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Sample records for cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein

  1. Improved healing of transected rabbit Achilles tendon after a single injection of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Carina; Aspenberg, Per

    2003-01-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures in humans might be treated more efficiently with the help of a growth factor. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 has been shown to induce formation of tendon-like tissue. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 has a positive effect on mechanical parameters for tendon healing in a rabbit model with Achilles tendon transection. Controlled laboratory study. The right Achilles tendon of 40 rabbits was transected without tendon suture. Cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 (10 micro g) or vehicle control (acetate buffer) was injected locally 2 hours postoperatively. All tendons were tested biomechanically at 8 and 14 days, and treated tendons were histologically and radiographically evaluated at 56 days. At 14 days, both failure load and stiffness of treated tendons were increased by 35%. The treated tendons had significantly larger callus size at 8 and 14 days. Histologic and radiographic examination showed no signs of ossification in the treated tendons after 56 days. A single injection of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 led to a stronger and stiffer tendon callus than that in the controls without inducing bone formation. Similar results from a larger animal model would suggest a possible future use of cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-2 in the treatment of human Achilles tendon ruptures.

  2. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406.

  3. Molecular characterization and chromosomal assignment of equine cartilage derived retinoic acid sensitive protein (CD-RAP)/melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Lise Charlotte; Mata, Xavier; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2008-01-01

    Cartilage-derived retinoic acid sensitive protein (CD-RAP) also known as melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) has already been established as a marker for chondrocyte differentiation and a number of cancerous condition sin humans. Studies have also shown that CD-RAP/MIA is a potential marker of joint......RNA in articular cartilage and chondrocytes from horses with no signs of joint disease. The expression decreased as the cells dedifferentiated in monolayer culture. We also identified an equine CD-RAP/MIA splioce variant similar to that reported in humans. The CD_RAP/MIA protein was detected in equine synovial...... fluid, serum and culture medium from chondrocyte cultures. In conclusion, CD-RAP/MIA is expressed in equine cartilage and chondrocytes, and the protein can be detected in equine serum, synovial fluid and in culture medium from chondrocyte cultures. The equine gene and resulting protein share great...

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardwick, James C.; Kodach, Liudmila L.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the current understanding of colorectal cancer stems from the study of rare, inherited colorectal cancer syndromes. Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway have been found in juvenile polyposis, an inherited polyposis syndrome that predisposes to colorectal cancer. The

  5. Nuclear variants of bone morphogenetic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinhart Christopher A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs contribute to many different aspects of development including mesoderm formation, heart development, neurogenesis, skeletal development, and axis formation. They have previously been recognized only as secreted growth factors, but the present study detected Bmp2, Bmp4, and Gdf5/CDMP1 in the nuclei of cultured cells using immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting of nuclear extracts. Results In all three proteins, a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS was found to overlap the site at which the proproteins are cleaved to release the mature growth factors from the propeptides. Mutational analyses indicated that the nuclear variants of these three proteins are produced by initiating translation from downstream alternative start codons. The resulting proteins lack N-terminal signal peptides and are therefore translated in the cytoplasm rather than the endoplasmic reticulum, thus avoiding proteolytic processing in the secretory pathway. Instead, the uncleaved proteins (designated nBmp2, nBmp4, and nGdf5 containing the intact NLSs are translocated to the nucleus. Immunostaining of endogenous nBmp2 in cultured cells demonstrated that the amount of nBmp2 as well as its nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution differs between cells that are in M-phase versus other phases of the cell cycle. Conclusions The observation that nBmp2 localization varies throughout the cell cycle, as well as the conservation of a nuclear localization mechanism among three different BMP family members, suggests that these novel nuclear variants of BMP family proteins play an important functional role in the cell.

  6. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.A.; Rosen, V.; D'Alessandro, J.S.; Bauduy, M.; Cordes, P.; Harada, T.; Israel, D.I.; Hewick, R.M.; Kerns, K.M.; LaPan, P.; Luxenberg, D.P.; McQuaid, D.; Moutsatsos, I.K.; Nove, J.; Wozney, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  7. Role of bone morphogenetic protein-7 in renal fibrosis

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    Rui Xi eLi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis is final common pathway of end stage renal disease. Irrespective of the primary cause, renal fibrogenesis is a dynamic process which involves a large network of cellular and molecular interaction, including pro-inflammatory cell infiltration and activation, matrix-producing cell accumulation and activation, and secretion of profibrogenic factors that modulate extracellular matrix (ECM formation and cell-cell interaction. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 is a protein of the TGF-β super family and increasingly regarded as a counteracting molecule against TGF-β. A large variety of evidence shows an anti-fibrotic role of BMP-7 in chronic kidney disease, and this effect is largely mediated via counterbalancing the profibrotic effect of TGF-β. Besides, BMP-7 reduced ECM formation by inactivating matrix-producing cells and promoting mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET. BMP-7 also increased ECM degradation. Despite these observations, the anti-fibrotic effect of BMP-7 is still controversial such that fine regulation of BMP-7 expression in vivo might be a great challenge for its ultimate clinical application.

  8. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N.

    2006-01-01

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function

  9. Role of bone morphogenetic protein-7 in renal fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui Xi; Yiu, Wai Han; Tang, Sydney C. W.

    2015-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is final common pathway of end stage renal disease. Irrespective of the primary cause, renal fibrogenesis is a dynamic process which involves a large network of cellular and molecular interaction, including pro-inflammatory cell infiltration and activation, matrix-producing cell accumulation and activation, and secretion of profibrogenic factors that modulate extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and cell-cell interaction. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 is a protein of the TGF-β super family and increasingly regarded as a counteracting molecule against TGF-β. A large variety of evidence shows an anti-fibrotic role of BMP-7 in chronic kidney disease, and this effect is largely mediated via counterbalancing the profibrotic effect of TGF-β. Besides, BMP-7 reduced ECM formation by inactivating matrix-producing cells and promoting mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). BMP-7 also increased ECM degradation. Despite these observations, the anti-fibrotic effect of BMP-7 is still controversial such that fine regulation of BMP-7 expression in vivo might be a great challenge for its ultimate clinical application. PMID:25954203

  10. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone therapy: successes and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Bonnie; Kha, Tram; Tran, Sally; Dass, Crispin R

    2016-02-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), more specifically BMP-2, are being increasingly used in orthopaedic surgery due to advanced research into osteoinductive factors that may enhance and improve bone therapy. There are many areas in therapy that BMP-2 is being applied to, including dental treatment, open tibial fractures, cancer and spinal surgery. Within these areas of treatment, there are many reports of successes and pitfalls. This review explores the use of BMP-2 and its successes, pitfalls and future prospects in bone therapy. The PubMed database was consulted to compile this review. With successes in therapy, there were descriptions of a more rapid healing time with no signs of rejection or infection attributed to BMP-2 treatment. Pitfalls included BMP-2 'off-label' use, which lead to various adverse effects. Our search highlighted that optimising treatment with BMP-2 is a direction that many researchers are exploring, with areas of current research interest including concentration and dose of BMP-2, carrier type and delivery. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Bone morphogenetic proteins: from structure to clinical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granjeiro J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are multi-functional growth factors belonging to the transforming growth factor ß superfamily. Family members are expressed during limb development, endochondral ossification, early fracture, and cartilage repair. The activity of BMPs was first identified in the 1960s but the proteins responsible for bone induction were unknown until the purification and cloning of human BMPs in the 1980s. To date, about 15 BMP family members have been identified and characterized. The signal triggered by BMPs is transduced through serine/threonine kinase receptors, type I and II subtypes. Three type I receptors have been shown to bind BMP ligands, namely: type IA and IB BMP receptors and type IA activin receptors. BMPs seem to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and apoptosis, but their hallmark is their ability to induce bone, cartilage, ligament, and tendon formation at both heterotopic and orthotopic sites. This suggests that, in the future, they may play a major role in the treatment of bone diseases. Several animal studies have illustrated the potential of BMPs to enhance spinal fusion, repair critical-size defects, accelerate union, and heal articular cartilage lesions. Difficulties in producing and purifying BMPs from bone tissue have prompted the attempts made by several laboratories, including ours, to express these proteins in the recombinant form in heterologous systems. This review focuses on BMP structure, molecular mechanisms of action and significance and potential applications in medical, dental and veterinary practice for the treatment of cartilage and bone-related diseases.

  13. Strategies for delivering bone morphogenetic protein for bone healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begam, Howa [School of Bioscience and Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Nandi, Samit Kumar, E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery, Radiology West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata 700037 (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chanda, Abhijit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2017-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the most significant growth factors that belong to the Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) super-family. Though more than twenty members of this family have been identified so far in humans, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two growth factors: BMP-2 and BMP-7 for treatments of spinal fusion and long-bone fractures with collagen carriers. Currently BMPs are clinically used in spinal fusion, oral and maxillofacial surgery and also in the repair of long bone defects. The efficiency of BMPs depends a lot on the selection of suitable carriers. At present, different types of carrier materials are used: natural and synthetic polymers, calcium phosphate and ceramic-polymer composite materials. Number of research articles has been published on the minute intricacies of the loading process and release kinetics of BMPs. Despite the significant evidence of its potential for bone healing demonstrated in animal models, future clinical investigations are needed to define dose, scaffold and route of administration. The efficacy and application of BMPs in various levels with a proper carrier and dose is yet to be established. The present article collates various aspects of success and limitation and identifies the prospects and challenges associated with the use of BMPs in orthopaedic surgery. - Highlights: • Currently BMPs are clinically used in spinal fusion, oral and maxillofacial surgery and also in repair of long bone defects. • Different types of carrier materials are used: natural, synthetic polymers, calcium phosphate and ceramic-polymer composite • Efficacy and application of BMPs in various levels with proper carrier and dose is yet to be established • Number of research articles has been published on minute intricacies of loading process and release kinetics of BMPs • Present article collates success, limitation and identifies prospects, challenges for use of BMPs in orthopaedic surgery.

  14. Promotion of bone morphogenetic protein signaling by tetraspanins and glycosphingolipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs belong to the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily of secreted molecules. BMPs play essential roles in multiple developmental and homeostatic processes in metazoans. Malfunction of the BMP pathway can cause a variety of diseases in humans, including cancer, skeletal disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Identification of factors that ensure proper spatiotemporal control of BMP signaling is critical for understanding how this pathway is regulated. We have used a unique and sensitive genetic screen to identify the plasma membrane-localized tetraspanin TSP-21 as a key new factor in the C. elegans BMP-like "Sma/Mab" signaling pathway that controls body size and postembryonic M lineage development. We showed that TSP-21 acts in the signal-receiving cells and genetically functions at the ligand-receptor level. We further showed that TSP-21 can associate with itself and with two additional tetraspanins, TSP-12 and TSP-14, which also promote Sma/Mab signaling. TSP-12 and TSP-14 can also associate with SMA-6, the type I receptor of the Sma/Mab pathway. Finally, we found that glycosphingolipids, major components of the tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, are required for Sma/Mab signaling. Our findings suggest that the tetraspanin-enriched membrane microdomains are important for proper BMP signaling. As tetraspanins have emerged as diagnostic and prognostic markers for tumor progression, and TSP-21, TSP-12 and TSP-14 are all conserved in humans, we speculate that abnormal BMP signaling due to altered expression or function of certain tetraspanins may be a contributing factor to cancer development.

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 is a negative regulator of hepatocyte proliferation downregulated in the regenerating liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Cui-Ping; Ji, Wen-Min; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2006-01-01

    To characterize the expression and dynamic changes of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in hepatocytes in the regenerating liver in rats after partial hepatectomy (PH), and examine the effects of BMP-2 on proliferation of human Huh7 hepatoma cells. Fifty-four adult male Wistar rats were randomly

  16. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 is a negative regulator of hepatocyte proliferation downregulated in the regenerating liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Cui-Ping; Ji, Wen-Min; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the expression and dynamic changes of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in hepatocytes in the regenerating liver in rats after partial hepatectomy (PH), and examine the effects of BMP-2 on proliferation of human Huh7 hepatoma cells. METHODS: Fifty-four adult male Wistar rats

  17. Interleukin 17 enhances bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced ectopic bone formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, M.; Kruyt, M. C.; Groen, W. M.; Van Dorenmalen, K. M.A.; Dhert, W. J.A.; Öner, F. C.; Alblas, J.

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) stimulates the osteogenic differentiation of progenitor cells in vitro through a synergy with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. This study investigates whether the diverse responses mediated by IL-17 in vivo also lead to enhanced BMP-2-induced bone formation. Since IL-17 is

  18. Estrogens increase expression of bone morphogenetic protein 8b in brown adipose tissue of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Grefhorst (Aldo); J.C. van den Beukel (Anneke); A.F. van Houten (A.); J. Steenbergen (Jacobie); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fat to produce heat. Several studies showed that females have more active BAT. Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families are expressed

  19. Cross talk between insulin and bone morphogenetic protein signaling systems in brown adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Schulz, Tim J; Espinoza, Daniel O

    2010-01-01

    Both insulin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling systems are important for adipocyte differentiation. Analysis of gene expression in BMP7-treated fibroblasts revealed a coordinated change in insulin signaling components by BMP7. To further investigate the cross talk between insulin...... BMP7's suppressive effect on pref-1 transcription. Together, these data suggest cross talk between the insulin and BMP signaling systems by which BMP7 can rescue brown adipogenesis in cells with insulin resistance....

  20. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Coating on Titanium Implant Surface: a Systematic Review

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    Haim Haimov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the study is to systematically review the osseointegration process improvement by bone morphogenetic protein coating on titanium implant surface. Material and Methods: An electronic literature search was conducted through the MEDLINE (PubMed and EMBASE databases. The search was restricted for articles published during the last 10 years from October 2006 to September 2016 and articles were limited to English language. Results: A total of 41 articles were reviewed, and 8 of the most relevant articles that are suitable to the criteria were selected. Articles were analysed regarding concentration of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP, delivery systems, adverse reactions and the influence of the BMP on the bone and peri-implant surface in vivo. Finally, the present data included 340 implants and 236 models. Conclusions: It’s clearly shown from most of the examined studies that bone morphogenetic protein increases bone regeneration. Further studies should be done in order to induce and sustain bone formation activity. Osteogenic agent should be gradually liberated and not rapidly released with priority to three-dimension reservoir (incorporated titanium implant surface in order to avoid following severe side effects: inflammation, bleeding, haematoma, oedema, erythema, and graft failure.

  1. Maxillary anterior ridge augmentation with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Ryan K; Mealey, Brian L; Mills, Michael P; Thoma, Daniel S; Schoolfield, John; Cochran, David L; Mellonig, Jim

    2014-01-01

    No human studies exist on the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) as a sole graft material for lateral ridge augmentation in large ridge defect sites. This series evaluates the treatment outcome of maxillary anterior lateral ridge augmentation with rhBMP-2/ACS. Twenty patients were treated with rhBMP-2/ACS and fixation screws for space maintenance. Cone beam volumetric tomography measurements were used to determine gain in ridge width, and a bone core biopsy was obtained. The mean horizontal ridge gain was 1.2 mm across sites, and every site gained width.

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 signaling negatively modulates lymphatic development in vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunworth, William P; Cardona-Costa, Jose; Bozkulak, Esra Cagavi

    2014-01-01

    : Our aim was to delineate the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 signaling in lymphatic development. METHODS AND RESULTS: BMP2 signaling negatively regulates the formation of LECs. Developing LECs lack any detectable BMP signaling activity in both zebrafish and mouse embryos, and excess BMP2...... signaling in zebrafish embryos and mouse embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies substantially decrease the emergence of LECs. Mechanistically, BMP2 signaling induces expression of miR-31 and miR-181a in a SMAD-dependent mechanism, which in turn results in attenuated expression of prospero homeobox...

  3. Enhanced release of bone morphogenetic proteins from demineralized bone matrix by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2015-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is a useful method for sterilizing demineralized bone matrix (DBM), but its effect on the osteoinductivity of DBM is still controversial. In this study, the osteoinductive activity of gamma-irradiated DBM was examined using a mouse myoblastic cell line (C2C12). DBM was extracted from adult bovine bone and was irradiated at a dose of 25 kGy using a 60 cobalt gamma-irradiator. Cell proliferation with DBM was not affected by gamma-irradiation, but alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin productions were significantly increased in C2C12 cell groups treated with gamma-irradiated DBM. It was reasoned that bone morphogenetic proteins were more efficiently released from gamma-irradiated DBM than from the non-irradiated control. This result suggests the effectiveness of radiation sterilization of bone implants - Highlights: • Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was gamma-irradiated for sterilization. • Irradiated DBM had higher alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin production. • It was reasoned the more released bone morphogenetic proteins by irradiation. • This result supports the application of radiation sterilization for bone implants

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 promotes chondrogenesis in human amniotic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junjie; Yu, Guangrong; Cao, Chengfu; Pang, Jinhui; Chen, Xianqi

    2011-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles at multiple stages of chondrogenesis. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) in the differentiation of chondrocytes using tissue engineering techniques. The impact of BMP-7 on human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) was tested. The hAECs were treated either with recombinant human BMP-7 cDNA or with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) as a positive control for three weeks in vitro. Cartilaginous differentiation and proliferation were assayed by quantitative RT-PCR, histology, and in situ hybridization. Our results were such that hAECs treated with either BMP-7 or TGF-β1 expressed cartilage markers (aggrecan, Sox9, CEP-68, and type II and X collagens) within three weeks. Compared with a control vector, BMP-7 induced a decrease in type I collagen expression, while the transcription of the cartilage-specific type II collagen remained stable. In induction experiments, BMP-7 transgenic hAECs exhibited the largest amount of matrix synthesis. In conclusion, these data indicate that BMP-7 plays an important role in inducing the production of cartilage by hAECs in vitro. Cartilage differentiation and matrix maturation can be promoted by BMPs in a cartilage engineering paradigm. These properties make BMPs promising tools in the engineering of cartilaginous joint bio-prostheses and as candidate biological agents or genes for cartilage stabilisation.

  5. The ventralizing activity of Radar, a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein, reveals complex bone morphogenetic protein interactions controlling dorso-ventral patterning in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutel, C; Kishimoto, Y; Schulte-Merker, S; Rosa, F

    2000-12-01

    In Xenopus and zebrafish, BMP2, 4 and 7 have been implicated, after the onset of zygotic expression, in inducing and maintaining ventro-lateral cell fate during early development. We provide evidence here that a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Radar, may control early ventral specification in zebrafish. We show that Radar ventralizes zebrafish embryos and induces the early expression of bmp2b and bmp4. The analysis of Radar overexpression in both swirl/bmp2b mutants and embryos expressing truncated BMP receptors shows that Radar-induced ventralization is dependent on functional BMP2/4 pathways, and may initially rely on an Alk6-related signaling pathway. Finally, we show that while radar-injected swirl embryos still exhibit a strongly dorsalized phenotype, the overexpression of Radar into swirl/bmp2b mutant embryos restores ventral marker expression, including bmp4 expression. Our results suggest that a complex regulation of different BMP pathways controls dorso-ventral (DV) patterning from early cleavage stages until somitogenesis.

  6. Connective tissue growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 2 are induced following myocardial ischemia in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkovskiy, Arkady; Sagave, Julia; Czibik, Gabor; Baysa, Anton; Zihlavnikova Enayati, Katarina; Hillestad, Vigdis; Dahl, Christen Peder; Fiane, Arnt; Gullestad, Lars; Gravning, Jørgen; Ahmed, Shakil; Attramadal, Håvard; Valen, Guro; Vaage, Jarle

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to study the cardiac expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2, its receptor 1 b, and connective tissue growth factor, factors implicated in cardiac embryogenesis, following ischemia/hypoxia, heart failure, and in remodeling hearts from humans and mice. Biopsies from the left ventricle of patients with end-stage heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy or coronary artery disease were compared with donor hearts and biopsies from patients with normal heart function undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Mouse model of post-infarction remodeling was made by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. Hearts were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting after 24 hours and after 2 and 4 weeks. Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and mice post-infarction had increased cardiac expression of connective tissue growth factor. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 was increased in human hearts failing due to coronary artery disease and in mice post-infarction. Gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1 beta was reduced in hearts of patients with failure, but increased two weeks following permanent ligation of the left coronary artery in mice. In conclusion, connective tissue growth factor is upregulated in hearts of humans with dilated cardiomyopathy, bone morphogenetic protein 2 is upregulated in remodeling due to myocardial infarction while its receptor 1 b in human failing hearts is downregulated. A potential explanation might be an attempt to engage regenerative processes, which should be addressed by further, mechanistic studies.

  7. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2, but Not Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Exert Regenerative Effects on Canine and Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, Frances C.; Miranda-Bedate, Alberto; Van Heel, Ferdi W M; Riemers, Frank M.; Müller, Margot C M E; Creemers, Laura B.; Ito, Keita; Benz, Karin; Meij, Björn P.; Tryfonidou, Marianna A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  8. Bone morphogenetic protein-2, but not mesenchymal stromal cells, exert regenerative effects on canine and human nucleus pulposus cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, Frances; Miranda-Bedate, Alberto; van Heel, Ferdi; Riemers, Frank; Muller, Margot; Creemers, Laura; Ito, Keita; Benz, Karin; Meij, Björn; Tryfonidou, M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein-2, but not mesenchymal stromal cells, exert regenerative effects on Canine and human nucleus pulposus cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, F.C.; Miranda-Bedate, A.; Van Heel, F.W.M.; Riemers, F.M.; Müller, M.C.M.E.; Creemers, L.B.; Ito, K.; Benz, K.; Meij, B.P.; Tryfonidou, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  10. Non-viral bone morphogenetic protein 2 transfection of rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Dolder, J. van den; Yang, F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles have shown potential as non-viral vectors for gene delivery. The aim of this study was to induce bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)2 transfection in rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as a gene vector and then to evaluate the efficiency and

  11. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 in augmentation procedures: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Jaques; Padovan, Luis Eduardo Marques; Claudino, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. Several techniques have been proposed for augmentation of sites with insufficient bone volume. Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration in the oral environment. These cases demonstrate the applicability of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus elevation and augmentation procedures in the maxilla to enable dental implant placement. The use of rhBMP-2 in alveolar augmentation procedures had several clinical benefits for these patients.

  12. Survey of the Effectiveness of Internet Information on Patient Education for Bone Morphogenetic Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Briceño, Valentina; Lam, Sandi K; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    In light of recent reports of potential short- and long-term complications of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and increasing "off-label" use among spine surgeons, we wished to analyze online information on BMP and its controversial uses, as patients frequently search the Internet for medical information, even though the quality and accuracy of available information are highly variable. Between December 2014 and January 2015, we conducted a Google search to identify the 50 most accessed websites providing BMP information using the search phrase "bone morphogenetic protein." Websites were classified based on authorship. Each website was examined for the provision of appropriate patient inclusion and exclusion criteria, surgical and nonsurgical treatment alternatives, purported benefits, disclosure of common and potential complications, peer-reviewed literature citations, and discussion of off-label use. Two percent of websites were authored by private medical groups, 2% by academic medical groups, 10% by insurance companies, 16% by biomedical industries, 4% by news sources, 0% by lawyers, and 66% by others. Sixty-two percent referenced peer-reviewed literature. Benefits and complications were reported in 44% and 26% of websites, respectively. Surgical and nonsurgical treatment alternatives were mentioned in 16% and 4% of websites, respectively. Discussion of off-label BMP use occurred in 18% of websites. Our study showed the ineffectiveness of the Internet in reporting quality information on BMP use. We found that websites authored by insurance companies provide an acceptable foundation for patient education. This, however, cannot replace the need for a thorough dialogue between doctor and patient about risks, benefits, and indications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and substance P using graphene oxide for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La WG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wan-Geun La,1 Min Jin,1 Saibom Park,1,2 Hee-Hun Yoon,1 Gun-Jae Jeong,1 Suk Ho Bhang,1 Hoyoung Park,1,2 Kookheon Char,1,2 Byung-Soo Kim1,31School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2The National Creative Research Initiative Center for Intelligent Hybrids, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Institute of Bioengineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of KoreaAbstract: In this study, we demonstrate that graphene oxide (GO can be used for the delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and substance P (SP, and that this delivery promotes bone formation on titanium (Ti implants that are coated with GO. GO coating on Ti substrate enabled a sustained release of BMP-2. BMP-2 delivery using GO-coated Ti exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity in bone-forming cells in vitro compared with bare Ti. SP, which is known to recruit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, was co-delivered using Ti or GO-coated Ti to further promote bone formation. SP induced the migration of MSCs in vitro. The dual delivery of BMP-2 and SP using GO-coated Ti showed the greatest new bone formation on Ti implanted in the mouse calvaria compared with other groups. This approach may be useful to improve osteointegration of Ti in dental or orthopedic implants.Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone regeneration, graphene oxides, stem cell recruitment, substance P

  14. Purification of bone morphogenetic protein-2 from refolding mixtures using mixed-mode membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseler, Gesa; Pepelanova, Iliyana; Stuckenberg, Lena; Villain, Louis; Nölle, Volker; Odenthal, Uwe; Beutel, Sascha; Rinas, Ursula; Scheper, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we present the development of a process for the purification of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) using mixed-mode membrane chromatography. RhBMP-2 was produced as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. In vitro refolding using rapid dilution was carried out according to a previously established protocol. Different membrane chromatography phases were analyzed for their ability to purify BMP-2. A membrane phase with salt-tolerant properties resulting from mixed-mode ligand chemistry was able to selectively purify BMP-2 dimer from refolding mixtures. No further purification or polishing steps were necessary and high product purity was obtained. The produced BMP-2 exhibited a biological activity of 7.4 × 10 5  U/mg, comparable to commercial preparations. Mixed-mode membrane chromatography can be a valuable tool for the direct purification of proteins from solutions with high-conductivity, for example refolding buffers. In addition, in this particular case, it allowed us to circumvent the use of heparin-affinity chromatography, thus allowing the design of an animal-component-free process.

  15. Regulation of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Maturation by PPARδ: Effects on Bone Morphogenetic Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Simonini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, agonists of PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors provide clinical benefit and reduce damage. In contrast with PPARγ, agonists of PPARδ are more effective when given at later stages of EAE and increase myelin gene expression, suggesting effects on OL (oligodendrocyte maturation. In the present study we examined effects of the PPARδ agonist GW0742 on OPCs (OL progenitor cells, and tested whether the effects involve modulation of BMPs (bone morphogenetic proteins. We show that effects of GW0742 are mediated through PPARδ since no amelioration of EAE clinical scores was observed in PPARδ-null mice. In OPCs derived from E13 mice (where E is embryonic day, GW0742, but not the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone, increased the number of myelin-producing OLs. This was due to activation of PPARδ since process formation was reduced in PPARδ-null compared with wild-type OPCs. In both OPCs and enriched astrocyte cultures, GW0742 increased noggin protein expression; however, noggin mRNA was only increased in astrocytes. In contrast, GW0742 reduced BMP2 and BMP4 mRNA levels in OPCs, with lesser effects in astrocytes. These findings demonstrate that PPARδ plays a role in OPC maturation, mediated, in part, by regulation of BMP and BMP antagonists.

  16. Bone morphogenetic protein use in spine surgery-complications and outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundez, Antonio; Tournier, Clément; Garcia, Matthieu; Aunoble, Stéphane; Le Huec, Jean-Charles

    2016-06-01

    Because of significant complications related to the use of autologous bone grafts in spinal fusion surgery, bone substitutes and growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) have been developed. One of them, recombinant human (rh) BMP-2, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use under precise conditions. However, rhBMP-2-related side effects have been reported, used in FDA-approved procedures, but also in off-label use.A systematic review of clinical data was conducted to analyse the rhBMP-2-related adverse events (AEs), in order to assess their prevalence and the associated surgery practices. Medline search with keywords "bone morphogenetic protein 2", "lumbar spine", "anterolateral interbody fusion" (ALIF) and the filter "clinical trial". FDA published reports were also included. Study assessment was made by authors (experienced spine surgeons), based on quality of study designs and level of evidence. Extensive review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled series published up to the present point, reveal no evidence of a significant increase of AEs related to rhBMP-2 use during ALIF surgeries, provided that it is used following FDA guidelines. Two additional RCTs performed with rhBMP-2 in combination with allogenic bone dowels reported increased bone remodelling in BMP-treated patients. This AE was transient and had no consequence on the clinical outcome of the patients. No other BMP-related AEs were reported in these studies. This literature review confirms that the use of rhBMP-2 following FDA-approved recommendations (i.e. one-level ALIF surgery with an LT-cage) is safe. The rate of complications is low and the AEs had been identified by the FDA during the pre-marketing clinical trials. The clinical efficiency of rhBMP-2 is equal or superior to that of allogenic or autologous bone graft in respect to fusion rate, low back pain disability, patient satisfaction and rate of re-operations. For all other off

  17. The evaluation of lyophilized polymer matrices for administering recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggirala, S S; Rodgers, J B; DeLuca, P P

    1996-07-01

    Novel unitary devices, prepared by lyophilization of viscous solutions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and methylcellulose (MC), were evaluated as sustained-release delivery systems for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). In vitro characterization of the unitary devices, which contained rhBMP-2-loaded poly (d,l lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) bioerodible particles (BEPs), was conducted over a 2-month period. Determinations included buffer uptake, mass and molecular weight loss and rhBMP-2 release from the unitary devices. CMC devices imbibed approximately 16 times their weight of buffer, while with MC, equilibrium uptake was approximately 6 times the dry weight of the devices. Overall mass loss percentages were approximately 55 and 35%, respectively, for CMC and MC devices. rhBMP-2 release from the devices was essentially a triphasic process: an initial phase during which "free" protein (rhBMP-2 present on the surface and within the pores of the PLGA BEPs) was released, a lag period during which no release was discerned, and then release of "bound" rhBMP-2 (protein adsorbed to the BEPs). The release of bound protein correlated with the mass loss of the polymer which began after 3 weeks. Release from the unitary devices was lower than that from the BEPs alone, due to a retardation effect of the gelled CMC/MC polymers. In rabbits in which full-thickness cranial bone defects were created, the implants were well tolerated and induced significant new bone growth during an 8-week evaluation period. The CMC devices appear to have induced bone earlier (at 2 weeks), but this did not affect eventual 8-week results. CMC devices without rhBMP-2 appeared to provide some bone conduction, in contrast to the blank MC devices.

  18. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Msx1 and Msx2 Inhibit Myocardin-Dependent Smooth Muscle Gene Transcription▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene ex...

  19. Effective Inhibition of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Function by Highly Specific Llama-Derived Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe, Silvia; Wagner, Koen; El Khattabi, Mohamed; Rutten, Lucy; Zimberlin, Cheryl; Dolk, Edward; Verrips, C Theo; Medema, Jan Paul; Spits, Hergen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2015-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) have important but distinct roles in tissue homeostasis and disease, including carcinogenesis and tumor progression. A large number of BMP inhibitors are available to study BMP function; however, as most of these antagonists are promiscuous, evaluating specific effects of individual BMPs is not feasible. Because the oncogenic role of the different BMPs varies for each neoplasm, highly selective BMP inhibitors are required. Here, we describe the generation of three types of llama-derived heavy chain variable domains (VHH) that selectively bind to either BMP4, to BMP2 and 4, or to BMP2, 4, 5, and 6. These generated VHHs have high affinity to their targets and are able to inhibit BMP signaling. Epitope binning and docking modeling have shed light into the basis for their BMP specificity. As opposed to the wide structural reach of natural inhibitors, these small molecules target the grooves and pockets of BMPs involved in receptor binding. In organoid experiments, specific inhibition of BMP4 does not affect the activation of normal stem cells. Furthermore, in vitro inhibition of cancer-derived BMP4 noncanonical signals results in an increase of chemosensitivity in a colorectal cancer cell line. Therefore, because of their high specificity and low off-target effects, these VHHs could represent a therapeutic alternative for BMP4(+) malignancies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins and Msx genes during root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, T; Tummers, M; Thesleff, I

    2003-03-01

    Like crown development, root formation is also regulated by interactions between epithelial and mesenchymml tissues. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), together with the transcription factors Msx1 and Msx2, play important roles in these interactions during early tooth morphogenesis. To investigate the involvement of this signaling pathway in root development, we analyzed the expression patterns of Bmp2, Bmp3, Bmp4, and Bmp7 as well as Msx1 and Msx2 in the roots of mouse molars. Bmp4 was expressed in the apical mesenchyme and Msx2 in the root sheath. However, Bmps were not detected in the root sheath epithelium, and Msx transcripts were absent from the underlying mesenchyme. These findings indicate that this Bmp signaling pathway, required for tooth initiation, does not regulate root development, but we suggest that root shape may be regulated by a mechanism similar to that regulating crown shape in cap-stage tooth germs. Msx2 expression continued in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and the nearby cementoblasts intensely expressed Bmp3, which may regulate some functions of the fragmented epithelium.

  1. Increased bone morphogenetic protein signaling contributes to age-related declines in neurogenesis and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Emily A; Gobeske, Kevin T; Bond, Allison M; Jarrett, Jennifer C; Peng, Chian-Yu; Kessler, John A

    2016-02-01

    Aging is associated with decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and diminished hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) increases with age by more than 10-fold in the mouse dentate gyrus while levels of the BMP inhibitor, noggin, decrease. This results in a profound 30-fold increase in phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8, the effector of canonical BMP signaling. Just as observed in mice, a profound increase in expression of BMP4 is observed in the dentate gyrus of humans with no known cognitive abnormalities. Inhibition of BMP signaling either by overexpression of noggin or transgenic manipulation not only increases neurogenesis in aging mice, but remarkably, is associated with a rescue of cognitive deficits to levels comparable to young mice. Additive benefits are observed when combining inhibition of BMP signaling and environmental enrichment. These findings indicate that increased BMP signaling contributes significantly to impairments in neurogenesis and to cognitive decline associated with aging, and identify this pathway as a potential druggable target for reversing age-related changes in cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The content of bone morphogenetic proteins in platelets varies greatly between different platelet donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, Anders; Wahlstroem, Ola; Linder, Cecilia Halling; Magnusson, Per

    2008-01-01

    Platelet derivates and platelet rich plasma have been used to stimulate bone formation and wound healing because of the rich content of potent growth factors. However, not all reports have been conclusive since some have not been able to demonstrate a positive effect. We investigated the interindividual variation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in platelets from healthy donors, and the pH-dependent effect on the release of BMPs in preparations of lysed platelets in buffer (LPB). Platelet concentrates from 31 healthy donors were prepared in pH 4.3 and pH 7.4 buffers and investigated with respect to BMP-2, -4, -6, and -7. BMP-2 and BMP-4 were significantly more common in acidic LPBs in comparison with neutral preparations. We also observed a considerable variation among platelet donors with respect to the release of BMPs at pH 4.3 and 7.4. In conclusion, a considerable variation was found among platelet donors, which may be of importance considering the ambiguous results previously reported on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation

  3. A new biocompatible delivery scaffold containing heparin and bone morphogenetic protein 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyaphoo Suphannee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-substituted calcium phosphate (Si-CaP was developed in our laboratory as a biomaterial for delivery in bone tissue engineering. It was fabricated as a 3D-construct of scaffolds using chitosan-trisodium polyphosphate (TPP cross-linked networks. In this study, heparin was covalently bonded to the residual -NH2 groups of chitosan on the scaffold applying carbodiimide chemistry. Bonded heparin was not leached away from scaffold surfaces upon vigorous washing or extended storage. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2 was bound to conjugated scaffolds by ionic interactions between the negatively charged SO42- clusters of heparin and positively charged amino acids of rhBMP-2. The resulting scaffolds were inspected for bone regenerative capacity by subcutaneous implanting in rats. Histological observation and mineralization assay were performed after 4 weeks of implantation. Results from both in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest the potential of the developed scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications in the future.

  4. Polyhedral microcrystals encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 improve healing in the alveolar ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Goichi; Ueda, Takayo; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Mizoguchi, Megumi; Kotani, Eiji; Oda, Naoki; Kawamata, Shin; Segami, Natsuki; Mori, Hajime

    2015-08-01

    Atelocollagen sponges incorporating polyhedra encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were implanted into lateral bone defects in the mandible. Half of the bone defects on the left side were treated with atelocollagen sponges containing 1.8 × 10(7) BMP-2 polyhedra, and half were treated with sponges containing 3.6 × 10(6) BMP-2 polyhedra. As controls, we treated the right-side bone defects in each animal with an atelocollagen sponge containing 5 µg of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) or 1.8 × 10(7) empty polyhedral. After a healing period of six months, whole mandibles were removed for micro-computed tomography (CT) and histological analyses. Micro-CT images showed that more bone had formed at all experimental sites than at control sites. However, the density of the new bone was not significantly higher at sites with an atelocollagen sponge containing BMP-2 polyhedra than at sites with an atelocollagen sponge containing rhBMP-2 or empty polyhedra. Histological examination confirmed that the BMP-2 polyhedra almost entirely replaced the atelocollagen sponges and connected the original bone with the regenerated bone. These results show that the BMP-2 delivery system facilitates the regeneration of new bone in the mandibular alveolar bone ridge and has an advance in the technology of bone regeneration for implant site development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Exaggerated inflammatory response after use of recombinant bone morphogenetic protein in recurrent unicameral bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kevin M; Swanstrom, Morgan M; McCarthy, James J; Nemeth, Blaise A; Guliani, Teresa A; Noonan, Kenneth J

    2010-03-01

    Recurrent unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) can result in significant morbidity during a child's physical and emotional development. Multiple treatment options are available and a review of the literature fails to clearly define the optimal treatment for UBCs. Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) has been used with success in other disorders of poor bone formation. This manuscript is the first to report on the use of recombinant BMP in the treatment of UBCs. Three patients with recurrent UBCs underwent revision surgery with recombinant BMP. Radiographic and medical review was performed and is reported here. In these patients, the use of BMP failed to fully resolve their UBC; 2 patients had complete recurrence that required further surgery. In addition to poor radiographic results, all patients developed exaggerated inflammatory responses in the acute postoperative period. Each child developed clinically significant limb swelling and pain that mimicked infection. On the basis of our poor radiographic results and a paradoxical clinical result, we no longer recommend the use of recombinant BMP in the manner reported here for the treatment of recurrent UBCs. Level IV, case series.

  6. Xerogel Interfaced Nanofibers Stimulate Bone Regeneration Through the Activation of Integrin and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo-Mi; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Lee, Hye-Young; Lim, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2017-02-01

    A xerogel was interfaced onto biopolymer nanofibers though a core–shell electrospinning design for bone regeneration. The xerogel-interfaced biopolymer nanofibrous matrix was bioactive and highly hydrophilic, with a significant decrease in the water contact angle. The matrix showed excellent in vitro responses of primary osteoblasts in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, the osteoblastic differentiation of cells, including alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and gene expression, was significantly upregulated by the xerogel interface. In vivo animal tests in a critical-sized calvarial defect confirmed the new bone formation ability of the xerogel-surfaced nanofiber matrices. The underlying signaling mechanisms of the stimulation were implied to be integrin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways, as demonstrated by the activation of integrin (α2β1) and downstream signaling molecules (FAK, paxillin, RhoA, MAPK, and NF-κB), as well as the BMPs and the downstream transcription factor Smad1/5/8. Taking these findings together, the xerogel-surfaced biopolymer nanofibers are proposed to be a promising scaffold candidate for bone regeneration.

  7. Downregulation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 promotes the development of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Ximao; Yang, Yili; Jia, Deshui; Jing, Ying; Zhang, Shouhua; Zheng, Shan; Cui, Long; Dong, Rui; Dong, Kuiran

    2017-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. In this study, we examined the expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) in primary NB and adjacent non-tumor samples (adrenal gland). BMPR2 expression was significantly downregulated in NB tissues, particularly in high-grade NB, and was inversely related to the expression of the NB differentiation markers ferritin and enolase. The significance of the downregulation was further explored in cultured NB cells. While enforced expression of BMPR2 decreased cell proliferation and colony-forming activity, shRNA-mediated knockdown of BMPR2 led to increased cell growth and clonogenicity. In mice, NB cells harboring BMPR2 shRNA showed significantly increased tumorigenicity compared with control cells. We also performed a retrospective analysis of NB patients and identified a significant positive correlation between tumor BMPR2 expression and overall survival. These findings suggest that BMPR2 may play an important role in the development of NB. - Highlights: • BMPR2 expression was downregulated in primary NB and was more signifcant in high grade NB. • BMPR2 expression was accompanied by the decrease of NB markers ferritin and enolase. • Enforced expression of BMPR2 decreased proliferation and colony formation ability of cultured NB cells. • Knockdown of BMPR2 led to increased cell growth, clonality and tumorigenicity in mice. • Patients with NB expressing higher level of BMPR2 had significant better overall survival than those with low level.

  8. Intervariability and intravariability of bone morphogenetic proteins in commercially available demineralized bone matrix products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun W; Zhao, Li; Kanim, Linda E A; Wong, Pamela; Delamarter, Rick B; Dawson, Edgar G

    2006-05-20

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2, 4, and 7 in 9 commercially available ("off the shelf") demineralized bone matrix (DBM) product formulations using 3 different manufacturer's production lots of each DBM formulation. To evaluate and compare the quantity of BMPs among several different DBM formulations (inter-product variability), as well as examine the variability of these proteins in different production lots within the same DBM formulation (intra-product variability). DBMs are commonly used to augment available bone graft in spinal fusion procedures. Surgeons are presented with an ever-increasing variety of commercially available human DBMs from which to choose. Yet, there is limited information on a specific DBM product's osteoinductive efficacy, potency, and constancy. There were protein extracts from each DBM sample separately dialyzed 4 times against distilled water at 4 degrees C for 48 hours. The amount of BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7 was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS.: The concentrations of detected BMP-2 and BMP-7 were low for all DBM formulations, only nanograms of BMP were extracted from each gram of DBM (20.2-120.6 ng BMP-2/g DBM product; 54.2-226.8 ng BMP-7/g DBM). The variability of BMP concentrations among different lots of the same DBM formulation, intra-product variability, was higher than the variability of concentrations among different DBM formulations, inter-product variability (coefficient of variation range BMP-2 [16.34% to 76.01%], P DBMs are low, in the order of 1 x 10(-9) g of BMP/g of DBM. There is higher variability in concentration of BMPs among 3 different lots of the same DBM formulation than among different DBM formulations. This variability questions DBM products' reliability and, possibly, efficacy in providing consistent osteoinduction.

  9. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) Acts as a BMP and Wnt Inhibitor during Early Embryogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Elisa; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) belongs to an unusual subgroup of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of signaling ligands as it lacks a key cysteine residue in the mature region required for proper intermolecular dimerization. Naturally occurring BMP15 mutation leads to early ovarian failure in humans, and BMP15 has been shown to activate the Smad1/5/8 pathway in that context. Despite its important role in germ cell specification, the embryological function of BMP15 remains unknown. Surprisingly, we find that during early Xenopus embryogenesis BMP15 acts solely as an inhibitor of the Smad1/5/8 pathway and the Wnt pathway. BMP15 gain-of-function leads to embryos with secondary ectopic heads and to direct neural induction in intact explants. BMP15 inhibits BMP4-mediated epidermal induction in dissociated explants. BMP15 strongly inhibits BRE response induced by BMP4 and blocks phosphorylation and activation of Smad1/5/8 MH2-domain. Mechanistically, BMP15 protein specifically interacts with BMP4 protein, suggesting inhibition upstream of receptor binding. Loss-of-function experiments using morpholinos or a naturally occurring human BMP15 dominant-negative mutant (BMP15-Y235C) leads to embryos lacking head. BMP15-Y235C also eliminates the inhibitory activity of BMP15 on BRE (BMP-responsive element). Finally, we show that BMP15 inhibits the canonical branch of the Wnt pathway, upstream of β-catenin. We, thus, demonstrate that BMP15 is necessary and sufficient for the specification of dorso-anterior structures and highlight novel mechanisms of BMP15 function that strongly suggest a reinterpretation of its function in ovaries specially for ovarian failure. PMID:19553676

  10. Site-Directed Immobilization of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 to Solid Surfaces by Click Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverino, Claudia; Tabisz, Barbara; Lühmann, Tessa; Meinel, Lorenz; Müller, Thomas; Walles, Heike; Nickel, Joachim

    2018-03-29

    Different therapeutic strategies for the treatment of non-healing long bone defects have been intensively investigated. Currently used treatments present several limitations that have led to the use of biomaterials in combination with osteogenic growth factors, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Commonly used absorption or encapsulation methods require supra-physiological amounts of BMP2, typically resulting in a so-called initial burst release effect that provokes several severe adverse side effects. A possible strategy to overcome these problems would be to covalently couple the protein to the scaffold. Moreover, coupling should be performed in a site-specific manner in order to guarantee a reproducible product outcome. Therefore, we created a BMP2 variant, in which an artificial amino acid (propargyl-L-lysine) was introduced into the mature part of the BMP2 protein by codon usage expansion (BMP2-K3Plk). BMP2-K3Plk was coupled to functionalized beads through copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The biological activity of the coupled BMP2-K3Plk was proven in vitro and the osteogenic activity of the BMP2-K3Plk-functionalized beads was proven in cell based assays. The functionalized beads in contact with C2C12 cells were able to induce alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression in locally restricted proximity of the bead. Thus, by this technique, functionalized scaffolds can be produced that can trigger cell differentiation towards an osteogenic lineage. Additionally, lower BMP2 doses are sufficient due to the controlled orientation of site-directed coupled BMP2. With this method, BMPs are always exposed to their receptors on the cell surface in the appropriate orientation, which is not the case if the factors are coupled via non-site-directed coupling techniques. The product outcome is highly controllable and, thus, results in materials with homogeneous properties, improving their applicability for the repair of critical size bone defects.

  11. Heterologous Secretory Expression and Characterization of Dimerized Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 in Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Hanif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP2 has important applications in the spine fusion and ortho/maxillofacial surgeries. Here we first report the secretory expression of biological active dimerized rhBMP2 from Bacillus subtilis system. The mature domain of BMP2 gene was amplified from pTz57R/BMP2 plasmid. By using pHT43 expression vector two constructs, pHT43-BMP2-M (single BMP2 gene and pHT43-BMP2-D (two BMP2 genes coupled with a linker to produce a dimer, were designed. After primary cloning (DH5α strain and sequence analysis, constructs were transformed into Bacillus subtilis for secretory expression. Expression conditions like media (2xYT and temperature (30°C were optimized. Maximum 35% and 25% secretory expression of monomer (~13 kDa and dimer (~25 kDa, respectively, were observed on SDS-PAGE in SCK6 strain. The expression and dimeric nature of rhBMP2 were confirmed by western blot and native PAGE analysis. For rhBMP2 purification, 200 ml culture supernatant was freeze dried to 10 ml and dialyzed (Tris-Cl, pH 8.5 and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (6 ml, Resource Q column was performed. The rhBMP2 monomer and dimer were eluted at 0.9 M and 0.6 M NaCl, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase assay of rhBMP2 (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ng/ml was analyzed on C2C12 cells and maximum 200 ng/ml activity was observed in dose dependent manner.

  12. Coat Protein Mutations That Alter the Flux of Morphogenetic Intermediates through the ϕX174 Early Assembly Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brody J; Li, Shuaizhi; Roznowski, Aaron P; Perez, Alexis R; Villarreal, Rodrigo H; Johnson, Curtis J; Hardy, Margaret; Tuckerman, Edward C; Burch, April D; Fane, Bentley A

    2017-12-15

    Two scaffolding proteins orchestrate ϕX174 morphogenesis. The internal scaffolding protein B mediates the formation of pentameric assembly intermediates, whereas the external scaffolding protein D organizes 12 of these intermediates into procapsids. Aromatic amino acid side chains mediate most coat-internal scaffolding protein interactions. One residue in the internal scaffolding protein and three in the coat protein constitute the core of the B protein binding cleft. The three coat gene codons were randomized separately to ascertain the chemical requirements of the encoded amino acids and the morphogenetic consequences of mutation. The resulting mutants exhibited a wide range of recessive phenotypes, which could generally be explained within a structural context. Mutants with phenylalanine, tyrosine, and methionine substitutions were phenotypically indistinguishable from the wild type. However, tryptophan substitutions were detrimental at two sites. Charged residues were poorly tolerated, conferring extreme temperature-sensitive and lethal phenotypes. Eighteen lethal and conditional lethal mutants were genetically and biochemically characterized. The primary defect associated with the missense substitutions ranged from inefficient internal scaffolding protein B binding to faulty procapsid elongation reactions mediated by external scaffolding protein D. Elevating B protein concentrations above wild-type levels via exogenous, cloned-gene expression compensated for inefficient B protein binding, as did suppressing mutations within gene B. Similarly, elevating D protein concentrations above wild-type levels or compensatory mutations within gene D suppressed faulty elongation. Some of the parental mutations were pleiotropic, affecting multiple morphogenetic reactions. This progressively reduced the flux of intermediates through the pathway. Accordingly, multiple mechanisms, which may be unrelated, could restore viability. IMPORTANCE Genetic analyses have been

  13. Leiomyoma-derived transforming growth factor-β impairs bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated endometrial receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Leo F; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-03-01

    To determine whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 is a paracrine signal secreted by leiomyoma that inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated endometrial receptivity and decidualization. Experimental. Laboratory. Women with symptomatic leiomyomas. Endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and leiomyoma cells were isolated from surgical specimens. Leiomyoma-conditioned media (LCM) was applied to cultured ESC. The TGF-β was blocked by two approaches: TGF-β pan-specific antibody or transfection with a mutant TGF-β receptor type II. Cells were then treated with recombinant human BMP-2 to assess BMP responsiveness. Expression of BMP receptor types 1A, 1B, 2, as well as endometrial receptivity mediators HOXA10 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed elevated TGF-β levels in LCM. LCM treatment of ESC reduced expression of BMP receptor types 1B and 2 to approximately 60% of pretreatment levels. Preincubation of LCM with TGF-β neutralizing antibody or mutant TGF receptor, but not respective controls, prevented repression of BMP receptors. HOXA10 and LIF expression was repressed in recombinant human BMP-2 treated, LCM exposed ESC. Pretreatment of LCM with TGF-β antibody or transfection with mutant TGF receptor prevented HOXA10 and LIF repression. Leiomyoma-derived TGF-β was necessary and sufficient to alter endometrial BMP-2 responsiveness. Blockade of TGF-β prevents repression of BMP-2 receptors and restores BMP-2-stimulated expression of HOXA10 and LIF. Blockade of TGF signaling is a potential strategy to improve infertility and pregnancy loss associated with uterine leiomyoma. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Vertical Bone Augmentation in a Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Ting; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; O'Valle, Francisco; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2017-09-01

    Vertical bone augmentation (VBA) remains unpredictable and challenging for most clinicians. This study aims to compare hard tissue outcomes of VBA, with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2, under space-making titanium mesh in a canine model. Eleven male beagle dogs were used in the study. Experimental ridge defects were created to form atrophic ridges. VBA was performed via guided bone regeneration using titanium mesh and allografts. In experimental hemimandibles, rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge was well mixed with allografts prior to procedures, whereas a control buffer was applied within controls. Dogs were euthanized after a 4-month healing period. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed to assess ridge dimensional changes. In addition, specimens were used for microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) assessment and histologic analysis. Membrane exposure was found on five of 11 (45.5%) rhBMP-2-treated sites, whereas it was found on nine of 11 (81.8%) non-rhBMP-2-treated sites. Within 4 months of healing, rhBMP-2-treated sites showed better radiographic bone density, greater defect fill, and significantly more bone gain in ridge height (P 0.05). Under light microscope, predominant lamellar patterns were found in the specimen obtained from rhBMP-2 sites. With inherent limitations of the canine model and the concern of such a demanding surgical technique, current findings suggest that the presence of rhBMP-2 in a composite graft allows an increase of vertical gain, with formation of ectopic bone over the titanium mesh in comparison with non-rhBMP-2 sites.

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 and decorin expression in old fracture fragments and surrounding tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X G; Wang, D K; Gao, F; Liu, R H; Bi, Z G

    2015-09-21

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) can promote fracture healing. Although the complex role BMP-2 in bone formation is increasingly understood, the role of endogenous BMP-2 in nonunion remains unclear. Decorin (DCN) can promote the formation of bone matrix and calcium deposition to control bone morphogenesis. In this study, tissue composition and expression of BMP-2 and DCN were detected in different parts of old fracture zones to explore inherent anti-fibrotic ability and osteogenesis. Twenty-three patients were selected, including eight cases of delayed union and 15 cases of nonunion. Average duration of delayed union or nonunion was 15 months. Fracture fragments and surrounding tissues, including bone grafts, marrow cavity contents, and sticking scars, were categorically sampled during surgery. Through observation and histological testing, component comparisons were made between fracture fragments and surrounding tissue. The expression levels of DCN and BMP-2 in different tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of DCN and BMP- 2 in different parts of the nonunion area showed that, compared with bone graft and marrow cavity contents, sticking scars had the highest expression of BMP-2. Compared with the marrow cavity contents and sticking scars, bone grafts had the highest expression of DCN. The low antifibrotic and osteogenic activity of the nonunion area was associated with non-co-expression of BMP-2 and DCN. Therefore, the co-injection of osteogenic factor BMP and DCN into the nonunion area can improve the induction of bone formation and enhance the conversion of the old scar, thereby achieving better nonunion treatment.

  16. Spatial regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in postnatal articular and growth plate cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Presley; Yue, Shanna; Hanson, Jeffrey; Baron, Jeffrey; Lui, Julian C.

    2017-01-01

    Articular and growth plate cartilage both arise from condensations of mesenchymal cells, but ultimately develop important histological and functional differences. Each is composed of three layers—the superficial, mid and deep zones of articular cartilage and the resting, proliferative and hypertrophic zones of growth plate cartilage. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system plays an important role in cartilage development. A gradient in expression of BMP-related genes has been observed across growth plate cartilage, likely playing a role in zonal differentiation. To investigate the presence of a similar expression gradient in articular cartilage, we used laser capture microdissection (LCM) to separate murine growth plate and articular cartilage from the proximal tibia into their six constituent zones, and used a solution hybridization assay with color-coded probes (nCounter) to quantify mRNAs for 30 different BMP-related genes in each zone. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were then used to confirm spatial expression patterns. Expression gradients for Bmp2 and 6 were observed across growth plate cartilage with highest expression in hypertrophic zone. However, intracellular BMP signaling, assessed by phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunohistochemical staining, appeared to be higher in the proliferative zone and prehypertrophic area than in hypertrophic zone, possibly due to high expression of Smad7, an inhibitory Smad, in the hypertrophic zone. We also found BMP expression gradients across the articular cartilage with BMP agonists primarily expressed in the superficial zone and BMP functional antagonists primarily expressed in the deep zone. Phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunohistochemical staining showed a similar gradient. In combination with previous evidence that BMPs regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, the current findings suggest that BMP signaling gradients exist across both growth plate and articular cartilage and that these gradients may

  17. Genetic variation in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and colon and rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Kadlubar, Susan; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.; Wolff, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are part of the TGF-β-signaling pathway; genetic variation in these genes may be involved in colorectal cancer. In this study we evaluated the association between genetic variation in BMP1 (11 tagSNPs), BMP2 (5 tagSNPs), BMP4 (3 tagSNPs), BMPR1A (9 tagSNPs), BMPR1B (21 tagSNPs), BMPR2 (11 tagSNPs), and GDF10 (7 tagSNPs) with risk of colon and rectal cancer and tumor molecular phenotype. We used data from population-based case-control studies (colon cancer n=1574 cases, 1970 controls; rectal cancer n=791 cases, 999 controls). We observed that genetic variation in BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, BMP2, and BMP4 was associated with risk of developing colon cancer, with 20 to 30% increased risk for most high-risk genotypes. A summary of high-risk genotypes showed over a twofold increase in colon cancer risk at the upper risk category (OR 2.49 95% CI 1.95, 3.18). BMPR2, BMPR1B, BMP2, and GDF10 were associated with rectal cancer. BMPR2 rs2228545 was associated with an almost twofold increased risk of rectal cancer. The risk associated with the highest category of the summary score for rectal cancer was 2.97 (95% CI 1.87, 4.72). Genes in the BMP-signaling pathway were consistently associated with CIMP+ status in combination with both KRAS-mutated and MSI tumors. BMP genes interacted statistically significantly with other genes in the TGF-β-signaling pathway, including TGFβ1, TGFβR1, Smad 3, Smad 4, and Smad 7. Our data support a role for genetic variation in BMP-related genes in the etiology of colon and rectal cancer. One possible mechanism is via the TGF-β-signaling pathway. PMID:21387313

  18. Cathepsin H indirectly regulates morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) in various human cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojnik, Matija; Jevnikar, Zala; Mirkovic, Bojana; Janes, Damjan; Zidar, Nace; Kikelj, Danijel; Kos, Janko

    2011-01-01

    Background Cathepsin H is a cysteine protease considered to play a major role in tumor progression, however, its precise function in tumorigenesis is unclear. Cathepsin H was recently proposed to be involved in processing of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) in mice. In order to clarify whether cathepsin H also regulates BMP-4 in humans, its impact on BMP-4 expression, processing and degradation was investigated in prostate cancer (PC-3), osteosarcoma (HOS) and pro-monocytic (U937) human cell lines. Materials and methods BMP-4 expression was founded to be regulated by cathepsin H using PCR array technology and confirmed by real time PCR. Immunoassays including Western blot and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the influence of cathepsin H on BMP-4 processing. Results In contrast to HOS, the expression of BMP-4 mRNA in U937 and PC3 cells was significantly decreased by cathepsin H. The different regulation of BMP-4 synthesis could be associated with the absence of the mature 28 kDa cathepsin H form in HOS cells, where only the intermediate 30 kDa form was observed. No co-localization of BMP-4 and cathepsin H was observed in human cell lines and the multistep processing of BMP-4 was not altered in the presence of specific cathepsin H inhibitor. Isolated cathepsin H does not cleave mature recombinant BMP-4, neither with its amino- nor its endopeptidase activity. Conclusions Our results exclude direct proteolytic processing of BMP-4 by cathepsin H, however, they provide support for its involvement in the regulation of BMP-4 expression. PMID:22933963

  19. Activity of bone morphogenetic protein-7 after treatment at various temperatures: freezing vs. pasteurization vs. allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Munetomo; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Nishida, Hideji; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Kimura, Hiroaki; Miwa, Shinji; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2011-12-01

    Insufficient bone union is the occasional complication of biomechanical reconstruction after malignant bone tumor resection using temperature treated tumor bearing bone; freezing, pasteurization, and autoclaving. Since bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) plays an important role in bone formation, we assessed the amount and activity of BMP preserved after several temperature treatments, including -196 and -73°C for 20 min, 60 and 100°C for 30 min, 60°C for 10h following -80°C for 12h as an allograft model, and 4°C as the control. The material extracted from the human femoral bone was treated, and the amount of BMP-7 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then, the activity of recombinant human BMP-7 after the treatment was assessed using a bioassay with NIH3T3 cells and immunoblotting analysis to measure the amount of phospho-Smad, one of the signaling substrates that reflect the intracellular reaction of BMPs. Both experiments revealed that BMP-7 was significantly better preserved in the hypothermia groups. The percentages of the amount of BMP-7 in which the control group was set at 100% were 114%, 108%, 70%, 49%, and 53% in the -196, -73, 60, 100°C, and the allograft-model group, respectively. The percentages of the amount of phospho-Smad were 89%, 87%, 24%, 4.9%, and 14% in the -196, -73, 60, 100°C, and the allograft-model group, respectively. These results suggested that freezing possibly preserves osteoinductive ability than hyperthermia treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 induce structurally abnormal bone and inflammation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Janette N; Siu, Ronald K; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-05-01

    The major Food and Drug Association-approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL.

