are two possible ways to generate the cascades in yttria, using either the Y or the O atoms as the primary knock-on (PKA) atom. It is shown that there is a qualitative difference in the characteristics of the cascades obtained in these two cases. Even though the crystal is seen to be in a highly disordered state in the cascade volume, as seen from the plots of radial distribution function, the correlation between the Y and O atoms is not completely lost. This facilitates a quick recovery of the system during the annealing phase. Topological connectivity of the YO 6 polyhedral units plays an important role in imparting stability to the Y 2 O 3 crystal. These characteristics of the cascades can help explain the stability of the yttria nanoparticles when they are dispersed in oxide dispersion strengthened steels

  4. Abnormal cascading failure spreading on complex networks

    Wang, Jianwei; Sun, Enhui; Xu, Bo; Li, Peng; Ni, Chengzhang

    2016-01-01

    Applying the mechanism of the preferential selection of the flow destination, we develop a new method to quantify the initial load on an edge, of which the flow is transported along the path with the shortest edge weight between two nodes. Considering the node weight, we propose a cascading model on the edge and investigate cascading dynamics induced by the removal of the edge with the largest load. We perform simulated attacks on four types of constructed networks and two actual networks and observe an interesting and counterintuitive phenomenon of the cascading spreading, i.e., gradually improving the capacity of nodes does not lead to the monotonous increase in the robustness of these networks against cascading failures. The non monotonous behavior of cascading dynamics is well explained by the analysis on a simple graph. We additionally study the effect of the parameter of the node weight on cascading dynamics and evaluate the network robustness by a new metric.

  5. Disaster Mythology and Availability Cascades

    Lisa Grow Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sociological research conducted in the aftermath of natural disasters has uncovered a number of “disaster myths” – widely shared misconceptions about typical post-disaster human behavior. This paper discusses the possibility that perpetuation of disaster mythology reflects an “availability cascade,” defined in prior scholarship as a “self-reinforcing process of collective belief formation by which an expressed perception triggers a chain reaction that gives the perception increasing plausibility through its rising availability in public discourse.” (Kuran and Sunstein 1999. Framing the spread of disaster mythology as an availability cascade suggests that certain tools may be useful in halting the myths’ continued perpetuation. These tools include changing the legal and social incentives of so-called “availability entrepreneurs” – those principally responsible for beginning and perpetuating the cascade, as well as insulating decision-makers from political pressures generated by the availability cascade. This paper evaluates the potential effectiveness of these and other solutions for countering disaster mythology. Las investigaciones sociológicas realizadas tras los desastres naturales han hecho evidentes una serie de “mitos del desastre”, conceptos erróneos ampliamente compartidos sobre el comportamiento humano típico tras un desastre. Este artículo analiza la posibilidad de que la perpetuación de los mitos del desastre refleje una “cascada de disponibilidad”, definida en estudios anteriores como un “proceso de auto-refuerzo de la formación de una creencia colectiva, a través del que una percepción expresada produce una reacción en cadena que hace que la percepción sea cada vez más verosímil, a través de una mayor presencia en el discurso público” (Kuran y Sunstein 1999. Enmarcar la propagación de los mitos del desastre como una cascada de disponibilidad sugiere que ciertas herramientas pueden ser

  6. Ion-implantation dense cascade data

    Winterbon, K.B.

    1983-04-01

    A tabulation is given of data useful in estimating various aspects of ion-implantation cascades in the nuclear stopping regime, particularly with respect to nonlinearity of the cascade at high energy densities. The tabulation is restricted to self-ion implantation. Besides power-cross-section cascade dimensions, various material properties are included. Scaling of derived quantities with input data is noted, so one is not limited to the values assumed by the author

  7. A non-conventional isotope separation cascade without any mixing: net cascade

    Zeng Shi; Jiang Dongjun; Ying Zhengen

    2012-01-01

    A component has different concentrations in the incoming flows at a confluent point in all existing isotope separations cascades for multi-component isotope separation and mixing is inevitable, which results in deterioration of separation performance of the separation cascade. However, realization of no-mixing at a confluent point is impossible with a conventional cascade. A non-conventional isotope separation cascade, net cascade, is found to be able to realize no mixings for all components at confluent points, and its concept is further developed here. No-mixing is fulfilled by requiring symmetrical separation of two specified key components at every stage, and the procedure of realizing no-mixing is presented in detail. Some properties of net cascade are investigated preliminarily, and the results demonstrated the no-mixing property is indeed realized. Net cascade is the only separation cascade that so far possesses the no-mixing property. (authors)

  8. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  9. Space-time aspects of hadronic cascading in lepton nucleus scattering

    Gyulassy, M.; Pluemer, M.

    1989-05-01

    A Monte Carlo model of hadronic cascading in inelastic lepton nucleus scattering is constructed to investigate space-time scenarios consistent with the momentum space description of string models of multiparticle production. The prospects for resolving the ambiguity inherent in the definition of a formation length for composite hadrons are emphasized. 15 refs., 13 figs

  10. A Semisupervised Cascade Classification Algorithm

    Stamatis Karlos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification is one of the most important tasks of data mining techniques, which have been adopted by several modern applications. The shortage of enough labeled data in the majority of these applications has shifted the interest towards using semisupervised methods. Under such schemes, the use of collected unlabeled data combined with a clearly smaller set of labeled examples leads to similar or even better classification accuracy against supervised algorithms, which use labeled examples exclusively during the training phase. A novel approach for increasing semisupervised classification using Cascade Classifier technique is presented in this paper. The main characteristic of Cascade Classifier strategy is the use of a base classifier for increasing the feature space by adding either the predicted class or the probability class distribution of the initial data. The classifier of the second level is supplied with the new dataset and extracts the decision for each instance. In this work, a self-trained NB∇C4.5 classifier algorithm is presented, which combines the characteristics of Naive Bayes as a base classifier and the speed of C4.5 for final classification. We performed an in-depth comparison with other well-known semisupervised classification methods on standard benchmark datasets and we finally reached to the point that the presented technique has better accuracy in most cases.

  11. Realization of a Tunable Dissipation Scale in a Turbulent Cascade using a Quantum Gas

    Navon, Nir; Eigen, Christoph; Zhang, Jinyi; Lopes, Raphael; Smith, Robert; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2017-04-01

    Many turbulent flows form so-called cascades, where excitations injected at large length scales, are transported to gradually smaller scales until they reach a dissipation scale. We initiate a turbulent cascade in a dilute Bose fluid by pumping energy at the container scale of an optical box trap using an oscillating magnetic force. In contrast to classical fluids where the dissipation scale is set by the viscosity of the fluid, the turbulent cascade of our quantum gas finishes when the particles kinetic energy exceeds the laser-trap depth. This mechanism thus allows us to effectively tune the dissipation scale where particles (and energy) are lost, and measure the particle flux in the cascade at the dissipation scale. We observe a unit power-law decay of the particle-dissipation rate with trap depth, which confirms the surprising prediction that in a wave-turbulent direct energy cascade, the particle flux vanishes in the ideal limit where the dissipation length scale tends to zero.

  12. Telomere length analysis.

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  13. Design concept of Hydro cascade control system

    Fustik, Vangel; Kiteva, Nevenka

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a design concept of the comple hydro cascade scheme is presented with the design parameters of the main technical features. The cascade control system architecture is designed considering up-to-date communication and information technology. The control algorithm is based on Pond Level Control and Economic Load Allocation concepts.

  14. Centrifugal separator cascade connected in zigzag manner

    Kai, Tsunetoshi; Inoue, Yoshiya; Oya, Akio; Nagakura, Masaaki.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To effectively accommodate centrifugal separators of the entire cascade within the available space in a plant by freely selecting perpendicular direction of connection of the centrifugal separator. Structure: Centrifugal separators are connected in zigzag fashion by using a single header for each stage so that in a rectangular shape the entire cascade is arranged. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Cascaded impedance networks for NPC inverter

    Li, Ding; Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2010-01-01

    they are subject to the renewable sources. To date, three distinct types of impedance networks can be summarized for implementing a hybrid source impedance network, which can in principle be combined and cascaded before connected to a NPC inverter by proposed two ways. The resulting cascaded impedance network NPC...

  16. Cascading costs: an economic nitrogen cycle.

    Moomaw, William R; Birch, Melissa B L

    2005-09-01

    The chemical nitrogen cycle is becoming better characterized in terms of fluxes and reservoirs on a variety of scales. Galloway has demonstrated that reactive nitrogen can cascade through multiple ecosystems causing environmental damage at each stage before being denitrified to N(2). We propose to construct a parallel economic nitrogen cascade (ENC) in which economic impacts of nitrogen fluxes can be estimated by the costs associated with each stage of the chemical cascade. Using economic data for the benefits of damage avoided and costs of mitigation in the Chesapeake Bay basin, we have constructed an economic nitrogen cascade for the region. Since a single ton of nitrogen can cascade through the system, the costs also cascade. Therefore evaluating the benefits of mitigating a ton of reactive nitrogen released needs to consider the damage avoided in all of the ecosystems through which that ton would cascade. The analysis reveals that it is most cost effective to remove a ton of nitrogen coming from combustion since it has the greatest impact on human health and creates cascading damage through the atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic and coastal ecosystems. We will discuss the implications of this analysis for determining the most cost effective policy option for achieving environmental quality goals.

  17. MAPK cascades in guard cell signal transduction

    Yuree eLee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Guard cells form stomata on the epidermis and continuously respond to endogenous and environmental stimuli to fine-tune the gas exchange and transpirational water loss, processes which involve mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades. MAPKs form three-tiered kinase cascades with MAPK kinases and MAPK kinase kinases, by which signals are transduced to the target proteins. MAPK cascade genes are highly conserved in all eukaryotes, and they play crucial roles in myriad developmental and physiological processes. MAPK cascades function during biotic and abiotic stress responses by linking extracellular signals received by receptors to cytosolic events and gene expression. In this review, we highlight recent findings and insights into MAPK-mediated guard cell signaling, including the specificity of MAPK cascades and the remaining questions.

  18. Cascade Error Projection: An Efficient Hardware Learning Algorithm

    Duong, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    A new learning algorithm termed cascade error projection (CEP) is presented. CEP is an adaption of a constructive architecture from cascade correlation and the dynamical stepsize of A/D conversion from the cascade back propagation algorithm.

  19. Displacement cascades in diatomic materials

    Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new function, the specified-projectile displacement function p/sub ijk/ (E), is introduced to describe displacement cascades in polyatomic materials. This function describes the specific collision events that produce displacements and hence adds new information not previously available. Calculations of p/sub ijk/ (E) for MgO, Al 2 O 3 and TaO are presented and discussed. Results show that the parameters that have the largest effect on displacement collision events are the PKA energy and the mass ratio of the atom types in the material. It is further shown that the microscopic nature of the displacement events changes over the entire recoil energy range relevant to fusion neutron spectra and that these changes are different in materials whose mass ratio is near one than in those where it is far from one

  20. The Geant4 Bertini Cascade

    Wright, D.H.; Kelsey, M.H.

    2015-12-21

    One of the medium energy hadron–nucleus interaction models in the GEANT4 simulation toolkit is based partly on the Bertini intranuclear cascade model. Since its initial appearance in the toolkit, this model has been largely re-written in order to extend its physics capabilities and to reduce its memory footprint. Physics improvements include extensions in applicable energy range and incident particle types, and improved hadron–nucleon cross-sections and angular distributions. Interfaces have also been developed which allow the model to be coupled with other GEANT4 models at lower and higher energies. The inevitable speed reductions due to enhanced physics have been mitigated by memory and CPU efficiency improvements. Details of these improvements, along with selected comparisons of the model to data, are discussed.

  1. Availability Cascades & the Sharing Economy

    Netter, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    attention. This conceptual paper attempts to explain the emergent focus on the sharing economy and associated business and consumption models by applying cascade theory. Risks associated with this behavior will be especially examined with regard to the sustainability claim of collaborative consumption......In search of a new concept that will provide answers to as to how modern societies should not only make sense but also resolve the social and environmental problems linked with our modes of production and consumption, collaborative consumption and the sharing economy are increasingly attracting....... With academics, practitioners, and civil society alike having a shared history in being rather fast in accepting new concepts that will not only provide business opportunities but also a good conscience, this study proposes a critical study of the implications of collaborative consumption, before engaging...

  2. Heat Transfer Characteristics on the Squealer Tip of gas turbine blade in a linear cascade

    Lee, Woo Jin; Lee, Dong Hyun; Kim, Kyung Min; Cho, Hyung Hee; Lee, Dong Ho; Kang, Shin Hyoung

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates local heat/mass transfer characteristics on blade tip surfaces with squealer rim in a linear cascade. A cascade experiment setup consists of three airfoils. The airfoil has variable tip clearance(1, 2, 3% of axial chord length) and rim height(3, 6, 9% of axial chord length). Main flow Reynolds number based on axial chord is 1.5 x 10 5 . The axial chord length and turning angle is 237mm and 126 .deg. respectively. Naphthalene sublimation method is used to measure detailed mass transfer coefficient on the blade. The results show that as the tip clearance increases, high heat transfer region moves from upstream to downstream. Also, as the rim height increases, high heat transfer region tends to move toward the suction side

  3. Telomere length and depression

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  4. Cascaded processing in written compound word production

    Raymond eBertram

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  5. Cascaded processing in written compound word production.

    Bertram, Raymond; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Strömqvist, Sven; Hyönä, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun) Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  6. Fast lossless compression via cascading Bloom filters.

    Rozov, Roye; Shamir, Ron; Halperin, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Data from large Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) experiments present challenges both in terms of costs associated with storage and in time required for file transfer. It is sometimes possible to store only a summary relevant to particular applications, but generally it is desirable to keep all information needed to revisit experimental results in the future. Thus, the need for efficient lossless compression methods for NGS reads arises. It has been shown that NGS-specific compression schemes can improve results over generic compression methods, such as the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, Burrows-Wheeler transform, or Arithmetic Coding. When a reference genome is available, effective compression can be achieved by first aligning the reads to the reference genome, and then encoding each read using the alignment position combined with the differences in the read relative to the reference. These reference-based methods have been shown to compress better than reference-free schemes, but the alignment step they require demands several hours of CPU time on a typical dataset, whereas reference-free methods can usually compress in minutes. We present a new approach that achieves highly efficient compression by using a reference genome, but completely circumvents the need for alignment, affording a great reduction in the time needed to compress. In contrast to reference-based methods that first align reads to the genome, we hash all reads into Bloom filters to encode, and decode by querying the same Bloom filters using read-length subsequences of the reference genome. Further compression is achieved by using a cascade of such filters. Our method, called BARCODE, runs an order of magnitude faster than reference-based methods, while compressing an order of magnitude better than reference-free methods, over a broad range of sequencing coverage. In high coverage (50-100 fold), compared to the best tested compressors, BARCODE saves 80-90% of the running time while only increasing space

  7. Genetic algorithm based separation cascade optimization

    Mahendra, A.K.; Sanyal, A.; Gouthaman, G.; Bera, T.K.

    2008-01-01

    The conventional separation cascade design procedure does not give an optimum design because of squaring-off, variation of flow rates and separation factor of the element with respect to stage location. Multi-component isotope separation further complicates the design procedure. Cascade design can be stated as a constrained multi-objective optimization. Cascade's expectation from the separating element is multi-objective i.e. overall separation factor, cut, optimum feed and separative power. Decision maker may aspire for more comprehensive multi-objective goals where optimization of cascade is coupled with the exploration of separating element optimization vector space. In real life there are many issues which make it important to understand the decision maker's perception of cost-quality-speed trade-off and consistency of preferences. Genetic algorithm (GA) is one such evolutionary technique that can be used for cascade design optimization. This paper addresses various issues involved in the GA based multi-objective optimization of the separation cascade. Reference point based optimization methodology with GA based Pareto optimality concept for separation cascade was found pragmatic and promising. This method should be explored, tested, examined and further developed for binary as well as multi-component separations. (author)

  8. Aspects of the QCD cascade

    Olsson, Magnus.

    1993-02-01

    A model is proposed for the production of transverse jets from diffractively excited protons. We propose that transverse jets can be obtained from gluonic bremsstrahlung in a way similar to the emission in DIS. Qualitative agreement is obtained between the model and the uncorrected data published by the UA8 collaboration. Perturbative QCD in the MLLA approximation is applied to multiple jet production in e + e - -annihilation. We propose modified evolution equations for deriving the jet cross sections, defined in the 'k t ' or 'Durham' algorithm. The mean number of jets as a function of the jet resolution is studied, and analytical predictions are compared to the results of MC simulations. We also study a set of differential-difference equations for multiplicity distributions in e + e - -annihilations, supplemented with appropriate boundary conditions. These equations take into account nonsingular terms in the GLAP splitting functions as well as kinematical constraints related to recoil effects. The presence of retarded terms imply that the cascade develops more slowly and reduces the fluctuations. The solutions agree well with MC simulations and experimental data. (authors)

  9. Extended fuel cycle length

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  10. Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov—Maxwell system. A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma. It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light, as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction. The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period. The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade, which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures. For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation, higher-harmonic generation and wave—wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter. In addition, stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  11. Defect accumulation under cascade damage conditions

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, B.N.; Woo, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    in terms of this reaction kinetics taking into account cluster production, dissociation, migration and annihilation at extended sinks. Microstructural features which are characteristic of cascade damage and cannot be explained in terms of the conventional single defect reaction kinetics are emphasized......There is now ample evidence from both experimental and computer simulation studies that in displacement cascades not only intense recombination takes place but also efficient clustering of both self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancies. The size distributions of the two types of defects produced...... reactions kinetics associated with the specific features of cascade damage is described, with emphasis on asymmetries between SIA and vacancy type defects concerning their production, stability, mobility and interactions with other defects. Defect accumulation under cascade damage conditions is discussed...

  12. Cascade theory in isotopic separation processes

    Agostini, J.P.

    1994-06-01

    Three main areas are developed within the scope of this work: - the first one is devoted to fundamentals: separative power, value function, ideal cascade and square cascade. Applications to two main cases are carried out, namely: Study of binary isotopic mix, Study of processes with a small enrichment coefficient. - The second one is devoted to cascade coupling -high-flux coupling (more widely used and better known) as well as low-flux coupling are presented and compared to one another. - The third one is an outlook on problems linked to cascade transients. Those problem are somewhat intricate and their interest lies mainly into two areas: economics where the start-up time may have a large influence on the interests paid during the construction and start-up period, military productions where the start-up time has a direct bearing on the production schedule. (author). 50 figs. 3 annexes. 12 refs. 6 tabs

  13. τ polarization in SUSY cascade decays

    Choi, S.Y.; Hagiwara, K.; Kim, Y.G.

    2006-12-01

    τ leptons emitted in cascade decays of supersymmetric particles are polarized. The polarization may be exploited to determine spin and mixing properties of the neutralinos and stau particles involved. (orig.)

  14. MAP kinase cascades in Arabidopsis innate immunity

    Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Roux, Milena Edna; Petersen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades generally transduce extracellular stimuli into cellular responses. These stimuli include the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by host transmembrane pattern recognition receptors which trigger MAPK-dependent innate ...

  15. Cascade processes in kaonic and muonic atoms

    Faifman, M.P.; Men'shikov, L.I.

    2003-01-01

    Cascade processes in exotic (kaonic and muonic) hydrogen/deuterium have been studied with the quantum-classical Monte Carlo code (QCMC) developed for 'ab initio' - calculations. It has been shown that the majority of kaonic hydrogen atoms during cascade are accelerated to high energies E ∼ 100 eV, which leads to a much lower value for the calculated yields Y of x-rays than predicted by the 'standard cascade model'. The modified QCMC scheme has been applied to the study of the cascade in μp and μd muonic atoms. A comparison of the calculated yields for K-series x-rays with experimental data directly indicates that the molecular structure of the hydrogen target and new types of non-radiative transitions are essential for the light muonic atoms, while they are negligible for heavy (kaonic) atoms. These processes have been considered and estimates of their probabilities are presented. (author)

  16. Cascade Error Projection: A New Learning Algorithm

    Duong, T. A.; Stubberud, A. R.; Daud, T.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1995-01-01

    A new neural network architecture and a hardware implementable learning algorithm is proposed. The algorithm, called cascade error projection (CEP), handles lack of precision and circuit noise better than existing algorithms.

  17. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  18. Simulation of concentration spikes in cascades

    Wood, H.G.

    2006-01-01

    Research has been conducted to investigate the maximum possible enrichment that might be temporarily achieved in a facility that is producing enriched uranium for fuel for nuclear power reactors. The purpose is to provide information to evaluate if uranium enrichment facilities are producing 235 U enriched within declared limits appropriate for power reactors or if the facilities are actually producing more highly enriched uranium. The correlation between feed rate and separation factor in a gas centrifuge cascade shows that as flow decreases, the separation factor increases, thereby, creating small amounts of higher enriched uranium than would be found under optimum design operating conditions. The research uses a number of cascade enrichment programs to model the phenomenon and determine the maximum enrichment possible during the time transient of a gas centrifuge cascade. During cascade start-up, the flow through the centrifuges begins at lower than centrifuge design stage flow rates. Steady-state cascade models have been used to study the maximum 235 U concentrations that would be predicted in the cascade. These calculations should produce an upper bound of product concentrations expected during the transient phase of start-up. Due to the fact that there are different ways in which to start a cascade, several methods are used to determine the maximum enrichment during the time transient. Model cascades were created for gas centrifuges with several product to .feed assay separation factors. With this information, the models were defined and the equilibrium programs were used to determine the maximum enrichment level during the time transient. The calculations predict in a cascade with separation factor 1.254 designed to produce enriched uranium for the purpose of supplying reactor fuel, it would not be unreasonable to see some 235 U in the range of 12-15%. Higher assays produced during the start-up period might lead inspectors to believe the cascade is being

  19. Designing the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor

    Pitts, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The primary goal in designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactors is to produce electrical power as inexpensively as possible, with minimum activation and without compromising safety. This paper discusses a method for designing the Cascade rotating ceramic-granule-blanket reactor (Pitts, 1985) and its associated power plant (Pitts and Maya, 1985). Although focus is on the cascade reactor, the design method and issues presented are applicable to most other ICF reactors

  20. High energy evolution of soft gluon cascades

    Shuvaev, A.; Wallon, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we derive an evolution equation for the gluon density in soft gluon cascades emitted from any colored source, in the leading logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. We show that this equation has the same form as the BFKL equation in the forward case. An explicit expression for the total cascade wavefunction involving an arbitrary number of soft gluons is obtained. Renormalization of the colored source wavefunction turns out to be responsible for the reggeization of the source. (orig.)

  1. High energy evolution of soft gluon cascades

    Shuvaev, A. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg district (Russian Federation); Wallon, S. [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France)

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we derive an evolution equation for the gluon density in soft gluon cascades emitted from any colored source, in the leading logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. We show that this equation has the same form as the BFKL equation in the forward case. An explicit expression for the total cascade wavefunction involving an arbitrary number of soft gluons is obtained. Renormalization of the colored source wavefunction turns out to be responsible for the reggeization of the source. (orig.)

  2. Cascade of links in complex networks

    Feng, Yeqian; Sun, Bihui [Department of Management Science, School of Government, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China); Zeng, An, E-mail: anzeng@bnu.edu.cn [School of Systems Science, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China)

    2017-01-30

    Cascading failure is an important process which has been widely used to model catastrophic events such as blackouts and financial crisis in real systems. However, so far most of the studies in the literature focus on the cascading process on nodes, leaving the possibility of link cascade overlooked. In many real cases, the catastrophic events are actually formed by the successive disappearance of links. Examples exist in the financial systems where the firms and banks (i.e. nodes) still exist but many financial trades (i.e. links) are gone during the crisis, and the air transportation systems where the airports (i.e. nodes) are still functional but many airlines (i.e. links) stop operating during bad weather. In this letter, we develop a link cascade model in complex networks. With this model, we find that both artificial and real networks tend to collapse even if a few links are initially attacked. However, the link cascading process can be effectively terminated by setting a few strong nodes in the network which do not respond to any link reduction. Finally, a simulated annealing algorithm is used to optimize the location of these strong nodes, which significantly improves the robustness of the networks against the link cascade. - Highlights: • We propose a link cascade model in complex networks. • Both artificial and real networks tend to collapse even if a few links are initially attacked. • The link cascading process can be effectively terminated by setting a few strong nodes. • A simulated annealing algorithm is used to optimize the location of these strong nodes.

  3. Cascade of links in complex networks

    Feng, Yeqian; Sun, Bihui; Zeng, An

    2017-01-01

    Cascading failure is an important process which has been widely used to model catastrophic events such as blackouts and financial crisis in real systems. However, so far most of the studies in the literature focus on the cascading process on nodes, leaving the possibility of link cascade overlooked. In many real cases, the catastrophic events are actually formed by the successive disappearance of links. Examples exist in the financial systems where the firms and banks (i.e. nodes) still exist but many financial trades (i.e. links) are gone during the crisis, and the air transportation systems where the airports (i.e. nodes) are still functional but many airlines (i.e. links) stop operating during bad weather. In this letter, we develop a link cascade model in complex networks. With this model, we find that both artificial and real networks tend to collapse even if a few links are initially attacked. However, the link cascading process can be effectively terminated by setting a few strong nodes in the network which do not respond to any link reduction. Finally, a simulated annealing algorithm is used to optimize the location of these strong nodes, which significantly improves the robustness of the networks against the link cascade. - Highlights: • We propose a link cascade model in complex networks. • Both artificial and real networks tend to collapse even if a few links are initially attacked. • The link cascading process can be effectively terminated by setting a few strong nodes. • A simulated annealing algorithm is used to optimize the location of these strong nodes.

  4. Defect production in simulated cascades: Cascade quenching and short-term annealing

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    Defect production in displacement cascades in copper has been modeled using the MARLOWE code to generate cascades and the stochastic annealing code ALSOME to simulate cascade quenching and short-term annealing of isolated cascades. Quenching is accomplished by using exaggerated values for defect mobilities and for critical reaction distances in ALSOME for a very short time. The quenched cascades are then short-term annealed with normal parameter values. The quenching parameter values were empirically determined by comparison with results of resistivity measurements. Throughout the collisional, quenching and short-term annealing phases of cascade development, the high energy cascades continue to behave as a collection of independent lower energy lobes. For recoils above about 30 keV the total number of defects and the numbers of free defects scale with the damage energy. As the energy decreases from 30 keV, defect production varies with the changing nature of the cascade configuration, resulting in more defects per unit damage energy. The simulated annealing of a low fluence of interacting cascades revealed an interstitial shielding effect on depleted zones during Stage I recovery. (orig.)

  5. Cascade Storage and Delivery System for a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV)

    Yagoda, Evan; Swickrath, Michael; Stambaugh, Imelda

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MMSEV is a pressurized vehicle used to extend the human exploration envelope for Lunar, Near Earth Object (NEO), and Deep Space missions. The Johnson Space Center is developing the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the MMSEV. The MMSEV s intended use is to support longer sortie lengths with multiple Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) on a higher magnitude than any previous vehicle. This paper presents an analysis of a high pressure oxygen cascade storage and delivery system that will accommodate the crew during long duration Intra Vehicular Activity (IVA) and capable of multiple high pressure oxygen fills to the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) worn by the crew during EVAs. A cascade is a high pressure gas cylinder system used for the refilling of smaller compressed gas cylinders. Each of the large cylinders are filled by a compressor, but the cascade system allows small cylinders to be filled without the need of a compressor. In addition, the cascade system is useful as a "reservoir" to accommodate low pressure needs. A regression model was developed to provide the mechanism to size the cascade systems subject to constraints such as number of crew, extravehicular activity duration and frequency, and ullage gas requirements under contingency scenarios. The sizing routine employed a numerical integration scheme to determine gas compressibility changes during depressurization and compressibility effects were captured using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state. A multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization routine was used to find the minimum cascade tank system mass that meets the mission requirements. The sizing algorithms developed in this analysis provide a powerful framework to assess cascade filling, compressor, and hybrid systems to design long duration vehicle ECLSS architecture. 1

  6. Formalism of continual integrals for cascade processes with particle fusion

    Gedalin, Eh.V.

    1987-01-01

    Formalism of continuous integrals for description of cascade processes, in which besides cascade particle reproduction, their synthesis and coalescence take place, is used. Account of cascade particle coalescence leads to the fact that the development of some cascade branches cannot be independent and main equations of the cascade process become functional instead of integral. The method of continuous intagrals permits to construct in the closed form producing functionals for the cascade process and to obtain the rules of their calculation using diagrams. Analytical expressions in the form of continuous integrals for producing functionals describing cascade development are obtained

  7. Magnetic field sensor based on cascaded microfiber coupler with magnetic fluid

    Mao, Lianmin; Su, Delong; Wang, Zhaofang [College of Science, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Pu, Shengli, E-mail: shlpu@usst.edu.cn [College of Science, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical System, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Zeng, Xianglong [The Key Lab of Specialty Fiber Optics and Optical Access Network, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lahoubi, Mahieddine [Laboratory L.P.S., Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Badji-Mokhtar Annaba University, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)

    2016-09-07

    A kind of magnetic field sensor based on cascaded microfiber coupler with magnetic fluid is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The magnetic fluid is utilized as the cladding of the fused regions of the cascaded microfiber coupler. As the interference valley wavelength of the sensing structure is sensitive to the ambient variation, considering the magnetic-field-dependent refractive index of magnetic fluid, the proposed structure is employed for magnetic field sensing. The effective coupling length for each coupling region of the as-fabricated cascaded microfiber coupler is 6031 μm. The achieved sensitivity is 125 pm/Oe, which is about three times larger than that of the previously similar structure based on the single microfiber coupler. Experimental results indicate that the sensing sensitivity can be easily improved by increasing the effective coupling length or cascading more microfiber couplers. The proposed magnetic field sensor is attractive due to its low cost, immunity to electromagnetic interference, as well as high sensitivity, which also has the potentials in other tunable all-fiber photonic devices, such as filter.

  8. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. Defect production in simulated cascades: cascade quenching and short-term annealing

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    Defect production in high energy displacement cascades has been modeled using the computer code MARLOWE to generate the cascades and the stochastic computer code ALSOME to simulate the cascade quenching and short-term annealing of isolated cascades. The quenching is accomplished by using ALSOME with exaggerated values for defect mobilities and critical reaction distanes for recombination and clustering, which are in effect until the number of defect pairs is equal to the value determined from resistivity experiments at 4K. Then normal mobilities and reaction distances are used during short-term annealing to a point representative of Stage III recovery. Effects of cascade interactions at low fluences are also being investigated. The quenching parameter values were empirically determined for 30 keV cascades. The results agree well with experimental information throughout the range from 1 keV to 100 keV. Even after quenching and short-term annealing the high energy cascades behave as a collection of lower energy subcascades and lobes. Cascades generated in a crystal having thermal displacements were found to be in better agreement with experiments after quenching and annealing than those generated in a non-thermal crystal

  10. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Relativistic length agony continued

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  12. Structural and Functional Characterization of an Archaeal Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)-associated Complex for Antiviral Defense (CASCADE)

    Lintner, Nathanael G; Kerou, Melina; Brumfield, Susan K

    2011-01-01

    In response to viral infection, many prokaryotes incorporate fragments of virus-derived DNA into loci called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The loci are then transcribed, and the processed CRISPR transcripts are used to target invading viral DNA and RNA....... The Escherichia coli "CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense" (CASCADE) is central in targeting invading DNA. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of an archaeal CASCADE (aCASCADE) from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Tagged Csa2 (Cas7) expressed in S. solfataricus co-purifies with Cas5......a-, Cas6-, Csa5-, and Cas6-processed CRISPR-RNA (crRNA). Csa2, the dominant protein in aCASCADE, forms a stable complex with Cas5a. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a helical complex of variable length, perhaps due to substoichiometric amounts of other CASCADE components. A recombinant Csa2...

  13. Fragmentation under the Scaling Symmetry and Turbulent Cascade with Intermittency

    Gorokhovski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Fragmentation plays an important role in a variety of physical, chemical, and geological processes. Examples include atomization in sprays, crushing of rocks, explosion and impact of solids, polymer degradation, etc. Although each individual action of fragmentation is a complex process, the number of these elementary actions is large. It is natural to abstract a simple 'effective' scenario of fragmentation and to represent its essential features. One of the models is the fragmentation under the scaling symmetry: each breakup action reduces the typical length of fragments, r (right arrow) alpha r, by an independent random multiplier alpha (0 Saveliev, the fragmentation under the scaling symmetry has been reviewed as a continuous evolution process with new features established. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, the paper synthesizes and completes theoretical part of Gorokhovski & Saveliev. Second, the paper shows a new application of the fragmentation theory under the scale invariance. This application concerns the turbulent cascade with intermittency. We formulate here a model describing the evolution of the velocity increment distribution along the progressively decreasing length scale. The model shows that when the turbulent length scale gets smaller, the velocity increment distribution has central growing peak and develops stretched tails. The intermittency in turbulence is manifested in the same way: large fluctuations of velocity provoke highest strain in narrow (dissipative) regions of flow.

  14. Odd Length Contraction

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  15. discouraged by queue length

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  16. Numerical routine for magnetic heat pump cascading

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Lei, Tian; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    Heat pumps use low-temperature heat absorbed from the energy source to create temperature gradient (TG) across the energy sink. Magnetic heat pumps (MHP) can perform this function through operating active magnetic regeneration (AMR) cycle. For building heating, TGs of up to a few K might...... and 3 K. Changing the number of MHPs, we optimized input parameters to achieve maximum heating powers. We have found that both maximum heating power and COP decrease together with number of heat pumps, but the TGs and the temperature span can be largely increased. References [1] M. Tahavori et al., “A...... be necessary, which is hardly achievable with a single MHP and such techniques as cascading are required. Series and parallel cascading increase the AMR span and heating power, respectively, but do not change TG. Therefore, the intermediate type of cascading was proposed with individual MHPs separately...

  17. Non-spill control squared cascade

    Kai, Tsunetoshi; Inoue, Yoshiya; Oya, Akio; Suemori, Nobuo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To reduce a mixed loss thus enhancing separating efficiency by the provision of a simple arrangement wherein a reflux portion in a conventional spill control squared cascade is replaced by a special stage including centrifugal separators. Structure: Steps in the form of a square cascade, in which a plurality of centrifugal separators are connected by pipe lines, are accumulated in multistage fashion to form a squared cascade. Between the adjoining steps is disposed a special stage including a centrifugal separator which receives both lean flow from the upper step and rich flow from the lower step. The centrifugal separator in the special stage has its rich side connected to the upper step and its lean side connected to the lower step. Special stages are each disposed at the upper side of the uppermost step and at the lower side of the lowermost step. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Sample Selection for Training Cascade Detectors.

    Vállez, Noelia; Deniz, Oscar; Bueno, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Automatic detection systems usually require large and representative training datasets in order to obtain good detection and false positive rates. Training datasets are such that the positive set has few samples and/or the negative set should represent anything except the object of interest. In this respect, the negative set typically contains orders of magnitude more images than the positive set. However, imbalanced training databases lead to biased classifiers. In this paper, we focus our attention on a negative sample selection method to properly balance the training data for cascade detectors. The method is based on the selection of the most informative false positive samples generated in one stage to feed the next stage. The results show that the proposed cascade detector with sample selection obtains on average better partial AUC and smaller standard deviation than the other compared cascade detectors.

  19. Sample Selection for Training Cascade Detectors.

    Noelia Vállez

    Full Text Available Automatic detection systems usually require large and representative training datasets in order to obtain good detection and false positive rates. Training datasets are such that the positive set has few samples and/or the negative set should represent anything except the object of interest. In this respect, the negative set typically contains orders of magnitude more images than the positive set. However, imbalanced training databases lead to biased classifiers. In this paper, we focus our attention on a negative sample selection method to properly balance the training data for cascade detectors. The method is based on the selection of the most informative false positive samples generated in one stage to feed the next stage. The results show that the proposed cascade detector with sample selection obtains on average better partial AUC and smaller standard deviation than the other compared cascade detectors.

  20. Multilevel Inverter by Cascading Industrial VSI

    Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the modularity concept applied to medium-voltage adjustable speed drives is addressed. First, the single-phase cascaded voltage-source inverter that uses series connection of IGBT H-bridge modules with isolated dc-buses is presented. Next, a novel three-phase cascaded voltage......-source inverter that uses three IGBT triphase inverter modules along with an output transformer to obtain a 3 p.u. multilevel output voltage is introduced. The system yields in high-quality multistep voltage with up to 4 levels and low dv/dt, balanced operation of the inverter modules, each supplying a third...... of the motor rated kVA. The concept of using cascaded inverters is further extended to a new modular motor-modular inverter system where the motor winding connections are reconnected into several three-phase groups, either six-lead or 12-lead connection according to the voltage level, each powered...

  1. Cascade enzymatic reactions for efficient carbon sequestration.

    Xia, Shunxiang; Zhao, Xueyan; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zheng, Wenyun; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Thermochemical processes developed for carbon capture and storage (CCS) offer high carbon capture capacities, but are generally hampered by low energy efficiency. Reversible cascade enzyme reactions are examined in this work for energy-efficient carbon sequestration. By integrating the reactions of two key enzymes of RTCA cycle, isocitrate dehydrogenase and aconitase, we demonstrate that intensified carbon capture can be realized through such cascade enzymatic reactions. Experiments show that enhanced thermodynamic driving force for carbon conversion can be attained via pH control under ambient conditions, and that the cascade reactions have the potential to capture 0.5 mol carbon at pH 6 for each mole of substrate applied. Overall it manifests that the carbon capture capacity of biocatalytic reactions, in addition to be energy efficient, can also be ultimately intensified to approach those realized with chemical absorbents such as MEA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cascade Processes in Muonic Hydrogen Atoms

    Faifman, M. P.; Men'Shikov, L. I.

    2001-01-01

    The QCMC scheme created earlier for cascade calculations in heavy hadronic atoms of hydrogen isotopes has been modified and applied to the study of cascade processes in the μp muonic hydrogen atoms. The distribution of μp atoms over kinetic energies has been obtained and the yields of K-series X-rays per one stopped muon have been calculated.Comparison with experimental data indicated directly that for muonic and pionic atoms new types of non-radiative transitions are essential, while they are negligible for heavy (kaonic, antiprotonic, etc.) atoms. These processes have been considered and their probabilities have been estimated.

