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Sample records for carrying orbital angular

  1. Superpositions of light fields carrying orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presented in this thesis is centred on the generation of superimposed optical fields which each carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) and the development of OAM measurement techniques. Optical fields which carry OAM have found applications...

  2. Classical to quantum optical network link for orbital angular momentum-carrying light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen

    2015-07-13

    Using orbital angular momentum (OAM) conservation in second-order nonlinear interaction processes, we create a classical to quantum optical network link in the OAM degrees of freedom of light via sum frequency generation, followed by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Coherent OAM-carrying beams at 1550 nm are up-converted to 525.5-nm OAM-carrying beams in the first crystal, and are used to pump a second crystal to generate non-degenerate OAM entangled photon pairs at 795 nm and 1550 nm. By switching the OAM carried by the classical part, OAM correlation in the quantum part is shifted. High-level OAM entanglements in two-dimensional subspaces are verified.

  3. High efficiency frequency upconversion of photons carrying orbital angular momentum for a quantum information interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ruikai; Li, Xiongjie; Wu, Wenjie; Pan, Haifeng; Zeng, Heping; Wu, E

    2015-04-20

    The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light shows great potential in quantum communication. The transmission wavelength for telecom is usually around 1550 nm, while the common quantum information storage and processing devices based on atoms, ions or NV color centers are for photons in visible regime. Here we demonstrate a quantum information interface based on the frequency upconversion for photons carrying OAM states from telecom wavelength to visible regime by sum-frequency generation with high quantum conversion efficiency. The infrared photons at 1558 nm carrying different OAM values were converted to the visible regime of 622.2 nm, and the OAM value of the signal photons was well preserved in the frequency upconversion process with pump beam in Gaussian profile.

  4. Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves carrying orbital angular momentum in quantum plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B; Stenflo, L

    2012-07-01

    We investigate stimulated scattering instabilities of coherent circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons and nondegenerate ions. For this purpose, we employ the coupled equations for the CPEM wave vector potential and the driven (by the ponderomotive force of the CPEM waves) equations for the electron and ion plasma oscillations. The electrons are significantly affected by the quantum forces (viz., the quantum statistical pressure, the quantum Bohm potential, as well as the electron exchange and electron correlations due to electron spin), which are included in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamical description of the electrons. Furthermore, our investigation of the stimulated Brillouin instability of coherent CPEM waves uses the generalized ion momentum equation that includes strong ion coupling effects. The nonlinear equations for the coupled CPEM and quantum plasma waves are then analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations which exhibit stimulated Raman, stimulated Brillouin, and modulational instabilities of CPEM waves carrying OAM. The present results are useful for understanding the origin of scattered light off low-frequency density fluctuations in high-energy density plasmas where quantum effects are eminent.

  5. Propagation of orbital angular momentum carrying beams through a perturbing medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chaibi, A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The orbital angular momentum of light has been suggested as a means of information transfer over free-space, yet the detected optical vortex is known to be sensitive to perturbation. Such effects have been studied theoretically, in particular...

  6. Free-space optical communication link using perfect vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fuquan; Huang, Sujuan; Shao, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Musheng; Zhang, Weibing; Zeng, Junzhang

    2017-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a free-space optical communication link using perfect vortex beams. Perfect vortex beams with different topological charges are generated using a phase-modulation-type spatial light modulator (SLM) loaded with novel phase holograms based on the Bessel function. With the help of a microscope objective and simple lens, perfect vortex beams are transmitted effectively for a certain distance. After completing the demodulation of perfect vortex beams carrying OFDM 16-QAM signals and a series of offline processing on the Gaussian bright spot demodulated from the perfect vortex beams, we also achieve a communication link. The constellations and mean bit error rates (BER) of subcarriers are shown.

  7. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  8. Demonstration of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes emission from a silicon photonic integrated device for 20 Gbit/s QPSK carrying data transmission in few-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Shimao; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode emission from a high emission efficiency OAM emitter for 20 Gbit/s QPSK carrying data transmission in few-mode fiber (FMF). Two modes propagate through a 3.6km three-mode FMF with measured OSNR penalties less than 4 dB at a BER of 2e...

  9. Laguerre-Gaussian, Hermite-Gaussian, Bessel-Gaussian, and Finite-Energy Airy Beams Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum in Strongly Nonlocal Nonlinear Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenkun; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-12-01

    The propagation of two-dimensional beams is analytically and numerically investigated in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media (SNNM) based on the ABCD matrix. The two-dimensional beams reported in this paper are described by the product of the superposition of generalized Laguerre-Gaussian (LG), Hermite-Gaussian (HG), Bessel-Gaussian (BG), and circular Airy (CA) beams, carrying an orbital angular momentum (OAM). Owing to OAM and the modulation of SNNM, we find that the propagation of these two-dimensional beams exhibits complete rotation and periodic inversion: the spatial intensity profile first extends and then diminishes, and during the propagation the process repeats to form a breath-like phenomenon.

  10. Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ) Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes Christian Schulze,1 Filippus S. Roux,2 Angela Dudley,2 Ronald Rop,3 Michael Duparre´,1 and Andrew Forbes2,4,* 1Institute of Applied Optics, Friedrich Schiller University, Fro¨belstieg 1, 07743 Jena... from the transverse acceleration discussed before. We tailor our “twisted light” (fields carrying orbital angular momentum) to have a nonlinear phase variation with azimuthal angle, which we show is the building block for angular accelerating light...

  11. Demonstration of Tunable Steering and Multiplexing of Two 28 GHz Data Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum Beams Using Antenna Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guodong; Zhao, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Li, Long; Ren, Yongxiong; Ahmed, Nisar; Cao, Yinwen; Willner, Asher J.; Bao, Changjing; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Cong; Ziyadi, Morteza; Talwar, Shilpa; Sajuyigbe, Soji; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F.; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    In line-of-sight communication systems, accurate alignment between the transmitter and receiver is important to guarantee sufficient signal power at the receiver. Such alignment is even more important for orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing systems since misalignment between the transmitter and receiver may cause crosstalk among channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the simultaneous generation and tunable steering of two OAM beams utilising a custom-designed circular antenna array at 28 GHz. We achieve a steering angle of up to 35 degrees from the antenna array normal. We find that (i) the steering angle of the generated OAM beams is limited by the emitting angle of the antenna elements, and (ii) a larger steering angle may degrade the mode purity of the generated OAM beams as well as induce inter-symbol-interference to each of the individual channels. Moreover, we demonstrate the transmission of two 1-Gbaud quadratic phase shift keying (QPSK) signal over the two steerable OAM beams with both multiplexed channels achieved bit error rates (BERs) of <3.8 × 10−3. PMID:27833168

  12. Orbital angular momentum: a personal memoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L.

    2017-02-01

    A definitive statement of the model used to describe orbital angular momentum is essentially now available. Its early history, and the interaction of those who played key roles in its development over 20 years ago in its development, is outlined in this Memoir. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  13. Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Rosales-Guzm?n, Carmelo; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Ben Salem, Amine; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is mooted as a technology to address future bandwidth issues, and has been successfully demonstrated in free space using spatial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM). To further increase the data transmission rate, more degrees of freedom are required to form a densely packed mode space. Here we move beyond OAM and demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing using both the radial and azimuthal degrees of freedom. We achieve this with a holographic approac...

  14. Sorting and quantifying orbital angular momentum of laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel tool for sorting the orbital angular momentum and to determine the orbital angular momentum density of laser beams, which is based on the use of correlation filters....

  15. Orbital angular momentum exchange in parametric down conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenin, J. A. O.; Martinelli, M.; Caetano, D. P.; Coutinho Dos Santos, B.; Almeida, M. P.; Souto Ribeiro, P. H.; Nussenzveig, P.; Khoury, A. Z.

    2006-05-01

    Orbital angular momentum exchange, both in cavity free stimulated parametric down conversion and in an optical parametric oscillator, is studied. In both cases, the conditions for parametric amplification are discussed in terms of the orbital angular momentum exchange between the interacting fields. It is shown that in cavity free parametric down conversion, parametric amplification is conditioned to conserve orbital angular momentum. However, for parametric oscillation, cavity and anisotropy effects play a crucial role in the orbital angular momentum exchange between the interacting fields.