  1. Regulation of bone morphogenetic protein signalling and cranial osteogenesis by Gpc1 and Gpc3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Prem P; Grose, Randall H; Filmus, Jorge; Hii, Charles S T; Xian, Cory J; Anderson, Peter J; Powell, Barry C

    2013-08-01

    From birth, the vault of the skull grows at a prodigious rate, driven by the activity of osteoblastic cells at the fibrous joints (sutures) that separate the bony calvarial plates. One in 2500 children is born with a medical condition known as craniosynostosis because of premature bony fusion of the calvarial plates and a cessation of bone growth at the sutures. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are potent growth factors that promote bone formation. Previously, we found that Glypican-1 (GPC1) and Glypican-3 (GPC3) are expressed in cranial sutures and are decreased during premature suture fusion in children. Although glypicans are known to regulate BMP signalling, a mechanistic link between GPC1, GPC3 and BMPs and osteogenesis has not yet been investigated. We now report that human primary suture mesenchymal cells coexpress GPC1 and GPC3 on the cell surface and release them into the media. We show that they inhibit BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7 activities, which both physically interact with BMP2 and that immunoblockade of endogenous GPC1 and GPC3 potentiates BMP2 activity. In contrast, increased levels of GPC1 and GPC3 as a result of overexpression or the addition of recombinant protein, inhibit BMP2 signalling and BMP2-mediated osteogenesis. We demonstrate that BMP signalling in suture mesenchymal cells is mediated by both SMAD-dependent and SMAD-independent pathways and that GPC1 and GPC3 inhibit both pathways. GPC3 inhibition of BMP2 activity is independent of attachment of the glypican on the cell surface and post-translational glycanation, and thus appears to be mediated by the core glypican protein. The discovery that GPC1 and GPC3 regulate BMP2-mediated osteogenesis, and that inhibition of endogenous GPC1 and GPC3 potentiates BMP2 responsiveness of human suture mesenchymal cells, indicates how downregulation of glypican expression could lead to the bony suture fusion that characterizes craniosynostosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 Reduces Cardiac Fibrosis and Improves Cardiac Function in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morine, Kevin J; Qiao, Xiaoying; York, Sam; Natov, Peter S; Paruchuri, Vikram; Zhang, Yali; Aronovitz, Mark J; Karas, Richard H; Kapur, Navin K

    2018-02-27

    Background -Heart failure is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) promotes cardiac fibrosis, but also activates counter-regulatory pathways that serve to regulate TGF-β1 activity in heart failure. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is a member of the TGFβ family of cytokines and signals via the downstream effector protein Smad1. Endoglin is a TGFβ co-receptor that promotes TGF-β1 signaling via Smad3 and binds BMP9 with high affinity. We hypothesized that BMP9 limits cardiac fibrosis by activating Smad1 and attenuating Smad3 and further that neutralizing endoglin activity promotes BMP9 activity. Methods -We examined BMP9 expression and signaling in human cardiac fibroblasts and human subjects with heart failure. We utilized the thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) induced model of heart failure to evaluate the functional effect of BMP9 signaling on cardiac remodeling. Results -BMP9 expression is increased in the circulation and left ventricle (LV) of human subjects with heart failure and is expressed by cardiac fibroblasts. Next, we observed that BMP9 attenuates Type I collagen synthesis in human cardiac fibroblasts using recombinant human BMP9 and an siRNA approach. In BMP9 -/- mice subjected to TAC, loss of BMP9 activity promotes cardiac fibrosis, impairs LV function, and increases LV levels of phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3), not pSmad1. In contrast, treatment of wild-type mice subjected to TAC with recombinant BMP9 limits progression of cardiac fibrosis, improves LV function, enhances myocardial capillary density, and increases LV levels of pSmad1, not pSmad3 compared to vehicle treated controls. Since endoglin binds BMP9 with high affinity, we explored the effect of reduced endoglin activity on BMP9 activity. Neutralizing endoglin activity in human cardiac fibroblasts or in wild-type mice subjected to TAC induced heart failure limits collagen production, increases BMP9 protein levels, and increases

  3. Positioning cell wall synthetic complexes by the bacterial morphogenetic proteins MreB and MreD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Courtney L; Kitich, Aleksandar; Gober, James W

    2010-05-01

    In Caulobacter crescentus, intact cables of the actin homologue, MreB, are required for the proper spatial positioning of MurG which catalyses the final step in peptidoglycan precursor synthesis. Similarly, in the periplasm, MreC controls the spatial orientation of the penicillin binding proteins and a lytic transglycosylase. We have now found that MreB cables are required for the organization of several other cytosolic murein biosynthetic enzymes such as MraY, MurB, MurC, MurE and MurF. We also show these proteins adopt a subcellular pattern of localization comparable to MurG, suggesting the existence of cytoskeletal-dependent interactions. Through extensive two-hybrid analyses, we have now generated a comprehensive interaction map of components of the bacterial morphogenetic complex. In the cytosol, this complex contains both murein biosynthetic enzymes and morphogenetic proteins, including RodA, RodZ and MreD. We show that the integral membrane protein, MreD, is essential for lateral peptidoglycan synthesis, interacts with the precursor synthesizing enzymes MurG and MraY, and additionally, determines MreB localization. Our results suggest that the interdependent localization of MreB and MreD functions to spatially organize a complex of peptidoglycan precursor synthesis proteins, which is required for propagation of a uniform cell shape and catalytically efficient peptidoglycan synthesis.

  4. Osteogenic potential of the human bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene activated nanobone putty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-bin; Sun, Li; Yang, Shu-hua; Zhang, Yu-kun; Hu, Ru-yin; Fu, De-hao

    2008-04-20

    Nanobone putty is an injectable and bioresorbable bone substitute. The neutral-pH putty resembles hard bone tissue, does not contain polymers or plasticizers, and is self-setting and nearly isothermic, properties which are helpful for the adhesion, proliferation, and function of bone cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic potential of human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) gene activated nanobone putty in inducing ectopic bone formation, and the effects of the hBMP2 gene activated nanobone putty on repairing bone defects. Twenty four Kunming mice were randomly divided into two groups. The nanobone putty + hBMP2 plasmid was injected into the right thigh muscle pouches of the mice (experiment side). The nanobone putty + blank plasmid or nanobone putty was injected into the left thigh muscle pouches of the group 1 (control side 1) or group 2 (control side 2), respectively. The effects of ectopic bone formation were evaluated by radiography, histology, and molecular biology analysis at 2 and 4 weeks after operation. Bilateral 15 mm radial defects were made in forty-eight rabbits. These rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group A, nanobone putty + hBMP2 plasmid; Group B, putty + blank plasmid; Group C, nanobone putty only. Six rabbits with left radial defects served as blank controls. The effect of bone repairing was evaluated by radiography, histology, molecular biology, and biomechanical analysis at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after operation. The tissue from the experimental side of the mice expressed hBMP2. Obvious cartilage and island-distributed immature bone formation in implants of the experiment side were observed at 2 weeks after operation, and massive mature bone observed at 4 weeks. No bone formation was observed in the control side of the mice. The ALP activity in the experiment side of the mice was higher than that in the control side. The tissue of Group A rabbits expressed hBMP2 protein and higher ALP level. The new bone

  5. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-7 expression is decreased in human hypertensive nephrosclerosis

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    Cohen Clemens D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-7 is protective in different animal models of acute and chronic kidney disease. Its role in human kidneys, and in particular hypertensive nephrosclerosis, has thus far not been described. Methods BMP-7 mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR and localised by immunostaining in tissue samples from normal and nephrosclerotic human kidneys. The impact of angiotensin (AT-II and the AT-II receptor antagonist telmisartan on BMP-7 mRNA levels and phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8 (pSmad 1/5/8 expression was quantified in proximal tubular cells (HK-2. Functional characteristics of BMP-7 were evaluated by testing its influence on TGF-β induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, expression of TGF-β receptor type I (TGF-βRI and phosphorylated Smad 2 (pSmad 2 as well as on TNF-α induced apoptosis of proximal tubular cells. Results BMP-7 was predominantly found in the epithelia of the distal tubule and the collecting duct and was less abundant in proximal tubular cells. In sclerotic kidneys, BMP-7 was significantly decreased as demonstrated by real-time PCR and immunostaining. AT-II stimulation in HK-2 cells led to a significant decrease of BMP-7 and pSmad 1/5/8, which was partially ameliorated upon co-incubation with telmisartan. Only high concentrations of BMP-7 (100 ng/ml were able to reverse TNF-α-induced apoptosis and TGF-β-induced EMT in human proximal tubule cells possibly due to a decreased expression of TGF-βRI. In addition, BMP-7 was able to reverse TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Smad 2. Conclusions The findings suggest a protective role for BMP-7 by counteracting the TGF-β and TNF-α-induced negative effects. The reduced expression of BMP-7 in patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis may imply loss of protection and regenerative potential necessary to counter the disease.

  6. Cancer risk after use of recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 for spinal arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Eugene J; Chu, Gilbert; Rohatgi, Rajat; Hurwitz, Eric L; Weiner, Bradley K; Yoon, S Tim; Comer, Garet; Kopjar, Branko

    2013-09-04

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is a growth factor known to have in vitro effects on the growth and invasiveness of cancer. It has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in limited doses for single-level anterior spinal arthrodesis, but it is commonly used off-label and at high doses. The effect of rhBMP-2 on the risk of cancer has been a concern. We sought to evaluate the risk of new cancers in patients receiving high-dose rhBMP-2. We used publicly available data from a pivotal, multicenter, randomized controlled trial of patients with degenerative lumbar spine conditions who underwent a single-level instrumented posterolateral arthrodesis with either high-dose rhBMP-2 in a compression-resistant matrix (CRM) (rhBMP-2/CRM; n = 239) or autogenous bone graft (control group; n = 224). We compared the risks of new cancers in the rhBMP-2/CRM and control groups at two and five years after surgery. At two years, with 86% follow-up, there were fifteen new cancer events in eleven patients in the rhBMP-2/CRM group compared with two new cancer events in two patients in the control group treated with autogenous bone graft. The incidence rate of new cancer events per 100 person-years was 3.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89 to 5.56) in the rhBMP-2/CRM group at two years compared with 0.50 (95% CI, 0.06 to 1.80) in the control group. The incidence rate ratio was 6.75 (95% CI, 1.57 to 60.83; p = 0.0026) at two years. Calculated in terms of the number of patients with one or more cancer events two years after the surgery, the incidence rate per 100 person-years was 2.54 (95% CI, 1.27 to 4.54) in the rhBMP-2/CRM group compared with 0.50 (95% CI, 0.06 to 1.82) in the control group at two years; the incidence rate ratio was 5.04 (95% CI, 1.10 to 46.82; p = 0.0194). At five years, there was a 37% loss of follow-up, but a significantly greater incidence of cancer events was still observed in the rhBMP-2/CRM group. A high dose of 40 mg of rh

  7. Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on bone cells in primary culture: immunohistochemical and electronmicroscopical studies

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    Schmitz, I.; Prochnow, N.; Mueller, K.M. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Wiemann, M.; Schirrmacher, K.; Bingmann, D. [Essen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physiologie; Sebald, W. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physiologische Chemie II

    2001-02-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), among other morphogenetic effects on non osseous tissues, promotes bone formation in vivo. Therefore, BMP-2 may accelerate the integration of osseous implants. Although the effects of BMPs on cell proliferation have been studied extensively in vivo or in cell lines, little is published about effects on bone cells in primary cultures, especially on cell differentiation. As such information is a prerequisite to understand and to control effects of BMPs on cells at the surface of implant materials, the present experiments aimed to describe effects of BMP-2 on primary cultures derived from calvarial fragments of neonatal rats. The cells were stimulated with 50 nM BMP-2 added to the nutrient medium for 3 or 6 days. Light- and electronmicroscopical studies showed that cells in the sprouting zones were larger and more often spindle shaped. Stimulated cells had more nucleoli than control cells and the endoplasmic reticulum was widened. They retained properties of typical bone cells: An immunhistochemical analysis showed that stimulated cells increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, they secreted collagen type I and to a minor extent collagen type III. In BMP-2 treated cells the pattern of cells stained for actin, desmin and vimentin hardly changed whereas extracellular fibronectin appeared to be less cross-linked in BMP-2 treated cultures. The distribution and labeling strength of osteocalcin, a specific marker protein of bone cells did not change markedly. After exposure to BMP-2 cells tended to detach from the cover slips. Electron microscopy showed a reduced number of cell processes possibly facilitating the detachment and/or mobility. Stimulated cells contained an increased number of lamellar bodies which may reflect an increased synthesis and/or membrane turnover. Staining of non-osseous cells with anti-CD68-or anti-myeloid antibodies revealed that the small percentage of these cells regularly occurring in primary cultures

  8. Expression of human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2 and BMP-4 genes in transgenic bovine fibroblasts Expressão dos genes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2 e BMP-4 em fibroblastos bovinos transgênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oleskovicz

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available cDNAs dos genes bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 e bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4 foram sintetizados a partir de RNA total extraído de tecidos ósseos de pacientes que apresentavam trauma facial (fraturas do maxilar entre o 7º e o 10º dia pós-trauma e clonados num vetor para expressão em células mamíferas, sob controle do promotor de citomegalovírus (CMV. Os vetores contendo os genes BMP-2 e o BMP-4 foram utilizados para a transfecção de fibroblastos bovinos. mRNAs foram indiretamente detectados por RT-PCR nas células transfectadas. As proteínas BMP-2 e BMP-4 foram detectadas mediante análises de Western blot. Os resultados demonstram a possibilidade de produção desses fatores de crescimento celular em fibroblastos bovinos. Essas células poderão ser utilizadas como fontes doadoras de material genético para a técnica de transferência nuclear na geração de animais transgênicos.

  9. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins 2/4 Are Upregulated during the Early Development of Vascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is a main cause of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. This study aimed to investigate the role of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling pathway in the early development of vascular calcification in CKD. A CKD vascular calcification rat model was established by providing rats with a 1.8% high-phosphorus diet and an intragastric administration of 2.5% adenine suspension. The kidney and aortic pathologies were analyzed. Blood biochemical indicators, serum BMP-2 and BMP-4 levels, and aortic calcium content were determined. The expression levels of BMP-2, BMP-4, bone morphogenetic protein receptor-IA (BMPR-IA, and matrix Gla protein (MGP in aorta were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Compared with the normal control (Nor rats, the CKD rats exhibited a significantly decreased body weight and an increased kidney weight as well as abnormal renal function and calcium-phosphorus metabolism. Aortic von Kossa and Alizarin red staining showed massive granular deposition and formation of calcified nodules in aorta at 8 weeks. The aortic calcium content was significantly increased, which was positively correlated with the serum BMP-2 (r=0.929; P<0.01 and serum BMP-4 (r=0.702; P<0.01 levels in CKD rats. The rat aortic BMP-2 mRNA level in the CKD rats was persistently increased, and the BMP-4 mRNA level was prominently increased at the 4th week, declining thereafter. Strong staining of BMP-2, BMP-4, BMPR-IA, and MGP proteins was observed in the tunica media of the aorta from the 4th week after model induction. In conclusion, activation of the BMP signaling pathway is involved in the early development of vascular calcification in CKD. Therefore, elevated serum BMP-2 and BMP-4 levels may serve as serum markers for CKD vascular calcification.

  10. The cartilage-derived, C-type lectin (CLECSF1): structure of the gene and chromosomal location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neame, P J; Tapp, H; Grimm, D R

    1999-09-03

    Cartilage is a tissue that is primarily extracellular matrix, the bulk of which consists of proteoglycan aggregates constrained within a collagen framework. Candidate components that organize the extracellular assembly of the matrix consist of collagens, proteoglycans and multimeric glycoproteins. We describe the human gene structure of a potential organizing factor, a cartilage-derived member of the C-type lectin superfamily (CLECSF1; C-type lectin superfamily) related to the serum protein, tetranectin. We show by Northern analysis that this protein is restricted to cartilage and locate the gene on chromosome 16q23. We have characterized 10.9 kb of sequence upstream of the first exon. Similarly to human tetranectin, there are three exons. The residues that are conserved between CLECSF1 and tetranectin suggest that the cartilage-derived protein forms a trimeric structure similar to that of tetranectin, with three N-terminal alpha-helical domains aggregating through hydrophobic faces. The globular, C-terminal domain that has been shown to bind carbohydrate in some members of the family and plasminogen in tetranectin, is likely to have a similar overall structure to that of tetranectin.

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 inhibits insulin secretion from rodent beta cells through regulation of calbindin1 expression and reduced voltage-dependent calcium currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte L.; Jacobsen, Maria L. B.; Wendt, Anna

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes is characterised by progressive loss of pancreatic beta cell mass and function. Therefore, it is of therapeutic interest to identify factors with the potential to improve beta cell proliferation and insulin secretion. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) expression...

  12. STRO-1 selected rat dental pulp stem cells transfected with adenoviral-mediated human bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene show enhanced odontogenic differentiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Dolder, J. van den; Walboomers, X.F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells harbor great potential for tissue-engineering purposes. However, previous studies have shown variable results, and some have reported only limited osteogenic and odontogenic potential.Because bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-established agents to induce bone and

  13. Effect of hydrophilicity of carbon nanotube arrays on the release rate and activity of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Zhaojun; Ostrikov, Kostya [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Tan, Cher Ming; Tay, Beng Kang [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Peel, Sean A F, E-mail: zhaojun.han@csiro.au [Department of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5G 1G6 (Canada)

    2011-07-22

    Novel nanostructures such as vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have received increasing interest as drug delivery carriers. In the present study, two CNT arrays with extreme surface wettabilities are fabricated and their effects on the release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) are investigated. It is found that the superhydrophilic arrays retained a larger amount of rhBMP-2 than the superhydrophobic ones. Further use of a poloxamer diffusion layer delayed the initial burst and resulted in a greater total amount of rhBMP-2 released from both surfaces. In addition, rhBMP-2 bound to the superhydrophilic CNT arrays remained bioactive while they denatured on the superhydrophobic surfaces. These results are related to the combined effects of rhBMP-2 molecules interacting with poloxamer and the surface, which could be essential in the development of advanced carriers with tailored surface functionalities.

  14. Bone morphogenetic protein-induced heterotopic bone formation: What have we learned from the history of a half century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu Katagiri, PhD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP was originally discovered by Marshall Urist a half century ago following the observation of a unique activity that induced heterotopic bone formation in skeletal muscle tissue. The molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of heterotopic bone formation in skeletal muscle by BMPs were elucidated through the purification and molecular cloning of BMPs and identification of their functional receptors and downstream effectors, as well as from genetic disorders related to BMP activity. BMPs are important regulators of not only skeletal development and regeneration but also the homeostasis of normal skeletal muscle mass. There is still much to learn about the physiology and pathology at the interface of BMPs and skeletal muscle.

  15. Homeobox protein MSX-1 inhibits expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 via Wnt/β-catenin signaling to prevent differentiation of dental mesenchymal cells during the late bell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Xiao-Shan; Wang, Jin-Song; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Song-Lin

    2018-02-01

    Homeobox protein MSX-1 (hereafter referred to as MSX-1) is essential for early tooth-germ development. Tooth-germ development is arrested at bud stage in Msx1 knockout mice, which prompted us to study the functions of MSX-1 beyond this stage. Here, we investigated the roles of MSX-1 during late bell stage. Mesenchymal cells of the mandibular first molar were isolated from mice at embryonic day (E)17.5 and cultured in vitro. We determined the expression levels of β-catenin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2), Bmp4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1) after knockdown or overexpression of Msx1. Our findings suggest that knockdown of Msx1 promoted expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1, resulting in elevated differentiation of odontoblasts, which was rescued by blocking the expression of these genes. In contrast, overexpression of Msx1 decreased the expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1, leading to a reduction in odontoblast differentiation. The regulation of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1 by Msx1 was mediated by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additionally, knockdown of Msx1 impaired cell proliferation and slowed S-phase progression, while overexpression of Msx1 also impaired cell proliferation and prolonged G1-phase progression. We therefore conclude that MSX-1 maintains cell proliferation by regulating transition of cells from G1-phase to S-phase and prevents odontoblast differentiation by inhibiting expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1 at the late bell stage via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  16. Facilitated receptor-recognition and enhanced bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Tong; Ding, Sai; Zhang, Wenjing; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterial surface functionalized with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a promising approach to fabricating successful orthopedic implants/scaffolds. However, the bioactivity of BMP-2 on material surfaces is still far from satisfactory and the mechanism of related protein-surface interaction remains elusive. Based on the most widely used bone-implants/scaffolds material, hydroxyapatite (HAP), we developed a matrix of magnesium-substituted HAP (Mg-HAP, 2.2 at% substitution) to address these issues. Further, we investigated the adsorption dynamics, BMPRs-recruitment, and bioactivity of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. To elucidate the mechanism, molecular dynamic simulations were performed to calculate the preferred orientations, conformation changes, and cysteine-knot stabilities of adsorbed BMP-2 molecules. The results showed that rhBMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface exhibited greater bioactivity, evidenced by more facilitated BMPRs-recognition and higher ALP activity than on the HAP surface. Moreover, molecular simulations indicated that BMP-2 favoured distinct side-on orientations on the HAP and Mg-HAP surfaces. Intriguingly, BMP-2 on the Mg-HAP surface largely preserved the active protein structure evidenced by more stable cysteine-knots than on the HAP surface. These findings explicitly clarify the mechanism of BMP-2-HAP/Mg-HAP interactions and highlight the promising application of Mg-HAP/BMP-2 matrixes in bone regeneration implants/scaffolds. PMID:27075233

  17. Physiological role of growth factors and bone morphogenetic proteins in osteogenesis and bone fracture healing: а review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sagalovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The repair of large bone defects remains a major clinical orthopedic challenge. Bone regeneration and fracture healing is a complex physiological mechanisms regulated by a large number of biologically active molecules. Multiple factors regulate this cascade of molecular events, which affects different stages in the osteoblast and chondroblast lineage during such processes as migration, proliferation, chemotaxis, differentiation, inhibition, and extracellular protein synthesis. A recent review has focused on the mechanisms by which growth and differentiation factors regulate the fracture healing process. Rapid progress in skeletal cellular and molecular biology has led to identification of many signaling molecules associated with formation of skeletal tissues, including a large family of growth factors (transforming growth factor-β and bone morphogenetic proteins, fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, cytokines and interleukins. There is increasing evidence indicating that they are critical regulators of cellular proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix biosynthesis and bone mineralization. A clear understanding of cellular and molecular pathways involved in fracture healing is not only critical for improvement of fracture treatments, but it may also enhance further our knowledge of mechanisms involved in skeletal growth and repair, as well as mechanisms of aging. This suggests that, in the future, they may play a major role in the treatment of bone disease and fracture repair.

  18. Dose reduction of bone morphogenetic protein-2 for bone regeneration using a delivery system based on lyophilization with trehalose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiaochen Zhang,1,* Quan Yu,2,* Yan-an Wang,1 Jun Zhao2 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck Oncology, 2Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: To induce sufficient new bone formation, high doses of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 are applied in regenerative medicine that often induce serious side effects. Therefore, improved treatment strategies are required. Here, we investigate whether the delivery of BMP-2 lyophilized in the presence of trehalose reduced the dose of BMP-2 required for bone regeneration. Materials and methods: A new growth factor delivery system was fabricated using BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotubes by lyophilization with trehalose (TiO2-Lyo-Tre-BMP-2. We measured BMP-2 release characteristics, bioactivity, and stability, and determined the effects on the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of this formulation to regenerate new bone around implants in rat femur defects by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, sequential fluorescent labelling, and histological analysis. Results: Compared with absorbed BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2-BMP-2, TiO2-Lyo-Tre-BMP-2 exhibited sustained release, consistent bioactivity, and higher stability of BMP-2, and resulted in greater osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Eight weeks post-operation, TiO2-Lyo-Tre-BMP-2 nanotubes, with various dosages of BMP-2, regenerated larger amounts of new bone than TiO2-BMP-2 nanotubes. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that delivery of BMP-2 lyophilized with trehalose may be a promising method to reduce the dose of BMP-2 and avoid the associated side effects. Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, dose reduction, delivery system, trehalose, lyophilization, TiO2 nanotubes, BMP-2, regenerative medicine, surface

  19. Outcome of nonunion fractures in dogs treated with fixation, compression resistant matrix, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Anna M; Kapatkin, Amy S; Fuller, Mark C; Verstraete, Frank J M; Arzi, Boaz

    2017-03-20

    To report the use of compression resistant matrix (CRM) infused with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) prospectively in the healing of nonunion long-bone fractures in dogs. A longitudinal cohort of dogs that were presented with nonunion fractures were classified and treated with CRM soaked with rhBMP-2 and fracture fixation. They were followed with serial radiographs and evaluated for healing times and complications according to the time frame and definitions previously established for orthopaedic clinical cases. Eleven nonunion fractures in nine dogs were included. Median healing time was 10 weeks (range: 7-20 weeks). Major perioperative complications due to bandage morbidity were encountered in two of 11 limbs and resolved. All other complications were minor. They occurred perioperatively in eight of 11 limbs. Minor follow-up complications included short-term in one of two limbs, mid-term in one of three, and long-term in four of five limbs. Nine limbs returned to full function and two limbs returned to acceptable function at the last follow-up. Nonunion fractures given a poor prognosis via standard-of-care treatment were successfully repaired using CRM with rhBMP-2 accompanying fixation. These dogs, previously at high risk of failure, returned to full or acceptable function.

  20. Comparison of newly developed anti-bone morphogenetic protein 4 llama-derived antibodies with commercially available BMP4 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe, Silvia; Correia, Ana C P; Sancho-Serra, Maria Del Carmen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2016-01-01

    Due to improved understanding of the role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in an increasing number of diseases, the development of selective inhibitors of BMP4 is an attractive therapeutic option. The currently available BMP4 inhibitors are not suitable as therapeutics because of their low specificity and low effectiveness. Here, we compared newly generated anti-BMP4 llama-derived antibodies (VHHs) with 3 different types of commercially available BMP4 inhibitors, natural antagonists, small molecule BMPR inhibitors and conventional anti-BMP4 monoclonal antibodies. We found that the anti-BMP4 VHHs were as effective as the natural antagonist or small molecule inhibitors, but had higher specificity. We also showed that commercial anti-BMP4 antibodies were inferior in terms of both specificity and effectiveness. These findings might result from the fact that the VHHs C4C4 and C8C8 target a small region within the BMPR1 epitope of BMP4, whereas the commercial antibodies target other areas of the BMP4 molecule. Our results show that the newly developed anti-BMP4 VHHs are promising antibodies with better specificity and effectivity for inhibition of BMP4, making them an attractive tool for research and for therapeutic applications.

  1. Tissue engineering for lateral ridge augmentation with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 combination therapy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelaris, George A; Spagnoli, Daniel B; Rosenfeld, Alan L; McKee, James; Lu, Mei

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a tissue-engineered reconstruction with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2/acellular collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ ACS) + cancellous allograft and space maintenance via Medpor Contain mesh in the treatment of a patient requiring maxillary and mandibular horizontal ridge augmentation to enable implant placement. The patient underwent a previously unsuccessful corticocancellous bone graft at these sites. Multiple and contiguous sites in the maxilla and in the mandibular anterior, demonstrating advanced lateral ridge deficiencies, were managed using a tissue engineering approach as an alternative to autogenous bone harvesting. Four maxillary and three mandibular implants were placed 9 and 10 months, respectively, after tissue engineering reconstruction, and all were functioning successfully after 24 months of follow-up. Histomorphometric analysis of a bone core obtained at the time of the maxillary implant placement demonstrated a mean of 76.1% new vital bone formation, 22.2% marrow/cells, and 1.7% residual graft tissue. Tissue engineering for lateral ridge augmentation with combination therapy requires further research to determine predictability and limitations.

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein-induced MSX1 and MSX2 inhibit myocardin-dependent smooth muscle gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene expression, are detected in calcified vasculature. In this study, we found that the BMP2-, BMP4-, and BMP6-induced expression of Msx transcription factors (Msx1 and Msx2) preceded the down-regulation of SMC marker expression in cultured differentiated VSMCs. Either Msx1 or Msx2 markedly reduced the myocardin-dependent promoter activities of SMC marker genes (SM22alpha and caldesmon). We further investigated interactions between Msx1 and myocardin/serum response factor (SRF)/CArG-box motif (cis element for SRF) using coimmunoprecipitation, gel-shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our results showed that Msx1 or Msx2 formed a ternary complex with SRF and myocardin and inhibited the binding of SRF or SRF/myocardin to the CArG-box motif, resulting in inhibition of their transcription.

  3. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Msx1 and Msx2 Inhibit Myocardin-Dependent Smooth Muscle Gene Transcription▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene expression, are detected in calcified vasculature. In this study, we found that the BMP2-, BMP4-, and BMP6-induced expression of Msx transcription factors (Msx1 and Msx2) preceded the down-regulation of SMC marker expression in cultured differentiated VSMCs. Either Msx1 or Msx2 markedly reduced the myocardin-dependent promoter activities of SMC marker genes (SM22α and caldesmon). We further investigated interactions between Msx1 and myocardin/serum response factor (SRF)/CArG-box motif (cis element for SRF) using coimmunoprecipitation, gel-shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our results showed that Msx1 or Msx2 formed a ternary complex with SRF and myocardin and inhibited the binding of SRF or SRF/myocardin to the CArG-box motif, resulting in inhibition of their transcription. PMID:17030628

  4. Cyst-Like Osteolytic Formations in Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) Augmented Sheep Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hsin Chuan; Lee, Soonchul; Ting, Kang; Shen, Jia; Wang, Chenchao; Nguyen, Alan; Berthiaume, Emily A; Zara, Janette N; Turner, A Simon; Seim, Howard B; Kwak, Jin Hee; Zhang, Xinli; Soo, Chia

    2017-07-01

    Multiple case reports using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) have reported complications. However, the local adverse effects of rhBMP-2 application are not well documented. In this report we show that, in addition to promoting lumbar spinal fusion through potent osteogenic effects, rhBMP-2 augmentation promotes local cyst-like osteolytic formations in sheep trabecular bones that have undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Three months after operation, conventional computed tomography showed that the trabecular bones of the rhBMP-2 application groups could fuse, whereas no fusion was observed in the control group. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that the core implant area's bone volume fraction and bone mineral density increased proportionately with rhBMP-2 dose. Multiple cyst-like bone voids were observed in peri-implant areas when using rhBMP-2 applications, and these sites showed significant bone mineral density decreases in relation to the unaffected regions. Biomechanically, these areas decreased in strength by 32% in comparison with noncystic areas. Histologically, rhBMP-2-affected void sites had an increased amount of fatty marrow, thinner trabecular bones, and significantly more adiponectin- and cathepsin K-positive cells. Despite promoting successful fusion, rhBMP-2 use in clinical applications may result in local adverse structural alterations and compromised biomechanical changes to the bone. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is overexpressed in and promotes migration and invasion of drug-resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kairui; Shi, Xiaoli; Huo, Jinling; Liu, Weihua; Yang, Dongxiao; Yang, Tengjiao; Qin, Tiantian; Wang, Cong

    2017-08-01

    Drug resistance and metastasis significantly hinder chemotherapy and worsen prognoses in cancer. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) belongs to the TGF-β superfamily, has broad biological activities in cell proliferation and cartilage differentiation and is also able to induce migration and invasion. Herein, we investigated the role of BMP4 in the regulation of metastasis in paclitaxel-resistant human esophageal carcinoma EC109 cells (EC109/Taxol) and docetaxel-resistant human gastric cancer MGC803 cells (MGC/Doc). In these drug-resistant cell lines, we found the cell motility was enhanced and BMP4 was up-regulated relative to their respective parental cell lines. Consistent with in vitro assays, migration potential and BMP4 expression were increased in EC109/Taxol nude mice. Furthermore, to address whether BMP4 was required to enhance the metastatic in EC109/Taxol cells, the pharmacological inhibitor of BMP signaling dorsomorphin was used; meanwhile, we found that the migration and invasion abilities were inhibited. Moreover, the canonical Smad signaling pathway was investigated. Overall, our studies demonstrated that BMP4 participates in the regulation of invasion and migration by EC109/Taxol cells, and inhibition of BMP4 may be a novel strategy to interfere with metastasis in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Digital subtraction radiographic analysis of the combination of bioabsorbable membrane and bovine morphogenetic protein pool in human periodontal infrabony defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Machado Guimarães

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the bone density gain and its relationship with the periodontal clinical parameters in a case series of a regenerative therapy procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using a split-mouth study design, 10 pairs of infrabony defects from 15 patients were treated with a pool of bovine bone morphogenetic proteins associated with collagen membrane (test sites or collagen membrane only (control sites. The periodontal healing was clinically and radiographically monitored for six months. Standardized pre-surgical and 6-month postoperative radiographs were digitized for digital subtraction analysis, which showed relative bone density gain in both groups of 0.034 ± 0.423 and 0.105 ± 0.423 in the test and control group, respectively (p>0.05. RESULTS: As regards the area size of bone density change, the influence of the therapy was detected in 2.5 mm² in the test group and 2 mm² in the control group (p>0.05. Additionally, no correlation was observed between the favorable clinical results and the bone density gain measured by digital subtraction radiography (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that the clinical benefit of the regenerative therapy observed did not come with significant bone density gains. Long-term evaluation may lead to a different conclusions.

  7. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite surfaces-mediated adsorption alters recognition of BMP receptor IA and bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Ding, Sai; Li, Jianbo; Ren, Jie; Feng, Bo; Li, Tong; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-11-01

    Highly efficient loading of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) onto carriers with desirable performance is still a major challenge in the field of bone regeneration. Till now, the nanoscaled surface-induced changes of the structure and bioactivity of BMP-2 remains poorly understood. Here, the effect of nanoscaled surface on the adsorption and bioactivity of BMP-2 was investigated with a series of hydroxyapatite surfaces (HAPs): HAP crystal-coated surface (HAP), HAP crystal-coated polished surface (HAP-Pol), and sintered HAP crystal-coated surface (HAP-Sin). The adsorption dynamics of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) and the accessibility of the binding epitopes of adsorbed rhBMP-2 for BMP receptors (BMPRs) were examined by a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. Moreover, the bioactivity of adsorbed rhBMP-2 and the BMP-induced Smad signaling were investigated with C2C12 model cells. A noticeably high mass-uptake of rhBMP-2 and enhanced recognition of BMPR-IA to adsorbed rhBMP-2 were found on the HAP-Pol surface. For the rhBMP-2-adsorbed HAPs, both ALP activity and Smad signaling increased in the order of HAP-Sinuses of rhBMP-2 in clinical applications and arouse broad interests among researchers in the fields of nano-biotechnology, biomaterials and bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrolysis and Sulfation Pattern Effects on Release of Bioactive Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 from Heparin-Based Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Liane E; Miller, Tobias; McDevitt, Todd C; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2015-10-28

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparin are promising materials for growth factor delivery due to their ability to efficiently bind positively charged growth factors including bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) through their negatively charged sulfate groups. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine BMP-2 release from heparin-based microparticles (MPs) after first, incorporating a hydrolytically degradable crosslinker and varying heparin content within MPs to alter MP degradation and second, altering the sulfation pattern of heparin within MPs to vary BMP-2 binding and release. Using varied MP formulations, it was found that the time course of MP degradation for 1 wt% heparin MPs was ~4 days slower than 10 wt% heparin MPs, indicating that MP degradation was dependent on heparin content. After incubating 100 ng BMP-2 with 0.1 mg MPs, most MP formulations loaded BMP-2 with ~50% efficiency and significantly more BMP-2 release (60% of loaded BMP-2) was observed from more sulfated heparin MPs (MPs with ~100% and 80% of native sulfation). Similarly, BMP-2 bioactivity in more sulfated heparin MP groups was at least four-fold higher than soluble BMP-2 and less sulfated heparin MP groups, as determined by an established C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay. Ultimately, the two most sulfated 10 wt% heparin MP formulations were able to efficiently load and release BMP-2 while enhancing BMP-2 bioactivity, making them promising candidates for future growth factor delivery applications.

  9. Enhanced healing of rabbit segmental radius defects with surface-coated calcium phosphate cement/bone morphogenetic protein-2 scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yi; Hou, Juan; Yin, ManLi [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Jing, E-mail: biomatwj@163.com [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, ChangSheng, E-mail: csliu@sh163.net [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Large osseous defects remain a difficult clinical problem in orthopedic surgery owing to the limited effective therapeutic options, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is useful for its potent osteoinductive properties in bone regeneration. Here we build a strategy to achieve prolonged duration time and help inducting new bone formation by using water-soluble polymers as a protective film. In this study, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds were prepared as the matrix and combined with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) respectively to protect from the digestion of rhBMP-2. After being implanted in the mouse thigh muscles, the surface-modified composite scaffolds evidently induced ectopic bone formation. In addition, we further evaluated the in vivo effects of surface-modified scaffolds in a rabbit radius critical defect by radiography, three dimensional micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging, synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomographic (SRμCT) imaging, histological analysis, and biomechanical measurement. The HPMC-modified CPC scaffold was regarded as the best combination for segmental bone regeneration in rabbit radius. - Highlights: • A simple surface-coating method was used to fabricate composite scaffolds. • Growth factor was protected from rapid depletion via superficial coating. • Significant promotion of bone regeneration was achieved. • HPMC-modification displayed optimal effect of bone regeneration.

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein-9 suppresses growth of myeloma cells by signaling through ALK2 but is inhibited by endoglin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, O E; Wader, K F; Misund, K; Våtsveen, T K; Rø, T B; Mylin, A K; Turesson, I; Størdal, B F; Moen, S H; Standal, T; Waage, A; Sundan, A; Holien, T

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of plasma cells predominantly located in the bone marrow. A number of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce apoptosis in myeloma cells in vitro, and with this study we add BMP-9 to the list. BMP-9 has been found in human serum at concentrations that inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro. We here show that the level of BMP-9 in serum was elevated in myeloma patients (median 176 pg/ml, range 8–809) compared with healthy controls (median 110 pg/ml, range 8–359). BMP-9 was also present in the bone marrow and was able to induce apoptosis in 4 out of 11 primary myeloma cell samples by signaling through ALK2. BMP-9-induced apoptosis in myeloma cells was associated with c-MYC downregulation. The effects of BMP-9 were counteracted by membrane-bound (CD105) or soluble endoglin present in the bone marrow microenvironment, suggesting a mechanism for how myeloma cells can evade the tumor suppressing activity of BMP-9 in multiple myeloma

  11. Novel Wnt Regulator NEL-Like Molecule-1 Antagonizes Adipogenesis and Augments Osteogenesis Induced by Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jia; James, Aaron W.; Zhang, Xinli; Pang, Shen; Zara, Janette N.; Asatrian, Greg; Chiang, Michael; Lee, Min; Khadarian, Kevork; Nguyen, Alan; Lee, Kevin S.; Siu, Ronald K.; Tetradis, Sotirios; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2017-01-01

    The differentiation factor NEL-like molecule-1 (NELL-1) has been reported as osteoinductive in multiple in vivo preclinical models. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 is used clinically for skeletal repair, but in vivo administration can induce abnormal, adipose-filled, poor-quality bone. We demonstrate that NELL-1 combined with BMP2 significantly optimizes osteogenesis in a rodent femoral segmental defect model by minimizing the formation of BMP2-induced adipose-filled cystlike bone. In vitro studies using the mouse bone marrow stromal cell line M2-10B4 and human primary bone marrow stromal cells have confirmed that NELL-1 enhances BMP2-induced osteogenesis and inhibits BMP2-induced adipogenesis. Importantly, the ability of NELL-1 to direct BMP2-treated cells toward osteogenesis and away from adipogenesis requires intact canonical Wnt signaling. Overall, these studies establish the feasibility of combining NELL-1 with BMP2 to improve clinical bone regeneration and provide mechanistic insight into canonical Wnt pathway activity during NELL-1 and BMP2 osteogenesis. The novel abilities of NELL-1 to stimulate Wnt signaling and to repress adipogenesis may highlight new treatment approaches for bone loss in osteoporosis. PMID:26772960

  12. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilized collagen-coated polyetheretherketone (PEEK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Li-Nan; Ye, Xin; Nie, He-Min; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Zeng, Teng-Hui; Yan, Guo-Ping; Shang, Peng

    2015-03-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential candidates of biomaterials in spinal implant applications. However, as a bioinert material, PEEK plays a limited role in osteoconduction and osseointegration. In this study, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) was immobilized onto the surface of collagen-coated PEEK in order to prepare a multi-functional material. After adsorbed onto the PEEK surface by hydrophobic interaction, collagen was cross-linked with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). EDC/NHS system also contributed to the immobilization of rhBMP-2. Water contact angle tests, XPS and SEM clearly demonstrated the surface changes. ELISA tests quantified the amount of rhBMP-2 immobilized and the release over a period of 30 d. In vitro evaluation proved that the osteogenesis differentiation rate was higher when cells were cultured on modified PEEK discs than on regular ones. In vivo tests were conducted and positive changes of major parameters were presented. This report demonstrates that the rhBMP-2 immobilized method for PEEK modification increase bioactivity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting its practicability in orthopedic and spinal clinical applications.

  13. Protective effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6 on RPE cells injury caused by H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6(BMP-6on cellular morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of retinal pigment epithelial cells(ARPE-19incubated in hydrogen peroxide(H2O2. METHODS:ARPE-19 cells were cultured conventionally and divided into four groups. One group was untreated as blank group, the other three groups were incubated in 75μm/L H2O2, 150ng/mLBMP-6 or75μm/L H2O2+150ng/mL BMP-6. All the groups were incubated for 3h, 6h, 9h and 12h. We tested the cell viabilitity by MTT. We used flow cytometry to test the cell cycle and cell apoptosis.RESULTS:H2O2 significantly decreased the cell activity in time-dependent manner. The activity of cells with BMP-6+H2O2 was higher H2O2 group, and the differences between the two groups at 3h and 6h were significant(P2O2, while the cells with BMP-6 were less cell detachment and apoptosis. CONCLUSION:BMP-6 has protective effects on RPE cells from oxidative stress in certain extent.

  14. Convergence of bone morphogenetic protein and laminin-1 signaling pathways promotes proliferation and colony formation by fetal mouse pancreatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Fangxu; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor superfamily, together with the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin-1 (Ln-1), promote proliferation of fetal pancreatic cells and formation of colonies containing peripheral insulin-positive cells. Here, we further investigate the cross-talk between BMP and Ln-1 signals. By RT-PCR, receptors for BMP (BMPR) (excepting BMPR-1B) and Ln-1 were expressed in the fetal pancreas between E13.5 and E17.5. Specific blocking antibodies to BMP-4 and -6 and selective BMP antagonists partially inhibited colony formation by fetal pancreas cells. Colony formation induced by BMP-6 and Ln-1 was completely abolished in a dose-dependent manner by blocking Ln-1 binding to its α 6 integrin and α-dystroglycan receptors or by blocking the Ln-1 signaling molecules, phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (P13K) and MAP kinase kinase-1. These results demonstrate a convergence of BMP and Ln-1 signaling through P13K and MAP kinase pathways to induce proliferation and colony formation in E15.5 fetal mouse pancreatic cells

  15. Form-deprivation myopia induces decreased expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2, 5 in guinea pig sclera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the presence of various bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and their receptors in normal sclera of human, rat and guinea pigs, and to determine whether their expression changed with form-deprivation myopia (FDM in guinea pig sclera. METHODS: The expression of BMPs and BMP receptors were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Two-week-old guinea pigs were monocularly form-deprived with a translucent lens. After fourteen days induction of FDM, total RNA was isolated and subjected to RT-PCR to examine the changes of BMPs and BMP receptors in tissues from the posterior sclera. Western blotting analysis was used to investigate their changes in protein levels. RESULTS: Human sclera expressed mRNAs for BMP-2, -4, -5, -7, -RIA, -RIB and BMP-RII. Conversely, rat sclera only expressed mRNA for BMP-7 and BMP-RIB, while the expression of BMPs and BMP receptors in guinea pigs were similar to that of humans. Human sclera also expresses BMP-2, -4, -5,-7 in protein level. Fourteen days after the induction of myopia, significant decreased expressions for BMP-2 and BMP-5 in the posterior sclera of FDM-affected eyes (PCONCLUSION: Various BMPs were expressed in human and guinea pig sclera. In the posterior sclera, expressions of BMP-2 and BMP-5 significantly decreased in FDM eyes. This finding indicates that various BMPs as components of the scleral cytokines regulating tissue homeostasis and provide evidence that alterations in the expression of BMP-2 and BMP-5 are associated with sclera remodeling during myopia induction.

  16. [The role of Smads and related transcription factors in the signal transduction of bone morphogenetic protein inducing bone formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-liang; Dai, Ke-rong; Tang, Ting-ting

    2003-09-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of the signal transduction of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) inducing bone formation and to provide theoretical basis for basic and applying research of BMPs. We looked up the literature of the role of Smads and related transcription factors in the signal transduction of BMPs inducing bone formation. The signal transduction processes of BMPs included: 1. BMPs combined with type II and type I receptors; 2. the type I receptor phosphorylated Smads; and 3. Smads entered the cell nucleus, interacted with transcription factors and influenced the transcription of related proteins. Smads could be divided into receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, Smad8 and Smad9), common-mediator Smad (co-Smad: Smad4), and inhibitory Smads (I-Smads: Smad6 and Smad7). Smad1, Smad5, Smad8, and probable Smad9 were involved in the signal transduction of BMPs. Multiple kinases, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt serine/threonine kinase were related to Smads signal transduction. Smad1 and Smad5 related with transcription factors included core binding factor A1 (CBFA1), smad-interacting protein 1 (SIP1), ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ), activating protein-1 (AP-1), xenopus ventralizing homeobox protein-2 (Xvent-2), sandostatin (Ski), antiproliferative proteins (Tob), and homeodomain-containing transcriptian factor-8 (Hoxc-8), et al. CBFA1 could interact with Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, and Smad5, so it was involved in TGF-beta and BMP-2 signal transduction, and played an important role in the bone formation. Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) was thought to be caused by heterozygous mutations in CBFA1. The CBFA1 knockout mice showed no osteogenesis and had maturational disturbance of chondrocytes. Smads and related transcription factors, especially Smad1, Smad5, Smad8 and CBFA1, play an important role in the signal transduction of BMPs inducing bone

  17. Lead induces chondrogenesis and alters transforming growth factor-beta and bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mesenchymal cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuscik, Michael J; Ma, Lin; Buckley, Taylor; Puzas, J Edward; Drissi, Hicham; Schwarz, Edward M; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2007-09-01

    It has been established that skeletal growth is stunted in lead-exposed children. Because chondrogenesis is a seminal step during skeletal development, elucidating the impact of Pb on this process is the first step toward understanding the mechanism of Pb toxicity in the skeleton. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that Pb alters chondrogenic commitment of mesenchymal cells and to assess the effects of Pb on various signaling pathways. We assessed the influence of Pb on chondrogenesis in murine limb bud mesenchymal cells (MSCs) using nodule formation assays and gene analyses. The effects of Pb on transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling was studied using luciferase-based reporters and Western analyses, and luciferase-based assays were used to study cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB), beta-catenin, AP-1, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling. We also used an ectopic bone formation assay to determine how Pb affects chondrogenesis in vivo. Pb-exposed MSCs showed enhanced basal and TGF-beta/BMP induction of chondrogenesis, evidenced by enhanced nodule formation and up-regulation of Sox-9, type 2 collagen, and aggrecan, all key markers of chondrogenesis. We observed enhanced chondrogenesis during ectopic bone formation in mice preexposed to Pb via drinking water. In MSCs, Pb enhanced TGF-beta but inhibited BMP-2 signaling, as measured by luciferase reporter assays and Western analyses of Smad phosphorylation. Although Pb had no effect on basal CREB or Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activity, it induced NFkappaB signaling and inhibited AP-1 signaling. The in vitro and in vivo induction of chondrogenesis by Pb likely involves modulation and integration of multiple signaling pathways including TGF-beta, BMP, AP-1, and NFkappaB.

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 induces differentiation of colorectal cancer stem cells and increases their response to chemotherapy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Ylenia; Scopelliti, Alessandro; Cammareri, Patrizia; Todaro, Matilde; Iovino, Flora; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Gulotta, Gaspare; Dieli, Francesco; de Maria, Ruggero; Stassi, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The limited clinical response observed in many patients with colorectal cancer may be related to the presence of chemoresistant colorectal cancer stem cells (CRC-SCs). Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) promotes the differentiation of normal colonic stem cells. We investigated whether BMP4 might be used to induce differentiation of CRC-SCs and for therapeutic purposes. CRC-SCs were isolated from 25 tumor samples based on expression of CD133 or using a selection culture medium. BMP4 expression and activity on CRC-SCs were evaluated in vitro; progeny of the stem cells were evaluated by immunofluorescence, immunoblot, and flow cytometry analyses. The potential therapeutic effect of BMP4 was assessed in immunocompromised mice after injection of CRC-SCs that responded to chemotherapy (n = 4) or that did not (n = 2). CRC-SCs did not express BMP4 whereas differentiated cells did. Recombinant BMP4 promoted differentiation and apoptosis of CRC-SCs in 12 of 15 independent experiments; this effect did not depend on Small Mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad)4 expression level or microsatellite stability. BMP4 activated the canonical and noncanonical BMP signaling pathways, including phosphoInositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and PKB (protein kinase B)/AKT. Mutations in PI3K or loss of Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN) in Smad4-defective tumors made CRC-SCs unresponsive to BMP4. Administration of BMP4 to immunocompromised mice with tumors that arose from CRC-SCs increased the antitumor effects of 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. BMP4 promotes terminal differentiation, apoptosis, and chemosensitization of CRC-SCs in tumors that do not have simultaneous mutations in Smad4 and constitutive activation of PI3K. BMP4 might be developed as a therapeutic agent against cancer stem cells in advanced colorectal tumors. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrostatics and N-glycan-mediated membrane tethering of SCUBE1 is critical for promoting bone morphogenetic protein signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Ju; Tsao, Ku-Chi; Yang, Ruey-Bing

    2016-03-01

    SCUBE1 (S1), a secreted and membrane-bound glycoprotein, has a modular protein structure composed of an N-terminal signal peptide sequence followed by nine epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, a spacer region and three cysteine-rich (CR) motifs with multiple potential N-linked glycosylation sites, and one CUB domain at the C-terminus. Soluble S1 is a biomarker of platelet activation but an active participant of thrombosis via its adhesive EGF-like repeats, whereas its membrane-associated form acts as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptor in promoting BMP signal activity. However, the mechanism responsible for the membrane tethering and the biological importance of N-glycosylation of S1 remain largely unknown. In the present study, molecular mapping analysis identified a polycationic segment (amino acids 501-550) in the spacer region required for its membrane tethering via electrostatic interactions possibly with the anionic heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Furthermore, deglycosylation by peptide N-glycosidase F treatment revealed that N-glycans within the CR motif are essential for membrane recruitment through lectin-mediated surface retention. Injection of mRNA encoding zebrafish wild-type but not N-glycan-deficient scube1 restores the expression of haematopoietic and erythroid markers (scl and gata1) in scube1-knockdown embryos. We describe novel mechanisms in targeting S1 to the plasma membrane and demonstrate that N-glycans are required for S1 functions during primitive haematopoiesis in zebrafish. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  20. Nanofibrous yet injectable polycaprolactone-collagen bone tissue scaffold with osteoprogenitor cells and controlled release of bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Gayathri; Bialorucki, Callan [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Yildirim-Ayan, Eda, E-mail: eda.yildirimayan@utoledo.edu [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we developed a nanofibrous, yet injectable orthobiologic tissue scaffold that is capable of hosting osteoprogenitor cells and controlling kinetic release profile of the encapsulated pro-osteogenic factor without diminishing its bioactivity over 21 days. This innovative injectable scaffold was synthesized by incorporating electrospun and subsequently O{sub 2} plasma-functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers within the collagen type-I solution along with MC3T3-E1 cells (pre-osteoblasts) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2). Through changing the PCL nanofiber concentration within the injectable scaffolds, we were able to tailor the mechanical strength, protein retention capacity, bioactivity preservation, and osteoinductive potential of the scaffolds. The nanofibrous internal structure of the scaffold allowed us to use a low dose of BMP2 (200 ng/ml) to achieve osteoblastic differentiation in in vitro culture. The osteogenesis capacity of the injectable scaffolds were evaluated though measuring MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, ALP activity, matrix mineralization, and early- and late-osteoblast specific gene expression profiles over 21 days. The results demonstrated that the nanofibrous injectable scaffold provides not only an osteoinductive environment for osteoprogenitor cells to differentiate, but also a suitable biomechanical and biochemical environment to act as a reservoir for osteogenic factors with controlled release profile. - Highlights: • Injectable nanofibrous scaffold with osteoprogenitor cells and BMP2 was synthesized. • PCL nanofiber concentration within collagen scaffold affected the BMP2 retention and bioactivity. • Optimal PCL concentration was identified for mechanical stability, injectability, and osteogenic activity. • Scaffolds exhibited long-term osteoinductive capacity for bone repair and regeneration.

  1. MB109 as bioactive human bone morphogenetic protein-9 refolded and purified from E. coli inclusion bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of chemical refolding of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily ligands has been instrumental to produce the recombinant proteins for biochemical studies and exploring the potential of protein therapeutics. The osteogenic human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (hBMP-2) and its Drosophila DPP homolog were the early successful cases of refolding into functional form. Despite the similarity in their three dimensional structure and amino acid sequences, several other TGF-β superfamily ligands could not be refolded readily by the same methods. Results Here, we report a comprehensive study on the variables of a rapid-dilution refolding method, including the concentrations of protein, salt, detergent and redox agents, pH, refolding duration and the presence of aggregation suppressors and host-cell contaminants, in order to identify the optimal condition to refold human BMP-9 (hBMP-9). To produce a recombinant form of hBMP-9 in E. coli cells, a synthetic codon-optimized gene was designed to encode the mature domain of hBMP-9 (Ser320 – Arg429) directly behind the first methionine, which we herein referred to as MB109. An effective purification scheme was also developed to purify the refolded MB109 to homogeneity with a final yield of 7.8 mg from 100 mg of chromatography-purified inclusion bodies as a starting material. The chemically refolded MB109 binds to ALK1, ActRIIb and BMPRII receptors with relatively high affinity as compared to other Type I and Type II receptors based on surface plasmon resonance analysis. Smad1-dependent luciferase assay in C2C12 cells shows that the MB109 has an EC50 of 0.61 ng/mL (25 pM), which is nearly the same as hBMP-9. Conclusion MB109 is prone to be refolded as non-functional dimer and higher order multimers in most of the conditions tested, but bioactive MB109 dimer can be refolded with high efficiency in a narrow window, which is strongly dependent on the pH, refolding duration, the presence of

  2. The morphogenetic MreBCD proteins of Escherichia coli form an essential membrane-bound complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Thomas; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Gerdes, Kenn

    2005-01-01

    MreB proteins of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Caulobacter crescentus form actin-like cables lying beneath the cell surface. The cables are required to guide longitudinal cell wall synthesis and their absence leads to merodiploid spherical and inflated cells prone to cell lysis. In B...... carrying the ftsQAZ genes suppressed the lethality of deletions in the mre operon. Using GFP and cell fractionation methods, we showed that the MreC and MreD proteins were associated with the cell membrane. Using a bacterial two-hybrid system, we found that MreC interacted with both MreB and Mre....... subtilis and C. crescentus, the mreB gene is essential. However, in E. coli, mreB was inferred not to be essential. Using a tight, conditional gene depletion system, we systematically investigated whether the E. coli mreBCD-encoded components were essential. We found that cells depleted of mreBCD became...

  3. Bone morphogenetic proteins regulate osteoprotegerin and its ligands in human vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kirsten Quyen Nguyen; Olesen, Ping; Ledet, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The bone-related protein osteoprotegerin (OPG) may be involved in the development of vascular calcifications, especially in diabetes, where it has been found in increased amounts in the arterial wall. Experimental studies suggest that members of the TGF-superfamily are involved in the transformat......The bone-related protein osteoprotegerin (OPG) may be involved in the development of vascular calcifications, especially in diabetes, where it has been found in increased amounts in the arterial wall. Experimental studies suggest that members of the TGF-superfamily are involved...... in the transformation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMC) to osteoblast-like cells. In this study, we evaluated the effect of BMP-2, BMP-7 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1) on the secretion and mRNA expression of OPG and its ligands receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappabeta ligand (RANKL......) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HVSMC. All three growth factors decreased OPG protein production significantly; these results were paralleled by reduced OPG mRNA expression. TRAIL mRNA levels were also decreased. RANKL mRNA expression declined when treated with TGF-beta1 but were...

  4. S-layer architectures : extending the morphogenetic potential of S-layer protein self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, D.

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembly of molecular building blocks is a common principle for bottom up based building principles in nature. One example are crystalline bacterial surface layers, termed S-layers, which are the most commonly observed cell surface structures in prokaryotic organisms. They recrystallize into highly ordered, porous protein meshworks with unit cell sizes of 3 to 30 nm and pore sizes of 2 to 8 nm. In this work, S-layers were self-assembled on various three dimensional scaffolds in order to fabricate novel S-layer architectures. Exploiting the stabilizing effect of silica deposited on the S-layer protein meshwork led to the construction of hollow S-layer nano-containers derived from coated liposomes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and release experiments with fluorescent dyes confirmed the dissolution of the supporting lipids. Silica deposition on different spherical particles in solution, as well as on planar S-layer coated surfaces, could be monitored by measuring the ζ-potential, the decline of monosilicic acid in solution, by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis or by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Both, ζ-potential and release experiments showed differences between silicified plain liposomes and silicified S-layer coated liposomes. In addition, nanocapsules with calcium carbonate cores served as another template for the construction of silica supported S-layer architectures. These were investigated by SEM and fluorescence microscopy after fluorescence labeling. Additional coating with polyelectrolytes increased the stability of the nanocapsules. Their mechanical properties were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The influence of silica deposition was investigated by AFM and SEM. Further on, emulsomes and gas filled lipid supported microbubbles may serve as other templates for the design of spherical protein constructs although extraction of the

  5. Canola and hydrogenated soybean oils accelerate ectopic bone formation induced by implantation of bone morphogenetic protein in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hashimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola oil (Can and hydrogenated soybean oil (H2-Soy are commonly used edible oils. However, in contrast to soybean oil (Soy, they shorten the survival of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP rats. It has been proposed that the adverse effects of these oils on the kidney and testis are caused at least in part by dihydro-vitamin K (VK 1 in H2-Soy and unidentified component(s in Can. Increased intake of dihydro-VK1 is associated with decreased tissue VK2 levels and bone mineral density in rats and humans, respectively. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of these oils on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-induced ectopic bone formation, which is promoted by VK2 deficiency, in relation to the role of VK in the γ-carboxylation of osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein. A crude extract of BMPs was implanted into a gap in the fascia of the femoral muscle in 5-week-old mice maintained on a Soy, Can, or H2-Soy diet. Newly formed bone volume, assessed by three-dimensional X-ray micro-computed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction imaging for bone, was 4-fold greater in the Can and H2-Soy groups than in the Soy group. The plasma carboxylated osteocalcin (Gla-OC and total OC (Gla-OC plus undercarboxylated osteocalcin [Glu-OC] levels were significantly lower in the Can group than in the Soy group (p < 0.05. However, these levels did not significantly differ between the H2-Soy and Soy groups. The plasma Gla-OC/Glu-OC ratio in the Can and H2-Soy groups was significantly lower (in Can; p = 0.044 or was almost significantly lower (in H2-Soy; p = 0.053 than that in the Soy group. In conclusion, Can and H2-Soy accelerated BMP-induced bone formation in mice to a greater extent than Soy. Further research is required to evaluate whether the difference in accelerated ectopic bone formation is associated with altered levels of VK2 and VK-dependent protein(s among the three dietary groups.

  6. [Association of the genetic variations of bone morphogenetic protein 7 gene with diabetes and insulin resistance in Xinjiang Uygur population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-tao; Li, Nan-fang; Guo, Yan-ying; Yao, Xiao-guang; Wang, Hong-mei; Hu, Jun-li

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the association between the genetic variations of the functional region in bone morphogenetic protein gene (BMP7) with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Uygur individuals. A case-control study was conducted based on epidemiological investigation. A total of 717 Uygur subjects (276 males and 441 females) were selected and divided into two groups: diabetes mellitus group (n = 502, 191 males and 311 females) and control group (n = 215, 85 males and 130 females). All exons, flanking introns and the promoter regions of (BMP7) gene were sequenced in 48 Uygur diabetics. Representative variations were selected according to the minor allele frequency (MAF) and linkage disequilibrium and genotyped using the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction method in 717 Uygur individuals, a relatively isolated general population in a relatively homogeneous environment and a case-control study was conducted to test the association between the genetic variations of (BMP7) gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Five novel and 8 known variations in the (BMP7) gene were identified. All genotype distributions were tested for deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P> 0.05). There was significant difference of genotype distribution of rs6025422 between type 2 diabetes mellitus and control groups in the male population (P 0.05), but there was no difference in total and female population (P> 0.05). And the means of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin and HOMA-index significantly decreased in individuals with AA, AG and GG genotypes of rs6025422 in male population (Ppopulation (P> 0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that GG genotype of rs6025422 variation might be a protective factor for diabetes in male (OR= 0.637, 95% confidence interval 0.439-0.923, P< 0.05). The present study suggests that the rs6025422 polymorphism in (BMP7) gene may be associated with diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance in Uygur men.

  7. Mechanism of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in repairing hematopoietic injury in mice exposed to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuibing; Hu Peizhen; Hou Ying; Li Xubo; Tian Qiong; Shi Mei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in repairing hematopoietic injury in mice irradiated with γ-ray. To prepare SRY gene probe and study the effect of rhBMP-2 in repairing hematopoietic injury in mice by in situ hybridization. Methods: Twenty-two BALB/c female mice were randomly divided into the irradiated group and BMP treated group, respectively. Bone marrow cells of normal male mice were transplanted into 22 female mice post-irradiation to 8.5 Gy of 60 Co γ rays. The left femurs of the survived female mice were re-irradiated with 9 Gy 14 days later. Mice in BMP treated group were given rhBMP-2 20 mg/kg while those in control group were treated with 0.9% saline by intraperitoneal injection every day for 6 days. These mice were killed 14 days later and paraffin sections of femurs were made. The SRY gene was detected with in situ hybridization. Results: There were more positive blots in the left femurs of the mice in irradiated group than those in BMP treated group (T=155.0, P 0.05). The number of positive blots in the left femurs of the mice in BMPtreated group was significantly less than those in the right femurs of the mice in two groups (T=155.0, 55.0, P<0.05). Conclusions: No donor cell of male mice was detected in the left femurs of BMP treated group, suggesting that rhBMP-2 promoted the restoration of residuary bone marrow cells. Thus, rhBMP-2 promotes the proliferation or differentiation of residuary mesenchymal stem cells, improves hematopoietic microenvironment and accelerates the hematopoietic restoration. (authors)

  8. Thyroid hormone-induced hypertrophy in mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis is mediated by bone morphogenetic protein-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Alexandra; Olbrich, Norman; Pfeifer, Christian; Berner, Arne; Zellner, Johannes; Kujat, Richard; Angele, Peter; Nerlich, Michael; Mueller, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Chondrogenic differentiating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) express markers of hypertrophic growth plate chondrocytes. As hypertrophic cartilage undergoes ossification, this is a concern for the application of MSCs in articular cartilage tissue engineering. To identify mechanisms that elicit this phenomenon, we used an in vitro hypertrophy model of chondrifying MSCs for differential gene expression analysis and functional experiments with the focus on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Hypertrophy was induced in chondrogenic MSC pellet cultures by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and dexamethasone withdrawal and addition of triiodothyronine. Differential gene expression analysis of BMPs and their receptors was performed. Based on these results, the in vitro hypertrophy model was used to investigate the effect of recombinant BMP4 and the BMP inhibitor Noggin. The enhancement of hypertrophy could be shown clearly by an increased cell size, alkaline phosphatase activity, and collagen type X deposition. Upon induction of hypertrophy, BMP4 and the BMP receptor 1B were upregulated. Addition of BMP4 further enhanced hypertrophy in the absence, but not in the presence of TGFβ and dexamethasone. Thyroid hormone induced hypertrophy by upregulation of BMP4 and this induced enhancement of hypertrophy could be blocked by the BMP antagonist Noggin. BMP signaling is an important modulator of the late differentiation stages in MSC chondrogenesis and the thyroid hormone induces this pathway. As cartilage tissue engineering constructs will be exposed to this factor in vivo, this study provides important insight into the biology of MSC-based cartilage. Furthermore, the possibility to engineer hypertrophic cartilage may be helpful for critical bone defect repair.