  3. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  4. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Poland, Michael P.; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Ben

    2017-08-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  5. Interferometric modulation of quantum cascade interactions

    Cusumano, Stefano; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2018-05-01

    We consider many-body quantum systems dissipatively coupled by a cascade network, i.e., a setup in which interactions are mediated by unidirectional environmental modes propagating through a linear optical interferometer. In particular we are interested in the possibility of inducing different effective interactions by properly engineering an external dissipative network of beam splitters and phase shifters. In this work we first derive the general structure of the master equation for a symmetric class of translation-invariant cascade networks. Then we show how, by tuning the parameters of the interferometer, one can exploit interference effects to tailor a large variety of many-body interactions.

  6. Cascading effects of overfishing marine systems

    Scheffer, M.; Carpenter, S.; Young, de B.

    2005-01-01

    Profound indirect ecosystem effects of overfishing have been shown for coastal systems such as coral reefs and kelp forests. A new study from the ecosystem off the Canadian east coast now reveals that the elimination of large predatory fish can also cause marked cascading effects on the pelagic food

  7. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    Boudsocq, Marie; Danquah, Agyemang; Zé licourt, Axel de; Hirt, Heribert; Colcombet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests

  8. Computer simulation of high energy displacement cascades

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology developed for modeling many aspects of high energy displacement cascades with molecular level computer simulations is reviewed. The initial damage state is modeled in the binary collision approximation (using the MARLOWE computer code), and the subsequent disposition of the defects within a cascade is modeled with a Monte Carlo annealing simulation (the ALSOME code). There are few adjustable parameters, and none are set to physically unreasonable values. The basic configurations of the simulated high energy cascades in copper, i.e., the number, size and shape of damage regions, compare well with observations, as do the measured numbers of residual defects and the fractions of freely migrating defects. The success of these simulations is somewhat remarkable, given the relatively simple models of defects and their interactions that are employed. The reason for this success is that the behavior of the defects is very strongly influenced by their initial spatial distributions, which the binary collision approximation adequately models. The MARLOWE/ALSOME system, with input from molecular dynamics and experiments, provides a framework for investigating the influence of high energy cascades on microstructure evolution. (author)

  9. Energy Cascade in Fermi-Pasta Models

    Ponno, A.; Bambusi, D.

    We show that, for long-wavelength initial conditions, the FPU dynamics is described, up to a certain time, by two KdV-like equations, which represent the resonant Hamiltonian normal form of the system. The energy cascade taking place in the system is then quantitatively characterized by arguments of dimensional analysis based on such equations.

  10. Molecular dynamics studies of displacement cascades

    Averback, R.S.; Hsieh, Horngming; Diaz de la Rubia, T.

    1990-02-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of cascades in Cu and Ni with primary-knock-on energies up to 5 keV and lattice temperatures in the range 0 K--700 K are described. Interatomic forces were represented by either the Gibson II (Cu) or Johnson-Erginsoy (Ni) potentials in most of this work, although some simulations using ''Embedded Atom Method'' potentials, e.g., for threshold events in Ni 3 Al, are also presented. The results indicate that the primary state of damage produced by displacement cascades is controlled by two phenomena, replacement collision sequences during the collisional phase of the cascade and local melting during the thermal spike. As expected, the collisional phase is rather similar in Cu and Ni, however, the thermal spike is of longer duration and has a more pronounced influence in Cu than Ni. When the ambient temperature of the lattice is increased, the melt zones are observed to both increase in size and cool more slowly. This has the effect of reducing defect production and enhancing atomic mixing and disordering. The implications of these results for defect production, cascade collapse, atomic disordering will be discussed. 34 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Impedance interactions in bidirectional cascaded converter

    Tian, Yanjun; Loh, Poh Chiang; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    A cascaded converter is built by connecting one elementary converter to another. Output impedance of one converter will therefore interact with input impedance of the other converter. This interaction will change when power flow reverses. To compare this difference, an investigation is performed...

  12. Forecasting Social Unrest Using Activity Cascades.

    Cadena, Jose; Korkmaz, Gizem; Kuhlman, Chris J; Marathe, Achla; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Vullikanti, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Social unrest is endemic in many societies, and recent news has drawn attention to happenings in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Civilian populations mobilize, sometimes spontaneously and sometimes in an organized manner, to raise awareness of key issues or to demand changes in governing or other organizational structures. It is of key interest to social scientists and policy makers to forecast civil unrest using indicators observed on media such as Twitter, news, and blogs. We present an event forecasting model using a notion of activity cascades in Twitter (proposed by Gonzalez-Bailon et al., 2011) to predict the occurrence of protests in three countries of Latin America: Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The basic assumption is that the emergence of a suitably detected activity cascade is a precursor or a surrogate to a real protest event that will happen "on the ground." Our model supports the theoretical characterization of large cascades using spectral properties and uses properties of detected cascades to forecast events. Experimental results on many datasets, including the recent June 2013 protests in Brazil, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  13. Forecasting Social Unrest Using Activity Cascades.

    Jose Cadena

    Full Text Available Social unrest is endemic in many societies, and recent news has drawn attention to happenings in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Civilian populations mobilize, sometimes spontaneously and sometimes in an organized manner, to raise awareness of key issues or to demand changes in governing or other organizational structures. It is of key interest to social scientists and policy makers to forecast civil unrest using indicators observed on media such as Twitter, news, and blogs. We present an event forecasting model using a notion of activity cascades in Twitter (proposed by Gonzalez-Bailon et al., 2011 to predict the occurrence of protests in three countries of Latin America: Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The basic assumption is that the emergence of a suitably detected activity cascade is a precursor or a surrogate to a real protest event that will happen "on the ground." Our model supports the theoretical characterization of large cascades using spectral properties and uses properties of detected cascades to forecast events. Experimental results on many datasets, including the recent June 2013 protests in Brazil, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  14. Gene regulation by MAP kinase cascades

    Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Petersen, Klaus; Petersen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are signaling modules that transduce extracellular stimuli to a range of cellular responses. Research in yeast and metazoans has shown that MAPK-mediated phosphorylation directly or indirectly regulates the activity of transcription factors. Plant ...

  15. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

  16. Cascaded FSO-VLC Communication System

    Gupta, Akash; Sharma, Nikhil; Garg, Parul; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    The proposed cascaded free space optics (FSO)-visible light communication (VLC) system consists of multiple VLC access points which caters the end users connected via a decode and forward (DF) relay to the FSO backhaul link. The FSO link is assumed

  17. A simple method for potential flow simulation of cascades

    vortex panel method to simulate potential flow in cascades is presented. The cascade ... The fluid loading on the blades, such as the normal force and pitching moment, may ... of such discrete infinite array singularities along the blade surface.

  18. Cascade theory in isotopic separation processes; Theorie des cascades en separation isotopique

    Agostini, J P

    1994-06-01

    Three main areas are developed within the scope of this work: - the first one is devoted to fundamentals: separative power, value function, ideal cascade and square cascade. Applications to two main cases are carried out, namely: Study of binary isotopic mix, Study of processes with a small enrichment coefficient. - The second one is devoted to cascade coupling -high-flux coupling (more widely used and better known) as well as low-flux coupling are presented and compared to one another. - The third one is an outlook on problems linked to cascade transients. Those problem are somewhat intricate and their interest lies mainly into two areas: economics where the start-up time may have a large influence on the interests paid during the construction and start-up period, military productions where the start-up time has a direct bearing on the production schedule. (author). 50 figs. 3 annexes. 12 refs. 6 tabs.

  19. Time and temperature dependence of cascade induced defect production in in situ experiments and computer simulation

    Ishino, Shiori

    1993-01-01

    Understanding of the defect production and annihilation processes in a cascade is important in modelling of radiation damage for establishing irradiation correlation. In situ observation of heavy ion radiation damage has a great prospect in this respect. Time and temperature dependence of formation and annihilation of vacancy clusters in a cascade with a time resolution of 30 ms has been studied with a facility which comprises a heavy ion accelerator and an electron microscope. Formation and annihilation rates of defect clusters have been separately measured by this technique. The observed processes have been analysed by simple kinetic equations, taking into account the sink effect of surface and the defect clusters themselves together with the annihilation process due to thermal emission of vacancies from the defect clusters. Another tool to study time and temperature dependence of defect production in a cascade is computer simulation. Recent results of molecular dynamics calculations on the temperature dependence of cascade evolution are presented, including directional and temperature dependence of the lengths of replacement collision sequences, temperature dependence of the process to reach thermal equilibrium and so on. These results are discussed under general time frame of radiation damage evolution covering from 10 -15 to 10 9 s, and several important issues for the general understanding have been identified. (orig.)

  20. Method and apparatus for rapid adjustment of process gas inventory in gaseous diffusion cascades

    1980-01-01

    A method is specified for the operation of a gaseous diffusion cascade wherein electrically driven compressors circulate a process gas through a plurality of serially connected gaseous diffusion stages to establish first and second countercurrently flowing cascade streams of process gas, one of the streams being at a relatively low pressure and enriched in a component of the process gas and the other being at a higher pressure and depleted in the same, and wherein automatic control systems maintain the stage process gas pressures by positioning process gas flow control valve openings at values which are functions of the difference between reference-signal inputs to the systems, and signal inputs proportional to the process gas pressures in the gaseous diffusion stages associated with the systems, the cascade process gas inventory being altered, while the cascade is operating, by simultaneously directing into separate process-gas freezing zones a plurality of substreams derived from one of the first and second streams at different points along the lengths thereof to solidify approximately equal weights of process gas in the zone while reducing the reference-signal inputs to maintain the positions of the control valves substantially unchanged despite the removal of process gas inventory via the substreams. (author)

  1. Particle fluxes in atomic collision cascades

    Sckerl, B.W.; Sigmund, P.; Vicanek, M.

    1996-01-01

    The flux of recoil atoms in atomic collision cascades induced by an ion beam or another source of energetic particles in a material is known to approach isotropy at kinetic energies far below the beam energy. A variety of irradiation effects can be explained satisfactorily on the basis of an isotropic particle flux, but significant deviations from this simple behavior are known to exist. While numerous examples have been studied by numerical simulation of cascade processes, the systematics is, by and large, unknown. The present study aims at general scaling properties and estimates of the magnitude of moderate deviations from isotropy and their spatial dependence for a wide range of beam and material parameters. Anisotropies introduced by crystal structure are ignored. Although it is well established that cascade anisotropy is related to the momentum of beam particles, previous attempts to quantify this relation have failed. We have found that there are two leading correction terms to the isotropic particle flux, a well-known term centered around the beam direction as a symmetry axis and a new term proportional to the gradient of the deposited-energy density. As a general rule the two contributions are either both significant or both negligible. Specific situations in which the gradient term dominates are, however, of considerable interest in applications. The parameters which characterize the anisotropy of collision cascades also determine the deposition of momentum, but the connection is less straightforward than asserted hitherto. General principles are first illustrated on the specific case of elastic-collision cascades under self-bombardment which contains the essentials. Thereafter several generalizations are made, including atomic binding forces and inelasticity as well as allowance for multicomponent materials. Application areas in mixing and sputtering are outlined. (au) 58 refs

  2. Cascading Generative Adversarial Networks for Targeted

    Hamdi, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Abundance of labelled data played a crucial role in the recent developments in computer vision, but that faces problems like scalability and transferability to the wild. One alternative approach is to utilize the data without labels, i.e. unsupervised learning, in learning valuable information and put it in use to tackle vision problems. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have gained momentum for their ability to model image distributions in unsupervised manner. They learn to emulate the training set and that enables sampling from that domain and using the knowledge learned for useful applications. Several methods proposed enhancing GANs, including regularizing the loss with some feature matching. We seek to push GANs beyond the data in the training and try to explore unseen territory in the image manifold. We first propose a new regularizer for GAN based on K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) selective feature matching to a target set Y in high-level feature space, during the adversarial training of GAN on the base set X, and we call this novel model K-GAN. We show that minimizing the added term follows from cross-entropy minimization between the distributions of GAN and set Y. Then, we introduce a cascaded framework for GANs that try to address the task of imagining a new distribution that combines the base set X and target set Y by cascading sampling GANs with translation GANs, and we dub the cascade of such GANs as the Imaginative Adversarial Network (IAN). Several cascades are trained on a collected dataset Zoo-Faces and generated innovative samples are shown, including from K-GAN cascade. We conduct an objective and subjective evaluation for different IAN setups in the addressed task of generating innovative samples and we show the effect of regularizing GAN on different scores. We conclude with some useful applications for these IANs, like multi-domain manifold traversing.

  3. Cascading Generative Adversarial Networks for Targeted

    Hamdi, Abdullah

    2018-04-09

    Abundance of labelled data played a crucial role in the recent developments in computer vision, but that faces problems like scalability and transferability to the wild. One alternative approach is to utilize the data without labels, i.e. unsupervised learning, in learning valuable information and put it in use to tackle vision problems. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have gained momentum for their ability to model image distributions in unsupervised manner. They learn to emulate the training set and that enables sampling from that domain and using the knowledge learned for useful applications. Several methods proposed enhancing GANs, including regularizing the loss with some feature matching. We seek to push GANs beyond the data in the training and try to explore unseen territory in the image manifold. We first propose a new regularizer for GAN based on K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) selective feature matching to a target set Y in high-level feature space, during the adversarial training of GAN on the base set X, and we call this novel model K-GAN. We show that minimizing the added term follows from cross-entropy minimization between the distributions of GAN and set Y. Then, we introduce a cascaded framework for GANs that try to address the task of imagining a new distribution that combines the base set X and target set Y by cascading sampling GANs with translation GANs, and we dub the cascade of such GANs as the Imaginative Adversarial Network (IAN). Several cascades are trained on a collected dataset Zoo-Faces and generated innovative samples are shown, including from K-GAN cascade. We conduct an objective and subjective evaluation for different IAN setups in the addressed task of generating innovative samples and we show the effect of regularizing GAN on different scores. We conclude with some useful applications for these IANs, like multi-domain manifold traversing.

  4. Mechanical and thermal design of the Cascade reactor

    Pitts, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    We present an improved Cascade fusion reaction chamber that is optimized with respect to chamber radius, wall thickness, and pebble blanket outlet temperature. We show results of a parameter study where we varied chamber radius from 3 to 6 m, wall thickness from 15 to 80 mm, and blanket outlet temperature from 900 to 1400 K. Based on these studies, we achieved an optimized chamber with 50% the volume of the original design and 60% of its blanket. Chamber radius is only 4.4 m and its half length is only 5.9 m, decreased from the original 5-m radius and 8-m half-length. In our optimization method, we calculate both thermal and mechanical stresses resulting from x-ray, fusion-pellet-debris, and neutron-generated momentum, pressure from ablated material, centrifugal action, vacuum inside the chamber, and gravity. We add the mechanical stresses to thermal stresses and keep the total less than the yield stress. Further, we require that fluctuations in these stresses be less than that which would produce creep-fatigue failure within the chamber 30-year lifetime

  5. Quantum Cascade Lasers Modulation and Applications

    Luzhansky, Edward

    The mid-wave IR (MWIR) spectral band, extending from 3 to 5 microns, is considered to be a low loss atmospheric window. There are several spectral sub-bands with relatively low atmospheric attenuation in this region making it popular for various commercial and military applications. Relatively low thermal and solar background emissions, effective penetration through the natural and anthropogenic obscurants and eye safety add to the long list of advantages of MWIR wavelengths. Quantum Cascade Lasers are compact semiconductor devices capable of operating in MWIR spectrum. They are based on inter-subband transitions in a multiple-quantum-well (QW) hetero-structure, designed by means of band-structure engineering. The inter-subband nature of the optical transition has several key advantages. First, the emission wavelength is primarily a function of the QW thickness. This characteristic allows choosing well-understood and reliable semiconductors for the generation of light in a wavelength range of interest. Second, a cascade process in which tens of photons are generated per injected electron. This cascading process is behind the intrinsic high-power capabilities of QCLs. This dissertation is focused on modulation properties of Quantum Cascade Lasers. Both amplitude and phase/frequency modulations were studied including modulation bandwidth, modulation efficiency and chirp linearity. Research was consisted of the two major parts. In the first part we describe the theory of frequency modulation (FM) response of Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Lasers (DFB QCL). It includes cascading effect on the QCL's maximum modulation frequency. The "gain levering" effect for the maximum FM response of the two section QCLs was studied as well. In the second part of research we concentrated on the Pulse Position Amplitude Modulation of a single section QCL. The low complexity, low size, weight and power Mid-Wavelength Infra-Red optical communications transceiver concept is

  6. Cascading failure in the wireless sensor scale-free networks

    Liu, Hao-Ran; Dong, Ming-Ru; Yin, Rong-Rong; Han, Li

    2015-05-01

    In the practical wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the cascading failure caused by a failure node has serious impact on the network performance. In this paper, we deeply research the cascading failure of scale-free topology in WSNs. Firstly, a cascading failure model for scale-free topology in WSNs is studied. Through analyzing the influence of the node load on cascading failure, the critical load triggering large-scale cascading failure is obtained. Then based on the critical load, a control method for cascading failure is presented. In addition, the simulation experiments are performed to validate the effectiveness of the control method. The results show that the control method can effectively prevent cascading failure. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. F2014203239), the Autonomous Research Fund of Young Teacher in Yanshan University (Grant No. 14LGB017) and Yanshan University Doctoral Foundation, China (Grant No. B867).

  7. Invariant mass distributions in cascade decays

    Miller, D J; Raklev, A R

    2006-01-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the shape of the invariant mass distributions of massless Standard Model endproducts in cascade decays involving massive New Physics (NP) particles, D -> Cc -> Bbc -> Aabc, where the final NP particle A in the cascade is unobserved and where two of the particles a, b, c may be indistinguishable. Knowledge of these expressions can improve the determination of NP parameters at the LHC. The shape formulas are composite, but contain nothing more complicated than logarithms of simple expressions. We study the effects of cuts, final state radiation and detector effects on the distributions through Monte Carlo simulations, using a supersymmetric model as an example. We also consider how one can deal with the width of NP particles and with combinatorics from the misidentification of final state particles. The possible mismeasurements of NP masses through `feet' in the distributions are discussed. Finally, we demonstrate how the effects of different spin configurations can be inclu...

  8. Invariant mass distributions in cascade decays

    Miller, David J.; Osland, Per; Raklev, Are R.

    2006-01-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the shape of the invariant mass distributions of massless Standard Model endproducts in cascade decays involving massive New Physics (NP) particles, D→Cc→Bbc→Aabc, where the final NP particle A in the cascade is unobserved and where two of the particles a, b, c may be indistinguishable. Knowledge of these expressions can improve the determination of NP parameters at the LHC. The shape formulas are composite, but contain nothing more complicated than logarithms of simple expressions. We study the effects of cuts, final state radiation and detector effects on the distributions through Monte Carlo simulations, using a supersymmetric model as an example. We also consider how one can deal with the width of NP particles and with combinatorics from the misidentification of final state particles. The possible mismeasurements of NP masses through 'feet' in the distributions are discussed. Finally, we demonstrate how the effects of different spin configurations can be included in the distributions

  9. Cascade-based attacks on complex networks

    Motter, Adilson E.; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2002-12-01

    We live in a modern world supported by large, complex networks. Examples range from financial markets to communication and transportation systems. In many realistic situations the flow of physical quantities in the network, as characterized by the loads on nodes, is important. We show that for such networks where loads can redistribute among the nodes, intentional attacks can lead to a cascade of overload failures, which can in turn cause the entire or a substantial part of the network to collapse. This is relevant for real-world networks that possess a highly heterogeneous distribution of loads, such as the Internet and power grids. We demonstrate that the heterogeneity of these networks makes them particularly vulnerable to attacks in that a large-scale cascade may be triggered by disabling a single key node. This brings obvious concerns on the security of such systems.

  10. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    Gordon, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mattheis, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kunkle, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Howard, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lubliner, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  11. High power cascade diode lasers emitting near 2 μm

    Hosoda, Takashi; Feng, Tao; Shterengas, Leon, E-mail: leon.shterengas@stonybrook.edu; Kipshidze, Gela; Belenky, Gregory [State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2016-03-28

    High-power two-stage cascade GaSb-based type-I quantum well diode lasers emitting near 2 μm were designed and fabricated. Coated devices with cavity length of 3 mm generated about 2 W of continuous wave power from 100-μm-wide aperture at the current of 6 A. The power conversion efficiency peaked at 20%. Carrier recycling between quantum well gain stages was realized using band-to-band tunneling in GaSb/AlSb/InAs heterostructure complemented with optimized electron and hole injector regions. Design optimization eliminated parasitic optical absorption and thermionic emission, and included modification of the InAs quantum wells of electron and composition and doping profile of hole injectors. Utilization of the cascade pumping scheme yielded 2 μm lasers with improved output power and efficiency compared to existing state-of-the-art diodes.

  12. Output Control Using Feedforward And Cascade Controllers

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1990-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of open-loop control elements in single-input, single-output linear system. Focus on output-control (servomechanism) problem, in which objective is to find control scheme that causes output to track certain command inputs and to reject certain disturbance inputs in steady state. Report closes with brief discussion of characteristics and relative merits of feedforward, cascade, and feedback controllers and combinations thereof.

  13. Modeling techniques for quantum cascade lasers

    Jirauschek, Christian [Institute for Nanoelectronics, Technische Universität München, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Kubis, Tillmann [Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue University, 207 S Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Quantum cascade lasers are unipolar semiconductor lasers covering a wide range of the infrared and terahertz spectrum. Lasing action is achieved by using optical intersubband transitions between quantized states in specifically designed multiple-quantum-well heterostructures. A systematic improvement of quantum cascade lasers with respect to operating temperature, efficiency, and spectral range requires detailed modeling of the underlying physical processes in these structures. Moreover, the quantum cascade laser constitutes a versatile model device for the development and improvement of simulation techniques in nano- and optoelectronics. This review provides a comprehensive survey and discussion of the modeling techniques used for the simulation of quantum cascade lasers. The main focus is on the modeling of carrier transport in the nanostructured gain medium, while the simulation of the optical cavity is covered at a more basic level. Specifically, the transfer matrix and finite difference methods for solving the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation and Schrödinger-Poisson system are discussed, providing the quantized states in the multiple-quantum-well active region. The modeling of the optical cavity is covered with a focus on basic waveguide resonator structures. Furthermore, various carrier transport simulation methods are discussed, ranging from basic empirical approaches to advanced self-consistent techniques. The methods include empirical rate equation and related Maxwell-Bloch equation approaches, self-consistent rate equation and ensemble Monte Carlo methods, as well as quantum transport approaches, in particular the density matrix and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The derived scattering rates and self-energies are generally valid for n-type devices based on one-dimensional quantum confinement, such as quantum well structures.

  14. Modeling techniques for quantum cascade lasers

    Jirauschek, Christian; Kubis, Tillmann

    2014-03-01

    Quantum cascade lasers are unipolar semiconductor lasers covering a wide range of the infrared and terahertz spectrum. Lasing action is achieved by using optical intersubband transitions between quantized states in specifically designed multiple-quantum-well heterostructures. A systematic improvement of quantum cascade lasers with respect to operating temperature, efficiency, and spectral range requires detailed modeling of the underlying physical processes in these structures. Moreover, the quantum cascade laser constitutes a versatile model device for the development and improvement of simulation techniques in nano- and optoelectronics. This review provides a comprehensive survey and discussion of the modeling techniques used for the simulation of quantum cascade lasers. The main focus is on the modeling of carrier transport in the nanostructured gain medium, while the simulation of the optical cavity is covered at a more basic level. Specifically, the transfer matrix and finite difference methods for solving the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation and Schrödinger-Poisson system are discussed, providing the quantized states in the multiple-quantum-well active region. The modeling of the optical cavity is covered with a focus on basic waveguide resonator structures. Furthermore, various carrier transport simulation methods are discussed, ranging from basic empirical approaches to advanced self-consistent techniques. The methods include empirical rate equation and related Maxwell-Bloch equation approaches, self-consistent rate equation and ensemble Monte Carlo methods, as well as quantum transport approaches, in particular the density matrix and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The derived scattering rates and self-energies are generally valid for n-type devices based on one-dimensional quantum confinement, such as quantum well structures.

  15. How periodic are terahertz quantum cascade lasers?

    Kubis, T; Vogl, P

    2009-01-01

    We apply a novel non-equilibrium Green's function method for open quantum devices to analyze quantum cascade lasers. We find the carrier distribution in typical resonant phonon THz-QCLs to develop a periodicity that differs from the geometric periodicity of the QCL. We propose a design improvement that thermalizes electrons at threshold bias and thereby pins the electron density to the QCL periodicity.

  16. How periodic are terahertz quantum cascade lasers?

    Kubis, T; Vogl, P, E-mail: tillmann.kubis@wsi.tum.d [Walter Schottky Institute, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    We apply a novel non-equilibrium Green's function method for open quantum devices to analyze quantum cascade lasers. We find the carrier distribution in typical resonant phonon THz-QCLs to develop a periodicity that differs from the geometric periodicity of the QCL. We propose a design improvement that thermalizes electrons at threshold bias and thereby pins the electron density to the QCL periodicity.

  17. Cascade laser applications: trends and challenges

    d'Humières, B.; Margoto, Éric; Fazilleau, Yves

    2016-03-01

    When analyses need rapid measurements, cost effective monitoring and miniaturization, tunable semiconductor lasers can be very good sources. Indeed, applications like on-field environmental gas analysis or in-line industrial process control are becoming available thanks to the advantage of tunable semiconductor lasers. Advances in cascade lasers (CL) are revolutionizing Mid-IR spectroscopy with two alternatives: interband cascade lasers (ICL) in the 3-6μm spectrum and quantum cascade lasers (QCL), with more power from 3 to 300μm. The market is getting mature with strong players for driving applications like industry, environment, life science or transports. CL are not the only Mid-IR laser source. In fact, a strong competition is now taking place with other technologies like: OPO, VCSEL, Solid State lasers, Gas, SC Infrared or fiber lasers. In other words, CL have to conquer a share of the Mid-IR application market. Our study is a market analysis of CL technologies and their applications. It shows that improvements of components performance, along with the progress of infrared laser spectroscopy will drive the CL market growth. We compare CL technologies with other Mid-IR sources and estimate their share in each application market.

  18. High performance 5.6μm quantum cascade lasers

    Suttinger, M.; Go, R.; Figueiredo, P.; Todi, A.; Shu, Hong; Lyakh, A.

    2017-02-01

    5.6 μm quantum cascade lasers based on Al 0.78 In 0.22 As/In 0.69 Ga 0.31 As active region composition with measured pulsed room temperature wall plug efficiency of 28.3% are reported. Injection efficiency for the upper laser level of 75% was measured for the new design by testing devices with variable cavity length. Threshold current density of 1.7kA/cm2 and slope efficiency of 4.9W/A were measured for uncoated 3.15mm × 9μm lasers. Threshold current density and slope efficiency dependence on temperature in the range from 288K to 348K for the new structure can be described by characteristic temperatures T0 140K and T1 710K, respectively. Experimental data for inverse slope efficiency dependence on cavity length for 15-stage quantum cascade lasers with the same design are also presented. When combined with the 40-stage device data, the new data allowed for separate evaluation of the losses originating from the active region and from the cladding layers of the laser structure. Specifically, the active region losses for the studied design were found to be 0.77 cm-1, while cladding region losses - 0.33 cm-1. The data demonstrate that active region losses in mid wave infrared quantum cascade lasers largely define total waveguide losses and that their reduction should be one of the main priorities in the quantum cascade laser design.

  19. Search for neutrino-induced cascade events in the icecube detector

    Panknin, Sebastian

    2011-09-15

    This thesis presents results of a search for a diffuse flux of high energetic neutrinos from extra-terrestrial origin. Such a flux is predicted by several models of sources of cosmic ray particles. In a neutrino detector, such as IceCube, there are mainly two signatures available for detection of neutrinos: The track-like light signal of a neutrino induced muon and the spherical light pattern of a neutrino induced particle shower, called cascades in this context. The search is based on the measurement of neutrino induced cascades within the IceCube neutrino detector. The data were taken in 2008/2009 with a total uptime of 367 days. At that time the detector was still under construction and had just reached half of its final size. A search for a neutrino flux using cascades is sensitive to all neutrino flavors. A cascade develops within few meters, in contrast to the muon track of several kilometers length. Therefore a good energy reconstruction is possible. With such a reconstruction the astrophysical neutrino flux can be statistically distinguished from the background of atmospheric neutrinos. In the simulation of cascades so far it was not included, that in hadronic cascades muons are produced. This can influence the shape of the cascade, to a less spherical one. Therefore the effect was parameterized in this thesis and included in the simulation. Further cuts on the event topology and reconstructed energy were developed, in order to reduce the background of atmospheric muons and atmospheric neutrinos. Four events from the measured data pass these cuts. Taking the high systematic uncertainties into account, this result is in agreement with the expected background of 0.72{+-}0.28{+-}{sup 1.54}{sub 0.49} events. For an assumed flavor ratio of {nu}{sub e}:{nu}{sub {mu}}:{nu}{sub {tau}}=1:1:1 the upper limit for the all flavor neutrino flux is 9.5.10{sup -8}E{sup -2} GeVs{sup -1}sr{sup -1}cm{sup -2}.

  20. Search for neutrino-induced cascade events in the icecube detector

    Panknin, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents results of a search for a diffuse flux of high energetic neutrinos from extra-terrestrial origin. Such a flux is predicted by several models of sources of cosmic ray particles. In a neutrino detector, such as IceCube, there are mainly two signatures available for detection of neutrinos: The track-like light signal of a neutrino induced muon and the spherical light pattern of a neutrino induced particle shower, called cascades in this context. The search is based on the measurement of neutrino induced cascades within the IceCube neutrino detector. The data were taken in 2008/2009 with a total uptime of 367 days. At that time the detector was still under construction and had just reached half of its final size. A search for a neutrino flux using cascades is sensitive to all neutrino flavors. A cascade develops within few meters, in contrast to the muon track of several kilometers length. Therefore a good energy reconstruction is possible. With such a reconstruction the astrophysical neutrino flux can be statistically distinguished from the background of atmospheric neutrinos. In the simulation of cascades so far it was not included, that in hadronic cascades muons are produced. This can influence the shape of the cascade, to a less spherical one. Therefore the effect was parameterized in this thesis and included in the simulation. Further cuts on the event topology and reconstructed energy were developed, in order to reduce the background of atmospheric muons and atmospheric neutrinos. Four events from the measured data pass these cuts. Taking the high systematic uncertainties into account, this result is in agreement with the expected background of 0.72±0.28± 1.54 0.49 events. For an assumed flavor ratio of ν e :ν μ :ν τ =1:1:1 the upper limit for the all flavor neutrino flux is 9.5.10 -8 E -2 GeVs -1 sr -1 cm -2 .

  1. Modeling of cascade and sub-cascade formation at high pka energies in irradiated fusion structural materials

    Ryazanov, A.; Metelkin, E.V.; Semenov, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A new theoretical model is developed for the investigations of cascade and sub-cascade formation in fusion structural materials under fast neutron irradiation at high primary knock atom (PKA) energies. Under 14 MeV neutron irradiation especially of light fusion structural materials such as Be, C, SiC materials PKA will have the energies up to 1 MeV. At such high energies it is very difficult to use the Monte Carlo or molecular dynamic simulations. The developed model is based on the analytical consideration of elastic collisions between displaced moving atoms into atomic cascades produced by a PKAs with the some kinetic energy obtained from fast neutrons. The Tomas-Fermy interaction potential is used for the describing of elastic collisions between moving atoms. The suggested model takes into account also the electronic losses for moving atoms between elastic collisions. The self consistent criterion for sub-cascade formation is suggested here which is based on the comparison of mean distance between two consequent PKA collisions and size of sub-cascade produced by PKA. The analytical relations for the most important characteristics of cascades and sub-cascade are determined including the average number of sub-cascades per one PKA in the dependence on PKA energy, the distance between sub-cascades and the average cascade and sub-cascade sizes as a function of PKA energy. The developed model allows determining the total numbers, distribution functions of cascades and sub-cascades in dependence on their sizes and generation rate of cascades and sub-cascades for different fusion neutron energy spectra. Based on the developed model the numerical calculations for main characteristics of cascades and sub-cascades in different fusion structural materials are performed using the neutron flux and PKA energy spectra for fusion reactors: ITER and DEMO. The main characteristics for cascade and sub-cascade formation are calculated here for the

  2. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  3. Cascade plant control by timer method

    Kiguchi, Takashi; Inoue, Kotaro; Kawai, Toshio; Senoo, Makoto.

    1970-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of controlling uranium flow rate through a cascaded centrifuge plant for the purpose of enriching uranium 235. Such a cascade includes multiple gas separation stage each of which consists of a plurality of centrifuges. The product gas usually includes a large amount of He gas, and a cold trap is used to eliminate the He from UF 6 . The cold trap is operated periodically in such a way that the mixed gas of He and UF 6 is cooled to solidify only UF 6 and then warmed to obtain UF 6 by gasification. In order to operate the plant continuously, parallel multiple cold traps are operated alternatively. The operating conditions in such a complex cascade system are difficult to alter by conventional control methods. The present invention provides a rapid method of controlling the system when a certain percentage of the centrifuges in one stage malfunction. The control system consists of timers which are provided one for each cold trap to control the operational period of the trap. For example, if 20% of the centrifuges in a particular stage malfunction, the timer period of the cold traps attached to the normally operating centrifuge within the stage is maintained, and the period of all the other centrifuges are changed to 10/8 times that of the initial value. In this way the flow volume through all centrifuges except that in the particular stage is reduced to 80% of the initial value and the operation of the system can be continued with reduced efficiency. (Masui, R.)

  4. Energy cascading in large district heating systems

    Mayer, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    District heat transfer is the most economical utilization of the waste heat of power plants. Optimum utilization and heat transfer over large distances are possible because of a new energy distribution system, the ''energy cascading system,'' in which heat is transferred to several consumer regions at different temperature ranges. It is made more profitable by the use of heat pumps. The optimum flow-line temperature is 368 0 K, and the optimum return-line temperature is 288 0 K, resulting in an approximately 50% reduction of electric power loss at the power plant

  5. The identification of a cascade hypernucleus

    Mondal, A S; Husain, A; Kasim, M M

    1979-01-01

    In a systematic search for rare hypernuclear species in nuclear emulsion exposed to 3.0 GeV/c K/sup -/-mesons at the CERN PS, an event with three connecting stars has been observed. The two secondary stars are most probably due to the decay of a cascade hypernucleus according to the following channel: /sub Xi //sup -13/-C to /sub Lambda //sup 8 /Be+/sub Lambda //sup 5/He+Q. The binding energy of the Xi - hypernucleus is B/sub Xi /-(/sub Xi //sup 13/-C)=(18.1+or-3.2) MeV. (11 refs).

  6. Cascaded recompression closed brayton cycle system

    Pasch, James J.

    2018-01-02

    The present disclosure is directed to a cascaded recompression closed Brayton cycle (CRCBC) system and method of operation thereof, where the CRCBC system includes a compressor for compressing the system fluid, a separator for generating fluid feed streams for each of the system's turbines, and separate segments of a heater that heat the fluid feed streams to different feed temperatures for the system's turbines. Fluid exiting each turbine is used to preheat the fluid to the turbine. In an embodiment, the amount of heat extracted is determined by operational costs.

  7. Tracking Control for Switched Cascade Nonlinear Systems

    Xiaoxiao Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of H∞ output tracking for switched cascade nonlinear systems is discussed in this paper, where not all the linear parts of subsystems are stabilizable. The conditions of the solvability for the issue are given by virtue of the structural characteristics of the systems and the average dwell time method, in which the total activation time for stabilizable subsystems is longer than that for the unstabilizable subsystems. At last, a simulation example is used to demonstrate the validity and advantages of the proposed approach.

  8. Cascaded Quadratic Soliton Compression in Waveguide Structures

    Guo, Hairun

    between the Kerr nonlinear effects and the dispersive effects in the medium. A Kerr-like nonlinearity is produced through the cascaded phase mismatched quadratic process, e.g. the second harmonic generation process, which can be flexibly tuned in both the sign and the amplitude, making possible a strong......-phase-matching technology is not necessarily needed. In large-RI-changed waveguides, CQSC is extended to the mid-infrared range to generate single-cycle pulses with purely nonlinear interactions, since an all-normal dispersion profile could be achieved within the guidance band. We believe that CQSC in quadratic waveguides...

  9. Quadrotor trajectory tracking using PID cascade control

    Idres, M.; Mustapha, O.; Okasha, M.

    2017-12-01

    Quadrotors have been applied to collect information for traffic, weather monitoring, surveillance and aerial photography. In order to accomplish their mission, quadrotors have to follow specific trajectories. This paper presents proportional-integral-derivative (PID) cascade control of a quadrotor for path tracking problem when velocity and acceleration are small. It is based on near hover controller for small attitude angles. The integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE) criterion is used to determine the PID gains as a function of quadrotor modeling parameters. The controller is evaluated in three-dimensional environment in Simulink. Overall, the tracking performance is found to be excellent for small velocity condition.

  10. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    Boudsocq, Marie

    2015-08-27

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone mediating important stress-related processes. We recently unveiled an ABA-activated MAPK signaling module constituted of MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14. Unlike classical rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests that MAPKs can regulate both early and longterm plant stress responses.

  11. Atom localization with double-cascade configuration

    Gordeev, Maksim Yu; Rozhdestvensky, Yuri V; Efremova, Ekaterina A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) atom localization of a four-level system in a double-cascade configuration. We demonstrate the possibility of 1D localization in the field of a standing wave, 2D localization in the field of two standing waves and 2D localization only in the field of running waves by using different configurations of driven waves on transitions. In addition, for each configuration we reached a high-precision atom localization in one of the states at scales much smaller than the wavelength of the incident optical radiation. (paper)

  12. Cascaded recompression closed brayton cycle system

    Pasch, James J.

    2018-01-02

    The present disclosure is directed to a cascaded recompression closed Brayton cycle (CRCBC) system and method of operation thereof, where the CRCBC system includes a compressor for compressing the system fluid, a separator for generating fluid feed streams for each of the system's turbines, and separate segments of a heater that heat the fluid feed streams to different feed temperatures for the system's turbines. Fluid exiting each turbine is used to preheat the fluid to the turbine. In an embodiment, the amount of heat extracted is determined by operational costs.