  16. Tunable orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, D; Ribič, P Rebernik; Adhikary, G; Camper, A; Chappuis, C; Cucini, R; DiMauro, L F; Dovillaire, G; Frassetto, F; Géneaux, R; Miotti, P; Poletto, L; Ressel, B; Spezzani, C; Stupar, M; Ruchon, T; De Ninno, G

    2017-04-05

    Optical vortices are currently one of the most intensively studied topics in optics. These light beams, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), have been successfully utilized in the visible and infrared in a wide variety of applications. Moving to shorter wavelengths may open up completely new research directions in the areas of optical physics and material characterization. Here, we report on the generation of extreme-ultraviolet optical vortices with femtosecond duration carrying a controllable amount of OAM. From a basic physics viewpoint, our results help to resolve key questions such as the conservation of angular momentum in highly nonlinear light-matter interactions, and the disentanglement and independent control of the intrinsic and extrinsic components of the photon's angular momentum at short-wavelengths. The methods developed here will allow testing some of the recently proposed concepts such as OAM-induced dichroism, magnetic switching in organic molecules and violation of dipolar selection rules in atoms.

  17. Unveiling the orbital angular momentum and acceleration of electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiloh, Roy; Tsur, Yuval; Remez, Roei; Lereah, Yossi; Malomed, Boris A; Shvedov, Vladlen; Hnatovsky, Cyril; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Arie, Ady

    2015-03-06

    New forms of electron beams have been intensively investigated recently, including vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum, as well as Airy beams propagating along a parabolic trajectory. Their traits may be harnessed for applications in materials science, electron microscopy, and interferometry, and so it is important to measure their properties with ease. Here, we show how one may immediately quantify these beams' parameters without need for additional fabrication or nonstandard microscopic tools. Our experimental results are backed by numerical simulations and analytic derivation.

  18. Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trichili, A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available . 3CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. 4Institut Mines-Télécom/Télécom SudParis, 9 rue Charles Fourier, 91011 Evry, France. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to C.R.-G. (email: carmelo..., Y. et al. Free-space optical communications using orbital-angular-momentum multiplexing combined with mimo-based spatial multiplexing. Opt. Lett. 40, 4210–4213 (2015). 19. Zhao, N., Li, X., Li, G. & Kahn, J. M. Capacity limits of spatially...

  19. Multiple orbital angular momentum generated by dielectric hybrid phase element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Hu, Dejiao; Li, Xiangping

    2017-09-01

    Vortex beam carrying multiple orbital angular momentum provides a new degree of freedom to manipulate light leading to the various exciting applications as trapping, quantum optics, information multiplexing, etc. Helical wavefront can be generated either via the geometric or the dynamic phase arising from a space-variant birefringence (q-plate) or from phase accumulation through propagation (spiral-phase-plate), respectively. Using fast direct laser writing technique we fabricate and characterize novel hybrid q-plate generating vortex beam simultaneously carrying two different high-order topological charges, which arise from the spin-orbital conversion and the azimuthal height variation of the recorded structures. We approve the versatile concept to generate multiple-OAM vortex beams combining the spin-orbital interaction and the phase accumulation in a single micro-scale device, a hybrid dielectric phase plate.

  20. Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Ben Salem, Amine; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is mooted as a technology to address future bandwidth issues, and has been successfully demonstrated in free space using spatial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM). To further increase the data transmission rate, more degrees of freedom are required to form a densely packed mode space. Here we move beyond OAM and demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing using both the radial and azimuthal degrees of freedom. We achieve this with a holographic approach that allows over 100 modes to be encoded on a single hologram, across a wide wavelength range, in a wavelength independent manner. Our results offer a new tool that will prove useful in realizing higher bit rates for next generation optical networks.

  1. High orbital angular momentum harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, J; Alves, E P; Fonseca, R A; Mendonça, J T; Bingham, R; Norreys, P; Silva, L O

    2016-01-01

    We identify and explore a high orbital angular momentum (OAM) harmonics generation and amplification mechanism that manipulates the OAM independently of any other laser property, by preserving the initial laser wavelength, through stimulated Raman backscattering in a plasma. The high OAM harmonics spectra can extend at least up to the limiting value imposed by the paraxial approximation. We show with theory and particle-in-cell simulations that the orders of the OAM harmonics can be tuned according to a selection rule that depends on the initial OAM of the interacting waves. We illustrate the high OAM harmonics generation in a plasma using several examples including the generation of prime OAM harmonics. The process can also be realised in any nonlinear optical Kerr media supporting three-wave interactions.

  2. Higher-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum-based quantum key distribution with mutually unbiased bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafu, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental study of higher-dimensional quantum key distribution protocols based on mutually unbiased bases, implemented by means of photons carrying orbital angular momentum. We perform (d + 1) mutually unbiased measurements in a...

  3. Orbital angular momentum filter of photon based on spin-orbital angular momentum coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Pei, E-mail: zhangpei@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Liu, Rui-Feng; Li, Hong-Rong; Gao, Hong; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-10-16

    Highlights: • We propose a scheme that can filter the orbital angular momentum of photons. • Our scheme filters the specific mode with destroying the mode. • Our scheme can theoretically filter infinity modes. • The orientation of Dove lens and HWP decides which mode will output. - Abstract: Determination of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of vortex beams has been hotly discussed. We propose a new type of method to determine the orbital angular momentum of photons, filtering. We present an OAM filter scheme which consists of a cavity with a polarization-based Mach–Zehnder interferometer inside. Our scheme can purify the specific OAM with unitary efficiency theoretically without the pre-knowledge of the OAM spectrum of the input light. We also implemented a proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate the feasibility of our scheme by cascading three interferometers. Our method offers a new way to determine the OAM spectrum of a light and this method can also be exploited to prepare the eigenstate of vortex beams.

  4. Optical communications beyond orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Trichili, Abderrahmen; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Ben Salem, Amine; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Current optical communication technologies are predicted to face a bandwidth capacity limit in the near future. The nature of the limitation is fundamental rather than technological and is set by nonlinearities in optical fibers. One solution, suggested over 30 years ago, comprises the use of spatial modes of light as information carriers. Along this direction, light beams endowed with orbital angular momentum (OAM) have been demonstrated as potential information carriers in both, free space and fibres. However, recent studies suggest that purely OAM modes does not increase the bandwidth of optical communication systems. In fact, in all work to date, only the azimuthal component of transverse spatial modes has been used. Crucially, all transverse spatial modes require two degrees of freedom to be described; in the context of Laguerre-Gaussian (LGp`) beams these are azimuthal (l) and radial (p), the former responsible for OAM. Here, we demonstrate a technique where both degrees of freedom of LG modes are used as information carrier over free space. We transfer images encoded using 100 spatial modes in three wavelengths as our basis, and employ a spatial demultiplexing scheme that detects all 100 modes simultaneously. Our scheme is a hybrid of MIMO and SMM, and serves as a proof-of-principle demonstration. The cross-talk between the modes is small and independent of whether OAM modes are used or not.

  5. Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams -or “structured attosecond light springs”- with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging.

  6. Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos

    2017-03-10

    We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams -or "structured attosecond light springs"- with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging.

  7. Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available . As the angular acceleration takes place in a bounded space, the azimuthal degree of freedom, such fields accelerate periodically as they propagate. Notably, the amount of angular acceleration is not limited by paraxial considerations, may be tailored for large...

  8. Generation of electromagnetic waves with arbitrary orbital angular momentum modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li; Hong, Wei; Hao, Zhang-Cheng

    2014-04-28

    Recently, much attention has been focused on beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) for radio communication. Here we experimentally demonstrate a planar-spiral phase plate (planar-SPP) for generating arbitrary mixed OAM beams. This proposed planar-SPP uses the concept of transmit array antenna having a perforated substrate to control the outputting phase for generating beams carrying OAM with arbitrary modes. As demonstrations, three planar-SPPs with a single OAM mode and two mixed OAM modes around 94 GHz have been investigated with design and experiments in this paper, respectively. The typical experimental intensity and phase patterns show that the proposed method of generating OAM beams really works.