  9. Crestal Sinus Augmentation with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of 2-Year Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchler, Ulrike; Rudelstorfer, Claudia M; Barth, Barbara; Tepper, Gabor; Lidinsky, Dominika; Heimel, Patrick; Watzek, Georg; Gruber, Reinhard

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) together with an absorbable collagen carrier (ACS) was approved for augmentation of the maxillary sinus prior to implant placement. The original registration trial was based on a lateral window approach. Clinical outcomes of crestal sinus augmentation with rhBMP-2 have not been reported so far. An uncontrolled pilot trial in which seven patients with a residual maxillary height below 5 mm were enrolled to receive crestal sinus augmentation with rhBMP-2/ACS was conducted. Elevation of the sinus mucosa was performed by gel pressure. Primary endpoints were the gain in augmentation height and volume measured by computed tomography after 6 months. Evaluation of bone quality at the time of implant placement was based on histology. Secondary endpoints were the clinical and radiologic evaluation of the implants and patient satisfaction by visual analog scale (VAS) at the 2-year follow-up. Median gain in augmentation height was 7.2 mm (range 0.0 to 17.5 mm). Five patients gained at least 5 mm of bone height. Two patients with a perforation of the sinus mucosa failed to respond to rhBMP-2/ACS and underwent lateral window augmentation. The median gain in augmentation volume of the five patients was 781.3 mm³ (range 426.9 to 1,242.8 mm³). Biopsy specimens showed a cancellous network consisting of primary plexiform bone with little secondary lamellar bone. After 2 years, implants were in function with no signs of inflammation or peri-implant bone loss. Patients were satisfied with the esthetic outcomes and chewing function. This pilot clinical trial supports the original concept that rhBMP-2/ACS supports bone formation, also in crestal sinus augmentation, and emphasizes the relevance of the integrity of the sinus mucosa to predict the bone gain.

  10. Effects of orthopedic implants with a polycaprolactone polymer coating containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 on osseointegration in bones of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Andrew J; Anderson, David E; Samii, Valerie F; Weisbrode, Steven E; Johnson, Jed K; Noon, Mike S; Tomasko, David L; Lannutti, John J

    2009-11-01

    To determine elution characteristics of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 from a polycaprolactone coating applied to orthopedic implants and determine effects of this coating on osseointegration. 6 sheep. An in vitro study was conducted to determine BMP-2 elution from polycaprolactone-coated implants. An in vivo study was conducted to determine the effects on osseointegration when the polycaprolactone with BMP-2 coating was applied to bone screws. Osseointegration was assessed via radiography, measurement of peak removal torque and bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis. Physiologic response was assessed by measuring serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and uptake of bone markers. Mean +/- SD elution on day 1 of the in vitro study was 263 +/- 152 pg/d, which then maintained a plateau at 59.8 +/- 29.1 pg/d. Mean peak removal torque for screws coated with polycalprolactone and BMP-2 (0.91 +/- 0.65 dN x m) and screws coated with polycaprolactone alone (0.97 +/- 1.30 dN.m) did not differ significantly from that for the control screws (2.34 +/- 1.62 dN x m). Mean bone mineral densities were 0.535 +/- 0.060 g/cm(2), 0.596 +/- 0.093 g/cm(2), and 0.524 +/- 0.142 g/cm(2) for the polycaprolactone-BMP-2-coated, polycaprolactone-coated, and control screws, respectively, and did not differ significantly among groups. Histologically, bone was in closer apposition to the implant with the control screws than with either of the coated screws. BMP-2 within the polycaprolactone coating did not stimulate osteogenesis. The polycaprolactone coating appeared to cause a barrier effect that prevented formation of new bone. A longer period or use of another carrier polymer may result in increased osseointegration.

  11. Endoglin-mediated suppression of prostate cancer invasion is regulated by activin and bone morphogenetic protein type II receptors.

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    Michael J Breen

    Full Text Available Mortality from prostate cancer (PCa is due to the formation of metastatic disease. Understanding how that process is regulated is therefore critical. We previously demonstrated that endoglin, a type III transforming growth factor β (TGFβ superfamily receptor, suppresses human PCa cell invasion and metastasis. Endoglin-mediated suppression of invasion was also shown by us to be dependent upon the type I TGFβ receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 2 (ALK2, and the downstream effector, Smad1. In this study we demonstrate for the first time that two type II TGFβ receptors are required for endoglin-mediated suppression of invasion: activin A receptor type IIA (ActRIIA and bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPRII. Downstream signaling through these receptors is predominantly mediated by Smad1. ActRIIA stimulates Smad1 activation in a kinase-dependent manner, and this is required for suppression of invasion. In contrast BMPRII regulates Smad1 in a biphasic manner, promoting Smad1 signaling through its kinase domain but suppressing it through its cytoplasmic tail. BMPRII's Smad1-regulatory effects are dependent upon its expression level. Further, its ability to suppress invasion is independent of either kinase function or tail domain. We demonstrate that ActRIIA and BMPRII physically interact, and that each also interacts with endoglin. The current findings demonstrate that both BMPRII and ActRIIA are necessary for endoglin-mediated suppression of human PCa cell invasion, that they have differential effects on Smad1 signaling, that they make separate contributions to regulation of invasion, and that they functionally and physically interact.

  12. Genetic and evolutionary analyses of the human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2 in the pathophysiology of obesity.

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    Dorit Schleinitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2 is essential for BMP signalling and may be involved in the regulation of adipogenesis. The BMPR2 locus has been suggested as target of recent selection in human populations. We hypothesized that BMPR2 might have a role in the pathophysiology of obesity.Evolutionary analyses (dN/dS, Fst, iHS were conducted in vertebrates and human populations. BMPR2 mRNA expression was measured in 190 paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The gene was sequenced in 48 DNA samples. Nine representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped for subsequent association studies on quantitative traits related to obesity in 1830 German Caucasians. An independent cohort of 925 Sorbs was used for replication. Finally, relation of genotypes to mRNA in fat was examined.The evolutionary analyses indicated signatures of selection on the BMPR2 locus. BMPR2 mRNA expression was significantly increased both in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of 37 overweight (BMI>25 and 30 kg/m² compared with 44 lean subjects (BMI< 25 kg/m² (P<0.001. In a case-control study including lean and obese subjects, two intronic SNPs (rs6717924, rs13426118 were associated with obesity (adjusted P<0.05. Combined analyses including the initial cohort and the Sorbs confirmed a consistent effect for rs6717924 (combined P = 0.01 on obesity. Moreover, rs6717924 was associated with higher BMPR2 mRNA expression in visceral adipose tissue.Combined BMPR2 genotype-phenotype-mRNA expression data as well as evolutionary aspects suggest a role of BMPR2 in the pathophysiology of obesity.

  13. The Hedgehog Signal Induced Modulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling: An Essential Signaling Relay for Urinary Tract Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagata, Naomi; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Suzuki, Kentaro; Kitazawa, Sohei; Yamada, Gen

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital diseases of the urinary tract are frequently observed in infants. Such diseases present a number of developmental anomalies such as hydroureter and hydronephrosis. Although some genetically-modified mouse models of growth factor signaling genes reproduce urinary phenotypes, the pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure. Previous studies suggest that a portion of the cells in the external genitalia and bladder are derived from peri-cloacal mesenchymal cells that receive Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in the early developmental stages. We hypothesized that defects in such progenitor cells, which give rise to urinary tract tissues, may be a cause of such diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings To elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of upper urinary tract malformations, we analyzed a series of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) deficient mice. Shh−/− displayed hydroureter and hydronephrosis phenotypes and reduced expression of several developmental markers. In addition, we suggested that Shh modulation at an early embryonic stage is responsible for such phenotypes by analyzing the Shh conditional mutants. Tissue contribution assays of Hh-responsive cells revealed that peri-cloacal mesenchymal cells, which received Hh signal secreted from cloacal epithelium, could contribute to the ureteral mesenchyme. Gain- and loss-of-functional mutants for Hh signaling revealed a correlation between Hh signaling and Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling. Finally, a conditional ablation of Bmp receptor type IA (BmprIA) gene was examined in Hh-responsive cell lineages. This system thus made it possible to analyze the primary functions of the growth factor signaling relay. The defective Hh-to-Bmp signaling relay resulted in severe urinary tract phenotypes with a decrease in the number of Hh-responsive cells. Conclusions/Significance This study identified the essential embryonic stages for the pathogenesis of urinary tract phenotypes. These results suggested that Hh

  14. Alk2/ACVR1 and Alk3/BMPR1A Provide Essential Function for Bone Morphogenetic Protein Induced Retinal Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Woo; Chong, Diana C.; Ola, Roxana; Dunworth, William P.; Meadows, Stryder; Ka, Jun; Kaartinen, Vesa M.; Qyang, Yibing; Cleaver, Ondine; Bautch, Victoria L.; Eichmann, Anne; Jin, Suk-Won

    2017-01-01

    Objective Increasing evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling regulates angiogenesis. Here, we aimed to define the function of BMP receptors in regulating early post-natal angiogenesis by analysis of inducible, endothelial specific deletion of the BMP receptor components Bmpr2, Alk1, Alk2 and Alk3 in mouse retinal vessels. Approach and Results Expression analysis of several BMP ligands showed that pro-angiogenic BMP ligands are highly expressed in postnatal retinas. Consistently, BMP receptors are also strongly expressed in retina with a distinct pattern. To assess the function of BMP signaling in retinal angiogenesis, we first generated mice carrying an endothelial-specific inducible deletion of BMP Type 2 receptor (Bmpr2). Postnatal deletion of Bmpr2 in endothelial cells substantially decreased the number of angiogenic sprouts at the vascular front and branchpoints behind the front, leading to attenuated radial expansion. To identify critical BMPR1s associated with BMPR2 in retinal angiogenesis, we generated endothelial-specific inducible deletion of three BMPR1s abundantly expressed in endothelial cells and analyzed the respective phenotypes. Among these, endothelial specific deletion of either Alk2/acvr1 or Alk3/Bmpr1a caused a delay in radial expansion, reminiscent of vascular defects associated with postnatal endothelial specific deletion of BMPR2, suggesting that ALK2/ACVR1 and ALK3/BMPR1A are likely to be the critical BMPR1s necessary for pro-angiogenic BMP signaling in retinal vessels. Conclusions Our data identify BMP signaling mediated by coordination of ALK2/ACVR1, ALK3/BMPR1A, and BMPR2 as an essential pro-angiogenic cue for retinal vessels. PMID:28232325

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 as a key regulator of liver progenitor cells in DDC-induced cholestatic liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addante, Annalisa; Roncero, Cesáreo; Almalé, Laura; Lazcanoiturburu, Nerea; García-Álvaro, María; Fernández, Margarita; Sanz, Julián; Hammad, Seddik; Nwosu, Zeribe C; Lee, Se-Jin; Fabregat, Isabel; Dooley, Steven; Ten Dijke, Peter; Herrera, Blanca; Sánchez, Aránzazu

    2018-05-11

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) interferes with liver regeneration upon acute injury, while promoting fibrosis upon carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic injury. We have now addressed the role of BMP9 in 3,5 diethoxicarbonyl-1,4 dihydrocollidine (DDC)-induced cholestatic liver injury, a model of liver regeneration mediated by hepatic progenitor cell (known as oval cell), exemplified as ductular reaction and oval cell expansion. WT and BMP9KO mice were submitted to DDC diet. Livers were examined for liver injury, fibrosis, inflammation and oval cell expansion by serum biochemistry, histology, RT-qPCR and western blot. BMP9 signalling and effects in oval cells were studied in vitro using western blot and transcriptional assays, plus functional assays of DNA synthesis, cell viability and apoptosis. Crosslinking assays and short hairpin RNA approaches were used to identify the receptors mediating BMP9 effects. Deletion of BMP9 reduces liver damage and fibrosis, but enhances inflammation upon DDC feeding. Molecularly, absence of BMP9 results in overactivation of PI3K/AKT, ERK-MAPKs and c-Met signalling pathways, which together with an enhanced ductular reaction and oval cell expansion evidence an improved regenerative response and decreased damage in response to DDC feeding. Importantly, BMP9 directly targets oval cells, it activates SMAD1,5,8, decreases cell growth and promotes apoptosis, effects that are mediated by Activin Receptor-Like Kinase 2 (ALK2) type I receptor. We identify BMP9 as a negative regulator of oval cell expansion in cholestatic injury, its deletion enhancing liver regeneration. Likewise, our work further supports BMP9 as an attractive therapeutic target for chronic liver diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of autoclave devitalization on autograft incorporation and bone morphogenetic protein of tibia in Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Anak A.G.Y. Asmara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heating process with autoclave is one of limb salvage modalities that are widely used. but the results are not satisfying, due to mechanical bone fragility. However, considering this treatment modality is widely accepted in terms of financial, religion and sociocultural aspects, we conducted a on study rats treated with resection and reconstruction with autoclave heating method to assess bone healing by sequential radiology, histopathologic osteoblasts count, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP.Methods: Thirty six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups with one group being the autoclave group and others served as control group. In both groups, the tibial diaphysis was extracted en bloc for 7 mm. All groups were kept for 8 weeks and treated under the same condition except the autoclave group, where the extracted bones were put into autoclave at 134°C for 15 minutes and refixed again with k-wire. We performed radiological examination at 5th and 8th week using Lane and Sandhu radiological score. After extraction, the tibial bones were inspected for histological pattern using Salked modified score, osteoblast quantity counting and BMP-2 values.Results: There were statistically significant diffences between control and autoclave group on radiological score at 5th (5.12 ± 1.6 g vs 3.21 ± 2.42, p = 0.023 and 8th week (6.06 ± 1.71 vs 4.29 ± 2.53, p = 0.040, histological score between groups (6.06 ± 1.14 vs 4.14 ± 1.99, p = 0.005, osteoblast count (p < 0.001, and BMP-2 expression,  respectively.Conclusion: Autoclave recycling autograft lowered the speed of graft incorporation and BMP-2 expression. Therefore, autoclave recycling autograft as a method of limb salvage surgery must be reevaluated and not considered to be applied for treatment in bone malignancy.  

  17. Hyaline cartilage regeneration by combined therapy of microfracture and long-term bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hee Seok; La, Wan-Geun; Bhang, Suk Ho; Kim, Hak-Jun; Im, Gun-Il; Lee, Haeshin; Park, Jung-Ho; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2011-07-01

    Microfracture of cartilage induces migration of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. However, this treatment often results in fibrocartilage regeneration. Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induce the differentiation of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, which can be used for hyaline cartilage regeneration. Here, we tested the hypothesis that long-term delivery of BMP-2 to cartilage defects subjected to microfracture results in regeneration of high-quality hyaline-like cartilage, as opposed to short-term delivery of BMP-2 or no BMP-2 delivery. Heparin-conjugated fibrin (HCF) and normal fibrin were used as carriers for the long- and short-term delivery of BMP-2, respectively. Rabbit articular cartilage defects were treated with microfracture combined with one of the following: no treatment, fibrin, short-term delivery of BMP-2, HCF, or long-term delivery of BMP-2. Eight weeks after treatment, histological analysis revealed that the long-term delivery of BMP-2 group (microfracture + HCF + BMP-2) showed the most staining with alcian blue. A biochemical assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and Western blot analysis all revealed that the long-term delivery of BMP-2 group had the highest glucosaminoglycan content as well as the highest expression level of collagen type II. Taken together, the long-term delivery of BMP-2 to cartilage defects subjected to microfracture resulted in regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage, as opposed to short-term delivery or no BMP-2 delivery. Therefore, this method could be more convenient for hyaline cartilage regeneration than autologous chondrocyte implantation due to its less invasive nature and lack of cell implantation.

  18. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the treatment of bone fractures

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    Neil Ghodadra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neil Ghodadra, Kern SinghDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: Over one million fractures occur per year in the US and are associated with impaired healing increasing patient morbidity, stress, and economic costs. Despite improvements in surgical technique, internal fixation, and understanding of biologics, fracture healing is delayed or impaired in up to 4% of all fractures. Complications due to impaired fracture healing present therapeutic challenges to the orthopedic surgeon and often lead to chronic functional and psychological disability for the patient. As a result, it has become clinically desirable to augment mechanical fixation with biologic strategies in order to accelerate osteogenesis and promote successful arthrodesis. The discovery of bone morphogenic protein (BMP has been pivotal in understanding the biology of fracture healing and has been a source of intense clinical research as an adjunct to fracture treatment. Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies in animals have elucidated the complex biologic interactions between BMPs and cellular receptors and have convincingly demonstrated rhBMP-2 to be a safe, effective treatment option to enhance bone healing. Multiple clinical trials in trauma surgery have provided level 1 evidence for the use of rhBMP-2 as a safe and effective treatment of fractures. Human clinical trials have provided further insight into BMP-2 dosage, time course, carriers, and efficacy in fracture healing of tibial defects. These promising results have provided hope that a new biologic field of technology has emerged as a useful adjunct in the treatment of skeletal injuries and conditions.Keywords: bone morphogenic protein-2, bone fracture, bone healing

  19. Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7 in the Modulation of Corneal Stromal and Epithelial Cell Functions

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    Bhavani S. Kowtharapu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the cornea, healing of the wounded avascular surface is an intricate process comprising the involvement of epithelial, stromal and neuronal cell interactions. These interactions result to the release of various growth factors that play prominent roles during corneal wound healing response. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are unique multi-functional potent growth factors of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily. Treatment of corneal epithelial cells with substance P and nerve growth factor resulted to an increase in the expression of BMP7 mRNA. Since BMP7 is known to modulate the process of corneal wound healing, in this present study, we investigated the influence of exogenous rhBMP7 on human corneal epithelial cell and stromal cell (SFs function. To obtain a high-fidelity expression profiling of activated biomarkers and pathways, transcriptome-wide gene-level expression profiling of epithelial cells in the presence of BMP7 was performed. Gene ontology analysis shows BMP7 stimulation activated TGF-β signaling and cell cycle pathways, whereas biological processes related to cell cycle, microtubule and intermediate filament cytoskeleton organization were significantly impacted in corneal epithelial cells. Scratch wound healing assay showed increased motility and migration of BMP7 treated epithelial cells. BMP7 stimulation studies show activation of MAPK cascade proteins in epithelial cells and SFs. Similarly, a difference in the expression of claudin, Zink finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 was observed along with phosphorylation levels of cofilin in epithelial cells. Stimulation of SFs with BMP7 activated them with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, an elevated phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor following BMP7 stimulation was also observed both in corneal epithelial cells and SFs. Based on our transcriptome analysis data on epithelial cells and the results obtained in SFs, we

  20. Regulation of Gastric Lgr5+ve Cell Homeostasis by Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP Signaling and Inflammatory StimuliSummary

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    Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Gastric Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 cells exert important functions during injury and homeostasis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling regulates gastric inflammation and epithelial homeostasis. We investigated if BMP signaling controls the fate of Lgr5+ve cells during inflammation. Methods: The H+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase β-subunit promoter was used to express the BMP inhibitor noggin (Nog in the stomach (H+/K+-Nog mice. Inhibition of BMP signaling in Lgr5 cells was achieved by crossing Lgr5-EGFP-ires-CreERT2 (Lgr5-Cre mice to mice with floxed alleles of BMP receptor 1A (Lgr5-Cre;Bmpr1aflox/flox mice. Lgr5/GFP+ve cells were isolated using flow cytometry. Lineage tracing studies were conducted by crossing Lgr5-Cre mice to mice that express Nog and tdTomato (Lgr5-Cre;H+/K+-Nog;Rosa26-tdTom. Infection with Helicobacter felis was used to induce inflammation. Morphology of the mucosa was analyzed by H&E staining. Distribution of H+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase-, IF-, Ki67-, CD44-, CD44v9-, and bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells was analyzed by immunostaining. Expression of neck and pit cell mucins was determined by staining with the lectins Griffonia (Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin II and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1, respectively. Id1, Bmpr1a, Lgr5, c-Myc, and Cd44 messenger RNAs were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Lgr5-Cre;Bmpr1aflox/flox mice showed diminished expression of Bmpr1a in Lgr5/GFP+ve cells. Infection of Lgr5-Cre;Bmpr1aflox/flox mice with H felis led to enhanced inflammation, increased cell proliferation, parietal cell loss, and to the development of metaplasia and dysplasia. Infected Lgr5-Cre;H+/K+-Nog;Rosa26-tdTom mice, but not control mice, showed the presence of tomato+ve glands lining the lesser curvature that stained positively with Griffonia (Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin II and Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1, and

  1. Pharmacological activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promotes osteoblast differentiation via bone morphogenetic protein-2 and induces bone anabolic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Monika; Pal, Subhashis; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Porwal, Konica [Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Dev, Kapil [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Shrivastava, Richa [Division of Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Rashid, Mamunur [Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Sanyal, Sabyasachi [Biochemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Wahajuddin, Muhammad [Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Bhaduria, Smrati [Division of Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Maurya, Rakesh [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya, E-mail: n_chattopadhyay@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a family of enzymes involved in detoxifying aldehydes. Previously, we reported that an ALDH inhibitor, disulfiram caused bone loss in rats and among ALDHs, osteoblast expressed only ALDH2. Loss-of-function mutation in ALDH2 gene is reported to cause bone loss in humans which suggested its importance in skeletal homeostasis. We thus studied whether activating ALDH2 by N-(1, 3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-2, 6-dichlorobenzamide (alda-1) had osteogenic effect. We found that alda-1 increased and acetaldehyde decreased the differentiation of rat primary osteoblasts and expressions of ALDH2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Silencing ALDH2 in osteoblasts abolished the alda-1 effects. Further, alda-1 attenuated the acetaldehyde-induced lipid-peroxidation and oxidative stress. BMP-2 is essential for bone regeneration and alda-1 increased its expression in osteoblasts. We then showed that alda-1 (40 mg/kg dose) augmented bone regeneration at the fracture site with concomitant increase in BMP-2 protein compared with control. The osteogenic dose (40 mg/kg) of alda-1 attained a bone marrow concentration that was stimulatory for osteoblast differentiation, suggesting that the tissue concentration of alda-1 matched its pharmacologic effect. In addition, alda-1 promoted modeling-directed bone growth and peak bone mass achievement, and increased bone mass in adult rats which reiterated its osteogenic effect. In osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats, alda-1 reversed trabecular osteopenia with attendant increase in serum osteogenic marker (procollagen type I N-terminal peptide) and decrease in oxidative stress. Alda-1 has no effect on liver and kidney function. We conclude that activating ALDH2 by alda-1 had an osteoanabolic effect involving increased osteoblastic BMP-2 production and decreased OVX-induced oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Alda-1 induced osteoblast differentiation that involved upregulation of ALDH2 and BMP-2 • Alda-1

  2. Colloid, adhesive and release properties of nanoparticular ternary complexes between cationic and anionic polysaccharides and basic proteins like bone morphogenetic protein BMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, R; Vehlow, D; Urban, B; Grab, A L; Cavalcanti-Adam, E A; Alt, V; Müller, M

    2017-03-01

    Herein we describe an interfacial local drug delivery system for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) based on coatings of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles (NP). The application horizon is the functionalization of bone substituting materials (BSM) used for the therapy of systemic bone diseases. Nanoparticular ternary complexes of cationic and anionic polysaccharides and BMP-2 or two further model proteins, respectively, were prepared in dependence of the molar mixing ratio, pH value and of the cationic polysaccharide. As further proteins chymotrypsin (CHY) and papain (PAP) were selected, which served as model proteins for BMP-2 due to similar isoelectric points and molecular weights. As charged polysaccharides ethylenediamine modified cellulose (EDAC) and trimethylammonium modified cellulose (PQ10) were combined with cellulose sulphatesulfate (CS). Mixing diluted cationic and anionic polysaccharide and protein solutions according to a slight either anionic or cationic excess charge colloidal ternary dispersions formed, which were cast onto germanium model substrates by water evaporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) demonstrated, that these dispersions were colloidally stable for at least one week. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) showed, that the cast protein loaded PEC NP coatings were irreversibly adhesive at the model substrate in contact to HEPES buffer and solely CHY, PAP and BMP-2 were released within long-term time scale. Advantageously, out of the three proteins BMP-2 showed the smallest initial burst and the slowest release kinetics and around 25% of the initial BMP-2 content were released within 14days. Released BMP-2 showed significant activity in the myoblast cells indicating the ability to regulate the formation of new bone. Therefore, BMP-2 loaded PEC NP are suggested as novel promising tool for the functionalization of BSM used for the therapy of systemic bone diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cartilage Derived from Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Expresses Lubricin In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yusuke; Muneta, Takeshi; Otabe, Koji; Ozeki, Nobutake; Mizuno, Mitsuru; Udo, Mio; Saito, Ryusuke; Yanagisawa, Katsuaki; Ichinose, Shizuko; Koga, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    expressed lubricin in the superficial cartilage. Conclusion Cartilage derived from MSCs expressed lubricin protein both in vitro and in vivo. Aggregation promoted lubricin expression of MSCs in vitro and transplantation of aggregates of MSCs regenerated cartilage including the superficial zone in a rat osteochondral defect model. Our results indicate that aggregated MSCs could be clinically relevant for therapeutic approaches to articular cartilage regeneration with an appropriate superficial zone in the future. PMID:26867127

  4. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 outcomes for maxillary sinus floor augmentation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guo-Hao; Lim, Glendale; Chan, Hsun-Liang; Giannobile, William V; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2016-11-01

    To study the effect of the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on sinus volumetric and histometric changes after sinus floor augmentation compared to a conventional approach of non-biologic bone grafting materials. An electronic search of 4 databases (January 1990-February 2015), including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central, and a hand search of peer-reviewed journals for relevant articles were performed. Human clinical trials with data on comparison of sinus volumetric and/or histometric outcomes with and without the use of rhBMP-2 in sinus grafting procedures, with ≥10 augmentation sites in each study group, and with a follow-up period of at least 6 months, were included. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to analyze weighted mean difference (WMD) and confidence interval (CI) for the recorded variables according to PRISMA guidelines. Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. The results of the meta-analyses showed that the WMD of vertical bone height gain was -0.14 mm (95% CI = -1.91 to 1.62 mm, P = 0.87), the WMD of bone density was -142.42 mg/cm 3 (95% CI = -310.62-25.78 mg/cm 3 , P = 0.10), the WMD of the percentage of vital bone was -4.59% (95% CI = -11.73-2.56%, P = 0.21), and the WMD of the percentage of residual bone grafting materials was -9.90% (95% CI = -26.38-6.58%, P = 0.21). The comparison of implant survival rate presented an overall risk ratio of 1.00 (95% CI = 0.94-1.07). The two approaches (conventional bone grafting compared to BMPs) demonstrated comparable effectiveness for both clinical and histomorphometric measures. This systematic review revealed that the use of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus floor augmentation achieved similar clinical and histometric outcomes when compared to conventional sinus grafting procedures after a healing period of 6-9 months. However, previous studies showed the morbidity and other patient-reported outcomes were improved in

  5. Early inhibitory effects of zoledronic acid in tooth extraction sockets in dogs are negated by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, David A; Carlson, Eric R; Gotcher, Jack E; Pickett, David O

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted with 2 purposes. The first was to determine the effect of a single dose of zoledronic acid (ZA) on the healing of a tooth extraction socket in dogs. The second was to determine if placement of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) - INFUSE, (Medtronic, Memphis, TN) into these extraction sockets would inhibit the inhibition on bone healing and remodeling by ZA. Nine adult female beagle dogs (2 to 3 yr old) were placed into 3 groups of 3 dogs each. Group I received 15 mL of sterile saline intravenously; group II received 2.5 mg of ZA intravenously; and group III received 5 mg of ZA intravenously. Forty-five days after treatment, all dogs underwent extraction of noncontiguous right and left mandibular first molars and second premolars. In group I, the right mandibular extraction sockets had nothing placed in them, whereas the left mandibular sockets had only ACS placed in them. In groups II and III, the right mandibular sockets had rhBMP-2/ACS placed in them, whereas the left mandibular sockets had only ACS placed. All extraction sockets were surgically closed. Tetracycline was given intravenously 5 and 12 days later, and all animals were euthanized 15 days after tooth extraction. The extraction sockets and rib and femur samples were harvested immediately after euthanasia, processed, and studied microscopically. A single dose of ZA significantly inhibited healing and bone remodeling in the area of the tooth extractions. The combination of rhBMP-2/ACS appeared to over-ride some of the bone remodeling inhibition of the ZA and increased bone fill in the extraction sites, and remodeling activity in the area was noted. The effects of rhBMP-2/ACS were confined to the area of the extraction sockets because bone activity at distant sites was not influenced. A single dose of ZA administered intravenously inhibits early healing of tooth extraction sockets and bone remodeling in this animal model. The

  6. Bone morphogenetic protein-15 in follicle fluid combined with age may differentiate between successful and unsuccessful poor ovarian responders

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    Wu Yan-Ting

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The counselling of poor ovarian responders about the probability of pregnancy remains a puzzle for gynaecologists. The aim of this study was to optimise the management of poor responders by investigating the role of the oocyte-derived factor bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15 combined with chronological age in the prediction of the outcome of in-vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer (IVF-ET in poor responders. Methods A retrospective study conducted in a university hospital. A total of 207 poor ovarian responders who reached the ovum pick-up stage undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI with three or fewer follicles no less than 14 mm on the day of oocyte retrieval were recruited from July 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. Another 215 coinstantaneous cycles with normal responses were selected as controls. The BMP-15 levels in the follicular fluid (FF of the 207 poor responders were analysed by western blot. Based on the FF BMP-15 level and age, poor responders were sub-divided into four groups. The main outcome measures were the FF BMP-15 level, implantation rate, pregnancy rate, and live birth rate. Results The implantation rate (24.2% vs. 15.3%, chemical pregnancy rate (40% vs. 23.7%, clinical pregnancy rate (36.5% vs. 20.4% and live birth rate (29.4% vs. 15.1% in the high BMP-15 group were significantly higher than those in the low BMP-15 group. Furthermore, poor responders aged less than or equal to 35 years with a higher FF BMP-15 level had the best implantation, pregnancy and live birth rates, which were comparable with those of normal responders. Conclusions Our study suggests a potential role of BMP-15 in the prediction of the IVF outcome. A high FF BMP-15 combined with an age less than or equal to 35 years may be used as a potential indicator for repeating IVF cycles in poor ovarian responders.

  7. Depot injectable biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation

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    Hassan AH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ali Habiballah Hassan,1 Khaled Mohamed Hosny,2,3 Zuahir A Murshid,1 Adel Alhadlaq,4 Ahmed Alyamani,5 Ghada Naguib6 1Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt; 4Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 5Department of Oral Surgery, 6Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Objective: The aim of this study is to utilize the biocompatibility characteristics of biodegradable polymers, viz, poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA and polycaprolactone (PCL, to prepare sustained-release injectable nanoparticles (NPs of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 for the repair of alveolar bone defects in rabbits. The influence of formulation parameters on the functional characteristics of the prepared NPs was studied to develop a new noninvasive injectable recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2 containing grafting material for the repair of alveolar bone clefts.Materials and methods: BMP-2 NPs were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion solvent evaporation/extraction method. The influence of molar ratio of PLGA to PCL on a suitable particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and sustained drug release was studied. Critical size alveolar defects were created in the maxilla of 24 New Zealand rabbits divided into three groups, one of them treated with 5 µg/kg of rhBMP-2 NP formulations.Results: The results found that NPs formula prepared using blend of PLGA and PCL in 4:2 (w/w ratio showed the best sustained-release pattern with lower initial burst, and showed up to 62.7% yield, 64.5% encapsulation efficiency, 127 nm size, and more than 90% in vitro release. So, this formula was selected for

  8. Expression of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2 in the human cumulus cells as a biomarker of oocytes and embryo quality

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    Sirin B Demiray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The members of the transforming growth factor-B superfamily, as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs subfamily and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH, play a role during follicular development, and the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2, AMH, and THY1 are expressed in ovaries. Aim: This study was designed to define whether or not the expressions of these proteins in human cumulus cells (CCs can be used as predictors of the oocyte and embryo competence. Settings and Design: The study included nine female patients who were diagnosed as idiopathic infertility, aged 25–33 years (median 30 years and underwent Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Materials and Methods: The CCs from 60 oocyte–cumulus complexes obtained from the nine patients were evaluated with immunofluorescence staining in respect of BMPs, AMH and THY1 markers. The CCs surrounding the same oocytes were evaluated separately according to the oocyte and embryo quality. Statistical Analysis: Quantitative data were statistically analyzed for differences using the two-sided Mann–Whitney U test (P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: Significant differences in immunofluorescence staining were observed in oocyte quality and embryo quality for the BMP2 only (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed for AMH or CD90/THY1. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that there is a significant difference in the expression of BMP2 in the CCs of good quality oocytes and subsequently a good embryo.

  9. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway mediates bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced invasion of pancreatic cancer cells Panc-1.

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    Chen, Xiong; Liao, Jie; Lu, YeBin; Duan, XiaoHui; Sun, WeiJia

    2011-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signaling has an emerging role in pancreatic cancer. However, because of the multiple effects of different BMPs, no final conclusions have been made as to the role of BMPs in pancreatic cancer. In our studies, we have focused on bone morphogenetic protein 2(BMP-2) because it induces an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and accelerates invasion in the human pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1. It has been reported that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway mediates invasion of gastric and colon cancer cells, which is unrevealed in pancreatic cancer cells. The objective of our study was to investigate whether BMP-2 mediated invasion might pass through the PI3K/Akt pathway. Our results show that expression of phosphorylation of Akt was increased by treatment with BMP-2, but not Noggin, a BMP-2 antagonist. Then pretreatment of Panc-1 cells with LY294002, an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced EMT and invasiveness. The data suggest that BMP-2 accelerates invasion of panc-1 cells via the PI3K/AKT pathway in panc-1 cells, which gives clues to searching new therapy targets in advanced pancreatic cancer.

  10. Astrocytes from the contused spinal cord inhibit oligodendrocyte differentiation of adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells by increasing the expression of bone morphogenetic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Cheng, Xiaoxin; He, Qian; Zheng, Yiyan; Kim, Dong H; Whittemore, Scott R; Cao, Qilin L

    2011-04-20

    Promotion of remyelination is an important therapeutic strategy to facilitate functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) or oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) has been used to enhance remyelination after SCI. However, the microenvironment in the injured spinal cord is inhibitory for oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation of NSCs or OPCs. Identifying the signaling pathways that inhibit OL differentiation in the injured spinal cord could lead to new therapeutic strategies to enhance remyelination and functional recovery after SCI. In the present study, we show that reactive astrocytes from the injured rat spinal cord or their conditioned media inhibit OL differentiation of adult OPCs with concurrent promotion of astrocyte differentiation. The expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) is dramatically increased in the reactive astrocytes and their conditioned media. Importantly, blocking BMP activity by BMP receptor antagonist, noggin, reverse the effects of active astrocytes on OPC differentiation by increasing the differentiation of OL from OPCs while decreasing the generation of astrocytes. These data indicate that the upregulated bone morphogenetic proteins in the reactive astrocytes are major factors to inhibit OL differentiation of OPCs and to promote its astrocyte differentiation. These data suggest that manipulation of BMP signaling in the endogenous or grafted NSCs or OPCs may be a useful therapeutic strategy to increase their OL differentiation and remyelination and enhance functional recovery after SCI.

  11. Profile of serum alkaline phosphatase after inoculation of mononuclear cells and bone morphogenetic protein in the repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits

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    Luiz Augusto de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, serum alkaline phosphatase activity was measured in response to the repair of osteochondral defects in twenty-four New Zealand rabbits. The animals were divided into three groups: a control (GC, those treated with bone marrow mononuclear cells (GCM and those that received mononuclear cells with autologous bone morphogenetic protein (BMP + GCM. After exposing the trochlear groove of the left stifle joint, a wedge-shaped segment was removed. Later, the defect was filled with an osteochondral autograft preserved in 98% glycerin. For the GC group, only the bone graft was performed. For the GCM, in addition to the graft, 2x106 seed mononuclear cells were implanted. For the GCM + BMP, the same number of cells, associated with 1μg of bone morphogenetic protein, were intraarticularly administered. The osteoblastic response was measured by analyzing the serum alkaline phosphatase on day 0 (preoperative 3, 15, 30, and 45 after surgery, and by radiographic examinations. Analysis of variance in randomized blocks, factorial and Tukey’s test (p = 0.05 were made. The overall mean GCM was superior to the other groups and the highest rates were among the 15th and 45th days postoperatively. The discrepancy in values between individuals of the same group casts doubts on the veracity of the test.

  12. The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is overexpressed in human cancers and interacts with YWHAH protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Hong; Shin, Seung Min; Kim, Hyun Kee; Ha, Seon-Ah; Cho, Goang Won; Hur, Soo Young; Kim, Tae Eung; Kim, Jin Woo

    2006-01-01

    Basic studies of oncogenesis have demonstrated that either the elevated production of particular oncogene proteins or the occurrence of qualitative abnormalities in oncogenes can contribute to neoplastic cellular transformation. The purpose of our study was to identify an unique gene that shows cancer-associated expression, and characterizes its function related to human carcinogenesis. We used the differential display (DD) RT-PCR method using normal cervical, cervical cancer, metastatic cervical tissues, and cervical cancer cell lines to identify genes overexpressed in cervical cancers and identified gremlin 1 which was overexpressed in cervical cancers. We determined expression levels of gremlin 1 using Northern blot analysis and immunohistochemical study in various types of human normal and cancer tissues. To understand the tumorigenesis pathway of identified gremlin 1 protein, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen, GST pull down assay, and immunoprecipitation to identify gremlin 1 interacting proteins. DDRT-PCR analysis revealed that gremlin 1 was overexpressed in uterine cervical cancer. We also identified a human gremlin 1 that was overexpressed in various human tumors including carcinomas of the lung, ovary, kidney, breast, colon, pancreas, and sarcoma. PIG-2-transfected HEK 293 cells exhibited growth stimulation and increased telomerase activity. Gremlin 1 interacted with homo sapiens tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide (14-3-3 eta; YWHAH). YWHAH protein binding site for gremlin 1 was located between residues 61–80 and gremlin 1 binding site for YWHAH was found to be located between residues 1 to 67. Gremlin 1 may play an oncogenic role especially in carcinomas of the uterine cervix, lung, ovary, kidney, breast, colon, pancreas, and sarcoma. Over-expressed gremlin 1 functions by interaction with YWHAH. Therefore, Gremlin 1 and its binding protein YWHAH could be good targets for developing diagnostic and

  13. Elastic cartilage reconstruction by transplantation of cultured hyaline cartilage-derived chondrocytes.

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    Mizuno, M; Takebe, T; Kobayashi, S; Kimura, S; Masutani, M; Lee, S; Jo, Y H; Lee, J I; Taniguchi, H

    2014-05-01

    Current surgical intervention of craniofacial defects caused by injuries or abnormalities uses reconstructive materials, such as autologous cartilage grafts. Transplantation of autologous tissues, however, places a significant invasiveness on patients, and many efforts have been made for establishing an alternative graft. Recently, we and others have shown the potential use of reconstructed elastic cartilage from ear-derived chondrocytes or progenitors with the unique elastic properties. Here, we examined the differentiation potential of canine joint cartilage-derived chondrocytes into elastic cartilage for expanding the cell sources, such as hyaline cartilage. Articular chondrocytes are isolated from canine joint, cultivated, and compared regarding characteristic differences with auricular chondrocytes, including proliferation rates, gene expression, extracellular matrix production, and cartilage reconstruction capability after transplantation. Canine articular chondrocytes proliferated less robustly than auricular chondrocytes, but there was no significant difference in the amount of sulfated glycosaminoglycan produced from redifferentiated chondrocytes. Furthermore, in vitro expanded and redifferentiated articular chondrocytes have been shown to reconstruct elastic cartilage on transplantation that has histologic characteristics distinct from hyaline cartilage. Taken together, cultured hyaline cartilage-derived chondrocytes are a possible cell source for elastic cartilage reconstruction. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Key role of the expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in increasing the osteogenic activity of osteoblast-like cells exposed to shock waves and seeded on bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Giuliana; Martinasso, Germana; Baino, Francesco; Frairia, Roberto; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Canuto, Rosa A

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the role of shock wave-induced increase of bone morphogenetic proteins in modulating the osteogenic properties of osteoblast-like cells seeded on a bioactive scaffold was investigated using gremlin as a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist. Bone-like glass-ceramic scaffolds, based on a silicate experimental bioactive glass developed at the Politecnico di Torino, were produced by the sponge replication method and used as porous substrates for cell culture. Human MG-63 cells, exposed to shock waves and seeded on the scaffolds, were treated with gremlin every two days and analysed after 20 days for the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers. Shock waves have been shown to induce osteogenic activity mediated by increased expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, type I collagen, BMP-4 and BMP-7. Cells exposed to shock waves plus gremlin showed increased growth in comparison with cells treated with shock waves alone and, conversely, mRNA contents of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly lower. Therefore, the shock wave-mediated increased expression of bone morphogenetic protein in MG-63 cells seeded on the scaffolds is essential in improving osteogenic activity; blocking bone morphogenetic protein via gremlin completely prevents the increase of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. The results confirmed that the combination of glass-ceramic scaffolds and shock waves exposure could be used to significantly improve osteogenesis opening new perspectives for bone regenerative medicine. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate: Increased burden of rare variants within Gremlin-1, a component of the bone morphogenetic protein 4 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Chawa, Taofik; Ludwig, Kerstin U; Fier, Heide; Pötzsch, Bernd; Reich, Rudolf H; Schmidt, Gül; Braumann, Bert; Daratsianos, Nikolaos; Böhmer, Anne C; Schuencke, Hannah; Alblas, Margrieta; Fricker, Nadine; Hoffmann, Per; Knapp, Michael; Lange, Christoph; Nöthen, Markus M; Mangold, Elisabeth

    2014-06-01

    The genes Gremlin-1 (GREM1) and Noggin (NOG) are components of the bone morphogenetic protein 4 pathway, which has been implicated in craniofacial development. Both genes map to recently identified susceptibility loci (chromosomal region 15q13, 17q22) for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P). The aim of the present study was to determine whether rare variants in either gene are implicated in nsCL/P etiology. The complete coding regions, untranslated regions, and splice sites of GREM1 and NOG were sequenced in 96 nsCL/P patients and 96 controls of Central European ethnicity. Three burden and four nonburden tests were performed. Statistically significant results were followed up in a second case-control sample (n = 96, respectively). For rare variants observed in cases, segregation analyses were performed. In NOG, four rare sequence variants (minor allele frequency elements. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Effects of Irradiation and Calcium-deficient Diet on the Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2/4 during Early Tooth Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dai Hee; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet. The pregnant three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. The control group was non-irradiation/normal diet group (Group 1), and the experimental groups were irradiation/normal diet group (Group 2) and irradiation/calcium-diet group (Group 3). The abdomen of the rats at the 9th day of pregnancy were irradiated with single dose of 350 cGy. The rat pups were sacrificed at embryonic 18 days, 3 days and 14 days after delivery and the maxillae tooth germs were taken. The tissue sections of specimen were stained immunohistochemically with anti-BMP-2/4 antibody. At embryo-18 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was modetate in stratum intermedium of dental organ and weak in dental papilla and dental follicle, but that of Group 2 was weak in cell layer of dental organ, and no immunoreacivity was shown in dental papilla and dental follice of Group 2 and in all tissue components of the Group 3. At postnatal-3 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in cell layer of dental organ, odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone, but that of Group of 2 and Group 3 was weak in odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone. At postnatal-14 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in newly formed cementum, alveolar bone and odontoblasts, but that of Group 2 was weaker than that of Group 1. In the Group 3, tooth forming cell layer showed weak immunoreactivity, but other cell layers showed no immunoreactivity. The expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development was disturbed after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet.

  17. The Effects of Irradiation and Calcium-deficient Diet on the Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2/4 during Early Tooth Development

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    Park, Dai Hee; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    To investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet. The pregnant three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. The control group was non-irradiation/normal diet group (Group 1), and the experimental groups were irradiation/normal diet group (Group 2) and irradiation/calcium-diet group (Group 3). The abdomen of the rats at the 9th day of pregnancy were irradiated with single dose of 350 cGy. The rat pups were sacrificed at embryonic 18 days, 3 days and 14 days after delivery and the maxillae tooth germs were taken. The tissue sections of specimen were stained immunohistochemically with anti-BMP-2/4 antibody. At embryo-18 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was modetate in stratum intermedium of dental organ and weak in dental papilla and dental follicle, but that of Group 2 was weak in cell layer of dental organ, and no immunoreacivity was shown in dental papilla and dental follice of Group 2 and in all tissue components of the Group 3. At postnatal-3 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in cell layer of dental organ, odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone, but that of Group of 2 and Group 3 was weak in odontoblasts and developing alveolar bone. At postnatal-14 days, immunoreacivity for BMP-2/4 of the Group 1 was strong in newly formed cementum, alveolar bone and odontoblasts, but that of Group 2 was weaker than that of Group 1. In the Group 3, tooth forming cell layer showed weak immunoreactivity, but other cell layers showed no immunoreactivity. The expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 during early tooth development was disturbed after irradiation and calcium-deficient diet.

  18. Effects of atomic-level nano-structured hydroxyapatite on adsorption of bone morphogenetic protein-7 and its derived peptide by computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Wang, Menghao; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Kefeng; Fang, Liming; Ren, Fuzeng; Lu, Guoming

    2017-11-09

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the principal inorganic component of bones and teeth and has been widely used as a bone repair material because of its good biocompatibility and bioactivity. Understanding the interactions between proteins and HA is crucial for designing biomaterials for bone regeneration. In this study, we evaluated the effects of atomic-level nano-structured HA (110) surfaces on the adsorption of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) and its derived peptide (KQLNALSVLYFDD) using molecular dynamics and density functional theory methods. The results indicated that the atomic-level morphology of HA significantly affected the interaction strength between proteins and HA substrates. The interactions of BMP-7 and its derived peptide with nano-concave and nano-pillar HA surfaces were stronger than those with flat or nano-groove HA surfaces. The results also revealed that if the groove size of nano-structured HA surfaces matched that of residues in the protein or peptide, these residues were likely to spread into the grooves of the nano-groove, nano-concave, and nano-pillar HA, further strengthening the interactions. These results are helpful in better understanding the adsorption behaviors of proteins onto nano-structured HA surfaces, and provide theoretical guidance for designing novel bioceramic materials for bone regeneration and tissue engineering.

  19. Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin H

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Han Jin,1 Kai Zhang,2 Chunyan Qiao,1 Anliang Yuan,1 Daowei Li,1 Liang Zhao,1 Ce Shi,1 Xiaowei Xu,1 Shilei Ni,1 Changyu Zheng,3 Xiaohua Liu,4 Bai Yang,2 Hongchen Sun11Department of Pathology, School of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 3Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(cDNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI

  20. Coordinated Proliferation and Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells Depend on Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Regulation by GREMLIN 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Jeffery B; Trinh, Linh T; Awgulewitsch, Cassandra P; Paik, David T; Jetter, Christopher; Jha, Rajneesh; Zhang, Jianhua; Nolan, Kristof; Xu, Chunhui; Thompson, Thomas B; Kamp, Timothy J; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K

    2017-05-01

    Heart development depends on coordinated proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), but how the two processes are synchronized is not well understood. Here, we show that the secreted Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) antagonist GREMLIN 2 (GREM2) is induced in CPCs shortly after cardiac mesoderm specification during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. GREM2 expression follows cardiac lineage differentiation independently of the differentiation method used, or the origin of the pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that GREM2 is linked to cardiogenesis. Addition of GREM2 protein strongly increases cardiomyocyte output compared to established procardiogenic differentiation methods. Our data show that inhibition of canonical BMP signaling by GREM2 is necessary to promote proliferation of CPCs. However, canonical BMP signaling inhibition alone is not sufficient to induce cardiac differentiation, which depends on subsequent JNK pathway activation specifically by GREM2. These findings may have broader implications in the design of approaches to orchestrate growth and differentiation of pluripotent stem cell-derived lineages that depend on precise regulation of BMP signaling.

  1. Efficiently engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate nanocomposites plus bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene to promote new bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Han; Zhang, Kai; Qiao, Chunyan; Yuan, Anliang; Li, Daowei; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Ce; Xu, Xiaowei; Ni, Shilei; Zheng, Changyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of large bone defects is a common clinical problem. Recently, stem cell sheet has been an emerging strategy in bone tissue engineering. To enhance the osteogenic potential of stem cell sheet, we fabricated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene-engineered cell sheet using a complex of polyethylenimine–alginate (PEI–al) nanocomposites plus human BMP-2 complementary(c)DNA plasmid, and studied its osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PEI–al nanocomposites carrying BMP-2 gene could efficiently transfect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The cell sheet was made by culturing the cells in medium containing vitamin C for 10 days. Assays on the cell culture showed that the genetically engineered cells released the BMP-2 for at least 14 days. The expression of osteogenesis-related gene was increased, which demonstrated that released BMP-2 could effectively induce the cell sheet osteogenic differentiation in vitro. To further test the osteogenic potential of the cell sheet in vivo, enhanced green fluorescent protein or BMP-2-producing cell sheets were treated on the cranial bone defects. The results indicated that the BMP-2-producing cell sheet group was more efficient than other groups in promoting bone formation in the defect area. Our results suggested that PEI–al nanocomposites efficiently deliver the BMP-2 gene to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and that BMP-2 gene-engineered cell sheet is an effective way for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:24855355

  2. Alveolar wound healing after implantation with a pool of commercially available bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs): a histometric study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Romeu Felipe Elias; Teófilo, Juliana Mazzonetto; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme; Lamano-Carvalho, Teresa Lúcia

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of a commercially available pool of bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) to stimulate osteogenesis in the rat alveolar healing was investigated by histometric analysis. Male rats were anesthetized and had their upper incisor extracted. A pool of purified bovine BMPs adsorbed to microgranular resorbable hydroxyapatite was agglutinated with bovine collagen and saline before implantation into the alveolar socket. The implanted and control rats (n=30 per group) were sacrificed 1 to 9 weeks postoperatively, the hemi-maxillae were decalcified, processed for paraffin embedding and semi-serial longitudinal sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The volume fraction of alveolar healing components was estimated by a differential point-counting method in histologic images. The results showed that in both, control and implanted rats, the alveolar healing followed the histologic pattern usually described in the literature. Quantitative data confirmed that the BMPs mixture did not stimulate new bone formation in the alveolar socket of implanted rats. These results suggest that the pool of BMPs adsorbed to hydroxyapatite and agglutinated with bovine collagen did not warrant incorporation of the osteoinductive proteins to a slow-absorption system that would allow a BMPs release rate compatible to that of new bone formation, and thus more adequate to osteoinduction.

  3. Coordinated Proliferation and Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells Depend on Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Regulation by GREMLIN 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Jeffery B.; Trinh, Linh T.; Awgulewitsch, Cassandra P.; Paik, David T.; Jetter, Christopher; Jha, Rajneesh; Zhang, Jianhua; Nolan, Kristof; Xu, Chunhui; Thompson, Thomas B.; Kamp, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Heart development depends on coordinated proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), but how the two processes are synchronized is not well understood. Here, we show that the secreted Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) antagonist GREMLIN 2 (GREM2) is induced in CPCs shortly after cardiac mesoderm specification during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. GREM2 expression follows cardiac lineage differentiation independently of the differentiation method used, or the origin of the pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that GREM2 is linked to cardiogenesis. Addition of GREM2 protein strongly increases cardiomyocyte output compared to established procardiogenic differentiation methods. Our data show that inhibition of canonical BMP signaling by GREM2 is necessary to promote proliferation of CPCs. However, canonical BMP signaling inhibition alone is not sufficient to induce cardiac differentiation, which depends on subsequent JNK pathway activation specifically by GREM2. These findings may have broader implications in the design of approaches to orchestrate growth and differentiation of pluripotent stem cell-derived lineages that depend on precise regulation of BMP signaling. PMID:28125926

  4. Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Ovarian Function and Their Importance in Mammalian Female Fertility — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cavallari de Castro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors play an important role during early ovarian development and folliculogenesis, since they regulate the migration of germ cells to the gonadal ridge. They also act on follicle recruitment, proliferation/atresia of granulosa cells and theca, steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and luteinization. Among the growth factors, the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β superfamily, have been implicated as essential for follicular development. The GDF9 and BMP15 participate in the evolution of the primordial follicle to primary follicle and play an important role in the later stages of follicular development and maturation, increasing the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, plasminogen activator and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR. These factors are also involved in the interconnections between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells, where they regulate absorption of amino acids, glycolysis and biosynthesis of cholesterol cumulus cells. Even though the mode of action has not been fully established, in vitro observations indicate that the factors GDF9 and BMP15 stimulate the growth of ovarian follicles and proliferation of cumulus cells through the induction of mitosis in cells and granulosa and theca expression of genes linked to follicular maturation. Thus, seeking greater understanding of the action of these growth factors on the development of oocytes, the role of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian function is summarized in this brief review.

  5. Effects of LED phototherapy on bone defects grafted with MTA, bone morphogenetic proteins and guided bone regeneration: a Raman spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L B; Soares, Luiz G P; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T; Santos, Nicole R S; Barbosa, Artur Felipe S; Silveira Júnior, Landulfo

    2012-09-01

    We studied peaks of calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA) and protein and lipid CH groups in defects grafted with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) treated or not with LED irradiation, bone morphogenetic proteins and guided bone regeneration. A total of 90 rats were divided into ten groups each of which was subdivided into three subgroups (evaluated at 15, 21 and 30 days after surgery). Defects were irradiated with LED light (wavelength 850 ± 10 nm) at 48-h intervals for 15 days. Raman readings were taken at the surface of the defects. There were no statistically significant differences in the CHA peaks among the nonirradiated defects at any of the experimental time-points. On the other hand, there were significant differences between the defects filled with blood clot and the irradiated defects at all time-points (p Raman spectral analysis indicate that infrared LED light irradiation improves the deposition of CHA in healing bone grafted or not with MTA.

  6. Effects of simulated weightlessness on the kinase activity of MEK1 induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 in rat osteosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, B.; Cao, X. S.; Yang, Z.

    Objective The mRNA expression of alpha 1 chain of type I collagen COL-I alpha 1 in rat osteosarcoma ROS17 2 8 cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 BMP-2 was reduced under simulated microgravity The protein kinase MEK1 of MAPK signal pathway plays an important role in the expression of COL-I alpha 1 mRNA The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of simulated weightlessness on the activity of MEK1 induced by BMP-2 in ROS17 2 8 cells Methods ROS17 2 8 cells were cultured in 1G control and rotating clinostat simulated weightlessness for 24 h 48 h and 72 h BMP-2 500 ng ml was added into the medium 1 h before the culture ended There was a control group in which ROS17 2 8 cells were cultured in 1G condition without BMP-2 Then the total protein of cells was extracted and the expression of phosphated-ERK1 2 p-ERK1 2 protein was detected by means of Western Blotting to show the kinase activity of MEK1 Results There were no significant differences in the expression of total ERK1 2 among all groups The expression of p-ERK1 2 was unconspicuous in the control group without BMP-2 but increased significantly when BMP-2 was added P 0 01 The level of p-ERK1 2 in simulated weightlessness group was much more lower than that in 1G group in every time point P 0 01 The expression of p-ERK1 2 gradually decreased along with the time of weightlessness simulation P 0 01 Conclusions The kinase activity of MEK1 induced by BMP-2 in rat osteosarcoma cells was reduced under simulated weightlessness

  7. Chondrogenic potential of canine articular cartilage derived cells (cACCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the potential of canine articular cartilage-derived cells (cACCs for chondrogenic differentiation was evaluated. The effectiveness of cACCs’ lineage commitment was analyzed after 14 days of culture in chondorgenic and non-chondrogenic conditions. Formation of proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix was assessed using histochemical staining – Alcian Blue and Safranin-O, while elemental composition was determined by means of SEM-EDX. Additionally, ultrastructure of cACCs was evaluated using TEM. The expression of genes involved in chondrogenesis was monitored with quantitative Real Time PCR. Results obtained indicate that the potential of cACCs for cartilagous extracellular matrix formation may be maintained only in chondrogenic cultures. The formation of specific chondro-nodules was not observed in a non-chondrogenic culture environment. The analysis of cACCs’ ultrastructure, both in non-chondrogenic and chondrogenic cultures, revealed well-developed rough endoplasmatic reticulum and presence of mitochondria. The cACCs in chondrogenic medium shed an increased number of microvesicles. Furthermore, it was shown that the extracellular matrix of cACCs in chondrogenic cultures is rich in potassium and molybdenum. Additionally, it was determined that gene expression of collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX-9 was significantly increased during chondrogenic differentiation of cACCs. Results obtained indicate that the culture environment may significantly influence the cartilage phenotype of cACCs during long term culture.

  8. In vitro bone formation using muscle-derived cells: a new paradigm for bone tissue engineering using polymer-bone morphogenetic protein matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Helen H; Kofron, Michelle D; El-Amin, Saadiq F; Attawia, Mohammed A; Laurencin, Cato T

    2003-06-13

    Over 800,000 bone grafting procedures are performed in the United States annually, creating a demand for viable alternatives to autogenous bone, the grafting standard in osseous repair. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of a BMP-polymer matrix in inducing the expression of the osteoblastic phenotype and in vitro bone formation by muscle-derived cells. Specifically, we evaluated the ability of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), delivered from a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) matrix, to induce the differentiation of cells derived from rabbit skeletal muscle into osteoblast-like cells and subsequently form mineralized tissue. Results confirmed that muscle-derived cells attached and proliferated on the PLAGA substrates. BMP-7 released from PLAGA induced the muscle-derived cells to increase bone marker expression and form mineralized cultures. These results demonstrate the efficacy of a BMP-polymer matrix in inducing the expression of the osteoblastic phenotype by muscle-derived cells and present a new paradigm for bone tissue engineering.

  9. The effect of platelet rich plasma from bone marrow aspirate with added bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the Achilles tendon-bone junction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Jun; Nam, Hyok-Woo; Hur, Chang-Yong; Park, Misu; Yang, Hee Seok; Kim, Byung-Soo; Park, Jung-Ho

    2011-12-01

    To determine if exogenously injected bone marrow derived platelet-rich plasma (PRP) plus bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 could accelerate the healing of bone-tendon junction injuries and increase the junction holding strength during the early regeneration period. A direct injury model of the bone-tendon junction was made using an Achilles tendon-calcaneus bone junction in a rabbit. In the PRP/BMP-2/fibrin group, 0.05 mL of bone marrow derived PRP and 100 ng/mL of BMP-2 both incorporated into 0.1 mL of fibrin glue were injected into Achilles tendon-calcaneus bone junctions. The effect of the intervention was tested by comparing the results of an intervention group to a control group. The results of biomechanical testing, and histological and gross analyses were compared between the 2 groups at the following time points after surgery: 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Histologic examinations showed that woven bone developed in tendon-bone junctions at 2 weeks after surgery in the PRP/BMP-2/fibrin group. Mechanical test results showed no significant difference between the PRP/BMP-2/fibrin and control groups at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, but the mean maximal load in the PRP/BMP-2/fibrin group was significantly higher than in the control group (p rabbit model of tendon-bone junction injury.

  10. Synergistic effects of dimethyloxallyl glycine and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on repair of critical-sized bone defects in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Liu, Yang; Ding, Zhen-Yu; Cao, Jia-Qing; Huang, Jing-Huan; Zhang, Jie-Yuan; Jia, Wei-Tao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Lin

    2017-02-01

    In bone remodeling, osteogenesis is closely coupled to angiogenesis. Bone tissue engineering using multifunctional bioactive materials is a promising technique which has the ability to simultaneously stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis for repair of bone defects. We developed mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)-doped poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) composite scaffolds as delivery vehicle. Two bioactive molecules, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a small-molecule angiogenic drug, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), an osteoinductive growth factor, were co-incorporated into the scaffold. The synergistic effects of DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the composite scaffolds on osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs were investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Moreover, in vivo studies were conducted to observe bone regeneration and vascular formation of critical-sized bone defects in rats using micro-computed tomography, histological analyses, Microfil® perfusion, fluorescence labeling, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the MBG-PHBHHx scaffolds did exert synergistic effects on the osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Moreover, DMOG and rhBMP-2 produced significant increases in newly-formed bone and neovascularization of calvarial bone defects in rats. It is concluded that the co-delivery strategy of both rhBMP-2 and DMOG can significantly improve the critical-sized bone regeneration.