  13. Influence of non-binary effects on intranuclear cascade method

    Gomes, E.H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of non binary process effects in the intranuclear cascade method is analysed. It is shown that, in the higher density steps, the non binary collisions lead to baryon density distribution and rapidity differents from the one obtained using the usual intranuclear cascade method (limited to purely binary collisions). The validity of the applications of binary intranuclear cascade method to the simulation of the thermal equilibrium, nuclear transparency and particle production, is discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Probing intergalactic magnetic fields with simulations of electromagnetic cascades

    Alves Batista, Rafael [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics; Saveliev, Andrey [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Keldysh Inst. of Applied Mathematics; Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Vachaspati, Tanmay [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2016-12-15

    We determine the effect of intergalactic magnetic fields on the distribution of high energy gamma rays by performing three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of the development of gamma-ray-induced electromagnetic cascades in the magnetized intergalactic medium. We employ the so-called ''Large Sphere Observer'' method to efficiently simulate blazar gamma ray halos. We study magnetic fields with a Batchelor spectrum and with maximal left- and right-handed helicities. We also consider the case of sources whose jets are tilted with respect to the line of sight. We verify the formation of extended gamma ray halos around the source direction, and observe spiral-like patterns if the magnetic field is helical. We apply the Q-statistics to the simulated halos to extract their spiral nature and also propose an alternative method, the S-statistics. Both methods provide a quantative way to infer the helicity of the intervening magnetic fields from the morphology of individual blazar halos for magnetic field strengths B>or similar 10{sup -15} G and magnetic coherence lengths L{sub c}>or similar 100 Mpc. We show that the S-statistics has a better performance than the Q-statistics when assessing magnetic helicity from the simulated halos.

  15. Probing intergalactic magnetic fields with simulations of electromagnetic cascades

    Alves Batista, Rafael; Saveliev, Andrey; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Sigl, Guenter; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2016-12-01

    We determine the effect of intergalactic magnetic fields on the distribution of high energy gamma rays by performing three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of the development of gamma-ray-induced electromagnetic cascades in the magnetized intergalactic medium. We employ the so-called ''Large Sphere Observer'' method to efficiently simulate blazar gamma ray halos. We study magnetic fields with a Batchelor spectrum and with maximal left- and right-handed helicities. We also consider the case of sources whose jets are tilted with respect to the line of sight. We verify the formation of extended gamma ray halos around the source direction, and observe spiral-like patterns if the magnetic field is helical. We apply the Q-statistics to the simulated halos to extract their spiral nature and also propose an alternative method, the S-statistics. Both methods provide a quantative way to infer the helicity of the intervening magnetic fields from the morphology of individual blazar halos for magnetic field strengths B>or similar 10"-"1"5 G and magnetic coherence lengths L_c>or similar 100 Mpc. We show that the S-statistics has a better performance than the Q-statistics when assessing magnetic helicity from the simulated halos.

  16. Data reduction in cascade impactor and sedimentation battery

    Boulaud, Denis; Diouri, Mohamed.

    1982-07-01

    The determination of the mass distribution of an aerosol from data collected by a cascade impactor or a sedimentation battery implies the size characterization of each impactor stage or each battery length. In the case of the impactor four data reduction methods were compared. Preinning and Picknett's methods, a simulation method and the wellknown effective cut off size method. A theoretical simulation showed that both the simulation and Picknett's methods were the best adapted to restituting a mass distribution with an uncertainty not exceeding 5% for the mass median diameter and 10% for the standard deviation. In the case of the sedimentation battery a new method was developed allowing data reduction when the analytical shape of the size distribution is known. A theoretical simulation was carried out in order to test our method. The test showed that this method was also adapted to restituting the distribution shape, however the size range covered by the sedimentation battery was generally smaller than that of the impactor [fr

  17. Optical feedback in dfb quantum cascade laser for mid-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Terabayashi, Ryohei, E-mail: terabayashi.ryouhei@h.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Sonnenschein, Volker, E-mail: volker@nagoya-u.jp; Tomita, Hideki, E-mail: tomita@nagoya-u.jp; Hayashi, Noriyoshi, E-mail: hayashi.noriyoshi@h.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Kato, Shusuke, E-mail: katou.shuusuke@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Jin, Lei, E-mail: kin@nuee.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Yamanaka, Masahito, E-mail: yamanaka@nuee.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Nishizawa, Norihiko, E-mail: nishizawa@nuee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan); Sato, Atsushi, E-mail: atsushi.sato@sekisui.com; Nozawa, Kohei, E-mail: kohei.nozawa@sekisui.com; Hashizume, Kenta, E-mail: kenta.hashizume@sekisui.com; Oh-hara, Toshinari, E-mail: toshinari.ohara@sekisui.com [Sekisui Medical Co., Ltd., Drug Development Solutions Center (Japan); Iguchi, Tetsuo, E-mail: t-iguchi@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    A simple external optical feedback system has been applied to a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB QCL) for cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and a clear effect of feedback was observed. A long external feedback path length of up to 4m can decrease the QCL linewidth to around 50kHz, which is of the order of the transmission linewidth of our high finesse ring-down cavity. The power spectral density of the transmission signal from high finesse cavity reveals that the noise at frequencies above 20kHz is reduced dramatically.

  18. Phase-locked, high power, mid-infrared quantum cascade laser arrays

    Zhou, W.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate phase-locked, high power quantum cascade laser arrays, which are combined using a monolithic, tree array multimode interferometer, with emission wavelengths around 4.8 μm. A maximum output power of 15 W was achieved from an eight-element laser array, which has only a slightly higher threshold current density and a similar slope efficiency compared to a Fabry-Perot laser of the same length. Calculated multimode interferometer splitting loss is on the order of 0.27 dB for the in-phase supermode. In-phase supermode operation with nearly ideal behavior is demonstrated over the working current range of the array.

  19. The comparison of extraction of energy in two-cascade and one-cascade targets

    Dolgoleva, G. V., E-mail: dolgg@list.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Ave., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Ponomarev, I. V., E-mail: wingof17@mail.ru [Moscow State University, Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, 1, Vorobyovy Gory, Moscow,119961 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The paper is devoted to numerical designing of cylindrical microtargets on the basis of shock-free compression. When designing microtargets for the controlled thermonuclear fusion, the core tasks are to select geometry and make-up of layers, and the law of energy embedding as well, which allow receiving of “burning” of deuterium- tritium mix, that is, the existence of thermonuclear reactions of working area. Yet, the energy yield as a result of thermonuclear reactions has to be more than the embedded energy (the coefficient of amplification is more than a unit). So, an important issue is the value of the embedded energy. The purpose of the present paper is to study the extraction of energy by working DT area in one-cascade and two-cascade targets. A bigger extraction of energy will contribute to a better burning of DT mix and a bigger energy yield as a result of thermonuclear reactions. The comparison of analytical results to numerical calculations is carried out. The received results show advantages of a two-cascade target compared to a one-cascade one.

  20. Optimization of the cascade with gas centrifuges for uranium enrichment

    Ozaki, N.; Harada, I.

    1976-01-01

    Computer programs to optimize the step and tapered-step cascades with gas centrifuges are developed. The 'Complex Method', one of the direct search method, is employed to find the optimum of the nonlinear function of several variables within a constrained region. The separation characteristics of the optimized step and tapered-step cascades are discussed in comparison with that of the ideal cascade. The local optima of the cascade profile, the convergence of the object function, and the stopping criterion for the optimization trial are also discussed. (author)

  1. Noise propagation in two-step series MAPK cascade.

    Venkata Dhananjaneyulu

    Full Text Available Series MAPK enzymatic cascades, ubiquitously found in signaling networks, act as signal amplifiers and play a key role in processing information during signal transduction in cells. In activated cascades, cell-to-cell variability or noise is bound to occur and thereby strongly affects the cellular response. Commonly used linearization method (LM applied to Langevin type stochastic model of the MAPK cascade fails to accurately predict intrinsic noise propagation in the cascade. We prove this by using extensive stochastic simulations for various ranges of biochemical parameters. This failure is due to the fact that the LM ignores the nonlinear effects on the noise. However, LM provides a good estimate of the extrinsic noise propagation. We show that the correct estimate of intrinsic noise propagation in signaling networks that contain at least one enzymatic step can be obtained only through stochastic simulations. Noise propagation in the cascade depends on the underlying biochemical parameters which are often unavailable. Based on a combination of global sensitivity analysis (GSA and stochastic simulations, we developed a systematic methodology to characterize noise propagation in the cascade. GSA predicts that noise propagation in MAPK cascade is sensitive to the total number of upstream enzyme molecules and the total number of molecules of the two substrates involved in the cascade. We argue that the general systematic approach proposed and demonstrated on MAPK cascade must accompany noise propagation studies in biological networks.

  2. All passive architecture for high efficiency cascaded Raman conversion

    Balaswamy, V.; Arun, S.; Chayran, G.; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    Cascaded Raman fiber lasers have offered a convenient method to obtain scalable, high-power sources at various wavelength regions inaccessible with rare-earth doped fiber lasers. A limitation previously was the reduced efficiency of these lasers. Recently, new architectures have been proposed to enhance efficiency, but this came at the cost of enhanced complexity, requiring an additional low-power, cascaded Raman laser. In this work, we overcome this with a new, all-passive architecture for high-efficiency cascaded Raman conversion. We demonstrate our architecture with a fifth-order cascaded Raman converter from 1117nm to 1480nm with output power of ~64W and efficiency of 60%.

  3. Gas separation performance of tapered cascade with membrane

    Ohno, Masayoshi; Morisue, Tetsuo; Ozaki, Osamu; Miyauchi, Terukatsu.

    1978-01-01

    Membrane gas separation cascades are analyzed at steady state. The method of calculating the flow rate and concentration profiles in the cascade are examined, using formulas expressing the various membrane separation cell characteristics. The method adopted is applicable to relatively high concentrations and separation factors. Considerations are further given on the steady state performance of four theoretical forms of cascade: (a) with common value of cut for all stages, (b) with symmetric separation cells, (c) with no mixing at the junction at each stage, and (d) ideal cascade. The analysis showed that, with membrane cells, the ideal cascade would have a pressure ratio varying from stage to stage. The symmetric separation cascade would provide a separation performance lower than the ideal cascade on account of the mixing at the junctions of streams possessing different concentrations, whereas the cut and separation factor of the no-mixing cascade requiring minimum membrane area exhibits zig-zag curves when plotted against stage number. Both these circumstances contribute to the lower separation performance obtained with these two forms as compared with the ideal cascade, and results in larger total membrane area; but these semi-ideal forms retain the advantage of easy practical treatment with their pressure ratio common to all stages. (auth.)

  4. Cumulative effects of cascade hydropower stations on total dissolved gas supersaturation.

    Ma, Qian; Li, Ran; Feng, Jingjie; Lu, Jingying; Zhou, Qin

    2018-03-01

    Elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) may occur downstream of dams during the spill process. These high levels would increase the incidence of gas bubble disease in fish and cause severe environmental impacts. With increasing numbers of cascade hydropower stations being built or planned, the cumulative effects of TDG supersaturation are becoming increasingly prominent. The TDG saturation distribution in the downstream reaches of the Jinsha River was studied to investigate the cumulative effects of TDG supersaturation resulting from the cascade hydropower stations. A comparison of the effects of the joint operation and the single operation of two hydropower stations (XLD and XJB) was performed to analyze the risk degree to fish posed by TDG supersaturation. The results showed that water with supersaturated TDG generated at the upstream cascade can be transported to the downstream power station, leading to cumulative TDG supersaturation effects. Compared with the single operation of XJB, the joint operation of both stations produced a much higher TDG saturation downstream of XJB, especially during the non-flood discharge period. Moreover, the duration of high TDG saturation and the lengths of the lethal and sub-lethal areas were much higher in the joint operation scenario, posing a greater threat to fish and severely damaging the environment. This work provides a scientific basis for strategies to reduce TDG supersaturation to the permissible level and minimize the potential risk of supersaturated TDG.

  5. The cascad spent fuel dry storage facility

    Guay, P.; Bonnet, C.

    1991-01-01

    France has a wide variety of experimental spent fuels different from LWR spent fuel discharged from commercial reactors. Reprocessing such fuels would thus require the development and construction of special facilities. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has consequently opted for long-term interim storage of these spent fuels over a period of 50 years. Comparative studies of different storage concepts have been conducted on the basis of safety (mainly containment barriers and cooling), economic, modular design and operating flexibility criteria. These studies have shown that dry storage in a concrete vault cooled by natural convection is the best solution. A research and development program including theoretical investigations and mock-up tests confirmed the feasibility of cooling by natural convection and the validity of design rules applied for fuel storage. A facility called CASCAD was built at the CEA's Cadarache Nuclear Research Center, where it has been operational since mid-1990. This paper describes the CASCAD facility and indicates how its concept can be applied to storage of LWR fuel assemblies

  6. Frequency division using a micromechanical resonance cascade

    Qalandar, K. R., E-mail: kamala@engineering.ucsb.edu; Gibson, B.; Sharma, M.; Ma, A.; Turner, K. L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Strachan, B. S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (United States); Shaw, S. W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A coupled micromechanical resonator array demonstrates a mechanical realization of multi-stage frequency division. The mechanical structure consists of a set of N sequentially perpendicular microbeams that are connected by relatively weak elastic elements such that the system vibration modes are localized to individual microbeams and have natural frequencies with ratios close to 1:2:⋯:2{sup N}. Conservative (passive) nonlinear inter-modal coupling provides the required energy transfer between modes and is achieved by finite deformation kinematics. When the highest frequency beam is excited, this arrangement promotes a cascade of subharmonic resonances that achieve frequency division of 2{sup j} at microbeam j for j = 1, …, N. Results are shown for a capacitively driven three-stage divider in which an input signal of 824 kHz is passively divided through three modal stages, producing signals at 412 kHz, 206 kHz, and 103 kHz. The system modes are characterized and used to delineate the range of AC input voltages and frequencies over which the cascade occurs. This narrow band frequency divider has simple design rules that are scalable to higher frequencies and can be extended to a larger number of modal stages.

  7. Turbulent cascades in foreign exchange markets

    Ghashghaie, S.; Breymann, W.; Peinke, J.; Talkner, P.; Dodge, Y.

    1996-06-01

    THE availability of high-frequency data for financial markets has made it possible to study market dynamics on timescales of less than a day1. For foreign exchange (FX) rates Müller et al.2 have shown that there is a net flow of information from long to short timescales: the behaviour of long-term traders (who watch the markets only from time to time) influences the behaviour of short-term traders (who watch the markets continuously). Motivated by this hierarchical feature, we have studied FX market dynamics in more detail, and report here an analogy between these dynamics and hydrodynamic turbulence3-8. Specifically, the relationship between the probability density of FX price changes (δx) and the time delay (δt) (Fig. la) is much the same as the relationship between the probability density of the velocity differences (δv) of two points in a turbulent flow and their spatial separation δr (Fig. 1b). Guided by this similarity we claim that there is an information cascade in FX market dynamics that corresponds to the energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence. On the basis of this analogy we can now rationalize the statistics of FX price differences at different time delays, which is important for, for example, option pricing. The analogy also provides a conceptual framework for understanding the short-term dynamics of speculative markets.

  8. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  9. Quaternary Magmatism in the Cascades - Geologic Perspectives

    Hildreth, Wes

    2007-01-01

    Foreward The Cascade magmatic arc is a belt of Quaternary volcanoes that extends 1,250 km from Lassen Peak in northern California to Meager Mountain in Canada, above the subduction zone where the Juan de Fuca Plate plunges beneath the North American Plate. This Professional Paper presents a synthesis of the entire volcanic arc, addressing all 2,300 known Quaternary volcanoes, not just the 30 or so visually prominent peaks that comprise the volcanic skyline. Study of Cascade volcanoes goes back to the geological explorers of the late 19th century and the seminal investigations of Howel Williams in the 1920s and 1930s. However, major progress and application of modern scientific methods and instrumentation began only in the 1970s with the advent of systematic geological, geophysical, and geochemical studies of the entire arc. Initial stimulus from the USGS Geothermal Research Program was enhanced by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Together, these two USGS Programs have provided more than three decades of stable funding, staffing, and analytical support. This Professional Paper summarizes the resultant USGS data sets and integrates them with the parallel contributions of other investigators. The product is based upon an all-encompassing and definitive geological database, including chemical and isotopic analyses to characterize the rocks and geochronology to provide the critical time constraints. Until now, this massive amount of data has not been summarized, and a systematic and uniform interpretation firmly grounded in geological fact has been lacking. Herein lies the primary utility of this Cascade volume. It not only will be the mandatory starting point for new workers, but also will provide essential geological context to broaden the perspectives of current investigators of specific Cascade volcanoes. Wes Hildreth's insightful understanding of volcanic processes and his uncompromising scientific integrity make him

  10. Modeling of cascade and sub-cascade formation at high PKA energies in irradiated fusion structural materials

    Ryazanov, A.I.; Metelkin, E.V.; Semenov, E.V.

    2009-01-01

    A new theoretical model is developed for the investigations of cascade and sub-cascade formation in fusion structural materials under fast neutron irradiation at high primary knock-on atom energies. Light fusion structural materials: such as Be, C and SiC under 14 MeV neutron irradiation in fusion reactor will have the primary knock-on atoms with the energies up to 1 MeV. It is very difficult to use at such high energies the Monte-Carlo or molecular dynamic simulations [H.L. Heinisch, B.N. Singh, Philos. Mag. A67 (1993) 407; H.L. Heinisch, B.N. Singh, J. Nucl. Mater. 251 (1997) 77]. The developed model is based on the analytical consideration of elastic collisions between displaced moving atoms produced by primary knock-on atoms with some kinetic energies obtained from fast neutrons and crystal lattice atoms. The Thomas-Fermi interaction potential is used here for the description of these elastic atomic collisions. The suggested model takes into account also the electronic losses for moving atoms between elastic collisions. The self-consistent criterion for sub-cascade formation is suggested here which is based on the comparison of mean distance of primary knock-on atoms between consequent collisions of them with the target atoms and a size of sub-cascade produced by moving secondary knock-on atoms produced in such collisions. The analytical relations for the most important characteristics of cascades and sub-cascades are determined including the average number of sub-cascades per one primary knock-on atom in the dependence on its energy, the distance between sub-cascades and the average cascade and sub-cascade sizes. The developed model allows determining the total numbers, distribution functions of cascades and sub-cascades in dependence on their sizes and generation rate of cascades and sub-cascades for the different fusion neutron energy spectra. On the basis of this developed model the numerical calculations for main characteristics of cascades and sub-cascades

  11. Homogeneous shear turbulence – bypass concept via interplay of linear transient growth and nonlinear transverse cascade

    Mamatsashvili, George; Dong, Siwei; Jiménez, Javier; Khujadze, George; Chagelishvili, George; Foysi, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear turbulence to study the mechanism of the self-sustenance of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable (constant) shear flows. For this purpose, we analyzed the turbulence dynamics in Fourier/wavenumber/spectral space based on the simulation data for the domain aspect ratio 1 : 1 : 1. Specifically, we examined the interplay of linear transient growth of Fourier harmonics and nonlinear processes. The transient growth of harmonics is strongly anisotropic in spectral space. This, in turn, leads to anisotropy of nonlinear processes in spectral space and, as a result, the main nonlinear process appears to be not a direct/inverse, but rather a transverse/angular redistribution of harmonics in Fourier space referred to as the nonlinear transverse cascade. It is demonstrated that the turbulence is sustained by the interplay of the linear transient, or nonmodal growth and the transverse cascade. This course of events reliably exemplifies the wellknown bypass scenario of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable shear flows. These processes mainly operate at large length scales, comparable to the box size. Consequently, the central, small wavenumber area of Fourier space (the size of which is determined below) is crucial in the self-sustenance and is labeled the vital area. Outside the vital area, the transient growth and the transverse cascade are of secondary importance - Fourier harmonics are transferred to dissipative scales by the nonlinear direct cascade. The number of harmonics actively participating in the self-sustaining process (i.e., the harmonics whose energies grow more than 10% of the maximum spectral energy at least once during evolution) is quite large - it is equal to 36 for the considered box aspect ratio - and obviously cannot be described by low-order models. (paper)

  12. Structural and functional characterization of an archaeal clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated complex for antiviral defense (CASCADE).

    Lintner, Nathanael G; Kerou, Melina; Brumfield, Susan K; Graham, Shirley; Liu, Huanting; Naismith, James H; Sdano, Matthew; Peng, Nan; She, Qunxin; Copié, Valérie; Young, Mark J; White, Malcolm F; Lawrence, C Martin

    2011-06-17

    In response to viral infection, many prokaryotes incorporate fragments of virus-derived DNA into loci called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The loci are then transcribed, and the processed CRISPR transcripts are used to target invading viral DNA and RNA. The Escherichia coli "CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense" (CASCADE) is central in targeting invading DNA. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of an archaeal CASCADE (aCASCADE) from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Tagged Csa2 (Cas7) expressed in S. solfataricus co-purifies with Cas5a-, Cas6-, Csa5-, and Cas6-processed CRISPR-RNA (crRNA). Csa2, the dominant protein in aCASCADE, forms a stable complex with Cas5a. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a helical complex of variable length, perhaps due to substoichiometric amounts of other CASCADE components. A recombinant Csa2-Cas5a complex is sufficient to bind crRNA and complementary ssDNA. The structure of Csa2 reveals a crescent-shaped structure unexpectedly composed of a modified RNA-recognition motif and two additional domains present as insertions in the RNA-recognition motif. Conserved residues indicate potential crRNA- and target DNA-binding sites, and the H160A variant shows significantly reduced affinity for crRNA. We propose a general subunit architecture for CASCADE in other bacteria and Archaea.

  13. The critical care cascade: a systems approach.

    Ghosh, Rishi; Pepe, Paul

    2009-08-01

    To emphasize the evolving body of evidence that supports the need for a more seamless and interconnected continuum of patient care for a growing compendium of critical care conditions, starting in the prehospital and emergency department (ED) phases of management and continuing through ICU and rehabilitation services. The care of critically ill and injured patients has become increasingly complex. It now has been demonstrated that, for a number of such critical care conditions, optimal management not only relies heavily on the talents of highly coordinated, multidisciplinary teams, but it also may require shared responsibilities across a continuum of longitudinal care involving numerous specialties and departments. This continuum usually needs to begin in the prehospital and ED settings with management extending through specialized in-hospital diagnostic and interventional suites to traditional ICU and rehabilitation programs. In recent years, examples of these conditions have included the development of systems of care for trauma, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, stroke, sepsis syndromes, toxicology and other critical illnesses. Although the widespread implementation of such multidisciplinary, multispecialty critical care cascades of care has been achieved most commonly in trauma care, current healthcare delivery systems generally tend to employ compartmentalized organization for the majority of other critical care patients. Accordingly, optimal systematic care often breaks down in the management of these complex patients due to barriers such as lack of interoperable communication between teams, disjointed transfers between services, unnecessary time-consuming, re-evaluations and transitional pauses in time-dependent circumstances, deficiencies in cross-disciplinary education and quality assurance loops, and significant variability in patient care practices. Such barriers can lead to adverse outcomes in this fragile patient population. This article discusses

  14. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50ka to 2ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~50ka. By ~37ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO2) and andesite (59-63% SiO2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO2) culminated ~30ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200m thick. This was followed at ~27ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO2) and formation of a summit crater ~800m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by >150m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~22ka. A 20kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the

  15. Energy cascading in the beat-wave accelerator

    McKinstrie, C.J.; Batha, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    A review is given of energy cascading in the beat-wave accelerator. The properties of the electromagnetic cascade and the corresponding plasma-wave evolution are well understood within the framework of an approximate analytic model. Based on this model, idealized laser-plasma coupling efficiencies of the order of 10% do not seem unreasonable. 28 refs

  16. Time development of cascades by the binary collision approximation code

    Fukumura, A.; Ishino, S.; Sekimura, N.

    1991-01-01

    To link a molecular dynamic calculation to binary collision approximation codes to explore high energy cascade damage, time between consecutive collisions is introduced into the binary collision MARLOWE code. Calculated results for gold by the modified code show formation of sub-cascades and their spatial and time overlapping, which can affect formation of defect clusters. (orig.)

  17. Signaling Cascades: Consequences of Varying Substrate and Phosphatase Levels

    Feliu, Elisenda; Knudsen, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We study signaling cascades with an arbitrary number of layers of one-site phosphorylation cycles. Such cascades are abundant in nature and integrated parts of many pathways. Based on the Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme kinetics and the law of mass-action, we derive explicit analytic expressions...

  18. Cascades for hydrogen isotope separation using metal hydrides

    Hill, F.B.; Grzetic, V.

    1982-01-01

    Designs are presented for continuous countercurrent hydrogen isotope separation cascades based on the use of metal hydrides. The cascades are made up of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) or temperature swing adsorption (TSA) stages. The designs were evolved from consideration of previously conducted studies of the separation performance of four types of PSA and TSA processes

  19. Hybrid Modulation Scheme for Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter Cells ...

    This work proposes a switching technique for cascaded H-Bridge (CHB) cells. Single carrier Sinusoidal PWM (SCSPWM) scheme is employed in the generation of the gating signals. A sequential switching and base PWM circulation schemes are presented for this fundamental cascaded multilevel inverter topology.

  20. A simple model of global cascades on random networks

    Watts, Duncan J.

    2002-04-01

    The origin of large but rare cascades that are triggered by small initial shocks is a phenomenon that manifests itself as diversely as cultural fads, collective action, the diffusion of norms and innovations, and cascading failures in infrastructure and organizational networks. This paper presents a possible explanation of this phenomenon in terms of a sparse, random network of interacting agents whose decisions are determined by the actions of their neighbors according to a simple threshold rule. Two regimes are identified in which the network is susceptible to very large cascadesherein called global cascadesthat occur very rarely. When cascade propagation is limited by the connectivity of the network, a power law distribution of cascade sizes is observed, analogous to the cluster size distribution in standard percolation theory and avalanches in self-organized criticality. But when the network is highly connected, cascade propagation is limited instead by the local stability of the nodes themselves, and the size distribution of cascades is bimodal, implying a more extreme kind of instability that is correspondingly harder to anticipate. In the first regime, where the distribution of network neighbors is highly skewed, it is found that the most connected nodes are far more likely than average nodes to trigger cascades, but not in the second regime. Finally, it is shown that heterogeneity plays an ambiguous role in determining a system's stability: increasingly heterogeneous thresholds make the system more vulnerable to global cascades; but an increasingly heterogeneous degree distribution makes it less vulnerable.

  1. Cascade in muonic and pionic atoms with Z = 1

    Markushin, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies of the exotic atoms with Z = 1 are reviewed. An interplay between the atomic internal and external degrees of freedom is essential for a good description of the atomic cascade. The perspective of ab initio cascade calculations is outlined

  2. Intermittent Flow Regimes in a Transonic Fan Airfoil Cascade

    J. Lepicovsky

    2004-01-01

    velocity.To date, this flow behavior has only been observed in a linear transonic cascade. Further research is necessary to confirm this phenomenon occurs in actual transonic fans and is not the by-product of an endwall restricted linear cascade.

  3. A cascaded online uninterruptible power supply using reduced semiconductor

    Zhang, Lei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Gao, Feng

    2011-01-01

    A cascaded online uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is proposed here that uses 25% lesser semiconductor, as compared to its traditional H-bridge cascaded precedence. Unlike other component-saving configurations where compromises are unavoidable, almost no performance degradations and constraints...

  4. Cascades for hydrogen isotope separation using metal hydrides

    Hill, F B; Grzetic, V [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1983-02-01

    Designs are presented for continuous countercurrent hydrogen isotope separation cascades based on the use of metal hydrides. The cascades are made up of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) or temperature swing adsorption (TSA) stages. The designs were evolved from consideration of previously conducted studies of the separation performance of four types of PSA and TSA processes.

  5. Participant intimacy: A cluster analysis of the intranuclear cascade

    Cugnon, J.; Knoll, J.; Randrup, J.

    1981-01-01

    The intranuclear cascade for relativistic nuclear collisions is analyzed in terms of clusters consisting of groups of nucleons which are dynamically linked to each other by violent interactions. The formation cross sections for the different cluster types as well as their intrinsic dynamics are studied and compared with the predictions of the linear cascade model ( rows-on-rows ). (orig.)

  6. Climate Change and Baleen Whale Trophic Cascades in Greenland

    2009-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Climate Change and Baleen Whale Trophic Cascades in Greenland...SUBTITLE Climate Change And Baleen Whale Trophic Cascades In Greenland 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  7. Ion-irradiation studies of cascade damage in metals

    Averback, R.S.

    1982-03-01

    Ion-irradiation studies of the fundamental aspects of cascade damage in metals are reviewed. The emphasis of these studies has been the determination of the primary state of damage (i.e. the arrangement of atoms in the cascade region prior to thermal migration of defects). Progress has been made towards understanding the damage function (i.e. the number of Frenkel pairs produced as a function of primary recoil atom energy), the spatial configuration of vacancies and interstitials in the cascade and the cascade-induced mixing of atoms. It is concluded for these studies that the agitation of the lattice in the vicinity of energetic displacement cascades stimulates the defect motion and that such thermal spike motion induces recombination and clustering of Frenkel defects. 9 figures

  8. Geothermal segmentation of the Cascade Range in the USA

    Guffanti, Marianne; Muffler, L.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, James G.; Blackwell, D.D.; Weaver, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of the crustal thermal regime of the Quaternary Cascades vary systematically along the range. Spatially congruent changes in volcanic vent distribution, volcanic extrusion rate, hydrothermal discharge rate, and regional conductive heat flow define 5 geothermal segments. These segments are, from north to south: (1) the Washington Cascades north of Mount Rainier, (2) the Cascades from Mount Rainier to Mount Hood, (3) the Oregon Cascades from south of Mount Hood to the California border, (4) northernmost California, including Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcano, and (5) the Lassen region of northern California. This segmentation indicates that geothermal resource potential is not uniform in the Cascade Range. Potential varies from high in parts of Oregon to low in Washington north of Mount Rainier.

  9. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture...... model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures....... In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model...

  10. RG cascades in hyperbolic quiver gauge theories

    Ahl Laamara, R.; Ait Ben Haddou, M.; Belhaj, A.; Drissi, L.B.; Saidi, E.H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a general classification of supersymmatric QFT4s into three basic sets: ordinary, affine and indefinite classes. The last class, which has not been enough explored in literature, is shown to share most of properties of ordinary and affine super-QFT4s. This includes, amongst others, its embedding in type II string on local Calabi-Yau threefolds. We give realizations of these supersymmetric QFT4s as D-brane world volume gauge theories. A special interest is devoted to hyperbolic subset for its peculiar features and for the role it plays in type IIB background with non-zero axion. We also study RG flows and duality cascades in case of hyperbolic quiver theories. Comments regarding the full indefinite sector are made

  11. Cascaded FSO-VLC Communication System

    Gupta, Akash

    2017-08-28

    The proposed cascaded free space optics (FSO)-visible light communication (VLC) system consists of multiple VLC access points which caters the end users connected via a decode and forward (DF) relay to the FSO backhaul link. The FSO link is assumed to be affected by path-loss, pointing error and atmospheric turbulence while the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of VLC downlinks are statistically characterized considering the randomness of users position. In this study, the novel closed form expressions of the statistics like probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the equivalent SNR are derived. Capitalizing on these, the closed form expressions for various performance metrics such as outage probability and error probability are provided. The simulation results are provided to verify the functional curves of mathematical analysis.

  12. Prolate yrast cascade in 183Tl

    Reviol, W.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Jenkins, D.; Toth, K. S.; Bingham, C. R.; Riedinger, L. L.; Weintraub, W.; Cizewski, J. A.; Lauritsen, T.

    2000-01-01

    The yrast sequence in 183 Tl has been studied for the first time in recoil-mass selected γ-ray spectroscopic measurements. A rotational-like cascade of seven transitions is established down to the band head with probable spin and parity (13/2 + ). Unlike in the adjacent odd-mass Tl nuclei, prompt γ decay from the yrast band to a lower lying weakly deformed (oblate) structure is not observed. These features are consistent with the predicted drop of the prolate band head in 183 Tl compared to 185 Tl. The implications for the prolate energy minimum in odd-mass Tl nuclei at the neutron i 13/2 midshell (N=103) are discussed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  13. Hadron cascade by the method of characteristics

    Tsui, K.H.; Portella, H.M.; Navia, C.E.; Shigueoka, H. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mails: tsui@if.uff.br; hmport@if.uff.br; gficnoj@if.uff.br; hisa@if.uff.br; Oliveira, L.C.S. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: oliveira@cbpf.br

    2005-02-01

    Hadron diffusion equations with energy-dependent interaction mean free paths and inelasticities are solved using the Mellin transform. Instead of using operators on the finite difference terms, the Mellin transformed equations are Taylor expanded into a first order partial differential equation in atmospheric depth t and in the transform parameter s. Then, these equations are solved by the method of residues. For the case of a regularized power law primary spectrum these hadron fluxes are given by simple residues and one, never before mentioned, essential singularities. A comparison of our solutions with the nucleon flux measured at sea level and with the hadron fluxes measured at t = 840 g/cm{sup 2} and at sea level are made. The agreement between them is in general very good, greater than 90%. In order to check the accuracy of our calculations, a comparison between our solution and the simulated nucleon cascades is also made. (author)

  14. Cascaded face alignment via intimacy definition feature

    Li, Hailiang; Lam, Kin-Man; Chiu, Man-Yau; Wu, Kangheng; Lei, Zhibin

    2017-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emerging popularity of regression-based face aligners, which directly learn mappings between facial appearance and shape-increment manifolds. We propose a random-forest based, cascaded regression model for face alignment by using a locally lightweight feature, namely intimacy definition feature. This feature is more discriminative than the pose-indexed feature, more efficient than the histogram of oriented gradients feature and the scale-invariant feature transform feature, and more compact than the local binary feature (LBF). Experimental validation of our algorithm shows that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance when testing on some challenging datasets. Compared with the LBF-based algorithm, our method achieves about twice the speed, 20% improvement in terms of alignment accuracy and saves an order of magnitude on memory requirement.

  15. Seeking heavy Higgs bosons through cascade decays

    Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Fuks, Benjamin; Poulose, P.; Sahoo, Shibananda

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the LHC discovery prospects for a heavy Higgs boson decaying into the standard model Higgs boson and additional weak bosons. We consider a generic model-independent new physics configuration where this decay proceeds via a cascade involving other intermediate scalar bosons and focus on an LHC final-state signature comprised either of four b -jets and two charged leptons or of four charged leptons and two b -jets. We design two analyses of the corresponding signals, and demonstrate that a 5 σ discovery at the 14 TeV LHC is possible for various combinations of the parent and daughter Higgs-boson masses. We moreover find that the standard model backgrounds can be sufficiently rejected to guarantee the reconstruction of the parent Higgs boson mass. We apply our analyses to the Type-II two-Higgs-doublet model and identify the regions of the parameter space to which the LHC is sensitive.

  16. Cascade generation in Al laser induced plasma

    Nagli, Lev; Gaft, Michael; Raichlin, Yosef; Gornushkin, Igor

    2018-05-01

    We found cascade IR generation in Al laser induced plasma. This generation includes doublet transitions 3s 25s 2S1/2 → 3s24p 2P1/2,3/2 → 3s24s 2S1/2; corresponding to strong lines at 2110 and 2117 nm, and much weaker lines at 1312-1315 nm. The 3s25s2S 1/2 starting IR generation level is directly pumped from the 3s23p 2P3/2 ground level. The starting level for UV generation at 396.2 nm (transitions 3s24s 2S1/2 → 4p 2P3/2) is populated due to the fast collisional processes in the plasma plume. These differences led to different time and special dependences on the lasing in the IR and UV spectral range within the aluminum laser induced plasma.

  17. Cascade DNA nanomachine and exponential amplification biosensing.

    Xu, Jianguo; Wu, Zai-Sheng; Shen, Weiyu; Xu, Huo; Li, Hongling; Jia, Lee

    2015-11-15

    DNA is a versatile scaffold for the assembly of multifunctional nanostructures, and potential applications of various DNA nanodevices have been recently demonstrated for disease diagnosis and treatment. In the current study, a powerful cascade DNA nanomachine was developed that can execute the exponential amplification of p53 tumor suppressor gene. During the operation of the newly-proposed DNA nanomachine, dual-cyclical nucleic acid strand-displacement polymerization (dual-CNDP) was ingeniously introduced, where the target trigger is repeatedly used as the fuel molecule and the nicked fragments are dramatically accumulated. Moreover, each displaced nicked fragment is able to activate the another type of cyclical strand-displacement amplification, increasing exponentially the value of fluorescence intensity. Essentially, one target binding event can induce considerable number of subsequent reactions, and the nanodevice was called cascade DNA nanomachine. It can implement several functions, including recognition element, signaling probe, polymerization primer and template. Using the developed autonomous operation of DNA nanomachine, the p53 gene can be quantified in the wide concentration range from 0.05 to 150 nM with the detection limit of 50 pM. If taking into account the final volume of mixture, the detection limit is calculated as lower as 6.2 pM, achieving an desirable assay ability. More strikingly, the mutant gene can be easily distinguished from the wild-type one. The proof-of-concept demonstrations reported herein is expected to promote the development and application of DNA nanomachine, showing great potential value in basic biology and medical diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dual cascade and minimum enstrophy state in the tokamak scrape-off layer

    Mattor, N.; Cohen, R.H.; Xu, X.Q.