  9. Orbital angular momentum in optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Nenad

    Internet data traffic capacity is rapidly reaching limits imposed by nonlinear effects of single mode fibers currently used in optical communications. Having almost exhausted available degrees of freedom to orthogonally multiplex data in optical fibers, researchers are now exploring the possibility of using the spatial dimension of fibers, via multicore and multimode fibers, to address the forthcoming capacity crunch. While multicore fibers require complex manufacturing, conventional multi-mode fibers suffer from mode coupling, caused by random perturbations in fibers and modal (de)multiplexers. Methods that have been developed to address the problem of mode coupling so far, have been dependent on computationally intensive digital signal processing algorithms using adaptive optics feedback or complex multiple-input multiple-output algorithms. Here we study the possibility of using the orbital angular momentum (OAM), or helicity, of light, as a means of increasing capacity of future optical fiber communication links. We first introduce a class of specialty fibers designed to minimize mode coupling and show their potential for OAM mode generation in fibers using numerical analysis. We then experimentally confirm the existence of OAM states in these fibers using methods based on fiber gratings and spatial light modulators. In order to quantify the purity of created OAM states, we developed two methods based on mode-image analysis, showing purity of OAM states to be 90% after 1km in these fibers. Finally, in order to demonstrate data transmission using OAM states, we developed a 4-mode multiplexing and demultiplexing systems based on free-space optics and spatial light modulators. Using simple coherent detection methods, we successfully transmit data at 400Gbit/s using four OAM modes at a single wavelength, over 1.1 km of fiber. Furthermore, we achieve data transmission at 1.6Tbit/s using 10 wavelengths and two OAM modes. Our study indicates that OAM light can exist

  10. The decay of orbital angular momentum entanglement in atmospheric turbulence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, 8-12 July 2013 The decay of orbital angular momentum entanglement in atmospheric turbulence Roux FS CSIR, National Laser Centre, Pretoria, 0001 Corresponding email: FSroux...

  11. Continuous Variable Entanglement and Squeezing of Orbital Angular Momentum States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2009-01-01

    We report the first experimental characterization of the first-order continuous variable orbital angular momentum states. Using a spatially nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) we produce quadrature entanglement between the two first-order Laguerre-Gauss modes. The family of orbital...... angular momentum modes is mapped on an orbital Poincaré sphere, where the mode's position on the sphere is spanned by the three orbital parameters. Using a nondegenerate OPO we produce squeezing of these parameters, and as an illustration, we reconstruct the “cigar-shaped” uncertainty volume...

  12. Spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion and spin-polarization filtering in electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Grillo, Vincenzo; Santamato, Enrico

    2012-01-27

    We propose the design of a space-variant Wien filter for electron beams that induces a spin half-turn and converts the corresponding spin angular momentum variation into orbital angular momentum of the beam itself by exploiting a geometrical phase arising in the spin manipulation. When applied to a spatially coherent input spin-polarized electron beam, such a device can generate an electron vortex beam, carrying orbital angular momentum. When applied to an unpolarized input beam, the proposed device, in combination with a suitable diffraction element, can act as a very effective spin-polarization filter. The same approach can also be applied to neutron or atom beams.

  13. Measuring the orbital angular momentum spectrum of an electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Tavabi, Amir H.; Venturi, Federico; Larocque, Hugo; Balboni, Roberto; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Frabboni, Stefano; Lu, Peng-Han; Mafakheri, Erfan; Bouchard, Frédéric; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Boyd, Robert W.; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Padgett, Miles J.; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Electron waves that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) are characterized by a quantized and unbounded magnetic dipole moment parallel to their propagation direction. When interacting with magnetic materials, the wavefunctions of such electrons are inherently modified. Such variations therefore motivate the need to analyse electron wavefunctions, especially their wavefronts, to obtain information regarding the material's structure. Here, we propose, design and demonstrate the performance of a device based on nanoscale holograms for measuring an electron's OAM components by spatially separating them. We sort pure and superposed OAM states of electrons with OAM values of between −10 and 10. We employ the device to analyse the OAM spectrum of electrons that have been affected by a micron-scale magnetic dipole, thus establishing that our sorter can be an instrument for nanoscale magnetic spectroscopy. PMID:28537248

  14. Encoding Orbital Angular Momentum of Lights in Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Breaking the diffraction limit and focusing laser beams to nanometre-scale are becoming possible with the help of recent developments in plasmonics. This allows us to explore nano-scale physics induced by laser beams with complex spatial profiles like optical vortex, or laser carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). On the basis of numerical calculations using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, here we propose two OAM-dependent phenomena induced by optical vortex, spin waves with multipolar and spiral wave fronts, and ultrafast generation of various kinds of topological defects in chiral magnets. We show that by using Tera Hz optical vortex, we can generate skyrmionic defects with timescale orders of magnitude shorter than by other known schemes.

  15. A quantum memory for orbital angular momentum photonic qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, A.; Veissier, L.; Giner, L.; Giacobino, E.; Maxein, D.; Laurat, J.

    2014-03-01

    Among the optical degrees of freedom, the orbital angular momentum of light provides unique properties, including mechanical torque action, which has applications for light manipulation, enhanced sensitivity in imaging techniques and potential high-density information coding for optical communication systems. Recent years have also seen a tremendous interest in exploiting orbital angular momentum at the single-photon level in quantum information technologies. In pursuing this endeavour, we demonstrate here the implementation of a quantum memory for quantum bits encoded in this optical degree of freedom. We generate various qubits with computer-controlled holograms, store and retrieve them on demand using a dynamic electromagnetically induced transparency protocol. We further analyse the retrieved states by quantum tomography and thereby demonstrate fidelities exceeding the classical benchmark, confirming the quantum functioning of our storage process. Our results provide an essential capability for future networks exploring the promises of orbital angular momentum of photons for quantum information applications.

  16. Origins and demonstrations of electrons with orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorran, Benjamin J.; Agrawal, Amit; Ercius, Peter A.; Grillo, Vincenzo; Herzing, Andrew A.; Harvey, Tyler R.; Linck, Martin; Pierce, Jordan S.

    2017-02-01

    The surprising message of Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)) was that photons could possess orbital angular momentum in free space, which subsequently launched advancements in optical manipulation, microscopy, quantum optics, communications, many more fields. It has recently been shown that this result also applies to quantum mechanical wave functions describing massive particles (matter waves). This article discusses how electron wave functions can be imprinted with quantized phase vortices in analogous ways to twisted light, demonstrating that charged particles with non-zero rest mass can possess orbital angular momentum in free space. With Allen et al. as a bridge, connections are made between this recent work in electron vortex wave functions and much earlier works, extending a 175 year old tradition in matter wave vortices. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  17. Spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in dielectric metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Robert Charles; Wintz, Daniel; Oscurato, Stefano Luigi; Zhu, Alexander Yutong; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Oh, Jaewon; Maddalena, Pasqualino; Capasso, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Spin-to-orbital-angular-momentum conversion has attracted considerable interest as a tool to create exotic light beams, leading to the emergence of novel devices that implement this function. These converters exploit the geometrical phase to create helical beams of handedness determined by the chirality of the incident light. This property is finding important applications in quantum optics thanks to the demonstration of liquid crystal spin-to-orbital angular momentum converters (SOC) known as q-plates. Here we demonstrate high-efficiency SOCs in the visible based on dielectric metasurfaces that generate vortex beams with high and even fractional topological charge and show for the first time the simultaneous generation of collinear helical beams with different and arbitrary orbital angular momentum. We foresee that this versatile method of creating vortex beams, which circumvents the limitations of q-plates, will significant impact microscopy and vector beam shaping.

  18. Implementing quantum walks using orbital angular momentum of classical light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sandeep K; Roux, Filippus S; Forbes, Andrew; Konrad, Thomas

    2013-06-28

    We present an implementation scheme for a quantum walk in the orbital angular momentum space of a laser beam. The scheme makes use of a ring interferometer, containing a quarter-wave plate and a q plate. This setup enables one to perform an arbitrary number of quantum walk steps. In addition, the classical nature of the implementation scheme makes it possible to observe the quantum walk evolution in real time. We use nonquantum entanglement of the laser beam's polarization with its orbital angular momentum to implement the quantum walk.