  11. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 released from polyurethane-based scaffolds promotes early osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinku; Hollinger, Jeffrey O

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetics of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) from a polyurethane (PUR)-based porous scaffold and to determine the biological responses of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to the rhBMP-2 released from those scaffolds. The rhBMP-2 was incorporated into the PUR three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds and release profiles were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The bioactivity of the rhBMP-2 containing releasates was determined using hMSCs and compared with exogenous rhBMP-2. Release of rhBMP-2 from PUR-based systems was bi-phasic and characterized by an initial burst followed by a sustained release for up to 21 days. Expression of alkaline phosphatase activity by hMSCs treated with the rhBMP-2 releasates was significantly greater than the cells alone (control) throughout the time periods. Furthermore, after 14 days of culture, the hMSCs cultured with rhBMP-2 releasate had a greater amount of mineralization compared to exogenous rhBMP-2. Overall, the rhBMP-2 release from the PUR-based scaffolds was sustained for 21 days and the releasates appeared to be bioactive and promoted earlier osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of hMSCs than the exogenous rhBMP-2. (paper)

  12. Influence of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the extracellular matrix, material properties, and gene expression of long-term articular chondrocyte cultures: loss of chondrocyte stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, David A; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Carlson, Cathy S; Lewis, Jack L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on articular chondrocyte tissues grown as monolayers in vitro for up to 8 weeks. Articular chondrocytes were isolated from New Zealand White rabbits and plated in monolayer cultures. The cultures were supplemented with 100 ng/mL of BMP-2 for up to 8 weeks and the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, material properties, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were analyzed. mRNA expression of cartilage-specific genes, type II collagen, and aggrecan showed that BMP-2 enhanced chondrocyte stability for up to 3 weeks. After 3 weeks in culture, there was substantially more type I collagen expression and more osteopontin and runt-related transcription factor 2 expression in 5- and 8-week cultures treated with BMP-2 than in controls. Additionally, matrix metalloproteinase-13 and ADAMTS-5 (A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin 5) were upregulated in 5- and 8-week cultures treated with BMP-2, coinciding with a loss of ECM density, collagen, and proteoglycan. Eight-week tissue stimulated with BMP-2 was more fragile and tore more easily when removed from the culture dish as compared to controls, suggesting temporal limitations to the effectiveness of BMP-2 in monolayer systems and perhaps other models to enhance the generation of a cartilage-like tissue for tissue engineering purposes.

  13. Neuropeptide Y, substance P, and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulate human osteoblast osteogenic activity by enhancing gap junction intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Bone homeostasis seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle “cross talk” between the nervous system and “osteo-neuromediators” that control bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interactions between neuropeptides and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) on human osteoblasts. We also investigated the effects of neuropeptides and hBMP2 on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Osteoblasts were treated with neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), or hBMP2 at three concentrations. At various intervals after treatment, cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. In addition, cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin were determined by colorimetric assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The effects of NPY, SP and hBMP on GJIC were determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The viability of cells treated with neuropeptides and hBMP2 increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, but was inversely associated with the concentration of the treatments. ALP activity and osteocalcin were both reduced in osteoblasts exposed to the combination of neuropeptides and hBMP2. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly increased by the neuropeptides and hBMP2. These results suggest that osteoblast activity is increased by neuropeptides and hBMP2 through increased GJIC. Identification of the GJIC-mediated signal transduction capable of modulating the cellular activities of bone cells represents a novel approach to studying the biology of skeletal innervation

  14. Neuropeptide Y, substance P, and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulate human osteoblast osteogenic activity by enhancing gap junction intercellular communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z. [The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, The Provincial Key Laboratory for Orthopedic Biomechanics of Hebei, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province (China)

    2015-02-13

    Bone homeostasis seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle “cross talk” between the nervous system and “osteo-neuromediators” that control bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interactions between neuropeptides and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) on human osteoblasts. We also investigated the effects of neuropeptides and hBMP2 on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Osteoblasts were treated with neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), or hBMP2 at three concentrations. At various intervals after treatment, cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. In addition, cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin were determined by colorimetric assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The effects of NPY, SP and hBMP on GJIC were determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The viability of cells treated with neuropeptides and hBMP2 increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, but was inversely associated with the concentration of the treatments. ALP activity and osteocalcin were both reduced in osteoblasts exposed to the combination of neuropeptides and hBMP2. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly increased by the neuropeptides and hBMP2. These results suggest that osteoblast activity is increased by neuropeptides and hBMP2 through increased GJIC. Identification of the GJIC-mediated signal transduction capable of modulating the cellular activities of bone cells represents a novel approach to studying the biology of skeletal innervation.

  15. Effects of Treatment with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 and Co-culture on Expression of Piwil2 Gene in Mouse Differentiated Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Forouzandeh-Moghadam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific growth factors and feeder layers seem to have important roles in in vitroembryonic stem cells (ESCs differentiation. In this study,the effects of bone morphogenetic protein4 (BMP4 and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs co-culture system on germ cell differentiationfrom mouse ESCs were studied.Materials and Methods: Cell suspension was prepared from one-day-old embryoid body (EBand cultured for four days in DMEM medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS in thefollowing groups: simple culture (SC, simple culture with BMP4 (SCB, co-culture (CO-C andco-culture with BMP4 (CO-CB. Expression of piwi-like homolog 2 (Piwil2, the germ cell-specificgene, was evaluated in the different study groups by using quantitative real time polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR. Testis was used as a positive control.Results: The maximum and minimum Piwil2 expression was observed in SC and SCB groups,respectively. A significant difference was observed in Piwil2 expression between SCB and otherstudy groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that neither the addition of BMP4 in culture mediumnor the use of MEFs as a feeder layer have a positive effect on late germ cell induction from mouseESCs.

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor/bone morphogenetic protein-2 bone marrow combined modification of the mesenchymal stem cells to repair the avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Da-Ping; Zhao, De-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) combined with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) was used to repair avascular necrosis of the femoral head, which can maintain the osteogenic phenotype of seed cells, and effectively secrete VEGF and BMP-2, and effectively promote blood vessel regeneration and contribute to formation and revascularization of tissue engineered bone tissues. To observe the therapeutic effect on the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head by using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) modified by VEGF-165 and BMP-2 in vitro. The models were avascular necrosis of femoral head of rabbits on right leg. There groups were single core decompression group, core decompression + BMSCs group, core decompression + VEGF-165/BMP-2 transfect BMSCs group. Necrotic bone was cleared out under arthroscope. Arthroscopic observation demonstrated that necrotic bone was cleared out in each group, and fresh blood flowed out. Histomorphology determination showed that blood vessel number and new bone area in the repair region were significantly greater at various time points following transplantation in the core decompression + VEGF-165/BMP-2 transfect BMSCs group compared with single core decompression group and core decompression + BMSCs group (P < 0.05). These suggested that VEGF-165/BMP-2 gene transfection strengthened osteogenic effects of BMSCs, elevated number and quality of new bones and accelerated the repair of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. PMID:26629044

  17. Effects of laser photherapy on bone defects grafted with mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration: a Raman spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L B; Aciole, Gilberth T S; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T; Pacheco, Marcos T T; Silveira, Landulfo

    2010-12-15

    We have used Raman analysis to assess bone healing on different models. Benefits on the isolated or combined use of mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, guided bone regeneration and laser on bone repair have been reported, but not their combination. We studied peaks of hydroxyapatite and CH groups on defects grafted with MTA, treated or not with laser, BMPs, and GBR. Ninety rats were divided in 10 groups each, subdivided into three subgroups. Laser (λ850 nm) was applied at every other day for 2 weeks. Raman readings were taken at the surface of the defect. Statistical analysis (CHA) showed significant differences between all groups (p = 0.001) and between Group II and all other (p hydroxyapatite (CHA) that is indicative of greater calcification and resistance of the bone. We conclude that the association of the MTA with laser phototherapy (LPT) and/or not with GBR resulted in a better bone repair. The use of the MTA associated to IR LPT resulted in a more advanced and quality bone repair. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Growth differentiation factor 3 is induced by bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) and BMP-7 and increases luteinizing hormone receptor messenger RNA expression in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia; Yoshino, Osamu; Osuga, Yutaka; Akiyama, Ikumi; Harada, Miyuki; Koga, Kaori; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    To examine the relevance of growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cytokines in human ovary. Molecular studies. Research laboratory. Eight women undergoing salpingo-oophorectomy and 30 women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Localizing GDF-3 protein in human ovaries; granulosa cells (GC) cultured with GDF-3, BMP-6, or BMP-7 followed by RNA extraction. The localization of GDF-3 protein in normal human ovaries via immunohistochemical analysis, GDF-3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression evaluation via quantitative real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and evaluation of the effect of GDF-3 on leuteinizing hormone (LH) receptor mRNA expression via quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In the ovary, BMP cytokines, of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, are known as a luteinization inhibitor by suppressing LH receptor expression in GC. Growth differentiation factor 3, a TGF-β superfamily cytokine, is recognized as an inhibitor of BMP cytokines in other cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that GDF-3 was strongly detected in the GC of antral follicles. An in vitro assay revealed that BMP-6 or BMP-7 induced GDF-3 mRNA in GC. Also, GDF-3 increased LH receptor mRNA expression and inhibited the effect of BMP-7, which suppressed the LH receptor mRNA expression in GC. GDF-3, induced with BMP-6 and BMP-7, might play a role in folliculogenesis by inhibiting the effect of BMP cytokines. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers’ oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris. PMID:26928288

  20. Heterozygous Null Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type 2 Mutations Promote SRC Kinase-dependent Caveolar Trafficking Defects and Endothelial Dysfunction in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt, Allison R.; Ghose, Sampa; Frump, Andrea L.; Datta, Arumima; Austin, Eric D.; Kenworthy, Anne K.; de Caestecker, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) is a rare, fatal disease of the pulmonary vasculature. The majority of HPAH patients inherit mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor gene (BMPR2), but how these promote pulmonary vascular disease is unclear. HPAH patients have features of pulmonary endothelial cell (PEC) dysfunction including increased vascular permeability and perivascular inflammation associated with decreased PEC barrier function. Recently, frameshift mutations in the caveolar structural protein gene Caveolin-1 (CAV-1) were identified in two patients with non-BMPR2-associated HPAH. Because caveolae regulate endothelial function and vascular permeability, we hypothesized that defects in caveolar function might be a common mechanism by which BMPR2 mutations promote pulmonary vascular disease. To explore this, we isolated PECs from mice carrying heterozygous null Bmpr2 mutations (Bmpr2+/−) similar to those found in the majority of HPAH patients. We show that Bmpr2+/− PECs have increased numbers and intracellular localization of caveolae and caveolar structural proteins CAV-1 and Cavin-1 and that these defects are reversed after blocking endocytosis with dynasore. SRC kinase is also constitutively activated in Bmpr2+/− PECs, and localization of CAV-1 to the plasma membrane is restored after treating Bmpr2+/− PECs with the SRC kinase inhibitor 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-amine (PP2). Late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells isolated from HPAH patients show similar increased activation of SRC kinase. Moreover, Bmpr2+/− PECs have impaired endothelial barrier function, and barrier function is restored after treatment with PP2. These data suggest that heterozygous null BMPR2 mutations promote SRC-dependent caveolar trafficking defects in PECs and that this may contribute to pulmonary endothelial barrier dysfunction in HPAH patients. PMID:25411245

  1. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Abadjieva

    Full Text Available Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  2. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Kistanova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  3. Combined Effects of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 on Odonto/Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksel, Hacer; Huang, George T-J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether combined and concerted delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) enhances odonto/osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro. Various concentrations of VEGF and/or BMP-2 with or without the presence of odonto/osteogenic medium (OM) were added into DPSC cultures for 21 days. The mineral formation in cultures was evaluated using alizarin red stain (ARS). Optimal concentrations of VEGF and BMP-2 were codelivered to DPSCs for total of 21 days with the following experimental groups: (1) group 1: OM only, (2) group 2: OM + VEGF, (3) group 3: OM + BMP-2, and (4) group 4: OM + VEGF + BMP-2 (subgroup 4a: VEGF present the first 7 days, 4b: BMP-2 present the last 14 days, and 4c, both present for 21 days). Cultures were then subjected to quantitative ARS analysis or harvested for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis for the expression of core-binding factor alpha 1 (CBFA1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1). No mineral formation was detected by ARS when VEGF and/or BMP-2 were used without OM. OM + VEGF, but not OM + BMP-2, formed more mineralization than OM (P  .05) in the expression of the 3 genes. VEGF addition in the early phase rather than a continuous presence of both VEGF and BMP-2 enhances odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiological exercise loading suppresses post-traumatic osteoarthritis progression via an increase in bone morphogenetic proteins expression in an experimental rat knee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, H; Ito, A; Nagai, M; Tajino, J; Yamaguchi, S; Kiyan, W; Nakahata, A; Zhang, J; Wang, T; Aoyama, T; Nishitani, K; Kuroki, H

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the dose-response relationship of exercise loading in the cartilage-subchondral bone (SB) unit in surgically-induced post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) of the knee. Destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) surgery was performed on the right knee of 12-week-old male Wistar rats, and sham surgery was performed on the contralateral knee. Four weeks after the surgery, the animals were subjected to moderate (12 m/min) or intense (21 m/min) treadmill exercises for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. PTOA development in articular cartilage and SB was examined using histological and immunohistochemical analyses, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis, and biomechanical testing at 8 weeks after surgery. Gremlin-1 was injected to determine the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling on PTOA development following moderate exercise. Moderate exercise increased BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, BMP receptor 2, pSmad-5, and inhibitor of DNA binding protein-1 expression in the superficial zone chondrocytes and suppressed cartilage degeneration, osteophyte growth, SB damage, and osteoclast-mediated SB resorption. However, intense exercise had little effect on BMP expression and even caused progression of these osteoarthritis (OA) changes. Gremlin-1 injection following moderate exercise caused progression of the PTOA development down to the level of the non-exercise DMM-operated knee. Exercise regulated cartilage-SB PTOA development in DMM-operated knees in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings shed light on the important role of BMP expression in superficial zone chondrocytes in attenuation of PTOA development following physiological exercise loading. Further studies to support a mechanism by which BMPs would be beneficial in preventing PTOA progression are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative analysis of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 gene expression in calf and adult bovine ovaries

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    Hayashi Ken-go

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that calf oocytes are less developmentally competent than oocytes obtained from adult cows. Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 and growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 play critical roles in folliculogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in mammalian ovaries. In the present study, we attempted to compare the expression patterns of BMP15 and GDF9 in the cells of calf and cow ovaries to determine a relationship between the level of these genes and the low developmental competence of calf oocytes. Methods Bovine tissues were collected from 9-11 months-old calves and from 4-6 years-old cows. We characterized the gene expression of BMP15 and GDF9 in calf and adult bovine oocytes and cumulus cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QPCR and in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed. Results The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 in cumulus cells of adult ovaries was significantly higher than that in calf ovaries, as revealed by QPCR. GDF9 expression in the oocytes of calf ovaries was significantly higher than in those of the adult ovaries. In contrast, BMP15 expression in the oocytes of calf and adult ovaries was not significantly different. The localization of gene expression and protein were ascertained by histochemistry. Conclusions Our result showed for the first time BMP15 and GDF9 expression in bovine cumulus cells. BMP15 and GDF9 mRNA expression in oocytes and cumulus cells was different in calves and cows.

  6. Enhanced hyaline cartilage matrix synthesis in collagen sponge scaffolds by using siRNA to stabilize chondrocytes phenotype cultured with bone morphogenetic protein-2 under hypoxia.

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    Legendre, Florence; Ollitrault, David; Hervieu, Magalie; Baugé, Catherine; Maneix, Laure; Goux, Didier; Chajra, Hanane; Mallein-Gerin, Frédéric; Boumediene, Karim; Galera, Philippe; Demoor, Magali

    2013-07-01

    Cartilage healing by tissue engineering is an alternative strategy to reconstitute functional tissue after trauma or age-related degeneration. However, chondrocytes, the major player in cartilage homeostasis, do not self-regenerate efficiently and lose their phenotype during osteoarthritis. This process is called dedifferentiation and also occurs during the first expansion step of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). To ensure successful ACI therapy, chondrocytes must be differentiated and capable of synthesizing hyaline cartilage matrix molecules. We therefore developed a safe procedure for redifferentiating human chondrocytes by combining appropriate physicochemical factors: hypoxic conditions, collagen scaffolds, chondrogenic factors (bone morphogenetic protein-2 [BMP-2], and insulin-like growth factor I [IGF-I]) and RNA interference targeting the COL1A1 gene. Redifferentiation of dedifferentiated chondrocytes was evaluated using gene/protein analyses to identify the chondrocyte phenotypic profile. In our conditions, under BMP-2 treatment, redifferentiated and metabolically active chondrocytes synthesized a hyaline-like cartilage matrix characterized by type IIB collagen and aggrecan molecules without any sign of hypertrophy or osteogenesis. In contrast, IGF-I increased both specific and noncharacteristic markers (collagens I and X) of chondrocytes. The specific increase in COL2A1 gene expression observed in the BMP-2 treatment was shown to involve the specific enhancer region of COL2A1 that binds the trans-activators Sox9/L-Sox5/Sox6 and Sp1, which are associated with a decrease in the trans-inhibitors of COL2A1, c-Krox, and p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. Our procedure in which BMP-2 treatment under hypoxia is associated with a COL1A1 siRNA, significantly increased the differentiation index of chondrocytes, and should offer the opportunity to develop new ACI-based therapies in humans.

  7. Introduction to morphogenetic computing

    CERN Document Server

    Resconi, Germano; Xu, Guanglin

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a concise introduction to morphogenetic computing, showing that its use makes global and local relations, defects in crystal non-Euclidean geometry databases with source and sink, genetic algorithms, and neural networks more stable and efficient. It also presents applications to database, language, nanotechnology with defects, biological genetic structure, electrical circuit, and big data structure. In Turing machines, input and output states form a system – when the system is in one state, the input is transformed into output. This computation is always deterministic and without any possible contradiction or defects. In natural computation there are defects and contradictions that have to be solved to give a coherent and effective computation. The new computation generates the morphology of the system that assumes different forms in time. Genetic process is the prototype of the morphogenetic computing. At the Boolean logic truth value, we substitute a set of truth (active sets) values with...

  8. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-4 and BMP-7 regulate differentially Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β1 in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF

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    Lloyd Clare M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway remodelling is thought to be under the control of a complex group of molecules belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-superfamily. The Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs belong to this family and have been shown to regulate fibrosis in kidney and liver diseases. However, the role of BMPs in lung remodelling remains unclear. BMPs may regulate tissue remodelling in asthma by controlling TGF-β-induced profibrotic functions in lung fibroblasts. Methods Cell cultures were exposed to TGF-β1 alone or in the presence of BMP-4 or BMP-7; control cultures were exposed to medium only. Cell proliferation was assessed by quantification of the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. The expression of the mRNA encoding collagen type I and IV, tenascin C and fibronectin in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the main results were confirmed by ELISA. Cell differentiation was determined by the analysis of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity was assessed by zymography. Results We have demonstrated TGF-β1 induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins, tenascin C, fibronectin and collagen type I and IV when compared to unstimulated NHLF, and confirmed these results at the protein level. BMP-4, but not BMP-7, reduced TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix protein production. TGF-β1 induced an increase in the activity of the pro-form of MMP-2 which was inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Both BMP-4 and BMP-7 downregulated TGF-β1-induced MMP-13 release compared to untreated and TGF-β1-treated cells. TGF-β1 also induced a myofibroblast-like transformation which was partially inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Conclusions Our study suggests that some regulatory properties of BMP-7 may be tissue or cell type specific and unveil a potential regulatory role for

  9. Radiographic and Histologic Evaluation of a Bone Void that Formed After Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Mediated Sinus Graft Augmentation: A Case Report.

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    Kang, Hyun-Joo; Jun, Choong-Man; Yun, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In the present case report, the authors describe radiographic and histologic observations of a bone void that formed after a sinus augmentation using a graft material that contained recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and discuss clinical and histologic implications of their findings. Sinus augmentation was performed using a graft material comprising 1 g of hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate, which contained 1 mg of rhBMP-2. Radiographic evaluation was conducted with panoramic radiographs and computed tomography images of the augmented maxillary sinus, which were analyzed using a three-dimensional image-reconstruction program. Histologic evaluation was also performed on a biopsy specimen obtained 6 months after the sinus augmentation. The total augmented volume increased from 1,582.2 mm(3) immediately after the sinus augmentation to 3,344.9 mm3 at 6 months after the augmentation because of the formation of a bone void. Twenty-six months after the sinus augmentation, the bone void remained but had reduced in volume, with the total augmented volume reduced to 2,551.7 mm(3). Histologically, new bone was observed to be in contact with the grafted particles, and a fatty marrow-like tissue was present in the area of the bone void. This case report shows that the bone void that had formed after sinus augmentation resolved over time and seemed to be partially replaced with new bone. Furthermore, none of the implants failed, and clinical adverse events were not observed during the follow-up period.

  10. Bone Regeneration Using N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone as an Enhancer for Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in a Rabbit Sinus Augmentation Model.

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    Lim, Hyun-Chang; Thoma, Daniel S; Yoon, So-Ra; Cha, Jae-Kook; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Ui-Won

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) can decrease the dose of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in sinus augmentation of rabbits. In each of 15 rabbits, 2 sinuses were randomly grafted using 1 of 3 treatment modalities: (i) biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP; control), (ii) rhBMP-2-coated BCP (BMP), or (iii) rhBMP-2-coated BCP soaked in NMP solution (BMP/NMP). The rabbits were sacrificed 2 weeks postoperatively. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. Bone formation in all groups was predominantly located close to the access window and the lateral walls. Newly formed bone within the total augmented area (NB TA ) was greatest in BMP/NMP (1.94 ± 0.69 mm 2 ), followed by BMP (1.50 ± 0.72 mm 2 ) and BCP (1.28 ± 0.52 mm 2 ) ( P > 0.05). In the center of the augmentation (NB ROI_C ) and the area close to the sinus membrane (NB ROI_M ), BMP/NMP produced the largest area of NB (NB ROI_C : 0.10 ± 0.11 mm 2 ; NB ROI_M : 0.17 ± 0.08 mm 2 ); the corresponding NB values for BCP were 0.05 ± 0.05 mm 2 and 0.08 ± 0.09 mm 2 , respectively ( P > 0.05 for all comparisons). The effect of NMP on bone regeneration was inconsistent between the specimens. Adding NMP as an adjunct to rhBMP-2-coated BCP produced inconsistent effects on bone regeneration, resulting in no significant benefit compared to controls.

  11. A high concentration of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 induces low-efficacy bone regeneration in sinus augmentation: a histomorphometric analysis in rabbits.

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    Hong, Ji-Youn; Kim, Min-Soo; Lim, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Jung-Seok; Choi, Seong-Ho; Jung, Ui-Won

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the efficacy of bone regeneration at the early stage of healing in rabbit sinuses grafted with a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) carrier soaked in a high concentration of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Both maxillary sinuses of eight male rabbits were used. The sinus on one side (assigned randomly) was grafted with BCP loaded with rhBMP-2 (1.5 mg/ml; test group) using a soaking method, while the other was grafted with saline-soaked BCP (control group). After a 2-week healing period, the sinuses were analyzed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. The total augmented area and soft tissue space were significantly larger in the test group than in the control group, whereas the opposite was true for the area of residual material and newly formed bone. Most of the new bone in the test group was localized to the Schneiderian membrane (SM), while very little bone formation was observed in the window and center regions of the sinus. New bone was distributed evenly in the control group sinuses. Within the limitations of this study, it appeared that application of a high concentration of rhBMP-2 soaked onto a BCP carrier inhibited bone regeneration from the pristine bone and increased soft tissue swelling and inflammatory response at the early healing stage of sinus augmentation, although osteoinductive potential was found along the SM. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparison of Cell Viability and Embryoid Body Size of Two Embryonic Stem Cell Lines After Different Exposure Times to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4

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    Nehleh Zarei Fard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Activation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 signaling pathway in embryonic stem (ES cells plays an important role in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adverse effects of BMP4 occur in a time dependent manner; however, little is known about the effect of different time exposure of this growth factor on cell number in culture media. In this study, we investigated the role of two different exposure times to BMP4 in cell viability, embryoid body (EB, size, and cavitation of ES cells. Methods: Embryonic stem cells (R1 and B1 lines were released from the feeder cell layers and were cultured using EBs protocol by using the hanging drop method and monolayer culture system. The cells were cultured for 5 days with 100 ng/mL BMP4 from the beginning (++BMP4 or after 48 h (+BMP4 of culture and their cell number were counted by trypan blue staining. The data were analyzed using non-parametric two-tailed Mann-Whitney test. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In EB culture protocol, cell number significantly decreased in +BMP4 culture condition with greater cavity size compared to the ++BMP4 condition at day 5 (P=0.009. In contrast, in monolayer culture system, there was no significant difference in the cell number between all groups (P=0.91. Conclusion: The results suggest that short-term exposure of BMP4 is required to promote cavitation in EBs according to lower cell number in +BMP4 condition. Different cell lines showed different behavior in cavitation formation.

  13. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling and olig1/2 interact to regulate the differentiation and maturation of adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoxin; Wang, Yaping; He, Qian; Qiu, Mengsheng; Whittemore, Scott R; Cao, Qilin

    2007-12-01

    Promotion of remyelination is an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of the demyelinating neurological disorders. Adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which normally reside quiescently in the adult central nervous system (CNS), become activated and proliferative after demyelinating lesions. However, the extent of endogenous remyelination is limited because of the failure of adult OPCs to mature into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the demyelinated CNS. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate the differentiation of adult OPCs could lead to new therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders. In this study, we established a stable culture of adult spinal cord OPCs and developed a reliable in vitro protocol to induce their sequential differentiation. Adult OPCs expressed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type Ia, Ib, and II receptor subunits, which are required for BMP signal transduction. BMP2 and 4 promoted dose-dependent astrocyte differentiation of adult OPCs with concurrent suppression of OL differentiation. Treatment of OPCs with BMP2 and 4 increased ID4 expression and decreased the expression of olig1 and olig2. Overexpression of olig1 or olig2 blocked the astrocyte differentiation of adult OPCs induced by BMP2 and 4. Furthermore, overexpression of both olig1 and olig2, but not olig1 or olig2 alone, rescued OL differentiation from inhibition by BMP2 and 4. Our results demonstrated that downregulation of olig1 and olig2 is an important mechanism by which BMP2 and 4 inhibit OL differentiation of adult OPCs. These data suggest that blocking BMP signaling combined with olig1/2 overexpression could be a useful therapeutic strategy to enhance endogenous remyelination and facilitate functional recovery in CNS demyelinated disorders. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  14. Role of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins-7 (BMP-7 in the Renal Improvement Effect of DangGui (Angelica sinensis in Type-1 Diabetic Rats

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    Ching-Hua Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation is believed as major factors leading to diabetic nephropathy (DN. DangGui (Angelica sinensis is mentioned to show renal protective effect in combination with other herbs. Bone morphogenetic proteins-7 (BMP-7 is produced merit in protection of DN. The role of BMP-7 in DangGui-induced renal improvement is not clear. The present study investigated the effects of DangGui on renal functions, BMP-7 expression and the levels of ROS in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats and high glucose-exposed rat mesangial cells (RMCs. After 1- or 4-week treatment, DangGui improved renal functions and increased renal BMP-7 expression in diabetic rats. The BMP-7 expression in RMCs was reduced by high glucose treatment and this could be reversed by DangGui. Moreover, RMCs exposed to high glucose were expired by BMP-7 RNAi transfection but those cells remained alive by scramble transfection. Thus, we employed regular RMCs to knock down BMP-7 with RNAi and we found that DangGui increased BMP-7 expression in these RMCs. Direct activation of BMP-7 expression by DangGui could be considered. The results of DPPH assay, DHE stain and lucigenin assay indicated that DangGui could inhibit high glucose-induced ROS in RMCs. These results suggest that DangGui has an ability to improve renal functions in STZ-diabetic rats through increasing endogenous BMP-7 expression and decreasing oxidative stress in kidney. The present study suggest that DangGui could be applied to improve renal functions in diabetic disorders.

  15. Differing impact of the deletion of hemochromatosis-associated molecules HFE and transferrin receptor-2 on the iron phenotype of mice lacking bone morphogenetic protein 6 or hemojuvelin.

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    Latour, Chloé; Besson-Fournier, Céline; Meynard, Delphine; Silvestri, Laura; Gourbeyre, Ophélie; Aguilar-Martinez, Patricia; Schmidt, Paul J; Fleming, Mark D; Roth, Marie-Paule; Coppin, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis, which is characterized by inappropriately low levels of hepcidin, increased dietary iron uptake, and systemic iron accumulation, has been associated with mutations in the HFE, transferrin receptor-2 (TfR2), and hemojuvelin (HJV) genes. However, it is still not clear whether these molecules intersect in vivo with bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6)/mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) homolog signaling, the main pathway up-regulating hepcidin expression in response to elevated hepatic iron. To answer this question, we produced double knockout mice for Bmp6 and β2-microglobulin (a surrogate for the loss of Hfe) and for Bmp6 and Tfr2, and we compared their phenotype (hepcidin expression, Bmp/Smad signaling, hepatic and extrahepatic tissue iron accumulation) with that of single Bmp6-deficient mice and that of mice deficient for Hjv, alone or in combination with Hfe or Tfr2. Whereas the phenotype of Hjv-deficient females was not affected by loss of Hfe or Tfr2, that of Bmp6-deficient females was considerably worsened, with decreased Smad5 phosphorylation, compared with single Bmp6-deficient mice, further repression of hepcidin gene expression, undetectable serum hepcidin, and massive iron accumulation not only in the liver but also in the pancreas, the heart, and the kidneys. These results show that (1) BMP6 does not require HJV to transduce signal to hepcidin in response to intracellular iron, even if the loss of HJV partly reduces this signal, (2) another BMP ligand can replace BMP6 and significantly induce hepcidin expression in response to extracellular iron, and (3) BMP6 alone is as efficient at inducing hepcidin as the other BMPs in association with the HJV/HFE/TfR2 complex; they provide an explanation for the compensatory effect of BMP6 treatment on the molecular defect underlying Hfe hemochromatosis in mice. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. Human Articular Cartilage Progenitor Cells Are Responsive to Mechanical Stimulation and Adenoviral-Mediated Overexpression of Bone-Morphogenetic Protein 2.

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    Alexander J Neumann

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage progenitor cells (ACPCs represent a new and potentially powerful alternative cell source to commonly used cell sources for cartilage repair, such as chondrocytes and bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. This is particularly due to the apparent resistance of ACPCs to hypertrophy. The current study opted to investigate whether human ACPCs (hACPCs are responsive towards mechanical stimulation and/or adenoviral-mediated overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2. hACPCs were cultured in fibrin-polyurethane composite scaffolds. Cells were cultured in a defined chondro-permissive medium, lacking exogenous growth factors. Constructs were cultured, for 7 or 28 days, under free-swelling conditions or with the application of complex mechanical stimulation, using a custom built bioreactor that is able to generate joint-like movements. Outcome parameters were quantification of BMP-2 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 concentration within the cell culture medium, biochemical and gene expression analyses, histology and immunohistochemistry. The application of mechanical stimulation alone resulted in the initiation of chondrogenesis, demonstrating the cells are mechanoresponsive. This was evidenced by increased GAG production, lack of expression of hypertrophic markers and a promising gene expression profile (significant up-regulation of cartilaginous marker genes, specifically collagen type II, accompanied by no increase in the hypertrophic marker collagen type X or the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase. To further investigate the resistance of ACPCs to hypertrophy, overexpression of a factor associated with hypertrophic differentiation, BMP-2, was investigated. A novel, three-dimensional, transduction protocol was used to transduce cells with an adenovirus coding for BMP-2. Over-expression of BMP-2, independent of load, led to an increase in markers associated with hypertropy. Taken together ACPCs

  17. The Effects of Tocotrienol and Lovastatin Co-Supplementation on Bone Dynamic Histomorphometry and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Expression in Rats with Estrogen Deficiency

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    Kok-Yong Chin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Both tocotrienol and statins are suppressors of the mevalonate pathway. Supplementation of tocotrienol among statin users could potentially protect them against osteoporosis. This study aimed to compare the effects of tocotrienol and lovastatin co-supplementation with individual treatments on bone dynamic histomorphometric indices and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 gene expression in ovariectomized rats. Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized equally into six groups. The baseline was sacrificed upon receipt. All other groups were ovariectomized, except for the sham group. The ovariectomized groups were administered orally daily with (1 lovastatin 11 mg/kg/day alone; (2 tocotrienol derived from annatto bean (annatto tocotrienol 60 mg/kg/day alone; (3 lovastatin 11 mg/kg/day, and annatto tocotrienol 60 mg/kg/day. The sham and ovariectomized control groups were treated with equal volume of vehicle. After eight weeks of treatment, the rats were sacrificed. Their bones were harvested for bone dynamic histomorphometry and BMP-2 gene expression. Rats supplemented with annatto tocotrienol and lovastatin concurrently demonstrated significantly lower single-labeled surface, but increased double-labeled surface, mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate compared to individual treatments (p < 0.05. There was a parallel increase in BMP-2 gene expression in the rats receiving combined treatment (p < 0.05. The combination of annatto tocotrienol and lovastatin exerted either additively or synergistically on selected bone parameters. In conclusion, tocotrienol can augment the bone formation and mineralization in rats receiving low-dose statins. Supplementation of tocotrienol in statin users can potentially protect them from osteoporosis.

  18. Does the Addition of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 to Platelet-Rich Fibrin Improve Healing After Treatment for Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Sun-Jong

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effect of the addition of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) to leukocyte-rich and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) on the treatment of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ), this study compared the healing outcome of combined use of BMP-2 and L-PRF with single use of L-PRF. Of 55 patients who were diagnosed with MRONJ, 25 were treated with L-PRF alone and 30 were treated with L-PRF and recombinant human BMP-2. For each patient, surgical sites were evaluated postoperatively at 4 and 16 weeks. Associations between the treatment method and the resolution of MRONJ were analyzed with the adjustment of patient-specific factors that may influence the treatment outcome. At 4 and 16 weeks postoperatively, patients with MRONJ who were treated with both L-PRF and BMP-2 showed favorable outcomes with complete resolution of the lesions, which was statistically significant compared with that of the therapy using L-PRF alone (P = .028). Therefore, the additional use of BMP-2 considerably improved MRONJ healing. Among patient-specific factors, the existence of a bacterial colony in the biopsy specimen was a significant factor that negatively affected disease resolution (P = .017). The combined use of BMP-2 and L-PRF leads to the early resolution of MRONJ; thus patients who need to continue antiresorptive therapy may benefit from the combined regimen. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [In vitro differentiation of synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells infected by adenovirus vector mediated by bone morphogenetic protein 2/7 genes into fibrocartilage cells in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peiliang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Haishan; Cong, Ruijun; Chen, Song; Ding, Zheru; Hu, Kaimen

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of rabbit synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) differentiating into fibrocartilage cells by the recombinant adenovirus vector mediated by bone morphogenetic protein 2/7 (BMP-2/7) genes in vitro. SMSCs were isolated and purified from 3-month-old New Zealand white rabbits [male or female, weighing (2.1 +/- 0.3) kg]; the morphology was observed; the cells were identified with immunocytological fluorescent staining, flow cytometry, and cell cycles. The adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiations were detected. The recombinant plasmid of pAdTrack-BMP-2-internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-BMP-7 was constructed and then was used to infect SMSCs. The cell DNA content and the oncogenicity were tested to determine the safety. Then infected SMSCs were cultured in incomplete chondrogenic medium in vitro. Chondrogenic differentiation of infected SMSCs was detected by RT-PCR, immunofluorescent staining, and toluidine blue staining. SMSCs expressed surface markers of stem cells, and had multi-directional potential. The transfection efficiency of SMSCs infected by recombinant plasmid of pAdTrack-BMP-2-IRES-BMP-7 was about 70%. The safety results showed that infected SMSCs had normal double time, normal chromosome number, and normal DNA content and had no oncogenicity. At 21 days after cultured in incomplete chondrocyte medium, RT-PCR results showed SMSCs had increased expressions of collegan type I and collegan type II, particularly collegan type II; the expressions of RhoA and Sox-9 increased obviously. Immunofluorescent staining and toluidine blue staining showed differentiation of SMSCs into fibrocartilage cells. It is safe to use pAdTrack-BMP-2-IRES-BMP-7 for infecting SMSCs. SMSCs infected by pAdTrack-BMP-2-IRES-BMP-7 can differentiate into fibrocartilage cells spontaneously in vitro.

  20. Osteoinductivity of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate sponges loaded with different concentrations of mesenchymal stem cells and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in an equine bone defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Pil; Tsuzuki, Nao; Haneda, Shingo; Yamada, Kazutaka; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2014-03-01

    Fracture is one of the most life-threatening injuries in horses. Fracture repair is often associated with unsatisfactory outcomes and is associated with a high incidence of complications. This study aimed to evaluate the osteogenic effects of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (GT) sponges loaded with different concentrations/ratios of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in an equine bone defect model. Seven thoroughbred horses were used in this study. Eight bone defects were created in the third metatarsal bones of each horse. Then, eight treatments, namely control, GT, GT/M-5, GT/M-6, GT/M-5/B-1, GT/M-5/B-3, GT/M-6/B-1, and GT/M-6/B-3 were applied to the eight different sites in a randomized manner (M-5: 2 × 10(5) MSCs; M-6: 2 × 10(6) MSCs; B-1: 1 μg of BMP-2; B-3: 3 μg of BMP-2). Repair of bone defects was assessed by radiography, quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and histopathological evaluation. Radiographic scores and CT values were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups, while they were significantly higher in the GT/M-5/B-3 and GT/M-6/B-3 groups than in the other groups. The amount of mature compact bone filling the defects was greater in the GT/M-5/B-3 and GT/M-6/B-3 groups than in the other groups. The present study demonstrated that the GT sponge loaded with MSCs and BMP-2 promoted bone regeneration in an equine bone defect model. The GT/MSC/BMP-2 described here may be useful for treating horses with bone injuries.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphism of bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene: A risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate

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    Sathyaprasad Savitha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signalling pathway is crucial in a number of developmental processes and is critical in the formation of variety of craniofacial elements including cranial neural crest, facial primordium, tooth, lip and palate. It is an important mediator in regulation of lip and palate fusion, cartilage and bone formation. Aim: To study the role of mutation of BMP4 genes in the aetiology of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL ± P and identify it directly from human analyses. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was done to evaluate whether BMP4T538C polymorphism, resulting in an amino acid change of Val=Ala (V152A in the polypeptide, is associated with NSCL ± P in an Indian paediatric population. Genotypes of 100 patients with NSCL ± P and 100 controls (in whom absence of CL ± P was confirmed in three generations were detected using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism strategy. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate allele and genotype association with NSCLP. Results: Results showed significant association between homozygous CC genotype with CL ± P (odds ratio [OR]-5.59 and 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.85-10.99. The 538C allele carriers showed an increased risk of NSCL ± P as compared with 538 T allele (OR - 4.2% CI = 2.75-6.41. Conclusion: This study suggests an association between SNP of BMP4 gene among carriers of the C allele and increased risk for NSCLP in an Indian Population. Further studies on this aspect can scale large heights in preventive strategies for NSCLP that may soon become a reality.

  2. Alk2/ACVR1 and Alk3/BMPR1A Provide Essential Function for Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Retinal Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Woo; Chong, Diana C; Ola, Roxana; Dunworth, William P; Meadows, Stryder; Ka, Jun; Kaartinen, Vesa M; Qyang, Yibing; Cleaver, Ondine; Bautch, Victoria L; Eichmann, Anne; Jin, Suk-Won

    2017-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates angiogenesis. Here, we aimed to define the function of BMP receptors in regulating early postnatal angiogenesis by analysis of inducible, endothelial-specific deletion of the BMP receptor components Bmpr2 (BMP type 2 receptor), Alk1 (activin receptor-like kinase 1), Alk2 , and Alk3 in mouse retinal vessels. Expression analysis of several BMP ligands showed that proangiogenic BMP ligands are highly expressed in postnatal retinas. Consistently, BMP receptors are also strongly expressed in retina with a distinct pattern. To assess the function of BMP signaling in retinal angiogenesis, we first generated mice carrying an endothelial-specific inducible deletion of Bmpr2 . Postnatal deletion of Bmpr2 in endothelial cells substantially decreased the number of angiogenic sprouts at the vascular front and branch points behind the front, leading to attenuated radial expansion. To identify critical BMPR1s (BMP type 1 receptors) associated with BMPR2 in retinal angiogenesis, we generated endothelial-specific inducible deletion of 3 BMPR1s abundantly expressed in endothelial cells and analyzed the respective phenotypes. Among these, endothelial-specific deletion of either Alk2 / acvr1 or Alk3 / Bmpr1a caused a delay in radial expansion, reminiscent of vascular defects associated with postnatal endothelial-specific deletion of BMPR2, suggesting that ALK2/ACVR1 and ALK3/BMPR1A are likely to be the critical BMPR1s necessary for proangiogenic BMP signaling in retinal vessels. Our data identify BMP signaling mediated by coordination of ALK2/ACVR1, ALK3/BMPR1A, and BMPR2 as an essential proangiogenic cue for retinal vessels. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Repair of rat cranial bone defect by using bone morphogenetic protein-2-related peptide combined with microspheres composed of polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid copolymer and chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jingfeng; Jin, Lin; Zhu, Shaobo; Wang, Mingbo; Xu, Shuyun

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the transplanted bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) -related peptide P24 and rhBMP 2 combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/chitosan (CS) microspheres were investigated in promoting the repair of rat cranial bone defect. Forty white rats were selected and equally divided into four groups (group A: 1 μg of rhBMP 2 /PLGA/CS composite; group B: 3 mg of P24/PLGA/CS composite; group C: 0.5 μg of rhBMP 2 + 1.5 mg of P24/PLGA/CS composite; group D: blank PLGA/CS material), and rat cranial bone defect models with a diameter of 5 mm were established. The materials were transplanted to the cranial bone defects. The animals were sacrificed on weeks 6 and 12 post-operation. Radiographic examinations (x-ray imaging and 3D CT scanning) and histological evaluations were performed. The repaired areas of cranial bone defects were measured, and the osteogenetic abilities of various materials were compared. Cranial histology, imaging, and repaired area measurements showed that the osteogenetic effects at two time points (weeks 6 and 12) in group C were better than those in groups A and B. The effects in groups A and B were similar. Group D achieved the worst repair effect of cranial bone defects, where a large number of fibrous connective tissues were observed. The PLGA/CS composite microspheres loaded with rhBMP 2 and P24 had optimal concrescence and could mutually increase their osteogenesis capability. rhBMP 2 + P24/PLGA/CS composite is a novel material for bone defect repair with stable activity to induce bone formation. (paper)

  4. Association of bone morphogenetic protein 6 with exocrine gland dysfunction in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongen; Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Lai, Zhenan; Michael, Drew; Weller, Melodie; Swaim, William D; Liu, Xibao; Catalán, Marcelo A; Rocha, Eduardo M; Ismail, Nevien; Afione, Sandra; Rana, Noreen A; Di Pasquale, Giovanni; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu; Illei, Gabor G; Chiorini, John A

    2013-12-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is characterized by autoimmune activation and loss of function in secretory epithelia. The present study was undertaken to investigate and characterize changes in the epithelia associated with the loss of gland function in primary SS. To identify changes in epithelial gene expression, custom microarrays were probed with complementary RNA (cRNA) isolated from minor salivary glands (MSGs) of female patients with primary SS who had low focus scores and low salivary flow rates, and the results were compared with those obtained using cRNA from the MSGs of sex-matched healthy volunteers. The effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) on salivary gland function was tested using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer to the salivary glands of C57BL/6 mice. A significant increase in expression of BMP-6 was observed in RNA isolated from SS patients compared with healthy volunteers. Overexpression of BMP-6 locally in the salivary or lacrimal glands of mice resulted in the loss of fluid secretion as well as changes in the connective tissue of the salivary gland. Assessment of the fluid movement in either isolated acinar cells from mice overexpressing BMP-6 or a human salivary gland cell line cultured with BMP-6 revealed a loss in volume regulation in these cells. Lymphocytic infiltration in the submandibular gland of BMP-6 vector-treated mice was increased. No significant changes in the production of proinflammatory cytokines or autoantibodies associated with SS (anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB) were found after BMP-6 overexpression. In addition to identifying BMP-6 expression in association with xerostomia and xerophthalmia in primary SS, the present results suggest that BMP-6-induced salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction in primary SS is independent of the autoantibodies and immune activation associated with the disease. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Association of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6 With Exocrine Gland Dysfunction in Patients With Sjögren’s Syndrome and in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongen; Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Lai, Zhenan; Michael, Drew; Weller, Melodie; Swaim, William D.; Liu, Xibao; Catalán, Marcelo A.; Rocha, Eduardo M.; Ismail, Nevien; Afione, Sandra; Rana, Noreen A.; Di Pasquale, Giovanni; Alevizos, Ilias; Ambudkar, Indu; Illei, Gabor G.; Chiorini, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is characterized by autoimmune activation and loss of function in secretory epithelia. The present study was undertaken to investigate and characterize changes in the epithelia associated with the loss of gland function in primary SS. Methods To identify changes in epithelial gene expression, custom microarrays were probed with complementary RNA (cRNA) isolated from minor salivary glands (MSGs) of female patients with primary SS who had low focus scores and low salivary flow rates, and the results were compared with those obtained using cRNA from the MSGs of sex-matched healthy volunteers. The effect of bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) on salivary gland function was tested using adeno-associated virus–mediated gene transfer to the salivary glands of C57BL/6 mice. Results A significant increase in expression of BMP-6 was observed in RNA isolated from SS patients compared with healthy volunteers. Overexpression of BMP-6 locally in the salivary or lacrimal glands of mice resulted in the loss of fluid secretion as well as changes in the connective tissue of the salivary gland. Assessment of the fluid movement in either isolated acinar cells from mice overexpressing BMP-6 or a human salivary gland cell line cultured with BMP-6 revealed a loss in volume regulation in these cells. Lymphocytic infiltration in the submandibular gland of BMP-6 vector–treated mice was increased. No significant changes in the production of proinflammatory cytokines or autoantibodies associated with SS (anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB) were found after BMP-6 overexpression. Conclusion In addition to identifying BMP-6 expression in association with xerostomia and xerophthalmia in primary SS, the present results suggest that BMP-6–induced salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction in primary SS is independent of the autoantibodies and immune activation associated with the disease. PMID:23982860

  6. The Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 through Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Induced by All-Trans Retinoic Acid in Cultured ARPE-19 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenya Gao

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA plays an important role in ocular development. Previous studies found that retinoic acid could influence the metabolism of scleral remodeling by promoting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells to secrete secondary signaling factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether retinoic acid affected secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 and to explore the signaling pathway of retinoic acid in cultured acute retinal pigment epithelial 19 (ARPE-19 cells.The effects of ATRA (concentrations from 10-9 to 10-5 mol/l on the expression of retinoic acid receptors (RARs in ARPE-19 cells were examined at the mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot assay, respectively. The effects of treating ARPE-19 cells with ATRA concentrations ranging from 10-9 to 10-5 mol/l for 24 h and 48 h or with 10-6mol/l ATRA at different times ranging from 6h to 72h were assessed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The contribution of RARβ-induced activation of ARPE-19 cells was confirmed using LE135, an antagonist of RARβ.RARβ mRNA levels significantly increased in the ARPE-19 cells treated with ATRA for 24h and 48h. These increases in RARβ mRNA levels were dose dependent (at concentrations of 10-9 to 10-5 mol/l with a maximum effect observed at 10-6 mol/l. There were no significant changes in the mRNA levels of RARα and RARγ. Western blot assay revealed that RARβ protein levels were increased significantly in a time-dependent manner in ARPE-19 cells treated with 10-6 mol/l ATRA from 12 h to 72 h, with a marked increase observed at 24 h and 48 h. The upregulation of RARβ and the ATRA-induced secretion in ARPE-19 cells could be inhibited by the RARβ antagonist LE135.ATRA induced upregulation of RARβ in ARPE-19 cells and stimulated these cells to secrete BMP-2 and MMP-2.

  7. Prevention of early postnatal hyperalimentation protects against activation of transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenetic protein and interleukin-6 signaling in rat lungs after intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar, Miguel Angel Alejandre; Dinger, Katharina; Rother, Eva; Östreicher, Iris; Vohlen, Christina; Plank, Christian; Dötsch, Jörg

    2014-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is intimately linked with postnatal catch-up growth, leading to impaired lung structure and function. However, the impact of catch-up growth induced by early postnatal hyperalimentation (HA) on the lung has not been addressed to date. The aim of this study was to investigate whether prevention of HA subsequent to IUGR protects the lung from 1) deregulation of the transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway, 2) activation of interleukin (IL)-6 signaling, and 3) profibrotic processes. IUGR was induced in Wistar rats by isocaloric protein restriction during gestation by feeding a control (Co) or a low-protein diet with 17% or 8% casein, respectively. On postnatal day 1 (P1), litters from both groups were randomly reduced to 6 pups per dam to induce HA or adjusted to 10 pups and fed with standard diet: Co, Co with HA (Co-HA), IUGR, and IUGR with HA (IUGR-HA). Birth weights in rats after IUGR were lower than in Co rats (P < 0.05). HA during lactation led to accelerated body weight gain from P1 to P23 (Co vs. Co-HA, IUGR vs. IUGR-HA; P < 0.05). At P70, prevention of HA after IUGR protected against the following: 1) activation of both TGF-β [phosphorylated SMAD (pSMAD) 2; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Pai1)] and BMP signaling [pSMAD1; inhibitor of differentiation (Id1)] compared with Co (P < 0.05) and Co or IUGR (P < 0.05) rats, respectively; 2) greater mRNA expression of interleukin (Il) 6 and Il13 (P < 0.05) as well as activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling (P < 0.05) after IUGR-HA; and 3) greater gene expression of collagen Iα1 and osteopontin (P < 0.05) and increased deposition of bronchial subepithelial connective tissue in IUGR-HA compared with Co and IUGR rats. Moreover, HA had a significant additive effect (P < 0.05) on the increased enhanced pause (indicator of airway resistance) in the IUGR group (P < 0.05) at P70. This study demonstrates

  8. Development and optimization of a cell-based assay for the selection of synthetic compounds that potentiate bone morphogenetic protein-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Motohiro; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Liu, Yunshan; Yoshida, Munehito; Reddy, Boojala Vijay B; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

    2009-12-01

    The requirement of large amounts of the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) produces a huge translational barrier for its routine clinical use due to high cost. This leads to an urgent need to develop alternative methods to lower costs and/or increase efficacies for using BMP-2. In this study, we describe the development and optimization of a cell-based assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and reliable in identifying reagents that potentiate the effects of BMP-2 in inducing transdifferentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into the osteoblastic phenotype. The assay is based on a BMP-responsive Smad1-driven luciferase reporter gene. LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) is a novel intracellular LIM domain protein that has been shown by our group to enhance cellular responsiveness to BMP-2. Our previous report elucidated that the binding of LMP-1 with the WW2 domain in Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor-1 (Smurf1) rescues the osteogenic Smads from degradation. Here, using the optimized cell-based assay, we first evaluated the activity of the recombinantly prepared proteins, LMP-1, and its mutant (LMP-1DeltaSmurf1) that lacks the Smurf1-WW2 domain-binding motif. Both the wild type and the mutant proteins were engineered to contain an 11-amino acid HIV-TAT protein derived membrane transduction domain to aid the cellular delivery of recombinant proteins. The cell-based reporter assay confirmed that LMP-1 potentiates the BMP-induced stimulation of C2C12 cells towards the osteoblastic phenotype. The potentiating effect of LMP-1 was significantly reduced when a specific-motif known to interact with Smurf1 was mutated. We validated the results obtained in the reporter assay by also monitoring the expression of mRNA for osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which is widely accepted osteoblast differentiation marker genes. Finally, we provide further confirmation of our results by measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase in support of the accuracy and

  9. Surface functionalization of nanoporous alumina with bone morphogenetic protein 2 for inducing osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yuanhui; Ju, Yang; Morita, Yasuyuki; Xu, Baiyao; Song, Guanbin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the possibility to regulate cellular behavior by manipulating the specific characteristics of biomaterials including the physical features and chemical properties. To investigate the synergistic effect of chemical factors and surface topography on the growth behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), bone morphorgenic protein 2 (BMP2) was immobilized onto porous alumina substrates with different pore sizes. The BMP2-immobilized alumina substrates were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Growth behavior and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs cultured on the different substrates were investigated. Cell adhesion and morphological changes were observed with SEM, and the results showed that the BMP2-immobilized alumina substrate was able to promote adhesion and spreading of MSCs. MTT assay and immunofluorescence staining of integrin β1 revealed that the BMP2-immobilized alumina substrates were favorable for cell growth. To evaluate the differentiation of MSCs, osteoblastic differentiation markers, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization, were investigated. Compared with those of untreated alumina substrates, significantly higher ALP activities and mineralization were detected in cells cultured on BMP2-immobilized alumina substrates. The results suggested that surface functionalization of nanoporous alumina substrates with BMP2 was beneficial for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. With the approach of immobilizing growth factors onto material substrates, it provided a new insight to exploit novel biofunctional materials for tissue engineering. - Highlights: • BMP2 was immobilized onto nanoporous alumina substrates with different pore sizes. • BMP2-immobilized substrates were able to promote adhesion and spreading of MSCs. • BMP2-immobilized substrates were favorable for cell growth of MSCs. • BMP2-immobilized substrates promoted osteogenic

  10. [EFFECT OF RECOMBINANT ADENOVIRUS-BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 12 TRANSFECTION ON DIFFERENTIATION OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS INTO TENDON/LIGAMENT CELLS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weili; Chen, Gang; Tang, Xin; Li, Qi; Ll, Jian

    2015-04-01

    To research the effect of recombinant adenovirus-bone morphogenetic protein 12 (Ad-BMP-12) transfection on the differentiation of peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into tendon/ligament cells. Peripheral blood MSCs were isolated from New Zealand rabbits (3-4 months old) and cultured in vitro until passage 3. The recombinant adenoviral vector system was prepared using AdEasy system, then transfected into MSCs at passage 3 (transfected group); untransfected MSCs served as control (untransfected group). The morphological characteristics and growth of transfected cells were observed under inverted phase contrast microscope. The transfection efficiency and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression were detected by flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence microscopy. After cultured for 14 days in vitro, the expressions of tendon/ligament-specific markers were determined by immunohistochemistry and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. GFP expression could be observed in peripheral blood MSCs at 8 hours after transfection. At 24 hours after transfection, the cells had clear morphology and grew slowly under inverted phase contrast microscope and almost all expressed GFP at the same field under fluorescence microscopy. FCM analysis showed that the transfection efficiency of the transfected group was 99.57%, while it was 2.46% in the untransfected group. The immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of collagen type I gradually increased with culture time in vitro. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR results showed that the mRNA expressions of the tendon/ligament-specific genes (Tenomodulin, Tenascin-C, and Decorin) in the transfected group were significantly higher than those in untransfected group (0.061+/- 0.013 vs. 0.004 +/- 0.002, t = -7.700, P=0.031; 0.029 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.003 +/- 0.001, t = -5.741, P=0.020; 0.679 +/- 0.067 vs. 0.142 +/- 0.024, t = -12.998, P=0.000). Ad-BMP-12 can significantly promote differentiation of peripheral blood MSCs into

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IA gene predisposes individuals to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine via the smad signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Jin, Weitao; Li, Haibin

    2018-02-20

    The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the 4A > C and -349C > T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IA (BMPR-IA) gene, which significantly associated with the occurrence and the extent of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in the cervical spine. The SNPs in BMPR-IA gene were genotyped, and the association with the occurrence and severity of OPLL were evaluated in 356 OPLL patients and 617 non-OPLL controls. In stably transfected mouse embryonic mesenchymal stem cells (C3H10T1/2), the expression levels of the BMPR-IA gene and Smad4 protein as well as phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 were detected by Western blotting. In addition, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC) activity of osteogenesis specificity protein was assessed using the ALP quantitation and osteocalcin radioimmunoassay kit, respectively. The 4A > C and the -349C > T polymorphisms of BMPR-IA gene were significantly associated with the development of OPLL in the cervical spine. The C allele type in 4A > C polymorphism significantly increases the occurrence and the extent of OPLL. The T allele type in -349C > T polymorphism significantly increases the susceptibility to OPLL, but not the extent of OPLL. The current results further validate our previous observations. The expression levels of BMPR-IA gene were significantly increased in pcDNA3.1/BMPR-IA (mutation type, MT -349C > T; MT 4A > C; MT -349C > T and 4A > C) vector-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells compared to the wild type (WT) vector-transfected cells. The levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and ALP activity were significantly increased in pcDNA3.1/BMPR-IA (MT -349C > T) vector-transfected C3H10T1/2 cells compared to the WT vector-transfected cells. However, no significant differences were observed in the protein levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and the ALP activity between MT A/C and WT vector

  12. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Localized Alveolar Ridge and Maxillary Sinus Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mick P; Vaughn, Olushola L Akinshemoyin; Anderson, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a viable alternative to bone graft in spinal fusion and maxillary sinus lift. The research questions for meta-analysis were: Is rhBMP-2 an effective bone graft substitute in localized alveolar ridge augmentation and maxillary sinus floor augmentation? What are the potential adverse events? A search of MEDLINE from January 1980 to January 2014 using PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Controlled Trials, CINAHL, and EMBASE was performed. Searches were performed from Medical Subject Headings. The quality of each study included was graded by Review Manager software. The primary outcome variable was bone formation measured as change in bone height on computed tomogram. A systematic review of adverse events also was performed. A random-effects model was chosen. Continuous variables were calculated using the standardized mean difference and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing improvement from baseline of the experimental group with that of the control group. Change in bone height was calculated using logarithmic odds ratio. Test of significance used the Z statistic with a P value of .05. Ten studies met the criteria for systematic review; 8 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Five studies assessed localized alveolar ridge augmentation and resulted in an overall standardized mean difference of 0.56 (CI, 0.20-0.92) in favor of BMP; this result was statistically important. Three studies assessed maxillary sinus floor augmentation and resulted in an overall standardized mean difference of -0.50 (CI, -0.93 to -0.09), which was meaningfully different in favor of the control group. Adverse events were inconsistently reported, ranging from no complications to widespread adverse events. For localized alveolar ridge augmentation, this meta-analysis showed that rhBMP-2 substantially increases bone height. However, rhBMP-2 does not perform as

  13. Acceleration of Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Using a Low Dose of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Loaded on a Resorbable Bioactive Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Rania A; Mahmoud, Naguiba; Soliman, Samia; Nouh, Samir R; Cunningham, Larry; El-Ghannam, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a porous silica-calcium phosphate composite (SCPC50) loaded with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on alveolar ridge augmentation in saddle-type defects. Micro-granules of SCPC50 resorbable bioactive ceramic were coated with rhBMP-2 10 mg and then implanted into a saddle-type defect (12 × 7 mm) in a dog mandible and covered with a collagen membrane. Control groups included defects grafted with SCPC50 granules without rhBMP-2 and un-grafted defects. Bone healing was evaluated at 8 and 16 weeks using histologic and histomorphometric techniques. The increase in bone height and total defect fill were assessed for each specimen using the ImageJ 1.46 program. The release kinetics of rhBMP-2 was determined in vitro. The height of the bone in the grafted defects and the total defect fill were statistically analyzed. SCPC50 enhanced alveolar ridge augmentation as indicated by the increased vertical bone height, bone surface area, and bone volume after 16 weeks. SCPC50-rhBMP-2 provided a sustained release profile of a low effective dose (BMP-2 4.6 ± 1.34 pg/mL per hour) during the 1- to 21-day period. The slow rate of release of rhBMP-2 from SCPC50 accelerated synchronized complete bone regeneration and graft material resorption in 8 weeks. Successful rapid reconstruction of the alveolar ridge by SCPC50 and SCPC50-rhBMP-2 occurred without any adverse excessive bone formation, inflammation, or fluid-filled voids. Results of this study suggest that SCPC50 is an effective graft material to preserve the alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. Coating SCPC50-rhBMP-2 further accelerated bone regeneration and a considerable increase in vertical bone height. These findings make SCPC50 the primary choice as a carrier for rhBMP-2. SCPC50-rhBMP-2 can serve as an alternative to autologous bone grafting. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Addition of bone morphogenetic protein type 2 to ascorbate and β-glycerophosphate supplementation did not enhance osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Cristiane Cabral Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (BMP-2 is a potent local factor, which promotes bone formation and has been used as an osteogenic supplement for mesenchymal stem cells. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of a recombinant BMP-2 as well as the endogenous BMP-4 and BMP-7 in the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs in medium supplemented with ascorbate and β-glycerophosphate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human ASCs were treated with osteogenic medium in the presence (ASCs+OM+BMP-2 or absence (ASCs+OM of BMP-2. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined and the extracellular matrix mineralization was evaluated by Von Kossa staining and calcium quantification. The expressions of BMP-4, BMP-7, Smad1, Smad4, and phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 were analyzed by western blotting. Relative mRNA expressions of Smad1, BMP receptor type II (BMPR-II, osteonectin, and osteocalcin were evaluated by qPCR. Results: ASCs+OM demonstrated the highest expression of BMP-4 and BMP-7 at days 21 and 7, respectively, the highest levels of BMPR-II mRNA expression at day 28, and the highest levels of Smad1 mRNA at days 14 and 28. ASCs+OM+BMP-2 demonstrated the highest levels of Smad1 mRNA expression at days 1, 7, and 21, the highest expression of Smad1 at day 7, the highest expression of Smad4 at day 14, the highest ALP activity at days 14 and 21, and expression of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 at day 7. ASCs+OM and ASCs+OM+BMP2 showed similar ALP activity at days 7 and 28, similar osteonectin and osteocalcin mRNA expression at all time periods, and similar calcium depositions at all time periods. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that human ASCs expressed endogenous BMP-4 and BMP-7. Moreover, the supplementation of ASCs with BMP-2 did not increase the level of osteogenic markers in the initial (ALP activity, intermediate (osteonectin and osteocalcin, or final (calcium deposition phases, suggesting that the exogenous addition of BMP-2 did not improve