    1993-01-01

    In the Tokamak Scrape-off layer (SOL), there is experimental, theoretical, and computational evidence of an inverse energy cascade, wherein fluctuation energy transfers nonlinearly to large scale lengths. If the inverse cascade proceeds to the largest scales, it gives transport which is inherently nonlocal, precluding standard descriptions with local transport coefficients. This includes DIA based renormalization theories, γ/k 2 open-quotes mixing lengthclose quotes theories, and spectral or pseudo-spectral codes, all of which tend to involve a two-scale assumption, that turbulence acts on very short time and length scales relative to the equilibrium. The two-scale assumption is violated by turbulence undergoing a significant inverse cascade, and a different approach is called for. The authors postulate that the net effect of such turbulence is not local transport, but rather to supply the equilibrium with a steady source of energy at the minimum enstrophy. The form of the supplied energy is assessed through a variational calculation, which gives an equation for the equilibrium velocity profile, ∇ 2 V = λ 2 V, where λ 2 is an undetermined Lagrange multiplier. For a slab model, the solution in the SOL is V = V a exp[-λ(r-a)]y, where V a is the poloidal velocity at the SOL/edge interface. This velocity (from E x B in the simple model), leads to the potential profile, φ = -(V a B/λc)exp[-λ(r-a)]. For field lines connected to an endplate eφ = ΛT e , (where Λ ∼ 4 is nearly constant) giving also the T e profile. Thus, the profiles are given and the transport problem is solved, up to the two unknown constants λ and V a . One relation comes from heat balance. There are several candidates for the second constant, and the authors present numerical simulations which evaluate these

  19. Infinite Queue Management via Cascade Control for Industrial Routers in Smart Grid IP Networks

    Ku-Hwan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid applications experience an extremely wide range of communication delay. Data flows of those applications are normally aggregated at industrial network routers in substations, form infinite (long queues termed bufferbloat issue, and might damage the operation of transmission control protocol. The default queue management scheme, DropTail, in such routers just drops packets if queue is full while the others in literature are mostly based on one-loop feedback control where an optimal point of performance between queue length and drop rate is limited. In this paper, we study the problem of managing a long queue of industrial router at substation under heterogeneous smart grid networks. Specifically, we propose an enqueue-dequeue dropping cascade control using a two-loop design method to control both window size and queue length. Moreover, our proposal can be easily implemented into router firmware with provided discrete expressions. Finally, our simulation results are presented to validate the possible benefits that can be gained from cascade control and compare the existing queue management methods as well.

  20. Simulated annealing of displacement cascades in FCC metals. 1. Beeler cascades

    Doran, D.G.; Burnett, R.A.

    1974-09-01

    An important source of damage to structural materials in fast reactors is the displacement of atoms from normal lattice sites. A high energy neutron may impart sufficient energy to an atom to initiate a displacement cascade consisting of a localized high density of hundreds of interstitials and vacancies. These defects subsequently interact to form clusters and to reduce their density by mutual annihilation. This short term annealing of an isolated cascade has been simulated at high and low temperatures using a correlated random walk model. The cascade representations used were developed by Beeler and the point defect properties were based on the model of γ-iron by Johnson. Low temperature anneals, characterized by no vacancy migration and a 104 site annihilation region (AR), resulted in 49 defect pairs at 20 keV and 11 pairs at 5 keV. High temperature anneals, characterized by both interstitial and vacancy migration and a 32 site AR, resulted in 68 pairs at 20 keV and 18 pairs at 5 keV when no cluster dissociation was permitted; most of the vacancies were in immobile clusters. These high temperature values dropped to 40 and 14 upon dissolution of the vacancy clusters. Parameter studies showed that, at a given temperature, the large AR resulted in about one-half as many defects as the small AR. Cluster size distributions and examples of spatial configurations are included. (U.S.)

  1. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  2. Keeping disease at arm's length

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  3. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  4. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  5. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  6. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  7. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  8. Overview of bunch length measurements

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  9. Energy and carbon balances of wood cascade chains

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 OEstersund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    In this study we analyze the energy and carbon balances of various cascade chains for recovered wood lumber. Post-recovery options include reuse as lumber, reprocessing as particleboard, pulping to form paper products, and burning for energy recovery. We compare energy and carbon balances of chains of cascaded products to the balances of products obtained from virgin wood fiber or from non-wood material. We describe and quantify several mechanisms through which cascading can affect the energy and carbon balances: direct cascade effects due to different properties and logistics of virgin and recovered materials, substitution effects due to the reduced demand for non-wood materials when wood is cascaded, and land use effects due to alternative possible land uses when less timber harvest is needed because of wood cascading. In some analyses we assume the forest is a limiting resource, and in others we include a fixed amount of forest land from which biomass can be harvested for use as material or biofuel. Energy and carbon balances take into account manufacturing processes, recovery and transportation energy, material recovery losses, and forest processes. We find that land use effects have the greatest impact on energy and carbon balances, followed by substitution effects, while direct cascade effects are relatively minor. (author)

  10. A thermal modelling of displacement cascades in uranium dioxide

    Martin, G., E-mail: guillaume.martin@cea.fr [CEA – DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, Bât. 352, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Garcia, P.; Sabathier, C. [CEA – DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, Bât. 352, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Devynck, F.; Krack, M. [Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Maillard, S. [CEA – DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, Bât. 352, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2014-05-01

    The space and time dependent temperature distribution was studied in uranium dioxide during displacement cascades simulated by classical molecular dynamics (MD). The energy for each simulated radiation event ranged between 0.2 keV and 20 keV in cells at initial temperatures of 700 K or 1400 K. Spheres into which atomic velocities were rescaled (thermal spikes) have also been simulated by MD to simulate the thermal excitation induced by displacement cascades. Equipartition of energy was shown to occur in displacement cascades, half of the kinetic energy of the primary knock-on atom being converted after a few tenths of picoseconds into potential energy. The kinetic and potential parts of the system energy are however subjected to little variations during dedicated thermal spike simulations. This is probably due to the velocity rescaling process, which impacts a large number of atoms in this case and would drive the system away from a dynamical equilibrium. This result makes questionable MD simulations of thermal spikes carried out up to now (early 2014). The thermal history of cascades was compared to the heat equation solution of a punctual thermal excitation in UO{sub 2}. The maximum volume brought to a temperature above the melting temperature during the simulated cascade events is well reproduced by this simple model. This volume eventually constitutes a relevant estimate of the volume affected by a displacement cascade in UO{sub 2}. This definition of the cascade volume could also make sense in other materials, like iron.

  11. Cascade fuzzy control for gas engine driven heat pump

    Li Shuze; Zhang Wugao; Zhang Rongrong; Lv Dexu; Huang Zhen

    2005-01-01

    In addition to absorption chillers, today's gas cooling technology includes gas engine driven heat pump systems (GEHP) in a range of capacities and temperature capacities suitable for most commercial air conditioning and refrigeration applications. Much is expected from GEHPs as a product that would help satisfy the air conditioning system demand from medium and small sized buildings, restrict electric power demand peaks in summer and save energy in general. This article describes a kind of control strategy for a GEHP, a cascade fuzzy control. GEHPs have large and varying time constants and their dynamic modeling cannot be easily achieved. A cascade control strategy is effective for systems that have large time constants and disturbances, and a fuzzy control strategy is fit for a system that lacks an accurate model. This cascade fuzzy control structure brings together the best merits of fuzzy control and cascade control structures. The performance of the cascade fuzzy control is compared to that of a cascade PI (proportional and integral) control strategy, and it is shown by example that the cascade fuzzy control strategy gives a better performance, reduced reaction time and smaller overshoot temperature

  12. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  14. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  15. Cascade multiplicity inside deuteron in Π d high energy collisions

    Kisielewska, D.

    1983-01-01

    Multiplicity distribution of double scattering events is analysed using the additive quark model including the cascading effect. The mean multiplicity of particles produced in the process of cascading estimated for Π d experiments at 100, 205 and 360 GeV/c is equal to 1.15 ± .31. This value does not depend on the momentum of the incident pion. Some indications are found that the probability of cascading depends on multiplicity of the collision with the first nucleon and is smaller for low multiplicities. (author)

  16. Criticality safety study of shutdown diffusion cascade coolers

    Paschal, L.S.; Basoglu, B.; Bentley, C.L.; Dunn, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Gaseous diffusion plants use cascade coolers in the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to remove heat from the enriched stream of UF 6 . The cascade coolers operate like shell and tube heat exchangers with the UF 6 on the shell side and Freon on the tube side. Recirculating cooling water (RCW) in condensers is used to cool the Freon. A criticality safety analysis was previously performed for cascade coolers during normal operation. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate several different hypothetical accidents regarding RCW ingress into the cooler to determine whether criticality safety concerns exist

  17. Increasing sensitivity of MOS dosemeters in cascade connection

    Vychytil, F.; Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Petr, I.

    1978-01-01

    The possibilities of increasing the sensitivity of MOS transistors in their cascade connection were studied theoretically and experimentally. The measurements confirmed the presumption that the instability of cascade-connected MOS transistors increased with the square of the number of transistors in the system. This allows systems to be formed with different sensitivity to ionizing radiation by encasing 10 to 10 4 transistors connected in cascade, which is technologically feasible. The procedure is also acceptable from the point of view of cost. (Z.M.)

  18. Revised tephra volumes for Cascade Range volcanoes

    Nathenson, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Isopach maps from tephra eruptions from Mount St. Helens were reported in Carey et al. (1995) and for tephra eruptions from Glacier Peak in Gardner et al. (1998). For exponential thinning, the isopach data only define a single slope on a log thickness versus square root of area plot. Carey et al. (1995) proposed a model that was used to estimate a second slope, and volumes were presented in both studies using this model. A study by Sulpizio (2005) for estimating the second slope and square root of area where the lines intersect involves a systematic analysis of many eruptions to provide correlation equations. The purpose of this paper is to recalculate the volumes of Cascades eruptions and compare results from the two methods. In order to gain some perspective on the methods for estimating the second slope, we use data for thickness versus distance beyond the last isopach that are available for some of the larger eruptions in the Cascades. The thickness versus square root of area method is extended to thickness versus distance by developing an approximate relation between the two assuming elliptical isopachs with the source at one of the foci. Based on the comparisons made between the Carey et al. (1995) and Sulpizio (2005) methods, it is felt that the later method provides a better estimate of the second slope. For Mount St. Helens, the estimates of total volume using the Sulpizio (2005) method are generally smaller than those using the Carey et al. (1995) method. For the volume estimates of Carey et al. (1995), the volume of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens is smaller than six of the eight previous eruptions. With the new volumes using the Sulpizio (2005) method, the 1980 eruption is smaller in volume than the upper end of the range for only three of the layers (Wn, Ye, and Yn) and is the same size as layer We. Thus the 1980 eruption becomes representative of the mid-range of volumes rather than being in the lower range.

  19. Mode structure of a quantum cascade laser

    Bogdanov, A. A.; Suris, R. A.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the mode structure of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) cavity considering the surface plasmon-polariton modes and familiar modes of hollow resonator jointly, within a single model. We present a comprehensive mode structure analysis of the laser cavity, varying its geometric parameters and free electron concentration inside cavity layers within a wide range. Our analysis covers, in particular, the cases of metal-insulator-metal and insulator-metal-insulator waveguides. We discuss the phenomenon of negative dispersion for eigenmodes in detail and explain the nature of this phenomenon. We specify a waveguide parameters domain in which negative dispersion exists. The mode structure of QCL cavity is considered in the case of the anisotropic electrical properties of the waveguide materials. We show that anisotropy of the waveguide core results in propagation of Langmuir modes that are degenerated in the case of the isotropic core. Comparative analysis of optical losses due to free carrier absorption is presented for different modes within the frequency range from terahertz to ultraviolet frequencies.

  20. MCDF calculations of Auger cascade processes

    Beerwerth, Randolf; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    We model the multiple ionization of near-neutral core-excited atoms where a cascade of Auger processes leads to the emission of several electrons. We utilize the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method to generate approximate wave functions for all fine-structure levels and to account for all decays between them. This approach allows to compute electron spectra, the population of final-states and ion yields, that are accessible in many experiments. Furthermore, our approach is based on the configuration interaction method. A careful treatment of correlation between electronic configurations enables one to model three-electron processes such as an Auger decay that is accompanied by an additional shake-up transition. Here, this model is applied to the triple ionization of atomic cadmium, where we show that the decay of inner-shell 4p holes to triply-charged final states is purely due to the shake-up transition of valence 5s electrons. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  1. Feeding supermassive black holes by collisional cascades

    Faber, Christian; Dehnen, Walter

    2018-05-01

    The processes driving gas accretion on to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are still poorly understood. Angular momentum conservation prevents gas within ˜10 pc of the black hole from reaching radii ˜10-3 pc where viscous accretion becomes efficient. Here we present simulations of the collapse of a clumpy shell of swept-up isothermal gas, which is assumed to have formed as a result of feedback from a previous episode of AGN activity. The gas falls towards the SMBH forming clumps and streams, which intersect, collide, and often form a disc. These collisions promote partial cancellations of angular momenta, resulting in further infall and more collisions. This continued collisional cascade generates a tail of gas with sufficiently small angular momenta and provides a viable route for gas inflow to sub-parsec scales. The efficiency of this process hardly depends on details, such as gas temperature, initial virial ratio and power spectrum of the gas distribution, as long as it is not strongly rotating. Adding star formation to this picture might explain the near-simultaneous formation of the S-stars (from tidally disrupted binaries formed in plunging gas streams) and the sub-parsec young stellar disc around Sgr A⋆.

  2. Depression: An Immuno-Inflammatory Cascade

    Vivek Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder also known as clinical depression, unipolar depression or depression is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, high suicidal tendencies and deaths. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that psychiatric illnesses like MDD, are associated with inflammatory processes. While it is unlikely that major depressive disorder is a primary and lsquo;inflammatory' disorder, there is now evidence to suggest that inflammation play a subtle role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. The inflammation in depression cascade pin points to the origin from immune hyperactivity and thus a new theory that explains role of immune system mediated inflammation has been accepted and researched upon. widely. This theory states that depression is accompanied by altered immune function and activation of the inflammatory response system. This theory is strengthened form the fact that the current therapeutic options which mainly target neurotransmitters, are not effective in many patients and these patients has been found to be associated with elevated levels of inflammatory mediators specifically cytokines. It is reported more recently that other risk factors for depression, including psychosocial stress, psychological trauma, sleep disturbance and pain, also increases inflammatory processes. Thus the intervention in the immune system originated from inflammatory cytokines seems a therapeutically viable option in the field of depression research. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 223-240

  3. Dissipation range turbulent cascades in plasmas

    Terry, P. W.; Almagri, A. F.; Forest, C. B.; Nornberg, M. D.; Rahbarnia, K.; Sarff, J. S.; Fiksel, G.; Hatch, D. R.; Jenko, F.; Prager, S. C.; Ren, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Dissipation range cascades in plasma turbulence are described and spectra are formulated from the scaled attenuation in wavenumber space of the spectral energy transfer rate. This yields spectra characterized by the product of a power law and exponential fall-off, applicable to all scales. Spectral indices of the power law and exponential fall-off depend on the scaling of the dissipation, the strength of the nonlinearity, and nonlocal effects when dissipation rates of multiple fluctuation fields are different. The theory is used to derive spectra for MHD turbulence with magnetic Prandtl number greater than unity, extending previous work. The theory is also applied to generic plasma turbulence by considering the spectrum from damping with arbitrary wavenumber scaling. The latter is relevant to ion temperature gradient turbulence modeled by gyrokinetics. The spectrum in this case has an exponential component that becomes weaker at small scale, giving a power law asymptotically. Results from the theory are compared to three very different types of turbulence. These include the magnetic plasma turbulence of the Madison Symmetric Torus, the MHD turbulence of liquid metal in the Madison Dynamo Experiment, and gyrokinetic simulation of ion temperature gradient turbulence.

  4. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps.

  5. Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers

    Tittel, Frank K.; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Rochat, Michel; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jerome

    2002-09-01

    There is an increasing need in many chemical sensing applications ranging from industrial process control to environmental science and medical diagnostics for fast, sensitive, and selective gas detection based on laser spectroscopy. The recent availability of novel pulsed and cw quantum cascade distributed feedback (QC-DFB) lasers as mid-infrared spectroscopic sources address this need. A number of spectroscopic techniques have been demonstrated. For example, the authors have employed QC-DFB lasers for the monitoring and quantification of several trace gases and isotopic species in ambient air at ppmv and ppbv levels by means of direct absorption, wavelength modulation, cavity enhanced and cavity ringdown spectroscopy. In this work, pulsed thermoelectrically cooled QC-DFB lasers operating at ~15.6 μm were characterized for spectroscopic gas sensing applications. A new method for wavelength scanning based on the repetition rate modulation was developed. A non-wavelength-selective pyroelectric detector was incorporated in the gas sensor giving an advantage of room-temperature operation and low cost. Absorption lines of CO2 and H2O were observed in ambient air providing information about the concentration of these species.

  6. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  7. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  8. The effect of hydropower on fish stocks: comparison between cascade and non-cascade reservoirs

    Draštík, Vladislav; Kubečka, Jan; Tušer, Michal; Čech, Martin; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Jarolím, Oldřich; Prchalová, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 609, č. 1 (2008), s. 25-36 ISSN 0018-8158. [EIFAC Symposium on hydropower , flood control and water abstraction: implications for fish and fisheries. Mondsee, 14.06.2006-17.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/1371; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/07/1392; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : abundance * biomass * longitudinal gradient * vertical and horizontal distribution * cascade Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.449, year: 2008

  9. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  10. Sign epistasis caused by hierarchy within signalling cascades.

    Nghe, Philippe; Kogenaru, Manjunatha; Tans, Sander J

    2018-04-13

    Sign epistasis is a central evolutionary constraint, but its causal factors remain difficult to predict. Here we use the notion of parameterised optima to explain epistasis within a signalling cascade, and test these predictions in Escherichia coli. We show that sign epistasis arises from the benefit of tuning phenotypic parameters of cascade genes with respect to each other, rather than from their complex and incompletely known genetic bases. Specifically, sign epistasis requires only that the optimal phenotypic parameters of one gene depend on the phenotypic parameters of another, independent of other details, such as activating or repressing nature, position within the cascade, intra-genic pleiotropy or genotype. Mutational effects change sign more readily in downstream genes, indicating that optimising downstream genes is more constrained. The findings show that sign epistasis results from the inherent upstream-downstream hierarchy between signalling cascade genes, and can be addressed without exhaustive genotypic mapping.

  11. Damped trophic cascades driven by fishing in model marine ecosystems

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Pedersen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The largest perturbation on upper trophic levels of many marine ecosystems stems from fishing. The reaction of the ecosystem goes beyond the trophic levels directly targeted by the fishery. This reaction has been described either as a change in slope of the overall size spectrum or as a trophic...... cascade triggered by the removal of top predators. Here we use a novel size- and trait-based model to explore how marine ecosystems might react to perturbations from different types of fishing pressure. The model explicitly resolves the whole life history of fish, from larvae to adults. The results show...... that fishing does not change the overall slope of the size spectrum, but depletes the largest individuals and induces trophic cascades. A trophic cascade can propagate both up and down in trophic levels driven by a combination of changes in predation mortality and food limitation. The cascade is damped...

  12. A cascading failure model for analyzing railway accident causation

    Liu, Jin-Tao; Li, Ke-Ping

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new cascading failure model is proposed for quantitatively analyzing the railway accident causation. In the model, the loads of nodes are redistributed according to the strength of the causal relationships between the nodes. By analyzing the actual situation of the existing prevention measures, a critical threshold of the load parameter in the model is obtained. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed cascading model, simulation experiments of a train collision accident are performed. The results show that the cascading failure model can describe the cascading process of the railway accident more accurately than the previous models, and can quantitatively analyze the sensitivities and the influence of the causes. In conclusion, this model can assist us to reveal the latent rules of accident causation to reduce the occurrence of railway accidents.

  13. Numerical optimization of a transcritical CO2/propylene cascaded ...

    transcritical CO2/propylene cascade system with parallel compression ... specific volumes, low solidification temperature, low operating pressure of the ...... Kim M, Pettersen J and Bullard C W 2004 Fundamental process and system design ...

  14. A multivariate approach to heavy flavour tagging with cascade training

    Bastos, J; Liu, Y

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of artificial neural networks and boosted decision trees, with and without cascade training, for tagging b-jets in a collider experiment. It is shown, using a Monte Carlo simulation of WH→lνq q-bar events, that for a b-tagging efficiency of 50%, the light jet rejection power given by boosted decision trees without cascade training is about 55% higher than that given by artificial neural networks. The cascade training technique can improve the performance of boosted decision trees and artificial neural networks at this b-tagging efficiency level by about 35% and 80% respectively. We conclude that the cascade trained boosted decision trees method is the most promising technique for tagging heavy flavours at collider experiments

  15. Tunable signal processing in synthetic MAP kinase cascades.

    O'Shaughnessy, Ellen C; Palani, Santhosh; Collins, James J; Sarkar, Casim A

    2011-01-07

    The flexibility of MAPK cascade responses enables regulation of a vast array of cell fate decisions, but elucidating the mechanisms underlying this plasticity is difficult in endogenous signaling networks. We constructed insulated mammalian MAPK cascades in yeast to explore how intrinsic and extrinsic perturbations affect the flexibility of these synthetic signaling modules. Contrary to biphasic dependence on scaffold concentration, we observe monotonic decreases in signal strength as scaffold concentration increases. We find that augmenting the concentration of sequential kinases can enhance ultrasensitivity and lower the activation threshold. Further, integrating negative regulation and concentration variation can decouple ultrasensitivity and threshold from the strength of the response. Computational analyses show that cascading can generate ultrasensitivity and that natural cascades with different kinase concentrations are innately biased toward their distinct activation profiles. This work demonstrates that tunable signal processing is inherent to minimal MAPK modules and elucidates principles for rational design of synthetic signaling systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cascade Structure of Digital Predistorter for Power Amplifier Linearization

    E. B. Solovyeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a cascade structure of nonlinear digital predistorter (DPD synthesized by the direct learning adaptive algorithm is represented. DPD is used for linearization of power amplifier (PA characteristic, namely for compensation of PA nonlinear distortion. Blocks of the cascade DPD are described by different models: the functional link artificial neural network (FLANN, the polynomial perceptron network (PPN and the radially pruned Volterra model (RPVM. At synthesis of the cascade DPD there is possibility to overcome the ill conditionality problem due to reducing the dimension of DPD nonlinear operator approximation. Results of compensating nonlinear distortion in Wiener–Hammerstein model of PA at the GSM–signal with four carriers are shown. The highest accuracy of PA linearization is produced by the cascade DPD containing PPN and RPVM.

  17. Minimum Entropy-Based Cascade Control for Governing Hydroelectric Turbines

    Mifeng Ren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved cascade control strategy is presented for hydroturbine speed governors. Different from traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID control and model predictive control (MPC strategies, the performance index of the outer controller is constructed by integrating the entropy and mean value of the tracking error with the constraints on control energy. The inner controller is implemented by a proportional controller. Compared with the conventional PID-P and MPC-P cascade control methods, the proposed cascade control strategy can effectively decrease fluctuations of hydro-turbine speed under non-Gaussian disturbance conditions in practical hydropower plants. Simulation results show the advantages of the proposed cascade control method.

  18. On peculiarities of the cascade γ decay of heavy nuclei

    Boneva, S.T.; Khitrov, V.A.; Popov, Yu.P.; Sukhovoj, A.M.; Vasil'eva, E.V.; Yazvitskij, Yu.S.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of measured and calculated by statistical theory sums of two-quanta cascade intensities in compound-nuclei 163 ≤ A ≤ 183 points to the dependence of cascade intensity on the structure of initial and intermediate levels. The dependence of two-quanta cascade intensity sum on reduced neutron widths of compound states of even-even nuclei-targets of rare earth regions is detected. In 175 Yb and 179 Hf nuclei a considerable increase in the intensity of two-quanta cascades at the energy of their intermediate level in the range of the calculated position of one-quasiparticle states of the Saxon-Woods deformed potential is observed

  19. Quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopy of single cancer cells

    Patel, Imran

    2017-03-27

    Quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopy is a next generation novel imaging technique allowing high resolution spectral imaging of cells. We show after spectral pre-processing, identification of different cancer cell populations within minutes.

  20. SCC: Semantic Context Cascade for Efficient Action Detection

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba; Barrios, Wayner; Escorcia, Victor; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    in videos. Existing approaches have mitigated the computational cost, but still, these methods lack rich high-level semantics that helps them to localize the actions quickly. In this paper, we introduce a Semantic Cascade Context (SCC) model that aims

  1. Quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopy of single cancer cells

    Patel, Imran; Rajamanickam, Vijayakumar Palanisamy; Bertoncini, Andrea; Pagliari, Francesca; Tirinato, Luca; Laptenok, Sergey P.; Liberale, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Quantum cascade laser infrared spectroscopy is a next generation novel imaging technique allowing high resolution spectral imaging of cells. We show after spectral pre-processing, identification of different cancer cell populations within minutes.

  2. On periodic orbits in discrete-time cascade systems

    Huimin Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some results on existence, minimum period, number of periodic orbits, and stability of periodic orbits in discrete-time cascade systems. Some examples are presented to illustrate these results.

  3. The flow analysis of supercavitating cascade by linear theory

    Park, E.T. [Sung Kyun Kwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    In order to reduce damages due to cavitation effects and to improve performance of fluid machinery, supercavitation around the cascade and the hydraulic characteristics of supercavitating cascade must be analyzed accurately. And the study on the effects of cavitation on fluid machinery and analysis on the performances of supercavitating hydrofoil through various elements governing flow field are critically important. In this study comparison of experiment results with the computed results of linear theory using singularity method was obtainable. Specially singularity points like sources and vortexes on hydrofoil and freestreamline were distributed to analyze two dimensional flow field of supercavitating cascade, and governing equations of flow field were derived and hydraulic characteristics of cascade were calculated by numerical analysis of the governing equations. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  4. πK-scattering lengths

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths

  5. Multi Agent System Based Wide Area Protection against Cascading Events

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Leo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-agent system based wide area protection scheme is proposed in order to prevent long term voltage instability induced cascading events. The distributed relays and controllers work as a device agent which not only executes the normal function automatically but also can...... the effectiveness of proposed protection strategy. The simulation results indicate that the proposed multi agent control system can effectively coordinate the distributed relays and controllers to prevent the long term voltage instability induced cascading events....

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of displacement cascades in iron-alpha

    Vascon, R.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation damage by neutrons or ions in bcc iron has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations using an embedded atom type many-body potential (EAM). Displacement cascades with energies of 1 to 30 keV were generated in the microcanonical system where the number of atoms (up to 1.5 million) is chosen high enough to compensate the fact that the dissipation of energy is not taken into account in our model. The defect number at the end of cascade lifetime was found to be 60 percent of the NRT standard value. This tendency is in good agreement with experimental data. However, compared with other simulations in iron, we found significant differences in the defect production and distribution. The comparison with results obtained form simulations of cascades in other metals, leads on the one hand to a higher value of the defect number in bcc iron than in fcc metals like copper or nickel, and on the other hand to a ratio, between the number of replacements and the number of defects, lower in iron ( 100). We observed the transient melting of the core of the cascade during simulations. We showed that a higher value of the initial iron crystal temperature, as the mass difference between the components of an artificial binary alloy Fe-X(X=Al,Sb,Au,U) both produce a 'cascade effect': a decrease of the number of defects and an increase of the number of replacements. We also showed up the quasi-channeling of some atoms in high energy cascades. They are at the origin of sub-cascades formation; as a result they induce an opposite effect to the 'cascade effect'. (author)

  7. Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

    Barkan, A; Tittel, F K; Mittleman, D M; Dengler, R; Siegel, P H; Scalari, G; Ajili, L; Faist, J; Beere, H E; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Ritchie, D A

    2004-03-15

    We have measured the spectral linewidths of three continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers operating at terahertz frequencies by heterodyning the free-running quantum cascade laser with two far-infrared gas lasers. Beat notes are detected with a GaAs diode mixer and a microwave spectrum analyzer, permitting very precise frequency measurements and giving instantaneous linewidths of less than -30 kHz. Characteristics are also reported for frequency tuning as the injection current is varied.

  8. Noise properties and cascadability of SOA-EA regenerators

    Öhman, Filip; Bischoff, Svend; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2002-01-01

    We suggest and analyse a new device containing concatenated pairs of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and electroabsorption modulators (EAs). The device has regenerative properties and improves the cascadability of optical fibre links.......We suggest and analyse a new device containing concatenated pairs of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and electroabsorption modulators (EAs). The device has regenerative properties and improves the cascadability of optical fibre links....

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of cascade damage in gold

    Alonso, E.; Caturla, M.J.; Tang, M.; Huang, H.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.

    1997-01-01

    High-energy cascades have been simulated in gold using molecular dynamics with a modified embedded atom method potential. The results show that both vacancy and interstitial clusters form with high probability as a result of intracascade processes. The formation of clusters has been interpreted in terms of the high pressures generated in the core of the cascade during the early stages. The authors provide evidence that correlation between interstitial and vacancy clustering exists

  10. Parton-hadron cascade approach at SPS and RHIC

    Nara, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-07-01

    A parton-hadron cascade model which is the extension of hadronic cascade model incorporating hard partonic scattering based on HIJING is presented to describe the space-time evolution of parton/hadron system produced by ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Hadron yield, baryon stopping and transverse momentum distribution are calculated and compared with HIJING and VNI. Baryon density, energy density and temperature for RHIC are calculated within this model. (author)

  11. A cryogenic distillation column cascade for a fusion reactor

    Kinoshita, M.

    1984-01-01

    A cryogenic distillation column cascade composed of only two columns is proposed. Compared with the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) cascade, the tritium inventory is about 1.5 times more and the packed height of the highest column increases by about 40%. However, the number of the columns is halved with the separation performance unchanged. The number of the instruments needed and the number of the process parameters to be monitored are also reduced. Unlike in the case of the TSTA cascade, the performance of the proposed cascade is not subject to the flow rate of the neutral beam injector recycle stream. The high performance can be maintained even if the protium percentage in the raw fuel input increases significantly (e.g., from 1 to 3%), just by adjusting the flow rates of the top, bottom, and side streams. Because of this great flexibility, it is worthwhile to build and study the proposed cascade as a possible alternative to the TSTA cascade

  12. Trophic redundancy reduces vulnerability to extinction cascades.

    Sanders, Dirk; Thébault, Elisa; Kehoe, Rachel; Frank van Veen, F J

    2018-03-06

    Current species extinction rates are at unprecedentedly high levels. While human activities can be the direct cause of some extinctions, it is becoming increasingly clear that species extinctions themselves can be the cause of further extinctions, since species affect each other through the network of ecological interactions among them. There is concern that the simplification of ecosystems, due to the loss of species and ecological interactions, increases their vulnerability to such secondary extinctions. It is predicted that more complex food webs will be less vulnerable to secondary extinctions due to greater trophic redundancy that can buffer against the effects of species loss. Here, we demonstrate in a field experiment with replicated plant-insect communities, that the probability of secondary extinctions is indeed smaller in food webs that include trophic redundancy. Harvesting one species of parasitoid wasp led to secondary extinctions of other, indirectly linked, species at the same trophic level. This effect was markedly stronger in simple communities than for the same species within a more complex food web. We show that this is due to functional redundancy in the more complex food webs and confirm this mechanism with a food web simulation model by highlighting the importance of the presence and strength of trophic links providing redundancy to those links that were lost. Our results demonstrate that biodiversity loss, leading to a reduction in redundant interactions, can increase the vulnerability of ecosystems to secondary extinctions, which, when they occur, can then lead to further simplification and run-away extinction cascades. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. Cascade of negative muons in atoms

    Akylas, V.R.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of the evolution of a negative muon captured in an atom and the formalism of energy loss associated with the muonic atom. The principal goals are to calculate reliability the muon x-ray intensities, given the initial population of the muonic orbits, to invert the problem and deduce the initial distribution from the x-ray intensities, to provide a reasonably simple and convenient tool to correlate observations, and finally, to systematize some questions of theoretical interest. The early part of the history of the muon in matter, including the atomic capture and classical phase of the atomic cascade are reviewed. In the quantal treatment of the transition rates, both radiative and electron Auger transitions are considered. In general, multipolarities up to E3 and K, L, and M electronic shells are fully investigated. Multipole radiation is treated in the conventinal way and pesents no special problems. Magnetic type transitions between states with different principal quantum numbers are shown to be small. Auger electron ejection rates are more complicated and several approximations have been adopted. The basic results have been computed in terms of elemetary functions. In the Auger transitions we have shown that magnetic multipoles can be safety neglected. The relative sizes of the rates corresponding to different multipoles are systematically studied. A comparison of results is made with atomic photoelectric effect data and with the nuclear internal conversion coefficients. A general agreement is found, except around shell thresholds. The existing data of muonic x-ray intensities in iron and thallium are analyzed in a systematic way. It is found that for Fe the initial l-distribution is almost flat, whereas that for T1 is weighted towards the high l values, sharper than statistical. As a result of the investigations and in order to make our findings usable, a computer program has been developed. 36 references

  14. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    Chris Barrett

    Full Text Available In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i cellular and mesh networks, (ii transportation networks and (iii mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number

  15. Cascaded Subpatch Networks for Effective CNNs.

    Jiang, Xiaoheng; Pang, Yanwei; Sun, Manli; Li, Xuelong

    2017-05-12

    Conventional convolutional neural networks use either a linear or a nonlinear filter to extract features from an image patch (region) of spatial size Hx W (typically, H is small and is equal to W, e.g., H is 5 or 7 ). Generally, the size of the filter is equal to the size Hx W of the input patch. We argue that the representational ability of equal-size strategy is not strong enough. To overcome the drawback, we propose to use subpatch filter whose spatial size hx w is smaller than Hx W . The proposed subpatch filter consists of two subsequent filters. The first one is a linear filter of spatial size hx w and is aimed at extracting features from spatial domain. The second one is of spatial size 1x 1 and is used for strengthening the connection between different input feature channels and for reducing the number of parameters. The subpatch filter convolves with the input patch and the resulting network is called a subpatch network. Taking the output of one subpatch network as input, we further repeat constructing subpatch networks until the output contains only one neuron in spatial domain. These subpatch networks form a new network called the cascaded subpatch network (CSNet). The feature layer generated by CSNet is called the csconv layer. For the whole input image, we construct a deep neural network by stacking a sequence of csconv layers. Experimental results on five benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness and compactness of the proposed CSNet. For example, our CSNet reaches a test error of 5.68% on the CIFAR10 data set without model averaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best result ever obtained on the CIFAR10 data set.

  16. Limits of Risk Predictability in a Cascading Alternating Renewal Process Model.

    Lin, Xin; Moussawi, Alaa; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z; Szymanski, Boleslaw K

    2017-07-27

    Most risk analysis models systematically underestimate the probability and impact of catastrophic events (e.g., economic crises, natural disasters, and terrorism) by not taking into account interconnectivity and interdependence of risks. To address this weakness, we propose the Cascading Alternating Renewal Process (CARP) to forecast interconnected global risks. However, assessments of the model's prediction precision are limited by lack of sufficient ground truth data. Here, we establish prediction precision as a function of input data size by using alternative long ground truth data generated by simulations of the CARP model with known parameters. We illustrate the approach on a model of fires in artificial cities assembled from basic city blocks with diverse housing. The results confirm that parameter recovery variance exhibits power law decay as a function of the length of available ground truth data. Using CARP, we also demonstrate estimation using a disparate dataset that also has dependencies: real-world prediction precision for the global risk model based on the World Economic Forum Global Risk Report. We conclude that the CARP model is an efficient method for predicting catastrophic cascading events with potential applications to emerging local and global interconnected risks.

  17. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors.

    Xu, J; Zbijewski, W; Gang, G; Stayman, J W; Taguchi, K; Lundqvist, M; Fredenberg, E; Carrino, J A; Siewerdsen, J H

    2014-10-01

    Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1-7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f50 (spatial-frequency at which the MTF falls to a value of

  18. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W.; Taguchi, K.; Carrino, J. A.; Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f 50 (spatial-frequency at

  19. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Taguchi, K.; Carrino, J. A. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E. [Philips Healthcare, Solna 171 41 (Sweden); Siewerdsen, J. H., E-mail: jeff.siewerdsen@jhu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f{sub 50} (spatial

  20. Acoustic detection of ultra-high energy cascades in ice

    Boeser, S.

    2006-12-08

    Current underwater optical neutrino telescopes are designed to detect neutrinos from astrophysical sources with energies in the TeV range. Due to the low fluxes and small cross sections, no high energy neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin have been observed so far. Only the Cherenkov neutrino detectors on the km{sup 3} scale that are currently under construction will have the necessary volume to observe these rare interactions. For the guaranteed source of neutrinos from interactions of the ultra-high energy cosmic at EeV energies rays with the ambient cosmic microwave background, event rates of only one per year are expected in these experiments. To measure the flux and verify the predicted cross sections of these cosmogenic neutrinos, an observed volume of the order of 100 km{sup 3} will be necessary, that will not be feasible with existing detection techniques. Alternative methods are required to build a detector on these scales. One promising idea is to record the acoustic waves generated in hadronic or electromagnetic cascades following the neutrino interaction. The higher amplitudes of the sonic signal and the large expected absorption length of sound favour South Polar ice instead of sea water as a medium. The prerequisites for an estimate of the potential of such a detector are suitable acoustic sensors, a verification of the model of thermo-acoustic sound generation and a determination of the acoustic properties of the ice. In a theoretical derivation the mechanism of thermo-elastic excitation of acoustic waves was shown to be equivalent for isotropic solids and liquids. Following a detailed analysis of the existing knowledge a simulation study of a hybrid optical-radio-acoustic detector has been performed. Ultrasonic sensors dedicated to in-ice application were developed and have been used to record acoustic signals from intense proton and laser beams in water and ice. With the obtained experience, the hitherto largest array of acoustic sensors and

  1. Acoustic detection of ultra-high energy cascades in ice

    Boeser, S.