  19. Ultra-sensitive and super-resolving angular rotation measurement based on photon orbital angular momentum using parity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zijing; Qiao, Tianyuan; Ma, Kun; Cen, Longzhu; Zhang, Jiandong; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-08-15

    Photon orbital angular momentum has led to many novel insights and applications in quantum measurement. Photon orbital angular momentum can increase the resolution and sensitivity of angular rotation measurement. However, quantum measurement strategy can further surpass this limit and improve the resolution of angular rotation measurement. This Letter proposes and demonstrates a parity measurement method in angular rotation measurement scheme for the first time. Parity measurement can make the resolution superior to the limit of the existing method. The sensitivity can be improved with higher orbital angular momentum photons. Moreover, this Letter gives a detailed discussion of the change of resolution and sensitivity in the presence of photon loss.

  20. Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ki-Seung

    2015-04-06

    In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.

  1. Implementing quantum walks using orbital angular momentum of classical light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goyal, SK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an implementation scheme for a quantum walk in the orbital angular momentum space of a laser beam. The scheme makes use of a ring interferometer, containing a quarter-wave plate and a q plate. This setup enables one to perform...

  2. Dichroism for Orbital Angular Momentum using Stimulated Parametric Down Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Lowney, Joseph; Faccio, Daniele; Wright, Ewan M

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically analyze stimulated parametric down conversion as a means to produce dichroism based on the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of an incident signal field. The nonlinear interaction is shown to provide differential gain between signal states of differing OAM, the peak gain occurring at half the OAM of the pump field.

  3. Orbital-angular-momentum entanglement in turbulence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hamadou Ibrahim, A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available (finite-dimensional) subspace of the complete OAM Hilbert space. The orthogonal complement of this subspace does not represent any information. Although the quantum state of the photon pair is initially prepared to lie completely within the information... information is transferred to the environment, which is assumed to form a tensor product with the information-carrying quantum system. In the OAM case the information is lost to a part of the same Hilbert space. This is a drawback of OAM-based systems compared...

  4. Orbital-angular-momentum mixing in type-II second-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leonardo J.; Buono, Wagner T.; Tasca, Daniel S.; Dechoum, Kaled; Khoury, Antonio Z.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the nonlinear mixing of orbital angular momentum in type-II second-harmonic generation with arbitrary topological charges imprinted on two orthogonally polarized beams. Starting from the basic nonlinear equations for the interacting fields, we derive the selection rules determining the set of paraxial modes taking part in the interaction. Conservation of orbital angular momentum naturally appears as the topological charge selection rule. However, a less intuitive rule applies to the radial orders when modes carrying opposite helicities are combined in the nonlinear crystal, an intriguing feature confirmed by experimental measurements.

  5. Offset tolerance of an orbital angular momentum optical communication system with angular deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-li; Sang, Hong-qing; Cui, Xiao-Zhou; Chang, Huan; Li, Li; Wu, Guo-hua

    2017-06-01

    This work studied the offset tolerance (OT) with a particular focus on the angular deflection of an orbital angular momentum (OAM) system in free space. We derived an analytical expression of the OT for an angular-deflected Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam via Fourier series (FS) expansion and determined the upper bound of the OT for OAM-multiplexed systems. Next, we analyzed the effects of the beam waist, transmitted distance and OAM state number on the OT numerically. The calculation results indicate that the OT of the deflected beam is inversely proportional to the square root of the OAM number and approximately reciprocal to the propagation distance. Finally, we calculated the bit-error rate (BER) and aggregated capacity of multiplexed systems with different sets of channels. The results confirmed that the estimated upper bound is reasonable, especially for larger mode spacings. This work can provide guidance for the design and optimization of angular-deflected OAM-multiplexed communication systems.

  6. Vorticity Measurement using LG Laser Beams with Orbital Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooochesfahani, Manoochehr; Pouya, Shahram; Safaripour, Alireza; Ryabtsev, Anton; Dantus, Marcos

    2016-11-01

    We present direct measurement of vorticity in a fluid flow based on angular velocity measurement of microparticles contained in the fluid. The method uses Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) laser beams that possess orbital angular momentum (OAM), a spatial (azimuthal) modulation of the beam phase front, and takes advantage of the rotational Doppler shift from microparticles intersecting the beam focus. Results are shown for the flow field of solid body rotation, where the flow vorticity is known precisely. This work was supported by AFOSR Award Number FA9550-14-1-0312.

  7. Electronic orbital angular momentum and magnetism of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of graphene electrons in a perpendicular magnetic field is calculated and corresponding magnetic moment is used to investigate the magnetism of perfect graphene. Variation in magnetization demonstrates its decrease with carrier-doping, plateaus in a large field, and de Haas-van Alphen oscillation. Regulation of magnetism by a parallel electric field is presented. The OAM originates from atomic-scale electronic motion in graphene lattice, and vector hopping inter...

  8. Holographic tool kit for optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Salem, Amine Ben; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is mooted as a technology to address future bandwidth issues, and has been successfully demonstrated in free space using spatial modes with orbital angular momentum (OAM). To further increase the data transmission rate, more degrees of freedom are required to form a densely packed mode space. Here we move beyond OAM and demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing using both the radial and azimuthal degrees of freedom. We achieve this with a holographic approac...

  9. Long range quasi-nondiffracting beams carrying orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ismail, Y

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors outline an optical design for producing high-order Bessel-like beams with a z-dependent cone angle through the use of conventional optical elements, without the need for deliberate aberrations to be included....

  10. Controlling light's helicity at the source: orbital angular momentum states from lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew

    2017-02-28

    Optical modes that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) are routinely produced external to the laser cavity and have found a variety of applications, thus increasing the demand for integrated solutions for their production. Yet such modes are notoriously difficult to produce from lasers due to the strict symmetry requirements for their creation, together with the need to break the degeneracy in helicity. Here, we review the progress made since 1992 in producing such twisted light modes directly at the source, from gas to solid-state lasers, bulk to integrated on-chip solutions, through to generic devices for on-demand OAM in both scalar and vector forms.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Position, spin, and orbital angular momentum of a relativistic electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Dennis, Mark R.; Nori, Franco

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by recent interest in relativistic electron vortex states, we revisit the spin and orbital angular momentum properties of Dirac electrons. These are uniquely determined by the choice of the position operator for a relativistic electron. We consider two main approaches discussed in the literature: (i) the projection of operators onto the positive-energy subspace, which removes the Zitterbewegung effects and correctly describes spin-orbit interaction effects, and (ii) the use of Newton-Wigner-Foldy-Wouthuysen operators based on the inverse Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We argue that the first approach [previously described in application to Dirac vortex beams in K. Y. Bliokh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 174802 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.174802] has a more natural physical interpretation, including spin-orbit interactions and a nonsingular zero-mass limit, than the second one [S. M. Barnett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 114802 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.114802].

  12. Squeezing of X waves with orbital angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Ornigotti, Marco; Szameit, Alexander; Conti, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Multi-level quantum protocols may potentially supersede standard quantum optical polarization-encoded protocols in terms of amount of information transmission and security. However, for free space telecomunications, we do not have tools for limiting loss due to diffraction and perturbations, as for example turbulence in air. Here we study propagation invariant quantum X-waves with angular momentum; this representation expresses the electromagnetic field as a quantum gas of weakly interacting bosons. The resulting spatio-temporal quantized light pulses are not subject to diffraction and dispersion, and are intrinsically resilient to disturbances in propagation. We show that spontaneous down-conversion generates squeezed X-waves useful for quantum protocols. Surprisingly the orbital angural momentum affects the squeezing angle, and we predict the existence of a characteristic axicon aperture for maximal squeezing. There results may boost the applications in free space of quantum optical transmission and multi-l...