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 and transforming growth factor-beta1 mechanisms in acute valvular response to supra-physiologic hemodynamic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Sucosky, Philippe

    2015-06-26

    To explore ex vivo the role of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) in acute valvular response to fluid shear stress (FSS) abnormalities. Porcine valve leaflets were subjected ex vivo to physiologic FSS, supra-physiologic FSS magnitude at normal frequency and supra-physiologic FSS frequency at normal magnitude for 48 h in a double-sided cone-and-plate bioreactor filled with standard culture medium. The role of BMP-4 and TGF-β1 in the valvular response was investigated by promoting or inhibiting the downstream action of those cytokines via culture medium supplementation with BMP-4 or the BMP antagonist noggin, and TGF-β1 or the TGF-β1 inhibitor SB-431542, respectively. Fresh porcine leaflets were used as controls. Each experimental group consisted of six leaflet samples. Immunostaining and immunoblotting were performed to assess endothelial activation in terms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expressions, paracrine signaling in terms of BMP-4 and TGF-β1 expressions and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in terms of cathepsin L, cathepsin S, metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expressions. Immunostained images were quantified by normalizing the intensities of positively stained regions by the number of cells in each image while immunoblots were quantified by densitometry. Regardless of the culture medium, physiologic FSS maintained valvular homeostasis. Tissue exposure to supra-physiologic FSS magnitude in standard medium stimulated paracrine signaling (TGF-β1: 467% ± 22% vs 100% ± 6% in fresh controls, BMP-4: 258% ± 22% vs 100% ± 4% in fresh controls; P 0.05). Supra-physiologic FSS frequency had no effect on endothelial activation and paracrine signaling regardless of the culture medium but TGF-β1 silencing attenuated FSS-induced ECM degradation via MMP-9 downregulation (MMP-9: 302% ± 182% vs 100% ± 42% in fresh controls; P > 0.05). Valvular tissue is sensitive

  16. [Sustained release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 combined with stromal vascular fraction cells in promoting posterolateral spinal fusion in rat model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Qian, Jinyu; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Minghui; Wang, Xiuhui

    2017-07-01

    To observe the effect of stromal vascular fraction cells (SVFs) from rat fat tissue combined with sustained release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in promoting the lumbar fusion in rat model. SVFs were harvested from subcutaneous fat of bilateral inguinal region of 4-month-old rat through the collagenase I digestion. The sustained release carrier was prepared via covalent bond of the rhBMP-2 and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) by the biominetic apatite coating process. The sustained release effect was measured by BCA method. Thirty-two rats were selected to establish the posterolateral lumbar fusion model and were divided into 4 groups, 8 rats each group. The decalcified bone matrix (DBX) scaffold+PBS, DBX scaffold+rhBMP-2/β-TCP sustained release carrier, DBX scaffold+SVFs, and DBX scaffold+rhBMP-2/β-TCP sustained release carrier+SVFs were implanted in groups A, B, C, and D respectively. X-ray films, manual spine palpation, and high-resolution micro-CT were used to evaluate spinal fusion at 8 weeks after operation; bone mineral density (BMD) and bone volume fraction were analyzed; the new bone formation was evaluated by HE staining and Masson's trichrome staining, osteocalcin (OCN) was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The cumulative release amount of rhBMP-2 was about 40% at 2 weeks, indicating sustained release effect of rhBMP-2; while the control group was almost released within 2 weeks. At 8 weeks, the combination of manual spine palpation, X-ray, and micro-CT evaluation showed that group D had the strongest bone formation (100%, 8/8), followed by group B (75%, 6/8), group C (37.5%, 3/8), and group A (12.5%, 1/8). Micro-CT analysis showed BMD and bone volume fraction were significantly higher in group D than groups A, B, and C ( P cells with bone matrix deposition, and an active osteogenic process similar to the mineralization of long bones in group D. The bone formation of group B was weaker than that of group D, and

  17. Articular cartilage-derived cells hold a strong osteogenic differentiation potential in comparison to mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, Achim; Jonitz-Heincke, Anika; Adam, Stefanie; Rychly, Joachim; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte; Bader, Rainer; Lochner, Katrin; Peters, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Cartilaginous matrix-degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis (OA) are characterized by gradual cartilage erosion, and also by increased presence of cells with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) character within the affected tissues. Moreover, primary chondrocytes long since are known to de-differentiate in vitro and to be chondrogenically re-differentiable. Since both findings appear to conflict with each other, we quantitatively assessed the mesenchymal differentiation potential of OA patient cartilage-derived cells (CDC) towards the osteogenic and adipogenic lineage in vitro and compared it to that of MSC isolated from adipose tissue (adMSC) of healthy donors. We analyzed expression of MSC markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166, and, following osteogenic and adipogenic induction in vitro, quantified their expression of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation markers. Furthermore, CDC phenotype and proliferation were monitored. We found that CDC exhibit an MSC CD marker expression pattern similar to adMSC and a similar increase in proliferation rate during osteogenic differentiation. In contrast, the marked reduction of proliferation observed during adipogenic differentiation of adMSC was absent in CDC. Quantification of differentiation markers revealed a strong osteogenic differentiation potential for CDC, however almost no capacity for adipogenic differentiation. Since in the pathogenesis of OA, cartilage degeneration coincides with high bone turnover rates, the high osteogenic differentiation potential of OA patient-derived CDC may affect clinical therapeutic regimens aiming at autologous cartilage regeneration in these patients. - Highlights: • We analyze the mesenchymal differentiation capacity of cartilage-derived cells (CDC). • CDC express mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166. • CDC and MSC proliferation is reduced in adipogenesis and increased in osteogenesis. • Adipogenic differentiation is virtually absent in CDC, but

  18. Articular cartilage-derived cells hold a strong osteogenic differentiation potential in comparison to mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Achim, E-mail: achim.salamon@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Jonitz-Heincke, Anika, E-mail: anika.jonitz@med.uni-rostock.de [Biomechanics and Implant Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, Rostock University Medical Center, Doberaner Straße 142, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Adam, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.adam@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Rychly, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.rychly@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Müller-Hilke, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.mueller-hilke@med.uni-rostock.de [Institute of Immunology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 68, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Bader, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.bader@med.uni-rostock.de [Biomechanics and Implant Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, Rostock University Medical Center, Doberaner Straße 142, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Lochner, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.lochner@med.uni-rostock.de [Biomechanics and Implant Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, Rostock University Medical Center, Doberaner Straße 142, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Peters, Kirsten, E-mail: kirsten.peters@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Cell Biology, Rostock University Medical Center, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Cartilaginous matrix-degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis (OA) are characterized by gradual cartilage erosion, and also by increased presence of cells with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) character within the affected tissues. Moreover, primary chondrocytes long since are known to de-differentiate in vitro and to be chondrogenically re-differentiable. Since both findings appear to conflict with each other, we quantitatively assessed the mesenchymal differentiation potential of OA patient cartilage-derived cells (CDC) towards the osteogenic and adipogenic lineage in vitro and compared it to that of MSC isolated from adipose tissue (adMSC) of healthy donors. We analyzed expression of MSC markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166, and, following osteogenic and adipogenic induction in vitro, quantified their expression of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation markers. Furthermore, CDC phenotype and proliferation were monitored. We found that CDC exhibit an MSC CD marker expression pattern similar to adMSC and a similar increase in proliferation rate during osteogenic differentiation. In contrast, the marked reduction of proliferation observed during adipogenic differentiation of adMSC was absent in CDC. Quantification of differentiation markers revealed a strong osteogenic differentiation potential for CDC, however almost no capacity for adipogenic differentiation. Since in the pathogenesis of OA, cartilage degeneration coincides with high bone turnover rates, the high osteogenic differentiation potential of OA patient-derived CDC may affect clinical therapeutic regimens aiming at autologous cartilage regeneration in these patients. - Highlights: • We analyze the mesenchymal differentiation capacity of cartilage-derived cells (CDC). • CDC express mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166. • CDC and MSC proliferation is reduced in adipogenesis and increased in osteogenesis. • Adipogenic differentiation is virtually absent in CDC, but

  19. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide microspheres enhance osteogenic potential of gelatin/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate cryogel composite for alveolar ridge augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Chieh Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Sufficient bony support is essential to ensure the success of dental implant osseointegration. However, the reconstruction of vertical ridge deficiencies is still a major challenge for dental implants. This study introduced a novel treatment strategy by infusing poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA microspheres encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 within a gelatin/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (gelatin/HA/β-TCP cryogel composite to facilitate supra-alveolar ridge augmentation. Methods: The gelatin scaffold was crosslinked using cryogel technique, and HA/β-TCP particles were mechanically entrapped to form the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite. Co-axial electrohydrodynamic atomization technology was used to fabricate PLGA microspheres encapsulating BMP-2. The composites of gelatin/HA/β-TCP alone, with infusion of BMP-2 solution (BMPi or microspheres (BMPm, were fixed on rat mandibles using a titanium mini-implant for 4 weeks, and the therapeutic efficiency was evaluated by micro-computed tomography, bone fluorochrome, and histology. Results: The gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite was homogenously porous, and BMP-2 was sustained release from the microspheres without initial burst release. Ridge augmentation was noted in all specimens treated with the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite, and greater bone deposition ratio were noted in Groups BMPi and BMPm. Compared with Group BMPi, specimens in Group BMPm showed significantly greater early osteogenesis and evident osseointegration in the supra-alveolar level. Conclusion: BMP-2 loaded PLGA microspheres effectively promoted osteogenic potential of the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite and facilitated supra-alveolar ridge augmentation in vivo. Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone regeneration, dental implant, tissue engineering, tissue scaffolds

  20. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 alter connexin 43 phosphorylation in MC3T3-E1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudkin George H

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs are important regulators of bone repair and regeneration. BMP-2 and TGF-β1 have been shown to inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC in MC3T3-E1 cells. Connexin 43 (Cx43 has been shown to mediate GJIC in osteoblasts and it is the predominant gap junctional protein expressed in these murine osteoblast-like cells. We examined the expression, phosphorylation, and subcellular localization of Cx43 after treatment with BMP-2 or TGF-β1 to investigate a possible mechanism for the inhibition of GJIC. Results Northern blot analysis revealed no detectable change in the expression of Cx43 mRNA. Western blot analysis demonstrated no significant change in the expression of total Cx43 protein. However, significantly higher ratios of unphosphorylated vs. phosphorylated forms of Cx43 were detected after BMP-2 or TGF-β1 treatment. Immunofluorescence and cell protein fractionation revealed no detectable change in the localization of Cx43 between the cytosol and plasma membrane. Conclusions BMP-2 and TGF-β1 do not alter expression of Cx43 at the mRNA or protein level. BMP-2 and TGF-β1 may inhibit GJIC by decreasing the phosphorylated form of Cx43 in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  1. Oxygen-glucose deprivation preconditioning protects neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion induced injury via bone morphogenetic protein-7 mediated ERK, p38 and Smad signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junhong; Du, Shaonan; Lv, Tao; Qu, Shengtao; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 mediated neuroprotective effect of cerebral ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been studied in an ischemic animal model, but the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been clearly clarified. In this study, primary cortical neurons and the SH-SY5Y cell line were used to investigate the role of BMP-7 and its downstream signals in the neuroprotective effects of oxygen-glucose deprivation preconditioning (OGDPC). Immunocytochemistry was used to detect the expression of neurofilament in neurons. MTT and lactate dehydrogenase activity assays were used to measure the cytotoxicity. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of BMP-7 and downstream signals. BMP inhibitor, mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, Smad inhibitor and siRNA of Smad 1 were used to investigate the role of corresponding signalling pathways in the OGDPC. Results showed that OGDPC-induced overexpression of BMP-7 in primary cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. Both of endogenous and exogenous BMP-7 could replicate the neuroprotective effects seen in OGDPC pretreatment. In addition, extracellular regulated protein kinases, p38 and Smad signalling pathway were found to be involved in the neuroprotective effects mediated by OGDPC via BMP-7. This study primarily reveals the cellular mechanisms of the neuroprotection mediated by OGDPC, and provides evidence for better understanding of this intrinsic factor against ischemia. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. In Vitro Expression of the Extracellular Matrix Components Aggrecan, Collagen Types I and II by Articular Cartilage-Derived Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneevoigt, J; Fabian, C; Leovsky, C; Seeger, J; Bahramsoltani, M

    2017-02-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of hyaline cartilage is perfectly suited to transmit articular pressure load to the subchondral bone. Pressure is transferred by a high amount of aggrecan-based proteoglycans and collagen type II fibres in particular. After any injury, the hyaline cartilage is replaced by fibrocartilage, which is low in proteoglycans and contains collagen type I predominantly. Until now, long-term results of therapeutic procedures including cell-based therapies like autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) lead to a replacement tissue meeting the composition of fibrocartilage. Therefore, it is of particular interest to discover how and to what extent isolation and in vitro cultivation of chondrocytes affect the cells and their expression of ECM components. Hyaline cartilage-derived chondrocytes were cultivated in vitro and observed microscopically over a time period of 35 days. The expression of collagen type I, collagen type II and aggrecan was analysed using RT-qPCR and Western blot at several days of cultivation. Chondrocytes presented a longitudinal shape for the entire cultivation period. While expression of collagen type I prevailed within the first days, only prolonged cultivation led to an increase in collagen type II and aggrecan expression. The results indicate that chondrocyte isolation and in vitro cultivation lead to a dedifferentiation at least to the stage of chondroprogenitor cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Randomised controlled clinical trial of augmentation of the alveolar ridge using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 with hydroxyapatite and bovine-derived xenografts: comparison of changes in volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, J W; Khureltogtokh, S; Choi, H M; Lee, A R; Park, Y B; Kim, H J

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this randomised controlled clinical trial was to assess the early efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein-2 with hydroxyapatite granules (BMP-2/hydroxyapatite) on augmentation of the alveolar ridge, by comparing changes in volume with those associated with the use of an inorganic bovine-derived xenograft (BDX). We studied 20 patients who were divided into two groups using a table of random numbers, and BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were applied accordingly. Computed tomographic (CT) images and panoramic radiographs were obtained immediately after operation and four months later. CT images were reconstructed in three dimensions to measure volumetric changes, and linear measurements were made on panoramic images. The mean (SD) absorption rates for BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were 13.2 (8.8)% and 13.8 (20.5)%, respectively. While the mean value did not differ significantly between the two materials, the SD was higher in the BDX group than in the BMP-2/hydroxyapatite group. No clinically important complications occurred in either group. We conclude that both BMP-2/hydroxyapatite and BDX were effective in augmenting the alveolar ridge, but BMP-2/hydroxyapatite seemed to be more useful in complicated bone defects. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 with a Demineralized Bone Matrix versus Iliac Crest Bone Graft for Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafts in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate: Review of 501 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Jeffrey A; Fahradyan, Artur; Gould, Daniel J; Liang, Fan; Imahiyerobo, Thomas; Urbinelli, Leo; Nguyen, JoAnna T; Magee, William; Yen, Stephen; Urata, Mark M

    2017-08-01

    Alveolar cleft reconstruction using iliac crest bone graft is considered standard of care for children with complete cleft lip and palate at the time of mixed dentition. Harvesting bone may result in donor-site morbidity and additional operating time and length of hospitalization. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 with a demineralized bone matrix is an alternative bone source for alveolar cleft reconstruction. The authors investigated the outcomes of rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix versus iliac crest bone graft for alveolar cleft reconstruction by reviewing postoperative surgical complications and cleft closure. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 258 rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix procedures (mean follow-up, 2.9 years) and 243 iliac crest bone graft procedures (mean follow-up, 4.1 years) on 414 patients over a 12-year period. The authors compared complications, canine eruption, and alveolar cleft closure between the two groups. In the rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix group, one patient required prolonged intubation because of intraoperative airway swelling not thought to be caused by rhBMP-2, 36 reported facial swelling and one required outpatient steroids as treatment, and 12 had dehiscence; however, half of these complications resolved without intervention. Twenty-three of the 228 rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix patients and 28 of the 242 iliac crest bone graft patients required repeated surgery for alveolar cleft repair. Findings for canine tooth eruption into the cleft site through the graft were similar between the groups. The rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix appears to be an acceptable alternative for alveolar cleft repair. The authors found no increase in serious adverse events with the use of this material. Local complications, such as swelling and minor wound dehiscence, predominantly improved without intervention. Therapeutic, III.

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 functions as a negative regulator in the differentiation of myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formations of cartilage and bone in mouse embryonic tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Erika

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro studies using the myogenic cell line C2C12 demonstrate that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 converts the developmental pathway of C2C12 from a myogenic cell lineage to an osteoblastic cell lineage. Further, in vivo studies using null mutation mice demonstrate that BMPs inhibit the specification of the developmental fate of myogenic progenitor cells. However, the roles of BMPs in the phases of differentiation and maturation in skeletal muscles have yet to be determined. The present study attempts to define the function of BMP-2 in the final stage of differentiation of mouse tongue myoblast. Results Recombinant BMP-2 inhibited the expressions of markers for the differentiation of skeletal muscle cells, such as myogenin, muscle creatine kinase (MCK, and fast myosin heavy chain (fMyHC, whereas BMP-2 siRNA stimulated such markers. Neither the recombinant BMP-2 nor BMP-2 siRNA altered the expressions of markers for the formation of cartilage and bone, such as osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, collagen II, and collagen X. Further, no formation of cartilage and bone was observed in the recombinant BMP-2-treated tongues based on Alizarin red and Alcian blue stainings. Neither recombinant BMP-2 nor BMP-2 siRNA affected the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 1 (Id1. The ratios of chondrogenic and osteogenic markers relative to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, a house keeping gene were approximately 1000-fold lower than those of myogenic markers in the cultured tongue. Conclusions BMP-2 functions as a negative regulator for the final differentiation of tongue myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formation of cartilage and bone in cultured tongue, probably because the genes related to myogenesis are in an activation mode, while the genes related to chondrogenesis and osteogenesis are in a silencing mode.

  6. Association between two polymorphisms of the bone morpho-genetic protein-2 gene with genetic susceptibility to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine and its severity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; YANG Zhao-hui; LIU Dong-mei; WANG Ling; MENG Xiang-long; TIAN Bao-peng

    2008-01-01

    Background Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) has a strong genetic background. Previous studies have shown that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) and BMP2 mRNA are expressed in ossifying matrix and chondrocytes adjacent to cartilaginous areas of OPLL tissues and mesenchymal cells with fibroblastic features in the immediate vicinity of the cartilaginous areas. It is suggested that BMP2 plays different roles in the different stages of development of OPLL. However, it remains unknown which factors induce ligament cells to produce BMP2.Methods OPLL patients (n=192) and non-OPLL controls (n=304) were studied. Radiographs of the cervical spine were analyzed for extent of OPLL. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of exons 3(-726) TIC and 3(-583) A/G in the BMP2 gene are statistically associated with genetic susceptibility to OPLL in Chinese Han subjects.Results There was no statistical difference between the occurrence of exons 3(-726) TIC and 3(-583) A/G and the occurrence of OPLL in the cervical spine. However, there was a significant association between occurrence of exon 3(-726) TIC polymorphism and occurrence of OPLL in males of cases and controls in the cervical spine. In addition, no significant association was found between the exons 3(-726) TIC and 3(-583) A/G with number of ossified cervical vertebrae in OPLL patients.Conclusions Exon 3(-583) A/G polymorphism in BMP2 gene is not associated with the occurrence and the extent of OPLL in the cervical spine. Chinese Han male patients with TC and CC genotypes in exon 3(-726) T/C have genetic susceptibility to OPLL but not to more extensive OPLL in the cervical spine.

  7. Extension of the culture period for the in vitro growth of bovine oocytes in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein-4 increases oocyte diameter, but impairs subsequent developmental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yinghua; Kanno, Chihiro; Sakaguchi, Kenichiro; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Katagiri, Seiji; Nagano, Masashi

    2017-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) inhibits luteinization of granulosa cells during in vitro growth (IVG) culture of bovine oocytes; however, oocytes derived from a 12 day IVG were less competent for development than in vivo-grown oocytes. We herein investigated whether an extended IVG culture with BMP-4 improves oocyte growth and development to blastocysts after in vitro fertilization. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) were cultured for 14 or 16 days with BMP-4 (10 ng/mL), while a 12 day culture with BMP-4 served as the in vitro control. OGC viability was maintained for the 16 day culture with BMP-4 (83.2%), but was significantly lower without BMP-4 (58.9%) than the control (83.0%). Prolong-cultured oocytes at 16 days had statistically greater diameter (114.6 μm) than the control (111.7 μm). IVG oocytes with BMP-4 for the 16 day culture had a similar nuclear maturation rate to the control (approximately 67%); however, blastocyst rates in BMP-4 treated oocytes of 14 (1.8%) and 16 day (0%) IVG were statistically lower than that of 12 day IVG (9.0%). In conclusion, BMP-4 maintained OGC viability and promoted oocyte growth in a prolonged culture, but impaired the developmental competence of oocytes. Prolonged culture may not be an appropriate strategy for enhancing the developmental competence of IVG oocytes. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhances the osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in vitro and in vivo, and together have a stronger osteogenic effect than when IGF-1 is combined with BMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Llanos, Gustavo A; Becerra, Jose; Visser, Rick

    2017-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is widely used in orthopedic surgery and bone tissue engineering because of its strong osteogenic activity. However, BMP-2 treatments have several drawbacks and many groups are actively exploring alternatives. Since BMP-6 has been demonstrated to be more osteoinductive, its use, either alone or together with other growth factors, might be an interesting option. In this work, we have compared the effect of BMP-2, BMP-6, or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), either alone or in combination. Murine preosteoblasts were treated with 15 nM IGF-1 and/or 6 nM BMP-2 or -6 and the expression of osteogenic marker genes, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in vitro were analyzed. The results showed that IGF-1 greatly enhanced the BMP-induced osteogenic differentiation of these cells in general and that the ALP activity in the cultures was higher when the combination was made with BMP-6 than with BMP-2. Furthermore, we tested the osteogenic potential of these treatments in vivo by loading 25 pmoles of IGF-1 and/or 10 pmoles of BMP-2 or -6 onto absorbable collagen sponges and implanting them into an ectopic bone formation model in rats. This study revealed that only BMP-6 was able to induce bone formation at the used dose and that the addition of IGF-1 contributed to an increase of the mineralization in the implants. Hence, the combination of BMP-6 with IGF-1 might be a better alternative than BMP-2 for orthopedic surgery or bone tissue engineering approaches. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1867-1875, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Adenovirus-mediated siRNA targeting TNF-α and overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 promotes early osteoblast differentiation on a cell model of Ti particle-induced inflammatory response in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, H.H.; Yu, C.C.; Sun, S.X. [Affiliated Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yinchuan (China); Ma, X.J. [Ningxia Medical Autonomous Region of the First People' s Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yinchuan (China); Yang, X.C.; Sun, K.N.; Jin, Q.H. [Affiliated Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yinchuan (China)

    2013-10-02

    Wear particles are phagocytosed by macrophages and other inflammatory cells, resulting in cellular activation and release of proinflammatory factors, which cause periprosthetic osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening, the most common causes of total joint arthroplasty failure. During this pathological process, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in wear-particle-induced osteolysis. In this study, recombination adenovirus (Ad) vectors carrying both target genes [TNF-α small interfering RNA (TNF-α-siRNA) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2)] were synthesized and transfected into RAW264.7 macrophages and pro-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, respectively. The target gene BMP-2, expressed on pro-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and silenced by the TNF-α gene on cells, was treated with titanium (Ti) particles that were assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot. We showed that recombinant adenovirus (Ad-siTNFα-BMP-2) can induce osteoblast differentiation when treated with conditioned medium (CM) containing RAW264.7 macrophages challenged with a combination of Ti particles and Ad-siTNFα-BMP-2 (Ti-ad CM) assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand was downregulated in pro-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells treated with Ti-ad CM in comparison with conditioned medium of RAW264.7 macrophages challenged with Ti particles (Ti CM). We suggest that Ad-siTNFα-BMP-2 induced osteoblast differentiation and inhibited osteoclastogenesis on a cell model of a Ti particle-induced inflammatory response, which may provide a novel approach for the treatment of periprosthetic osteolysis.

  10. Comparative expression analyses of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) expressions in muscles of tilapia and common carp indicate that BMP4 plays a role in the intermuscular bone distribution in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengyan; Dong, Zaijie

    2018-01-01

    Intermuscular bones in fish negatively influence both meet processing and attractiveness to consumers. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are both major farmed fish species globally, but whereas the former does not possess intermuscular bones, the latter does. Therefore, these two species might present a good model to study the genetic control of distribution of intermuscular bones in fish. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) gene is associated with tissue ossification and bone regeneration in mammals, but in fish its role in ossification remains understudied. To study the relationship between BMP4 and bone distribution in fish, we determined the expression of BMP4 in muscle tissues of common carp and tilapia on transcriptional and translational levels. As the gene has been merely predicted in silico from the genome of common carp, we have cloned and characterized it. The gene (GenBank: HQ446455) contains one intron and two exons, which encode a 400-amino acid protein with high homology to other known BMP4 protein sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that common carp clustered within the Cypriniformes clade (zebrafish was the closest ortholog) and tilapia within the Percomorpha clade. Using microCT scanning, we confirmed that intermuscular bones could be observed only in common carp (none in tilapia), but only in dorsal and caudal muscles (none in the ventral muscle). Expression levels of BMP4 in the muscles of common carp were in agreement with this observation both on transcriptional (qPCR) and translational (immunohistochemistry) level: higher in dorsal and caudal muscles, and lower in the ventral muscle. In tilapia, expression of BMP4 gene was also detectable in all three muscles, but expression levels in all three muscles were comparable to the one observed in the ventral muscle of carp, i.e., very low. Therefore, among the six studied muscles, the expression of BMP4 was high only in the two that possess intermuscular bones

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and BMP10 enhance tumor necrosis factor-α-induced monocyte recruitment to the vascular endothelium mainly via activin receptor-like kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, Claudia-Gabriela; Appleby, Sarah L; Nash, Gerard B; Mallat, Ziad; Chilvers, Edwin R; Upton, Paul D; Morrell, Nicholas W

    2017-08-18

    Bone morphogenetic proteins 9 and 10 (BMP9/BMP10) are circulating cytokines with important roles in endothelial homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of BMP9 and BMP10 in mediating monocyte-endothelial interactions using an in vitro flow adhesion assay. Herein, we report that whereas BMP9/BMP10 alone had no effect on monocyte recruitment, at higher concentrations both cytokines synergized with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) to increase recruitment to the vascular endothelium. The BMP9/BMP10-mediated increase in monocyte recruitment in the presence of TNFα was associated with up-regulated expression levels of E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. Using siRNAs to type I and II BMP receptors and the signaling intermediaries (Smads), we demonstrated a key role for ALK2 in the BMP9/BMP10-induced surface expression of E-selectin, and both ALK1 and ALK2 in the up-regulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. The type II receptors, BMPR-II and ACTR-IIA were both required for this response, as was Smad1/5. The up-regulation of cell surface adhesion molecules by BMP9/10 in the presence of TNFα was inhibited by LDN193189, which inhibits ALK2 but not ALK1. Furthermore, LDN193189 inhibited monocyte recruitment induced by TNFα and BMP9/10. BMP9/10 increased basal IκBα protein expression, but did not alter p65/RelA levels. Our findings suggest that higher concentrations of BMP9/BMP10 synergize with TNFα to induce the up-regulation of endothelial selectins and adhesion molecules, ultimately resulting in increased monocyte recruitment to the vascular endothelium. This process is mediated mainly via the ALK2 type I receptor, BMPR-II/ACTR-IIA type II receptors, and downstream Smad1/5 signaling. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Improvement of ovarian response and oocyte quality of aged female by administration of bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seung S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advancing female age remains a difficult problem in infertility treatment. Ovarian angiogenesis plays an important role in follicular development and the activation of ovarian angiogenesis has been emerged as a new strategy for the improvement of age-related decline of oocyte quality. BMP-6 affect gonadotropin signals in granulosa cells and it promotes normal fertility by enabling appropriate response to LH and normal oocyte quality. BMP-6 has a potential role in regulation of angiogenesis and regulates the expression of inhibitor of DNA-binding proteins (Ids. Ids involved in the control and timing of follicle selection and granulosa cells differentiation. Especially, Id-1 is well-characterized target of BMP-6 signaling. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-administration of BMP-6 during superovulation process improves ovarian response, oocyte quality and expression of Id-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the ovary of aged female using a mouse model. Methods Aged C57BL/6 female mice (26–31 weeks old were superovulated by injection with 0.1 mL of 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG containing recombinant mouse BMP-6 at various doses (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ng, followed by injection with 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later. Then, the mice were immediately paired with an individual male. The aged control group was superovulated without BMP-6. Young mice of 6–9 weeks old were superovulated without BMP-6 as a positive control for superovulation and in vitro culture of embryos. Eighteen hours after hCG injection, zygotes were retrieved and cultured for 4 days. Both ovaries of each mouse were provided in the examination of ovarian expression of Id-1 and VEGF by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results Administration of 0.1 ng BMP-6 significantly increased the number and blastocyst formation rate of oocytes ovulated and ovarian

  13. Use of bone morphogenetic proteins in traumatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, R. J.; van Bezooijen, R. L.; Kloen, P.

    2005-01-01

    An estimated 5-10% of all fractures show impaired heating, leading to delayed union, or non-union. Chemical, or physical methods to accelerate bone heating are of great interest to the orthopaedic and trauma community. Research over the last 20 years has established that successful fracture heating

  14. Effect of early addition of bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) to embryo culture medium on in vitro development and expression of developmentally important genes in bovine preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Elina V; Miceli, Dora C; Rizo, Gabriela; Valdecantos, Pablo A; Barrera, Antonio D

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have reported that bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) is differentially expressed in the isthmus of bovine oviducts and it is present in the oviductal fluid. However, the specific action of this factor is unknown. To evaluate whether BMP5 exerts some effect during early bovine embryo development, gene expression of BMP5, BMP receptors, and the effect of exogenous BMP5 on in vitro development and expression of developmentally important genes were assessed. In experiment 1, pools of embryos at two-cell, four-cell, eight-cell, and blastocyst stages, derived from in vitro fertilization, were collected for analysis of BMP5 and BMP receptors (BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and BMPR2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. On the basis of previous results, in experiment 2, presumptive zygotes were cultured for the first 48 hours after insemination in CR1aa medium assaying three different treatments: (1) control (CR1aa); (2) vehicle control (CR1aa + 0.04 mM HCl), and (3) BMP5 treatment (CR1aa + 100 ng/mL of BMP5). The cleavage rate was evaluated 48 hours after insemination (Day 2), and then, embryos were transferred to CR1aa + 10% fetal bovine serum. The blastocyst rate was determined on Day 7. In experiment 3, pools of embryos at two-cell, four-cell, eight-cell, and blastocyst stages, derived from control and BMP5-treated groups, were collected for analysis of ID2 (BMP target gene), OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 (pluripotency genes) mRNA expression. BMP5 transcripts were not detectable in any of the embryonic stages examined, whereas the relative mRNA abundance of the three BMP receptors analyzed was greater in early embryo development stages before maternal-embryonic transition, raising the possibility of a direct effect of exogenous BMPs on the embryo during the first developmental period. Although early addition of 100 ng/mL of BMP5 to the embryo culture medium had no effect on the cleavage rate, a significantly higher proportion of cleaved embryos developed to the

  15. The Wnt signaling pathway is differentially expressed during the bovine herpesvirus 1 latency-reactivation cycle: evidence that two protein kinases associated with neuronal survival (Akt3 and bone morphogenetic protein....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensory neurons in trigeminal ganglia (TG) of calves latently infected with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) abundantly express latency-related (LR) gene products, including a protein (ORF2) and two micro-RNAs. Recent studies in mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro-2A) demonstrated ORF2 interacts with ß-ca...

  16. Bases teóricas y aplicación clínica de las proteínas morfogenéticas óseas en cirugía maxilofacial Base theories and the clinical application of bone morphogenetic proteins in maxillofacial surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los grandes avances en la neoformación ósea ha sido la identificación de factores de crecimiento importantes para ella como son las proteinas morfogenéticas óseas (PMO que regulan la diferenciación ósea y cartilaginosa in vivo. La depuración, clonación genética y expresión de las PMO han establecido las bases para el análisis celular y molecular del desarrollo y la regeneración ósea. El estudio genético de las PMO señala que son esenciales para la función normal animal y en la osteogénesis postfetal es importante en el desarrollo embrionario orgánico, esquelético y de los tejidos dentales y craneofaciales. La disponibilidad de las PMO proporciona retos y oportunidades para mejorar los conocimientos que regulan la regeneración ósea con el fin de optimizar los resultados en el paciente.One of the fundamental advances in bone neoformation has been the identification of important growth factors like the bone morphogenetic proteins that regulate live cartilage and bone differentiation. The cleansing, genetic cloning and expression of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP have laid the basis for cellular and molecular analysis of bone development and regeneration. The genetic study of the BMPs indicates that they are essential to the normal development and function of animals. BMP post-natal bone development is also very important in embryonic organic, skeletal, craniofacial and dental tissue development. The availability of BMPs provides several challenges and opportunities to improve insights into the mechanisms that regulate the regeneration of bone for optimal outcome in the patient.

  17. Morphogenetic Engineering Toward Programmable Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sayama, Hiroki; Michel, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Generally, spontaneous pattern formation phenomena are random and repetitive, whereas elaborate devices are the deterministic product of human design. Yet, biological organisms and collective insect constructions are exceptional examples of complex systems that are both self-organized and architectural.   This book is the first initiative of its kind toward establishing a new field of research, Morphogenetic Engineering, to explore the modeling and implementation of “self-architecturing” systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the programmability and computational abilities of self-organization, properties that are often underappreciated in complex systems science—while, conversely, the benefits of self-organization are often underappreciated in engineering methodologies.   Altogether, the aim of this work is to provide a framework for and examples of a larger class of “self-architecturing” systems, while addressing fundamental questions such as   > How do biological organisms carry out morphog...

  18. Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Efremova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley-riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss-hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (9–17 cm with high storage of organic matter (77–99 t/ha, which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.8–7.0 and high percentage of ash 11–28 %. Formation litter types were identified, which depend on the content of mineral inclusions in organogenic substrate and the degree of its drainage. The differentiation of litter subhorizons was performed, visual diagnostic indicators of fermentative layers were characterized, and additional (indexes to indicate their specificity were developed. Peat- and peaty-fermentative, humified-fermentative and (black mold humus-fermentative layers were selected. Peat- and peaty-fermentative layers are characterized by content of platy peat macroaggregates of coarse vegetable composition, the presence of abundant fungal mycelium and soil animals are the primary decomposers – myriopoda, gastropoda mollusks. Humified-fermentative layers are identified by including the newly formed amorphous humus-like substances, nutty-granular structural parts of humus nature and soil animals’ humificators – enchytraeids and earthworms. (Black mold humus-fermentative layers are diagnosed by indicators with similar humified-fermentative, but differ from them in clay-humus composition of nutty-granular blue-grey parts. The nomenclature and classification of moss litter were developed on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics of fermentative layers – peat, peaty, reduced peaty, (black mold humus-peaty, reduced (black mold humus-peaty. Using the method of discriminant analysis, we revealed that the physical-chemical properties, mainly percentage of ash and decomposition degree of plant substrate, objectively

  19. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (BMP3) Gene Variation in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR BRILLIANT

    showed Gst value as 0.013 while gene flow estimates using sequence data information revealed, Delta St ... information that will help in better understanding the relatedness in the functions of the .... differentiated enough across these species.

  20. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Antagonists and Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddi, A

    2003-01-01

    ...? The predominant site of prostate cancer is bone. However, unlike the osteolytic lesions of breast cancer, prostate cancer causes osteoblastic osteosclerosis which leads ultimately to morbidity and mortality...

  1. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Antagonists and Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddi, A. H

    2005-01-01

    .... Unfortunately over 40,000 patients succumbed to this horrendous cancer. Death is preceded by a characteristic triad of diffuse osteoblastic-osteosclerotic skeletal metastases, bone pain and pathologic fractures...

  2. A Dual Role of Upper Zone of Growth Plate and Cartilage Matrix-Associated Protein in Human and Mouse Osteoarthritic Cartilage: Inhibition of Aggrecanases and Promotion of Bone Turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, M.; Menges, S.; Eitzinger, N.; Gesslein, M.; Botschner, R.; Wormser, L.; Distler, A.; Schlotzer-Schrehardt, U.; Dietel, K.; Distler, J.; Beyer, C.; Gelse, K.; Engelke, K.; Koenders, M.I.; Berg, W.B. van den; Mark, K. von der; Schett, G.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage damage and subchondral bone changes are closely connected in osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, how these processes are interlinked is, to date, incompletely understood. This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanistic role of a cartilage-derived protein, upper zone of growth

  3. Experimental study of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 modified tissue engineered bone in reconstruction of orbital fracture%重组人骨形态发生蛋白2修饰的组织工程化骨修复眼眶骨折的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田妮; 郑永欣; 王静; 李玲; 王明睿; 王安民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the efficiency of tissue engineered bone modified by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) in reconstruction of orbital fracture.Methods Tissue engineered bone was established in vitro by using antologous bone marrow stromal cells as daughter cells,degradable absorbable biomaterial PLGA as vector and rhBMP-2 as growth factor.The laboratory animals were divided into control group (implanted with PLGA/rhBMP-2) and experimental group (implanted with tissue engineered bone).Wound healing,complications,orbit appearance,CT imaging and histological changes were observed at one,three and six months later after the surgery.Results All the animals were with well healed wounds.Neither complications nor enophthalmus was observed.The 3-D CT scan showed that orbital floor defect scope was smaller [ (25.1±6.8)mm2 vs (55.3±7.7)mm2] and CT values was higher in experiment group at 3 months later than in controls.Six months later after operation,the bone defect disappeared in experimental group but still existed in the controls.Marginal absorption of implanted bone with a small number of osteoblasts penetrating along the stent into the biomaterial was noted in the experimental group as early as one month later after operation,but not in the controls.At 3 months later,the experimental group showed strips of newly formed bone growing into or encapsulating the biomaterial,intersecting with each other and grew,with greater level of biomaterial degradation as compared with controls.At 6 months later,the implanted materials in experimental group were totally absorbed,replaced by newly formed osseous tissues,or fused perfectly with.inherent bone tissue.In contrast,the implants in controls showed only partial degradation and absorbance.Conclusions The tissue engineered bone modified by human bone morphogenetic protein 2 may well conduct and induce the activity of bone formation.Good biocompatibility and total degradability indicate that the implant is

  4. Proteínas morfogenéticas ósseas associadas a osso esponjoso autógeno na reparação de falhas experimentais na calota craniana de coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus Bone morphogenetic proteins associated with autogenous bone graft in the reparation of calvarial experimental defects of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Monteiro

    2007-12-01

    ão determinou maior preenchimento ósseo.Aspects of bone repair were evaluated after implantation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP in different concentrations. They were carried by autogenous bone graft in defects created on skulls of 20 adult, young female rabbits, randomizedly divided into five experimental groups and were observed at five times. After exposure of skull bones, six bone defects on the fronto-parietal region of each animal were performed. The defect I was not filled, the II was completed filled with 3mg of autogenous bone graft and the defects III, IV, V, and VI were filled with autogenous bone graft associated with 0.5; 1; 2 and 5mg of BMP, respectively. In the post-mortem mesoscopic evaluations, it was observed that, independently of the treatment period of the defects, the bony filling began from the borders to the center, and from the botton to the surface of the lessions. The bony filling of the defect I was the smallest when compared with the others defects, in all the observation moments. It was also verified that until 2mg the higher the concentration of BMP used, better was the bone cover. Microscopically, it was verified in the first evaluations, on the seventh day, that the bony growth started from the borders and from the bottom of the lesion, with mobilization and differentiation of cells deriving from the periosteum and the meninges, respectively. In the subsequent evaluations, the osteoblastic activity also derived from "ossification islands" to ossification centers, located in the center of the flaw. The trabecular formation increased proportionally with the concentration of BMP used, and the apposition and bony organization increased proportionally with the time of observation. The presence of cartilaginous tissue was verified in all the flaws. In conclusion, the use the higher concentration of BMP did not determinate the better new bone formation. The association of BMP with autogenous bone graft contributed to the formation of new bony

  5. A Morphogenetic Design Approach with Embedded Structural Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Holst, Malene Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    The present paper explores a morphogenetic design approach with embedded structural analysis for architectural design. A material system based on a combined space truss and membrane system has been derived as a growth system with inspiration from natural growth of plants. The structural system...... is capable of adding new elements based on a structural analysis of the existing components and their internal stress levels. A GA decision-making procedure that control the generation of the growth cycles is introduced. This evaluation and generation loop is capable of successfully making decisions based...... on several, and often conflicting, inputs formulated from architectural requirements. An experiment with a tri-pyramid component has been considered, but many other space truss systems could be explored in the same manner and result in highly performative outcomes. not only with respect to the structural...

  6. Biomimetic design processes in architecture: morphogenetic and evolutionary computational design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Design computation has profound impact on architectural design methods. This paper explains how computational design enables the development of biomimetic design processes specific to architecture, and how they need to be significantly different from established biomimetic processes in engineering disciplines. The paper first explains the fundamental difference between computer-aided and computational design in architecture, as the understanding of this distinction is of critical importance for the research presented. Thereafter, the conceptual relation and possible transfer of principles from natural morphogenesis to design computation are introduced and the related developments of generative, feature-based, constraint-based, process-based and feedback-based computational design methods are presented. This morphogenetic design research is then related to exploratory evolutionary computation, followed by the presentation of two case studies focusing on the exemplary development of spatial envelope morphologies and urban block morphologies. (paper)

  7. The rebirth of the morphogenetic field as an explanatory tool in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I discuss two uses of the concept of the morphogenetic field, a tool of the 19th century biology motivated by particular ontological views of the time, which has been re-emerging and increasingly relevant in explaining microbiological phenomena. I also consider the relation of these uses to the Central Dogma of modern biology as well as Modern Synthesis of Darwinism and genetics. An induced morphogenetic field is determined by a physical (e.g., gravitational field, or it acquires a physical (e.g., visco-elastic field’s characteristics. Such a morphogenetic field presents only a weak challenge to the Central Dogma of Modern Synthesis by indirectly, albeit severely, constraining variability at the molecular level. I discuss explanations that introduce structural inheritance in ciliate protozoa, as well as the experimental evidence on which these arguments are based. The global cellular morphogenetic field is a unit of such inheritance. I discuss relevant cases of structural inheritance in ciliates that bring about internal cellular as well as functional changes and point out that DNA is absent in the cortex and that RNA controls neither intermediary nor the global level of the field. I go on to argue that utilizing knowledge of known physical fields may advance explanations and understanding of the morphogenetic field in ciliates as the unit of both development and inheritance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dynamic Systems in nature and society: Philosophical and empirical aspects

  8. Pool of bovine morphogenetic proteins and guided tissue regeneration in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects: I- Clinical measurements ''Pool'' de proteínas morfogenéticas bovinas no tratamento de defeitos periodontais intra-ósseos: I- Medidas clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Machado Guimarães

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the pool of bovine BMPs on the treatment of intrabony defects. The sample comprised 15 patients aged 26 to 57 years old presenting with 10 pairs of lesions of 2 or 3 walls or 2-3 walls ³5mm, located in the same type teeth (premolar or molar and same jaw. The test defects were treated with combination of a pool of bovine bone morphogenetic and resorbable hydroxyapatite carrier (BMPs- HA, bovine demineralized bone matrix (MB and coverage by a bovine collagen barrier membrane. The control defects were treated with MB-HA and covered by a bovine collagen membrane. The clinical measurements at six months after therapy in the test group revealed a reduction in the mean probing pocket depth (PPD of 1.63 ± 1.41mm (B and 1.93 ± 0.96mm (L and a mean change in the clinical attachment level (CAL of 1.60 ± 1.16mm (B and 1.46 ± 0.97mm (L. The control group showed a mean reduction of PPD of 1.93 ± 1.34mm (B and 2.0 ± 1.51mm (L and a mean change of CAL of 1.03 ± 1.24mm (B and 1.30 ± 1.14 mm (L. The analysis of variance (ANOVA demonstrated that the changes in the clinical parameters were statistically significant (pEste estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a aplicação do ''pool'' de BMPs bovinas no tratamento de defeitos intra-ósseos. A amostra constou de quinze indivíduos com idade entre 26 e 57 anos, apresentando um par de defeitos intra-ósseos comparáveis, localizados no mesmo arco em dentes do mesmo tipo (pré-molares ou molares e com perda de inserção (PI ³5mm. Em cada indivíduo, o defeito teste foi tratado com a associação ''pool'' de BMPs- carreador Hidroxiapatita reabsorvível (BMPs-HA, matriz orgânica bovina desmineralizada liofilizada (MO e barreira de colágeno bovino, enquanto os defeitos controle foram tratados com MO-HA e barreira de colágeno. Na avaliação clínica aos seis meses após a medida inicial, o grupo teste apresentou variação de profundidade de sondagem (PS de

  9. Potential role of centrioles in determining the morphogenetic status of animal somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkemaladze, J; Chichinadze, K

    2005-05-01

    Irreversible differentiation (change of morphogenetic status) and programmed death (apoptosis) are observed only in somatic cells. Cell division is the only way by which the morphogenetic status of the offspring cells may be modified. It is known that there is a fixed limit to the number of possible cell divisions, the so-called 'Hayflick limit'. Existing links between cell division, differentiation and apoptosis make it possible to conclude that all these processes could be controlled by a single self-reproducing structure. Potential candidates for this replicable structure in a somatic cell are chromosomes, mitochondria (both contain DNA), and centrioles. Centrioles (diplosome) are the most likely unit that can fully regulate the processes of irreversible differentiation, determination and modification of the morphogenetic status. It may contain differently encoded RNA molecules stacked in a definite order. During mitosis, these RNA molecules are released one by one into the cytoplasm. In the presence of reverse transcriptase and endonuclease, RNA can be embedded in nuclear DNA. This process presumably changes the status of repressed and potentially active genes and, subsequently, the morphogenetic status of a cell.

  10. Case Study: Organotypic human in vitro models of embryonic morphogenetic fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphogenetic fusion of tissues is a common event in embryonic development and disruption of fusion is associated with birth defects of the eye, heart, neural tube, phallus, palate, and other organ systems. Embryonic tissue fusion requires precise regulation of cell-cell and cell...

  11. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; VanHauten, B.A.M.; Hekking, J.W.M.; Kohler, E.S.; Straaten, van H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  12. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; Vanhauten, B.A.M.; Hekking, J.W.M.; Köhler, E.S.; Straaten, H.W.M. van

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  13. Morphogenetic and neuronal characterization of human neuroblastoma multicellular spheroids cultured under undifferentiated and all-trans-retinoic acid-differentiated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwon-Soo Jung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to compare the morphogenetic andneuronal characteristics between monolayer cells andspheroids. For this purpose, we established spheroid formationby growing SH-SY5Y cells on the hydrophobic surfaces ofthermally-collapsed elastin-like polypeptide. After 4 days ofculture, the relative proliferation of the cells within spheroidswas approximately 92% of the values for monolayer cultures.As measured by quantitative assays for mRNA and proteinexpressions, the production of synaptophysin and neuronspecificenolase (NSE as well as the contents of cell adhesionmolecules (CAMs and extracellular matrix (ECM proteins aremuch higher in spheroids than in monolayer cells. Under theall-trans-retinoic acid (RA-induced differentiation condition,spheroids extended neurites and further up-regulated theexpression of synaptophysin, NSE, CAMs, and ECM proteins.Our data indicate that RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y neurospheroidsare functionally matured neuronal architectures. [BMBReports 2013; 46(5: 276-281

  14. Characterization of a morphogenetic furrow specific Gal4 driver in the developing Drosophila eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Sarkar

    Full Text Available The ability to express a gene of interest in a spatio-temporal manner using Gal4-UAS system has allowed the use of Drosophila model to study various biological phenomenon. During Drosophila eye development, a synchronous wave of differentiation called Morphogenetic furrow (MF initiates at the posterior margin resulting in differentiation of retinal neurons. This synchronous differentiation is also observed in the differentiating retina of vertebrates. Since MF is highly dynamic, it can serve as an excellent model to study patterning and differentiation. However, there are not any Gal4 drivers available to observe the gain- of- function or loss- of- function of a gene specifically along the dynamic MF. The decapentaplegic (dpp gene encodes a secreted protein of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta superfamily that expresses at the posterior margin and then moves with the MF. However, unlike the MF associated pattern of dpp gene expression, the targeted dpp-Gal4 driver expression is restricted to the posterior margin of the developing eye disc. We screened GMR lines harboring regulatory regions of dpp fused with Gal4 coding region to identify MF specific enhancer of dpp using a GFP reporter gene. We employed immuno-histochemical approaches to detect gene expression. The rationale was that GFP reporter expression will correspond to the dpp expression domain in the developing eye. We identified two new dpp-Gal4 lines, viz., GMR17E04-Gal4 and GMR18D08-Gal4 that carry sequences from first intron region of dpp gene. GMR17E04-Gal4 drives expression along the MF during development and later in the entire pupal retina whereas GMR18D08-Gal4 drives expression of GFP transgene in the entire developing eye disc, which later drives expression only in the ventral half of the pupal retina. Thus, GMR18D08-Gal4 will serve as a new reagent for targeting gene expression in the ventral half of the pupal retina. We compared misexpression phenotypes of Wg, a

  15. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; VanHauten, B.A.M.; Hekking, J.W.M.; Kohler, E.S.; Straaten, van, H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed. The earliest was directed medially; these cells invaginated into a median groove and were the main contributors to the initial neural tube closure. Once the median groove was completed, cells chang...

  16. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Eiji; Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. ► Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. ► Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. ► Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent pathway.

  17. Bone morphogenetic proteins in inflammation, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgurevic, Lovorka; Christensen, Gitte Lund; Schulz, Tim J

    2016-01-01

    implicated in pancreas development as well as control of adult glucose homeostasis. Lastly, we review the recently recognized role of BMPs in brown adipose tissue formation and their consequences for energy expenditure and adiposity. In summary, BMPs play a pivotal role in metabolism beyond their role...... homeostasis (anaemia, hemochromatosis) and oxidative damage. The second and third parts of this review focus on BMPs in the development of metabolic pathologies such as type-2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. The pancreatic beta cells are the sole source of the hormone insulin and BMPs have recently been...

  18. An evaluation of the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was progressive filling of osseous defects in group 1, which was total at the 16th week post-surgical (PS); group 2 dogs had radiographic non-union at the 16th PS week. It was concluded that BMP implanted with a hydroxyapatite carrier significantly enhanced the rate of cortical restoration of massive bone defects in ...

  19. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and myostatin pathways: key mediator of human sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Manuel; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Mastrangeli, Francesca; Rao, Cecilia; Feola, Maurizio; Orlandi, Augusto; Gasbarra, Elena; Bonanno, Elena; Tarantino, Umberto

    2017-02-15

    Sarcopenia, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders affecting older people. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the balance between BMPs and myostatin pathways regulates the age-related muscle degeneration in OP and OA patients. To this end, we investigated the relationship among the expression of BMP-2/4-7, myostatin and phosphorylated Smads1-5-8 and the muscle quality, evaluated in term of fibers atrophy and satellite cells activity. In this retrospective study, we collected 123 biopsies of vastus lateralis: 48 biopsies from patients who underwent hip arthroplasty for subcapital fractures of the femur (OP), 55 biopsies from patients who underwent hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis (OA) and 20 biopsies from patients who underwent hip arthroplasty for high-energy hip fractures (CTRL). Muscle biopsies were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and paraffin embedded. Serial sections were used for morphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis (BMP/2/4-7, myostatin, Smads1-5-8, Pax7 and myogenin). In addition, 1 mm 3 of muscle tissue of each patient was embedded in epon for ultrastructural study. Morphometric data indicated an increase of the number of atrophic fibers in OP patients compare to OA. In line with these data, we found an high regenerative potential in muscle tissues of OA patients due to the significant amount of both Pax7 and myogenin positive satellite cells detected in OA group. In addition, our data showed the decrease of BMP2/4 and -7 expression in OP patients compared to both OA group and CTRL. Conversely, OP patients were characterized by high levels of myostatin expression. A different expression profile was also found for phosphorylated Smad1-5-8 between OP and OA patients. In particular, OP patients showed a low number of positive phosphorylated Smad1-5-8 nuclei. The identification of molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia open new prospective for the development of drugs able to prevent/treat the muscle impairment that occur in elderly. Results here reported, highlighting the role of BMPs and myostatin pathways in physio-pathogenesis of human sarcopenia, allow us to propose human recombinant BMP-2/7 and anti-myostatin antibodies as a possible therapeutic option for the sarcopenia.

  20. S-Layer Architectures: Extending the Morphogenetic Potential of S-Layer Protein Self Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    acid   (0  min  Si   in  Table  1)  yielded  a  release  of  21%  and   58%.  Since...negatively   stained   preparations   of   DPPC-­‐Cholesterol-­‐ HDA +SbpA+SF6+glutaraldehyde   cross-­‐ linked  micro  bubbles.     It...only  few  and  mainly  hydrophobic  amino   acids ,  located  on  the  surface  of  the  monomer,  are  

  1. Improving Bone Formation in a Rat Femur Segmental Defect by Controlling Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    of rhBMP-2 in patients.8 Both the physical properties and pharmacokinetics of the FR +BMP scaffold are believed to contribute to its superior...scaffolds investigated in this study exhibit these key physical properties.28 Further, the observation of re- generated bone grown in direct contact with...Amit, Y., Arbel, R., Aro, H., Atar , D., Bishay, M., Borner, M.G., Chiron, P., Choong, P., Cinats, J., Courtenay, B., Fei- bel, R., Geulette, B., Gravel

  2. In anemia of multiple myeloma hepcidin is induced by increased bone-morphogenetic protein-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepcidin is the principal iron-regulatory hormone and pathogenic factor in anemia of inflammation. Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) frequently present with anemia. We showed that MM patients had increased serum hepcidin, which inversely correlated with hemoglobin, suggesting that hepcidin contrib...

  3. Latexin is involved in bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced chondrocyte differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadouchi, Ichiro; Sakamoto, Kei; Tangjiao, Liu; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Hoshino, Yuichi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Latexin is the only known carboxypeptidase A inhibitor in mammals. We previously demonstrated that BMP-2 significantly induced latexin expression in Runx2-deficient mesenchymal cells (RD-C6 cells), during chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated latexin expression in the skeleton and its role in chondrocyte differentiation. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that proliferating and prehypertrophic chondrocytes expressed latexin during skeletogenesis and bone fracture repair. In the early phase of bone fracture, latexin mRNA expression was dramatically upregulated. BMP-2 upregulated the expression of the mRNAs of latexin, Col2a1, and the gene encoding aggrecan (Agc1) in a micromass culture of C3H10T1/2 cells. Overexpression of latexin additively stimulated the BMP-2-induced expression of the mRNAs of Col2a, Agc1, and Col10a1. BMP-2 treatment upregulated Sox9 expression, and Sox9 stimulated the promoter activity of latexin. These results indicate that latexin is involved in BMP-2-induced chondrocyte differentiation and plays an important role in skeletogenesis and skeletal regeneration.

  4. Productive and morphogenetic responses of buffel grass at different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Roberta Machado; Voltolini, Tadeu Vinhas; Angelotti, Francislene; Aidar, Saulo de Tarso; Chaves, Agnaldo Rodrigues de Melo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the productive and morphogenetic characteristics of buffel grass subjected to different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations. Three cultivars of buffel grass (Biloela, Aridus and West Australian) were compared. Cultivars were grown in growth chambers at three temperatures (day/night): 26/20, 29/23, and 32/26 °C, combined with two concentrations of CO2: 370 and 550 µmol mol-1. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 × 3 × ...

  5. The Emergence of Cambodian Civil Society within Global Educational Governance: A Morphogenetic Approach to Agency and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Brehm, William C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses Margaret Archer's morphogenetic approach to analyze the emergence of civil society within global educational governance. The purpose is to understand the intersection of historical structures with global actors and spaces that have accompanied the globalization of education. Based on findings from a study on the impact in Cambodia…

  6. Morphogenetic Alterations in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Associated with Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Silva, Arlete; Nunes, Lorena Andrade; Dos Santos, Jádilla Mendes; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Waldschmidt, Ana Maria

    2018-05-01

    Bees are major pollinators of both native flora and cultured crops. Nonetheless, despite their key functional role in ecosystems and agriculture, bee populations have been affected worldwide by deforestation and contamination by insecticides. Conversely, little is known about the effects of pesticides on morphogenetic development of neotropical stingless bees. We compared the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in newly emerged bees and foragers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides exposed to pesticides (experimental greenhouse and cultivated field). In addition, visitation behavior of foragers was inferred from pollen analyses and direct observation. A significant increase of FA (P < 0.001) was detected in bees from the greenhouse. Even though pesticides might affect their development, foragers seem to avoid contaminated plants whenever possible, as confirmed by pollen and visitation analyses. Consequently, the conservation of natural forests in agricultural landscapes is essential to ensure the health of colonies in stingless bees.

  7. Correlation between the morphogenetic types of litter and their properties in bog birch forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremova, T. T.; Efremov, S. P.; Avrova, A. F.

    2010-08-01

    A formalized arrangement of morphogenetic types of litter according to the physicochemical parameters provided their significant grouping in three genetic associations. The litter group (highly decomposed + moderately decomposed) is confined to the tall-grass group of bog birch forests. The rhizomatous (roughly decomposed) litter is formed in the sedge-reed grass bog birch forests. The litter group (peaty + peatified + peat) is associated with the bog-herbaceous-moss group of forest types. The genetic associations of the litters (a) reliably characterize the edaphic conditions of bog birch forests and (b)correspond to formation of the peat of certain ecological groups. We found highly informative the acid-base parameters, the exchangeable cations (Ca2+ + Mg2+) and the total potential acidity, which differentiated the genetic associations of litter practically with 100% probability. The expediency of studying litters under groups of forest types rather than under separate types of bog birch forests was demonstrated.

  8. Tissue organization by cadherin adhesion molecules: dynamic molecular and cellular mechanisms of morphogenetic regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Carien M.; Leckband, Deborah; Yap, Alpha S.

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cadherin-based tissue morphogenesis. Tissue physiology is profoundly influenced by the distinctive organizations of cells in organs and tissues. In metazoa, adhesion receptors of the classical cadherin family play important roles in establishing and maintaining such tissue organization. Indeed, it is apparent that cadherins participate in a range of morphogenetic events that range from support of tissue integrity to dynamic cellular rearrangements. A comprehensive understanding of cadherin-based morphogenesis must then define the molecular and cellular mechanisms that support these distinct cadherin biologies. Here we focus on four key mechanistic elements: the molecular basis for adhesion through cadherin ectodomains; the regulation of cadherin expression at the cell surface; cooperation between cadherins and the actin cytoskeleton; and regulation by cell signaling. We discuss current progress and outline issues for further research in these fields. PMID:21527735

  9. Productive and morphogenetic responses of buffel grass at different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Machado Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the productive and morphogenetic characteristics of buffel grass subjected to different air temperatures and CO2 concentrations. Three cultivars of buffel grass (Biloela, Aridus and West Australian were compared. Cultivars were grown in growth chambers at three temperatures (day/night: 26/20, 29/23, and 32/26 °C, combined with two concentrations of CO2: 370 and 550 µmol mol-1. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three replications. There were interactions between buffel grass cultivars and air temperatures on leaf elongation rate (LER, leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaf lifespan (LL and senescence rate (SR, whereas cultivars vs. carbon dioxide concentration affected forage mass (FM, root mass (RM, shoot/root ratio, LL and SR. Leaf elongation rate and SR were higher as the air temperature was raised. Increasing air temperature also promoted an increase in LAR, except for West Australian. High CO2 concentration provided greater SR of plants, except for Biloela. Cultivar West Australian had higher FM in relation to Biloela and Aridus when the CO2 concentration was increased to 550 µmol mol-1. West Australian was the only cultivar that responded with more forage mass when it was exposed to higher carbon dioxide concentrations, whereas Aridus had depression in forage mass. The increase in air temperatures affects morphogenetic responses of buffel grass, accelerating its vegetative development without increasing forage mass. Elevated carbon dioxide concentration changes productive responses of buffel grass.