    2006-01-01

    Current underwater optical neutrino telescopes are designed to detect neutrinos from astrophysical sources with energies in the TeV range. Due to the low fluxes and small cross sections, no high energy neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin have been observed so far. Only the Cherenkov neutrino detectors on the km 3 scale that are currently under construction will have the necessary volume to observe these rare interactions. For the guaranteed source of neutrinos from interactions of the ultra-high energy cosmic at EeV energies rays with the ambient cosmic microwave background, event rates of only one per year are expected in these experiments. To measure the flux and verify the predicted cross sections of these cosmogenic neutrinos, an observed volume of the order of 100 km 3 will be necessary, that will not be feasible with existing detection techniques. Alternative methods are required to build a detector on these scales. One promising idea is to record the acoustic waves generated in hadronic or electromagnetic cascades following the neutrino interaction. The higher amplitudes of the sonic signal and the large expected absorption length of sound favour South Polar ice instead of sea water as a medium. The prerequisites for an estimate of the potential of such a detector are suitable acoustic sensors, a verification of the model of thermo-acoustic sound generation and a determination of the acoustic properties of the ice. In a theoretical derivation the mechanism of thermo-elastic excitation of acoustic waves was shown to be equivalent for isotropic solids and liquids. Following a detailed analysis of the existing knowledge a simulation study of a hybrid optical-radio-acoustic detector has been performed. Ultrasonic sensors dedicated to in-ice application were developed and have been used to record acoustic signals from intense proton and laser beams in water and ice. With the obtained experience, the hitherto largest array of acoustic sensors and transmitters was

  2. Beyond Mixing-length Theory: A Step Toward 321D

    Arnett, W. David; Meakin, Casey; Viallet, Maxime; Campbell, Simon W.; Lattanzio, John C.; Mocák, Miroslav

    2015-08-01

    We examine the physical basis for algorithms to replace mixing-length theory (MLT) in stellar evolutionary computations. Our 321D procedure is based on numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. These implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) are three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, and turbulent, including the Kolmogorov cascade. We use the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation to make concise the 3D simulation data, and use the 3D simulations to give closure for the RANS equations. We further analyze this data set with a simple analytical model, which is non-local and time-dependent, and which contains both MLT and the Lorenz convective roll as particular subsets of solutions. A characteristic length (the damping length) again emerges in the simulations; it is determined by an observed balance between (1) the large-scale driving, and (2) small-scale damping. The nature of mixing and convective boundaries is analyzed, including dynamic, thermal and compositional effects, and compared to a simple model. We find that (1) braking regions (boundary layers in which mixing occurs) automatically appear beyond the edges of convection as defined by the Schwarzschild criterion, (2) dynamic (non-local) terms imply a non-zero turbulent kinetic energy flux (unlike MLT), (3) the effects of composition gradients on flow can be comparable to thermal effects, and (4) convective boundaries in neutrino-cooled stages differ in nature from those in photon-cooled stages (different Péclet numbers). The algorithms are based upon ILES solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, so that, unlike MLT, they do not require any calibration to astronomical systems in order to predict stellar properties. Implications for solar abundances, helioseismology, asteroseismology, nucleosynthesis yields, supernova progenitors and core collapse are indicated.

  3. BEYOND MIXING-LENGTH THEORY: A STEP TOWARD 321D

    Arnett, W. David; Meakin, Casey; Viallet, Maxime; Campbell, Simon W.; Lattanzio, John C.; Mocák, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    We examine the physical basis for algorithms to replace mixing-length theory (MLT) in stellar evolutionary computations. Our 321D procedure is based on numerical solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations. These implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) are three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, and turbulent, including the Kolmogorov cascade. We use the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) formulation to make concise the 3D simulation data, and use the 3D simulations to give closure for the RANS equations. We further analyze this data set with a simple analytical model, which is non-local and time-dependent, and which contains both MLT and the Lorenz convective roll as particular subsets of solutions. A characteristic length (the damping length) again emerges in the simulations; it is determined by an observed balance between (1) the large-scale driving, and (2) small-scale damping. The nature of mixing and convective boundaries is analyzed, including dynamic, thermal and compositional effects, and compared to a simple model. We find that (1) braking regions (boundary layers in which mixing occurs) automatically appear beyond the edges of convection as defined by the Schwarzschild criterion, (2) dynamic (non-local) terms imply a non-zero turbulent kinetic energy flux (unlike MLT), (3) the effects of composition gradients on flow can be comparable to thermal effects, and (4) convective boundaries in neutrino-cooled stages differ in nature from those in photon-cooled stages (different Péclet numbers). The algorithms are based upon ILES solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations, so that, unlike MLT, they do not require any calibration to astronomical systems in order to predict stellar properties. Implications for solar abundances, helioseismology, asteroseismology, nucleosynthesis yields, supernova progenitors and core collapse are indicated

  4. Displacement cascades in a borosilicate glass: Influence of the level of polymerization on the cascade morphology

    Delaye, J.M. [Commissariata a l`Energie Atomique (CEA), Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ghaleb, D. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA), Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, BP 171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    1998-02-01

    We have performed some molecular dynamics calculations of displacement cascades in a simplified nuclear glass (SiO{sub 2} + B{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Na{sub 2}O + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + ZrO{sub 2}). We have observed that the damaged volume at the end of the collision sequence can be divided into a so called highly damaged volume and lightly damaged volume. The aim of this paper is to propose an explanation of this phenomenon by considering that some regions are easy to cross by the projectile and others are difficult to cross by the projectile. Regions which are easy to cross correspond to those containing Na atoms with a low level of polymerisation, and regions which are difficult to cross are areas containing Na atoms with a high level of polymerisation. (orig.) 14 refs.

  5. Optical cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometer hydrogen sensor based on vernier effect

    Li, Yina; Zhao, Chunliu; Xu, Ben; Wang, Dongning; Yang, Minghong

    2018-05-01

    An optical cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometer hydrogen sensor based on vernier effect has been proposed and achieved. The proposed sensor, which total length is ∼594 μm, is composed of a segment of large mode area fiber (LMAF) and a segment of hollow-core fiber (HCF). The proposed sensor is coated with the Pt-loaded WO3/SiO2 powder which will result in the increase of local temperature of the sensor head when exposed to hydrogen atmosphere. Thus the hydrogen sensor can be achieved by monitoring the change of resonant envelope wavelength. The hydrogen sensitivity is -1.04 nm/% within the range of 0 % -2.4 % which is greatly improved because of the vernier effect. The response time is ∼80 s. Due to its compact configuration, the proposed sensor provides a feasible and miniature structure to achieve detection of hydrogen.

  6. Terahertz wave polarization beam splitter using a cascaded multimode interference structure.

    Li, Jiu-sheng; Liu, Han; Zhang, Le

    2014-08-01

    A terahertz wave polarization beam splitter, based on two cascaded multimode interference structures with different widths, is designed and numerically demonstrated. The numerical calculation results show that the designed polarization beam splitter can split transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM)-polarized terahertz waves into different propagation directions with high efficiency over a frequency range from 6.40 to 6.50 THz. This polarization beam splitter shows more than a 22.06 dB extinction ratio for TE-polarization and a 31.65 dB extinction ratio for TM-polarization. Using such a polarization beam splitter, the whole length of the polarization beam splitter is reduced to about 1/12 that of a conventional design. This enables the polarization beam splitter to be used in terahertz wave integrated circuit fields.

  7. Search for tau-neutrino induced cascades in the IceCube detector

    Usner, Marcel; Kowalski, Marek [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole is a Cherenkov detector built to measure high-energy neutrinos from cosmic sources. A total volume of about one cubic kilometer of the Antarctic ice is instrumented with 5160 optical modules. A tau lepton is created in the charged current interaction of a tau neutrino with an ice nucleus. The Double Bang signature links two subsequent cascades from the hadronic interaction and the tau decay within the detection volume. It can only be resolved at the highest energies around 1 PeV where the decay length of the tau is about 50 m. The work is focused on optimizing reconstruction methods of Double Bang events incorporating the latest ice model. The goal is to measure a flavor ratio that, for the first time, is sensitive to tau neutrinos.

  8. Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser

    Kosterev, A. A.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Sivco, D. L.; Baillargeon, J. N.; Hutchinson, A. L.; Cho, A. Y.

    1999-01-01

    A quantum-cascade laser operating at a wavelength of 8.1 micrometers was used for high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy of methane (CH4). The laser frequency was continuously scanned with current over more than 3 cm-1, and absorption spectra of the CH4 nu 4 P branch were recorded. The measured laser linewidth was 50 MHz. A CH4 concentration of 15.6 parts in 10(6) ( ppm) in 50 Torr of air was measured in a 43-cm path length with +/- 0.5-ppm accuracy when the signal was averaged over 400 scans. The minimum detectable absorption in such direct absorption measurements is estimated to be 1.1 x 10(-4). The content of 13CH4 and CH3D species in a CH4 sample was determined.

  9. Detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile with a pulsed room temperature quantum cascade laser

    Manne, J.; Jäger, W.; Tulip, J.

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the use of a pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade laser centered at 957 cm-1 in combination with an astigmatic Herriot cell with 250 m path length for the detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile. These molecules have been identified as hazardous air-pollutants because of their adverse health effects. The spectrometer utilizes the intra-pulse method, where a linear frequency down-chirp, that is induced when a top-hat current pulse is applied to the laser, is used for sweeping across the absorption line. Up to 450 ns long pulses were used for these measurements which resulted in a spectral window of ~2.2 cm-1. A room temperature mercury-cadmium-telluride detector was used, resulting in a completely cryogen free spectrometer. We demonstrated detection limits of ~3 ppb for acrylonitrile and ~6 ppb for acrolein with ~10 s averaging time. Laser characterization and optimization of the operational parameters for sensitivity improvement are discussed.

  10. Some energy and angular characteristics of electrons in electromagnetic cascades in air

    Stanev, T.; Vankov, Kh.; Petrov, S.; Elbert, J. W.

    The angular distribution of electrons with threshold energies of 20 MeV (the lowest energy at which electrons radiate Cerenkov photons in the air) are considered. The results are based on Monte Carlo calculations of the development of electromagnetic cascades. A set of showers with energy thresholds equals 20 MeV and primary photon energies equals 10, 20, 30, and 100 GeV is simulated. Information about the particle properties (energy, angle, and radial displacement) is provided at each radiation length of depth. The electrons are at much smaller angles to the shower axis than were those of Messel and Crawford (1970); this explains the discrepancy in angular distribution of Cerenkov light in air between the two.

  11. Detection of benzene and toluene gases using a midinfrared continuous-wave external cavity quantum cascade laser at atmospheric pressure.

    Sydoryk, Ihor; Lim, Alan; Jäger, Wolfgang; Tulip, John; Parsons, Matthew T

    2010-02-20

    We demonstrate the application of a commercially available widely tunable continuous-wave external cavity quantum cascade laser as a spectroscopic source for the simultaneous detection of multiple gases. We measured broad absorption features of benzene and toluene between 1012 and 1063 cm(-1) (9.88 and 9.41 microm) at atmospheric pressure using an astigmatic Herriott multipass cell. Our results show experimental detection limits of 0.26 and 0.41 ppm for benzene and toluene, respectively, with a 100 m path length for these two gases.

  12. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF DISPLACEMENT CASCADES IN MOLYBDENUM

    Smith, Richard Whiting

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations have been employed to simulate displacement cascades in neutron irradiated Mo. A total of 90 simulations were conducted for PKA energies between 1 and 40 keV and temperatures from 298 to 923K. The results suggest very little effect of temperature on final defect count and configuration, but do display a temperature effect on peak defect generation prior to cascade collapse. Cascade efficiency, relative to the NRT model, is computed to lie between 1/4 and 1/3 in agreement with simulations performed on previous systems. There is a tendency for both interstitials and vacancies to cluster together following cascade collapse producing vacancy rich regions surrounded by interstitials. Although coming to rest in close proximity, the point defects comprising the clusters generally do not lie within the nearest neighbor positions of one another, except for the formation of dumbbell di-interstitials. Cascades produced at higher PKA energies (20 or 40 keV) exhibit the formation of subcascades

  13. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Jumel, Stephanie E-mail: stephanie.jumel@edf.fr; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean E-mail: jean-claude.van-duysen@edf.fr

    2004-07-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Jumel, Stéphanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean

    2004-07-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricité de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. INCAS: an analytical model to describe displacement cascades

    Jumel, Stephanie; Claude Van-Duysen, Jean

    2004-01-01

    REVE (REactor for Virtual Experiments) is an international project aimed at developing tools to simulate neutron irradiation effects in Light Water Reactor materials (Fe, Ni or Zr-based alloys). One of the important steps of the project is to characterise the displacement cascades induced by neutrons. Accordingly, the Department of Material Studies of Electricite de France developed an analytical model based on the binary collision approximation. This model, called INCAS (INtegration of CAScades), was devised to be applied on pure elements; however, it can also be used on diluted alloys (reactor pressure vessel steels, etc.) or alloys composed of atoms with close atomic numbers (stainless steels, etc.). INCAS describes displacement cascades by taking into account the nuclear collisions and electronic interactions undergone by the moving atoms. In particular, it enables to determine the mean number of sub-cascades induced by a PKA (depending on its energy) as well as the mean energy dissipated in each of them. The experimental validation of INCAS requires a large effort and could not be carried out in the framework of the study. However, it was verified that INCAS results are in conformity with those obtained from other approaches. As a first application, INCAS was applied to determine the sub-cascade spectrum induced in iron by the neutron spectrum corresponding to the central channel of the High Flux Irradiation Reactor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  16. Annealing simulation of cascade damage using MARLOWE-DAIQUIRI codes

    Muroga, Takeo

    1984-01-01

    The localization effect of the defects generated by the cascade damage on the properties of solids was studied by using a computer code. The code is based on the two-body collision approximation method and the Monte Carlo method. The MARLOWE and DAIQUIRI codes were partly improved to fit the present calculation of the annealing of cascade damage. The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of defects under the simulated reactive and irradiation condition. Calculation was made for alpha iron (BCC), and the threshold energy was set at 40 eV. The temperature dependence of annealing and the growth of a cluster were studied. The overlapping effect of cascade was studied. At first, the extreme case of overlapping was studied, then the practical cases were estimated by interpolation. The state of overlapping of cascade corresponded to the irradiation speed. The interaction between cascade and dislocations was studied, and the calculation of the annealing of primary knock-out atoms (PKA) in alpha iron was performed. At low temperature, the effect of dislocations was large, but the growth of vacancy was not seen. At high temperature, the effect of dislocations was small. The evaluation of the simulation of various ion irradiation and the growth efficiency of defects were performed. (Kato, T.)

  17. Framework for cascade size calculations on random networks

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Schweitzer, Frank

    2018-04-01

    We present a framework to calculate the cascade size evolution for a large class of cascade models on random network ensembles in the limit of infinite network size. Our method is exact and applies to network ensembles with almost arbitrary degree distribution, degree-degree correlations, and, in case of threshold models, for arbitrary threshold distribution. With our approach, we shift the perspective from the known branching process approximations to the iterative update of suitable probability distributions. Such distributions are key to capture cascade dynamics that involve possibly continuous quantities and that depend on the cascade history, e.g., if load is accumulated over time. As a proof of concept, we provide two examples: (a) Constant load models that cover many of the analytically tractable casacade models, and, as a highlight, (b) a fiber bundle model that was not tractable by branching process approximations before. Our derivations cover the whole cascade dynamics, not only their steady state. This allows us to include interventions in time or further model complexity in the analysis.

  18. Cascades and Dissipative Anomalies in Compressible Fluid Turbulence

    Gregory L. Eyink

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate dissipative anomalies in a turbulent fluid governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equation. We follow an exact approach pioneered by Onsager, which we explain as a nonperturbative application of the principle of renormalization-group invariance. In the limit of high Reynolds and Péclet numbers, the flow realizations are found to be described as distributional or “coarse-grained” solutions of the compressible Euler equations, with standard conservation laws broken by turbulent anomalies. The anomalous dissipation of kinetic energy is shown to be due not only to local cascade but also to a distinct mechanism called pressure-work defect. Irreversible heating in stationary, planar shocks with an ideal-gas equation of state exemplifies the second mechanism. Entropy conservation anomalies are also found to occur via two mechanisms: an anomalous input of negative entropy (negentropy by pressure work and a cascade of negentropy to small scales. We derive “4/5th-law”-type expressions for the anomalies, which allow us to characterize the singularities (structure-function scaling exponents required to sustain the cascades. We compare our approach with alternative theories and empirical evidence. It is argued that the “Big Power Law in the Sky” observed in electron density scintillations in the interstellar medium is a manifestation of a forward negentropy cascade or an inverse cascade of usual thermodynamic entropy.

  19. Cascades and Dissipative Anomalies in Compressible Fluid Turbulence

    Eyink, Gregory L.; Drivas, Theodore D.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate dissipative anomalies in a turbulent fluid governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equation. We follow an exact approach pioneered by Onsager, which we explain as a nonperturbative application of the principle of renormalization-group invariance. In the limit of high Reynolds and Péclet numbers, the flow realizations are found to be described as distributional or "coarse-grained" solutions of the compressible Euler equations, with standard conservation laws broken by turbulent anomalies. The anomalous dissipation of kinetic energy is shown to be due not only to local cascade but also to a distinct mechanism called pressure-work defect. Irreversible heating in stationary, planar shocks with an ideal-gas equation of state exemplifies the second mechanism. Entropy conservation anomalies are also found to occur via two mechanisms: an anomalous input of negative entropy (negentropy) by pressure work and a cascade of negentropy to small scales. We derive "4 /5 th-law"-type expressions for the anomalies, which allow us to characterize the singularities (structure-function scaling exponents) required to sustain the cascades. We compare our approach with alternative theories and empirical evidence. It is argued that the "Big Power Law in the Sky" observed in electron density scintillations in the interstellar medium is a manifestation of a forward negentropy cascade or an inverse cascade of usual thermodynamic entropy.

  20. Critical assessment and ramifications of a purported marine trophic cascade

    Grubbs, R. Dean; Carlson, John K; Romine, Jason G.; Curtis, Tobey H; McElroy, W. David; McCandless, Camilla T; Cotton, Charles F; Musick, John A.

    2016-01-01

    When identifying potential trophic cascades, it is important to clearly establish the trophic linkages between predators and prey with respect to temporal abundance, demographics, distribution, and diet. In the northwest Atlantic Ocean, the depletion of large coastal sharks was thought to trigger a trophic cascade whereby predation release resulted in increased cownose ray abundance, which then caused increased predation on and subsequent collapse of commercial bivalve stocks. These claims were used to justify the development of a predator-control fishery for cownose rays, the “Save the Bay, Eat a Ray” fishery, to reduce predation on commercial bivalves. A reexamination of data suggests declines in large coastal sharks did not coincide with purported rapid increases in cownose ray abundance. Likewise, the increase in cownose ray abundance did not coincide with declines in commercial bivalves. The lack of temporal correlations coupled with published diet data suggest the purported trophic cascade is lacking the empirical linkages required of a trophic cascade. Furthermore, the life history parameters of cownose rays suggest they have low reproductive potential and their populations are incapable of rapid increases. Hypothesized trophic cascades should be closely scrutinized as spurious conclusions may negatively influence conservation and management decisions.

  1. A period-doubling cascade precedes chaos for planar maps.

    Sander, Evelyn; Yorke, James A

    2013-09-01

    A period-doubling cascade is often seen in numerical studies of those smooth (one-parameter families of) maps for which as the parameter is varied, the map transitions from one without chaos to one with chaos. Our emphasis in this paper is on establishing the existence of such a cascade for many maps with phase space dimension 2. We use continuation methods to show the following: under certain general assumptions, if at one parameter there are only finitely many periodic orbits, and at another parameter value there is chaos, then between those two parameter values there must be a cascade. We investigate only families that are generic in the sense that all periodic orbit bifurcations are generic. Our method of proof in showing there is one cascade is to show there must be infinitely many cascades. We discuss in detail two-dimensional families like those which arise as a time-2π maps for the Duffing equation and the forced damped pendulum equation.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of temperature effects on low energy near-surface cascades and surface damage in Cu

    Zhu, Guo; Sun, Jiangping; Guo, Xiongxiong; Zou, Xixi; Zhang, Libin; Gan, Zhiyin

    2017-06-01

    The temperature effects on near-surface cascades and surface damage in Cu(0 0 1) surface under 500 eV argon ion bombardment were studied using molecular dynamics (MD) method. In present MD model, substrate system was fully relaxed for 1 ns and a read-restart scheme was introduced to save total computation time. The temperature dependence of damage production was calculated. The evolution of near-surface cascades and spatial distribution of adatoms at varying temperature were analyzed and compared. It was found that near-surface vacancies increased with temperature, which was mainly due to the fact that more atoms initially located in top two layers became adatoms with the decrease of surface binding energy. Moreover, with the increase of temperature, displacement cascades altered from channeling-like structure to branching structure, and the length of collision sequence decreased gradually, because a larger portion of energy of primary knock-on atom (PKA) was scattered out of focused chain. Furthermore, increasing temperature reduced the anisotropy of distribution of adatoms, which can be ascribed to that regular registry of surface lattice atoms was changed with the increase of thermal vibration amplitude of surface atoms.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of temperature effects on low energy near-surface cascades and surface damage in Cu

    Zhu, Guo; Sun, Jiangping; Guo, Xiongxiong; Zou, Xixi; Zhang, Libin; Gan, Zhiyin, E-mail: ganzhiyin@126.com

    2017-06-15

    The temperature effects on near-surface cascades and surface damage in Cu(0 0 1) surface under 500 eV argon ion bombardment were studied using molecular dynamics (MD) method. In present MD model, substrate system was fully relaxed for 1 ns and a read-restart scheme was introduced to save total computation time. The temperature dependence of damage production was calculated. The evolution of near-surface cascades and spatial distribution of adatoms at varying temperature were analyzed and compared. It was found that near-surface vacancies increased with temperature, which was mainly due to the fact that more atoms initially located in top two layers became adatoms with the decrease of surface binding energy. Moreover, with the increase of temperature, displacement cascades altered from channeling-like structure to branching structure, and the length of collision sequence decreased gradually, because a larger portion of energy of primary knock-on atom (PKA) was scattered out of focused chain. Furthermore, increasing temperature reduced the anisotropy of distribution of adatoms, which can be ascribed to that regular registry of surface lattice atoms was changed with the increase of thermal vibration amplitude of surface atoms.

  4. Cascaded Photoenhancement: Implications for Photonic Chemical and Biological Sensors

    Fuller, Kirk A.; Smith, David D.

    2006-01-01

    Our analysis shows that coupling of gold nanoparticles to microspheres will evoke a cascading effect from the respective photoenhancement mechanisms. We refer to this amplification process as cascaded photoenhancement, and the resulting cavity amplification of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence as CASERS and CAF, respectively. Calculations, based on modal analysis of scattering and absorption by compound spheres, presented herein indicate that the absorption cross sections of metal nanoparticles immobilized onto dielectric microspheres can be greatly enhanced by cavity resonances in the microspheres without significant degradation of the resonators. Gain factors associated with CSP of 10(exp 3) - 10(exp 4) are predicted for realistic experimental conditions using homogenous microspheres. Cascaded surface photoenhancement thus has the potential of dramatically increasing the sensitivities of fluorescence and vibrational spectroscopies.

  5. Cascade: a review of heat transport and plant design issues

    Murray, K.A.; McDowell, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual heat transfer loop for Cascade, a centrifugal-action solid-breeder reaction chamber, has been investigated and results are presented. The Cascade concept, a double-cone-shaped reaction chamber, rotates along its horizontal axis. Solid Li 2 O or other lithium-ceramic granules are injected tangentially through each end of the chamber. The granules cascade axially from the smaller radii at the ends to the larger radius at the center, where they are ejected into a stationary granule catcher. Heat and tritium are then removed from the granules and the granules are reinjected into the chamber. A 50% dense Li 2 O granule throughput of 2.8 m 3 /s is transferred from the reaction chamber to the steam generators via continuous bucket elevators. The granules then fall by gravity through 4 vertical steam generators. The entire transport system is maintained at the same vacuum conditions present inside the reaction chamber

  6. Optimization Control of Bidirectional Cascaded DC-AC Converter Systems

    Tian, Yanjun

    in bidirectional cascaded converter. This research work analyses the control strategies based on the topology of dual active bridges converter cascaded with a three phase inverter. It firstly proposed a dc link voltage and active power coordinative control method for this cascaded topology, and it can reduce dc....... The connections of the renewable energy sources to the power system are mostly through the power electronic converters. Moreover, for high controllability and flexibility, power electronic devices are gradually acting as the interface between different networks in power systems, promoting conventional power...... the bidirectional power flow in the distribution level of power systems. Therefore direct contact of converters introduces significant uncertainties to power system, especially for the stability and reliability. This dissertation studies the optimization control of the two stages directly connected converters...

  7. Bearing-Only Formation Control for Cascade Multirobots

    Qing Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formation control method is proposed, which is used to queue multirobots in a single-direction cascade structure. In the cascade formation, each robot is a follower for the previous robot and a leader for the next robot, and the robots in the middle act as both leader and follower. The follower robot can only observe the bearing information of the leader robot. The observability of the cascade leader-follower formation is studied, which shows that the bearing-only observation meets the observability conditions required for the nonlinear system. Based on the bearing-only observations, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF is employed for the state estimation of the leader and the follower robots at all levels, which enables the real-time movement control of the follower robots via the input-output feedback control. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can efficiently control the formation of multirobots as desired.

  8. Substrate-driven chemotactic assembly in an enzyme cascade

    Zhao, Xi; Palacci, Henri; Yadav, Vinita; Spiering, Michelle M.; Gilson, Michael K.; Butler, Peter J.; Hess, Henry; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Sen, Ayusman

    2018-03-01

    Enzymatic catalysis is essential to cell survival. In many instances, enzymes that participate in reaction cascades have been shown to assemble into metabolons in response to the presence of the substrate for the first enzyme. However, what triggers metabolon formation has remained an open question. Through a combination of theory and experiments, we show that enzymes in a cascade can assemble via chemotaxis. We apply microfluidic and fluorescent spectroscopy techniques to study the coordinated movement of the first four enzymes of the glycolysis cascade: hexokinase, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase and aldolase. We show that each enzyme independently follows its own specific substrate gradient, which in turn is produced by the preceding enzymatic reaction. Furthermore, we find that the chemotactic assembly of enzymes occurs even under cytosolic crowding conditions.

  9. Correlation Scales of the Turbulent Cascade at 1 au

    Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Coburn, Jesse T.; Forman, Miriam A.; Stawarz, Julia E.

    2018-05-01

    We examine correlation functions of the mixed, third-order expressions that, when ensemble-averaged, describe the cascade of energy in the inertial range of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Unlike the correlation function of primitive variables such as the magnetic field, solar wind velocity, temperature, and density, the third-order expressions decorrelate at a scale that is approximately 20% of the lag. This suggests the nonlinear dynamics decorrelate in less than one wavelength. Therefore, each scale can behave differently from one wavelength to the next. In the same manner, different scales within the inertial range can behave independently at any given time or location. With such a cascade that can be strongly patchy and highly variable, it is often possible to obtain negative cascade rates for short periods of time, as reported earlier for individual samples of data.

  10. Investigation of cascade effect failure for tungsten armour

    Makhankov, A.; Barabash, V.; Berkhov, N.; Divavin, V.; Giniatullin, R.; Grigoriev, S.; Ibbott, C.; Komarov, V.; Labusov, A.; Mazul, I.; McDonald, J.; Tanchuk, V.; Youchison, D.

    2001-01-01

    The glancing angle of incident power on the target of a tokamak divertor results in doubled and highly peaked heat flux onto adjacent downstream tile in the case of lost of tile event (LOTE). As a result downstream tile has higher probability to fail resulting in triple loads to the next downstream tile and so on (cascade effect). This paper devoted to analytical and experimental investigation of the cascade effect failure for the flat tile option of tungsten armoured plasma facing components. Armour geometry resistant to the cascade effect failure was selected on the base of thermal and stress analyses. Experimental investigation of the LOTE has been performed also. Small size W/Cu mock-up withstood not only LOTE simulation load, but also survived afterwards for 1500 cycles at 26-28 MW/m 2 without damage in joint

  11. Cascaded bidirectional recurrent neural networks for protein secondary structure prediction.

    Chen, Jinmiao; Chaudhari, Narendra

    2007-01-01

    Protein secondary structure (PSS) prediction is an important topic in bioinformatics. Our study on a large set of non-homologous proteins shows that long-range interactions commonly exist and negatively affect PSS prediction. Besides, we also reveal strong correlations between secondary structure (SS) elements. In order to take into account the long-range interactions and SS-SS correlations, we propose a novel prediction system based on cascaded bidirectional recurrent neural network (BRNN). We compare the cascaded BRNN against another two BRNN architectures, namely the original BRNN architecture used for speech recognition as well as Pollastri's BRNN that was proposed for PSS prediction. Our cascaded BRNN achieves an overall three state accuracy Q3 of 74.38\\%, and reaches a high Segment OVerlap (SOV) of 66.0455. It outperforms the original BRNN and Pollastri's BRNN in both Q3 and SOV. Specifically, it improves the SOV score by 4-6%.

  12. Process Evaluation Tools for Enzymatic Cascades Welcome Message

    Abu, Rohana

    improvement and implementation. Hence, the goal of this thesis is to evaluate the process concepts in enzymatic cascades in a systematic manner, using tools such as thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. Three relevant case studies have been used to exemplify the approach. In the first case study, thermodynamic......Biocatalysis is attracting significant attention from both academic and industrial scientists due to the excellent capability of enzyme to catalyse selective reactions. Recently, much interest has been shown in the application of enzymatic cascades as a useful tool in organic synthesis......, the kinetics can be controlled in a highly efficient way to achieve a sufficiently favourable conversion to a given target product. This is exemplified in the second case study, in the kinetic modelling of the formation of 2-ketoglutarate from glucoronate, the second case study. This cascade consists of 4...

  13. Electron cascades in sensors for optical detection of ionizing radiation

    London, Richard A.; Lowry, Mark E.; Vernon, Stephen P.; Stewart, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    A new class of high-speed detectors, called RadOptic detectors, measures ionizing radiation incident on a transparent semiconductor by sensing changes in the refractive index with an optical probe beam. We describe the role of radiation-initiated electron cascades in setting the sensitivity and the spatial and temporal resolution of RadOptic detectors. We model electron cascades with both analytical and Monte Carlo computational methods. We find that the timescale for the development of an electron cascade is less than of order 100 fs and is not expected to affect the time response of a detector. The characteristic size of the electron cloud is typically less than 2 μm, enabling high spatial resolution in imaging systems. The electron-hole pair density created by single x-rays is much smaller than the saturation density and, therefore, single events should not saturate the detector

  14. Spectrally high performing quantum cascade lasers

    Toor, Fatima

    Quantum cascade (QC) lasers are versatile semiconductor light sources that can be engineered to emit light of almost any wavelength in the mid- to far-infrared (IR) and terahertz region from 3 to 300 mum [1-5]. Furthermore QC laser technology in the mid-IR range has great potential for applications in environmental, medical and industrial trace gas sensing [6-10] since several chemical vapors have strong rovibrational frequencies in this range and are uniquely identifiable by their absorption spectra through optical probing of absorption and transmission. Therefore, having a wide range of mid-IR wavelengths in a single QC laser source would greatly increase the specificity of QC laser-based spectroscopic systems, and also make them more compact and field deployable. This thesis presents work on several different approaches to multi-wavelength QC laser sources that take advantage of band-structure engineering and the uni-polar nature of QC lasers. Also, since for chemical sensing, lasers with narrow linewidth are needed, work is presented on a single mode distributed feedback (DFB) QC laser. First, a compact four-wavelength QC laser source, which is based on a 2-by-2 module design, with two waveguides having QC laser stacks for two different emission wavelengths each, one with 7.0 mum/11.2 mum, and the other with 8.7 mum/12.0 mum is presented. This is the first design of a four-wavelength QC laser source with widely different emission wavelengths that uses minimal optics and electronics. Second, since there are still several unknown factors that affect QC laser performance, results on a first ever study conducted to determine the effects of waveguide side-wall roughness on QC laser performance using the two-wavelength waveguides is presented. The results are consistent with Rayleigh scattering effects in the waveguides, with roughness effecting shorter wavelengths more than longer wavelengths. Third, a versatile time-multiplexed multi-wavelength QC laser system that

  15. Node vulnerability of water distribution networks under cascading failures

    Shuang, Qing; Zhang, Mingyuan; Yuan, Yongbo

    2014-01-01

    Water distribution networks (WDNs) are important in modern lifeline system. Its stability and reliability are critical for guaranteeing high living quality and continuous operation of urban functions. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the nodal vulnerability of WDNs under cascading failures. Vulnerability is defined to analyze the effects of the consequent failures. A cascading failure is a step-by-step process which is quantitatively investigated by numerical simulation with intentional attack. Monitored pressures in different nodes and flows in different pipes have been used to estimate the network topological structure and the consequences of nodal failure. Based on the connectivity loss of topological structure, the nodal vulnerability has been evaluated. A load variation function is established to record the nodal failure reason and describe the relative differences between the load and the capacity. The proposed method is validated by an illustrative example. The results revealed that the network vulnerability should be evaluated with the consideration of hydraulic analysis and network topology. In the case study, 70.59% of the node failures trigger the cascading failures with different failure processes. It is shown that the cascading failures result in severe consequences in WDNs. - Highlights: • The aim of this paper is to evaluate the nodal vulnerability of water distribution networks under cascading failures. • Monitored pressures and flows have been used to estimate the network topological structure and the consequences of nodal failure. • Based on the connectivity loss of topological structure, the nodal vulnerability has been evaluated. • A load variation function is established to record the failure reason and describe the relative differences between load and capacity. • The results show that 70.59% of the node failures trigger the cascading failures with different failure processes

  16. Dynamics of homogeneous shear turbulence: A key role of the nonlinear transverse cascade in the bypass concept

    Mamatsashvili, G.; Khujadze, G.; Chagelishvili, G.; Dong, S.; Jiménez, J.; Foysi, H.

    2016-08-01

    To understand the mechanism of the self-sustenance of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable (constant) shear flows, we performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear turbulence for different aspect ratios of the flow domain with subsequent analysis of the dynamical processes in spectral or Fourier space. There are no exponentially growing modes in such flows and the turbulence is energetically supported only by the linear growth of Fourier harmonics of perturbations due to the shear flow non-normality. This non-normality-induced growth, also known as nonmodal growth, is anisotropic in spectral space, which, in turn, leads to anisotropy of nonlinear processes in this space. As a result, a transverse (angular) redistribution of harmonics in Fourier space is the main nonlinear process in these flows, rather than direct or inverse cascades. We refer to this type of nonlinear redistribution as the nonlinear transverse cascade. It is demonstrated that the turbulence is sustained by a subtle interplay between the linear nonmodal growth and the nonlinear transverse cascade. This course of events reliably exemplifies a well-known bypass scenario of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable shear flows. These two basic processes mainly operate at large length scales, comparable to the domain size. Therefore, this central, small wave number area of Fourier space is crucial in the self-sustenance; we defined its size and labeled it as the vital area of turbulence. Outside the vital area, the nonmodal growth and the transverse cascade are of secondary importance: Fourier harmonics are transferred to dissipative scales by the nonlinear direct cascade. Although the cascades and the self-sustaining process of turbulence are qualitatively the same at different aspect ratios, the number of harmonics actively participating in this process (i.e., the harmonics whose energies grow more than 10% of the maximum spectral energy at least once during evolution) varies

  17. Dynamics of homogeneous shear turbulence: A key role of the nonlinear transverse cascade in the bypass concept.

    Mamatsashvili, G; Khujadze, G; Chagelishvili, G; Dong, S; Jiménez, J; Foysi, H

    2016-08-01

    To understand the mechanism of the self-sustenance of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable (constant) shear flows, we performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous shear turbulence for different aspect ratios of the flow domain with subsequent analysis of the dynamical processes in spectral or Fourier space. There are no exponentially growing modes in such flows and the turbulence is energetically supported only by the linear growth of Fourier harmonics of perturbations due to the shear flow non-normality. This non-normality-induced growth, also known as nonmodal growth, is anisotropic in spectral space, which, in turn, leads to anisotropy of nonlinear processes in this space. As a result, a transverse (angular) redistribution of harmonics in Fourier space is the main nonlinear process in these flows, rather than direct or inverse cascades. We refer to this type of nonlinear redistribution as the nonlinear transverse cascade. It is demonstrated that the turbulence is sustained by a subtle interplay between the linear nonmodal growth and the nonlinear transverse cascade. This course of events reliably exemplifies a well-known bypass scenario of subcritical turbulence in spectrally stable shear flows. These two basic processes mainly operate at large length scales, comparable to the domain size. Therefore, this central, small wave number area of Fourier space is crucial in the self-sustenance; we defined its size and labeled it as the vital area of turbulence. Outside the vital area, the nonmodal growth and the transverse cascade are of secondary importance: Fourier harmonics are transferred to dissipative scales by the nonlinear direct cascade. Although the cascades and the self-sustaining process of turbulence are qualitatively the same at different aspect ratios, the number of harmonics actively participating in this process (i.e., the harmonics whose energies grow more than 10% of the maximum spectral energy at least once during evolution) varies

  18. Modeling of Bit Error Rate in Cascaded 2R Regenerators

    Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    and the regenerating nonlinearity is investigated. It is shown that an increase in nonlinearity can compensate for an increase in noise figure or decrease in signal power. Furthermore, the influence of the improvement in signal extinction ratio along the cascade and the importance of choosing the proper threshold......This paper presents a simple and efficient model for estimating the bit error rate in a cascade of optical 2R-regenerators. The model includes the influences of of amplifier noise, finite extinction ratio and nonlinear reshaping. The interplay between the different signal impairments...

  19. Dirhodium(II Carbenes : The Chiral Product Cascade

    Gregory H. P. Roos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed enormous growth in the spectrum of highly efficient asymmetric synthetic transformations. One prominent example of this progress is the application of dirhodium (II carbenes generated from diazo- precursors. Innovative construction of ‘designer’ catalysts has played a integral role in extending the breadth of the synthetic cascade of non-racemic products now available through the range of cyclopropanation, C-X insertion, aromatic cycloaddition-rearrangement, and ylide-based reaction types. This review deals briefly with an overview of the important catalytic systems and maintains as its primary focus the cascade of diverse optically enriched products that flow from their applications.

  20. Bright, dark and singular optical solitons in a cascaded system

    Zhou, Qin; Zhu, Qiuping; Yu, Hua; Liu, Yaxian; Wei, Chun; Yao, Ping; Bhrawy, Ali H; Biswas, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    This work studies nonlinear dynamics of optical solitons in a cascaded system with Kerr law nonlinearity and spatio-temporal dispersion. The mathematical model that describes the propagation of optical solitons through a cascaded system is given by the vector-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is investigated analytically using three integration algorithms. The Jacobian elliptic equation expansion method, Bernoulli equation expansion approach and Riccati equation expansion scheme are the integration tools of this model that are recruited to extract singular, bright and dark solitons. The restrictions that need to hold for the existence of these solitons are derived. (paper)

  1. Planning of cascade stations on the Maotiao He detailed

    Guan, W

    1984-09-20

    Details of the hydroelectric power stations on the Maotiao He cascades and examples of how some problems were resolved begin with a description of the river basin survey for topographical features, hydrometeorological conditions, and geological conditions. The river characteristics survey was the basis for planning the cascade power stations and the selection of installed capacity at each station. The review also covers discharge and flood control planning based on rainfall data and the composition of flood areas. The overall development program emphasizes power generation, but also includes irrigation, industrial water supply, and tourism. 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. Cascade: a high-efficiency ICF power reactor

    Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Cascade attains a net power-plant efficiency of 49% and its cost is competitive with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, pressurized-water reactor, and coal-fired power plants. The Cascade reactor and blanket are made of ceramic materials and activation is 6 times less than that of the MARS Tandem Mirror Reactor operating at comparable power. Hands-on maintenance of the heat exchangers is possible one day after shutdown. Essentially all tritium is recovered in the vacuum system, with the remainder recovered from the helium power conversion loop. Tritium leakage external to the vacuum system and power conversion loop is only 0.03 Ci/d

  3. Major disruptions, inverse cascades, and the Strauss equations

    Montgomery, D.