  13. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  14. Nucleon spin decomposition and orbital angular momentum in the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Masashi

    2014-09-01

    To get a complete decomposition of nucleon spin is a fundamentally important homework of QCD. In fact, if our researches end up without accomplishing this task, a tremendous efforts since the 1st discovery of the nucleon spin crisis would end in the air. We now have a general agreement that there are at least two physically inequivalent gauge-invariant decompositions of the nucleon. In these two decompositions, the intrinsic spin parts of quarks and gluons are just common. What discriminate these two decompositions are the orbital angular momentum (OAM) parts. The OAMs of quarks and gluons appearing in the first decomposition are the so-called ``mechanical'' OAMs, while those appearing in the second decomposition are the generalized (gauge-invariant) ``canonical'' ones. By this reason, these decompositions are broadly called the ``mechanical'' and ``canonical'' decompositions of the nucleon spin. Still, there remains several issues, which have not reached a complete consensus among the experts. (See the latest recent). In the present talk, I will mainly concentrate on the practically most important issue, i.e. which decomposition is more favorable from the observational viewpoint. There are two often-claimed advantages of canonical decomposition. First, each piece of this decomposition satisfies the SU(2) commutation relation or angular momentum algebra. Second, the canonical OAM rather than the mechanical OAM is compatible with free partonic picture of constituent orbital motion. In the present talk, I will show that both these claims are not necessarily true, and push forward a viewpoint that the ``mechanical'' decomposition is more physical in that it has more direct connection with observables. I also emphasize that the nucleon spin decomposition accessed by the lattice QCD analyses is the ``mechanical'' decomposition not the ``canonical'' one. The recent lattice QCD studies of the nucleon spin decomposition are also briefly overviewed.

  15. High-capacity millimetre-wave communications with orbital angular momentum multiplexing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan, Yan; Xie, Guodong; Lavery, Martin P J; Huang, Hao; Ahmed, Nisar; Bao, Changjing; Ren, Yongxiong; Cao, Yinwen; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Molisch, Andreas F; Tur, Moshe; Padgett, Miles J; Willner, Alan E

    2014-01-01

    .... Such orbital angular momentum based multiplexing can potentially increase the system capacity and spectral efficiency of millimetre-wave wireless communication links with a single aperture pair...

  16. Orbital angular momentum of helical necklace beams in colloid-based nonlinear optical metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walasik, Wiktor T.; Silahli, Salih Z.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2016-09-01

    Colloidal metamaterials are a robust and flexible platform for engineering of optical nonlinearities and studies of light filamentation. To date, nonlinear propagation and modulation instability of Gaussian beams and optical vortices carrying orbital angular momentum were studied in such media. Here, we investigate the propagation of necklace beams and the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in colloidal media with saturable nonlinearity. We study various scenarios leading to generation of helical necklace beams or twisted beams, depending on the radius, power, and charge of the input vortex beam. Helical beams are build of two separate solitary beams with circular cross-sections that spiral around their center of mass as a result of the equilibrium between the attraction force of in-phase solitons and the centrifugal force associated with the rotational movement. A twisted beam is a single beam with an elliptical cross-section that rotates around it's own axis. We show that the orbital angular momentum is converted into the rotational motion at different rates for helical and twisted beams. While earlier studies reported that solitary beams are expelled form the initial vortex ring along straight trajectories tangent to the vortex ring, we show that depending on the charge and the power of the initial beam, these trajectories can diverge from the tangential direction and may be curvilinear. These results provide a detailed description of necklace beam dynamics in saturable nonlinear media and may be useful in studies of light filamentation in liquids and light propagation in highly scattering colloids and biological samples.

  17. Partonic Orbital Angular Momentum and Lorentz Invariance Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Abha; Liuti, Simonetta; Engelhardt, Michael

    2017-09-01

    We show that Generalized Transverse Momentum Distributions (GTMDs) and twist three Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) can be connected through Lorentz Invariant Relations. The equations of motion along with the Lorentz Invariance Relations allow one to explicitly write the separate contributions to twist three GPDs from leading twist GPDs, a quark gluon quark correlation term and, in some cases, a mass term. In particular, the GTMD F14 or the correlation of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized proton, is known to describe the quarks. Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM). In a separate approach, the twist three GPD Ẽ2 T tilde was also be shown to connect to OAM. We show that these two definitions are connected by a Lorentz Invariance Relation. A similar relation is found for the GTMD G11 which describes quark spin orbit correlations in the proton can be connected to the twist three GPDs E2T ' and H 2T ' . These relations show how twist three GPDs through an implicit quark gluon interaction reproduce the effects of intrinsic transverse momentum in the GTMDs.

  18. Tunable orbital angular momentum mode filter based on optical geometric transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Yan, Yan; Yue, Yang; Ahmed, Nisar; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Dolinar, Sam; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2014-03-15

    We present a tunable mode filter for spatially multiplexed laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). The filter comprises an optical geometric transformation-based OAM mode sorter and a spatial light modulator (SLM). The programmable SLM can selectively control the passing/blocking of each input OAM beam. We experimentally demonstrate tunable filtering of one or multiple OAM modes from four multiplexed input OAM modes with vortex charge of ℓ=-9, -4, +4, and +9. The measured output power suppression ratio of the propagated modes to the blocked modes exceeds 14.5 dB.

  19. Underwater optical communications using orbital angular momentum-based spatial division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Alan E.; Zhao, Zhe; Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Xie, Guodong; Song, Haoqian; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Runzhou; Bao, Changjing; Pang, Kai

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we review high-capacity underwater optical communications using orbital angular momentum (OAM)-based spatial division multiplexing. We discuss methods to generate and detect blue-green optical data-carrying OAM beams as well as various underwater effects, including attenuation, scattering, current, and thermal gradients on OAM beams. Attention is also given to the system performance of high-capacity underwater optical communication links using OAM-based space division multiplexing. The paper closes with a discussion of a digital signal processing (DSP) algorithm to mitigate the inter-mode crosstalk caused by thermal gradients.

  20. Control of optical orbital angular momentum by Vogel spiral arrays of metallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Nate; Trevino, Jacob; Dal Negro, Luca

    2012-12-15

    In this Letter, we experimentally demonstrate structured light carrying multiple values of orbital angular momentum (OAM) in the farfield scattering region of Vogel spiral arrays of metallic nanoparticles. Using Fourier-Hankel mode decomposition analysis and interferometric reconstruction of the complex amplitude of scattered waves, we show the ability to encode well-defined numerical sequences, determined by the aperiodic spiral geometry, into azimuthal OAM values, in excellent agreement with analytical scattering theory. The generation of azimuthal sequences of OAM values by light scattering from engineered aperiodic surfaces is relevant to a number of device applications for secure optical communication, classical cryptography, and quantum cryptography.

  1. 850-nm hybrid fiber/free-space optical communications using orbital angular momentum modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Light beams can carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) associated to the helicity of their phasefronts. These OAM modes can be employed to encode information onto a laser beam for transmitting not only in a fiber link but also in a free-space optical (FSO) one. Regarding this latter scenario, FSO c...... to the multimode fiber link. In addition, we report a better and more robust behavior of higher order OAM modes when the intermodal dispersion is dominant in the fiber after exceeding its maximum range of operation.......Light beams can carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) associated to the helicity of their phasefronts. These OAM modes can be employed to encode information onto a laser beam for transmitting not only in a fiber link but also in a free-space optical (FSO) one. Regarding this latter scenario, FSO...... modes can be seen as an efficient solution to increase the capacity and the security in the link. In this paper, we discuss an experimental demonstration of a proposal for next generation FSO communication system where a light beam carrying different OAM modes and affected by M turbulence is coupled...

  2. Orbital angular momentum light frequency conversion and interference with quasi-phase matching crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Jiang, Yun-Kun; Li, Yan; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Xi-Shi; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2014-01-01

    Light with helical phase structures, carrying quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM), has many applications in both classical and quantum optics, such as high-capacity optical communications and quantum information processing. Frequency conversion is a basic technique to expand the frequency range of fundamental light. The frequency conversion of OAM-carrying light gives rise to new physics and applications such as up-conversion detection of images and high dimensional OAM entanglements. Quasi-phase matching (QPM) nonlinear crystals are good candidates for frequency conversion, particularly for their high-valued effective nonlinear coefficients and no walk-off effect. Here we report the first experimental second-harmonic generation (SHG) of OAM light with a QPM crystal, where a UV light with OAM of 100 is generated. OAM conservation is verified using a specially designed interferometer. With a pump beam carrying an OAM superposition of opposite sign, we observed interesting interference phenomena in the SHG...