  10. The Marine Sponge-Derived Inorganic Polymers, Biosilica and Polyphosphate, as Morphogenetically Active Matrices/Scaffolds for the Differentiation of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells: Potential Application in 3D Printing and Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The two marine inorganic polymers, biosilica (BS, enzymatically synthesized from ortho-silicate, and polyphosphate (polyP, a likewise enzymatically synthesized polymer consisting of 10 to >100 phosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, have previously been shown to display a morphogenetic effect on osteoblasts. In the present study, the effect of these polymers on the differential differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC, mesenchymal stem cells, that had been encapsulated into beads of the biocompatible plant polymer alginate, was studied. The differentiation of the hMSCs in the alginate beads was directed either to the osteogenic cell lineage by exposure to an osteogenic medium (mineralization activation cocktail; differentiation into osteoblasts or to the chondrogenic cell lineage by incubating in chondrocyte differentiation medium (triggering chondrocyte maturation. Both biosilica and polyP, applied as Ca2+ salts, were found to induce an increased mineralization in osteogenic cells; these inorganic polymers display also morphogenetic potential. The effects were substantiated by gene expression studies, which revealed that biosilica and polyP strongly and significantly increase the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in osteogenic cells, which was significantly more pronounced in osteogenic versus chondrogenic cells. A differential effect of the two polymers was seen on the expression of the two collagen types, I and II. While collagen Type I is highly expressed in osteogenic cells, but not in chondrogenic cells after exposure to biosilica or polyP, the upregulation of the steady-state level of collagen Type II transcripts in chondrogenic cells is comparably stronger than in osteogenic cells. It is concluded that the two polymers, biosilica and polyP, are morphogenetically active additives for the otherwise biologically inert alginate polymer. It is proposed that

  11. The marine sponge-derived inorganic polymers, biosilica and polyphosphate, as morphogenetically active matrices/scaffolds for the differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells: potential application in 3D printing and distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Grebenjuk, Vladislav; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Mailänder, Volker; Steffen, Renate; Schloßmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-02-21

    The two marine inorganic polymers, biosilica (BS), enzymatically synthesized from ortho-silicate, and polyphosphate (polyP), a likewise enzymatically synthesized polymer consisting of 10 to >100 phosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, have previously been shown to display a morphogenetic effect on osteoblasts. In the present study, the effect of these polymers on the differential differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC), mesenchymal stem cells, that had been encapsulated into beads of the biocompatible plant polymer alginate, was studied. The differentiation of the hMSCs in the alginate beads was directed either to the osteogenic cell lineage by exposure to an osteogenic medium (mineralization activation cocktail; differentiation into osteoblasts) or to the chondrogenic cell lineage by incubating in chondrocyte differentiation medium (triggering chondrocyte maturation). Both biosilica and polyP, applied as Ca²⁺ salts, were found to induce an increased mineralization in osteogenic cells; these inorganic polymers display also morphogenetic potential. The effects were substantiated by gene expression studies, which revealed that biosilica and polyP strongly and significantly increase the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in osteogenic cells, which was significantly more pronounced in osteogenic versus chondrogenic cells. A differential effect of the two polymers was seen on the expression of the two collagen types, I and II. While collagen Type I is highly expressed in osteogenic cells, but not in chondrogenic cells after exposure to biosilica or polyP, the upregulation of the steady-state level of collagen Type II transcripts in chondrogenic cells is comparably stronger than in osteogenic cells. It is concluded that the two polymers, biosilica and polyP, are morphogenetically active additives for the otherwise biologically inert alginate polymer. It is proposed that alginate

  12. The EGF receptor and notch signaling pathways control the initiation of the morphogenetic furrow during Drosophila eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J P; Moses, K

    2001-07-01

    The onset of pattern formation in the developing Drosophila retina begins with the initiation of the morphogenetic furrow, the leading edge of a wave of retinal development that transforms a uniform epithelium, the eye imaginal disc into a near crystalline array of ommatidial elements. The initiation of this wave of morphogenesis is under the control of the secreted morphogens Hedgehog (Hh), Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Wingless (Wg). We show that the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Notch signaling cascades are crucial components that are also required to initiate retinal development. We also show that the initiation of the morphogenetic furrow is the sum of two genetically separable processes: (1) the 'birth' of pattern formation at the posterior margin of the eye imaginal disc; and (2) the subsequent 'reincarnation' of retinal development across the epithelium.

  13. Induction of MAP Kinase Homologues during Growth and Morphogenetic Development of Karnal Bunt (Tilletia indica) under the Influence of Host Factor(s) from Wheat Spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atul K.; Seneviratne, J. M.; Joshi, G. K.; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Signaling pathways that activate different mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to certain environmental conditions, play important role in mating type switching (Fus3) and pathogenicity (Pmk1) in many fungi. In order to determine the roles of such regulatory genes in Tilletia indica, the causal pathogen of Karnal bunt (KB) of wheat, semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to isolate and determine the expression of MAP kinase homologues during fungal growth and development under in vitro culture. Maximum expression of TiFus3 and TiPmk1 genes were observed at 14th and 21st days of culture and decreased thereafter. To investigate whether the fungus alters the expression levels of same kinases upon interaction with plants, cultures were treated with 1% of host factors (extracted from S-2 stage of wheat spikes). Such treatment induced the expression of MAPks in time dependent manner compared to the absence of host factors. These results suggest that host factor(s) provide certain signal(s) which activate TiFus3 and TiPmk1 during morphogenetic development of T. indica. The results also provides a clue about the role of host factors in enhancing the disease potential due to induction of MAP kinases involved in fungal development and pathogenecity. PMID:22547988

  14. Morphogenetic, structural and productive traits of buffel grass under different irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Janiele Ferreira Coutinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The water restriction conditions in the Brazilian semiarid region are one of the most limiting factors to the establishment and yield of forage grasses. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different irrigation regimes on morphogenetic, structural and productive traits of buffel grass. Arandomized blocks design, with five treatments and six replications, was used. Treatments consisted of five irrigation regimes, corresponding to the intervals of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. The traits analyzed were: leaf emergence rate, phyllochron, leaf and stem elongation rate, leaf senescence rate, final leaf length, number of green leaves per tiller, number of tillers, stem height, leaf/stem ratio, leaf area index, dry mass of green leaf and stem, dry mass of green, dead and total forage, root dry mass, dry mass and green dry mass/dead dry mass ratio. The final leaf length and dead forage dry mass were not affected by the irrigation regimes. The leaf/stem ratio followed a quadratic model, maintaining the value of 0.51 up to the irrigation regime of four days. The other morphological, structural and productive traits decreased linearly with increasing irrigation frequencies. The irrigation intervals promoted reductions in the morphological, structural and productive parameters of buffel grass, when grown under greenhouse conditions. The irrigation regime of 2 days stands out as the least restrictive to the development of buffel grass.

  15. Morphogenetic mechanisms of coelom formation in the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Margaret S; Collins, Steve; Raff, Rudolf A

    2009-01-01

    Indirect development via a feeding pluteus larva represents the ancestral mode of sea urchin development. However, some sea urchin species exhibit a derived form of development, called direct development, in which features of the feeding larva are replaced by accelerated development of the adult. A major difference between these two developmental modes is the timing of the formation of the left coelom and initiation of adult development. These processes occur much earlier in developmental and absolute time in direct developers and may be underlain by changes in morphogenetic processes. In this study, we explore whether differences in the cellular mechanisms responsible for the development of the left coelom and adult structures are associated with the change in the timing of their formation in the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. We present evidence that left coelom formation in H. erythrogramma, which differs in major aspects of coelom formation in indirect developers, is not a result of cell division. Further, we demonstrate that subsequent development of adult structures requires cell division.

  16. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass tillers at different ages under intermittent stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amorim Barbosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess morphogenetic and structural characteristics of tillers of guinea grass cv. Tanzania at different ages. The pastures of guinea grass were managed in six pasture conditions related to the combination of three frequencies (90, 95, and 99% light interception and two post-grazing heights (25 and 50 cm. In these six pastures conditions, three tiller ages were evaluated (young, mature, and old. The design was of completely randomized block with three replications. Young tillers exhibited higher leaf appearance rate and leaf elongation rate and, consequently, higher final leaf length and number of live leaves than mature and old tillers, regardless of the pasture condition. On pastures managed with 90 or 95% light interception associated with a post-grazing height of 25 cm, old tillers presented longer leaf lifespan than young and mature ones. There is a progressive reduction in the vigor of growth of pastures of guinea grass cv. Tanzania with advancing tiller age.

  17. Thumbs down: a molecular-morphogenetic approach to avian digit homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Daniel; Metscher, Brian D; Müller, Gerd B

    2014-01-01

    Avian forelimb digit homology remains one of the standard themes in comparative biology and EvoDevo research. In order to resolve the apparent contradictions between embryological and paleontological evidence a variety of hypotheses have been presented in recent years. The proposals range from excluding birds from the dinosaur clade, to assignments of homology by different criteria, or even assuming a hexadactyl tetrapod limb ground state. At present two approaches prevail: the frame shift hypothesis and the pyramid reduction hypothesis. While the former postulates a homeotic shift of digit identities, the latter argues for a gradual bilateral reduction of phalanges and digits. Here we present a new model that integrates elements from both hypotheses with the existing experimental and fossil evidence. We start from the main feature common to both earlier concepts, the initiating ontogenetic event: reduction and loss of the anterior-most digit. It is proposed that a concerted mechanism of molecular regulation and developmental mechanics is capable of shifting the boundaries of hoxD expression in embryonic forelimb buds as well as changing the digit phenotypes. Based on a distinction between positional (topological) and compositional (phenotypic) homology criteria, we argue that the identity of the avian digits is II, III, IV, despite a partially altered phenotype. Finally, we introduce an alternative digit reduction scheme that reconciles the current fossil evidence with the presented molecular-morphogenetic model. Our approach identifies specific experiments that allow to test whether gene expression can be shifted and digit phenotypes can be altered by induced digit loss or digit gain. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Morphogenetic events in the perinodal connective tissue in a metastatic cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, G; Minicozzi, A; Merigo, F; Marzola, P; Osculati, F; Cordiano, C; Sbarbati, A

    2013-02-01

    The modifications of connective tissue surrounding metastatic lymph nodes in a murine model of rectal cancer are described. Athymic nude mice (n=36) were inoculated with 10×10(5) ht-29 cancer cells into the submucosal layer of the rectum. Control mice (n=5) were treated with a sterile buffer. Tumor and the involved lymph nodes were visualized in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging at 1 to 4 weeks after cell injection. After the sacrifice, the excised samples were processed for histology. After one week from cell injection all treated animals developed rectal cancer. Since the first week, neoplastic cells were visible in the nodes. In the surrounding connective tissue, the diameter of the adipocytes was reduced and a mesenchymal-like pattern with stellate cells embedded in an oedematous environment was visible. Since the second week, in the perinodal connective an enlargement of the stroma was present. The tissue was organized in cords and areas with extracellular accumulation of lipids were found. At the fourth week, we observed an enlargement of multilocular areas and lobules of elongated elements almost devoid of lipid droplets. In control animals, in absence of neoplastic masses, pelvic nodes were surrounded by a typical connective tissue characterized by unilocular adipocytes with groups of multilocular adipocytes. We have developed a model of rectal cancer with nodal metastases. Using this model, the work demonstrates that around secondary lesions, the morphogenetic events follow a standard evolution characterized by an early phase with lipolysis and mesenchymalization and later phases with a brown-like phenotype acquisition. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Landforms and morphogenetic processes in the locality of Geodetic Observatory Pecný, Ondřejovská vrchovina Highland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Steklá

    2017-03-01

    In the rugged terrain of the GOPE locality, there are visible marks of regelation and frost processes, gully and fluvial erosion, slow slope movements and anthropogenic activities. Intensity of recent morphogenetic processes with its maximum in spring corresponds to combination of seasonal changes of air and soil temperature and at the same time to increased water content in the rock massif and in the weathered mantle. The suitable geodynamic location of scientific observatories on the Pecný ridge, stable from engineering-geological and geomorphological point of view, and in its near neighbourhood is menaced by increasing intensity of anthropogenic activities in the landscape.

  20. [Morphogenetic processes and seasonal changes in the anatomic and histological organization of the Barents Sea sponge Halichondria panicea (Pallas)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, L V

    1978-10-01

    As a result of histological investigations of seasonal dynamics in the anatomical-tissue organization of the litoral sponge Halichondria panicea (Pallas), morphogenetical processes during different periods of its life cycle are described in detail. Correlations between different phases of sexual reproduction and conditions of anatomical and tissue organization in the maternal organism are stated. It is noted that tissue reduction of the definitive sponge Halichondria panicea during autumn--winter season is a natural phenomenon, regularly repeating in the life of the litoral sponge investigated, as a result of the maternal organism's "exhaustion" in the period of sexual embryogenesis.

  1. Comparison of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2-infused absorbable collagen sponge, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2-coated tricalcium phosphate, and platelet-rich fibrin-mixed tricalcium phosphate for sinus augmentation in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Hun Kim

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Our histological evaluation demonstrates that Type I ACS can be used as a carrier of rhBMP-2, and rhBMP-2+ACS showed rapid bone formation, remodeling, and calcification at Week 2 in rabbit.

  2. [Experimental-morphological study of morphogenetic potencies of homogeneous aggregates of different types of cells from the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, N S

    1977-01-01

    The morphogenetic potencies of somatic cells of the fresh-water sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis in the developing aggregates depend on their initial specialization and the number of cells in the aggregate. The aggregates of nucleolar amoebocytes consisting of 500 or more cells have the highest morphogenetic potencies. All main cell types can arise in the developing homogeneous aggregates of nucleolar amoebocytes. The fine structure of nucleolar amoebocytes at different stages of development of the homogeneous aggregates was studied by means of electron microscopy. The structural rearrangements are described which accompany the process of redifferentiation of the nucleolar amoebocytes in other cell types.

  3. Sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures for multipotent protein activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng; Álvarez, Zaida; Sleep, Eduard; Chun, Danielle S.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Cook, Ralph W.; Freshman, Ryan D.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Katchko, Karina M.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Smith, Justin T.; Yun, Chawon; Singh, Gurmit; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; McClendon, Mark T.; Yu, Zhilin; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.; Stupp , Samuel I. (NWU)

    2017-06-19

    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with different polysaccharide-binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptide nanostructures amplified signalling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than that required in the animal model. These highly bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the future involving proteins.

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) induces growth suppression and enhances chemosensitivity of human colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Yue, Shijun; Alfayez, Musaad

    2016-01-01

    expression were assessed using qRT-PCR. AlamarBlue assay was used to assess cell viability in vitro. In vivo experiments were conducted using SCID mice. RESULTS: Our data revealed frequent downregulation of BMP2 in primary CRC tissues. Additionally, interrogation of publically available gene expression......, suggesting that restoration of BMP2 expression could be a potential therapeutic strategy for CRC....

  5. In Vivo Host Response and Degradation of Copolymer Scaffolds Functionalized with Nanodiamonds and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Salwa; Sun, Yang; Pedersen, Torbjorn O; Xue, Ying; Nickel, Joachim; Waag, Thilo; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Krueger, Anke; Costea, Daniela E; Mustafa, Kamal

    2016-03-01

    The aim is to evaluate the effect of modifying poly[(l-lactide)-co-(ε-caprolactone)] scaffolds (PLCL) with nanodiamonds (nDP) or with nDP+physisorbed BMP-2 (nDP+BMP-2) on in vivo host tissue response and degradation. The scaffolds are implanted subcutaneously in Balb/c mice and retrieved after 1, 8, and 27 weeks. Molecular weight analysis shows that modified scaffolds degrade faster than the unmodified. Gene analysis at week 1 shows highest expression of proinflammatory markers around nDP scaffolds; although the presence of inflammatory cells and foreign body giant cells is more prominent around the PLCL. Tissue regeneration markers are highly expressed in the nDP+BMP-2 scaffolds at week 8. A fibrous capsule is detectable by week 8, thinnest around nDP scaffolds and at week 27 thickest around PLCL scaffolds. mRNA levels of ALP, COL1α2, and ANGPT1 are significantly upregulating in the nDP+BMP-2 scaffolds at week 1 with ectopic bone seen at week 8. Even when almost 90% of the scaffold is degraded at week 27, nDP are observable at implantation areas without adverse effects. In conclusion, modifying PLCL scaffolds with nDP does not aggravate the host response and physisorbed BMP-2 delivery attenuates inflammation while lowering the dose of BMP-2 to a relatively safe and economical level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Diverse bone morphogenetic protein expression profiles and smad pathway activation in different phenotypes of experimental canine mammary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Wensman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BMPs are currently receiving attention for their role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Currently, most BMP expression studies are performed on carcinomas, and not much is known about the situation in sarcomas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the BMP expression profiles and Smad activation in clones from different spontaneous canine mammary tumors. Spindle cell tumor and osteosarcoma clones expressed high levels of BMPs, in particular BMP-2, -4 and -6. Clones from a scirrhous carcinoma expressed much lower BMP levels. The various clones formed different tumor types in nude mice but only clones that expressed high levels of BMP-6 gave bone formation. Phosphorylated Smad-1/5, located in the nucleus, was detected in tumors derived from clones expressing high levels of BMPs, indicating an active BMP signaling pathway and BMP-2 stimulation of mammary tumor cell clones in vitro resulted in activation of the Smad-1/5 pathway. In contrast BMP-2 stimulation did not induce phosphorylation of the non-Smad pathway p38 MAPK. Interestingly, an increased level of the BMP-antagonist chordin-like 1 was detected after BMP stimulation of non-bone forming clones. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the specific BMP expression repertoire differs substantially between different types of mammary tumors and that BMP-6 expression most probably has a biological role in bone formation of canine mammary tumors.

  7. Acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Acer nikoense Maxim, stimulates osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihara, Tasuku; Ichikawa, Saki; Yonezawa, Takayuki; Lee, Ji-Won; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Woo, Je Tae; Michi, Yasuyuki; Amagasa, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Acerogenin A stimulated osteoblast differentiation in osteogenic cells. → Acerogenin A-induced osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by noggin. → Acerogenin A increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4 and Bmp-7 mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. → Acerogenin A is a candidate agent for stimulating bone formation. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Acer nikoense Maxim, on osteoblast differentiation by using osteoblastic cells. Acerogenin A stimulated the cell proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and RD-C6 osteoblastic cells (Runx2-deficient cell line). It also increased alkaline phosphatase activity in MC3T3-E1 and RD-C6 cells and calvarial osteoblastic cells isolated from the calvariae of newborn mice. Acerogenin A also increased the expression of mRNAs related to osteoblast differentiation, including Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts: it also stimulated Osteocalcin and Osterix mRNA expression in RD-C6 cells. The acerogenin A treatment for 3 days increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4, and Bmp-7 mRNA expression levels in MC3T3-E1 cells. Adding noggin, a BMP specific-antagonist, inhibited the acerogenin A-induced increase in the Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 mRNA expression levels. These results indicated that acerogenin A stimulates osteoblast differentiation through BMP action, which is mediated by Runx2-dependent and Runx2-independent pathways.

  8. Bone Morphogenetic Protein for the Healing of Tibial Fracture: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiezhi Dai

    Full Text Available To review the evidence from RCTs on clinical outcomes and benefit of acute tibial fracture and nonunion treated with and without BMPs.We searched multiple databases (MEDLINE, EMABSE, BIOSIS and Cochrane central as well as reference lists of articles and contacted authors. Evaluated outcomes included union rate, revision rate, hardware failure and infection. The weighted and standard mean difference (WMD and SMD or the relative risk (RR was calculated for continuous or dichotomous data respectively. The quality of the trial was assessed, and meta-analyses were performed with the Cochrane Collaboration's REVMAN 5.0 software.Eight RCTs involving 1113 patients were included. For acute tibial fracture, BMP group was associated with a higher rate of union (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.30 and a lower rate of revision (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.85 compared with control group. No significant differences were found in rate of hardware failure and infection. The pooled RR for achieving union for tibial fracture nonunion was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.86 to 1.13. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the rate of revision (RR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.13 to 1.85 and infection (RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.37 to 1.02.Study on acute tibial fractures suggests that BMP is more effective that controls, for bone union and for decreasing the rate of surgical revision to achieve union. For the treatment of tibial fracture nonunion, BMP leads to similar results to as autogenous bone grafting. Finally, well-designed RCTs of BMP for tibial fracture treatment are also needed.

  9. Effect of autoclave devitalization on autograft incorporation and bone morphogenetic protein of tibia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Anak A.G.Y. Asmara; Achmad F. Kamal; Nurjati C. Siregar; Marcel Prasetyo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heating process with autoclave is one of limb salvage modalities that are widely used. but the results are not satisfying, due to mechanical bone fragility. However, considering this treatment modality is widely accepted in terms of financial, religion and sociocultural aspects, we conducted a on study rats treated with resection and reconstruction with autoclave heating method to assess bone healing by sequential radiology, histopathologic osteoblasts count, and bone morphogeneti...

  10. Diversity in Copy Number and Structure of a Silkworm Morphogenetic Gene as a Result of Domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Sakudoh, Takashi; Nakashima, Takeharu; Kuroki, Yoko; Fujiyama, Asao; Kohara, Yuji; Honda, Naoko; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Shimada, Toru; Nakagaki, Masao; Banno, Yutaka; Tsuchida, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    The carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a major determinant of cocoon color, is likely to have been substantially influenced by domestication of this species. We analyzed the structure of the CBP gene in multiple strains of B. mori, in multiple individuals of the wild silkworm, B. mandarina (the putative wild ancestor of B. mori), and in a number of other lepidopterans. We found the CBP gene copy number in genomic DNA to vary widely among B. mori strain...

  11. The Xenopus laevis morphogenetic factor, tumorhead, causes defects in polarized growth and cytokinesis in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chuan Fen; Yang, Peirong; Traverso, Edwin E.; Etkin, Laurence D.; Marcus, Stevan

    2004-01-01

    Tumorhead (TH) is a maternally expressed gene product that regulates neural tube morphogenesis in the amphibian, Xenopus laevis. Here we describe the effects of TH expression in the rod-shaped fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Expression of TH in S. pombe resulted in severe morphological defects, including ovoid, bottle-shaped, and enlarged cells. Multi-septated cells were also observed in TH expressing cultures, indicating that TH is inhibitory to a process required for the completion of cytokinesis. TH expression caused significant actin and microtubule cytoskeletal defects, including depolarization of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton and increased microtubule formation. Immunostaining experiments showed that TH is localized to the cell cortex, cell tips, and septum in S. pombe cells. Localization of TH to the cell cortex was dependent on the S. pombe PAK homolog, Shk1. Moreover, TH expression was inhibitory to the growth of a mutant defective in Shk1 function, suggesting that TH may interact with a component(s) of a PAK-mediated morphogenetic regulatory pathway in S. pombe. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that S. pombe may be a useful model organism for identifying potential TH interacting factors

  12. Bar represses dPax2 and decapentaplegic to regulate cell fate and morphogenetic cell death in Drosophila eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongkyun Kang

    Full Text Available The coordinated regulation of cell fate and cell survival is crucial for normal pattern formation in developing organisms. In Drosophila compound eye development, crystalline arrays of hexagonal ommatidia are established by precise assembly of diverse cell types, including the photoreceptor cells, cone cells and interommatidial (IOM pigment cells. The molecular basis for controlling the number of cone and IOM pigment cells during ommatidial pattern formation is not well understood. Here we present evidence that BarH1 and BarH2 homeobox genes are essential for eye patterning by inhibiting excess cone cell differentiation and promoting programmed death of IOM cells. Specifically, we show that loss of Bar from the undifferentiated retinal precursor cells leads to ectopic expression of Prospero and dPax2, two transcription factors essential for cone cell specification, resulting in excess cone cell differentiation. We also show that loss of Bar causes ectopic expression of the TGFβ homolog Decapentaplegic (Dpp posterior to the morphogenetic furrow in the larval eye imaginal disc. The ectopic Dpp expression is not responsible for the formation of excess cone cells in Bar loss-of-function mutant eyes. Instead, it causes reduction in IOM cell death in the pupal stage by antagonizing the function of pro-apoptotic gene reaper. Taken together, this study suggests a novel regulatory mechanism in the control of developmental cell death in which the repression of Dpp by Bar in larval eye disc is essential for IOM cell death in pupal retina.

  13. Diversity in copy number and structure of a silkworm morphogenetic gene as a result of domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudoh, Takashi; Nakashima, Takeharu; Kuroki, Yoko; Fujiyama, Asao; Kohara, Yuji; Honda, Naoko; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Shimada, Toru; Nakagaki, Masao; Banno, Yutaka; Tsuchida, Kozo

    2011-03-01

    The carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a major determinant of cocoon color, is likely to have been substantially influenced by domestication of this species. We analyzed the structure of the CBP gene in multiple strains of B. mori, in multiple individuals of the wild silkworm, B. mandarina (the putative wild ancestor of B. mori), and in a number of other lepidopterans. We found the CBP gene copy number in genomic DNA to vary widely among B. mori strains, ranging from 1 to 20. The copies of CBP are of several types, based on the presence of a retrotransposon or partial deletion of the coding sequence. In contrast to B. mori, B. mandarina was found to possess a single copy of CBP without the retrotransposon insertion, regardless of habitat. Several other lepidopterans were found to contain sequences homologous to CBP, revealing that this gene is evolutionarily conserved in the lepidopteran lineage. Thus, domestication can generate significant diversity of gene copy number and structure over a relatively short evolutionary time. © 2011 by the Genetics Society of America

  14. Factors Influencing in Vitro Seed Germination, Morphogenetic Potential and Correlation of Secondary Metabolism with Tissue Development in Prunella Vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, H.; Shinwari, Z. K.; Abbasi, B. H.; Ahmad, N.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs), polyamines (PAs) and temperature regimes are the key factors that influence morphogenesis and plant architectural development; however, the understanding that how these factors control plant growth and development is still poor and needs further research in Prunella vulgaris. In this study, we monitored the effect of these factors on seed germination, morphogenetic potential and secondary metabolism. Different temperature regimes showed that 25 degree C is the most suitable temperature for seed germination (88.87±1.76 percent) on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. The synergistic combinations of kinetin (Kn), 6-benzyladenine (BA) and putrescine (PUT; 2.0 mg l/sup -1/) promoted seed germination (90.22±4.51 percent) after 24 days of inoculation. A combination of Kn and PUT (1.0 mg l/sup -1/) encouraged mean shoot length (11.0±1.95 mm) with the optimum amount of chlorophyll content (23.73±1.8 micro g cm/sup -2/). However, maximum mean root length (13±0.65 mm) was observed on medium containing Kn and spermidine (SPD, 2.0 mg l-1). Maximum calli (71.56±2.63 percent) were obtained from root explants on 0.5 MS-medium containing indole butyric acid (IBA) and Alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 0.5 mg l/sup -1/). Higher number of shoots (78.5±3.75 percent) was obtained with Kn and PUT (1.0 mg l/sup -1/). IBA concentration of 1.0 mg l/sup -1/ was found effective for root formation (74.71±3.3 percent). Moreover, PGRs and PAs have a significant effect on accumulation of total phenolics, flavonoids and DPPH activity. This protocol is helpful for consistent plantlets and prunellin production in P. vulgaris L. (author)

  15. Evolutionarily conserved morphogenetic movements at the vertebrate head–trunk interface coordinate the transport and assembly of hypopharyngeal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lours-Calet, Corinne; Alvares, Lucia E.; El-Hanfy, Amira S.; Gandesha, Saniel; Walters, Esther H.; Sobreira, Débora Rodrigues; Wotton, Karl R.; Jorge, Erika C.; Lawson, Jennifer A.; Kelsey Lewis, A.; Tada, Masazumi; Sharpe, Colin; Kardon, Gabrielle; Dietrich, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The vertebrate head–trunk interface (occipital region) has been heavily remodelled during evolution, and its development is still poorly understood. In extant jawed vertebrates, this region provides muscle precursors for the throat and tongue (hypopharyngeal/hypobranchial/hypoglossal muscle precursors, HMP) that take a stereotype path rostrally along the pharynx and are thought to reach their target sites via active migration. Yet, this projection pattern emerged in jawless vertebrates before the evolution of migratory muscle precursors. This suggests that a so far elusive, more basic transport mechanism must have existed and may still be traceable today. Here we show for the first time that all occipital tissues participate in well-conserved cell movements. These cell movements are spearheaded by the occipital lateral mesoderm and ectoderm that split into two streams. The rostrally directed stream projects along the floor of the pharynx and reaches as far rostrally as the floor of the mandibular arch and outflow tract of the heart. Notably, this stream leads and engulfs the later emerging HMP, neural crest cells and hypoglossal nerve. When we (i) attempted to redirect hypobranchial/hypoglossal muscle precursors towards various attractants, (ii) placed non-migratory muscle precursors into the occipital environment or (iii) molecularly or (iv) genetically rendered muscle precursors non-migratory, they still followed the trajectory set by the occipital lateral mesoderm and ectoderm. Thus, we have discovered evolutionarily conserved morphogenetic movements, driven by the occipital lateral mesoderm and ectoderm, that ensure cell transport and organ assembly at the head–trunk interface. PMID:24662046

  16. Multipotent stromal cells outperform chondrocytes on cartilage-derived matrix scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, K.E.M.; Boot, W.; van Weeren, René; Gawlitta, D.; Bergman, E.; Saris, D.B.F.; Dhert, Wouter; Malda, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Although extracellular matrix (ECM)–derived scaffolds have been extensively studied and applied in a number of clinical applications, the use of ECM as a biomaterial for (osteo)chondral regeneration is less extensively explored. This study aimed at evaluating the chondrogenic potential of

  17. Exploring the interaction network of the Bacillus subtilis outer coat and crust proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajčíková, Daniela; Forgáč, Vladimír; Szabo, Adam; Barák, Imrich

    2017-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores, representatives of an exceptionally resistant dormant cell type, are encircled by a thick proteinaceous layer called the spore coat. More than 80 proteins assemble into four distinct coat layers: a basement layer, an inner coat, an outer coat and a crust. As the spore develops inside the mother cell, spore coat proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm are gradually deposited onto the prespore surface. A small set of morphogenetic proteins necessary for spore coat morphogenesis are thought to form a scaffold to which the rest of the coat proteins are attached. Extensive localization and proteomic studies using wild type and mutant spores have revealed the arrangement of individual proteins within the spore coat layers. In this study we examined the interactions between the proteins localized to the outer coat and crust using a bacterial two hybrid system. These two layers are composed of at least 25 components. Self-interactions were observed for most proteins and numerous novel interactions were identified. The most interesting contacts are those made with the morphogenetic proteins CotE, CotY and CotZ; these could serve as a basis for understanding the specific roles of particular proteins in spore coat morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of Epithelial Morphogenesis by the G-Protein Coupled Receptor Mist and its Ligand Fog*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Alyssa J.; Peters, Kimberly A.; Peifer, Mark; Rogers, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis is essential for shaping organs and tissues and for establishment of the three embryonic germ layers during gastrulation. Studies of gastrulation in Drosophila have provided insight into how epithelial morphogenesis is governed by developmental patterning mechanisms. We developed an assay to recapitulate morphogenetic shape changes in individual cultured cells, and used RNAi-based screening to identify Mist, a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that transduces signals from the secreted ligand Folded gastrulation (Fog) in cultured cells. Mist functioned in Fog-dependent embryonic morphogenesis, and the transcription factor Snail regulated expression of mist in zygotes. Our data revealed how a cell fate transcriptional program acts through a ligand-GPCR pair to stimulate epithelial morphogenetic shape changes. PMID:24222713

  19. Influence of contrast morphogenetic features of urban constructed soils on the functioning of Moscow green lawn urban ecosystems: analysis based on the field model experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epikhina, Anna; Vizirskaya, Mariya; Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Vyacheslav; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    Green lawns are the key element of the urban environment. They occupy a considerable part of the city area and locate in different urban functional zones. Urban constructed soils under green lawns have a unique spatial variability in chemical and morphogenetic features. So far, there is lack of information on the influence of morphogenetic features of urban soils on the functioning of the green lawn ecosystems especially in Moscow - the biggest megalopolis in Europe. Urban lawns perform a number of principal functions including both aesthetic and environmental. The role of the green lawn ecosystems in global carbon cycle is one of their main environmental functions. It is traditionally assessed through carbon stocks and fluxes in the basic ecosystem components. So far, such a data for the urban lawn ecosystems of the Moscow megapolis is lacking. In addition to environmental functions, green lawns perform an important ornamental role, which is also a critical criterion of their optimal functioning. Considering the variability of driving factors, influencing green lawns in urban environment, we carry out the model experiment in order to analyze "pure" effect of soil morphogenetic features. The current study aimed to analyze the influence of contrast morphogenetic features of urban constructed soils on the environmental and aesthetic functions of lawn ecosystems in Moscow megapolis basing in the model experiment. We carry out the model experiment located at the experimental field of the Russian State Agrarian University. Special transparent containers developed for the experiment, provided an option to observe soil morphogenetic features dynamics, including the depth and material of the organic transformation. At the same soil body inside the containers was united with the outside environment through the system of holes in the bottom and walls. The set of urban constructed soils includ four contrast types of the top soil (turf (T), turf-sand (TSa), turf-soil (TSo) and

  20. Calcitonin protects chondrocytes from lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis and inflammatory response through MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lai-Bo; Man, Zhen-Tao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xian-Quan; Sun, Shui

    2017-07-01

    Calcitonin (CT) is an anti-absorbent, which has long been used for treatment of osteoporosis. However, little information is available about the effects of CT on osteoarthritis (OA). This study was mainly aimed to explore the effects of CT on the treatment of OA, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Chondrocytes were isolated from immature mice and then were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CT, small interfering (si) RNA against bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and/or the inhibitors of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathway. Thereafter, cell viability, apoptosis, nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory factors productions, and expression levels of cartilage synthesis protein key factors, cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein (CDMP) 1, SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 protein (SOX9), and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors were determined. CT significantly reversed LPS-induced cell viability decrease, apoptosis increase, the inflammatory factors and NO secretion, the abnormally expression of cartilage synthesis proteins and the activation of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways (Ppathways statistically further increased the levels of CDMP1 and SOX9 (Ppathways, and could partially abolish CT-modulated the expression changes in CDMP1 and SOX9, and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors (Ppathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Covalent binding of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor-β3 to 3D plotted scaffolds for osteochondral tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Luca, Andrea; Klein Gunnewiek, Michel; Vancso, Julius; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Benetti, Edmondo Maria; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Engineering the osteochondral tissue presents some challenges mainly relying in its function of transition from the subchondral bone to articular cartilage and the gradual variation in several biological, mechanical, and structural features. A possible solution for osteochondral regeneration might

  2. Nanopolymers Delivery of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 Plasmid to Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Articular Cartilage Repair In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical application of viral vectors for gene therapy is limited for biosafety consideration. In this study, to promote articular cartilage repair, poly (lactic-co glycolic acid (PLGA nanopolymers were used as non-viral vectors to transfect rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with the pDC316-BMP4-EGFP plasmid. The cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency in vitro were acceptable measuring by CCK-8 and flow cytometry. After transfection, Chondrogenic markers (mRNA of Col2a1, Sox9, Bmp4, and Agg of experimental cells (MSCs being transfected with BMP-4 plasmid by PLGA nanopolymers were increased more than those of control cells (MSCs being transfected with naked BMP-4 plasmid alone. In vivo study, twelve rabbits (24 knees with large full thickness articular cartilage defects were randomly divided into the experimental group (MSCs being transfected with BMP-4 plasmid by PLGA nanopolymers and the control group (MSCs being transfected with naked BMP-4 plasmid. The experimental group showed better regeneration than the control group 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Hyaline-like cartilage formed at week 12 in the experimental group, indicating the local delivery of BMP-4 plasmid to MSCs by PLGA nanopolymers improved articular cartilage repair significantly. PLGA nanopolymers could be a promising and effective non-viral vector for gene therapy in cartilage repair.

  3. Statins augment the chemosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells inducing epigenetic reprogramming and reducing colorectal cancer cell 'stemness' via the bone morphogenetic protein pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kodach, L.L.; Jacobs, R.J.; Voorneveld, P.W.; Wildenberg, M.E.; Verspaget, H.W.; van Wezel, T.; Morreau, H.; Hommes, D.W.; Peppelenbosch, M.P.; van den Brink, G.R.; Hardwick, J.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Promoter hypermethylation is an important and potentially reversible mechanism of tumour suppressor gene silencing in cancer. Compounds that demethylate tumour suppressor genes and induce differentiation of cancer cells, but do not have toxic side effects, would represent an exciting option in

  4. Treatment with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 leads to a transient induction of neutralizing autoantibodies in a subset of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Schuette

    2016-12-01

    General significance: We conclude that BMP7-aAB can be detected as natural aAB in healthy subjects, and are transiently induced by rhBMP7 therapy in a subset of patients. The aAB are capable of antagonizing BMP7 signaling in vitro, but do not preclude treatment success in patients.

  5. MRI of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: imaging appearance with and without the use of human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Michael G.; Goldberg, Judd M.; Gaskin, Cree M.; Barr, Michelle S.; Alford, Bennett [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Patrie, James T. [University of Virginia, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Shen, Francis H. [University of Virginia, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    To describe the vertebral endplate and intervertebral disc space MRI appearance following TLIF, with and without the use of rhBMP-2, and to determine if the appearance is concerning for discitis/osteomyelitis. After institutional review board approval, 116 TLIF assessments performed on 75 patients with rhBMP-2 were retrospectively and independently reviewed by five radiologists and compared to 73 TLIF assessments performed on 45 patients without rhBMP-2. MRIs were evaluated for endplate signal, disc space enhancement, disc space fluid, and abnormal paraspinal soft tissue. Endplate edema-like signal was reported when T1-weighted hypointensity, T2-weighted hyperintensity, and endplate enhancement were present. Subjective concern for discitis/osteomyelitis on MRI was graded on a five-point scale. Generalized estimating equation binomial regression model analysis was performed with findings correlated with rhBMP-2 use, TLIF level, graft type, and days between TLIF and MRI. The rhBMP-2 group demonstrated endplate edema-like signal (OR 5.66; 95 % CI [1.58, 20.24], p = 0.008) and disc space enhancement (OR 2.40; 95 % CI [1.20, 4.80], p = 0.013) more often after adjusting for the TLIF level, graft type, and the number of days following TLIF. Both groups had a similar temporal distribution for endplate edema-like signal but disc space enhancement peaked earlier in the rhBMP-2 group. Disc space fluid was only present in the rhBMP-2 group. Neither group demonstrated abnormal paraspinal soft tissue and discitis/osteomyelitis was not considered likely in any patient. Endplate edema-like signal and disc space enhancement were significantly more frequent and disc space enhancement developed more rapidly following TLIF when rhBMP-2 was utilized. The concern for discitis/osteomyelitis was similar and minimal in both groups. (orig.)

  6. Astrocytes from the Contused Spinal Cord Inhibit Oligodendrocyte Differentiation of Adult Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells by Increasing the Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaping; Cheng, Xiaoxin; He, Qian; Zheng, Yiyan; Kim, Dong H.; Whittemore, Scott R.; Cao, Qilin L.

    2011-01-01

    Promotion of remyelination is an important therapeutic strategy to facilitate functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) or oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) has been used to enhance remyelination after SCI. However, the microenvironment in the injured spinal cord is inhibitory for oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation of NSCs or OPCs. Identifying the signaling pathways that inhibit OL differentiation in the injured spinal cor...

  7. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling and Olig1/2 Interact to Regulate the Differentiation and Maturation of Adult Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xiaoxin; Wang, Yaping; He, Qian; Qiu, Mengsheng; Whittemore, Scott R.; Cao, Qilin

    2007-01-01

    Promotion of remyelination is an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of the demyelinating neurological disorders. Adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which normally reside quiescently in the adult central nervous system (CNS), become activated and proliferative after demyelinating lesions. However, the extent of endogenous remyelination is limited because of the failure of adult OPCs to mature into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the demyelinated CNS. Understandin...

  8. Influence of Simultaneous Targeting of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway and RANK-RANKL Axis in Osteolytic Prostate Cancer Lesion in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mandeep S.; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Liu, Nancy Q.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Stout, David; Kang, Christine O.; Dougall, William C.; Lieberman, Jay R.

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis to bone is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in advanced prostate cancer patients. Considering the complex reciprocal interactions between the tumor cells and the bone microenvironment, there is increasing interest in developing combination therapies targeting both the tumor growth and the bone microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the effect of simultaneous blockade of BMP pathway and RANK-RANKL axis in an osteolytic prostate cancer lesion in bone. We used a retroviral vector encoding noggin (Retronoggin) to antagonize the effect of BMPs and RANK: Fc, which is a recombinant RANKL antagonist was used to inhibit RANK-RANKL axis. The tumor growth and bone loss were evaluated using plain radiographs, hind limb tumor measurements, micro PET-CT (18F- fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG] and 18F-fluoride tracer), and histology. Tibias implanted with PC-3 cells developed pure osteolytic lesions at 2 weeks with progressive increase in cortical bone destruction at successive time points. Tibias implanted with PC-3 cells over expressing noggin (Retronoggin) resulted in reduced tumor size and decreased bone loss compared to the implanted tibias in untreated control animals. RANK: Fc administration inhibited the formation of osteoclasts, delayed the development of osteolytic lesions, decreased bone loss and reduced tumor size in tibias implanted with PC-3 cells. The combination therapy with RANK: Fc and noggin over expression effectively delayed the radiographic development of osteolytic lesions, and decreased the bone loss and tumor burden compared to implanted tibias treated with noggin over expression alone. Furthermore, the animals treated with the combination strategy exhibited decreased bone loss (micro CT) and lower tumor burden (FDG micro PET) compared to animals treated with RANK: Fc alone. Combined blockade of RANK-RANKL axis and BMP pathway resulted in reduced tumor burden and decreased bone loss compared to inhibition of either individual pathway alone in osteolytic prostate cancer lesion in bone. These results suggest that simultaneous targeting of tumor cells and osteoclasts may be the most effective method of inhibiting the progression of established osteolytic metastatic lesions in vivo. PMID:18929692

  9. Intraoperative engineering of osteogenic grafts combining freshly harvested, human adipose-derived cells and physiological doses of bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mehrkens

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Engineered osteogenic constructs for bone repair typically involve complex and costly processes for cell expansion. Adipose tissue includes mesenchymal precursors in large amounts, in principle allowing for an intraoperative production of osteogenic grafts and their immediate implantation. However, stromal vascular fraction (SVF cells from adipose tissue were reported to require a molecular trigger to differentiate into functional osteoblasts. The present study tested whether physiological doses of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2 could induce freshly harvested human SVF cells to generate ectopic bone tissue. Enzymatically dissociated SVF cells from 7 healthy donors (1 x 106 or 4 x 106 were immediately embedded in a fibrin gel with or without 250 ng rhBMP-2, mixed with porous silicated calcium-phosphate granules (Actifuse®, Apatech (final construct size: 0.1 cm3 and implanted ectopically for eight weeks in nude mice. In the presence of rhBMP-2, SVF cells not only supported but directly contributed to the formation of bone ossicles, which were not observed in control cell-free, rhBMP-2 loaded implants. In vitro analysis indicated that rhBMP-2 did not involve an increase in the percentage of SVF cells recruited to the osteogenic lineage, but rather induced a stimulation of the osteoblastic differentiation of the committed progenitors. These findings confirm the feasibility of generating fully osteogenic grafts using an easily accessible autologous cell source and low amounts of rhBMP-2, in a timing compatible with an intraoperative schedule. The study warrants further investigation at an orthotopic site of implantation, where the delivery of rhBMP-2 could be bypassed thanks to the properties of the local milieu.

  10. Osseointegration by bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor beta2 coated titanium implants in femora of New Zealand white rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Thorey

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: No differences between BMP-2 alone and a combination of BMP-2+TGF-β2 could be seen in the present study. However, the results of this study confirm the results of other studies that a coating with growth factors is able to enhance bone implant ingrowth. This may be of importance in defect situations during revision surgery to support the implant ingrowth and implant anchorage.

  11. Association between expression of the bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7 in the repair of circumscribed cartilage lesions with clinical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Niemeyer, Philipp; Zwingmann, Jörn

    2010-01-01

    patients had no cartilage lesion and served as a control group, the other 42 patients with circumscribed cartilage defects were treated by microfracturing (19) or by an Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (23). The concentrations of BMP-2 and BMP-7 were determined by ELISA. The clinical status...

  12. Sequence analysis of malacoherpesvirus proteins: Pan-herpesvirus capsid module and replication enzymes with an ancient connection to "Megavirales".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushegian, Arcady; Karin, Eli Levy; Pupko, Tal

    2018-01-01

    The order Herpesvirales includes animal viruses with large double-strand DNA genomes replicating in the nucleus. The main capsid protein in the best-studied family Herpesviridae contains a domain with HK97-like fold related to bacteriophage head proteins, and several virion maturation factors are also homologous between phages and herpesviruses. The origin of herpesvirus DNA replication proteins is less well understood. While analyzing the genomes of herpesviruses in the family Malacohepresviridae, we identified nearly 30 families of proteins conserved in other herpesviruses, including several phage-related domains in morphogenetic proteins. Herpesvirus DNA replication factors have complex evolutionary history: some are related to cellular proteins, but others are closer to homologs from large nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the core replication machinery of herpesviruses may have been recruited from the same pool as in the case of other large DNA viruses of eukaryotes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Genomewide Analysis of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Binding Targets Reveals an Extensive Array of Gene Clusters that Control Morphogenetic and Developmental Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Maureen A.; Schnekenburger, Michael; Marlowe, Jennifer L.; Reichard, John F.; Wang, Ying; Fan, Yunxia; Ma, Ci; Karyala, Saikumar; Halbleib, Danielle; Liu, Xiangdong; Medvedovic, Mario; Puga, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Background The vertebrate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates cellular responses to environmental polycyclic and halogenated compounds. The naive receptor is believed to reside in an inactive cytosolic complex that translocates to the nucleus and induces transcription of xenobiotic detoxification genes after activation by ligand. Objectives We conducted an integrative genomewide analysis of AHR gene targets in mouse hepatoma cells and determined whether AHR regulatory functions may take place in the absence of an exogenous ligand. Methods The network of AHR-binding targets in the mouse genome was mapped through a multipronged approach involving chromatin immunoprecipitation/chip and global gene expression signatures. The findings were integrated into a prior functional knowledge base from Gene Ontology, interaction networks, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, sequence motif analysis, and literature molecular concepts. Results We found the naive receptor in unstimulated cells bound to an extensive array of gene clusters with functions in regulation of gene expression, differentiation, and pattern specification, connecting multiple morphogenetic and developmental programs. Activation by the ligand displaced the receptor from some of these targets toward sites in the promoters of xenobiotic metabolism genes. Conclusions The vertebrate AHR appears to possess unsuspected regulatory functions that may be potential targets of environmental injury. PMID:19654925

  14. Fibonacci spirals in a brown alga [Sargassum muticum (Yendo Fensholt] and in a land plant [Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh.]: a case of morphogenetic convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Peaucelle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the morphology of a brown alga is revisited and compared to the phyllotaxis of land plants. The alga, Sargassum muticum (Yendo Fensholt has a highly organized thallus with a stipe, the stem-like main axis, and hierarchically organized lateral branches of successive orders. Around each of these axes, the lateral organs: blades, side-branches, and receptacles grow in a spiral disposition. As in land plants, this organization is related to an apical mode of growth. Measurements performed along the mature differentiated axes as well as in their meristematic regions confirm the similarity of the large-scale organization of this brown alga with that of the land plants. In particular, the divergence angle between successive elements has similar values and it results from the existence around the meristem of parastichies having the same Fibonacci ordering. This is remarkable in view of the fact that brown algae (Phaeophyceae and land plants (Embryophyta are two clades that diverged approximately 1800 million years ago when they were both unicellular organisms. We argue that the observed similarity results from a morphogenetic convergence. This is in strong support of the genericity and robustness of self-organization models in which similar structures, here Fibonacci related spirals, can be obtained in various situations in which the genetic and physiological implementation of development can be of a different nature.

  15. Experimental analysis of embryogenesis of cerebellum in rat. II. Morphogenetic malformations following x-ray irradiation on day 18 of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    Rat embryos of 18 days gestation were exposed in utero to 170 R of x-ray irradiation. Embryos were collected six hours, 1, 2, and 3 days after irradiation, and animals of 2-, 6-, 15- and 30-day-old postnatal age were sacrificed. Six hours after irradiation pyknosis of cells was noticed in the external granular layer along the posterior aspect of the cerebellum. Neuroblasts, destined to differentiate into Purkinje cells, were found arrested in their migratory path. During subsequent periods of embryogenesis the external granular layer was found recovered, and clustering of the neuroblasts were disorganized and fragmented. This abnormal clustering of neuroblasts was permanent, and the external granular layer followed the same abnormal pattern in its growth. During postnatal development the internal granular layer also was found to follow the abnormal pattern of Purkinje cell layer. Those abnormal developmental events were seen to lead to malformed folia in the anterior regions of the cerebellum. In addition to it the cerebellum of x-ray irradiated animals appeared smaller than the normal. Issues having a bearing on the differential radiosensitivity of different cells, factors determining the small size of the cerebellum, and cellular events determining the morphogenetic malformations are discussed

  16. The Deep-Sea Natural Products, Biogenic Polyphosphate (Bio-PolyP and Biogenic Silica (Bio-Silica, as Biomimetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of a Morphogenetically-Active Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Draenert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone defects in human, caused by fractures/nonunions or trauma, gain increasing impact and have become a medical challenge in the present-day aging population. Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. During the differentiation of osteoblasts from their mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells and of osteoclasts from their hemopoietic precursor cells, a lineage-specific release of growth factors and a trans-lineage homeostatic cross-talk via signaling molecules take place. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role(s of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate (bio-polyP and biogenic silica (bio-silica have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization (hydroxyapatite formation. In this manner, bio-silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts. Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer.

  17. The Deep-Sea Natural Products, Biogenic Polyphosphate (Bio-PolyP) and Biogenic Silica (Bio-Silica), as Biomimetic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of a Morphogenetically-Active Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C.; Feng, Qingling; Draenert, Florian; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2013-01-01

    Bone defects in human, caused by fractures/nonunions or trauma, gain increasing impact and have become a medical challenge in the present-day aging population. Frequently, those fractures require surgical intervention which ideally relies on autografts or suboptimally on allografts. Therefore, it is pressing and likewise challenging to develop bone substitution materials to heal bone defects. During the differentiation of osteoblasts from their mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells and of osteoclasts from their hemopoietic precursor cells, a lineage-specific release of growth factors and a trans-lineage homeostatic cross-talk via signaling molecules take place. Hence, the major hurdle is to fabricate a template that is functioning in a way mimicking the morphogenetic, inductive role(s) of the native extracellular matrix. In the last few years, two naturally occurring polymers that are produced by deep-sea sponges, the biogenic polyphosphate (bio-polyP) and biogenic silica (bio-silica) have also been identified as promoting morphogenetic on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These polymers elicit cytokines that affect bone mineralization (hydroxyapatite formation). In this manner, bio-silica and bio-polyP cause an increased release of BMP-2, the key mediator activating the anabolic arm of the hydroxyapatite forming cells, and of RANKL. In addition, bio-polyP inhibits the progression of the pre-osteoclasts to functionally active osteoclasts. Based on these findings, new bioinspired strategies for the fabrication of bone biomimetic templates have been developed applying 3D-printing techniques. Finally, a strategy is outlined by which these two morphogenetically active polymers might be used to develop a novel functionally active polymer. PMID:23528950

  18. The bio in the ink : cartilage regeneration with bioprintable hydrogels and articular cartilage-derived progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levato, Riccardo; Webb, William R; Otto, Iris A; Mensinga, Anneloes; Zhang, Yadan; van Rijen, Mattie; van Weeren, P. René; Khan, Ilyas M.; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Cell-laden hydrogels are the primary building blocks for bioprinting, and, also termed bioinks, are the foundations for creating structures that can potentially recapitulate the architecture of articular cartilage. To be functional, hydrogel constructs need to unlock the regenerative capacity of

  19. The bio in the ink: cartilage regeneration with bioprintable hydrogels and articular cartilage-derived progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levato, Riccardo; Webb, William R; Otto, Iris A; Mensinga, Anneloes; Zhang, Yadan; van Rijen, Mattie; van Weeren, René; Khan, Ilyas M; Malda, Jos

    2017-10-01

    Cell-laden hydrogels are the primary building blocks for bioprinting, and, also termed bioinks, are the foundations for creating structures that can potentially recapitulate the architecture of articular cartilage. To be functional, hydrogel constructs need to unlock the regenerative capacity of encapsulated cells. The recent identification of multipotent articular cartilage-resident chondroprogenitor cells (ACPCs), which share important traits with adult stem cells, represents a new opportunity for cartilage regeneration. However, little is known about the suitability of ACPCs for tissue engineering, especially in combination with biomaterials. This study aimed to investigate the potential of ACPCs in hydrogels for cartilage regeneration and biofabrication, and to evaluate their ability for zone-specific matrix production. Gelatin methacryloyl (gelMA)-based hydrogels were used to culture ACPCs, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes, and as bioinks for printing. Our data shows ACPCs outperformed chondrocytes in terms of neo-cartilage production and unlike MSCs, ACPCs had the lowest gene expression levels of hypertrophy marker collagen type X, and the highest expression of PRG4, a key factor in joint lubrication. Co-cultures of the cell types in multi-compartment hydrogels allowed generating constructs with a layered distribution of collagens and glycosaminoglycans. By combining ACPC- and MSC-laden bioinks, a bioprinted model of articular cartilage was generated, consisting of defined superficial and deep regions, each with distinct cellular and extracellular matrix composition. Taken together, these results provide important information for the use of ACPC-laden hydrogels in regenerative medicine, and pave the way to the biofabrication of 3D constructs with multiple cell types for cartilage regeneration or in vitro tissue models. Despite its limited ability to repair, articular cartilage harbors an endogenous population of progenitor cells (ACPCs), that to date, received limited attention in biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. Harnessing the potential of these cells in 3D hydrogels can open new avenues for biomaterial-based regenerative therapies, especially with advanced biofabrication technologies (e.g. bioprinting). This study highlights the potential of ACPCs to generate neo-cartilage in a gelatin-based hydrogel and bioink. The ACPC-laden hydrogel is a suitable substrate for chondrogenesis and data shows it has a bias in directing cells towards a superficial zone phenotype. For the first time, ACPC-hydrogels are evaluated both as alternative for and in combination with chondrocytes and MSCs, using co-cultures and bioprinting for cartilage regeneration in vitro. This study provides important cues on ACPCs, indicating they represent a promising cell source for the next generation of cartilage constructs with increased biomimicry. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dependency on de novo protein synthesis and proteomic changes during metamorphosis of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him

    2010-05-24

    Background: Metamorphosis in the bryozoan Bugula neritina (Linne) includes an initial phase of rapid morphological rearrangement followed by a gradual phase of morphogenesis. We hypothesized that the first phase may be independent of de novo synthesis of proteins and, instead, involves post-translational modifications of existing proteins, providing a simple mechanism to quickly initiate metamorphosis. To test our hypothesis, we challenged B. neritina larvae with transcription and translation inhibitors. Furthermore, we employed 2D gel electrophoresis to characterize changes in the phosphoproteome and proteome during early metamorphosis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and their gene expression patterns were profiled using semi-quantitative real time PCR.Results: When larvae were incubated with transcription and translation inhibitors, metamorphosis initiated through the first phase but did not complete. We found a significant down-regulation of 60 protein spots and the percentage of phosphoprotein spots decreased from 15% in the larval stage to12% during early metamorphosis. Two proteins--the mitochondrial processing peptidase beta subunit and severin--were abundantly expressed and phosphorylated in the larval stage, but down-regulated during metamorphosis. MPPbeta and severin were also down-regulated on the gene expression level.Conclusions: The initial morphogenetic changes that led to attachment of B. neritina did not depend on de novo protein synthesis, but the subsequent gradual morphogenesis did. This is the first time that the mitochondrial processing peptidase beta subunit or severin have been shown to be down-regulated on both gene and protein expression levels during the metamorphosis of B. neritina. Future studies employing immunohistochemistry to reveal the expression locality of these two proteins during metamorphosis should provide further evidence of the involvement of these two

  1. Core-shell microparticles for protein sequestration and controlled release of a protein-laden core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Torri E; Philbrick, Brandon D; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2017-07-01

    Development of multifunctional biomaterials that sequester, isolate, and redeliver cell-secreted proteins at a specific timepoint may be required to achieve the level of temporal control needed to more fully regulate tissue regeneration and repair. In response, we fabricated core-shell heparin-poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG) microparticles (MPs) with a degradable PEG-based shell that can temporally control delivery of protein-laden heparin MPs. Core-shell MPs were fabricated via a re-emulsification technique and the number of heparin MPs per PEG-based shell could be tuned by varying the mass of heparin MPs in the precursor PEG phase. When heparin MPs were loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and then encapsulated into core-shell MPs, degradable core-shell MPs initiated similar C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as the soluble control, while non-degradable core-shell MPs initiated a significantly lower response (85+19% vs. 9.0+4.8% of the soluble control, respectively). Similarly, when degradable core-shell MPs were formed and then loaded with BMP-2, they induced a ∼7-fold higher C2C12 ALP activity than the soluble control. As C2C12 ALP activity was enhanced by BMP-2, these studies indicated that degradable core-shell MPs were able to deliver a bioactive, BMP-2-laden heparin MP core. Overall, these dynamic core-shell MPs have the potential to sequester, isolate, and then redeliver proteins attached to a heparin core to initiate a cell response, which could be of great benefit to tissue regeneration applications requiring tight temporal control over protein presentation. Tissue repair requires temporally controlled presentation of potent proteins. Recently, biomaterial-mediated binding (sequestration) of cell-secreted proteins has emerged as a strategy to harness the regenerative potential of naturally produced proteins, but this strategy currently only allows immediate amplification and re-delivery of these signals. The multifunctional, dynamic

  2. Engineering a morphogenetically active hydrogel for bioprinting of bioartificial tissue derived from human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufurth, Meik; Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Ziebart, Thomas; Steffen, Renate; Wang, Shunfeng; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-10-01

    Sodium alginate hydrogel, stabilized with gelatin, is a suitable, biologically inert matrix that can be used for encapsulating and 3D bioprinting of bone-related SaOS-2 cells. However, the cells, embedded in this matrix, remain in a non-proliferating state. Here we show that addition of an overlay onto the bioprinted alginate/gelatine/SaOS-2 cell scaffold, consisting of agarose and the calcium salt of polyphosphate [polyP·Ca(2+)-complex], resulted in a marked increase in cell proliferation. In the presence of 100 μm polyP·Ca(2+)-complex, the cells proliferate with a generation time of approximately 47-55 h. In addition, the hardness of the alginate/gelatin hydrogel substantially increases in the presence of the polymer. The reduced Young's modulus for the alginate/gelatin hydrogel is approximately 13-14 kPa, and this value drops to approximately 0.5 kPa after incubation of the cell containing scaffolds for 5 d. In the presence of 100 μm polyP·Ca(2+)-complex, the reduced Young's modulus increases to about 22 kPa. The hardness of the polyP·Ca(2+)-complex containing hydrogel remains essentially constant if cells are absent in the matrix, but it drops to 3.2 kPa after a 5 d incubation period in the presence of SaOS-2 cells, indicating that polyP·Ca(2+)-complex becomes metabolized, degraded, by the cells. The alginate/gelatine-agarose system with polyP·Ca(2+)-complex cause a significant increase in the mineralization of the cells. SEM analyses revealed that the morphology of the mineral nodules formed on the surface of the cells embedded in the alginate/gelatin hydrogel do not significantly differ from the nodules on cells growing in monolayer cultures. The newly developed technique, using cells encapsulated into an alginate/gelatin hydrogel and a secondary layer containing the morphogenetically active, growth promoting polymer polyP·Ca(2+)-complex opens new possibilities for the application of 3D bioprinting in bone tissue engineering. Copyright

  3. Hepcidin promotes osteogenic differentiation through the bone morphogenetic protein 2/small mothers against decapentaplegic and mitogen-activated protein kinase/P38 signaling pathways in mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    LU, HUADING; LIAN, LIYI; SHI, DEHAI; ZHAO, HUIQING; DAI, YUHU

    2014-01-01

    The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into osteogenic lineages requires management for their future use in treating bone destruction and osteoporosis. Hepcidin is closely associated with bone metabolism, however, it remains to be elucidated whether hepcidin affects osteogenic differentiation in MSCs. The present study demonstrated that hepcidin enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization, which was manifested by an upregulation in the differentiation marke...