    1982-01-01

    Current-carrying plasmas in a strong dc magnetic field are subject to violent disruptions above certain thresholds. At present difficult to verify, explanations are typically sought in terms of tearing modes. An alternative explanation is in terms of inverse magnetic helicity cascades, generated from a variety of possible sources of small-scale MHD turbulence. Strongly anisotropic MHD plasmas may be described by the Strauss equations. Indications of turbulent inverse cascade behavior for the Strauss equations are sought, in parallel with earlier examples from MHD and fluid mechanics

  4. Special Issue ;Sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems;

    Morche, David; Krautblatter, Michael; Beylich, Achim A.

    2017-06-01

    This Editorial introduces the Special Issue on sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems that evolved from the eighth I.A.G./A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments; http://www.geomorph.org/sedibud-working-group/) workshop. The workshop was held from 1st to 4th September 2014 at the Environmental Research Station ;Schneefernerhaus; (http://www.schneefernerhaus.de/en/home.html) located at Mt. Zugspitze, the highest peak of Germany, (2962 m asl). Paper and poster presentations focused on observations, measurements and modeling of geomorphological processes in sediment cascades in cold climate geosystems. This resulting Special Issue brings together ten selected contributions from arctic and alpine environments.

  5. Identification of cascade water tanks using a PWARX model

    Mattsson, Per; Zachariah, Dave; Stoica, Petre

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we consider the identification of a discrete-time nonlinear dynamical model for a cascade water tank process. The proposed method starts with a nominal linear dynamical model of the system, and proceeds to model its prediction errors using a model that is piecewise affine in the data. As data is observed, the nominal model is refined into a piecewise ARX model which can capture a wide range of nonlinearities, such as the saturation in the cascade tanks. The proposed method uses a likelihood-based methodology which adaptively penalizes model complexity and directly leads to a computationally efficient implementation.

  6. Common and uncommon pathogenic cascades in lysosomal storage diseases.

    Vitner, Einat B; Platt, Frances M; Futerman, Anthony H

    2010-07-02

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), of which about 50 are known, are caused by the defective activity of lysosomal proteins, resulting in accumulation of unmetabolized substrates. As a result, a variety of pathogenic cascades are activated such as altered calcium homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, altered lipid trafficking, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autoimmune responses. Some of these pathways are common to many LSDs, whereas others are only altered in a subset of LSDs. We now review how these cascades impact upon LSD pathology and suggest how intervention in the pathways may lead to novel therapeutic approaches.

  7. On the trajectories of CRL...LR...R orbits, their period-doubling cascades and saddle-node bifurcation cascades

    Cerrada, Lucia; San Martin, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, it is shown that from a two region partition of the phase space of a one-dimensional dynamical system, a p-region partition can be obtained for the CRL...LR...R orbits. That is, permutations associated with symbolic sequences are obtained. As a consequence, the trajectory in phase space is directly deduced from permutation. From this permutation other permutations associated with period-doubling and saddle-node bifurcation cascades are derived, as well as other composite permutations. - Research highlights: → Symbolic sequences are the usual topological approach to dynamical systems. → Permutations bear more physical information than symbolic sequences. → Period-doubling cascade permutations associated with original sequences are obtained. → Saddle-node cascade permutations associated with original sequences are obtained. → Composite permutations are derived.

  8. Displacement cascades and defect annealing in tungsten, Part II: Object kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of tungsten cascade aging

    Nandipati, Giridhar, E-mail: giridhar.nandipati@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Setyawan, Wahyu; Heinisch, Howard L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Roche, Kenneth J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Kurtz, Richard J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The results of object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations of the annealing of primary cascade damage in bulk tungsten using a comprehensive database of cascades obtained from molecular dynamics (Setyawan et al.) are described as a function of primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy at temperatures of 300, 1025 and 2050 K. An increase in SIA clustering coupled with a decrease in vacancy clustering with increasing temperature, in addition to the disparate mobilities of SIAs versus vacancies, causes an interesting effect of temperature on cascade annealing. The annealing efficiency (the ratio of the number of defects after and before annealing) exhibits an inverse U-shape curve as a function of temperature. The capabilities of the newly developed OKMC code KSOME (kinetic simulations of microstructure evolution) used to carry out these simulations are described.

  9. Displacement cascades and defect annealing in tungsten, Part II: Object kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Tungsten Cascade Aging

    Nandipati, Giridhar; Setyawan, Wahyu; Heinisch, Howard L.; Roche, Kenneth J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2015-07-01

    The results of object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations of the annealing of primary cascade damage in bulk tungsten using a comprehensive database of cascades obtained from molecular dynamics (Setyawan et al.) are described as a function of primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy at temperatures of 300, 1025 and 2050 K. An increase in SIA clustering coupled with a decrease in vacancy clustering with increasing temperature, in addition to the disparate mobilities of SIAs versus vacancies, causes an interesting effect of temperature on cascade annealing. The annealing efficiency (the ratio of the number of defects after and before annealing) exhibits an inverse U-shape curve as a function of temperature. The capabilities of the newly developed OKMC code KSOME (kinetic simulations of microstructure evolution) used to carry out these simulations are described.

  10. Interrelation of structure and operational states in cascading failure of overloading lines in power grids

    Xue, Fei; Bompard, Ettore; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Lin; Lu, Shaofeng; Zhu, Huaiying

    2017-09-01

    As the modern power system is expected to develop to a more intelligent and efficient version, i.e. the smart grid, or to be the central backbone of energy internet for free energy interactions, security concerns related to cascading failures have been raised with consideration of catastrophic results. The researches of topological analysis based on complex networks have made great contributions in revealing structural vulnerabilities of power grids including cascading failure analysis. However, existing literature with inappropriate assumptions in modeling still cannot distinguish the effects between the structure and operational state to give meaningful guidance for system operation. This paper is to reveal the interrelation between network structure and operational states in cascading failure and give quantitative evaluation by integrating both perspectives. For structure analysis, cascading paths will be identified by extended betweenness and quantitatively described by cascading drop and cascading gradient. Furthermore, the operational state for cascading paths will be described by loading level. Then, the risk of cascading failure along a specific cascading path can be quantitatively evaluated considering these two factors. The maximum cascading gradient of all possible cascading paths can be used as an overall metric to evaluate the entire power grid for its features related to cascading failure. The proposed method is tested and verified on IEEE30-bus system and IEEE118-bus system, simulation evidences presented in this paper suggests that the proposed model can identify the structural causes for cascading failure and is promising to give meaningful guidance for the protection of system operation in the future.

  11. Cascades on a stochastic pulse-coupled network

    Wray, C. M.; Bishop, S. R.

    2014-09-01

    While much recent research has focused on understanding isolated cascades of networks, less attention has been given to dynamical processes on networks exhibiting repeated cascades of opposing influence. An example of this is the dynamic behaviour of financial markets where cascades of buying and selling can occur, even over short timescales. To model these phenomena, a stochastic pulse-coupled oscillator network with upper and lower thresholds is described and analysed. Numerical confirmation of asynchronous and synchronous regimes of the system is presented, along with analytical identification of the fixed point state vector of the asynchronous mean field system. A lower bound for the finite system mean field critical value of network coupling probability is found that separates the asynchronous and synchronous regimes. For the low-dimensional mean field system, a closed-form equation is found for cascade size, in terms of the network coupling probability. Finally, a description of how this model can be applied to interacting agents in a financial market is provided.

  12. Neutron spallation source and the Dubna Cascade Code

    nuclear cascade and includes all those ... by numerous elastic nuclear collisions up to a very low energy. At the same time in. 470 ..... in table 6 that at low incident energy, major heat contribution comes from the ionization process. For example, it ...

  13. Network protection against worms and cascading failures using modularity partitioning

    Omic, J.; Hernandez, J.M.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    Communication networks are prone to virus and worms spreading and cascading failures. Recently, a number of social networking worms have spread over public Web sites. Another example is error propagation in routing tables, such as in BGP tables. The immunization and error curing applied to these

  14. Plasma flow in a pressure pulsed argon cascade arc

    de Haas, J.C.M.; Bol, L.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Timmermans, C.J.; Timmermans, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Flowing thermal plasmas are frequently used e . g. in welding, cutting, plasma deposition and testing materials at high temperatures . In most of the applications the geometry is complex . In the cascade arc the argon plasma flows through a straight circular channel with a constant area. The study

  15. Efficient cascade multiple heterojunction organic solar cells with inverted structure

    Guo, Tingting; Li, Mingtao; Qiao, Zhenfang; Yu, Leiming; Zhao, Jianhong; Feng, Nianjun; Shi, Peiguang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Pu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Hai

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an efficient cascade multiple heterojunction organic solar cell with inverted structure. By using two donor materials, poly(3-hexylthiosphene) (P3HT) and titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as well as two acceptor materials, [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and C60, the cascade multiple heterojunctions of P3HT:PCBM/TiOPc:C60/C60 have been constructed. Applying the optimized inverted configuration of FTO/Zinc Tin Oxide (ZTO)/C60 (30 nm)/TiOPc:C60 (1:1.5, 25 nm)/P3HT:PCBM (1:0.8, 100 nm)/MoO3 (4 nm)/Ag, the considerably enhanced open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current (JSC) can be harvested together, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is three times higher than that of the control cell with conventional structure. The significant improvements of the inverted cell are mostly due to the broadened spectral absorption and high efficient multi-interface exciton dissociation in the cascade multiple heterojunctions, indicating that the optimized cascade heterojunctions match the inverted structure well.

  16. DNA binding properties of the small cascade subunit Csa5.

    Michael Daume

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems provide immunity against viral attacks in archaeal and bacterial cells. Type I systems employ a Cas protein complex termed Cascade, which utilizes small CRISPR RNAs to detect and degrade the exogenic DNA. A small sequence motif, the PAM, marks the foreign substrates. Previously, a recombinant type I-A Cascade complex from the archaeon Thermoproteus tenax was shown to target and degrade DNA in vitro, dependent on a native PAM sequence. Here, we present the biochemical analysis of the small subunit, Csa5, of this Cascade complex. T. tenax Csa5 preferentially bound ssDNA and mutants that showed decreased ssDNA-binding and reduced Cascade-mediated DNA cleavage were identified. Csa5 oligomerization prevented DNA binding. Specific recognition of the PAM sequence was not observed. Phylogenetic analyses identified Csa5 as a universal member of type I-A systems and revealed three distinct groups. A potential role of Csa5 in R-loop stabilization is discussed.

  17. Fire history and pattern in a Cascade Range landscape.

    Peter H. Morrison; Frederick J. Swanson

    1990-01-01

    Fire history from years 1150 to 1985 was reconstructed by analyzing forest stands in two 1940-hectare areas in the central-western Cascade Range of Oregon. Serving as records for major fire episodes, these stands revealed a highly variable fire regime. The steeper, more dissected, lower elevation Cook-Quentin study area experienced more frequent fires (natural fire...

  18. Cascaded column generation for scalable predictive demand side management

    Toersche, Hermen; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    We propose a nested Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition, combined with dynamic programming, for the distributed scheduling of a large heterogeneous fleet of residential appliances with nonlinear behavior. A cascaded column generation approach gives a scalable optimization strategy, provided that the problem

  19. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes...

  20. Successful Treatment Of Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Using Cascade Filtration Plasmapheresis

    Fatih Kardas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to discuss the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C apheresis procedure using the cascade filtration system for pediatric patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, and to clarify the adverse effects and difficulties. METHODS: LDL apheresis using the cascade filtration system was performed in 3 pediatric patients with homozygous FH. In total, 120 apheresis sessions were performed for all patients. RESULTS: Cascade filtration therapy significantly reduced the mean LDL-C values from 418 ± 62 mg/dl to 145 ± 43 mg/dl (p<0.05. We determined an acute mean reduction in the plasma levels of total cholesterol (57.9%, LDL cholesterol (70.8%, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (40.7%. Treatments were well tolerated. The most frequent clinical adverse effects were hypotension in 3 sessions (2.5%, chills/feeling cold (1.7% in 2 sessions, and nausea and vomiting in 3 sessions (2.5%. CONCLUSION: Our experience with three patients using the cascade filtration system were, good clinical outcomes, laboratory findings, safety of usage, minor adverse effects and technical problems.

  1. Surface plasmon quantum cascade lasers as terahertz local oscillators

    Hajenius, M.; Khosropanah, P.; Hovenier, J. N.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Barbieri, S.; Dhillon, S.; Filloux, P.; Sirtori, C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Beere, H. E.

    2008-01-01

    We characterize a heterodyne receiver based on a surface-plasmon waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 2.84 THz as a local oscillator, and an NbN hot electron bolometer as a mixer. We find that the envelope of the far-field pattern of the QCL is diffraction-limited and superimposed onto

  2. Processing Interband Cascade Laser for High Temperature CW Operation

    Tober, Richard

    2004-01-01

    A narrow ridge-waveguide mid-IR interband cascade laser based on Type-II InAs/GaInSh heterostructures processed with a thick gold heat spreading layer operated CW at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 214.4 K...

  3. Evidence for proteins involved in prophenoloxidase cascade Eisenia fetida earthworms

    Kohlerová, Petra; Šilerová, Marcela; Stijlemans, B.; Dieu, M.; Halada, Petr; Josková, Radka; Beschin, A.; De Baetselier, P.; Bilej, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 176, - (2006), s. 581-587 ISSN 0174-1578 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/04/0806; GA AV ČR KJB500200613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : protein * prophenoloxidase cascade * eisenia fetida Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.740, year: 2006

  4. Trophic cascades: the primacy of trait-mediated indirect interactions

    Schmitz, O. J.; Křivan, Vlastimil; Ovadia, O.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2004), s. 153-163 ISSN 1461-023X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : adaptive foraging * anti-predator behaviour * cascading effects Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2004

  5. Sign epistasis caused by hierarchy within signalling cascades

    Nghe, Philippe; Kogenaru, Manjunatha; Tans, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    Sign epistasis is a central evolutionary constraint, but its causal factors remain difficult to predict. Here we use the notion of parameterised optima to explain epistasis within a signalling cascade, and test these predictions in Escherichia coli. We show that sign epistasis arises from the

  6. Low crosstalk Arrayed Waveguide Grating with Cascaded Waveguide Grating Filter

    Deng Yang; Liu Yuan; Gao Dingshan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a highly compact and low crosstalk arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with cascaded waveguide grating (CWGF). The side lobes of the silicon nanowire AWG, which are normally introduced by fabrication errors, can be effectively suppressed by the CWGF. And the crosstalk can be improved about 15dB.

  7. 'Cascading participation' and the role of teachers in a collaborative ...

    'Cascading participation' and the role of teachers in a collaborative HIV and Aids curriculum development project. D Scott, A Cooper, S Swartz. Abstract. This paper presents findings of four Grade 6 teachers' involvement as facilitators of a participatory action research (PAR) project conducted in three South African primary ...

  8. Effect of field quantization on Rabi oscillation of equidistant cascade ...

    acting with a single-mode radiation field both semiclassically and quantum ... the equidistant cascade four-level system modeled by the generators of the spin-3. 2 ... (1), hω0 is the equidistant energy gap between the levels, Ω is the frequency.

  9. Exciton management in organic photovoltaic multidonor energy cascades.

    Griffith, Olga L; Forrest, Stephen R

    2014-05-14

    Multilayer donor regions in organic photovoltaics show improved power conversion efficiency when arranged in decreasing exciton energy order from the anode to the acceptor interface. These so-called "energy cascades" drive exciton transfer from the anode to the dissociating interface while reducing exciton quenching and allowing improved overlap with the solar spectrum. Here we investigate the relative importance of exciton transfer and blocking in a donor cascade employing diphenyltetracene (D1), rubrene (D2), and tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (D3) whose optical gaps monotonically decrease from D1 to D3. In this structure, D1 blocks excitons from quenching at the anode, D2 accepts transfer of excitons from D1 and blocks excitons at the interface between D2 and D3, and D3 contributes the most to the photocurrent due to its strong absorption at visible wavelengths, while also determining the open circuit voltage. We observe singlet exciton Förster transfer from D1 to D2 to D3 consistent with cascade operation. The power conversion efficiency of the optimized cascade OPV with a C60 acceptor layer is 7.1 ± 0.4%, which is significantly higher than bilayer devices made with only the individual donors. We develop a quantitative model to identify the dominant exciton processes that govern the photocurrent generation in multilayer organic structures.

  10. Mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectroscopy probing of the ...

    Aparajeo Chattopadhyay

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... cm3 molecule. −1 s. −1 ... Quantum cascade laser; time-resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy; transient absorption; peroxy radicals .... peak of the laser emission profile. .... cal with O2 is a termolecular reaction (Eq. 3) and the.

  11. Evolution of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade activation steps.

    Lamb, Trevor D; Hunt, David M

    2017-11-01

    We examine the molecular phylogeny of the proteins underlying the activation steps of vertebrate phototransduction, for both agnathan and jawed vertebrate taxa. We expand the number of taxa analysed and we update the alignment and tree building methodology from a previous analysis. For each of the four primary components (the G-protein transducin alpha subunit, Gα T , the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, PDE6, and the alpha and beta subunits of the cGMP-gated ion channel, CNGC), the phylogenies appear consistent with expansion from an ancestral proto-vertebrate cascade during two rounds of whole-genome duplication followed by divergence of the agnathan and jawed vertebrate lineages. In each case, we consider possible scenarios for the underlying gene duplications and losses, and we apply relevant constraints to the tree construction. From tests of the topology of the resulting trees, we obtain a scenario for the expansion of each component during 2R that accurately fits the observations. Similar analysis of the visual opsins indicates that the only expansion to have occurred during 2R was the formation of Rh1 and Rh2. Finally, we propose a hypothetical scenario for the conversion of an ancestral chordate cascade into the proto-vertebrate phototransduction cascade, prior to whole-genome duplication. Together, our models provide a plausible account for the origin and expansion of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ON THE POLAR CAP CASCADE PAIR MULTIPLICITY OF YOUNG PULSARS

    Timokhin, A. N.; Harding, A. K., E-mail: andrey.timokhin@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    We study the efficiency of pair production in polar caps of young pulsars under a variety of conditions to estimate the maximum possible multiplicity of pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres. We develop a semi-analytic model for calculation of cascade multiplicity which allows efficient exploration of the parameter space and corroborate it with direct numerical simulations. Pair creation processes are considered separately from particle acceleration in order to assess different factors affecting cascade efficiency, with acceleration of primary particles described by recent self-consistent non-stationary model of pair cascades. We argue that the most efficient cascades operate in the curvature radiation/synchrotron regime, the maximum multiplicity of pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres is ∼few × 10{sup 5}. The multiplicity of pair plasma in magnetospheres of young energetic pulsars weakly depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of magnetic field lines and has a stronger dependence on pulsar inclination angle. This result questions assumptions about very high pair plasma multiplicity in theories of pulsar wind nebulae.

  13. Cascade probabilistic function and the Markov's processes. Chapter 1

    2002-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 the physical and mathematical descriptions of radiation processes are carried out. The relation of the cascade probabilistic functions (CPF) for electrons, protons, alpha-particles and ions with Markov's chain is shown. The algorithms for CPF calculation with accounting energy losses are given

  14. Cascading pressure reactor and method for solar-thermochemical reactions

    Ermanoski, Ivan

    2017-11-14

    Reactors and methods for solar thermochemical reactions are disclosed. The reactors and methods include a cascade of reduction chambers at successively lower pressures that leads to over an order of magnitude pressure decrease compared to a single-chambered design. The resulting efficiency gains are substantial, and represent an important step toward practical and efficient solar fuel production on a large scale.

  15. Search for Magnetically Broadened Cascade Emission from Blazars with VERITAS

    Archambault, S.; Griffin, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Archer, A.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Alonso, M. Fernández [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67—Suc. 28, (C1428ZAA) Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fleischhack, H.; Hütten, M. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Fortson, L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Furniss, A. [Department of Physics, California State University—East Bay, Hayward, CA 94542 (United States); Hervet, O.; Johnson, C. A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Holder, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Humensky, T. B., E-mail: elisa.pueschel@ucd.ie, E-mail: weisgarber@physics.wisc.edu [Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); and others

    2017-02-01

    We present a search for magnetically broadened gamma-ray emission around active galactic nuclei (AGNs), using VERITAS observations of seven hard-spectrum blazars. A cascade process occurs when multi-TeV gamma-rays from an AGN interact with extragalactic background light (EBL) photons to produce electron–positron pairs, which then interact with cosmic microwave background photons via inverse-Compton scattering to produce gamma-rays. Due to the deflection of the electron–positron pairs, a non-zero intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) would potentially produce detectable effects on the angular distribution of the cascade emission. In particular, an angular broadening compared to the unscattered emission could occur. Through non-detection of angularly broadened emission from 1ES 1218+304, the source with the largest predicted cascade fraction, we exclude a range of IGMF strengths around 10{sup −14} G at the 95% confidence level. The extent of the exclusion range varies with the assumptions made about the intrinsic spectrum of 1ES 1218+304 and the EBL model used in the simulation of the cascade process. All of the sources are used to set limits on the flux due to extended emission.

  16. Checklist of vertebrate animals of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest.

    Chris Maser; Jerry F. Franklin

    1974-01-01

    Three months, April and August 1971 and August 1972, were spent studying the vertebrate fauna of Cascade Head Experimental Forest. The resulting annotated checklist includes 9 amphibians, 2 reptiles, 35 birds, and 40 mammals. A standardized animal habitat classification is presented in an effort to correlate the vertebrates in some meaningful way to their environment...

  17. Experimental investigation on a high subsonic compressor cascade flow

    Zhang Haideng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of deepening the understanding of high-speed compressor cascade flow, this paper reports an experimental study on NACA-65 K48 compressor cascade with high subsonic inlet flow. With the increase of passage pressurizing ability, endwall boundary layer behavior is deteriorated, and the transition zone is extended from suction surface to the endwall as the adverse pressure gradient increases. Cross flow from endwall to midspan, mixing of corner boundary layer and the main stream, and reversal flow on the suction surface are caused by corner separation vortex structures. Passage vortex is the main corner separation vortex. During its movement downstream, the size grows bigger while the rotating direction changes, forming a limiting circle. With higher incidence, corner separation is further deteriorated, leading to higher flow loss. Meanwhile, corner separation structure, flow mixing characteristics and flow loss distribution vary a lot with the change of incidence. Compared with low aspect-ratio model, corner separation of high aspect-ratio model moves away from the endwall and is more sufficiently developed downstream the cascade. Results obtained present details of high-speed compressor cascade flow, which is rare in the relating research fields and is beneficial to mechanism analysis, aerodynamic optimization and flow control design.

  18. Successful treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia using cascade filtration plasmapheresis.

    Kardaş, Fatih; Cetin, Aysun; Solmaz, Musa; Büyükoğlan, Rüksan; Kaynar, Leylagül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Eser, Bülent; Unal, Ali

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to report the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) apheresisusing a cascade filtration system in pediatric patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), and toclarify the associated adverse effects and difficulties. LDL-C apheresis using a cascade filtration system was performed in 3 pediatric patientswith homozygous FH; in total, 120 apheresis sessions were performed. Cascade filtration therapy significantly reduced the mean LDL-C values from 418 ± 62 mg/dL to 145 ± 43 mg/dL (p= 0.011). We observed an acute mean reduction in the plasma level of total cholesterol (57.9%), LDL-C (70.8%),and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (40.7%). Treatments were well tolerated. The most frequent clinicaladverse effects were hypotension in 3 sessions (2.5%), chills (1.7%) in 2 sessions, and nausea/vomiting in 3 sessions(2.5%). Our experience using the cascade filtration system with 3 patients included good clinical outcomes andlaboratory findings, safe usage, and minor adverse effects and technical problems. None declared.

  19. Some characteristics of the development of high energy electromagnetic cascades in the atmosphere

    Jablonski, Z.; Tomaszewski, A.; Wrotniak, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Results of the calculations of some characteristics of electromagnetic cascades induced by cosmic radiation are showed. The cascade parameters are influenced by effect of threshold energy of gamma quanta registration in emulsion chambers. Ratio of integral gamma quanta energies in cascade to initial particle energy and mean energy weighted radius as a function of primary interaction hight, as well as total energy and number of gamma quanta in the cascade are calculated. (S.B.)

  20. Numerical integration of electromagnetic cascade equations, discussion of results for air, copper, iron, and lead

    Adler, A.; Fuchs, B.; Thielheim, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    The longitudinal development of electromagnetic cascades in air, copper, iron, and lead is studied on the basis of results derived recently by numerical integration of the cascade equations applying rather accurate expressions for the cross-sections involved with the interactions of high energy electrons, positrons, and photons in electromagnetic cascades. Special attention is given to scaling properties of transition curves. It is demonstrated that a good scaling may be achieved by means of the depth of maximum cascade development. (author)

  1. Development of a New Cascade Voltage-Doubler for Voltage Multiplication

    Toudeshki, Arash; Mariun, Norman; Hizam, Hashim; Abdul Wahab, Noor Izzri

    2014-01-01

    For more than eight decades, cascade voltage-doubler circuits are used as a method to produce DC output voltage higher than the input voltage. In this paper, the topological developments of cascade voltage-doublers are reviewed. A new circuit configuration for cascade voltage-doubler is presented. This circuit can produce a higher value of the DC output voltage and better output quality compared to the conventional cascade voltage-doubler circuits, with the same number of stages.

  2. Establishment and evaluation of operation function model for cascade hydropower station

    Chang-ming Ji; Ting Zhou; Hai-tao Huang

    2010-01-01

    Toward solving the actual operation problems of cascade hydropower stations under hydrologic uncertainty, this paper presents the process of extraction of statistical characteristics from long-term optimal cascade operation, and proposes a monthly operation function algorithm for the actual operation of cascade hydropower stations through the identification, processing, and screening of available information during long-term optimal operation. Applying the operation function to the cascade hy...

  3. Cascading off the West Greenland Shelf: A numerical perspective

    Marson, Juliana M.; Myers, Paul G.; Hu, Xianmin; Petrie, Brian; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Lee, Craig M.

    2017-07-01

    Cascading of dense water from the shelf to deeper layers of the adjacent ocean basin has been observed in several locations around the world. The West Greenland Shelf (WGS), however, is a region where this process has never been documented. In this study, we use a numerical model with a 1/4° resolution to determine (i) if cascading could happen from the WGS; (ii) where and when it could take place; (iii) the forcings that induce or halt this process; and (iv) the path of the dense plume. Results show cascading happening off the WGS at Davis Strait. Dense waters form there due to brine rejection and slide down the slope during spring. Once the dense plume leaves the shelf, it gradually mixes with waters of similar density and moves northward into Baffin Bay. Our simulation showed events happening between 2003-2006 and during 2014; but no plume was observed in the simulation between 2007 and 2013. We suggest that the reason why cascading was halted in this period is related to: the increased freshwater transport from the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait; the additional sea ice melting in the region; and the reduced presence of Irminger Water at Davis Strait during fall/early winter. Although observations at Davis Strait show that our simulation usually overestimates the seasonal range of temperature and salinity, they agree with the overall variability captured by the model. This suggests that cascades have the potential to develop on the WGS, albeit less dense than the ones estimated by the simulation.

  4. Cascading failures in interdependent systems under a flow redistribution model

    Zhang, Yingrui; Arenas, Alex; Yaǧan, Osman

    2018-02-01

    Robustness and cascading failures in interdependent systems has been an active research field in the past decade. However, most existing works use percolation-based models where only the largest component of each network remains functional throughout the cascade. Although suitable for communication networks, this assumption fails to capture the dependencies in systems carrying a flow (e.g., power systems, road transportation networks), where cascading failures are often triggered by redistribution of flows leading to overloading of lines. Here, we consider a model consisting of systems A and B with initial line loads and capacities given by {LA,i,CA ,i} i =1 n and {LB,i,CB ,i} i =1 n, respectively. When a line fails in system A , a fraction of its load is redistributed to alive lines in B , while remaining (1 -a ) fraction is redistributed equally among all functional lines in A ; a line failure in B is treated similarly with b giving the fraction to be redistributed to A . We give a thorough analysis of cascading failures of this model initiated by a random attack targeting p1 fraction of lines in A and p2 fraction in B . We show that (i) the model captures the real-world phenomenon of unexpected large scale cascades and exhibits interesting transition behavior: the final collapse is always first order, but it can be preceded by a sequence of first- and second-order transitions; (ii) network robustness tightly depends on the coupling coefficients a and b , and robustness is maximized at non-trivial a ,b values in general; (iii) unlike most existing models, interdependence has a multifaceted impact on system robustness in that interdependency can lead to an improved robustness for each individual network.

  5. 77 FR 73651 - Cascade Energy Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    2012-12-11

    ..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On October 23, 2012, Cascade Energy Storage, LLC, filed... Executive Officer, Cascade Energy Storage, LLC, 1210 W. Franklin Street, Ste. 2, Boise, Idaho 83702; phone... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14464-000] Cascade Energy...

  6. 75 FR 70300 - USEC, Inc.; American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility; American Centrifuge Plant; Notice of...

    2010-11-17

    ... Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility; American Centrifuge Plant; Notice of Receipt of a License Transfer... SNM-2011, for the American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and the American Centrifuge Plant... USEC Inc., (the Licensee), for its American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility (LCF) and American...

  7. 76 FR 9613 - USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Order...

    2011-02-18

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [EA-11-013] USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Order Approving Direct Transfer of Licenses and Conforming Amendment I USEC... Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility (Lead Cascade) and American Centrifuge Plant (ACP), respectively, which...

  8. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 μm)

  9. High-yield continuous production of nicotinic acid via nitrile hydratase–amidase cascade reactions using cascade CSMRs

    Cantarella, L.; Gallifuoco, A.; Malandra, A.; Martínková, Ludmila; Spera, A.; Cantarella, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 48, 4-5 (2011), 345-350 ISSN 0141-0229 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Nitrile hydratase-amidase cascade system * 3-Cyanopyridine bioconversion * Nicotinic acid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.367, year: 2011

  10. DECREASING OF WATER TROPHY IN CASCADE SYSTEMS, ON EXAMPLE OF THE SOŁA RIVER DAM CASCADE (SOUTHERN POLAND

    Ewa Jachniak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis the subject of water self-purification in cascade systems of water reservoirs was engaged. The results of hydrobiological research of three dam reservoirs (Tresna, Porąbka and Czaniec, creating the Soła river dam cascade were presented. The trophic status of these reservoirs was defined on the grounds of the concentration of chlorophyll a, biomass of phytoplankton and occurrence of indicating species of planktonic algae. The results of research indicated on decreasing of water trophy in the layout from the highest into the lowest reservoir of the cascade. The average concentrations of chlorophyll a amounted appropriately 19,99 μg·dm-3, 8,74 μg·dm-3 and 4,29 μg·dm-3, instead the average biomass of phytoplankton amounted appropriately 4,1 mg·dm-3, 3,4 mg·dm-3 and 0,1 mg·dm-3. The observed species of algae confirmed occurrence of differences between reservoirs. In Tresna reservoir more species of phytoplankton indicating for eutrophy were thrived, instead in Porąbka and Czaniec reservoirs the species occurring in oligomesotrophic water thrived. Water self-purification in the Soła river dam cascade expressed decreasing of their fertility is important for water management of the region, because the Czaniec reservoir fulfill a function of water-supply reservoir.

  11. Assessment on tracking error performance of Cascade P/PI, NPID and N-Cascade controller for precise positioning of xy table ballscrew drive system

    Abdullah, L; Jamaludin, Z; Rafan, N A; Jamaludin, J; Chiew, T H

    2013-01-01

    At present, positioning plants in machine tools are looking for high degree of accuracy and robustness attributes for the purpose of compensating various disturbance forces. The objective of this paper is to assess the tracking performance of Cascade P/PI, Nonlinear PID (NPID) and Nonlinear cascade (N-Cascade) controller with the existence of disturbance forces in the form of cutting forces. Cutting force characteristics at different cutting parameters; such as spindle speed rotations is analysed using Fast Fourier Transform. The tracking performance of a Nonlinear cascade controller in presence of these cutting forces is compared with NPID controller and Cascade P/PI controller. Robustness of these controllers in compensating different cutting characteristics is compared based on reduction in the amplitudes of cutting force harmonics using Fast Fourier Transform. It is found that the N-cascade controller performs better than both NPID controller and Cascade P/PI controller. The average percentage error reduction between N-cascade controller and Cascade P/PI controller is about 65% whereas the average percentage error reduction between cascade controller and NPID controller is about 82% at spindle speed of 3000 rpm spindle speed rotation. The finalized design of N-cascade controller could be utilized further for machining application such as milling process. The implementation of N-cascade in machine tools applications will increase the quality of the end product and the productivity in industry by saving the machining time. It is suggested that the range of the spindle speed could be made wider to accommodate the needs for high speed machining

  12. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  13. Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges

    Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O

  14. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  15. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  16. Numerical Study of the Cascading Energy Conversion of the Reconnecting Current Sheet in Solar Eruptions

    Ye, J.; Lin, J.; Raymond, J. C.; Shen, C.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present a resistive magnetohydrodynamical study (2D) of the CME eruption based on the Lin & Forbes model (2000) regarding the cascading reconnection by a high-order Godunov scheme code, to better understand the physical mechanisms responsible for the internal structure of the current sheet (CS) and the high reconnection rate. The main improvements of this work include: 1) large enough spatial scale consistent with the stereo LASCO data that yields an observable current sheet 2) A realistic plasma environment (S&G, 1999) adopted rather than an isothermal atmosphere and higher resolution inside CS 3) The upper boundary condition set to be open. The simulation shows a typical acceleration below 2 R⊙, then its speed slightly fluctuated, and the flux rope velocity is estimated to be 100 km/s-250 km/s for a slow CME. The reconnection rates are around 0.02 estimated from inflow and outflow velocities. The dynamic features show a great consistence with the LASCO observations. Looking into the fine structure of CS, magnetic reconnection initializes with a Sweet-Parker stage, and undergoes the time-dependent Petschek/fractural patterns. While the CME continues climbing up, the outflow region becomes turbulent which enhances the reconnection rates furthermore. The local reconnection rates present a simple linear dependence with the length-width ratio of multiple small-scale CSs. The principal X-point is close to the Sun's surface during the entire eruption, causing the energy partition to be unequal. Energy conversion in the vicinity of the principal X-point has also been addressed by simply employing energy equations. And we demonstrate that the dominant energy transfer consists of a conversion of the incoming Poynting flux to enthalpy flux in the sunward direction and bulk kinetic energy in the CME direction. The spectrum of magnetic energy doesn't follow a simple power law after secondary islands appear, and the spectrum index varies from 1.5 to 2

  17. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  18. Mechanisms of defect production and atomic mixing in high energy displacement cascades: A molecular dynamics study

    Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Guinan, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    We have performed molecular dynamics computer simulation studies of displacement cascades in Cu at low temperature. For 25 keV recoils we observe the splitting of a cascade into subcascades and show that cascades in Cu may lead to the formation of vacancy and interstitial dislocation loops. We discuss a new mechanism of defect production based on the observation of interstitial prismatic dislocation loop punching from cascades at 10 K. We also show that below the subcascade threshold, atomic mixing in the cascade is recoil-energy dependent and obtain a mixing efficiency that scales as the square root of the primary recoil energy. 44 refs., 12 figs

  19. Simulation of short-term annealing of displacement cascades in FCC metals

    Heinisch, H.L.; Doran, D.G.; Schwartz, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer models have been developed for the simulation of high energy displacement cascades. The objective is the generation of defect production functions for use in correlation analysis of radiation effects in fusion reactor materials. In particular, the stochastic cascade annealing simulation code SCAS has been developed and used to model the short-term annealing behavior of simulated cascades in FCC metals. The code is fast enough to make annealing of high energy cascades practical. Sets of cascades from 5 keV to 100 keV in copper were generated by the binary collision code MARLOWE

  20. Basic characteristics of a low uranium enrichment cascade by centrifugation, (2)

    Kai, Tsunetoshi

    1975-01-01

    The theory for a cascade of centrifuges described in the preceding report of the same general title is further developed. First, equations describing the distributions of the flow and the mole concentration are derived from the material balance relations for a square cascade. Corresponding equations are next obtained to cover a squared-off cascade consisting of a series of square cascades. A computer program is outlined which makes it possible to obtain the shape of the most efficient squared-off cascade. The efficiency of the current form of squared-off centrifuge cascade with reflux pipes is found to be lower than obtainable with gaseous diffusion. The efficiency can be improved by the adoption of a tapered squared-off cascade with centrifuges provided with eccentric cuts to take the place of reflux pipes. The dynamic characteristics are also discussed. Analysis of the start-up behavior reveals that the equilibrium time of the centrifuge cascade is much shorter than for a coresponding gaseous diffusion cascade, and that the mole concentration of the product rapidly rises to attain steady state condition. It is also found that even when the feed flow rate fluctuates, the mole concentration of the product is relatively stable. The effect of a centrifuge failure in the cascade is examined. The optimum mole concentration for the waste effluent discarded from the cascade is calculated from the viewpoint of cost. (auth.)

  1. The effects of self-interstitial clusters on cascade defect evolution beyond the primary damage state

    Heinisch, H.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The intracascade evolution of the defect distributions of cascades in copper is investigated using stochastic annealing simulations applied to cascades generated with molecular dynamics (MD). The temperature and energy dependencies of annihilation, clustering and free defect production are determined for individual cascades. The annealing simulation results illustrate the strong influence on intracascade evolution of the defect configuration existing in the primary damage state. Another factor significantly affecting the evolution of the defect distribution is the rapid one-dimensional diffusion of small, glissile interstitial loops produced directly in cascades. This phenomenon introduces a cascade energy dependence of defect evolution that is apparent only beyond the primary damage state, amplifying the need for further study of the annealing phase of cascade evolution and for performing many more MD cascade simulations at higher energies.