  3. Magnetoelectric-field microwave antennas: Far-field orbital angular momenta from chiral-topology near fields

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, M; Shavit, R

    2015-01-01

    The near fields in the proximity of a small ferrite particle with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations have space and time symmetry breakings. Such MDM originated fields, called magnetoelectric (ME) fields, carry both spin and orbital angular momentums. By virtue of unique topology, ME fields are strongly different from free-space electromagnetic (EM) fields. In this paper, we show that because of chiral topology of ME fields in a nearfield region, far-field orbital angular momenta (OAM) can be observed, both numerically and experimentally. In a single element antenna, we obtain a radiation pattern with an angular squint. We reveal that in far field microwave radiation a crucial role is played by the ME energy distribution in the near-field region.

  4. Ultrathin Complementary Metasurface for Orbital Angular Momentum Generation at Microwave Frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Menglin L N; Sha, Wei E I

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) waves with helical wavefront carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), which is associated with the azimuthal phase of the complex electric field. OAM is a new degree of freedom in EM waves and is promising for channel multiplexing in communication system. Although the OAM-carrying EM wave attracts more and more attention, the method of OAM generation at microwave frequencies still faces challenges, such as efficiency and simulation time. In this work, by using the circuit theory and equivalence principle, we build two simplified models, one for a single scatter and one for the whole metasurface to predict their EM responses. Both of the models significantly simplify the design procedure and reduce the simulation time. In this paper, we propose an ultrathin complementary metasurface that converts a left-handed (right-handed) circularly polarized plane wave without OAM to a right-handed (left-handed) circularly polarized wave with OAM of arbitrary orders and a high transmission efficiency can ...

  5. Pluto Moons exhibit Orbital Angular Momentum Quantization per Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pluto satellite system of the planet plus five moons is shown to obey the quan- tum celestial mechanics (QCM angular momentum per mass quantization condition predicted for any gravitationally bound system.

  6. Evolution of orbital angular momentum entangled bi-photon, propagating through a turbulent atmosphere

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital angular momentum (OAM) entangled bi-photons are a resource for the higher dimensional implementation of quantum cryptography, which allows secure communication over various channels. In the case where free-space is used as communication...

  7. Bell’s measure and implementing quantum Fourier transform with orbital angular momentum of classical light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinbing; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Qin, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    We perform Bell’s measurement for the non-separable correlation between polarization and orbital angular momentum from the same classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell’s inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and non-quantum entanglement between the polarization and the orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally. PMID:26369424

  8. Bell's measure and implementing quantum Fourier transform with orbital angular momentum of classical light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinbing; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Qin, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-09-15

    We perform Bell's measurement for the non-separable correlation between polarization and orbital angular momentum from the same classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell's inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and non-quantum entanglement between the polarization and the orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally.

  9. On the exchange of orbital angular momentum between twisted photons and atomic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Basil S.; Kaplan, L.; McGuire, J. H.

    2013-03-01

    We obtain an expression for the matrix element for scattering of a twisted (Laguerre-Gaussian profile) photon from a hydrogen atom. We consider photons incoming with an orbital angular momentum (OAM) of ℓħ, carried by a factor of eiℓϕ not present in a plane-wave or pure Gaussian profile beam. The nature of the transfer of +2ℓ units of OAM from the photon to the azimuthal atomic quantum number of the atom is investigated. We obtain simple formulas for these OAM flip transitions for elastic forward scattering of twisted photons when the photon wavelength λ is large compared with the atomic target size a, and small compared with the Rayleigh range zR, which characterizes the collimation length of the twisted photon beam.

  10. Storage and retrieval of electromagnetic waves with orbital angular momentum via plasmon-induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhengyang; Xu, Datang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2017-01-23

    We propose a scheme to realize the storage and retrieval of high-dimensional electromagnetic waves with orbital angular momentum (OAM) via plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) in a metamaterial, which consists of an array of meta-atoms constructed by a metallic structure loaded with two varactors. We show that due to PIT effect the system allows the existence of shape-preserving dark-mode plasmonic polaritons, which are mixture of electromagnetic-wave modes and dark oscillatory modes of the meta-atoms and may carry various OAMs. We demonstrate that the slowdown, storage and retrieval of multi-mode electromagnetic waves with OAMs can be achieved through the active manipulation of a control field. Our work raises the possibility for realizing PIT-based spatial multi-mode memory of electromagnetic waves and is promising for practical application of information processing with large capacity by using room-temperature metamaterials.

  11. Tunable orbital angular momentum beams in the extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; San Román, Julio; Picón, Antonio; Plaja, Luis; Hernández-García, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    High-order harmonic generation (HHG) has been recently proven to produce harmonic vortices carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) region from the nonlinear up-conversion of infrared vortex beams. In this work we present two methods to control and extend the OAM content of the harmonic vortices. First, we show that when a driver combination of different vortex modes is used, HHG leads to the production of harmonic vortices with a broad OAM content due to its nonperturbative nature. Second, we show that harmonic vortices with two discrete OAM contributions -so called fractional OAM modes- are generated when HHG is driven by conical refraction beams. Our work offers the possibility of generating tunable OAM beams in the XUV regime, potentially extensible to the soft x rays, overcoming the state of the art limitations for the generation of OAM beams far from the visible domain.

  12. Atmospheric turbulence compensation in orbital angular momentum communications: Advances and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuhui; Chen, Shi; Gao, Chunqing; Willner, Alan E.; Wang, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM)-carrying beams have recently generated considerable interest due to their potential use in communication systems to increase transmission capacity and spectral efficiency. For OAM-based free-space optical (FSO) links, a critical challenge is the atmospheric turbulence that will distort the helical wavefronts of OAM beams leading to the decrease of received power, introducing crosstalk between multiple channels, and impairing link performance. In this paper, we review recent advances in turbulence effects compensation techniques for OAM-based FSO communication links. First, basic concepts of atmospheric turbulence and theoretical model are introduced. Second, atmospheric turbulence effects on OAM beams are theoretically and experimentally investigated and discussed. Then, several typical turbulence compensation approaches, including both adaptive optics-based (optical domain) and signal processing-based (electrical domain) techniques, are presented. Finally, key challenges and perspectives of compensation of turbulence-distorted OAM links are discussed.

  13. Transfer of orbital angular momentum of light using two-component slow light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruseckas, Julius; Kudriašov, Viačeslav; Yu, Ite A.; Juzeliūnas, Gediminas

    2013-05-01

    We study the manipulation of slow light with an orbital angular momentum propagating in a cloud of cold atoms. Atoms are affected by four co-propagating control laser beams in a double tripod configuration of the atomic energy levels involved, allowing us to minimize the losses at the vortex core of the control beams. In such a situation the atomic medium is transparent for a pair of co-propagating probe fields, leading to the creation of two-component (spinor) slow light. We study the interaction between the probe fields when two control beams carry optical vortices of opposite helicity. As a result, a transfer of the optical vortex takes place from the control to the probe fields without switching off and on the control beams. This feature is missing in a single tripod scheme where the optical vortex can be transferred from the control to the probe field only during either the storage or retrieval of light.

  14. Cavity modes with optical orbital angular momentum in a metamaterial ring based on transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H W; Wang, F; Dong, Y Q; Shu, F Z; Zhang, K; Peng, R W; Xiong, X; Wang, Mu

    2015-12-14

    In this work, we theoretically study the cavity modes with transverse orbital angular momentum in metamaterial ring based on transformation optics. The metamaterial ring is designed to transform the straight trajectory of light into the circulating one by enlarging the azimuthal angle, effectively presenting the modes with transverse orbital angular momentum. The simulation results confirm the theoretical predictions, which state that the transverse orbital angular momentum of the mode not only depends on the frequency of the incident light, but also depends on the transformation scale of the azimuthal angle. Because energy dissipation inevitably reduces the field amplitude of the modes, the confined electromagnetic energy and the quality factor of the modes inside the ring are also studied in order to evaluate the stability of those cavity modes. The results show that the metamaterial ring can effectively confine light with a high quality factor and maintain steady modes with the orbital angular momentum, even if the dimension of the ring is much smaller than the wavelength of the incident light. This technique for exploiting the modes with optical transverse orbital angular momentum may provides a unique platform for applications related to micromanipulation.