  4. Elastin-like-polypeptide based fusion proteins for osteogenic factor delivery in bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bryce; Yuan, Yuan; Koria, Piyush

    2016-07-08

    Modern treatments of bone injuries and diseases are becoming increasingly dependent on the usage of growth factors to stimulate bone growth. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a potent osteogenic inductive protein, exhibits promising results in treatment models, but recently has had its practical efficacy questioned due to the lack of local retention, ectopic bone formation, and potentially lethal inflammation. Where a new delivery technique of the BMP-2 is necessary, here we demonstrate the viability of an elastin-like peptide (ELP) fusion protein containing BMP-2 for delivery of the BMP-2. This fusion protein retains the performance characteristics of both the BMP-2 and ELP. The fusion protein was found to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as evidenced by the production of alkaline phosphatase and extracellular calcium deposits in response to treatment by the fusion protein. Retention of the ELPs inverse phase transition property has allowed for expression of the fusion protein within a bacterial host (such as Escherichia coli) and easy and rapid purification using inverse transition cycling. The fusion protein formed self-aggregating nanoparticles at human-body temperature. The data collected suggests the viability of these fusion protein nanoparticles as a dosage-efficient and location-precise noncytotoxic delivery vehicle for BMP-2 in bone treatment. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1029-1037, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of xaraés palisadegrass subjected to grazing intensitiesCaracterísticas morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-xaraés submetido a intesidades de pastejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Galzerano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of residual leaf area index (rLAI, years of evaluation and grazing cycles on the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of xaraés palisadegrass subjected to grazing intensities in two summers (years of evaluation. The experiment was carried out at the Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” - UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil and the intensities of grazing were defined by four rLAI: 0.8, 1.3, 1.8 and 2.3. When the canopy intercepted 95% of incident light, the animals were placed on the pasture for grazing and kept until the rLAI target has been reached. Pastures were grazed by non-lactating Holstein cows (Bos Taurus Taurus L., using the technique of mob-stocking. The morphogenetic and structural characteristics of xaraés palisadegrass respond effectively to weather conditions. There is variability in morphogenetic and structural characteristics in response to years and grazing cycles within years. O objetivo com este trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de índices de área foliar residual (IAFr, anos de avaliação e ciclos de pastejo sobre as características morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-xaraés sob pastejo, em dois verões agrostológicos (anos de avaliação. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” - UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brasil e as intensidades de pastejos foram definidas por quatro IAFr: 0,8; 1,3; 1,8 e 2,3. Quando o dossel interceptou 95% da luz incidente, os animais foram colocados no piquete para o pastejo e permaneceram até que o IAFr alvo foi alcançado. Os pastejos foram realizados por vacas da raça Holandesa (Bos taurus taurus L. não lactantes, utilizando-se a técnica de mob-stocking. As características morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-xaraés respondem de forma efetiva as mudanças nas condições climáticas. Observa-se variabilidade nas caracter

  6. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  7. Proteins engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At the - Departement d'Ingenierie et d'etudes de proteines (Deip) of the CEA more than seventy researchers are working hard to understand the function of proteins. For that they use the molecular labelling technique (F.M.)

  8. Whey Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reliable information about the safety of taking whey protein if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. Milk allergy: If you are allergic to cow's milk, avoid using whey protein.

  9. Bone morphogenic protein: an elixir for bone grafting--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prasun; Keppler, Louis; Rutkowski, James

    2012-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional growth factors that belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. This literature review focuses on the molecular biology of BMPs, their mechanism of action, and subsequent applications. It also discusses uses of BMPs in the fields of dentistry and orthopedics, research on methods of delivering BMPs, and their role in tissue regeneration. BMP has positive effects on bone grafts, and their calculated and timely use with other growth factors can provide extraordinary results in fractured or nonhealing bones. Use of BMP introduces new applications in the field of implantology and bone grafting. This review touches on a few unknown facts about BMP and this ever-changing field of research to improve human life.

  10. Phosphorylation of the human respiratory syncytial virus P protein mediates M2-2 regulation of viral RNA synthesis, a process that involves two P proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo, Ana; Villanueva, Nieves

    2016-01-04

    The M2-2 protein regulates the balance between human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) transcription and replication. Here it is shown that M2-2 mediated transcriptional inhibition is managed through P protein phosphorylation. Transcription inhibition by M2-2 of the HRSV based minigenome pRSVluc, required P protein phosphorylation at serines (S) in positions 116, 117, 119 and increased inhibition is observed if S232 or S237 is also phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of these residues is required for viral particle egression from infected cells. Viral RNA synthesis complementation assays between P protein variants, suggest that two types of P proteins participate in the process as components of RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Type I is only functional when, as a homotetramer, it is bound to N and L proteins through residues 203-241. Type II is functionally independent of these interactions and binds to N protein at a region outside residues 232-241. P protein type I phosphorylation at S116, S117 and S119, did not affect the activity of RdRp but this phosphorylation in type II avoids its interaction with N protein and impairs RdRp functionality for transcription and replication. Structural changes in the RdRp, mediated by phosphorylation turnover at the indicated residues, in the two types of P proteins, may result in a fine adjustment, late in the infectious cycle, of transcription, replication and progression in the morphogenetic process that ends in egression of the viral particles from infected cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multi-protein delivery by nanodiamonds promotes bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L; Gatica, M; Kim, H; Osawa, E; Ho, D

    2013-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE(®) for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation.

  12. Protein politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Marike

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of the program of the interdisciplinary research group Profetas (protein foods, environment, technology and society). Profetas consists of technological, environmental and socio-economic research projects on protein food systems which result in the development of scenarios and

  13. Protein adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    Nature uses a wide variety of chemicals for providing adhesion internally (e.g., cell to cell) and externally (e.g., mussels to ships and piers). This adhesive bonding is chemically and mechanically complex, involving a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and other compounds.Consequently,the effect of protein structures on adhesive properties is only partially...

  14. Tau protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Kristensen, Kim; Bahl, Jmc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tau protein has been proposed as biomarker of axonal damage leading to irreversible neurological impairment in MS. CSF concentrations may be useful when determining risk of progression from ON to MS. Objective: To investigate the association between tau protein concentration and 14......-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) versus patients with monosymptomatic onset who progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate results against data found in a complete literature review. Methods: A total of 66 patients with MS and/or ON from...... the Department of Neurology of Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were analysed for tau protein and 14-3-3 protein, and clinical and paraclinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: The study shows a significantly increased concentration of tau...

  15. Overlapping functions of argonaute proteins in patterning and morphogenesis of Drosophila embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibke J Meyer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Argonaute proteins are essential components of the molecular machinery that drives RNA silencing. In Drosophila, different members of the Argonaute family of proteins have been assigned to distinct RNA silencing pathways. While Ago1 is required for microRNA function, Ago2 is a crucial component of the RNA-induced silencing complex in siRNA-triggered RNA interference. Drosophila Ago2 contains an unusual amino-terminus with two types of imperfect glutamine-rich repeats (GRRs of unknown function. Here we show that the GRRs of Ago2 are essential for the normal function of the protein. Alleles with reduced numbers of GRRs cause specific disruptions in two morphogenetic processes associated with the midblastula transition: membrane growth and microtubule-based organelle transport. These defects do not appear to result from disruption of siRNA-dependent processes but rather suggest an interference of the mutant Ago2 proteins in an Ago1-dependent pathway. Using loss-of-function alleles, we further demonstrate that Ago1 and Ago2 act in a partially redundant manner to control the expression of the segment-polarity gene wingless in the early embryo. Our findings argue against a strict separation of Ago1 and Ago2 functions and suggest that these proteins act in concert to control key steps of the midblastula transition and of segmental patterning.

  16. SecA is required for membrane targeting of the cell division protein DivIVA in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eHalbedel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The conserved protein DivIVA is involved in different morphogenetic processes in Gram-positive bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, the protein localises to the cell division site and cell poles, and functions as a scaffold for proteins that regulate division site selection, and for proteins that are required for sporulation. To identify other proteins that bind to DivIVA, we performed an in vivo cross-linking experiment. A possible candidate that emerged was the secretion motor ATPase SecA. SecA mutants have been described that inhibit sporulation, and since DivIVA is necessary for sporulation, we examined the localisation of DivIVA in these mutants. Surprisingly, DivIVA was delocalised, suggesting that SecA is required for DivIVA targeting. To further corroborate this, we performed SecA depletion and inhibition experiments, which provided further indications that DivIVA localisation depends on SecA. Cell fractionation experiments showed that SecA is important for binding of DivIVA to the cell membrane. This was unexpected since DivIVA does not contain a signal sequence, and is able to bind to artificial lipid membranes in vitro without support of other proteins. SecA is required for protein secretion and membrane insertion, and therefore its role in DivIVA localisation is likely indirect. Possible alternative roles of SecA in DivIVA folding and/or targeting are discussed.

  17. Periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells with protein-releasing scaffolds for cementum formation and integration on dentin surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hankyu; Tarafder, Solaiman; Fogge, Michael; Kao, Kristy; Lee, Chang H

    2016-11-01

    Purpose/Aim: Cementogenesis is a critical step in periodontal tissue regeneration given the essential role of cementum in anchoring teeth to the alveolar bone. This study is designed to achieve integrated cementum formation on the root surfaces of human teeth using growth factor-releasing scaffolds with periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells (PDLSCs). Human PDLSCs were sorted by CD146 expression, and characterized using CFU-F assay and induced multi-lineage differentiation. Polycaprolactone scaffolds were fabricated using 3D printing, embedded with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids) (PLGA) microspheres encapsulating connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), or bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7). After removing cementum on human tooth roots, PDLSC-seeded scaffolds were placed on the exposed dentin surface. After 6-week culture with cementogenic/osteogenic medium, cementum formation and integration were evaluated by histomorphometric analysis, immunofluorescence, and qRT-PCR. Periodontal ligament (PDL) cells sorted by CD146 and single-cell clones show a superior clonogenecity and multipotency as compared with heterogeneous populations. After 6 weeks, all the growth factor-delivered groups showed resurfacing of dentin with a newly formed cementum-like layer as compared with control. BMP-2 and BMP-7 showed de novo formation of tissue layers significantly thicker than all the other groups, whereas CTGF and BMP-7 resulted in significantly improved integration on the dentin surface. The de novo mineralized tissue layer seen in BMP-7-treated samples expressed cementum matrix protein 1 (CEMP1). Consistently, BMP-7 showed a significant increase in CEMP1 mRNA expression. Our findings represent important progress in stem cell-based cementum regeneration as an essential part of periodontium regeneration.

  18. In vitro engineering of fibrocartilage using CDMP1 induced dermal fibroblasts and polyglycolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guiqing; Yin, Shuo; Liu, Guangpeng; Cen, Lian; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Heng; Liu, Wei; Cui, Lei; Cao, Yilin

    2009-07-01

    This study was designed to explore the feasibility of using cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-1 (CDMP1) induced dermal fibroblasts (DFs) as seed cells and polyglycolide (PGA) as scaffold for fibrocartilage engineering. DFs isolated from canine were expanded and seeded on PGA scaffold to fabricate cell/scaffold constructs which were cultured with or without CDMP1. Proliferation and differentiation of DFs in different constructs were determined by DNA assay and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production. Histological and immunohistochemical staining of the constructs after being in vitro cultured for 4 and 6 weeks were carried out to observe the fibrocartilage formation condition. The fibrocartilage-specific gene expression by cells in the constructs was analyzed by real-time PCR. It was shown that in the presence of CDMP1 the proliferation and GAG synthesis of DFs were significantly enhanced compared to those without CDMP1. Fibrocartilage-like tissue was formed in the CDMP1 induced construct after being cultured for 4 weeks, and it became more matured at 6 weeks as stronger staining for GAG and higher gene expression of collagen type II was observed. Since only weak staining for GAG and collagen type II was observed for the construct engineered without CDMP1, the induction effect on the fibrocartilage engineering can be ascertained when using DFs as seed cells. Furthermore, the potential of using DFs as seed cells to engineer fibrocartilage is substantiated and further study on using the engineered tissue to repair fibrocartilage defects is currently ongoing in our group.

  19. The Conserved Spore Coat Protein SpoVM Is Largely Dispensable in Clostridium difficile Spore Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribis, John W; Ravichandran, Priyanka; Putnam, Emily E; Pishdadian, Keyan; Shen, Aimee

    2017-01-01

    The spore-forming bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of health care-associated infections in the United States. In order for this obligate anaerobe to transmit infection, it must form metabolically dormant spores prior to exiting the host. A key step during this process is the assembly of a protective, multilayered proteinaceous coat around the spore. Coat assembly depends on coat morphogenetic proteins recruiting distinct subsets of coat proteins to the developing spore. While 10 coat morphogenetic proteins have been identified in Bacillus subtilis , only two of these morphogenetic proteins have homologs in the Clostridia : SpoIVA and SpoVM. C. difficile SpoIVA is critical for proper coat assembly and functional spore formation, but the requirement for SpoVM during this process was unknown. Here, we show that SpoVM is largely dispensable for C. difficile spore formation, in contrast with B. subtilis . Loss of C. difficile SpoVM resulted in modest decreases (~3-fold) in heat- and chloroform-resistant spore formation, while morphological defects such as coat detachment from the forespore and abnormal cortex thickness were observed in ~30% of spoVM mutant cells. Biochemical analyses revealed that C. difficile SpoIVA and SpoVM directly interact, similarly to their B. subtilis counterparts. However, in contrast with B. subtilis , C. difficile SpoVM was not essential for SpoIVA to encase the forespore. Since C. difficile coat morphogenesis requires SpoIVA-interacting protein L (SipL), which is conserved exclusively in the Clostridia , but not the more broadly conserved SpoVM, our results reveal another key difference between C. difficile and B. subtilis spore assembly pathways. IMPORTANCE The spore-forming obligate anaerobe Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrheal disease in the United States. When C. difficile spores are ingested by susceptible individuals, they germinate within the gut and

  20. Binding of sFRP-3 to EGF in the extra-cellular space affects proliferation, differentiation and morphogenetic events regulated by the two molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Scardigli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: sFRP-3 is a soluble antagonist of Wnts, widely expressed in developing embryos. The Wnt gene family comprises cysteine-rich secreted ligands that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, organogenesis and oncogenesis of different organisms ranging from worms to mammals. In the canonical signal transduction pathway Wnt proteins bind to the extracellular domain of Frizzled receptors and consequently recruit Dishevelled (Dsh to the cell membrane. In addition to Wnt membrane receptors belonging to the Frizzled family, several other molecules have been described which share homology in the CRD domain and lack the putative trans-membrane domain, such as sFRP molecules (soluble Frizzled Related Protein. Among them, sFRP-3 was originally isolated from bovine articular cartilage and also as a component of the Spemann organizer. sFRP-3 blocks Wnt-8 induced axis duplication in Xenopus embryos and binds to the surface of cells expressing a membrane-anchored form of Wnt-1. Injection of sFRP-3 mRNA blocks expression of XMyoD mRNA and leads to embryos with enlarged heads and shortened trunks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that sFRP-3 specifically blocks EGF-induced fibroblast proliferation and foci formation. Over-expression of sFRP-3 reverts EGF-mediated inhibition of hair follicle development in the mouse ectoderm while its ablation in Xenopus maintains EGF-mediated inhibition of ectoderm differentiation. Conversely, over-expression of EGF reverts the inhibition of somitic myogenesis and axis truncation in Xenopus and mouse embryos caused by sFRP-3. In vitro experiments demonstrated a direct binding of EGF to sFRP-3 both on heparin and on the surface of CHO cells where the molecule had been membrane anchored. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: sFRP-3 and EGF reciprocally inhibit their effects on cell proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis and indeed are expressed in contiguous domains of the embryo, suggesting that in

  1. Role of ID Proteins in BMP4 Inhibition of Profibrotic Effects of TGF-β2 in Human TM Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Avani A; Wordinger, Robert J; Clark, Abbot F

    2017-02-01

    Increased expression of TGF-β2 in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) aqueous humor (AH) and trabecular meshwork (TM) causes deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the TM and elevated IOP. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate TGF-β2-induced ECM production. The underlying mechanism for BMP4 inhibition of TGF-β2-induced fibrosis remains undetermined. Bone morphogenic protein 4 induces inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (ID1, ID3), which suppress transcription factor activities to regulate gene expression. Our study will determine whether ID1and ID3 proteins are downstream targets of BMP4, which attenuates TGF-β2 induction of ECM proteins in TM cells. Primary human TM cells were treated with BMP4, and ID1 and ID3 mRNA, and protein expression was determined by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and Western immunoblotting. Intracellular ID1 and ID3 protein localization was studied by immunocytochemistry. Transformed human TM cells (GTM3 cells) were transfected with ID1 or ID3 expression vectors to determine their potential inhibitory effects on TGF-β2-induced fibronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-I (PAI-1) protein expression. Basal expression of ID1-3 was detected in primary human TM cells. Bone morphogenic protein 4 significantly induced early expression of ID1 and ID3 mRNA (P protein in primary TM cells, and a BMP receptor inhibitor blocked this induction. Overexpression of ID1 and ID3 significantly inhibited TGF-β2-induced expression of fibronectin and PAI-1 in TM cells (P protein 4 induced ID1 and ID3 expression suppresses TGF-β2 profibrotic activity in human TM cells. In the future, targeting specific regulators may control the TGF-β2 profibrotic effects on the TM, leading to disease modifying IOP lowering therapies.

  2. Diferentes massas de forragem sobre as variáveis morfogênicas e estruturais de azevém anual Different herbage masses on morphogenetic and structural traits of Italian ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Cerato Confortin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Características morfogênicas e estruturais de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. foram avaliadas sob pastejo de borregas, em diferentes massas de forragem (MF: "Alta", "Média" e "Baixa", correspondentes a 1800-2000; 1400-1600 e 1000-1200kg ha-1 de matéria seca (MS, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e duas repetições de área. O método de pastejo foi de lotação contínua, com número variável de animais. Os dados foram submetidos a análises de correlação e regressão polinomial. A altura do pseudocolmo, o comprimento de lâminas intactas e desfolhadas e o número de folhas em senescência de azevém aumentaram linearmente com a elevação dos valores das massas de forragem. O número de folhas verdes ajustou-se ao modelo de regressão quadrático; o número de folhas em expansão e a densidade populacional de perfilhos não se ajustaram a nenhum modelo de regressão. Em pastagem de azevém, o manejo com massas de forragem dentro da faixa compreendida entre 1.100 e 1.800kg ha-1de MS não provoca alterações nas características morfogênicas dessa gramínea, mas causa diferenças nas características estruturais do dossel. Quando o azevém é manejado com 1.460kg ha-1de MS, seus perfilhos mantêm maior número de folhas verdes e com 1.800kg ha-1 de MS existe maior número de lâminas foliares em senescência e com maior comprimento.Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., utilized by female lambs and managed with different forage masses (FM were studied. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two area replications and three treatments, consisting of forage masses: "High", "Mean" and "Low", corresponding to 1,800-2,000; 1,400-1,600 and 1,000-1,200kg ha-1 of dry matter (DM, respectively. The grazing method was continuous with variable stocking rate. Data were subjected to correlation analysis and polynomial

  3. Características morfogênicas do capim-piatã submetido à adubação com efluentes de abatedouro avícola Morphogenetic characteristics of palisadegrass Piata fertilized with effluent from poultry processing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Previdelli Orrico Junior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar diferentes doses de efluente de abatedouro avícola para proporcionar melhorias nas características produtivas, morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-piatã. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, adotando-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em que foram testadas cinco doses de efluentes: 324, 648, 972, 1.296 e 1620m³ ha-1 ou equivalente a 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250kg ha-1 de N. As variáveis mensuradas foram: produção de matéria seca (MS, taxa de aparecimento de folha (TApF, taxa de alongamento de folha (TAlF, filocrono, taxa de alongamento de pseudocolmo (TAlC, comprimento final de folha (CFF e números de folhas verdes (NFV. A produção de MS seguiu um modelo linear de predição em função das doses efluente avícola, em que o tratamento com 250kg ha-1 de N foi 55% maior, quando comparado com o tratamento de 50kg ha-1 de N. Todas as características morfogênicas e estruturais avaliadas com exceção do filocrono apresentaram comportamento linear positivo. Dessa forma, o efluente de abatedouro avícola pode ser utilizado como uma alternativa para adubação do capim-piatã, pois este respondeu de maneira crescente até a dose máxima testada.The organic fertilizer is considered a viable alternative for the production of forage grasses. However there is little information about the rates and composition of the organic fertilizers. According to this assumption the objective of this study was to figure out the best dose of effluent from poultry processing plants in order to improve the structural, morphogenetic and productive characteristics of Piata palidadegrass. The experiment was carried out at a greenhouse and performed in a completely randomized design in which five doses of effluent, 324, 648, 972, 1296 and 1620m³ ha-1 were tested and equivalent to 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250kg ha-1 de N respectively. The measured variables were: dry matter (DM, leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation

  4. Protein nanoparticles for therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Estrada, L P; Champion, J A

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic proteins can face substantial challenges to their activity, requiring protein modification or use of a delivery vehicle. Nanoparticles can significantly enhance delivery of encapsulated cargo, but traditional small molecule carriers have some limitations in their use for protein delivery. Nanoparticles made from protein have been proposed as alternative carriers and have benefits specific to therapeutic protein delivery. This review describes protein nanoparticles made by self-assembly, including protein cages, protein polymers, and charged or amphipathic peptides, and by desolvation. It presents particle fabrication and delivery characterization for a variety of therapeutic and model proteins, as well as comparison of the features of different protein nanoparticles.

  5. The Crucial Role of the Pls1 Tetraspanin during Ascospore Germination in Podospora anserina Provides an Example of the Convergent Evolution of Morphogenetic Processes in Fungal Plant Pathogens and Saprobes▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambou, Karine; Malagnac, Fabienne; Barbisan, Crystel; Tharreau, Didier; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Pls1 tetraspanins were shown for some pathogenic fungi to be essential for appressorium-mediated penetration into their host plants. We show here that Podospora anserina, a saprobic fungus lacking appressorium, contains PaPls1, a gene orthologous to known PLS1 genes. Inactivation of PaPls1 demonstrates that this gene is specifically required for the germination of ascospores in P. anserina. These ascospores are heavily melanized cells that germinate under inducing conditions through a specific pore. On the contrary, MgPLS1, which fully complements a ΔPaPls1 ascospore germination defect, has no role in the germination of Magnaporthe grisea nonmelanized ascospores but is required for the formation of the penetration peg at the pore of its melanized appressorium. P. anserina mutants with mutation of PaNox2, which encodes the NADPH oxidase of the NOX2 family, display the same ascospore-specific germination defect as the ΔPaPls1 mutant. Both mutant phenotypes are suppressed by the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis, suggesting that they are involved in the same cellular process required for the germination of P. anserina melanized ascospores. The analysis of the distribution of PLS1 and NOX2 genes in fungal genomes shows that they are either both present or both absent. These results indicate that the germination of P. anserina ascospores and the formation of the M. grisea appressorium penetration peg use the same molecular machinery that includes Pls1 and Nox2. This machinery is specifically required for the emergence of polarized hyphae from reinforced structures such as appressoria and ascospores. Its recurrent recruitment during fungal evolution may account for some of the morphogenetic convergence observed in fungi. PMID:18757568

  6. The crucial role of the Pls1 tetraspanin during ascospore germination in Podospora anserina provides an example of the convergent evolution of morphogenetic processes in fungal plant pathogens and saprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambou, Karine; Malagnac, Fabienne; Barbisan, Crystel; Tharreau, Didier; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Silar, Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Pls1 tetraspanins were shown for some pathogenic fungi to be essential for appressorium-mediated penetration into their host plants. We show here that Podospora anserina, a saprobic fungus lacking appressorium, contains PaPls1, a gene orthologous to known PLS1 genes. Inactivation of PaPls1 demonstrates that this gene is specifically required for the germination of ascospores in P. anserina. These ascospores are heavily melanized cells that germinate under inducing conditions through a specific pore. On the contrary, MgPLS1, which fully complements a DeltaPaPls1 ascospore germination defect, has no role in the germination of Magnaporthe grisea nonmelanized ascospores but is required for the formation of the penetration peg at the pore of its melanized appressorium. P. anserina mutants with mutation of PaNox2, which encodes the NADPH oxidase of the NOX2 family, display the same ascospore-specific germination defect as the DeltaPaPls1 mutant. Both mutant phenotypes are suppressed by the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis, suggesting that they are involved in the same cellular process required for the germination of P. anserina melanized ascospores. The analysis of the distribution of PLS1 and NOX2 genes in fungal genomes shows that they are either both present or both absent. These results indicate that the germination of P. anserina ascospores and the formation of the M. grisea appressorium penetration peg use the same molecular machinery that includes Pls1 and Nox2. This machinery is specifically required for the emergence of polarized hyphae from reinforced structures such as appressoria and ascospores. Its recurrent recruitment during fungal evolution may account for some of the morphogenetic convergence observed in fungi.

  7. Protein-Protein Interaction Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-01-01

    Years of meticulous curation of scientific literature and increasingly reliable computational predictions have resulted in creation of vast databases of protein interaction data. Over the years, these repositories have become a basic framework in which experiments are analyzed and new directions...

  8. Sizzled controls dorso-ventral polarity by repressing cleavage of the Chordin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Osamu; Shimizu, Takashi; Yabe, Taijiro; Nojima, Hideaki; Bae, Young-Ki; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Hibi, Masahiko

    2006-04-01

    The Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signalling gradient has a major function in the formation of the dorso-ventral axis. The zebrafish ventralized mutant, ogon, encodes Secreted Frizzled (Sizzled). sizzled is ventrally expressed in a Bmp-dependent manner and is required for the suppression of Bmp signalling on the ventral side of zebrafish embryos. However, it remains unclear how Sizzled inhibits Bmp signalling and controls ventro-lateral cell fate. We found that Sizzled stabilizes Chordin, a Bmp antagonist, by binding and inhibiting the Tolloid-family metalloproteinase, Bmp1a, which cleaves and inactivates Chordin. The cysteine-rich domain of Sizzled is required for inhibition of Bmp1a activity. Loss of both Bmp1a and Tolloid-like1 (Tll1; another Tolloid-family metalloproteinase) function leads to a complete suppression and reversal of the ogon mutant phenotype. These results indicate that Sizzled represses the activities of Tolloid-family proteins, thereby creating the Chordin-Bmp activity gradient along the dorso-ventral axis. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized role for a secreted Frizzled-related protein.

  9. An automated decision-tree approach to predicting protein interaction hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Steven J; Page, David; Mitchell, Julie C

    2007-09-01

    Protein-protein interactions can be altered by mutating one or more "hot spots," the subset of residues that account for most of the interface's binding free energy. The identification of hot spots requires a significant experimental effort, highlighting the practical value of hot spot predictions. We present two knowledge-based models that improve the ability to predict hot spots: K-FADE uses shape specificity features calculated by the Fast Atomic Density Evaluation (FADE) program, and K-CON uses biochemical contact features. The combined K-FADE/CON (KFC) model displays better overall predictive accuracy than computational alanine scanning (Robetta-Ala). In addition, because these methods predict different subsets of known hot spots, a large and significant increase in accuracy is achieved by combining KFC and Robetta-Ala. The KFC analysis is applied to the calmodulin (CaM)/smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) interface, and to the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)/BMP receptor-type I (BMPR-IA) interface. The results indicate a strong correlation between KFC hot spot predictions and mutations that significantly reduce the binding affinity of the interface. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Expression of Iron-Related Proteins Differentiate Non-Cancerous and Cancerous Breast Tumors

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    Sara Pizzamiglio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported hepcidin and ferritin increases in the plasma of breast cancer patients, but not in patients with benign breast disease. We hypothesized that these differences in systemic iron homeostasis may reflect alterations in different iron-related proteins also play a key biochemical and regulatory role in breast cancer. Thus, here we explored the expression of a bundle of molecules involved in both iron homeostasis and tumorigenesis in tissue samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or reverse-phase protein array (RPPA, were used to measure the expression of 20 proteins linked to iron processes in 24 non-cancerous, and 56 cancerous, breast tumors. We found that cancerous tissues had higher level of hepcidin than benign lesions (p = 0.012. The univariate analysis of RPPA data highlighted the following seven proteins differentially expressed between non-cancerous and cancerous breast tissue: signal transducer and transcriptional activator 5 (STAT5, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6, cluster of differentiation 74 (CD74, transferrin receptor (TFRC, inhibin alpha (INHA, and STAT5_pY694. These findings were confirmed for STAT5, STAT3, BMP6, CD74 and INHA when adjusting for age. The multivariate statistical analysis indicated an iron-related 10-protein panel effective in separating non-cancerous from cancerous lesions including STAT5, STAT5_pY694, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88, CD74, iron exporter ferroportin (FPN, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, STAT3_pS727, TFRC, ferritin heavy chain (FTH, and ferritin light chain (FTL. Our results showed an association between some iron-related proteins and the type of tumor tissue, which may provide insight in strategies for using iron chelators to treat breast cancer.

  11. Research Progress in Oncology. Highlighting and Exploiting the Roles of Several Strategic Proteins in Understanding Cancer Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odiba Arome S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although almost all biological processes are mediated by a variety of proteins, it is important to bring to spotlight recent experimental and clinical research advances that had their focus on highlighting and taking advantage of the roles of several strategic proteins in order to gain more understanding of cancer biology. Proteins have a major stake in the initiation, progression, sustenance and completion of cellular processes, and have also demonstrated their vital roles in cancer processes. The characteristic functions of proteins and modified proteins have been utilized in the understanding and treatment of cancer. Recent insights in such roles and applications include linker histone H1.2 in the compaction of chromatin and gene silencing via the recognition of H3K27me3; c-Jun with Fra-2/c-Fos in the promotion of aggressive tumour phenotypes in tongue cancer; the use of sodium channelinhibiting agents targeting the transmembrane protein in breast, colon and prostate cancer; SET-mediated activities; protein interaction networks in glioma; Gpnmb significance as a biomarker; β-carbolines inhibition on Wnt/β-catenin signaling; p53 mutants co-opt chromatin pathways; Bone morphogenetic protein 4 as regulator of the behaviors of cancer cell; Brain-Expressed X-linked (BEX proteins in human cancers; targeting CDK4/6 including protein kinases to make a reversal of multidrug resistance in sarcoma. In-depth knowledge of Proteomics will go a long way in helping us uncover a lot more strategies that will help us in the long fight against cancer.

  12. Aquaporin Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Virginia Roche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are tetrameric membrane-bound channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes. In eukaryotes, they are frequently regulated by gating or trafficking, allowing for the cell to control membrane permeability in a specific manner. Protein–protein interactions play crucial roles in both regulatory processes and also mediate alternative functions such as cell adhesion. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about aquaporin protein–protein interactions; dividing the interactions into three types: (1 interactions between aquaporin tetramers; (2 interactions between aquaporin monomers within a tetramer (hetero-tetramerization; and (3 transient interactions with regulatory proteins. We particularly focus on the structural aspects of the interactions, discussing the small differences within a conserved overall fold that allow for aquaporins to be differentially regulated in an organism-, tissue- and trigger-specific manner. A deep knowledge about these differences is needed to fully understand aquaporin function and regulation in many physiological processes, and may enable design of compounds targeting specific aquaporins for treatment of human disease.

  13. Protein immobilization strategies for protein biochips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusmini, F.; Rusmini, Federica; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, protein biochips have emerged as promising proteomic and diagnostic tools for obtaining information about protein functions and interactions. Important technological innovations have been made. However, considerable development is still required, especially regarding protein

  14. Human trabecular meshwork cells express BMP antagonist mRNAs and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Vidales, Tara; Fitzgerald, Ashley M; Clark, Abbot F

    2016-06-01

    Glaucoma patients have elevated aqueous humor and trabecular meshwork (TM) levels of transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2). TGF-β2 has been associated with increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition (i.e. fibronectin), which is attributed to the increased resistance of aqueous humor outflow through the TM. We have previously demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 selectively counteracts the profibrotic effect of TGF-β2 with respect to ECM synthesis in the TM, and this action is reversed by the BMP antagonist gremlin. Thus, the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways antagonize each other's antifibrotic and profibrotic roles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cultured human TM cells: (a) express other BMP antagonists including noggin, chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, Smurf1 and 2, and (b) whether expression of these proteins is regulated by exogenous TGF-β2 treatment. Primary human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells were grown to confluency and treated with TGF-β2 (5 ng/ml) for 24 or 48 h in serum-free medium. Untreated cell served as controls. qPCR and Western immunoblots (WB) determined that human TM cells expressed mRNAs and proteins for the BMP antagonist proteins: noggin, chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, and Smurf1/2. Exogenous TGF-β2 decreased chordin, BMPER, BAMBI, and Smurf1 mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, TGF-β2 increased secreted noggin and Smurf2 mRNA and protein levels. BMP antagonist members are expressed in the human TM. These molecules may be involved in the normal function of the TM as well as TM pathogenesis. Altered expression of BMP antagonist members may lead to functional changes in the human TM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of neuronal antigens and related ventral and dorsal proteins in the normal spinal cord and a surgically induced open neural tube defect of the spine in chick embryos: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do-Hun; Phi, Ji Hoon; Chung, You-Nam; Lee, Yun-Jin; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Dong Won; Park, Moon-Sik; Wang, Kyu-Chang

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate the processes of neuronal differentiation and ventrodorsal patterning in the spinal cord of the chick embryo from embryonic day (E) 3 to E17 and to study the effect of a prenatal spinal open neural tube defect (ONTD) on these processes. Expression patterns of neuronal antigens (neuronal nuclear antigen, neurofilament-associated protein (NAP), and synaptophysin) and related ventral markers [sonic hedgehog, paired box gene (PAX)6, and islet-1], and dorsal markers (bone morphogenetic protein, Notch homolog 1, and PAX7) were investigated in the normal spinal cord and in a surgically induced spinal ONTD in chick embryos. Four normal and ONTD chick embryos were used for each antigen group. There were no differences in the expression of neuronal and ventrodorsal markers between the control and ONTD groups. NAP and synaptophysin were useful for identifying dorsal structures in the distorted anatomy of the ONTD chicks.

  16. Matrilin-2, an extracellular adaptor protein, is needed for the regeneration of muscle, nerve and other tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Korpos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM performs essential functions in the differentiation, maintenance and remodeling of tissues during development and regeneration, and it undergoes dynamic changes during remodeling concomitant to alterations in the cell-ECM interactions. Here we discuss recent data addressing the critical role of the widely expressed ECM protein, matrilin-2 (Matn2 in the timely onset of differentiation and regeneration processes in myogenic, neural and other tissues and in tumorigenesis. As a multiadhesion adaptor protein, it interacts with other ECM proteins and integrins. Matn2 promotes neurite outgrowth, Schwann cell migration, neuromuscular junction formation, skeletal muscle and liver regeneration and skin wound healing. Matn2 deposition by myoblasts is crucial for the timely induction of the global switch toward terminal myogenic differentiation during muscle regeneration by affecting transforming growth factor beta/bone morphogenetic protein 7/Smad and other signal transduction pathways. Depending on the type of tissue and the pathomechanism, Matn2 can also promote or suppress tumor growth.

  17. Defoliation management affects morphogenetic and structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... increase of about 30% on forage and leaf accumulation rates of both grass and legume. Therefore, to enhance productivity and stability when these species are associated we recommend defoliating at 90–95% LI, which represents a canopy height ranging from 26 to 32 cm. Keywords: Arachis pintoi, Brachiaria brizantha, ...

  18. Mechanosensitive molecular networks involved in transducing resistance exercise-signals into muscle protein accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Rindom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Loss of skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein with disease and/or inactivity can severely deteriorate muscle strength and function. Strategies to counteract wasting of muscle myofibrillar protein are therefore desirable and invite for considerations on the potential superiority of specific modes of resistance exercise and/or the adequacy of low load resistance exercise regimens as well as underlying mechanisms. In this regard, delineation of the potentially mechanosensitive molecular mechanisms underlying muscle protein synthesis (MPS, may contribute to understanding on how differentiated resistance exercise can transduce a mechanical signal into stimulation of muscle accretion. Recent findings suggest specific upstream exercise-induced mechano-sensitive myocellular signaling pathways to converge on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, to influence MPS. This may e.g. implicate mechanical activation of signaling through a diacylglycerol kinase (DGKζ-phosphatidic acid (PA axis or implicate integrin deformation to signal through a Focal adhesion kinase (FAK-Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2TSC2-Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb axis. Moreover, since initiation of translation is reliant on mRNA, it is also relevant to consider potentially mechanosensitive signaling pathways involved in muscle myofibrillar gene transcription and whether some of these pathways converge with those affecting mTORC1 activation for MPS. In this regard, recent findings suggest how mechanical stress may implicate integrin deformation and/or actin dynamics to signal through a Ras homolog gene family member A protein (RhoA-striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS axis or how it may implicate deformation of Notch to affect Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP signaling through a small mother of decapentaplegic (Smad axis.

  19. The Drosophila BTB domain protein Jim Lovell has roles in multiple larval and adult behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M Bjorum

    Full Text Available Innate behaviors have their origins in the specification of neural fates during development. Within Drosophila, BTB (Bric-a-brac,Tramtrack, Broad domain proteins such as Fruitless are known to play key roles in the neural differentiation underlying such responses. We previously identified a gene, which we have termed jim lovell (lov, encoding a BTB protein with a role in gravity responses. To understand more fully the behavioral roles of this gene we have investigated its function through several approaches. Transcript and protein expression patterns have been examined and behavioral phenotypes of new lov mutations have been characterized. Lov is a nuclear protein, suggesting a role as a transcriptional regulator, as for other BTB proteins. In late embryogenesis, Lov is expressed in many CNS and PNS neurons. An examination of the PNS expression indicates that lov functions in the late specification of several classes of sensory neurons. In particular, only two of the five abdominal lateral chordotonal neurons express Lov, predicting functional variation within this highly similar group. Surprisingly, Lov is also expressed very early in embryogenesis in ways that suggests roles in morphogenetic movements, amnioserosa function and head neurogenesis. The phenotypes of two new lov mutations that delete adjacent non-coding DNA regions are strikingly different suggesting removal of different regulatory elements. In lov(47 , Lov expression is lost in many embryonic neurons including the two lateral chordotonal neurons. lov(47 mutant larvae show feeding and locomotor defects including spontaneous backward movement. Adult lov(47 males perform aberrant courtship behavior distinguished by courtship displays that are not directed at the female. lov(47 adults also show more defective negative gravitaxis than the previously isolated lov(91Y mutant. In contrast, lov(66 produces largely normal behavior but severe female sterility associated with ectopic lov

  20. Structure and inhibition of the SARS coronavirus envelope protein ion channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Pervushin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The envelope (E protein from coronaviruses is a small polypeptide that contains at least one alpha-helical transmembrane domain. Absence, or inactivation, of E protein results in attenuated viruses, due to alterations in either virion morphology or tropism. Apart from its morphogenetic properties, protein E has been reported to have membrane permeabilizing activity. Further, the drug hexamethylene amiloride (HMA, but not amiloride, inhibited in vitro ion channel activity of some synthetic coronavirus E proteins, and also viral replication. We have previously shown for the coronavirus species responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV that the transmembrane domain of E protein (ETM forms pentameric alpha-helical bundles that are likely responsible for the observed channel activity. Herein, using solution NMR in dodecylphosphatidylcholine micelles and energy minimization, we have obtained a model of this channel which features regular alpha-helices that form a pentameric left-handed parallel bundle. The drug HMA was found to bind inside the lumen of the channel, at both the C-terminal and the N-terminal openings, and, in contrast to amiloride, induced additional chemical shifts in ETM. Full length SARS-CoV E displayed channel activity when transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293 cells in a whole-cell patch clamp set-up. This activity was significantly reduced by hexamethylene amiloride (HMA, but not by amiloride. The channel structure presented herein provides a possible rationale for inhibition, and a platform for future structure-based drug design of this potential pharmacological target.

  1. The E5 Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaio, Daniel; Petti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The E5 proteins are short transmembrane proteins encoded by many animal and human papillomaviruses. These proteins display transforming activity in cultured cells and animals, and they presumably also play a role in the productive virus life cycle. The E5 proteins are thought to act by modulating the activity of cellular proteins. Here, we describe the biological activities of the best-studied E5 proteins and discuss the evidence implicating specific protein targets and pathways in mediating ...

  2. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  3. Structural and biochemical characterization of phage λ FI protein (gpFI) reveals a novel mechanism of DNA packaging chaperone activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Ana; Wu, Bin; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Edwards, Aled M; Davidson, Alan R; Maxwell, Karen L

    2012-09-14

    One of the final steps in the morphogenetic pathway of phage λ is the packaging of a single genome into a preformed empty head structure. In addition to the terminase enzyme, the packaging chaperone, FI protein (gpFI), is required for efficient DNA packaging. In this study, we demonstrate an interaction between gpFI and the major head protein, gpE. Amino acid substitutions in gpFI that reduced the strength of this interaction also decreased the biological activity of gpFI, implying that this head binding activity is essential for the function of gpFI. We also show that gpFI is a two-domain protein, and the C-terminal domain is responsible for the head binding activity. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the C-terminal domain and characterized the helical nature of the N-terminal domain. Through structural comparisons, we were able to identify two previously unannotated prophage-encoded proteins with tertiary structures similar to gpFI, although they lack significant pairwise sequence identity. Sequence analysis of these diverse homologues led us to identify related proteins in a variety of myo- and siphophages, revealing that gpFI function has a more highly conserved role in phage morphogenesis than was previously appreciated. Finally, we present a novel model for the mechanism of gpFI chaperone activity in the DNA packaging reaction of phage λ.

  4. Activated protein C (APC) can increase bone anabolism via a protease-activated receptor (PAR)1/2 dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kaitlin; Murphy, Ciara M; Chan, Ben; Kolind, Mille; Cheng, Tegan L; Mikulec, Kathy; Peacock, Lauren; Xue, Meilang; Park, Sang-Youel; Little, David G; Jackson, Chris J; Schindeler, Aaron

    2014-12-01

    Activated Protein C (APC) is an anticoagulant with strong cytoprotective properties that has been shown to promote wound healing. In this study APC was investigated for its potential orthopedic application using a Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP-2) induced ectopic bone formation model. Local co-administration of 10 µg rhBMP-2 with 10 µg or 25 µg APC increased bone volume at 3 weeks by 32% (N.S.) and 74% (pAPC are largely mediated by its receptors endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease-activated receptors (PARs). Cultured pre-osteoblasts and bone nodule tissue sections were shown to express PAR1/2 and EPCR. When pre-osteoblasts were treated with APC, cell viability and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and p38 were increased. Inhibition with PAR1 and sometimes PAR2 antagonists, but not with EPCR blocking antibodies, ameliorated the effects of APC on cell viability and kinase phosphorylation. These data indicate that APC can affect osteoblast viability and signaling, and may have in vivo applications with rhBMP-2 for bone repair. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm, is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. Conclusion We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  6. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-10

    Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm), is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  7. β-Arrestin interacts with the beta/gamma subunits of trimeric G-proteins and dishevelled in the Wnt/Ca(2+ pathway in xenopus gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Seitz

    Full Text Available β-Catenin independent, non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways play a major role in the regulation of morphogenetic movements in vertebrates. The term non-canonical Wnt signaling comprises multiple, intracellularly divergent, Wnt-activated and β-Catenin independent signaling cascades including the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity and the Wnt/Ca(2+ cascades. Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity and Wnt/Ca(2+ pathways share common effector proteins, including the Wnt ligand, Frizzled receptors and Dishevelled, with each other and with additional branches of Wnt signaling. Along with the aforementioned proteins, β-Arrestin has been identified as an essential effector protein in the Wnt/β-Catenin and the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity pathway. Our results demonstrate that β-Arrestin is required in the Wnt/Ca(2+ signaling cascade upstream of Protein Kinase C (PKC and Ca(2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II (CamKII. We have further characterized the role of β-Arrestin in this branch of non-canonical Wnt signaling by knock-down and rescue experiments in Xenopus embryo explants and analyzed protein-protein interactions in 293T cells. Functional interaction of β-Arrestin, the β subunit of trimeric G-proteins and Dishevelled is required to induce PKC activation and membrane translocation. In Xenopus gastrulation, β-Arrestin function in Wnt/Ca(2+ signaling is essential for convergent extension movements. We further show that β-Arrestin physically interacts with the β subunit of trimeric G-proteins and Dishevelled, and that the interaction between β-Arrestin and Dishevelled is promoted by the beta/gamma subunits of trimeric G-proteins, indicating the formation of a multiprotein signaling complex.

  8. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  9. Introduction to protein blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    Protein blotting is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins following electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer.

  10. Our interests in protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    protein interactions. Evolution of P-P partnerships. Evolution of P-P structures. Evolutionary dynamics of P-P interactions. Dynamics of P-P interaction network. Host-pathogen interactions. CryoEM mapping of gigantic protein assemblies.

  11. Evolution of protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evolution of protein-protein interactions · Our interests in protein-protein interactions · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20.

  12. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  13. Protein-losing enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  14. Oligomeric protein structure networks: insights into protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda KV

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein association is essential for a variety of cellular processes and hence a large number of investigations are being carried out to understand the principles of protein-protein interactions. In this study, oligomeric protein structures are viewed from a network perspective to obtain new insights into protein association. Structure graphs of proteins have been constructed from a non-redundant set of protein oligomer crystal structures by considering amino acid residues as nodes and the edges are based on the strength of the non-covalent interactions between the residues. The analysis of such networks has been carried out in terms of amino acid clusters and hubs (highly connected residues with special emphasis to protein interfaces. Results A variety of interactions such as hydrogen bond, salt bridges, aromatic and hydrophobic interactions, which occur at the interfaces are identified in a consolidated manner as amino acid clusters at the interface, from this study. Moreover, the characterization of the highly connected hub-forming residues at the interfaces and their comparison with the hubs from the non-interface regions and the non-hubs in the interface regions show that there is a predominance of charged interactions at the interfaces. Further, strong and weak interfaces are identified on the basis of the interaction strength between amino acid residues and the sizes of the interface clusters, which also show that many protein interfaces are stronger than their monomeric protein cores. The interface strengths evaluated based on the interface clusters and hubs also correlate well with experimentally determined dissociation constants for known complexes. Finally, the interface hubs identified using the present method correlate very well with experimentally determined hotspots in the interfaces of protein complexes obtained from the Alanine Scanning Energetics database (ASEdb. A few predictions of interface hot

  15. Protein surface shielding agents in protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hašek, J.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization process can be controlled by protein surface shielding agents blocking undesirable competitive adhesion modes during non-equilibrium processes of deposition of protein molecules on the surface of growing crystalline blocks. The hypothesis is based on a number of experimental proofs from diffraction experiments and also retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. The molecules adhering temporarily on the surface of protein molecules change the propensity of protein molecules to deposit on the crystal surface in a definite position and orientation. The concepts of competitive adhesion modes and protein surface shielding agents acting on the surface of molecules in a non-equilibrium process of protein crystallization provide a useful platform for the control of crystallization. The desirable goal, i.e. a transient preference of a single dominating adhesion mode between protein molecules during crystallization, leads to uniform deposition of proteins in a crystal. This condition is the most important factor for diffraction quality and thus also for the accuracy of protein structure determination. The presented hypothesis is a generalization of the experimentally well proven behaviour of hydrophilic polymers on the surface of protein molecules of other compounds

  16. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  17. Protein Structure Prediction by Protein Threading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Liu, Zhijie; Cai, Liming; Xu, Dong

    The seminal work of Bowie, Lüthy, and Eisenberg (Bowie et al., 1991) on "the inverse protein folding problem" laid the foundation of protein structure prediction by protein threading. By using simple measures for fitness of different amino acid types to local structural environments defined in terms of solvent accessibility and protein secondary structure, the authors derived a simple and yet profoundly novel approach to assessing if a protein sequence fits well with a given protein structural fold. Their follow-up work (Elofsson et al., 1996; Fischer and Eisenberg, 1996; Fischer et al., 1996a,b) and the work by Jones, Taylor, and Thornton (Jones et al., 1992) on protein fold recognition led to the development of a new brand of powerful tools for protein structure prediction, which we now term "protein threading." These computational tools have played a key role in extending the utility of all the experimentally solved structures by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), providing structural models and functional predictions for many of the proteins encoded in the hundreds of genomes that have been sequenced up to now.

  18. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is

  19. Amino acids and proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A balanced, safe diet with proteins is important to meet nutritional requirements. Proteins occur in animal as well as vegetable products in important quantities. In some countries, many people obtain much of their protein from animal products. In other regions, the major portion of dietary protein ...

  20. Titanium phosphate glass microcarriers induce enhanced osteogenic cell proliferation and human mesenchymal stem cell protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay J Lakhkar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed 50- to 100-µm-sized titanium phosphate glass microcarriers (denoted as Ti5 that show enhanced proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and MG63 osteosarcoma cells, as well as enhanced human mesenchymal stem cell expression of bone differentiation markers, in comparison with commercially available glass microspheres at all time points. We also demonstrate that these microcarriers provide superior human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation with conventional Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium than with a specially developed commercial stem cell medium. The microcarrier proliferative capacity is revealed by a 24-fold increase in MG63 cell numbers in spinner flask bioreactor studies performed over a 7-day period, versus only a 6-fold increase in control microspheres under the same conditions; the corresponding values of Ti5 and control microspheres under static culture are 8-fold and 7-fold, respectively. The capability of guided osteogenic differentiation is confirmed by ELISAs for bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin, which reveal significantly greater expression of these markers, especially osteopontin, by human mesenchymal stem cells on the Ti5 microspheres than on the control. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy images reveal favorable MG63 and human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on the Ti5 microsphere surfaces. Thus, the results demonstrate the suitability of the developed microspheres for use as microcarriers in bone tissue engineering applications.

  1. DRAGON, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, inhibits BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanomata, Kazuhiro; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Nojima, Junya; Fukuda, Toru; Katagiri, Takenobu

    2009-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce osteoblastic differentiation of myoblasts via binding to cell surface receptors. Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) have been identified as BMP co-receptors. We report here that DRAGON/RGMb, a member of the RGM family, suppressed BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts via a novel mechanism. All RGMs were expressed in C2C12 cells that were differentiated into myocytes and osteoblastic cells, but RGMc was not detected in immature cells. In C2C12 cells, only DRAGON suppressed ALP and Id1 promoter activities induced by BMP-4 or by constitutively activated BMP type I receptors. This inhibition by DRAGON was dependent on the secretory form of the von Willbrand factor type D domain. DRAGON even suppressed BMP signaling induced by constitutively activated Smad1. Over-expression of neogenin did not alter the inhibitory capacity of DRAGON. Taken together, these findings indicate that DRAGON may be an inhibitor of BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts. We also suggest that a novel molecule(s) expressed on the cell membrane may mediate the signal transduction of DRAGON in order to suppress BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

  2. Regulation of morphogenesis and biocontrol properties in Trichoderma virens by a VELVET protein, Vel1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Prasun K; Kenerley, Charles M

    2010-04-01

    Mycoparasitic strains of Trichoderma are applied as commercial biofungicides for control of soilborne plant pathogens. Although the majority of commercial biofungicides are Trichoderma based, chemical pesticides, which are ecological and environmental hazards, still dominate the market. This is because biofungicides are not as effective or consistent as chemical fungicides. Efforts to improve these products have been limited by a lack of understanding of the genetic regulation of biocontrol activities. In this study, using gene knockout and complementation, we identified the VELVET protein Vel1 as a key regulator of biocontrol, as well as morphogenetic traits, in Trichoderma virens, a commercial biocontrol agent. Mutants with mutations in vel1 were defective in secondary metabolism (antibiosis), mycoparasitism, and biocontrol efficacy. In nutrient-rich media they also lacked two types of spores important for survival and development of formulation products: conidia (on agar) and chlamydospores (in liquid shake cultures). These findings provide an opportunity for genetic enhancement of biocontrol and industrial strains of Trichoderma, since Vel1 is very highly conserved across three Trichoderma species.

  3. The Protein Model Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Kopp, J?rgen; Battey, James N. D.; Podvinec, Michael; Westbrook, John D.; Berman, Helen M.; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Structural Genomics has been successful in determining the structures of many unique proteins in a high throughput manner. Still, the number of known protein sequences is much larger than the number of experimentally solved protein structures. Homology (or comparative) modeling methods make use of experimental protein structures to build models for evolutionary related proteins. Thereby, experimental structure determination efforts and homology modeling complement each other in the exploratio...

  4. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  5. Comparing side chain packing in soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J C; Acebes, S; Virrueta, A; Butler, M; Regan, L; O'Hern, C S

    2018-05-01

    We compare side chain prediction and packing of core and non-core regions of soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins. We first identified or created comparable databases of high-resolution crystal structures of these 3 protein classes. We show that the solvent-inaccessible cores of the 3 classes of proteins are equally densely packed. As a result, the side chains of core residues at protein-protein interfaces and in the membrane-exposed regions of transmembrane proteins can be predicted by the hard-sphere plus stereochemical constraint model with the same high prediction accuracies (>90%) as core residues in soluble proteins. We also find that for all 3 classes of proteins, as one moves away from the solvent-inaccessible core, the packing fraction decreases as the solvent accessibility increases. However, the side chain predictability remains high (80% within 30°) up to a relative solvent accessibility, rSASA≲0.3, for all 3 protein classes. Our results show that ≈40% of the interface regions in protein complexes are "core", that is, densely packed with side chain conformations that can be accurately predicted using the hard-sphere model. We propose packing fraction as a metric that can be used to distinguish real protein-protein interactions from designed, non-binding, decoys. Our results also show that cores of membrane proteins are the same as cores of soluble proteins. Thus, the computational methods we are developing for the analysis of the effect of hydrophobic core mutations in soluble proteins will be equally applicable to analyses of mutations in membrane proteins. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. IGSF9 Family Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Turtle and the vertebrate proteins immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), member 9 (IGSF9/Dasm1) and IGSF9B are members of an evolutionarily ancient protein family. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein family revealed that invertebrates contain only a single IGSF9 family gene......, the longest isoforms of the proteins have the same general organization as the neural cell adhesion molecule family of cell adhesion molecule proteins, and like this family of proteins, IGSF9 family members are expressed in the nervous system. A review of the literature revealed that Drosophila Turtle...... facilitates homophilic cell adhesion. Moreover, IGSF9 family proteins have been implicated in the outgrowth and branching of neurites, axon guidance, synapse maturation, self-avoidance, and tiling. However, despite the few published studies on IGSF9 family proteins, reports on the functions of both Turtle...

  7. Personalizing Protein Nourishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS, DAVID C.; SANCTUARY, MEGAN R.; QU, YUNYAO; KHAJAVI, SHABNAM HAGHIGHAT; VAN ZANDT, ALEXANDRIA E.; DYANDRA, MELISSA; FRESE, STEVEN A.; BARILE, DANIELA; GERMAN, J. BRUCE

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are not equally digestible—their proteolytic susceptibility varies by their source and processing method. Incomplete digestion increases colonic microbial protein fermentation (putrefaction), which produces toxic metabolites that can induce inflammation in vitro and have been associated with inflammation in vivo. Individual humans differ in protein digestive capacity based on phenotypes, particularly disease states. To avoid putrefaction-induced intestinal inflammation, protein sources and processing methods must be tailored to the consumer’s digestive capacity. This review explores how food processing techniques alter protein digestibility and examines how physiological conditions alter digestive capacity. Possible solutions to improving digestive function or matching low digestive capacity with more digestible protein sources are explored. Beyond the ileal digestibility measurements of protein digestibility, less invasive, quicker and cheaper techniques for monitoring the extent of protein digestion and fermentation are needed to personalize protein nourishment. Biomarkers of protein digestive capacity and efficiency can be identified with the toolsets of peptidomics, metabolomics, microbial sequencing and multiplexed protein analysis of fecal and urine samples. By monitoring individual protein digestive function, the protein component of diets can be tailored via protein source and processing selection to match individual needs to minimize colonic putrefaction and, thus, optimize gut health. PMID:26713355

  8. Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions Related to Protein Complexes Based on Protein Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for predicting protein-protein interactions based on detected protein complexes is proposed to repair deficient interactions derived from high-throughput biological experiments. Protein complexes are pruned and decomposed into small parts based on the adaptive k-cores method to predict protein-protein interactions associated with the complexes. The proposed method is adaptive to protein complexes with different structure, number, and size of nodes in a protein-protein interaction network. Based on different complex sets detected by various algorithms, we can obtain different prediction sets of protein-protein interactions. The reliability of the predicted interaction sets is proved by using estimations with statistical tests and direct confirmation of the biological data. In comparison with the approaches which predict the interactions based on the cliques, the overlap of the predictions is small. Similarly, the overlaps among the predicted sets of interactions derived from various complex sets are also small. Thus, every predicted set of interactions may complement and improve the quality of the original network data. Meanwhile, the predictions from the proposed method replenish protein-protein interactions associated with protein complexes using only the network topology.

  9. Athoropometric measurements and plasma proteins in protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Athoropometric measurements and plasma proteins in protein energy malnutrition. MH Etukudo, EO Agbedana, OO Akinyinka, BOA Osifo. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 5(1) 2006: 7-11. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  10. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  11. Protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Luc J C; Kies, Arie K; Saris, Wim H M

    2007-08-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the role of nutrition in increasing exercise performance, it has become clear over the last 2 decades that amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates can play an important role. Most of the attention has been focused on their effects at a muscular level. As these nutrients are ingested, however, it also means that gastrointestinal digestibility and absorption can modulate their efficacy significantly. Therefore, discussing the role of amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition entails holding a discussion on all levels of the metabolic route. On May 28-29, 2007, a small group of researchers active in the field of exercise science and protein metabolism presented an overview of the different aspects of the application of protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition. In addition, they were asked to share their opinions on the future progress in their fields of research. In this overview, an introduction to the workshop and a short summary of its outcome is provided.

  12. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  13. Learning about Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Proteins KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Proteins What's in ...

  14. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  15. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.; Snow, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full

  16. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  17. Allosteric Regulation of Proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interactions with other proteins, or binding of small molecules. Covalent .... vealed through structural elucidation of the protein in free and oxygen-bound forms .... stance, molecular dynamic simulation of glutamine binding pro- tein shows that ...

  18. NMR of unfolded proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2005-01-03

    Jan 3, 2005 ... covering all the systems, so far discovered.5,7,8,12. With the increasing ... Structural investigations on proteins by NMR are, currently ... rapid analysis of unfolded proteins. ...... and hence help in design of drugs against them.

  19. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  20. Protein - Which is Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Falvo, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed. Key PointsHigher protein needs are seen in athletic populations.Animal proteins is an important source of protein, however potential health concerns do exist from a diet of protein

  1. Peptide segments in protein-protein interfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2006-09-06

    Sep 6, 2006 ... contact surface from the rest of the protein surface have been used to identify ..... interfaces the contribution of the charged residues, such as. Lys, Asp and ..... Lawrence M C and Colman P M 1993 Shape complementarity at.

  2. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 affects osteogenic efficacy on dental implants in rat mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattarai, Govinda; Lee, Young-Hee [Department of Oral Biochemistry, Institute of Oral Bioscience, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Ho [Department of Dental Materials, Institute of Oral Bioscience, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Il-Song [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Research Center for Advanced Materials, Development and Institute of Biodegradable Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ho-Keun, E-mail: yihokn@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Oral Biochemistry, Institute of Oral Bioscience, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in bone cells and its utilization in dental implants have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to determine the osteogenic efficacy of chitosan gold nanoparticles (Ch-GNPs) conjugated with IGFBP-3 coated titanium (Ti) implants. Ch-GNPs were conjugated with IGFBP-3 plasmid DNA through a coacervation process. Conjugation was cast over Ti surfaces, and cells were seeded on coated surfaces. For in vitro analysis the expression of different proteins was analyzed by immunoblotting. For in vivo analysis, Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated implants were installed in rat mandibles. Four weeks post-implantation, mandibles were examined by microcomputed tomography (μCT), immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin & eosin and tartrate resistance acid phosphatase staining. In vitro overexpressed Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated Ti surfaces was associated with activation of extracellular signal related kinase (ERK), inhibition of the stress activated protein c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and 7 compared to control. Further, in vivo, Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated implants were associated with inhibition of implant induced osteoclastogenesis molecules, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and enhanced expression of osteogenic molecules including BMP2/7 and osteopontin (OPN). The μCT analysis demonstrated that IGFBP-3 increased the volume of newly formed bone surrounding the implants compared to control (n = 5; p < 0.05). These results support the view that IGFBP-3 overexpression diminishes osteoclastogenesis and enhances osteogenesis of Ti implants, and can serve as a potent molecule for the development of good implantation. - Highlights: • Chitosan gold nanoparticles were conjugated with IGFBP-3 and coated onto surface of the titanium implants for gene delivery to bone. • Implants were inserted in rat mandible for 4 weeks. • Parameters studied: histopathology and radiology.

  3. Structural and functional studies of a family of Dictyostelium discoideum developmentally regulated, prestalk genes coding for small proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escalante Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum executes a multicellular development program upon starvation. This morphogenetic process requires the differential regulation of a large number of genes and is coordinated by extracellular signals. The MADS-box transcription factor SrfA is required for several stages of development, including slug migration and spore terminal differentiation. Results Subtractive hybridization allowed the isolation of a gene, sigN (SrfA-induced gene N, that was dependent on the transcription factor SrfA for expression at the slug stage of development. Homology searches detected the existence of a large family of sigN-related genes in the Dictyostelium discoideum genome. The 13 most similar genes are grouped in two regions of chromosome 2 and have been named Group1 and Group2 sigN genes. The putative encoded proteins are 87–89 amino acids long. All these genes have a similar structure, composed of a first exon containing a 13 nucleotides long open reading frame and a second exon comprising the remaining of the putative coding region. The expression of these genes is induced at10 hours of development. Analyses of their promoter regions indicate that these genes are expressed in the prestalk region of developing structures. The addition of antibodies raised against SigN Group 2 proteins induced disintegration of multi-cellular structures at the mound stage of development. Conclusion A large family of genes coding for small proteins has been identified in D. discoideum. Two groups of very similar genes from this family have been shown to be specifically expressed in prestalk cells during development. Functional studies using antibodies raised against Group 2 SigN proteins indicate that these genes could play a role during multicellular development.