  2. Use Deflected Trailing Edge to Improve the Aerodynamic Performance and Develop Low Solidity LPT Cascade

    Chao, Li; Peigang, Yan; Xiangfeng, Wang; Wanjin, Han; Qingchao, Wang

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of improving the aerodynamic performance of low pressure turbine (LPT) blade cascades and developing low solidity LPT blade cascades through deflected trailing edge. A deflected trailing edge improved aerodynamic performance of both LPT blade cascades and low solidity LPT blade cascades. For standard solidity LPT cascades, deflecting the trailing edge can decrease the energy loss coefficient by 20.61 % for a Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000 and freestream turbulence intensities (FSTI) of 1 %. For a low solidity LPT cascade, aerodynamic performance was also improved by deflecting the trailing edge. Solidity of the LPT cascade can be reduced by 12.5 % for blades with a deflected trailing edge without a drop in efficiency. Here, the flow control mechanism surrounding a deflected trailing edge was also revealed.

  3. A virtual component method in numerical computation of cascades for isotope separation

    Zeng Shi; Cheng Lu

    2014-01-01

    The analysis, optimization, design and operation of cascades for isotope separation involve computations of cascades. In analytical analysis of cascades, using virtual components is a very useful analysis method. For complicated cases of cascades, numerical analysis has to be employed. However, bound up to the conventional idea that the concentration of a virtual component should be vanishingly small, virtual component is not yet applied to numerical computations. Here a method of introducing the method of using virtual components to numerical computations is elucidated, and its application to a few types of cascades is explained and tested by means of numerical experiments. The results show that the concentration of a virtual component is not restrained at all by the 'vanishingly small' idea. For the same requirements on cascades, the cascades obtained do not depend on the concentrations of virtual components. (authors)

  4. The effects of self-interstitial clusters on cascade defect evolution beyond the primary damage state

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The intracascade evolution of the defect distributions of cascades in copper is investigated using stochastic annealing simulations applied to cascades generated with molecular dynamics (MD). The temperature and energy dependencies of annihilation, clustering and free defect production are determined for individual cascades. The annealing simulation results illustrate the strong influence on intracascade evolution of the defect configuration existing in the primary damage state. Another factor significantly affecting the evolution of the defect distribution is the rapid one-dimensional diffusion of small, glissile interstitial loops produced directly in cascades. This phenomenon introduces a cascade energy dependence of defect evolution that is apparent only beyond the primary damage state, amplifying the need for further study of the annealing phase of cascade evolution and for performing many more MD cascade simulations at higher energies

  5. Mathematical simulation of cascade-probabilistic functions for charged particles

    Kupchishin, A.A.; Kupchishin, A.I.; Smygaleva, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Analytical expressions for cascade-probabilistic functions (CPF) for electrons, protons, α-particles and ions with taking into account energy losses are received. Mathematical analysis of these functions is carried out and main properties of function are determined. Algorithms of CPF are developed and their computer calculation were conducted. Regularities in behavior of function in dependence on initial particles energy, atomic number and registration depth are established. Book is intended to specialists on mathematical simulation of radiation defects, solid state physics, elementary particle physics and applied mathematics. There are 3 chapters in the book: 1. Cascade-probabilistic functions for electrons; 2. CPF for protons and α-particles; 3. CPF with taking unto account energy losses of ions. (author)

  6. A weakened cascade model for turbulence in astrophysical plasmas

    Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.; Dorland, W.

    2011-01-01

    A refined cascade model for kinetic turbulence in weakly collisional astrophysical plasmas is presented that includes both the transition between weak and strong turbulence and the effect of nonlocal interactions on the nonlinear transfer of energy. The model describes the transition between weak and strong MHD turbulence and the complementary transition from strong kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence to weak dissipating KAW turbulence, a new regime of weak turbulence in which the effects of shearing by large scale motions and kinetic dissipation play an important role. The inclusion of the effect of nonlocal motions on the nonlinear energy cascade rate in the dissipation range, specifically the shearing by large-scale motions, is proposed to explain the nearly power-law energy spectra observed in the dissipation range of both kinetic numerical simulations and solar wind observations.

  7. Strontium 90 in silts of the Dnieper cascade water reservoirs

    Romanenko, V.D.; Kuz'menko, M.I.; Matvienko, L.P.; Klenus, V.G.; Nasvit, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    The change of strontium-90 content in water and silts of the Dnieper cascade water reservoirs was analyzed. It was shown, that decrease of strontium-90 content in water in time connected basically with ion exchange adsorption of strontium-90 by residues. A high sorption ability of residues made it possible for radioisotopes to reduce sharply their concentration along depth of soils. The highest concentration of radioisotopes was in the upper layers, enriched by silt. It was ascertained, that strontium-90 migration along depth of residues took place rapidly in the Kiev's water reservoir. Down the cascade strontium-90 content reduced in lower layers of residues as well as in upper layers. 4 tabs

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of radiation damage cascades in diamond

    Buchan, J. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Robinson, M. [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Christie, H. J.; Roach, D. L.; Ross, D. K. [Physics and Materials Research Centre, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Marks, N. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)

    2015-06-28

    Radiation damage cascades in diamond are studied by molecular dynamics simulations employing the Environment Dependent Interaction Potential for carbon. Primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies up to 2.5 keV are considered and a uniformly distributed set of 25 initial PKA directions provide robust statistics. The simulations reveal the atomistic origins of radiation-resistance in diamond and provide a comprehensive computational analysis of cascade evolution and dynamics. As for the case of graphite, the atomic trajectories are found to have a fractal-like character, thermal spikes are absent and only isolated point defects are generated. Quantitative analysis shows that the instantaneous maximum kinetic energy decays exponentially with time, and that the timescale of the ballistic phase has a power-law dependence on PKA energy. Defect recombination is efficient and independent of PKA energy, with only 50% of displacements resulting in defects, superior to graphite where the same quantity is nearly 75%.

  9. Energy Transfer and Dual Cascade in Kinetic Magnetized Plasma Turbulence

    Plunk, G. G.; Tatsuno, T.

    2011-01-01

    The question of how nonlinear interactions redistribute the energy of fluctuations across available degrees of freedom is of fundamental importance in the study of turbulence and transport in magnetized weakly collisional plasmas, ranging from space settings to fusion devices. In this Letter, we present a theory for the dual cascade found in such plasmas, which predicts a range of new behavior that distinguishes this cascade from that of neutral fluid turbulence. These phenomena are explained in terms of the constrained nature of spectral transfer in nonlinear gyrokinetics. Accompanying this theory are the first observations of these phenomena, obtained via direct numerical simulations using the gyrokinetic code AstroGK. The basic mechanisms that are found provide a framework for understanding the turbulent energy transfer that couples scales both locally and nonlocally.

  10. Energy Transfer and Dual Cascade in Kinetic Magnetized Plasma Turbulence

    Plunk, G. G.; Tatsuno, T.

    2011-04-01

    The question of how nonlinear interactions redistribute the energy of fluctuations across available degrees of freedom is of fundamental importance in the study of turbulence and transport in magnetized weakly collisional plasmas, ranging from space settings to fusion devices. In this Letter, we present a theory for the dual cascade found in such plasmas, which predicts a range of new behavior that distinguishes this cascade from that of neutral fluid turbulence. These phenomena are explained in terms of the constrained nature of spectral transfer in nonlinear gyrokinetics. Accompanying this theory are the first observations of these phenomena, obtained via direct numerical simulations using the gyrokinetic code AstroGK. The basic mechanisms that are found provide a framework for understanding the turbulent energy transfer that couples scales both locally and nonlocally.

  11. Development of the cascade inertial-confinement-fusion reactor

    Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Cascade, originally conceived as a football-shaped, steel-walled reactor containing a Li 2 O granule blanket, is now envisaged as a double-cone-shaped reactor containing a two-layered (three-zone) flowing blanket of BeO and LiAlO 2 granules. Average blanket exit temperature is 1670 0 K and gross plant efficiency (net thermal conversion efficiency) using a Brayton cycle is 55%. The reactor has a low-activation SiC-tiled wall. It rotates at 50 rpm, and the granules are transported to the top of the heat exchanger using their peripheral speed; no conveyors or lifts are required. The granules return to the reactor by gravity. After considerable analysis and experimentation, we continue to regard Cascade as a promising reactor concept with the advantages of safety, efficiency, and low activation

  12. Computer simulation studies of high energy collision cascades

    Robinson, M.T.

    1991-07-01

    A modified binary collision approximation allowing the proper order of the collisions in time was used to study cascades in Cu and Au at primary kinetic energies up to 100 keV. Nonlinearities were approximated by letting already-stopped cascade atoms become targets in later collisions, using an improved method of locating potential targets to extend the calculations to energies much higher than heretofore. Beside the effect of the approximate nonlinearity, the effect of thermal disorder in the targets was examined. Target redisplacements reduce the damage in Cu by 3% at most, but in Au they reduce it by amounts up to 20% at 100 keV. Thermal disorder is also important: by disrupting crystal effects, the damage is reduced significantly. 11 refs., 4 figs

  13. Cascaded nonlinearities for ultrafast nonlinear optical science and applications

    Bache, Morten

    the cascading nonlinearity is investigated in detail, especially with focus on femtosecond energetic laser pulses being subjected to this nonlinear response. Analytical, numerical and experimental results are used to understand the cascading interaction and applications are demonstrated. The defocusing soliton...... observations with analogies in fiber optics are observed numerically and experimentally, including soliton self-compression, soliton-induced resonant radiation, supercontinuum generation, optical wavebreaking and shock-front formation. All this happens despite no waveguide being present, thanks...... is of particular interest here, since it is quite unique and provides the solution to a number of standing challenges in the ultrafast nonlinear optics community. It solves the problem of catastrophic focusing and formation of a filaments in bulk glasses, which even under controlled circumstances is limited...

  14. Quantum cascade laser combs: effects of modulation and dispersion.

    Villares, Gustavo; Faist, Jérôme

    2015-01-26

    Frequency comb formation in quantum cascade lasers is studied theoretically using a Maxwell-Bloch formalism based on a modal decomposition, where dispersion is considered. In the mid-infrared, comb formation persists in the presence of weak cavity dispersion (500 fs2 mm-1) but disappears when much larger values are used (30'000 fs2 mm-1). Active modulation at the round-trip frequency is found to induce mode-locking in THz devices, where the upper state lifetime is in the tens of picoseconds. Our results show that mode-locking based on four-wave mixing in broadband gain, low dispersion cavities is the most promising way of achieving broadband quantum cascade laser frequency combs.

  15. Annealing and cluster formation of defects in a cascade

    Martynenko, Yu.V.

    1975-01-01

    The behaviour of radiative defects after a dynamic cascade of atomic collisions caused by irradiation by neutrons or accelerated heavy ions if theoretically investigated. In investig.ation, apart from processes of vacancy recombination, cluster formation and interstitial atoms the diffusive ''spreading'' of point defects from the initial region is taken into account. Since interstitial atoms are more mobile, all the processes are divided into two stages: at the first stage only interstitial atoms diffuse, and vacancies are stationary; at the second stage vacancies are mobile, and interstitial atoms are either ''spread'' over the whole volume, or are united into stable clusters. The number of defects and clusters is calculated depending on energy of cascade, atomic number of the material and temperature

  16. SCC: Semantic Context Cascade for Efficient Action Detection

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2017-11-09

    Despite the recent advances in large-scale video analysis, action detection remains as one of the most challenging unsolved problems in computer vision. This snag is in part due to the large volume of data that needs to be analyzed to detect actions in videos. Existing approaches have mitigated the computational cost, but still, these methods lack rich high-level semantics that helps them to localize the actions quickly. In this paper, we introduce a Semantic Cascade Context (SCC) model that aims to detect action in long video sequences. By embracing semantic priors associated with human activities, SCC produces high-quality class-specific action proposals and prune unrelated activities in a cascade fashion. Experimental results in ActivityNet unveils that SCC achieves state-of-the-art performance for action detection while operating at real time.

  17. PULSE MODULATION POWER AMPLIFIER WITH ENHANCED CASCADE CONTROL METHOD

    1998-01-01

    a single local feedback path A (7) with a lowpass characteristic and local forward blocks B¿1? or B (3, 4). The leads to a much improved system with a very low sensitivity to errors in the switching power stage. In the second preferred embodiment of the invention the control structure is extended...... and feedback path A to determine stable self-oscillating conditions. An implemented 250W example MECC digital power amplifier has proven superior performance in terms of audio performance (0.005 % distortion, 115 dB dynamic range) and efficiency (92 %).......A digital switching power amplifier with Multivariable Enhanced Cascade Controlled (MECC) includes a modulator, a switching power stage and a low pass filter. In the first preferred embodiment an enhanced cascade control structure local to the switching power stage is added, characterised by having...

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of displacement cascades in metallic systems

    Doan, N.V.; Tietze, H.

    1995-01-01

    We use Molecular Dynamics Computer Simulations to investigate defect production induced by energetic displacement cascades up to 10 keV in pure metals (Cu, Ni) and in ordered intermetallic alloys NiAl, Ni 3 Al. Various model potentials were employed to describe the many-body nature of the interactions: the RGL (Rosato-Guillope-Legrand) model was used in pure Cu and Ni simulations; the modified version of the Vitek, Ackland and Cserti potentials (due to Gao, Bacon and Ackland) in Ni 3 Al and the EAM potentials of Foiles and Daw modified by Rubini and Ballone in NiAl, Ni 3 Al were used in alloy simulations. Atomic mixing and disordering were studied into details owing to imaging techniques and determined at different phases of the cascades. Some mixing mechanisms were identified. Our results were compared with existing data and those obtained by similar Molecular Dynamics Simulations available in the literature. (orig.)

  19. Enantioselective cyclizations and cyclization cascades of samarium ketyl radicals

    Kern, Nicolas; Plesniak, Mateusz P.; McDouall, Joseph J. W.; Procter, David J.

    2017-12-01

    The rapid generation of molecular complexity from simple starting materials is a key challenge in synthesis. Enantioselective radical cyclization cascades have the potential to deliver complex, densely packed, polycyclic architectures, with control of three-dimensional shape, in one step. Unfortunately, carrying out reactions with radicals in an enantiocontrolled fashion remains challenging due to their high reactivity. This is particularly the case for reactions of radicals generated using the classical reagent, SmI2. Here, we demonstrate that enantioselective SmI2-mediated radical cyclizations and cascades that exploit a simple, recyclable chiral ligand can convert symmetrical ketoesters to complex carbocyclic products bearing multiple stereocentres with high enantio- and diastereocontrol. A computational study has been used to probe the origin of the enantioselectivity. Our studies suggest that many processes that rely on SmI2 can be rendered enantioselective by the design of suitable ligands.

  20. Limits to compression with cascaded quadratic soliton compressors

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2008-01-01

    We study cascaded quadratic soliton compressors and address the physical mechanisms that limit the compression. A nonlocal model is derived, and the nonlocal response is shown to have an additional oscillatory component in the nonstationary regime when the group-velocity mismatch (GVM) is strong....... This inhibits efficient compression. Raman-like perturbations from the cascaded nonlinearity, competing cubic nonlinearities, higher-order dispersion, and soliton energy may also limit compression, and through realistic numerical simulations we point out when each factor becomes important. We find......, the simulations show that reaching single-cycle duration is ultimately inhibited by competing cubic nonlinearities as well as dispersive waves, that only show up when taking higher-order dispersion into account....

  1. Beyond KNO multiplicative cascades and novel multiplicity scaling laws

    Hegyi, S

    1999-01-01

    The collapse of multiplicity distributions P/sub n/ onto a universal scaling curve arises when P/sub n/ is expressed as a function of the standardized multiplicity (n-c)/ lambda with c and lambda being location and scale parameters governed by leading particle effects and the growth of average multiplicity. It is demonstrated that self- similar multiplicative cascade processes such as QCD parton branching naturally lead to a novel type of scaling behavior of P/sub n/ which manifests itself in Mellin space through a location change controlled by the degree of multifractality and a scale change governed by the depth of the cascade. Applying the new scaling rule it is shown how to restore data collapsing behavior of P/sub n/ measured in hh collisions at ISR and SPS energies. (21 refs).

  2. Preliminary Results of the CASCADE Hidden Sector Photon Search

    Woollett, Nathan; Burt, Graeme; Chattopadhyay, Swapan; Dainton, John; Dexter, Amos; Goudket, Phillipe; Jenkins, Michael; Kalliokoski, Matti; Moss, Andrew; Pattalwar, Shrikant; Thakker, Trina; Williams, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Light shining through a wall experiments can be used to make measurements of photon-WISP couplings. The first stage of the CASCADE experiment at the Cockcroft Institute of Accelerator Science and Technology is intended to be a proof-of-principle experiment utilising standard microwave technologies to make a modular, cryogenic HSP detector to take advantage of future high-power superconducting cavity tests. In these proceedings we will be presenting the preliminary results of the CASCADE LSW experiment showing a peak expected exclusion of $1.10 \\times 10^{-8}$ in the mass range from 1.96$\\mu$eV to 5.38$\\mu$eV, exceeding current limits.

  3. Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit , Kent, Washington (Fact Sheet)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  4. Unified model of secondary electron cascades in diamond

    Ziaja, Beata; London, Richard A.; Hajdu, Janos

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present a detailed and unified theoretical treatment of secondary electron cascades that follow the absorption of x-ray photons. A Monte Carlo model has been constructed that treats in detail the evolution of electron cascades induced by photoelectrons and by Auger electrons following inner shell ionizations. Detailed calculations are presented for cascades initiated by electron energies between 0.1 and 10 keV. The present article expands our earlier work [B. Ziaja, D. van der Spoel, A. Szoeke, and J. Hajdu, Phys. Rev. B 64, 214104 (2001), Phys. Rev. B 66, 024116 (2002)] by extending the primary energy range, by improving the treatment of secondary electrons, especially at low electron energies, by including ionization by holes, and by taking into account their coupling to the crystal lattice. The calculations describe the three-dimensional evolution of the electron cloud, and monitor the equivalent instantaneous temperature of the free electron gas as the system cools. The dissipation of the impact energy proceeds predominantly through the production of secondary electrons whose energies are comparable to the binding energies of the valence (40-50 eV) and of the core electrons (300 eV). The electron cloud generated by a 10 keV electron is strongly anisotropic in the early phases of the cascade (t≤1 fs). At later times, the sample is dominated by low energy electrons, and these are scattered more isotropically by atoms in the sample. Our results for the total number of secondary electrons agree with available experimental data, and show that the emission of secondary electrons approaches saturation within about 100 fs following the primary impact

  5. Cascade upgrading of γ-valerolactone to biofuels.

    Yan, Kai; Lafleur, Todd; Wu, Xu; Chai, Jiajue; Wu, Guosheng; Xie, Xianmei

    2015-04-25

    Cascade upgrading of γ-valerolactone (GVL), produced from renewable cellulosic biomass, with selective conversion to biofuels pentyl valerate (PV) and pentane in one pot using a bifunctional Pd/HY catalyst is described. Excellent catalytic performance (over 99% conversion of GVL, 60.6% yield of PV and 22.9% yield of pentane) was achieved in one step. These biofuels can be targeted for gasoline and jet fuel applications.

  6. Cluster approach to intranuclear cascade for relativistic heavy ion colisions

    Kodama, T.; Duarte, S.B.; Chung, K.C.; Nazareth, R.A.M.S.

    1982-01-01

    A new approach to the intranuclear cascade model for relativistic heavy ion reaction is presented. The effect of nucleon conventration on the collision process is explicitly included. It is found that the contributions from the non-binary processes are far from being negligible. Such processes are shown to broaden the angular distribution of inclusive proton spectra for 20 Ne + 238 U head-on collisions. (Author) [pt

  7. Atomic-cascade photons and quantum-mechanical nonlocality

    Bell, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years there have been several experiments on polarization correlation between photons emitted in atomic cascades. They are supposed to bear on the notion that the consequences of events do not propagate faster than light. This notion is difficult to reconcile with quantum-mechanical predictions for idealized versions of the experiments in question. The present Comment offers a brief introduction to the situation. (author)

  8. Experimental evidence of enhancement in the anticipation time by cascading

    Baraik, Abhijit; Singh, Harpartap; Parmananda, P.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied and verified experimentally the enhancement in the anticipation time by cascading Chua's circuits. The experiments have been carried out in a one dimensional array of Chua's circuits (2 to 8) coupled unidirectionally, such that each one acts as a master for the next one. By doing so, it has been observed that the anticipation time increases with an increase in the array size. Moreover, the numerical simulations of an array of eighty Chua's circuits verify the experimental observations.

  9. Efficient method for transport simulations in quantum cascade lasers

    Maczka Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for simulating quantum transport in quantum cascade lasers is presented. The calculations are performed within a simple approximation inspired by Büttiker probes and based on a finite model for semiconductor superlattices. The formalism of non-equilibrium Green’s functions is applied to determine the selected transport parameters in a typical structure of a terahertz laser. Results were compared with those obtained for a infinite model as well as other methods described in literature.

  10. Digital Speed Cascade Control, using Scilab / Xcos Environment

    Petru Chioncel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of digital cascade control implemented in Scilab / Xcos environment, using a P type regulator for the position adjustment circuit, a PI controller for the speed circuit adjustment; the current respectively moments control circuits are rendered by elements of PT1 type. On this basis the program is done in Scilab and the related signal block diagram implemented in Xcos; through simulation, the step response of the system is analyzed for different sampling times.

  11. Optimized preventive replacement policy for large cascade systems

    Kretzen, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The repair-bottleneck problem as a limiting factor for system reliability can be overcome. Design need only cover the steady state, wearout induced accumulations of failures being precluded by preventive replacements with subsequent recycling. As a result, a reliable system appears to be feasible on an economic basis, optimization in detail to be left to more precised cost-benefit studies. As a reference system the radio-frequency-generator cascade of a single-cell linear accelerator is considered. (DG)

  12. Fibonacci order in the period-doubling cascade to chaos

    Linage, G.; Montoya, Fernando; Sarmiento, A.; Showalter, K.; Parmananda, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe how the Fibonacci sequence appears within the Feigenbaum scaling of the period-doubling cascade to chaos. An important consequence of this discovery is that the ratio of successive Fibonacci numbers converges to the golden mean in every period-doubling sequence and therefore the convergence to φ, the most irrational number, occurs in concert with the onset of deterministic chaos

  13. Fibonacci order in the period-doubling cascade to chaos

    Linage, G. [Facultad de Ciencias UAEM, Avenida Universidad 1001, Colonia Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Montoya, Fernando [Facultad de Ciencias UAEM, Avenida Universidad 1001, Colonia Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sarmiento, A. [Instituto de Matematicas, UNAM, Colonia Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Showalter, K. [Department of Chemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6045 (United States); Parmananda, P. [Facultad de Ciencias UAEM, Avenida Universidad 1001, Colonia Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: punit@servm.fc.uaem.mx

    2006-12-11

    In this contribution, we describe how the Fibonacci sequence appears within the Feigenbaum scaling of the period-doubling cascade to chaos. An important consequence of this discovery is that the ratio of successive Fibonacci numbers converges to the golden mean in every period-doubling sequence and therefore the convergence to {phi}, the most irrational number, occurs in concert with the onset of deterministic chaos.

  14. Groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau, California

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau area constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  15. Null controllability of a cascade system of Schrodinger equations

    Marcos Lopez-Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a control problem for a cascade system of two linear N-dimensional Schrodinger equations. We address the problem of null controllability by means of a control supported in a region not satisfying the classical geometrical control condition. The proof is based on the application of a Carleman estimate with degenerate weights to each one of the equations and a careful analysis of the system in order to prove null controllability with only one control force.

  16. The width of electron-photon cascades in air

    Allan, H.R.; Crannell, C.J.; Hough, J.H.; Shutie, P.F.; Sun, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    A new Monte-Carlo simulation of electron-photon cascade development is shown to give results in agreement with a) the calculations of Nordheim et al, b) simulations using the Berger-Seltzer electron photon transport programme and c) experimental measurements in water. However, the lateral spread is much narrower than that given by the Nishimura-Kamata functions or the Messel-Crawford tabulations. (orig.) [de

  17. Length scale for configurational entropy in microemulsions

    Reiss, H.; Kegel, W.K.; Groenewold, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the length scale that must be used in evaluating the mixing entropy in a microemulsion. The central idea involves the choice of a length scale in configuration space that is consistent with the physical definition of entropy in phase space. We show that this scale may be

  18. Proofs of Contracted Length Non-covariance

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Different proofs of contracted length non covariance are discussed. The way based on the establishment of interval inconstancy (dependence on velocity) seems to be the most convincing one. It is stressed that the known non covariance of the electromagnetic field energy and momentum of a moving charge ('the problem 4/3') is a direct consequence of contracted length non covariance. 8 refs

  19. The length of the male urethra

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  20. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  1. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women

  2. Willow on Yellowstone's northern range: evidence for a trophic cascade?

    Beyer, Hawthorne L; Merrill, Evelyn H; Varley, Nathan; Boyce, Mark S

    2007-09-01

    Reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park in 1995-1996 has been argued to promote a trophic cascade by altering elk (Cervus elaphus) density, habitat-selection patterns, and behavior that, in turn, could lead to changes within the plant communities used by elk. We sampled two species of willow (Salix boothii and S. geyeriana) on the northern winter range to determine whether (1) there was quantitative evidence of increased willow growth following wolf reintroduction, (2) browsing by elk affected willow growth, and (3) any increase in growth observed was greater than that expected by climatic and hydrological factors alone, thereby indicating a trophic cascade caused by wolves. Using stem sectioning techniques to quantify historical growth patterns we found an approximately twofold increase in stem growth-ring area following wolf reintroduction for both species of willow. This increase could not be explained by climate and hydrological factors alone; the presence of wolves on the landscape was a significant predictor of stem growth above and beyond these abiotic factors. Growth-ring area was positively correlated with the previous year's ring area and negatively correlated with the percentage of twigs browsed from the stem during the winter preceding growth, indicating that elk browse impeded stem growth. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade on Yellowstone's northern winter range following wolf reintroduction. We suggest that the community-altering effects of wolf restoration are an endorsement of ecological-process management in Yellowstone National Park.

  3. Boolean Models of Biological Processes Explain Cascade-Like Behavior.

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Guanyu; Simha, Rahul; Du, Chenghang; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-29

    Biological networks play a key role in determining biological function and therefore, an understanding of their structure and dynamics is of central interest in systems biology. In Boolean models of such networks, the status of each molecule is either "on" or "off" and along with the molecules interact with each other, their individual status changes from "on" to "off" or vice-versa and the system of molecules in the network collectively go through a sequence of changes in state. This sequence of changes is termed a biological process. In this paper, we examine the common perception that events in biomolecular networks occur sequentially, in a cascade-like manner, and ask whether this is likely to be an inherent property. In further investigations of the budding and fission yeast cell-cycle, we identify two generic dynamical rules. A Boolean system that complies with these rules will automatically have a certain robustness. By considering the biological requirements in robustness and designability, we show that those Boolean dynamical systems, compared to an arbitrary dynamical system, statistically present the characteristics of cascadeness and sequentiality, as observed in the budding and fission yeast cell- cycle. These results suggest that cascade-like behavior might be an intrinsic property of biological processes.

  4. Photoproduction of the Cascade Baryons at GlueX

    Ernst, Ashley; GlueX Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Multi-strange baryons play an important role in understanding the strong interaction and despite their importance, little is known about such hyperons. Almost all knowledge of the Cascades today stems from Kaon-nucleon interactions in bubble chamber experiments performed in the 1960s and 1970s, of which only the octet and decuplet ground states, Ξ (1320) and Ξ (1530) respectively, are well established. This research uses the GlueX experiment at Jefferson Laboratory to map out the spectrum of doubly-strange Cascade resonances, as well as to measure the spin-parity for each of the detected resonances. The first physics run for GlueX has recently been completed and a clear signature of the Ξ (1320) is observed. The systematics of the Cascade spectrum will be presented motivated by prior discoveries in the N* program. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-92ER40735 and National Science Foundation Grant 1449440.

  5. Diode pumped cascade Er:Y2O3 laser

    Sanamyan, T

    2015-01-01

    A cascade, diode-pumped, continuous wave (CW), dual-wavelength operation in a 0.5% Er 3+ :Y 2 O 3 cryogenic ceramic laser is demonstrated for the first time. The laser operates on cascaded Er ( 4 I 11/2   →   4 I 13/2   →   4 I 15/2 ) transitions and can deliver 24 and 13 W at 1.6 and 2.7 μm, respectively. The overall efficiency with respect to the absorbed ∼980 nm power was 62%. This is, to our best knowledge, the first demonstration of an efficient, high power, cascade, erbium laser achieved in bulk solid-state lasers. The analysis of the output power, the laser’s wavelengths and slope efficiency for each individual laser transition are presented for pure CW operation mode. Also presented are the temporal behaviors of each laser line as a function of pump pulse duration in the quasi-CW regime. (letter)

  6. Modeling defect production in high energy collision cascades

    Heinisch, H.L.; Singh, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-model approach roach (MMA) to simulating defect production processes at the atomic scale is described that incorporates molecular dynamics (MD), binary collision approximation (BCA) calculations and stochastic annealing simulations. The central hypothesis of the MMA is that the simple, fast computer codes capable of simulating large numbers of high energy cascades (e.g., BCA codes) can be made to yield the correct defect configurations when their parameters are calibrated using the results of the more physically realistic MD simulations. The calibration procedure is investigated using results of MD simulations of 25 keV cascades in copper. The configurations of point defects are extracted from the MD cascade simulations at the end of the collisional phase, similar to the information obtained with a binary collision model. The MD collisional phase defect configurations are used as input to the ALSOME annealing simulation code, and values of the ALSOME quenching parameters are determined that yield the best fit to the post-quenching defect configurations of the MD simulations

  7. Overload cascading failure on complex networks with heterogeneous load redistribution

    Hou, Yueyi; Xing, Xiaoyun; Li, Menghui; Zeng, An; Wang, Yougui

    2017-09-01

    Many real systems including the Internet, power-grid and financial networks experience rare but large overload cascading failures triggered by small initial shocks. Many models on complex networks have been developed to investigate this phenomenon. Most of these models are based on the load redistribution process and assume that the load on a failed node shifts to nearby nodes in the networks either evenly or according to the load distribution rule before the cascade. Inspired by the fact that real power-grid tends to place the excess load on the nodes with high remaining capacities, we study a heterogeneous load redistribution mechanism in a simplified sandpile model in this paper. We find that weak heterogeneity in load redistribution can effectively mitigate the cascade while strong heterogeneity in load redistribution may even enlarge the size of the final failure. With a parameter θ to control the degree of the redistribution heterogeneity, we identify a rather robust optimal θ∗ = 1. Finally, we find that θ∗ tends to shift to a larger value if the initial sand distribution is homogeneous.

  8. Optimization of operating regime of mass-diffusion cascades

    Chuzhinov, V.A.; Laguntsov, N.I.; Nikolaev, B.I.; Sulaberidze, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    This work deals with questions of the optimization of mass diffusion elements (columns or pumps) in cascades. Since the establishment and operation of real diffusion plants involves substantial outlays of material resources and energy, cascade optimization should be conducted in accordance with the criterion of the possibility of realizing further economies on the method and diffusion process. One of these indicators is the cost of the end product. Formulas are given for calculating the basic expenditures required for the production of an isotope in a cascade, and an analytical formula is obtained for assessing the cost of an enriched isotope mixture. Calculations are made of the influence of the steam flow rate on the cost of 99% 13 CH 4 and its constitutents, taking into account capital and power outlay on the construction and operation of the installation. It is demonstrated that as the result of a discrepancy between optimum power and capital outlays, the steam flow rate corresponding to the minimum cost is less than that corresponding to the maximum fractionating capacity of the column. In each specific case, optimization parameters should be selected having regard to the special features of the fractionating method and the fractionating apparatus. The results may be used in calculations of mass-diffusion fractionating installations, and also in comparisons of the effectiveness of the various methods used in the separation of these and other isotopes. (author)

  9. Cascading Events, Technology and the Floods Directive: future challenges

    Pescaroli Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cascading events can be referred to multidimensional disasters, where a primary trigger generates a nonlinear series of secondary emergencies that escalate in time, becoming eventually the priority to tackle. In this process, critical infrastructure can be handled as roots of vulnerabilities, because they accumulate both physical attributes and functional nodes. When compromised, they produce widespread breakdowns of society, but also orient emergency responses and long-term recovery. Although floods have been widely associated to the failure of vulnerable equipments or to the disruption of strategic sectors such as energy, communication and transportation, their integration with the emerging concept of cascading has been limited. This open topic presents many challenges for scholars, researchers and practitioners, in particular when the implementation of the EU Floods Directive is considered. The paper presents an overview of the Floods Directive and its relation with the cascading events, using case studies and examples from the existing literature to point out missing links and gaps in the legislation. Conclusions argue that the Directive considers only local geographical scales and limited temporal horizons, which can be result inadequate to limit the escalation of events.

  10. Cascade phenomenon against subsequent failures in complex networks

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Quan; He, Xuan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Cascade phenomenon may lead to catastrophic disasters which extremely imperil the network safety or security in various complex systems such as communication networks, power grids, social networks and so on. In some flow-based networks, the load of failed nodes can be redistributed locally to their neighboring nodes to maximally preserve the traffic oscillations or large-scale cascading failures. However, in such local flow redistribution model, a small set of key nodes attacked subsequently can result in network collapse. Then it is a critical problem to effectively find the set of key nodes in the network. To our best knowledge, this work is the first to study this problem comprehensively. We first introduce the extra capacity for every node to put up with flow fluctuations from neighbors, and two extra capacity distributions including degree based distribution and average distribution are employed. Four heuristic key nodes discovering methods including High-Degree-First (HDF), Low-Degree-First (LDF), Random and Greedy Algorithms (GA) are presented. Extensive simulations are realized in both scale-free networks and random networks. The results show that the greedy algorithm can efficiently find the set of key nodes in both scale-free and random networks. Our work studies network robustness against cascading failures from a very novel perspective, and methods and results are very useful for network robustness evaluations and protections.

  11. Failure cascade in interdependent network with traffic loads

    Hong, Sheng; Wang, Baoqing; Wang, Jianghui; Zhao, Tingdi; Ma, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks have been widely studied recent years, but most researches focus on the single, non-interacting networks. With the development of modern systems, many infrastructure networks are coupled together and therefore should be modeled as interdependent networks. For interdependent networks, failure of nodes in one network may lead to failure of dependent nodes in the other networks. This may happen recursively and lead to a failure cascade. In the real world, different networks carry different traffic loads. Overload and load redistribution may lead to more nodes’ failure. Considering the dependency between the interdependent networks and the traffic load, a small fraction of fault nodes may lead to complete fragmentation of a system. Based on the robust analysis of interdependent networks, we propose a costless defense strategy to suppress the failure cascade. Our findings highlight the need to consider the load and coupling preference when designing robust interdependent networks. And it is necessary to take actions in the early stage of the failure cascade to decrease the losses caused by the large-scale breakdown of infrastructure networks. (paper)

  12. Multiple roles of the coagulation protease cascade during virus infection.

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2014-04-24

    The coagulation cascade is activated during viral infections. This response may be part of the host defense system to limit spread of the pathogen. However, excessive activation of the coagulation cascade can be deleterious. In fact, inhibition of the tissue factor/factor VIIa complex reduced mortality in a monkey model of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Other studies showed that incorporation of tissue factor into the envelope of herpes simplex virus increases infection of endothelial cells and mice. Furthermore, binding of factor X to adenovirus serotype 5 enhances infection of hepatocytes but also increases the activation of the innate immune response to the virus. Coagulation proteases activate protease-activated receptors (PARs). Interestingly, we and others found that PAR1 and PAR2 modulate the immune response to viral infection. For instance, PAR1 positively regulates TLR3-dependent expression of the antiviral protein interferon β, whereas PAR2 negatively regulates expression during coxsackievirus group B infection. These studies indicate that the coagulation cascade plays multiple roles during viral infections.

  13. A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage voltage multiplier

    Iqbal, Shahid; Singh, G K; Besar, R; Muhammad, G

    2006-01-01

    A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier (CW-VM) is proposed in this report. It consists of three single-phase symmetrical voltage multipliers, which are connected in series at their smoothing columns like string of batteries and are driven by three-phase ac power source. The smoothing column of each voltage multiplier is charged twice every cycle independently by respective oscillating columns and discharged in series through load. The charging discharging process completes six times a cycle and therefore the output voltage ripple's frequency is of sixth order of the drive signal frequency. Thus the proposed approach eliminates the first five harmonic components of load generated voltage ripples and sixth harmonic is the major ripple component. The proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical voltage multiplier has less than half the voltage ripple, and three times larger output voltage and output power than the conventional single-phase symmetrical CW-VM. Experimental and simulation results of the laboratory prototype are given to show the feasibility of proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical CW-VM

  14. The importance of sensory integration processes for action cascading

    Gohil, Krutika; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dual tasking or action cascading is essential in everyday life and often investigated using tasks presenting stimuli in different sensory modalities. Findings obtained with multimodal tasks are often broadly generalized, but until today, it has remained unclear whether multimodal integration affects performance in action cascading or the underlying neurophysiology. To bridge this gap, we asked healthy young adults to complete a stop-change paradigm which presented different stimuli in either one or two modalities while recording behavioral and neurophysiological data. Bimodal stimulus presentation prolonged response times and affected bottom-up and top-down guided attentional processes as reflected by the P1 and N1, respectively. However, the most important effect was the modulation of response selection processes reflected by the P3 suggesting that a potentially different way of forming task goals operates during action cascading in bimodal vs. unimodal tasks. When two modalities are involved, separate task goals need to be formed while a conjoint task goal may be generated when all stimuli are presented in the same modality. On a systems level, these processes seem to be related to the modulation of activity in fronto-polar regions (BA10) as well as Broca's area (BA44). PMID:25820681

  15. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  16. Roentgenologic investigations for the anterior tooth length

    Cho, Won Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author measured the length of crown, root and tooth on the films which was taken by intraoral bisecting technic with mesh plate on the films. The films were taken from the dry skulls, dentiform, same patients who had to be removed their upper incisors, and the other patients who admitted for dental care. From this serial experiment the results were made as follows: 1. By using the film and mesh plate in the oral cavity, the real tooth length can be measured easily on the film surfaces. 2. The film distortion in the oral cavity can be avoided when taking the film using the mesh plate and film together. 3. When measuring the film, length of crown was elongated and length of root was shortened. 4. When using the well-trained bisecting technic, the real tooth length can be measured directly on the intraoral film.