  15. Quark orbital dynamics in the proton from lattice QCD: From Ji to Jaffe-Manohar orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, M.

    2017-05-01

    Given a Wigner distribution simultaneously characterizing quark transverse positions and momenta in a proton, one can directly evaluate their cross product, i.e., quark orbital angular momentum. The aforementioned distribution can be obtained by generalizing the proton matrix elements of quark bilocal operators which define transverse momentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs); the transverse momentum information is supplemented with transverse position information by introducing an additional nonzero momentum transfer. A gauge connection between the quarks must be specified in the quark bilocal operators; the staple-shaped gauge link path used in TMD calculations yields the Jaffe-Manohar definition of orbital angular momentum, whereas a straight path yields the Ji definition. An exploratory lattice calculation, performed at the pion mass mπ=518 MeV , is presented which quasicontinuously interpolates between the two definitions and demonstrates that their difference can be clearly resolved. The resulting Ji orbital angular momentum is confronted with traditional evaluations based on Ji's sum rule. Jaffe-Manohar orbital angular momentum is enhanced in magnitude compared to its Ji counterpart.

  16. Orbital angular momentum, spin fractions, and scenarios for the proton's spin-weighted parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, G.P.; Qui, J.; Richards, D.; Sivers, D.

    1989-01-01

    New data from the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) on the spin-spin asymmetry in deep-inelastic lepton-proton scattering suggests that the total spin carried by valence quarks in a polarized proton may be approximately canceled by a strong negative polarization of the sea of q-barq pairs. The evolution in Q/sup 2/ of the fraction of proton spin carried by gluons depends on the initial spin fractions and it is possible to avoid the introduction of large orbital angular momentum by adopting a ''hybrid'' quark-Skyrme picture of the proton suggested by the EMC results.

  17. Acoustic Virtual Vortices with Tunable Orbital Angular Momentum for Trapping of Mie Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Asier; Caleap, Mihai; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2018-01-01

    Acoustic vortices can transfer angular momentum and trap particles. Here, we show that particles trapped in airborne acoustic vortices orbit at high speeds, leading to dynamic instability and ejection. We demonstrate stable trapping inside acoustic vortices by generating sequences of short-pulsed vortices of equal helicity but opposite chirality. This produces a "virtual vortex" with an orbital angular momentum that can be tuned independently of the trapping force. We use this method to adjust the rotational speed of particles inside a vortex beam and, for the first time, create three-dimensional acoustics traps for particles of wavelength order (i.e., Mie particles).

  18. Single orbital angular mode emission from externally feed-backed vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Y.; Moriya, A.; Yamane, K.; Morita, R.; Shigematsu, K.; Awaji, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The single orbital angular momentum mode emission from a commercially available broad-area vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is realized with an optical feedback technique using a spatial light modulator, where a computer generated hologram (CGH) is optimized by taking into account the mode properties of the external cavity VCSEL. The flexibility with which the chirality of the orbital angular momentum mode can be selected is also demonstrated simply by changing the chirality of the CGH. The technique is very simple and easily applicable to other VCSELs without processing.

  19. Refractive elements for the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Martin P J; Robertson, David J; Berkhout, Gregorius C G; Love, Gordon D; Padgett, Miles J; Courtial, Johannes

    2012-01-30

    We have developed a mode transformer comprising two custom refractive optical elements which convert orbital angular momentum states into transverse momentum states. This transformation allows for an efficient measurement of the orbital angular momentum content of an input light beam. We characterise the channel capacity of the system for 50 input modes, giving a maximum value of 3.46 bits per photon. Using an electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) camera with a laser source attenuated such that on average there is less than one photon present within the system per measurement period, we demonstrate that the elements are efficient for the use in single photon experiments.

  20. Secular precessing compact binary dynamics, spin and orbital angular momentum flip-flops

    OpenAIRE

    Tápai, Márton; Keresztes, Zoltán; Gergely, László Árpád

    2016-01-01

    We derive the conservative secular evolution of precessing compact binaries to second post-Newtonian order accuracy, with leading-order spin-orbit, spin-spin and mass quadrupole-monopole contributions included. The emerging closed system of first-order differential equations evolves the pairs of polar and azimuthal angles of the spin and orbital angular momentum vectors together with the periastron angle. In contrast with the instantaneous dynamics, the secular dynamics is autonomous. This se...

  1. Deep learning as a tool to distinguish between high orbital angular momentum optical modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, E. M.; Lohani, Sanjaya; Danaci, Onur; Huver, Sean D.; Glasser, Ryan T.

    2016-09-01

    The generation of light containing large degrees of orbital angular momentum (OAM) has recently been demon- strated in both the classical and quantum regimes. Since there is no fundamental limit to how many quanta of OAM a single photon can carry, optical states with an arbitrarily high difference in this quantum number may, in principle, be entangled. This opens the door to investigations into high-dimensional entanglement shared between states in superpositions of nonzero OAM. Additionally, making use of non-zero OAM states can allow for a dramatic increase in the amount of information carried by a single photon, thus increasing the information capacity of a communication channel. In practice, however, it is difficult to differentiate between states with high OAM numbers with high precision. Here we investigate the ability of deep neural networks to differentiate between states that contain large values of OAM. We show that such networks may be used to differentiate be- tween nearby OAM states that contain realistic amounts of noise, with OAM values of up to 100. Additionally, we examine how the classification accuracy scales with the signal-to-noise ratio of images that are used to train the network, as well as those being tested. Finally, we demonstrate the simultaneous classification of < 100 OAM states with greater than 70 % accuracy. We intend to verify our system with experimentally-produced classi- cal OAM states, as well as investigate possibilities that would allow this technique to work in the few-photon quantum regime.

  2. Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in cold atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bao-Sen; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Electromagnetic waves have both spin momentum and orbital angular momentum (OAM). Light carrying OAM has broad applications in micro-particle manipulation, high-precision optical metrology, and potential high-capacity optical communications. In the concept of quantum information, a photon encoded with information in its OAM degree of freedom enables quantum networks to carry much more information and increase their channel capacity greatly compared with those of current technology because of the inherent infinite dimensions for OAM. Quantum memories are indispensable to construct quantum networks. Storing OAM states has attracted considerable attention recently, and many important advances in this direction have been achieved during the past few years. Here we review recent experimental realizations of quantum memories using OAM states, including OAM qubits and qutrits at true single photon level, OAM states entangled in a two-dimensional or a high-dimensional space, hyperentanglement and hybrid entanglement consisting of OAM and other degree of freedom in a physical system. We believe that all achievements described here are very helpful to study quantum information encoded in a high-dimensional space.

  3. Efficiency in Carrying Cargo to Earth Orbits: Spaceports Repositioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Hospodka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Space flights are in these days not any more question of technology, but more question of costs. One way how to decrease cost of launch is change of home spaceport. Change of home spaceport for different rockets is a way to achieve more efficient launches to space. The reason is different acceleration achieved from Earth rotation. We added several mathematical calculations of missions to Low Earth Orbit and Geostationary Earth Orbit to show bonuses from Earth rotation and effect of atmospheric drag on specific rockets used these days. We discussed only already used space vessels. Namely Arianne 5, Delta 4 heavy, Proton-M, Zenit and Falcon9. For reaching GEO we discuss possibility of using Hohmman transfer, because none of aforementioned vessels is available for direct GEO entry. As possible place for launch we discussed spaceports Baikonur, Kennedy Space center, Guyana Space center and Sea Launch platform. We present results in form of additional acceleration for each spaceport, and we also project this additional acceleration in means payload increase. In conclusion we find important differences between vessel effectivity based on spaceport used for launch. Change of launch location may bring significant cost decrease for operators.

  4. MEMS-based wavelength and orbital angular momentum demultiplexer for on-chip applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir; Porfirev, Alexey P.; Gurbatov, Stanislav O.