  4. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 affects osteogenic efficacy on dental implants in rat mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattarai, Govinda; Lee, Young-Hee; Lee, Min-Ho; Park, Il-Song; Yi, Ho-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in bone cells and its utilization in dental implants have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to determine the osteogenic efficacy of chitosan gold nanoparticles (Ch-GNPs) conjugated with IGFBP-3 coated titanium (Ti) implants. Ch-GNPs were conjugated with IGFBP-3 plasmid DNA through a coacervation process. Conjugation was cast over Ti surfaces, and cells were seeded on coated surfaces. For in vitro analysis the expression of different proteins was analyzed by immunoblotting. For in vivo analysis, Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated implants were installed in rat mandibles. Four weeks post-implantation, mandibles were examined by microcomputed tomography (μCT), immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin & eosin and tartrate resistance acid phosphatase staining. In vitro overexpressed Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated Ti surfaces was associated with activation of extracellular signal related kinase (ERK), inhibition of the stress activated protein c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and 7 compared to control. Further, in vivo, Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated implants were associated with inhibition of implant induced osteoclastogenesis molecules, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and enhanced expression of osteogenic molecules including BMP2/7 and osteopontin (OPN). The μCT analysis demonstrated that IGFBP-3 increased the volume of newly formed bone surrounding the implants compared to control (n = 5; p < 0.05). These results support the view that IGFBP-3 overexpression diminishes osteoclastogenesis and enhances osteogenesis of Ti implants, and can serve as a potent molecule for the development of good implantation. - Highlights: • Chitosan gold nanoparticles were conjugated with IGFBP-3 and coated onto surface of the titanium implants for gene delivery to bone. • Implants were inserted in rat mandible for 4 weeks. • Parameters studied: histopathology and radiology.

  5. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  6. Intracellular protein breakdown. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohley, P.; Kirschke, H.; Langner, J.; Wiederanders, B.; Ansorge, S.

    1976-01-01

    Double-labelled proteins from rat liver cytosol ( 14 C in long-lived, 3 H in short-lived proteins after in-vivo-labelling) are used as substrates for unlabelled proteinases in vitro. Differences in the degradation rates of short-lived and long-lived proteins in vitro by different proteinases and after addition of different effectors allow conclusions concerning their importance for the in-vivo-turnover of substrate proteins. The main activity (>90%) of soluble lysosomal proteinases at pH 6.1 and pH 6.9 is caused by thiolproteinases, which degrade preferentially short-lived cytosol proteins. These proteinases are inhibited by leupeptin. Autolysis of double-labelled cell fractions shows a remarkably faster breakdown of short-lived substrate proteins only in the soluble part of lysosomes. Microsomal fractions degrade in vitro preferentially long-lived substrate proteins. (author)

  7. Protein carbonylation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Havelund, Jesper; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge on protein carbonylation in plants and its role in plant physiology. It starts with a brief outline of the turnover and production sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and the causes of protein carbonylation. This is followed...... by a description of the methods used to study protein carbonylation in plants, which is also very brief as the methods are similar to those used in studies on animals. The chapter also focuses on protein carbonylation in plants in general and in mitochondria and in seeds in particular, as case stories where...... specific carbonylated proteins have been identified. Protein carbonylation appears to accumulate at all stages of seed development and germination investigated to date. In some cases, such as seed aging, it is probably simply an accumulation of oxidative damage. However, in other cases protein...

  8. Racemic protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Todd O; Kent, Stephen B H

    2012-01-01

    Although natural proteins are chiral and are all of one "handedness," their mirror image forms can be prepared by chemical synthesis. This opens up new opportunities for protein crystallography. A racemic mixture of the enantiomeric forms of a protein molecule can crystallize in ways that natural proteins cannot. Recent experimental data support a theoretical prediction that this should make racemic protein mixtures highly amenable to crystallization. Crystals obtained from racemic mixtures also offer advantages in structure determination strategies. The relevance of these potential advantages is heightened by advances in synthetic methods, which are extending the size limit for proteins that can be prepared by chemical synthesis. Recent ideas and results in the area of racemic protein crystallography are reviewed.

  9. Translationally controlled tumor protein supplemented chitosan modified glass ionomer cement promotes osteoblast proliferation and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangsuwan, Jiraporn; Wanichpakorn, Supreya; Kedjarune-Leggat, Ureporn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) supplemented in a novel glass ionomer cement (BIO-GIC) on normal human osteoblasts (NHost cells). BIO-GIC was a glass ionomer cement (GIC) modified by adding chitosan and albumin to promote the release of TCTP. NHost cells were seeded on specimens of GIC, GIC + TCTP, BIO-GIC and BIO-GIC + TCTP. Cell proliferation was determined by BrdU assay. It was found that BIO-GIC + TCTP had significantly higher proliferation of cells than other specimens. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and osteopontin (OPN) gene expressions assessed by quantitative real time PCR and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were used to determine cell differentiation. Bone cell function was investigated by calcium deposition using alizarin assay. Both BMP-2 and OPN gene expressions of cells cultured on specimens with added TCTP increased gradually up-regulation after day 1 and reached the highest on day 3 then down-regulation on day 7. The ALP activity of cells cultured on BIO-GIC + TCTP for 7 days and calcium content after 14 days were significantly higher than other groups. BIO-GIC + TCTP can promote osteoblast cells proliferation, differentiation and function. - Highlights: • Developed a new GIC by supplementing TCTP in BIO-GIC (GIC with chitosan and albumin) • BIO-GIC + TCTP released a higher amount of TCTP than GIC + TCTP. • BIO-GIC + TCTP promoted cell proliferation higher than other specimens and control. • BIO-GIC + TCTP promoted osteoblasts differentiation and function

  10. Translationally controlled tumor protein supplemented chitosan modified glass ionomer cement promotes osteoblast proliferation and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangsuwan, Jiraporn [Department of Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics Research, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Department of Oral Biology and Occlusion, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Wanichpakorn, Supreya; Kedjarune-Leggat, Ureporn [Department of Oral Biology and Occlusion, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand)

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) supplemented in a novel glass ionomer cement (BIO-GIC) on normal human osteoblasts (NHost cells). BIO-GIC was a glass ionomer cement (GIC) modified by adding chitosan and albumin to promote the release of TCTP. NHost cells were seeded on specimens of GIC, GIC + TCTP, BIO-GIC and BIO-GIC + TCTP. Cell proliferation was determined by BrdU assay. It was found that BIO-GIC + TCTP had significantly higher proliferation of cells than other specimens. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and osteopontin (OPN) gene expressions assessed by quantitative real time PCR and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were used to determine cell differentiation. Bone cell function was investigated by calcium deposition using alizarin assay. Both BMP-2 and OPN gene expressions of cells cultured on specimens with added TCTP increased gradually up-regulation after day 1 and reached the highest on day 3 then down-regulation on day 7. The ALP activity of cells cultured on BIO-GIC + TCTP for 7 days and calcium content after 14 days were significantly higher than other groups. BIO-GIC + TCTP can promote osteoblast cells proliferation, differentiation and function. - Highlights: • Developed a new GIC by supplementing TCTP in BIO-GIC (GIC with chitosan and albumin) • BIO-GIC + TCTP released a higher amount of TCTP than GIC + TCTP. • BIO-GIC + TCTP promoted cell proliferation higher than other specimens and control. • BIO-GIC + TCTP promoted osteoblasts differentiation and function.

  11. Texturized dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwulata, Charles I; Phillips, John G; Tunick, Michael H; Qi, Phoebi X; Cooke, Peter H

    2010-03-01

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear, and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein isolate (WPI) were modified using a twin-screw extruder at melt temperatures of 50, 75, and 100 degrees C, and moistures ranging from 20 to 70 wt%. Viscoelasticity and solubility measurements showed that extrusion temperature was a more significant (P extruded dairy protein ranged from rigid (2500 N) to soft (2.7 N). Extruding at or above 75 degrees C resulted in increased peak force for WPC (138 to 2500 N) and WPI (2.7 to 147.1 N). NDM was marginally texturized; the presence of lactose interfered with its texturization. WPI products extruded at 50 degrees C were not texturized; their solubility values ranged from 71.8% to 92.6%. A wide possibility exists for creating new foods with texturized dairy proteins due to the extensive range of states achievable. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, WPI, or WPC, or NDM were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion temperature conditions were adjusted to 50, 75, or 100 degrees C, sufficient to change the structure of the dairy proteins, but not destroy them. Extrusion modified the structures of these dairy proteins for ease of use in starchy foods to boost nutrient levels. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, whey protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, or nonfat dried milk were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion

  12. Differentiation and injury-repair signals modulate the interaction of E2F and pRB proteins with novel target genes in keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wing Y; Andrews, Joseph; Carter, David E; Dagnino, Lina

    2006-08-01

    E2F transcription factors are central to epidermal morphogenesis and regeneration after injury. The precise nature of E2F target genes involved in epidermal formation and repair has yet to be determined. Identification of these genes is essential to understand how E2F proteins regulate fundamental aspects of epidermal homeostasis and transformation. We have conducted a genome-wide screen using CpG island microarray analysis to identify novel promoters bound by E2F3 and E2F5 in human keratinocytes. We further characterized several of these genes, and determined that multiple E2F and retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins associate with them in exponentially proliferating cells. We also assessed the effect on E2F and pRb binding to those genes in response to differentiation induced by bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6), or to activation of repair mechanisms induced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). These studies demonstrate promoter- and cytokine-specific changes in binding profiles of E2F and/or pRb family proteins. For example, E2F1, 3, 4 and p107 were recruited to the N-myc promoter in cells treated with BMP-6, whereas E2F1, 3, 4, 5, p107 and p130 were bound to this promoter in the presence of TGF-beta. Functionally, these different interactions resulted in transcriptional repression by BMP-6 and TGF-beta of the N-myc gene, via mechanisms that involved E2F binding to the promoter and association with pRb-family proteins. Thus, multiple combinations of E2F and pRb family proteins may associate with and transcriptionally regulate a given target promoter in response to differentiation and injury-repair stimuli in epidermal keratinocytes.

  13. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.

  14. PROTEIN - WHICH IS BEST?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Falvo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids, whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function are also reviewed

  15. Specificity and affinity quantification of protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Guo, Liyong; Hu, Liang; Wang, Jin

    2013-05-01

    Most biological processes are mediated by the protein-protein interactions. Determination of the protein-protein structures and insight into their interactions are vital to understand the mechanisms of protein functions. Currently, compared with the isolated protein structures, only a small fraction of protein-protein structures are experimentally solved. Therefore, the computational docking methods play an increasing role in predicting the structures and interactions of protein-protein complexes. The scoring function of protein-protein interactions is the key responsible for the accuracy of the computational docking. Previous scoring functions were mostly developed by optimizing the binding affinity which determines the stability of the protein-protein complex, but they are often lack of the consideration of specificity which determines the discrimination of native protein-protein complex against competitive ones. We developed a scoring function (named as SPA-PP, specificity and affinity of the protein-protein interactions) by incorporating both the specificity and affinity into the optimization strategy. The testing results and comparisons with other scoring functions show that SPA-PP performs remarkably on both predictions of binding pose and binding affinity. Thus, SPA-PP is a promising quantification of protein-protein interactions, which can be implemented into the protein docking tools and applied for the predictions of protein-protein structure and affinity. The algorithm is implemented in C language, and the code can be downloaded from http://dl.dropbox.com/u/1865642/Optimization.cpp.

  16. General protein-protein cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Schaffer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a general protein-to-protein cross-linking procedure using the water-soluble amine-reactive homobifunctional BS(3) (bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate); however, the protocol can be easily adapted using other cross-linkers of similar properties. BS(3) is composed of two sulfo-NHS ester groups and an 11.4 Å linker. Sulfo-NHS ester groups react with primary amines in slightly alkaline conditions (pH 7.2-8.5) and yield stable amide bonds. The reaction releases N-hydroxysuccinimide (see an application of NHS esters on Labeling a protein with fluorophores using NHS ester derivitization). © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Scoring functions for protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moal, Iain H; Moretti, Rocco; Baker, David; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2013-12-01

    The computational evaluation of protein-protein interactions will play an important role in organising the wealth of data being generated by high-throughput initiatives. Here we discuss future applications, report recent developments and identify areas requiring further investigation. Many functions have been developed to quantify the structural and energetic properties of interacting proteins, finding use in interrelated challenges revolving around the relationship between sequence, structure and binding free energy. These include loop modelling, side-chain refinement, docking, multimer assembly, affinity prediction, affinity change upon mutation, hotspots location and interface design. Information derived from models optimised for one of these challenges can be used to benefit the others, and can be unified within the theoretical frameworks of multi-task learning and Pareto-optimal multi-objective learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computational Protein Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Kristoffer Enøe

    Proteins are the major functional group of molecules in biology. The impact of protein science on medicine and chemical productions is rapidly increasing. However, the greatest potential remains to be realized. The fi eld of protein design has advanced computational modeling from a tool of support...... to a central method that enables new developments. For example, novel enzymes with functions not found in natural proteins have been de novo designed to give enough activity for experimental optimization. This thesis presents the current state-of-the-art within computational design methods together...... with a novel method based on probability theory. With the aim of assembling a complete pipeline for protein design, this work touches upon several aspects of protein design. The presented work is the computational half of a design project where the other half is dedicated to the experimental part...

  19. Regulation of Morphogenesis and Biocontrol Properties in Trichoderma virens by a VELVET Protein, Vel1▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Kenerley, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Mycoparasitic strains of Trichoderma are applied as commercial biofungicides for control of soilborne plant pathogens. Although the majority of commercial biofungicides are Trichoderma based, chemical pesticides, which are ecological and environmental hazards, still dominate the market. This is because biofungicides are not as effective or consistent as chemical fungicides. Efforts to improve these products have been limited by a lack of understanding of the genetic regulation of biocontrol activities. In this study, using gene knockout and complementation, we identified the VELVET protein Vel1 as a key regulator of biocontrol, as well as morphogenetic traits, in Trichoderma virens, a commercial biocontrol agent. Mutants with mutations in vel1 were defective in secondary metabolism (antibiosis), mycoparasitism, and biocontrol efficacy. In nutrient-rich media they also lacked two types of spores important for survival and development of formulation products: conidia (on agar) and chlamydospores (in liquid shake cultures). These findings provide an opportunity for genetic enhancement of biocontrol and industrial strains of Trichoderma, since Vel1 is very highly conserved across three Trichoderma species. PMID:20154111

  20. Blue Emission in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sohini; Sengupta, Abhigyan; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band struc...

  1. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  2. Yeast ribosomal proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaka, E.; Kobata, K.

    1978-01-01

    The cytoplasmic 80s ribosomal proteins from the cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analyzed by SDS two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Seventyfour proteins were identified and consecutively numbered from 1 to 74. Upon oxidation of the 80s proteins with performic acid, ten proteins (no. 15, 20, 35, 40, 44, 46, 49, 51, 54 and 55) were dislocated on the gel without change of the total number of protein spots. Five proteins (no. 8, 14, 16, 36 and 74) were phosphorylated in vivo as seen in 32 P-labelling experiments. The large and small subunits separated in low magnesium medium were analyzed by the above gel electrophoresis. At least forty-five and twenty-eight proteins were assumed to be in the large and small subunits, respectively. All proteins found in the 80s ribosomes, except for no. 3, were detected in either subunit without appearance of new spots. The acidic protein no. 3 seems to be lost during subunit dissociation. (orig.) [de

  3. Physics of protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, A. V.; Galzitskaya, O. V.

    2004-04-01

    Protein physics is grounded on three fundamental experimental facts: protein, this long heteropolymer, has a well defined compact three-dimensional structure; this structure can spontaneously arise from the unfolded protein chain in appropriate environment; and this structure is separated from the unfolded state of the chain by the “all-or-none” phase transition, which ensures robustness of protein structure and therefore of its action. The aim of this review is to consider modern understanding of physical principles of self-organization of protein structures and to overview such important features of this process, as finding out the unique protein structure among zillions alternatives, nucleation of the folding process and metastable folding intermediates. Towards this end we will consider the main experimental facts and simple, mostly phenomenological theoretical models. We will concentrate on relatively small (single-domain) water-soluble globular proteins (whose structure and especially folding are much better studied and understood than those of large or membrane and fibrous proteins) and consider kinetic and structural aspects of transition of initially unfolded protein chains into their final solid (“native”) 3D structures.

  4. Ultrafiltration of pegylated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek, Jessica R.

    There is considerable clinical interest in the use of "second-generation" therapeutics produced by conjugation of a native protein with various polymers including polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG--protein conjugates, so-called PEGylated proteins, can exhibit enhanced stability, half-life, and bioavailability. One of the challenges in the commercial production of PEGylated proteins is the purification required to remove unreacted polymer, native protein, and in many cases PEGylated proteins with nonoptimal degrees of conjugation. The overall objective of this thesis was to examine the use of ultrafiltration for the purification of PEGylated proteins. This included: (1) analysis of size-based separation of PEGylated proteins using conventional ultrafiltration membranes, (2) use of electrically-charged membranes to exploit differences in electrostatic interactions, and (3) examination of the effects of PEGylation on protein fouling. The experimental results were analyzed using appropriate theoretical models, with the underlying physical properties of the PEGylated proteins evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, and reverse phase chromatography. PEGylated proteins were produced by covalent attachment of activated PEG to a protein via primary amines on the lysine residues. A simple model was developed for the reaction kinetics, which was used to explore the effect of reaction conditions and mode of operation on the distribution of PEGylated products. The effective size of the PEGylated proteins was evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, with appropriate correlations developed for the size in terms of the molecular weight of the native protein and attached PEG. The electrophoretic mobility of the PEGylated proteins were evaluated by capillary electrophoresis with the data in good agreement with a simple model accounting for the increase in protein size and the reduction in the number of protonated amine

  5. A Novel Human TGF-β1 Fusion Protein in Combination with rhBMP-2 Increases Chondro-Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Claros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β is involved in processes related to the differentiation and maturation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblasts. Rat bone marrow (BM cells were cultured in a collagen-gel containing 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS for 10 days in the presence of rhTGF (recombinant human TGF-β1-F2, a fusion protein engineered to include a high-affinity collagen-binding decapeptide derived from von Willebrand factor. Subsequently, cells were moderately expanded in medium with 10% FBS for 4 days and treated with a short pulse of rhBMP (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for 4 h. During the last 2 days, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate were added to potentiate osteoinduction. Concomitant with an up-regulation of cell proliferation, DNA synthesis levels were determined. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to reveal the possible stemness of these cells. Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated in terms of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized matrix formation as well as by mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes. Moreover, cells were placed inside diffusion chambers and implanted subcutaneously into the backs of adult rats for 4 weeks. Histological study provided evidence of cartilage and bone-like tissue formation. This experimental procedure is capable of selecting cell populations from BM that, in the presence of rhTGF-β1-F2 and rhBMP-2, achieve skeletogenic potential in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Low-level bisphenol A increases production of glial fibrillary acidic protein in differentiating astrocyte progenitor cells through excessive STAT3 and Smad1 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideaki; Zhu, Jun; Yu, Tao; Sasaki, Kazuo; Umetsu, Hironori; Kidachi, Yumi; Ryoyama, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the differentiation of serum-free mouse embryo (SFME) cells, the astrocyte progenitor cells in the central nervous system, were examined. SFME cells were exposed to 10 ng/ml leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and 10 ng/ml bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to increase glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and induce cell differentiation. Various concentrations of BPA (0.1 pg/ml-1 μg/ml) were then added to determine their effects on the cell differentiation. SFME cells were effectively differentiated by LIF and BMP2 in completely serum-free cultures. Cell proliferation following cell differentiation was not significantly affected by low-level BPA. However, GFAP expression was significantly increased in SFME cells in the presence of 1-100 pg/ml BPA. These increases were due to excessive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1 (Smad1) by the low-level BPA

  7. Expression and subcellular localization of kinetoplast-associated proteins in the different developmental stages of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti Danielle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kinetoplast DNA (kDNA of trypanosomatids consists of an unusual arrangement of circular molecules catenated into a single network. The diameter of the isolated kDNA network is similar to that of the entire cell. However, within the kinetoplast matrix, the kDNA is highly condensed. Studies in Crithidia fasciculata showed that kinetoplast-associated proteins (KAPs are capable of condensing the kDNA network. However, little is known about the KAPs of Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasitic protozoon that shows distinct patterns of kDNA condensation during their complex morphogenetic development. In epimastigotes and amastigotes (replicating forms the kDNA fibers are tightly packed into a disk-shaped kinetoplast, whereas trypomastigotes (non-replicating present a more relaxed kDNA organization contained within a rounded structure. It is still unclear how the compact kinetoplast disk of epimastigotes is converted into a globular structure in the infective trypomastigotes. Results In this work, we have analyzed KAP coding genes in trypanosomatid genomes and cloned and expressed two kinetoplast-associated proteins in T. cruzi: TcKAP4 and TcKAP6. Such small basic proteins are expressed in all developmental stages of the parasite, although present a differential distribution within the kinetoplasts of epimastigote, amastigote and trypomastigote forms. Conclusion Several features of TcKAPs, such as their small size, basic nature and similarity with KAPs of C. fasciculata, are consistent with a role in DNA charge neutralization and condensation. Additionally, the differential distribution of KAPs in the kinetoplasts of distinct developmental stages of the parasite, indicate that the kDNA rearrangement that takes place during the T. cruzi differentiation process is accompanied by TcKAPs redistribution.

  8. Advances in Protein Precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    Proteins are biological macromolecules, which are among the key components of all living organisms. Proteins are nowadays present in all fields of biotech industry, such as food and feed, synthetic and pharmaceutical industry. They are isolated from their natural sources or produced in different

  9. Synthesis of Lipidated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuch, Tom; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-08-17

    Protein lipidation is one of the major post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins. The attachment of the lipid moiety frequently determines the localization and the function of the lipoproteins. Lipidated proteins participate in many essential biological processes in eukaryotic cells, including vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the immune response. Malfunction of these cellular processes usually leads to various diseases such as cancer. Understanding the mechanism of cellular signaling and identifying the protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in which the lipoproteins are involved is a crucial task. To achieve these goals, fully functional lipidated proteins are required. However, access to lipoproteins by means of standard expression is often rather limited. Therefore, semisynthetic methods, involving the synthesis of lipidated peptides and their subsequent chemoselective ligation to yield full-length lipoproteins, were developed. In this Review we summarize the commonly used methods for lipoprotein synthesis and the development of the corresponding chemoselective ligation techniques. Several key studies involving full-length semisynthetic lipidated Ras, Rheb, and LC3 proteins are presented.

  10. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  11. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  12. Poxviral Ankyrin Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herbert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple repeats of the ankyrin motif (ANK are ubiquitous throughout the kingdoms of life but are absent from most viruses. The main exception to this is the poxvirus family, and specifically the chordopoxviruses, with ANK repeat proteins present in all but three species from separate genera. The poxviral ANK repeat proteins belong to distinct orthologue groups spread over different species, and align well with the phylogeny of their genera. This distribution throughout the chordopoxviruses indicates these proteins were present in an ancestral vertebrate poxvirus, and have since undergone numerous duplication events. Most poxviral ANK repeat proteins contain an unusual topology of multiple ANK motifs starting at the N-terminus with a C-terminal poxviral homologue of the cellular F-box enabling interaction with the cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. The subtle variations between ANK repeat proteins of individual poxviruses suggest an array of different substrates may be bound by these protein-protein interaction domains and, via the F-box, potentially directed to cellular ubiquitination pathways and possible degradation. Known interaction partners of several of these proteins indicate that the NF-κB coordinated anti-viral response is a key target, whilst some poxviral ANK repeat domains also have an F-box independent affect on viral host-range.

  13. Protein oxidation and peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are major targets for radicals and two-electron oxidants in biological systems due to their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. With highly reactive radicals damage occurs at multiple side-chain and backbone sites. Less reactive species show greater selectivity with regard...... to the residues targeted and their spatial location. Modification can result in increased side-chain hydrophilicity, side-chain and backbone fragmentation, aggregation via covalent cross-linking or hydrophobic interactions, protein unfolding and altered conformation, altered interactions with biological partners...... and modified turnover. In the presence of O2, high yields of peroxyl radicals and peroxides (protein peroxidation) are formed; the latter account for up to 70% of the initial oxidant flux. Protein peroxides can oxidize both proteins and other targets. One-electron reduction results in additional radicals...

  14. Protein restriction and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-26

    Protein restriction without malnutrition is currently an effective nutritional intervention known to prevent diseases and promote health span from yeast to human. Recently, low protein diets are reported to be associated with lowered cancer incidence and mortality risk of cancers in human. In murine models, protein restriction inhibits tumor growth via mTOR signaling pathway. IGF-1, amino acid metabolic programing, FGF21, and autophagy may also serve as potential mechanisms of protein restriction mediated cancer prevention. Together, dietary intervention aimed at reducing protein intake can be beneficial and has the potential to be widely adopted and effective in preventing and treating cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitizing properties of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Ladics, Gregory S; McClain, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The scope of allergy risk is diverse considering the myriad ways in which protein allergenicity is affected by physiochemical characteristics of proteins. The complexity created by the matrices of foods and the variability of the human immune system add additional challenges to understanding...... the relationship between sensitization potential and allergy disease. To address these and other issues, an April 2012 international symposium was held in Prague, Czech Republic, to review and discuss the state-of-the-science of sensitizing properties of protein allergens. The symposium, organized by the Protein...... Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute's Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, featured presentations on current methods, test systems, research trends, and unanswered questions in the field of protein sensitization. A diverse group of over 70 interdisciplinary...

  16. Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun Jung; Holmberg, Angela L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2017-06-07

    Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems. The corresponding protein engineering toolbox has enabled the systematic development of complex functional polymeric materials across areas as diverse as adhesives, responsive polymers, and medical materials. This review discusses the natural proteins that have inspired the development of key building blocks for protein polymer engineering and the function of these elements in material design. The prospects and progress for scalable commercialization of protein polymers are reviewed, discussing both technology needs and opportunities.

  17. The Protein Model Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Kopp, Jürgen; Battey, James N D; Podvinec, Michael; Westbrook, John D; Berman, Helen M; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2009-03-01

    Structural Genomics has been successful in determining the structures of many unique proteins in a high throughput manner. Still, the number of known protein sequences is much larger than the number of experimentally solved protein structures. Homology (or comparative) modeling methods make use of experimental protein structures to build models for evolutionary related proteins. Thereby, experimental structure determination efforts and homology modeling complement each other in the exploration of the protein structure space. One of the challenges in using model information effectively has been to access all models available for a specific protein in heterogeneous formats at different sites using various incompatible accession code systems. Often, structure models for hundreds of proteins can be derived from a given experimentally determined structure, using a variety of established methods. This has been done by all of the PSI centers, and by various independent modeling groups. The goal of the Protein Model Portal (PMP) is to provide a single portal which gives access to the various models that can be leveraged from PSI targets and other experimental protein structures. A single interface allows all existing pre-computed models across these various sites to be queried simultaneously, and provides links to interactive services for template selection, target-template alignment, model building, and quality assessment. The current release of the portal consists of 7.6 million model structures provided by different partner resources (CSMP, JCSG, MCSG, NESG, NYSGXRC, JCMM, ModBase, SWISS-MODEL Repository). The PMP is available at http://www.proteinmodelportal.org and from the PSI Structural Genomics Knowledgebase.

  18. Coarse-grain modelling of protein-protein interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaden, Marc; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review recent advances towards the modelling of protein-protein interactions (PPI) at the coarse-grained (CG) level, a technique that is now widely used to understand protein affinity, aggregation and self-assembly behaviour. PPI models of soluble proteins and membrane proteins are

  19. Protein-Protein Docking in Drug Design and Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Bartuzi, Damian; Stępniewski, Tomasz Maciej; Matosiuk, Dariusz; Selent, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are responsible for a number of key physiological processes in the living cells and underlie the pathomechanism of many diseases. Nowadays, along with the concept of so-called "hot spots" in protein-protein interactions, which are well-defined interface regions responsible for most of the binding energy, these interfaces can be targeted with modulators. In order to apply structure-based design techniques to design PPIs modulators, a three-dimensional structure of protein complex has to be available. In this context in silico approaches, in particular protein-protein docking, are a valuable complement to experimental methods for elucidating 3D structure of protein complexes. Protein-protein docking is easy to use and does not require significant computer resources and time (in contrast to molecular dynamics) and it results in 3D structure of a protein complex (in contrast to sequence-based methods of predicting binding interfaces). However, protein-protein docking cannot address all the aspects of protein dynamics, in particular the global conformational changes during protein complex formation. In spite of this fact, protein-protein docking is widely used to model complexes of water-soluble proteins and less commonly to predict structures of transmembrane protein assemblies, including dimers and oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this chapter we review the principles of protein-protein docking, available algorithms and software and discuss the recent examples, benefits, and drawbacks of protein-protein docking application to water-soluble proteins, membrane anchoring and transmembrane proteins, including GPCRs.

  20. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  1. Protein oxidation in aquatic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline P.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter discusses general considerations about protein oxidation and reviews the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and consequences of protein oxidation on fish proteins. It presents two case studies, the first deals with protein and lipid oxidation in frozen rainbow trout......, and the second with oxidation in salted herring. The mechanisms responsible for initiation of protein oxidation are unclear, but it is generally accepted that free radical species initiating lipid oxidation can also initiate protein oxidation. The chapter focuses on interaction between protein and lipid...... oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...

  2. Endometrial proteins: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, M; Julkunen, M; Riittinen, L; Koistinen, R

    1992-06-01

    Uterine factors influence reproduction at the macro-anatomy level, and the effects of hormonal steroids on endometrial morphology are well recognized in the histopathological diagnosis of dysfunctional bleeding and infertility. During the past decade, attention has been paid to endometrial protein synthesis and secretion with respect to endocrine stimuli and implantation, and to the paracrine/autocrine effects of endometrial peptide growth factors, their binding proteins and other factors. The emphasis of this presentation is on protein secretion of the secretory endometrium, in which progesterone plays a pivotal role. Insulin-like growth factors have receptors on the endometrium, and IGF-binding proteins, stimulated by progesterone, modulate the effects of IGFs locally. Also other protein products of the secretory endometrium have been reviewed in this communication, with special emphasis on studies of a progesterone-associated endometrial protein which has many names in the literature, such as PEP, PP14, alpha 2-PEG and AUP. Extensive studies are ongoing in many laboratories to elucidate the regulation, function, interplay at tissue and cellular levels, and clinical significance of these proteins.

  3. Protein trapping of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Joo C.; Lin, Jack M.; Yaron, Peter N.; White, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: We have observed the formation of protein-nanoparticle complexes at the air-water interfaces from three different methods of presenting the nanoparticles to proteins. The structures formed resemble the 'protein-nanoparticle corona' proposed by Lynch et al. [1-3) in relation to a possible route for nanoparticle entry into living cells. To do this, the methods of x-ray and neutron reflectivity (with isotopic contrast variation between the protein and nanoparticles) have been used to study the structures formed at the air-water interface of l 3 - casein presented to silica nanoparticle dispersions. Whilst the silica dispersions showed no observable reflectivity, strong signals appear in the reflectivity when protein is present. Drop-wise spreading of a small amount of protein at the air-silica sol interface and presentation of the silica sol to an isolated monomolecular protein film (made by the 'flow-trough' method [4]) gave an immediate signal. Mixing the components in solution only produces a slow response but in all cases a similar structure is formed. The different responses are interpreted in structural and stoichiometric ways.

  4. Intercellular protein-protein interactions at synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofei; Hou, Dongmei; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Chemical synapses are asymmetric intercellular junctions through which neurons send nerve impulses to communicate with other neurons or excitable cells. The appropriate formation of synapses, both spatially and temporally, is essential for brain function and depends on the intercellular protein-protein interactions of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) at synaptic clefts. The CAM proteins link pre- and post-synaptic sites, and play essential roles in promoting synapse formation and maturation, maintaining synapse number and type, accumulating neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels, controlling neuronal differentiation, and even regulating synaptic plasticity directly. Alteration of the interactions of CAMs leads to structural and functional impairments, which results in many neurological disorders, such as autism, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the functions of CAMs during development and in the mature neural system, as well as in the pathogenesis of some neurological disorders. Here, we review the function of the major classes of CAMs, and how dysfunction of CAMs relates to several neurological disorders.

  5. Functional aspects of protein flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2009-01-01

    this into an intuitive perception of protein function is challenging. Flexibility is of overwhelming importance for protein function, and the changes in protein structure during interactions with binding partners can be dramatic. The present review addresses protein flexibility, focusing on protein-ligand interactions...

  6. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  7. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Fiser, Andras; Roderick, Steven L.; Takiff, Howard E.; Blanchard, John S.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S,T,A,V][D,N][L,F]-[S,T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Myc...

  8. Pierced Lasso Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Patricia

    Entanglement and knots are naturally occurring, where, in the microscopic world, knots in DNA and homopolymers are well characterized. The most complex knots are observed in proteins which are harder to investigate, as proteins are heteropolymers composed of a combination of 20 different amino acids with different individual biophysical properties. As new-knotted topologies and new proteins containing knots continue to be discovered and characterized, the investigation of knots in proteins has gained intense interest. Thus far, the principle focus has been on the evolutionary origin of tying a knot, with questions of how a protein chain `self-ties' into a knot, what the mechanism(s) are that contribute to threading, and the biological relevance and functional implication of a knotted topology in vivo gaining the most insight. Efforts to study the fully untied and unfolded chain indicate that the knot is highly stable, remaining intact in the unfolded state orders of magnitude longer than first anticipated. The persistence of ``stable'' knots in the unfolded state, together with the challenge of defining an unfolded and untied chain from an unfolded and knotted chain, complicates the study of fully untied protein in vitro. Our discovery of a new class of knotted proteins, the Pierced Lassos (PL) loop topology, simplifies the knotting approach. While PLs are not easily recognizable by the naked eye, they have now been identified in many proteins in the PDB through the use of computation tools. PL topologies are diverse proteins found in all kingdoms of life, performing a large variety of biological responses such as cell signaling, immune responses, transporters and inhibitors (http://lassoprot.cent.uw.edu.pl/). Many of these PL topologies are secreted proteins, extracellular proteins, as well as, redox sensors, enzymes and metal and co-factor binding proteins; all of which provide a favorable environment for the formation of the disulphide bridge. In the PL

  9. Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: A comparison of bone healing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Samit K., E-mail: samitnandi1967@gmail.com [Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata (India); Kundu, Biswanath, E-mail: biswa_kundu@rediffmail.com [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India); Basu, Debabrata [Bioceramics and Coating Division, CSIR—Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2013-04-01

    Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85 ± 2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70–900 μm) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87 ± 2 and 90 ± 2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. - Highlights: ► Fabrication and characterization of porous chitosan with or without IGF-1 and BMP-2 ► Highly porous growth factor loaded chitosan studied in animal subjects for 3 months ► Parameters studied: histopathology, radiology and fluorochrome labeling ► IGF-1 loaded porous chitosan found to be very effective for bone defect healing.

  10. Protein growth factors loaded highly porous chitosan scaffold: A comparison of bone healing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Samit K.; Kundu, Biswanath; Basu, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    Present study aimed to investigate and compare effectiveness of porous chitosan alone and in combination with insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in bone healing. Highly porous (85 ± 2%) with wide distribution of macroporous (70–900 μm) chitosan scaffolds were fabricated as bone substitutes by employing a simple liquid hardening method using 2% (w/v) chitosan suspension. IGF-1 and BMP-2 were infiltrated using vacuum infiltration with freeze drying method. Adsorption efficiency was found to be 87 ± 2 and 90 ± 2% for BMP-2 and IGF-1 respectively. After thorough material characterization (pore details, FTIR and SEM), samples were used for subsequent in vivo animal trial. Eighteen rabbit models were used to evaluate and compare control (chitosan) (group A), chitosan with IGF-1 (group B) and chitosan with BMP-2 (group C) in the repair of critical size bone defect in tibia. Radiologically, there was evidence of radiodensity in defect area from 60th day (initiated on 30th day) in groups B and C as compared to group A and attaining nearly bony density in most of the part at day 90. Histological results depicted well developed osteoblastic proliferation around haversian canal along with proliferating fibroblast, vascularization and reticular network which was more pronounced in group B followed by groups C and A. Fluorochrome labeling and SEM studies in all groups showed similar outcome. Hence, porous chitosan alone and in combination with growth factors (GFs) can be successfully used for bone defect healing with slight advantage of IGF-1 in chitosan samples. - Highlights: ► Fabrication and characterization of porous chitosan with or without IGF-1 and BMP-2 ► Highly porous growth factor loaded chitosan studied in animal subjects for 3 months ► Parameters studied: histopathology, radiology and fluorochrome labeling ► IGF-1 loaded porous chitosan found to be very effective for bone defect healing

  11. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a balance between synthesis and hydrolysis. Aside from .... be used to follow the synthesis of this protein fraction. (Clarke, 1977a) .... form of digestive enzymes, urea and ammonia (Egan, ..... decreasing urine-nitrogen excretion (Thornton, Bird,.

  12. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  13. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  14. Markers of protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, Henrietta A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of proteins to radicals in the presence of O2 gives both side-chain oxidation and backbone fragmentation. These processes can be interrelated, with initial side-chain oxidation giving rise to backbone damage via transfer reactions. We have shown previously that alkoxyl radicals formed...... of this process depends on the extent of oxidation at C-3 compared with other sites. HO*, generated by gamma radiolysis, gave the highest total carbonyl yield, with protein-bound carbonyls predominating over released. In contrast, metal ion/H2O2 systems, gave more released than bound carbonyls, with this ratio...... modulated by EDTA. This is ascribed to metal ion-protein interactions affecting the sites of initial oxidation. Hypochlorous acid gave low concentrations of released carbonyls, but high yields of protein-bound material. The peroxyl radical generator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride...

  15. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  16. Protein Polymers and Amyloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Michael Wulff

    2014-01-01

    Several human disorders are caused by a common general disease mechanism arising from abnormal folding and aggregation of the underlying protein. These include the prevalent dementias like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, where accumulation of protein fibrillar structures, known as amyloid fibrils......, is a general hallmark. They also include the α1-antitrypsin deficiency, where disease-causing mutations in the serine protease inhibitor, α1-antitrypsin (α1AT), leads to accumulation of the aberrant protein in the liver of these patients. The native metastable structure of α1AT constitutes a molecular trap...... that inhibits its target protease through a large conformational change but mutations compromise this function and cause premature structural collapse into hyperstable polymers. Understanding the conformational disorders at a molecular level is not only important for our general knowledge on protein folding...

  17. Protein turnover in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  18. MicroProteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eguen, Teinai Ebimienere; Straub, Daniel; Graeff, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    MicroProteins (miPs) are short, usually single-domain proteins that, in analogy to miRNAs, heterodimerize with their targets and exert a dominant-negative effect. Recent bioinformatic attempts to identify miPs have resulted in a list of potential miPs, many of which lack the defining...... characteristics of a miP. In this opinion article, we clearly state the characteristics of a miP as evidenced by known proteins that fit the definition; we explain why modulatory proteins misrepresented as miPs do not qualify as true miPs. We also discuss the evolutionary history of miPs, and how the miP concept...

  19. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  20. Interactive protein manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures

  1. The protein protocols handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, John M

    2002-01-01

    .... The new chapters cover with many rapidly developing areas, particularly the application of mass spectrometry in protein characterization, as well as the now well-established 2-D PAGE technique in proteomics...

  2. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  3. The effect of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions on membrane fouling in ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, I.H.; Prádanos, P.; Hernández, A.

    2000-01-01

    It was studied how protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions influence the filtration performance during the ultrafiltration of protein solutions over polymeric membranes. This was done by measuring flux, streaming potential, and protein transmission during filtration of bovine serum albumin

  4. Recombinant Collagenlike Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertala, Andzej

    2007-01-01

    A group of collagenlike recombinant proteins containing high densities of biologically active sites has been invented. The method used to express these proteins is similar to a method of expressing recombinant procollagens and collagens described in U. S. Patent 5,593,859, "Synthesis of human procollagens and collagens in recombinant DNA systems." Customized collagenous proteins are needed for biomedical applications. In particular, fibrillar collagens are attractive for production of matrices needed for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Prior to this invention, there was no way of producing customized collagenous proteins for these and other applications. Heretofore, collagenous proteins have been produced by use of such biological systems as yeasts, bacteria, and transgenic animals and plants. These products are normal collagens that can also be extracted from such sources as tendons, bones, and hides. These products cannot be made to consist only of biologically active, specific amino acid sequences that may be needed for specific applications. Prior to this invention, it had been established that fibrillar collagens consist of domains that are responsible for such processes as interaction with cells, binding of growth factors, and interaction with a number of structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix. A normal collagen consists of a sequence of domains that can be represented by a corresponding sequence of labels, e.g., D1D2D3D4. A collagenlike protein of the present invention contains regions of collagen II that contain multiples of a single domain (e.g., D1D1D1D1 or D4D4D4D4) chosen for its specific biological activity. By virtue of the multiplicity of the chosen domain, the density of sites having that specific biological activity is greater than it is in a normal collagen. A collagenlike protein according to this invention can thus be made to have properties that are necessary for tissue engineering.

  5. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  6. Proteins and their crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana; Hogg, T.; Hilgenfeld, R.; Grandori, R.; Carey, J.; Vácha, František; Štys, Dalibor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2003), s. 31-32 ISSN 1211-5894 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141; GA ČR GA206/00/D007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902; CEZ:MSM 123100001 Keywords : pokeweed antiviral protein * flavodoxin-like protein * PSII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. The tubby family proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Jackson, Peter K

    2011-01-01

    The tubby mouse shows a tripartite syndrome characterized by maturity-onset obesity, blindness and deafness. The causative gene Tub is the founding member of a family of related proteins present throughout the animal and plant kingdoms, each characterized by a signature carboxy-terminal tubby domain. This domain consists of a β barrel enclosing a central α helix and binds selectively to specific membrane phosphoinositides. The vertebrate family of tubby-like proteins (TULPs) includes the foun...

  8. The caveolin proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Terence M; Lisanti, Michael P

    2004-01-01

    The caveolin gene family has three members in vertebrates: caveolin-1, caveolin-2, and caveolin-3. So far, most caveolin-related research has been conducted in mammals, but the proteins have also been found in other animals, including Xenopus laevis, Fugu rubripes, and Caenorhabditis elegans. Caveolins can serve as protein markers of caveolae ('little caves'), invaginations in the plasma membrane 50-100 nanometers in diameter. Caveolins are found predominantly at the plasma membrane but also ...

  9. More protein in cereals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Ways in which the protein content of plant crops may be raised by the use of nuclear radiation are to be discussed at a symposium in Vienna in June next year, organized by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization/Agency Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Plant crops - especially cereal grains - are the basic food and protein source of most of the world's population, particularly in less-developed countries. But their natural protein content is low; increasing the quantity and nutritional quality of plant protein is potentially the most feasible way to combat widespread protein malnutrition. This improvement in seed stock can be achieved by plant breeding methods in which nuclear irradiation techniques are used to induce mutations in grain, and other isotopic techniques can be used to select only those mutants which have the desired properties. The scientists who attend the symposium will have an opportunity to review what mutation plant breeders have achieved, the application of nuclear techniques to screening for protein and amino-acid content and nutritional value, and isotopic methods which contribute to research in plant nutrition and physiology. (author)

  10. Electrophoretic transfer protein zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Daniel; Hill, Adam P; Kashou, Anthony; Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2011-04-15

    Zymography detects and characterizes proteolytic enzymes by electrophoresis of protease-containing samples into a nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel containing a copolymerized protein substrate. The usefulness of zymography for molecular weight determination and proteomic analysis is hampered by the fact that some proteases exhibit slower migration through a gel that contains substrate protein. This article introduces electrophoretic transfer protein zymography as one solution to this problem. In this technique, samples containing proteolytic enzymes are first resolved in nonreducing SDS-PAGE on a gel without protein substrate. The proteins in the resolving gel are then electrophoretically transferred to a receiving gel previously prepared with a copolymerized protein substrate. The receiving gel is then developed as a zymogram to visualize clear or lightly stained bands in a dark background. Band intensities are linearly related to the amount of protease, extending the usefulness of the technique so long as conditions for transfer and development of the zymogram are kept constant. Conditions of transfer, such as the pore sizes of resolving and receiving gels and the transfer time relative to the molecular weight of the protease, are explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. More protein in cereals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-07-01

    Ways in which the protein content of plant crops may be raised by the use of nuclear radiation are to be discussed at a symposium in Vienna in June next year, organized by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization/Agency Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Plant crops - especially cereal grains - are the basic food and protein source of most of the world's population, particularly in less-developed countries. But their natural protein content is low; increasing the quantity and nutritional quality of plant protein is potentially the most feasible way to combat widespread protein malnutrition. This improvement in seed stock can be achieved by plant breeding methods in which nuclear irradiation techniques are used to induce mutations in grain, and other isotopic techniques can be used to select only those mutants which have the desired properties. The scientists who attend the symposium will have an opportunity to review what mutation plant breeders have achieved, the application of nuclear techniques to screening for protein and amino-acid content and nutritional value, and isotopic methods which contribute to research in plant nutrition and physiology. (author)

  12. Disease specific protein corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  13. Competitive protein binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshio; Oka, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of cyclic GMP (cGMP) by competitive protein binding assay was described and discussed. The principle of binding assay was represented briefly. Procedures of our method by binding protein consisted of preparation of cGMP binding protein, selection of 3 H-cyclic GMP on market, and measurement procedures. In our method, binding protein was isolated from the chrysalis of silk worm. This method was discussed from the points of incubation medium, specificity of binding protein, the separation of bound cGMP from free cGMP, and treatment of tissue from which cGMP was extracted. cGMP existing in the tissue was only one tenth or one scores of cGMP, and in addition, cGMP competed with cGMP in binding with binding protein. Therefore, Murad's technique was applied to the isolation of cGMP. This method provided the measurement with sufficient accuracy; the contamination by cAMP was within several per cent. (Kanao, N.)

  14. Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been suggested that protein hydrolysates providing mainly di- and tripeptides are superior to intact (whole proteins and free amino acids in terms of skeletal muscle protein anabolism. This review provides a critical examination of protein hydrolysate studies conducted in healthy humans with special reference to sports nutrition. The effects of protein hydrolysate ingestion on blood amino acid levels, muscle protein anabolism, body composition, exercise performance and muscle glycogen resynthesis are discussed.

  15. Influência da localização das fezes nas características morfogênicas e estruturais e no acúmulo de forragem em pastos de capim-braquiária Influence of localization of feces on morphogenetic and structural characteristics and forage accumulation on Brachiaria decumbens pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as características morfogênicas e estruturais e o acúmulo de forragem em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens (capim-braquiária de acordo com a localização das fezes de bovinos. Foram avaliadas duas áreas da pastagem: próxima e distante das fezes. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram marcados perfilhos no pasto para avaliação do comprimento de folhas e colmos. O aparecimento e a morte de folhas também foram registrados. A taxa de alongamento de colmo foi 80% maior e a taxa de alongamento foliar 23% maior nos perfilhos das áreas próximas das fezes. O filocrono também foi maior nos perfilhos (8,5 dias das áreas próximas às fezes em comparação àqueles de áreas distantes (7,7 dias. Não houve efeito da localização das fezes sobre a taxa de senescência foliar (0,39 cm/perfilho.dia e a duração de vida da folha (38 dias. O comprimento final da lâmina foliar foi 25% maior nos perfilhos localizados próximos às fezes. O número de folhas com desfolhação (1,3 folhas foi menor nas áreas próximas às fezes, contrariamente ao número de folhas mortas (2,8 folhas. O comprimento do pseudocolmo aumentou 73% com a proximidade das fezes. Os números de perfilhos vegetativos, mortos e total foram maiores nas áreas distantes das fezes. Maior taxa de crescimento total do capim-braquiária também ocorreu nas áreas próximas às fezes. A deposição de fezes bovinas modifica as características morfogênicas e a estrutura do pasto de B. decumbens. Nas regiões próximas às fezes, o fluxo de tecidos é mais intenso e o acúmulo de forragem é maior.The objective of this study is to evaluate morphogenetic and structural characteristics as well as forage accumulation on Brachiaria decumbens pastures according to the site of cattle feces. It was evaluated two grazing areas: near and far from the droppings. The design used was a random block design, with three replicates. Tillers were

  16. Unique Features of Halophilic Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Proteins from moderate and extreme halophiles have unique characteristics. They are highly acidic and hydrophilic, similar to intrinsically disordered proteins. These characteristics make the halophilic proteins soluble in water and fold reversibly. In addition to reversible folding, the rate of refolding of halophilic proteins from denatured structure is generally slow, often taking several days, for example, for extremely halophilic proteins. This slow folding rate makes the halophilic proteins a novel model system for folding mechanism analysis. High solubility and reversible folding also make the halophilic proteins excellent fusion partners for soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

  17. Tumor cell surface proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, S.J.; Braslawsky, G.R.; Flynn, K.; Foote, L.J.; Friedman, E.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Huang, A.H.L.; Lankford, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Cell surface proteins mediate interaction between cells and their environment. Unique tumor cell surface proteins are being identified and quantified in several tumor systems to address the following questions: (i) how do tumor-specific proteins arise during cell transformation; (ii) can these proteins be used as markers of tumor cell distribution in vivo; (iii) can cytotoxic drugs be targeted specifically to tumor cells using antibody; and (iv) can solid state radioimmunoassay of these proteins provide a means to quantify transformation frequencies. A tumor surface protein of 180,000 M/sub r/ (TSP-180) has been identified on cells of several lung carcinomas of BALB/c mice. TSP-180 was not detected on normal lung tissue, embryonic tissue, or other epithelial or sarcoma tumors, but it was found on lung carcinomas of other strains of mice. Considerable amino acid sequence homology exists among TSP-180's from several cell sources, indicating that TSP-180 synthesis is directed by normal cellular genes although it is not expressed in normal cells. The regulation of synthesis of TSP-180 and its relationship to normal cell surface proteins are being studied. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to TSP-180 have been developed. The antibodies have been used in immunoaffinity chromatography to isolate TSP-180 from tumor cell sources. This purified tumor antigen was used to immunize rats. Antibody produced by these animals reacted at different sites (epitopes) on the TSP-180 molecule than did the original MoAb. These sera and MoAb from these animals are being used to identify normal cell components related to the TSP-180 molecule

  18. Bioinformatics and moonlighting proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eHernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multitasking or moonlighting is the capability of some proteins to execute two or more biochemical functions. Usually, moonlighting proteins are experimentally revealed by serendipity. For this reason, it would be helpful that Bioinformatics could predict this multifunctionality, especially because of the large amounts of sequences from genome projects. In the present work, we analyse and describe several approaches that use sequences, structures, interactomics and current bioinformatics algorithms and programs to try to overcome this problem. Among these approaches are: a remote homology searches using Psi-Blast, b detection of functional motifs and domains, c analysis of data from protein-protein interaction databases (PPIs, d match the query protein sequence to 3D databases (i.e., algorithms as PISITE, e mutation correlation analysis between amino acids by algorithms as MISTIC. Programs designed to identify functional motif/domains detect mainly the canonical function but usually fail in the detection of the moonlighting one, Pfam and ProDom being the best methods. Remote homology search by Psi-Blast combined with data from interactomics databases (PPIs have the best performance. Structural information and mutation correlation analysis can help us to map the functional sites. Mutation correlation analysis can only be used in very specific situations –it requires the existence of multialigned family protein sequences - but can suggest how the evolutionary process of second function acquisition took place. The multitasking protein database MultitaskProtDB (http://wallace.uab.es/multitask/, previously published by our group, has been used as a benchmark for the all of the analyses.

  19. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  20. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 654346314 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein Mastigocoleus testarum MLEQIELKPNWERNQVAFLDFIVNGTSLHDQFDHPQVRDLCTVFTSDQYEFDGKSSAAIHASWFLGYGETPFPDDRIPVYICSSGDFDCGTVTAYLTVNDGTIKWSEFRIERLTEELQDQPIELTSVKQCVFERNAYEKLFQPFLRKVID

  1. Protein Correlation Profiles Identify Lipid Droplet Proteins with High Confidence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahmer, Natalie; Hilger, Maximiliane; Kory, Nora; Wilfling, Florian; Stoehr, Gabriele; Mann, Matthias; Farese, Robert V.; Walther, Tobias C.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are important organelles in energy metabolism and lipid storage. Their cores are composed of neutral lipids that form a hydrophobic phase and are surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer that harbors specific proteins. Most well-established LD proteins perform important functions, particularly in cellular lipid metabolism. Morphological studies show LDs in close proximity to and interacting with membrane-bound cellular organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endosomes. Because of these close associations, it is difficult to purify LDs to homogeneity. Consequently, the confident identification of bona fide LD proteins via proteomics has been challenging. Here, we report a methodology for LD protein identification based on mass spectrometry and protein correlation profiles. Using LD purification and quantitative, high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified LD proteins by correlating their purification profiles to those of known LD proteins. Application of the protein correlation profile strategy to LDs isolated from Drosophila S2 cells led to the identification of 111 LD proteins in a cellular LD fraction in which 1481 proteins were detected. LD localization was confirmed in a subset of identified proteins via microscopy of the expressed proteins, thereby validating the approach. Among the identified LD proteins were both well-characterized LD proteins and proteins not previously known to be localized to LDs. Our method provides a high-confidence LD proteome of Drosophila cells and a novel approach that can be applied to identify LD proteins of other cell types and tissues. PMID:23319140

  2. Integral UBL domain proteins: a family of proteasome interacting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The family of ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs) comprises a conserved group of proteins involved in a multitude of different cellular activities. However, recent studies on UBL-domain proteins indicate that these proteins appear to share a common property in their ability to interact...

  3. Measuring protein breakdown rate in individual proteins in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Kjaer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo.......To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo....

  4. Changes in protein composition and protein phosphorylation during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in protein profiles and protein phosphorylation were studied in various stages of germinating somatic and zygotic embryos. Many proteins, which were expressed in cotyledonary stage somatic embryos, were also present in the zygotic embryos obtained from mature dry seed. The intensity of 22 kDa protein was ...

  5. A Stevedore's protein knot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bölinger

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein knots, mostly regarded as intriguing oddities, are gradually being recognized as significant structural motifs. Seven distinctly knotted folds have already been identified. It is by and large unclear how these exceptional structures actually fold, and only recently, experiments and simulations have begun to shed some light on this issue. In checking the new protein structures submitted to the Protein Data Bank, we encountered the most complex and the smallest knots to date: A recently uncovered alpha-haloacid dehalogenase structure contains a knot with six crossings, a so-called Stevedore knot, in a projection onto a plane. The smallest protein knot is present in an as yet unclassified protein fragment that consists of only 92 amino acids. The topological complexity of the Stevedore knot presents a puzzle as to how it could possibly fold. To unravel this enigma, we performed folding simulations with a structure-based coarse-grained model and uncovered a possible mechanism by which the knot forms in a single loop flip.

  6. Protein Annotation from Protein Interaction Networks and Gene Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Cao D.; Gardiner, Katheleen J.; Cios, Krzysztof J.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for annotating protein function that combines Naïve Bayes and association rules, and takes advantage of the underlying topology in protein interaction networks and the structure of graphs in the Gene Ontology. We apply our method to proteins from the Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) and show that, in comparison with other approaches, it predicts protein functions with significantly higher recall with no loss of precision. Specifically, it achieves 51% precis...

  7. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.

    2011-01-24

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol -1] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  9. Can infrared spectroscopy provide information on protein-protein interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Parvez I

    2010-08-01

    For most biophysical techniques, characterization of protein-protein interactions is challenging; this is especially true with methods that rely on a physical phenomenon that is common to both of the interacting proteins. Thus, for example, in IR spectroscopy, the carbonyl vibration (1600-1700 cm(-1)) associated with the amide bonds from both of the interacting proteins will overlap extensively, making the interpretation of spectral changes very complicated. Isotope-edited infrared spectroscopy, where one of the interacting proteins is uniformly labelled with (13)C or (13)C,(15)N has been introduced as a solution to this problem, enabling the study of protein-protein interactions using IR spectroscopy. The large shift of the amide I band (approx. 45 cm(-1) towards lower frequency) upon (13)C labelling of one of the proteins reveals the amide I band of the unlabelled protein, enabling it to be used as a probe for monitoring conformational changes. With site-specific isotopic labelling, structural resolution at the level of individual amino acid residues can be achieved. Furthermore, the ability to record IR spectra of proteins in diverse environments means that isotope-edited IR spectroscopy can be used to structurally characterize difficult systems such as protein-protein complexes bound to membranes or large insoluble peptide/protein aggregates. In the present article, examples of application of isotope-edited IR spectroscopy for studying protein-protein interactions are provided.

  10. Ubiquitin domain proteins in disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Louise Kjær; Schulze, Andrea; Seeger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The human genome encodes several ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs). Members of this protein family are involved in a variety of cellular functions and many are connected to the ubiquitin proteasome system, an essential pathway for protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Despite...... and cancer. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com)....

  11. Protein: FBA7 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FBA7 claudin-zona occluden Tjp1 Zo1 Tight junction protein ZO-1 Tight junction protein 1, Zona occludens pr...otein 1, Zonula occludens protein 1 10090 Mus musculus 21872 P39447 2RRM P39447 21431884 ...

  12. Protein: FEA3 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FEA3 AREB pathway: Signaling proteins At4g11890/T26M18_100 At4g11890, Protein kinase family pr...otein, Putative uncharacterized protein At4g11890/T26M18_100 3702 Arabidopsis thaliana 826796 Q8GY82 22225700 ...

  13. Cold gelation of globular proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords : globular proteins, whey protein, ovalbumin, cold gelation, disulfide bonds, texture, gel hardnessProtein gelation in food products is important to obtain desirable sensory and textural properties. Cold gelation is a novel method to produce protein-based gels. It is a two step process in

  14. Vibrational spectroscopy of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaighofer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Two important steps for the development of a biosensor are the immobilization of the biological component (e.g. protein) on a surface and the enhancement of the signal to improve the sensitivity of detection. To address these subjects, the present work describes Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) investigations of several proteins bound to the surface of an attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystal. Furthermore, new nanostructured surfaces for signal enhancement were developed for use in FTIR microscopy. The mitochondrial redox-protein cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was incorporated into a protein-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (ptBLM) on an ATR crystal featuring a roughened two-layer gold surface for signal enhancement. Electrochemical excitation by periodic potential pulses at different modulation frequencies was followed by time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy. Phase sensitive detection was used for deconvolution of the IR spectra into vibrational components. A model based on protonation-dependent chemical reaction kinetics could be fitted to the time evolution of IR bands attributed to several different redox centers of the CcO. Further investigations involved the odorant binding protein 14 (OBP14) of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), which was studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and circular dichroism. OBP14 was found to be thermally stable up to 45 °C, thus permitting the potential application of this protein for the fabrication of biosensors. Thermal denaturation measurements showed that odorant binding increases the thermal stability of the OBP-odorant complex. In another project, plasmonic nanostructures were fabricated that enhance the absorbance in FTIR microscopy measurements. The nanostructures are composed of an array of round-shaped insulator and gold discs on top of a continuous gold layer. Enhancement factors of up to ⁓125 could be observed with self-assembled monolayers of dodecanethiol molecules immobilized on the gold surface (author) [de

  15. Urinary Protein Biomarker Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    silica emitter via a Valco stainless steel union. Four μL of individual peptide fractions (total volume 20 μL) following PRISM were injected for LC...secreted cement gland protein XAG-2 homolog, AGR2 belongs to the protein disulfide 5 isomerase (PDI) family. The strongest AGR2 expression has...µm C18 column (75 µm i.d. × 10 cm), which was connected to a chemically etched 20 µm i.d. fused-silica emitter via a Valco stainless steel union

  16. Protein energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Zubin; Ee, Looi C

    2009-10-01

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common problem worldwide and occurs in both developing and industrialized nations. In the developing world, it is frequently a result of socioeconomic, political, or environmental factors. In contrast, protein energy malnutrition in the developed world usually occurs in the context of chronic disease. There remains much variation in the criteria used to define malnutrition, with each method having its own limitations. Early recognition, prompt management, and robust follow up are critical for best outcomes in preventing and treating PEM.

  17. Heme Sensor Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, Hazel M.; Munro, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Heme is a prosthetic group best known for roles in oxygen transport, oxidative catalysis, and respiratory electron transport. Recent years have seen the roles of heme extended to sensors of gases such as O2 and NO and cell redox state, and as mediators of cellular responses to changes in intracellular levels of these gases. The importance of heme is further evident from identification of proteins that bind heme reversibly, using it as a signal, e.g. to regulate gene expression in circadian rhythm pathways and control heme synthesis itself. In this minireview, we explore the current knowledge of the diverse roles of heme sensor proteins. PMID:23539616

  18. Protein-protein interactions: an application of Tus-Ter mediated protein microarray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Kalavathy; Chatterjee, Deb K

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a novel, cost-effective microarray strategy that utilizes expression-ready plasmid DNAs to generate protein arrays on-demand and its use to validate