  17. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)

  18. Microcomputer system for controlling fuel rod length

    Meyer, E.R.; Bouldin, D.W.; Bolfing, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A system is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to automatically measure and control the length of fuel rods for use in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The system utilizes an LSI-11 microcomputer for monitoring fuel rod length and for adjusting the primary factor affecting length. Preliminary results indicate that the automated system can maintain fuel rod length within the specified limits of 1.940 +- 0.040 in. This system provides quality control documentation and eliminates the dependence of the current fuel rod molding process on manual length control. In addition, the microcomputer system is compatible with planned efforts to extend control to fuel rod fissile and fertile material contents

  19. Computer simulation of cascade damage in iron: PKA mass effects

    Calder, A.; Bacon, D.J.; Barashev, A.; Osetsky, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Results are presented from an extensive series of computer simulations of the damage created by displacement cascades in alpha-iron. The objective has been to determine for the first time the effect of the mass of the primary knock-on atom (PKA) on defect number, defect clustering and cluster morphology. Cascades with PKA energy in the range 5 to 20 keV have been simulated by molecular dynamics for temperature up to 600 K using an interatomic potential for iron for which the energy difference between the dumbbell interstitial and the crowdion is close to the value from ab initio calculation (Ackland et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2004). At least 30 cascades have been simulated for each condition in order to generate reasonable statistics. The influence of PKA species on damage has been investigated in two ways. In one, the PKA atom was treated as an Fe atom as far as its interaction with other atoms was concerned, but its atomic weight (in amu) was either 12 (C), 56 (Fe) or 209 (Bi). Pairs of Bi PKAs have also been used to mimic heavy molecular ion irradiation. In the other approach, the short-range pair part of the interatomic potential was changed from Fe-Fe to that for Bi-Fe, either with or without a change of PKA mass, in order to study the influence of high-energy collisions on the cascade outcome. It is found that PKA mass is more influential than the interatomic potential between the PKA and Fe atoms. At low cascade energy (5-10 keV), increasing PKA mass leads to a decrease in number of interstitials and vacancies. At high energy (20 keV), the main effect of increasing mass is to increase the probability of creation of interstitial and vacancy clusters in the form of 1/2 and dislocation loops. The simulation results are consistent with experimental TEM observations of damage in irradiated iron. (authors)

  20. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  1. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  2. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.

  3. High performance 40-stage and 15-stage quantum cascade lasers based on two-material active region composition

    Figueiredo, P.; Suttinger, M.; Go, R.; Todi, A.; Shu, Hong; Tsvid, E.; Patel, C. Kumar N.; Lyakh, A.

    2017-05-01

    5.6μm quantum cascade lasers based on Al0.78In0.22As/In0.69Ga0.31As active region composition with measured pulsed room temperature wall plug efficiency of 28.3% are reported. Injection efficiency for the upper laser level of 75% was measured by testing devices with variable cavity length. Threshold current density of 1.7kA/cm2 and slope efficiency of 4.9W/A were measured for uncoated 3.15mm x 9µm lasers. Threshold current density and slope efficiency dependence on temperature in the range from 288K to 348K can be described by characteristic temperatures T0 140K and T1 710K, respectively. Pulsed slope efficiency, threshold current density, and wallplug efficiency for a 2.1mm x 10.4µm 15-stage device with the same design and a high reflection-coated back facet were measured to be 1.45W/A, 3.1kA/cm2 , and 18%, respectively. Continuous wave values for the same parameters were measured to be 1.42W/A, 3.7kA/cm2 , and 12%. Continuous wave optical power levels exceeding 0.5W per millimeter of cavity length was demonstrated. When combined with the 40-stage device data, the inverse slope efficiency dependence on cavity length for 15-stage data allowed for separate evaluation of the losses originating from the active region and from the cladding layers of the laser structure. Specifically, the active region losses for the studied design were found to be 0.77cm-1, while cladding region losses - 0.33cm-1. The data demonstrate that active region losses in mid wave infrared quantum cascade lasers largely define total waveguide losses and that their reduction should be one of the main priorities in the quantum cascade laser design.

  4. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  5. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  6. The benefits of longer fuel cycle lengths

    Kesler, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Longer fuel cycle lengths have been found to increase generation and improve outage management. A study at Duke Power Company has shown that longer fuel cycles offer both increased scheduling flexibility and increased capacity factors

  7. Atomic frequency-time-length standards

    Gheorghiu, O.C.; Mandache, C.

    1987-01-01

    The principles of operative of atomic frequency-time-length standards and their principle characteristics are described. The role of quartz crystal oscillators which are sloved to active or passive standards is presented. (authors)

  8. The analysis of projected fission track lengths

    Laslett, G.M.; Galbraith, R.F.; Green, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how features of the thermal history can be estimated from projected track length measurements, i.e. lengths of the remaining parts of tracks that have intersected a surface, projected onto that surface. The appropriate mathematical theory is described and used to provide a sound basis both for understanding the nature of projected length measurements and for analysing observed data. The estimation of thermal history parameters corresponding to the current temperature, the maximum palaeotemperature and the time since cooling, is studied using laboratory data and simulations. In general the information contained in projected track lengths and angles is fairly limited, compared, for example, with that from a much smaller number of confined tracks, though we identify some circumstances when such measurements may be useful. Also it is not straightforward to extract the information and simple ad hoc estimation methods are generally inadequate. (author)

  9. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  10. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  11. Characteristic length of the knotting probability revisited

    Uehara, Erica; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We present a self-avoiding polygon (SAP) model for circular DNA in which the radius of impermeable cylindrical segments corresponds to the screening length of double-stranded DNA surrounded by counter ions. For the model we evaluate the probability for a generated SAP with N segments having a given knot K through simulation. We call it the knotting probability of a knot K with N segments for the SAP model. We show that when N is large the most significant factor in the knotting probability is given by the exponentially decaying part exp(−N/N K ), where the estimates of parameter N K are consistent with the same value for all the different knots we investigated. We thus call it the characteristic length of the knotting probability. We give formulae expressing the characteristic length as a function of the cylindrical radius r ex , i.e. the screening length of double-stranded DNA. (paper)

  12. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  13. Study on the Connecting Length of CFRP

    Liu, Xiongfei; Li, Yue; Li, Zhanguo

    2018-05-01

    The paper studied the varying mode of shear stress in the connecting zone of CFRP. Using epoxy resin (EP) as bond material, performance of specimens with different connecting length of CFRP was tested to obtain the conclusion. CFRP-confined concrete column was tested subsequently to verify the conclusion. The results show that: (1) The binding properties of modified epoxy resin with CFRP is good; (2) As the connecting length increased, the ultimate tensile strength of CFRP increased as well in the range of the experiment parameters; (3) Tensile strength of CFRP can reach the ultimate strength when the connecting length is 90mm;(4) The connecting length of 90mm of CFRP meet the reinforcement requirements.

  14. Directional R-Loop Formation by the CRISPR-Cas Surveillance Complex Cascade Provides Efficient Off-Target Site Rejection

    Marius Rutkauskas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against foreign nucleic acids. In type I CRISPR-Cas systems, invading DNA is detected by a large ribonucleoprotein surveillance complex called Cascade. The crRNA component of Cascade is used to recognize target sites in foreign DNA (protospacers by formation of an R-loop driven by base-pairing complementarity. Using single-molecule supercoiling experiments with near base-pair resolution, we probe here the mechanism of R-loop formation and detect short-lived R-loop intermediates on off-target sites bearing single mismatches. We show that R-loops propagate directionally starting from the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM. Upon reaching a mismatch, R-loop propagation stalls and collapses in a length-dependent manner. This unambiguously demonstrates that directional zipping of the R-loop accomplishes efficient target recognition by rapidly rejecting binding to off-target sites with PAM-proximal mutations. R-loops that reach the protospacer end become locked to license DNA degradation by the auxiliary Cas3 nuclease/helicase without further target verification.

  15. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  16. Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database

    SRD 82 NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron effective attenuation lengths (EALs) in solid elements and compounds at selected electron energies between 50 eV and 2,000 eV. The database was designed mainly to provide EALs (to account for effects of elastic-eletron scattering) for applications in surface analysis by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  17. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  18. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)

  19. The SME gauge sector with minimum length

    Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.

    2017-12-01

    We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.

  20. A Novel Concept for Three-Phase Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Topologies

    Md Mubashwar Hasan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key challenges in multilevel inverters (MLIs design is to reduce the number of components used in the implementation while maximising the number of output voltage levels. This paper proposes a new concept that facilitates a device count reduction technique of existing cascaded MLIs. Moreover, the proposed concept can be utilised to extend existing single phase cascaded MLI topologies to three-phase structure without tripling the number of semiconductor components and input dc-supplies as per the current practice. The new generalized concept involves two stages; namely, cascaded stage and phase generator stage. The phase generator stage is a combination of a conventional three-phase two level inverter and three bi-directional switches while the cascaded stage can employ any existing cascaded topology. A laboratory prototype model is built and extensive experimental analyses are conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed cascaded MLI concept.

  1. Computer codes for simulating atomic-displacement cascades in solids subject to irradiation

    Asaoka, Takumi; Taji, Yukichi; Tsutsui, Tsuneo; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Nishida, Takahiko

    1979-03-01

    In order to study atomic displacement cascades originating from primary knock-on atoms in solids subject to incident radiation, the simulation code CASCADE/CLUSTER is adapted for use on FACOM/230-75 computer system. In addition, the code is modified so as to plot the defect patterns in crystalline solids. As other simulation code of the cascade process, MARLOWE is also available for use on the FACOM system. To deal with the thermal annealing of point defects produced in the cascade process, the code DAIQUIRI developed originally for body-centered cubic crystals is modified to be applicable also for face-centered cubic lattices. By combining CASCADE/CLUSTER and DAIQUIRI, we then prepared a computer code system CASCSRB to deal with heavy irradiation or saturation damage state of solids at normal temperature. Furthermore, a code system for the simulation of heavy irradiations CASCMARL is available, in which MARLOWE code is substituted for CASCADE in the CASCSRB system. (author)

  2. An Arabidopsis kinase cascade influences auxin-responsive cell expansion.

    Enders, Tara A; Frick, Elizabeth M; Strader, Lucia C

    2017-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades are conserved mechanisms of signal transduction across eukaryotes. Despite the importance of MPK proteins in signaling events, specific roles for many Arabidopsis MPK proteins remain unknown. Multiple studies have suggested roles for MPK signaling in a variety of auxin-related processes. To identify MPK proteins with roles in auxin response, we screened mpk insertional alleles and identified mpk1-1 as a mutant that displays hypersensitivity in auxin-responsive cell expansion assays. Further, mutants defective in the upstream MAP kinase kinase MKK3 also display hypersensitivity in auxin-responsive cell expansion assays, suggesting that this MPK cascade affects auxin-influenced cell expansion. We found that MPK1 interacts with and phosphorylates ROP BINDING PROTEIN KINASE 1 (RBK1), a protein kinase that interacts with members of the Rho-like GTPases from Plants (ROP) small GTPase family. Similar to mpk1-1 and mkk3-1 mutants, rbk1 insertional mutants display auxin hypersensitivity, consistent with a possible role for RBK1 downstream of MPK1 in influencing auxin-responsive cell expansion. We found that RBK1 directly phosphorylates ROP4 and ROP6, supporting the possibility that RBK1 effects on auxin-responsive cell expansion are mediated through phosphorylation-dependent modulation of ROP activity. Our data suggest a MKK3 • MPK1 • RBK1 phosphorylation cascade that may provide a dynamic module for altering cell expansion. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cascade Analysis of a Floating Wind Turbine Rotor

    Eliassen, Lene; Jakobsen, Jasna B; Knauer, Andreas; Nielsen, Finn Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Mounting a wind turbine on a floating foundation introduces more complexity to the aerodynamic loading. The floater motion contains a wide range of frequencies. To study some of the basic dynamic load effect on the blades due to these motions, a two-dimensional cascade approach, combined with a potential vortex method, is used. This is an alternative method to study the aeroelastic behavior of wind turbines that is different from the traditional blade element momentum method. The analysis tool demands little computational power relative to a full three dimensional vortex method, and can handle unsteady flows. When using the cascade plane, a ''cut'' is made at a section of the wind turbine blade. The flow is viewed parallel to the blade axis at this cut. The cascade model is commonly used for analysis of turbo machineries. Due to the simplicity of the code it requires little computational resources, however it has limitations in its validity. It can only handle two-dimensional potential flow, i.e. including neither three-dimensional effects, such as the tip loss effect, nor boundary layers and stall effects are modeled. The computational tool can however be valuable in the overall analysis of floating wind turbines, and evaluation of the rotor control system. A check of the validity of the vortex panel code using an airfoil profile is performed, comparing the variation of the lift force, to the theoretically derived Wagner function. To analyse the floating wind turbine, a floating structure with hub height 90 m is chosen. An axial motion of the rotor is considered

  4. Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion

    Holm, Samantha R.; Noon, Barry R.; Wiens, David; Ripple, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the barred owl (Strix varia) has expanded its range into the Pacific Northwest of the United States resulting in pronounced effects on the demography and behavior of the northern spotted owl (S. occidentalis caurina). The range expansion has brought together historically allopatric species, creating the potential for significant changes in the avian predator community with possible cascading effects on food-web dynamics. The adverse effects of the barred owl on the behavior and demography of the northern spotted owl are well-documented, but little is known about the immediate and long-term effects changes in the predator community may have on native species composition and ecosystem processes. Based on northern spotted owl and barred owl selection for diet and habitat resources, there is a potential for trophic cascades within the region's predator and prey communities, differing responses by their shared and unique prey species, and possible direct and indirect effects on ecosystem processes. We explored the possible ecological consequences of the barred owl range expansion to wildlife communities of the Pacific Northwest based on the theoretical underpinnings of predator–prey relationships, interspecific competition, intraguild predation, and potential cascading trophic interactions. Negative effects on fitness of northern spotted owls because of interspecific competition with barred owls are strong selection forces that may contribute to the regional extinction of the northern spotted owl. In addition, we posit that shared prey species and those uniquely consumed by barred owls, along with other competing native predators, may experience changes in behavior, abundance, and distribution as a result of increased rates of predation by rapidly expanding populations of barred owls.

  5. Probabilistic study of cascading failures in complex interdependent lifeline systems

    Hernandez-Fajardo, Isaac; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    The internal complexity of lifeline systems and their standing interdependencies can operate in conjunction to amplify the negative effects of external disruptions. This paper introduces a simulation-based methodology to evaluate the joint impact of interdependence, component fragilities, and cascading failures in systemic fragility estimates. The proposed strategy uses a graph model of interdependent networks, an enhanced betweenness centrality for cascading failures approximation, and an interdependence model accounting for coupling uncertainty in the simulation of damage propagation for probabilistic performance assessment. This methodology is illustrated through its application to a realistic set of power and water networks subjected to earthquake scenarios and random failures. Test case results reveal two key insights: (1) the intensity of a perturbation influences interdependent systemic fragility by shaping the magnitudes of initial component damage and, sometimes counter-intuitively, the subsequent interdependence effects and (2) increasing local redundancy mitigates the effects of interdependence on systemic performance, but such intervention is incapable of eliminating interdependent effects completely. The previous insights provide basic guidelines for the design of systemic retrofitting policies. Additionally, the limitations of local capacity redundancy as a fragility control measure highlight the need for a critical assessment of intervention strategies in distributed infrastructure networks. Future work will assess the fragility-reduction efficiency of strategies involving informed manipulation of individual systemic topologies and the interdependence interfaces connecting them. - Highlights: ► An new simulation methodology effectively produces interdependent fragility assessments, IFAs. ► IFAs include perturbation action, cascading failures, and interdependent effects. ► Method tested using coupled networks exposed to earthquake and random

  6. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  7. Lack of plasma kallikrein-kinin system cascade in teleosts.

    Marty Kwok-Shing Wong

    Full Text Available The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS consists of two major cascades in mammals: "plasma KKS" consisting of high molecular-weight (HMW kininogen (KNG, plasma kallikrein (KLKB1, and bradykinin (BK; and "tissue KKS" consisting of low molecular-weight (LMW KNG, tissue kallikreins (KLKs, and [Lys(0]-BK. Some components of the KKS have been identified in the fishes, but systematic analyses have not been performed, thus this study aims to define the KKS components in teleosts and pave a way for future physiological and evolutionary studies. Through a combination of genomics, molecular, and biochemical methods, we showed that the entire plasma KKS cascade is absent in teleosts. Instead of two KNGs as found in mammals, a single molecular weight KNG was found in various teleosts, which is homologous to the mammalian LMW KNG. Results of molecular phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicated that the all current teleost genomes lack KLKB1, and its unique protein structure, four apple domains and one trypsin domain, could not be identified in any genome or nucleotide databases. We identified some KLK-like proteins in teleost genomes by synteny and conserved domain analyses, which could be the orthologs of tetrapod KLKs. A radioimmunoassay system was established to measure the teleost BK and we found that [Arg(0]-BK is the major circulating form instead of BK, which supports that the teleost KKS is similar to the mammalian tissue KKS. Coincidently, coelacanths are the earliest vertebrate that possess both HMW KNG and KLKB1, which implies that the plasma KKS could have evolved in the early lobe-finned fish and descended to the tetrapod lineage. The co-evolution of HMW KNG and KLKB1 in lobe-finned fish and early tetrapods may mark the emergence of the plasma KKS and a contact activation system in blood coagulation, while teleosts may have retained a single KKS cascade.

  8. The cascade probabilistic functions and the Markov's processes. Chapter 1

    2003-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 the physical and mathematical descriptions of radiation processes are carried out. The relation of the cascade probabilistic functions (CPF) with Markov's chain is shown. The CPF calculation for electrons with the energy losses taking into account are given. The calculation of the CPF on the computer was carried out. The estimation of energy losses contribution in the CPFs and radiation defects concentration are made. Besides calculation of the primarily knock-on atoms and radiation defects at electron irradiation with use of the CPF with taking into account energy losses are conducted

  9. Widely tunable quantum cascade laser-based terahertz source.

    Danylov, Andriy A; Light, Alexander R; Waldman, Jerry; Erickson, Neal; Qian, Xifeng

    2014-07-10

    A compact, tunable, ultranarrowband terahertz source, Δν∼1  MHz, is demonstrated by upconversion of a 2.324 THz, free-running quantum cascade laser with a THz Schottky-diode-balanced mixer using a swept, synthesized microwave source to drive the nonlinearity. Continuously tunable radiation of 1 μW power is demonstrated in two frequency regions: ν(Laser) ± 0 to 50 GHz and ν(Laser) ± 70 to 115 GHz. The sideband spectra were characterized with a Fourier-transform spectrometer, and the radiation was tuned through CO, HDO, and D2O rotational transitions.

  10. Experimental evidence of enhancement in the anticipation time by cascading

    Baraik, Abhijit; Singh, Harpartap; Parmananda, P.

    2014-04-01

    We have studied and verified experimentally the enhancement in the anticipation time by cascading Chua's circuits. The experiments have been carried out in a one dimensional array of Chua's circuits (2 to 8) coupled unidirectionally, such that each one acts as a master for the next one. By doing so, it has been observed that the anticipation time increases with an increase in the array size. Moreover, the numerical simulations of an array of eighty Chua's circuits verify the experimental observations.

  11. Investigation of Transitional Flows on Compressor Blades in Cascade

    2011-09-01

    shedding at various off- design inlet flow angles and Re. B. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to refurbish the cascade Inlet Guide Vanes ( IGVs ...characteristics are listed in Table 1. To attain uniform inlet-flow the tunnel was brought to Re = 640K (See Section III.A for Re calculations) and the IGVs ...Prior to this study, all IGV trailing edges were machined down to a uniform thickness, re-pinned as needed, re-shimmed for clearance and their shafts

  12. Coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays

    G. M. de Naurois

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated InP-based coherent quantum cascade laser micro-stripe arrays. Phase-locking is provided by evanescent coupling between adjacent stripes. Stripes are buried into semi-insulating iron doped InP. Lasing at room temperature is obtained at 8.4μm for stripe arrays comprising up to 16 emitters. Pure supermode emission is demonstrated via farfield measurements and simulations. The farfield pattern shows a dual-lobe emission, corroborating the predicted phase-locked antisymmetric supermode emission.

  13. Ordered kinematic endpoints for 5-body cascade decays

    Klimek, Matthew D. [Theory Group, Department of Physics and Texas Cosmology Center,University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1608, Austin, TX, 78712 (United States)

    2016-12-23

    We present expressions for the kinematic endpoints of 5-body cascade decay chains proceeding through all possible combinations of 2-body and 3-body decays, with one stable invisible particle in the final decay stage. When an invariant mass can be formed in multiple ways by choosing different final state particles from a common vertex, we introduce techniques for finding the sub-leading endpoints for all indistinguishable versions of the invariant mass. In contrast to short decay chains, where sub-leading endpoints are linearly related to the leading endpoints, we find that in 5-body decays, they provide additional independent constraints on the mass spectrum.

  14. KEWPIE: a dynamical cascade code for decaying exited compound nuclei

    Bouriquet, Bertrand; Abe, Yasuhisa; Boilley, David

    2003-01-01

    A new dynamical cascade code for decaying hot nuclei is proposed and specially adapted to the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei. For such a case, the interesting channel is the tiny fraction that will decay through particles emission, thus the code avoids classical Monte-Carlo methods and proposes a new numerical scheme. The time dependence is explicitely taken into account in order to cope with the fact that fission decay rate might not be constant. The code allows to evaluate both statistical...

  15. KEWPIE: A dynamical cascade code for decaying exited compound nuclei

    Bouriquet, Bertrand; Abe, Yasuhisa; Boilley, David

    2004-05-01

    A new dynamical cascade code for decaying hot nuclei is proposed and specially adapted to the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei. For such a case, the interesting channel is of the tiny fraction that will decay through particles emission, thus the code avoids classical Monte-Carlo methods and proposes a new numerical scheme. The time dependence is explicitely taken into account in order to cope with the fact that fission decay rate might not be constant. The code allows to evaluate both statistical and dynamical observables. Results are successfully compared to experimental data.

  16. Surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers for chemical sensing

    Szedlak, Rolf; Hayden, Jakob; Martín-Mateos, Pedro; Holzbauer, Martin; Harrer, Andreas; Schwarz, Benedikt; Hinkov, Borislav; MacFarland, Donald; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Acedo, Pablo; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried

    2018-01-01

    We review recent advances in chemical sensing applications based on surface emitting ring quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). Such lasers can be implemented in monolithically integrated on-chip laser/detector devices forming compact gas sensors, which are based on direct absorption spectroscopy according to the Beer-Lambert law. Furthermore, we present experimental results on radio frequency modulation up to 150 MHz of surface emitting ring QCLs. This technique provides detailed insight into the modulation characteristics of such lasers. The gained knowledge facilitates the utilization of ring QCLs in combination with spectroscopic techniques, such as heterodyne phase-sensitive dispersion spectroscopy for gas detection and analysis.

  17. Beginning CSS Cascading Style Sheets for Web Design

    Pouncey, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Completely updated material and new examples show you what CSS can do With the latest versions of Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer, and other browsers released, CSS is more essential than ever. This beginner guide demonstrates how cascading style sheets can be used to define styles to items in Web pages, rather than format each item individually. Each lesson in this full-color book has been methodically revised to be more concise and efficient, making your learning experience as productive as possible.Covers the latest in CSS, including the new features of Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari,

  18. Orientifolds and duality cascades: confinement before the wall

    Argurio, Riccardo; Bertolini, Matteo

    2018-02-01

    We consider D-branes at orientifold singularities and discuss two properties of the corresponding low energy four-dimensional effective theories which are not shared, generically, by other Calabi-Yau singularities. The first property is that duality cascades are finite and, unlike ordinary ones, do not require an infinite number of degrees of freedom to be UV-completed. The second is that orientifolds tend to stabilize runaway directions. These two properties can have interesting implications and widen in an intriguing way the variety of gauge theories one can describe using D-branes.

  19. Connected word recognition using a cascaded neuro-computational model

    Hoya, Tetsuya; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2016-10-01

    We propose a novel framework for processing a continuous speech stream that contains a varying number of words, as well as non-speech periods. Speech samples are segmented into word-tokens and non-speech periods. An augmented version of an earlier-proposed, cascaded neuro-computational model is used for recognising individual words within the stream. Simulation studies using both a multi-speaker-dependent and speaker-independent digit string database show that the proposed method yields a recognition performance comparable to that obtained by a benchmark approach using hidden Markov models with embedded training.

  20. Hybrid-source impedance network and its generalized cascading concepts

    Li, Ding; Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid-source impedance networks have attracted attention among researchers because of their flexibility in performing buck-boost energy conversion. To date, three distinct types of impedance networks can be summarized for implementing voltage-type inverters, with another three types summarized...... for current-type inverters. These impedance networks can in principle be combined into a single generic network entity, before generalized cascading concepts are proposed for connecting multiple of them together to form energy converters with a higher output voltage gain and other unique advantages...

  1. Impedance coordinative control for cascaded converter in bidirectional application

    Tian, Yanjun; Loh, Poh Chiang; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    A two-stage cascaded converter is formed by connecting two sub-converters in series. Output impedance of one sub-converter will therefore interact with input impedance of the other sub-converter. Such interaction may affect the system dynamics and stability, especially when one sub......-converter is constant-power-controlled, and hence has different impedance characteristics when its power reverses. To lessen such constant-power effects, a control scheme that can coordinate impedance behaviors of the two sub-converters is proposed. The idea is to reshape the lowfrequency negative impedance...

  2. dq-Frame Cascaded Delayed Signal Cancellation-Based PLL

    Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    on their position in the PLL structure. Inspired from the concept of delayed signal cancellation (DSC), the idea of cascaded DSC (CDSC) has recently been introduced as an effective solution to improve the performance of the PLL under adverse grid conditions. However, the focus has been on the application of CDSC...... operator as the pre-filtering stage of PLL, and little work has been conducted on its application as the in-loop filtering stage of PLL. This paper provides a detailed analysis and design of dqCDSC-PLL (PLL with in-loop dq-frame CDSC operator). The study is started with an overview of this PLL...

  3. Hot-phonon generation in THz quantum cascade lasers

    Spagnolo, V.; Vitiello, M. S.; Scamarcio, G.; Williams, B. S.; Kumar, S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Observation of non-equilibrium optical phonons population associated with electron transport in THz quantum cascade lasers is reported. The phonon occupation number was measured by using a combination of micro-probe photoluminescence and Stokes/Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. Energy balance analysis allows us to estimate the phonon relaxation rate, that superlinearly increases with the electrical power in the range 1.5 W - 1.95 W, above laser threshold. This observation suggests the occurrence of stimulated emission of optical phonons.

  4. Determination of Aerosol Particle Diameter Using Cascade Impactor Procedure

    Bunawas; Ruslanto, P. O

    1998-01-01

    Determination of aerosol particle size distribution has been done using a low pressure Andersen's cascade impactor with 13 stages. The aerosol has been sampled with flow rate of aerosol sampling of 28.3 Ipm. Preliminary study result shows that aerosol in the simulation chamber was spread in monomodal distribution with Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter of 4.9 μm. The aerosol measurement in Japan Power Demonstration Reactor has been spread in trimodal distribution with Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter equal to 13.3 μm. The use of mylar as impaction plate instead of aluminum foil gives good result

  5. Fast gas spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers

    Beyer, T.; Braun, M.; Lambrecht, A.

    2003-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has found many industrial applications, e.g., control of automotive exhaust and process monitoring. The midinfrared region is of special interest because it has stronger absorption lines compared to the near infrared (NIR). However, in the NIR high quality reliable laser sources, detectors, and passive optical components are available. A quantum cascade laser could change this situation if fundamental advantages can be exploited with compact and reliable systems. It will be shown that, using pulsed lasers and available fast detectors, lower residual sensitivity levels than in corresponding NIR systems can be achieved. The stability is sufficient for industrial applications.

  6. Neutron spallation source and the Dubna cascade code

    Kumar, V; Goel, U; Barashenkov, V S

    2003-01-01

    Neutron multiplicity per incident proton, n/p, in collision of high energy proton beam with voluminous Pb and W targets has been estimated from the Dubna cascade code and compared with the available experimental data for the purpose of benchmarking of the code. Contributions of various atomic and nuclear processes for heat production and isotopic yield of secondary nuclei are also estimated to assess the heat and radioactivity conditions of the targets. Results obtained from the code show excellent agreement with the experimental data at beam energy, E < 1.2 GeV and differ maximum up to 25% at higher energy. (author)

  7. An algebraic approach to signaling cascades with N layers

    Feliu, Elisenda; Knudsen, Michael; Andersen, Lars Nørvang

    2012-01-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins is key in transmission of signals in cells. Many signaling pathways contain several layers of modification cycles that mediate and change the signal through the pathway. Here, we study a simple signaling cascade consisting of n layers of modification cyc...... state for any given total amounts of substrates and enzymes.We demonstrate that many steady-state concentrations are related through rational functions that can be found recursively. For example, stimulus-response curves arise as inverse functions to explicit rational functions. We show...

  8. Cascading Denial of Service Attacks on Wi-Fi Networks

    Xin, Liangxiao; Starobinski, David; Noubir, Guevara

    2016-01-01

    We unveil the existence of a vulnerability in Wi-Fi, which allows an adversary to remotely launch a Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack that propagates both in time and space. This vulnerability stems from a coupling effect induced by hidden nodes. Cascading DoS attacks can congest an entire network and do not require the adversary to violate any protocol. We demonstrate the feasibility of such attacks through experiments with real Wi-Fi cards, extensive ns-3 simulations, and theoretical analysis....

  9. Influence of interface roughness in quantum cascade lasers

    Krivas, K. A.; Winge, D. O.; Franckié, M.; Wacker, A.

    2015-01-01

    We use a numerical model based on non-equilibrium Green's functions to investigate the influence of interface roughness (IFR) scattering in terahertz quantum cascade lasers. We confirm that IFR is an important phenomenon that affects both current and gain. The simulations indicate that IFR causes a leakage current that transfers electrons from the upper to the lower laser state. In certain cases, this current can greatly reduce gain. In addition, individual interfaces and their impact on the renormalized single particle energies are studied and shown to give both blue- and red-shifts of the gain spectrum

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Nonstationary Separation Processes in Gas Centrifuge Cascade for Separation of Multicomponent Isotope Mixtures

    Orlov Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of development of the mathematical model of nonstationary separation processes occurring in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures. This model was used for the calculation parameters of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of germanium isotopes. Comparison of obtained values with results of other authors revealed that developed mathematical model is adequate to describe nonstationary separation processes in gas centrifuge cascades for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures.

  11. Mathematical model of nonstationary hydraulic processes in gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures

    Orlov, Aleksey Alekseevich; Ushakov, Anton; Sovach, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The article presents results of development of a mathematical model of nonstationary hydraulic processes in gas centrifuge cascade for separation of multicomponent isotope mixtures. This model was used for the calculation parameters of gas centrifuge cascade for separation of silicon isotopes. Comparison of obtained values with results of other authors revealed that developed mathematical model is adequate to describe nonstationary hydraulic processes in gas centrifuge cascades for separation...

  12. Controle qualite de l'eau de baignade de la Cascade de Man en ...

    La cascade Ypou du mont Tonkoui appelée couramment « cascade de Man » est un joyau naturel qui attire de nombreux touristes. Elle est très fréquentée pour sa beauté mais aussi pour la baignade. En amont de cette cascade, le paysage se compose de champs de café et selon la période, de maïs et de manioc. Il nous ...

  13. Electromagnetic Transient Response Analysis of DFIG under Cascading Grid Faults Considering Phase Angel Jumps

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper analysis the electromagnetic transient response characteristics of DFIG under symmetrical and asymmetrical cascading grid fault conditions considering phaseangel jump of grid. On deriving the dynamic equations of the DFIG with considering multiple constraints on balanced and unbalanced...... conditions, phase angel jumps, interval of cascading fault, electromagnetic transient characteristics, the principle of the DFIG response under cascading voltage fault can be extract. The influence of grid angel jump on the transient characteristic of DFIG is analyzed and electromagnetic response...

  14. Comparison of grey water treatment performance by a cascading sand filter and a constructed wetland.

    Kadewa, W W; Le Corre, K; Pidou, M; Jeffrey, P J; Jefferson, B

    2010-01-01

    A novel unplanted vertical flow subsurface constructed wetland technology comprising three shallow beds (0.6 m length, 0.45 m width and 0.2 m depth) arranged in a cascading series and a standard single-pass Vertical Flow Planted Constructed Wetland (VFPCW, 6 m² and 0.7 m depth) were tested for grey water treatment. Particular focus was on meeting consent for published wastewater reuse parameters and removal of anionic surfactants. Treatment performance at two hydraulic loading rates (HLR) of 0.08, and 0.17 m³ m⁻² d⁻¹ were compared. Both technologies effectively removed more than 90% turbidity and more than 96% for organics with the prototype meeting the most stringent reuse standard of < 2 NTU and <10 mg/L. However, surfactant removal in the VFPCW was higher (76-85%) than in the prototype which only achieved more than 50% removal at higher loading rate. Generally, the prototype performed consistently better than the VFPCW except for surfactant removal. However, at higher loading rates, both systems did not meet the reuse standard of <1 mg L⁻¹ for anionic surfactants. This observation confirms that shallow beds provide a more oxidised environment leading to higher BOD₅ and COD removals. Presence of plants in the VFPCW led to higher anionic surfactant removal, through increased microbial and sorption processes.

  15. C9orf72 nucleotide repeat structures initiate molecular cascades of disease.

    Haeusler, Aaron R; Donnelly, Christopher J; Periz, Goran; Simko, Eric A J; Shaw, Patrick G; Kim, Min-Sik; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Troncoso, Juan C; Pandey, Akhilesh; Sattler, Rita; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Wang, Jiou

    2014-03-13

    A hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE), (GGGGCC)n, in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here we identify a molecular mechanism by which structural polymorphism of the HRE leads to ALS/FTD pathology and defects. The HRE forms DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes with distinct structures and promotes RNA•DNA hybrids (R-loops). The structural polymorphism causes a repeat-length-dependent accumulation of transcripts aborted in the HRE region. These transcribed repeats bind to ribonucleoproteins in a conformation-dependent manner. Specifically, nucleolin, an essential nucleolar protein, preferentially binds the HRE G-quadruplex, and patient cells show evidence of nucleolar stress. Our results demonstrate that distinct C9orf72 HRE structural polymorphism at both DNA and RNA levels initiates molecular cascades leading to ALS/FTD pathologies, and provide the basis for a mechanistic model for repeat-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Cascades in Compartments: En Route to Machine-Assisted Biotechnology.

    Rabe, Kersten S; Müller, Joachim; Skoupi, Marc; Niemeyer, Christof M

    2017-10-23

    Biological compartmentalization is a fundamental principle of life that allows cells to metabolize, propagate, or communicate with their environment. Much research is devoted to understanding this basic principle and to harness biomimetic compartments and catalytic cascades as tools for technological processes. This Review summarizes the current state-of-the-art of these developments, with a special emphasis on length scales, mass transport phenomena, and molecular scaffolding approaches, ranging from small cross-linkers over proteins and nucleic acids to colloids and patterned surfaces. We conclude that the future exploration and exploitation of these complex systems will largely benefit from technical solutions for the integrated, machine-assisted development and maintenance of a next generation of biotechnological processes. These goals should be achievable by implementing microfluidics, robotics, and added manufacturing techniques supplemented by theoretical simulations as well as computer-aided process modeling based on big data obtained from multiscale experimental analyses. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Type-I cascaded quadratic soliton compression in lithium niobate: Compressing femtosecond pulses from high-power fiber lasers

    Bache, Morten; Wise, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    The output pulses of a commercial high-power femtosecond fiber laser or amplifier are typically around 300–500 fs with wavelengths of approximately 1030 nm and tens of microjoules of pulse energy. Here, we present a numerical study of cascaded quadratic soliton compression of such pulses in LiNbO3....... However, the strong group-velocity dispersion implies that the pulses can achieve moderate compression to durations of less than 130 fs in available crystal lengths. Most of the pulse energy is conserved because the compression is moderate. The effects of diffraction and spatial walk-off are addressed......, and in particular the latter could become an issue when compressing such long crystals (around 10 cm long). We finally show that the second harmonic contains a short pulse locked to the pump and a long multi-picosecond red-shifted detrimental component. The latter is caused by the nonlocal effects...

  18. A calibration-free ammonia breath sensor using a quantum cascade laser with WMS 2f/1f

    Owen, Kyle

    2013-12-22

    The amount of ammonia in exhaled breath has been linked to a variety of adverse medical conditions, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). The development of accurate, reliable breath sensors has the potential to improve medical care. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by the first harmonic (WMS 2f/1f) is a sensitive technique used in the development of calibration-free sensors. An ammonia gas sensor is designed and developed that uses a quantum cascade laser operating near 1,103.44 cm -1 and a multi-pass cell with an effective path length of 76.45 m. The sensor has a 7 ppbv detection limit and 5 % total uncertainty for breath measurements. The sensor was successfully used to detect ammonia in exhaled breath and compare healthy patients to patients diagnosed with CKD. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Evaluation of refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in heat cascading systems under the carbon dioxide emissions constraint: the proposal of the energy cascade balance table

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in cases of introducing both heat cascading systems and thermal recycling systems in industries located around urban areas. It is necessary to introduce heat cascading systems in the industrial sector in Japan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The concept of heat cascading is the multi-stage use of thermal energy by temperature level. This paper introduces three energy policies for introducing the heat cascading systems. The author develops an energy cascade model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs with carbon taxes. Five cases are investigated. Carbon dioxide emission constraints result in the enhancement of heat cascading, where high temperature heat is supplied for process heating while low temperature heat is shifted to refrigeration. It was found that increasing the amount of garbage combustion waste heat could reduce electric power for the turbo compression refrigerator by promoting waste heat driven ammonia absorption refrigerator. In addition, this study proposes an energy cascade balance table with respect to the temperature level

  20. length-weight relationhip of freshwater wild fish species

    Dr Naeem

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Length-weight (LWR) and length-length relationships (LLR) were determined for a freshwater catfish ... Key words: Mystus bleekeri, length-weight relationship, length-length relationship, predictive equations. INTRODUCTION. Mystus bleekeri (freshwater catfish Day, 1877), locally ..... fish farmers, Aquacult.