    2017-01-01

    Summary form only given. We demonstrate a new tunable MEMS-based WDM&OAM Fabry-Pérot filter for simultaneous wavelength (WDM) and Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) (de)multiplexing. The WDM&OAM filter is suitable for dense on-chip integration and dedicated for the next generation of optical...

  5. The proton electromagnetic form factor F2 and quark orbital angular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Protein; electromagnetic form factors; perturbative QCD; quark orbital angular momentum. PACS Nos 13.40.Gp; 12.38.Bx; 13.88.+e; 14.20.Dh. The recent JLAB measurement of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio [1–3] shows the puzzling .... of integration regions, given the complexity of the problem. Elsewhere [7] ...

  6. The measurable distinction between the spin and orbital angular momenta of electromagnetic radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Crichton

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available We show how the angular momentum of electromagnetic radiation may be decomposed into spin and orbital parts, of which the spin part is measurable in terms of Stokes parameters, thereby providing an unambiguous, gauge-invariant, distinction between the two parts.

  7. Encoding mutually unbiased bases in orbital angular momentum for quantum key distribution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We encode mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) using the higher-dimensional orbital angular momentum (OAM) degree of freedom associated with optical fields. We illustrate how these states are encoded with the use of a spatial light modulator (SLM). We...

  8. Orbital angular momentum correlations with a phase-flipped Gaussian mode pump beam

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Romero, J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report orbital angular momentum (OAM) and angle correlations between signal and idler photons observed when the nonlinear crystal used in spontaneous parametric down-conversion is illuminated by a non-fundamental Gaussian pump beam. We introduce...

  9. Quantitative measurement of the orbital angular momentum density of light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available to parti- cles in optical tweezers [2] to the entanglement of OAM in parametric downconversion [3]. Fields that carry OAM of l� per photon, some of which include Laguerre?Gaussian beams [4], Bessel?Gaussian beams [5], and Airy beams [6], have... an azimuthal an- gular dependence of exp�il?� [1,4], where l is the unbounded azimuthal mode index and ? is the azi- muthal angle. Since these fields possessing OAM offer an unbounded state space, they provide a larger bandwidth for quantum cryptography [7...

  10. Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, Frédéric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Karimi, Ebrahim, E-mail: ekarimi@uottawa.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2014-09-08

    Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded “space” for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that is capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ℓ. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ℓ=±2qℏ per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ℓ values ranging from ±1 to ±25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6% ± 0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.

  11. Simultaneous and spatially separated detection of multiple orbital angular momentum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, R.; Mihailescu, M.; Kusko, C.; Paun, I. A.; Nan, A. E.; Kusko, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present a method for spatially separated detection of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, simultaneous. The starting point is the generation of axially superposed Laguerre-Gauss beams, carrying multiple OAM states using a single computer generated hologram. The information contained in the OAM superposition is transferred to the first diffraction order and is detected at the receiver with a reading mask, which contains two perpendicular superposed fork-like holograms, ensuring the spatial separation of the OAM states. The dynamic of the process is studied in terms of the number of generated OAM states and the constructive parameters values. The experimental investigations use an optical arrangement based on a spatial light modulator in the transmitter unit and an amplitude mask in the receiver unit. This proof of concept experiment demonstrates the possibility of simultaneously detection of multiple OAM states in points located at different coordinates, controlled through the design of the holograms and shows the capability of our proposed method to increase the capacity of free-space optical communication channels.

  12. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-09-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing.

  13. Measuring Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) States of Vortex Beams with Annular Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuang; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-17

    Measuring orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of vortex beams is of great importance in diverse applications employing OAM-carrying vortex beams. We present a simple and efficient scheme to measure OAM states (i.e. topological charge values) of vortex beams with annular gratings. The magnitude of the topological charge value is determined by the number of dark fringes after diffraction, and the sign of the topological charge value is distinguished by the orientation of the diffraction pattern. We first theoretically study the diffraction patterns using both annular amplitude and phase gratings. The annular phase grating shows almost 10-dB better diffraction efficiency compared to the annular amplitude grating. We then experimentally demonstrate the OAM states measurement of vortex beams using annular phase grating. The scheme works well even for high-order vortex beams with topological charge value as high as ± 25. We also experimentally show the evolution of diffraction patterns when slightly changing the fractional topological charge value of vortex beam from 0.1 to 1.0. In addition, the proposed scheme shows potential large tolerance of beam alignment during the OAM states measurement of vortex beams.

  14. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing. PMID:27615808

  15. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we multiplex and transmit four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam, we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the higher-rate link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the lower rates, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we s...

  16. An Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Mode Reconfigurable Antenna for Channel Capacity Improvement and Digital Data Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baiyang; Lin, Guoying; Cui, Yuehui; Li, RongLin

    2017-08-29

    For purpose of utilizing orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode diversity, multiple OAM beams should be generated preferably by a single antenna. In this paper, an OAM mode reconfigurable antenna is proposed. Different from the existed OAM antennas with multiple ports for multiple OAM modes transmitting, the proposed antenna with only a single port, but it can be used to transmit mode 1 or mode -1 OAM beams arbitrary by controlling the PIN diodes on the feeding network through a programmable microcontroller which control by a remote controller. Simulation and measurement results such as return loss, near-field and far-field radiation patterns of two operating states for mode 1 and mode -1, and OAM mode orthogonality are given. The proposed antenna can serve as a candidate for utilizing OAM diversity, namely phase diversity to increase channel capacity at 2.4 GHz. Moreover, an OAM-mode based encoding method is experimentally carried out by the proposed OAM mode reconfigurable antenna, the digital data are encoded and decoded by different OAM modes. At the transmitter, the proposed OAM mode reconfigurable antenna is used to encode the digital data, data symbol 0 and 1 are mapped to OAM mode 1 and mode -1, respectively. At the receiver, the data symbols are decoded by phase gradient method.

  17. Multipath Effects in Millimetre-Wave Wireless Communication using Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Long; Xie, Guodong; Bao, Changjing; Liao, Peicheng; Huang, Hao; Ren, Yongxiong; Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Zhe; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Talwar, Shilpa; Sajuyigbe, Soji; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F; Willner, Alan E

    2016-09-23

    Electromagnetic waves carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have been used for mode division multiplexing in free-space communication systems to increase both the capacity and the spectral efficiency. In the case of conventional wireless communication links using non-OAM beams, multipath effects caused by beam spreading and reflection from the surrounding objects affect the system performance. This paper presents the results of analysis, simulations, and measurements of multipath effects in a millimetre-wave communication link using OAM multiplexing at 28 GHz. Multipath-induced intra- and inter-channel crosstalk, which are caused by specular reflection from a plane parallel to the propagation path, are analysed and measured. Both the simulation and the experimental results show that an OAM channel with a high OAM number ℓ tends to suffer from both strong intra-channel crosstalk and strong inter-channel crosstalk with other OAM channels. Results of the analysis show that this observation can be explained on the basis of both the properties of OAM beam divergence and the filtering effect at the receiver, which is associated with the spiral wavefront of OAM beams.

  18. Multi-Planet Exosystems All Obey Orbital Angular Momentum Quantization per Unit Mass predicted by Quantum Celestial Mechanics (QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum celestial mechanics (QCM predicts that all orbiting bodies in gravitationally bound systems exhibit the quantization of orbital angular momentum per unit mass. I show that the 15 known multi-planet systems with four or more planets obey this QCM prediction. This angular momentum constraint could be the explanation for their orbital stability for billions of years, suggesting that viable models of the formation and evolution of gravitational systems must include QCM.

  19. Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiancong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-05-01

    The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved.

  20. Geometric phase and fractional orbital-angular-momentum states in electron vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pratul; Basu, Banasri; Chowdhury, Debashree

    2017-01-01

    We study here fractional orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) states in electron vortex beams (EVBs) from the perspective of the geometric phase. We consider the skyrmionic model of an electron, where it is depicted as a scalar electron orbiting around the vortex line, which gives rise to the spin degrees of freedom. The geometric phase acquired by the scalar electron orbiting the vortex line induces the spin-orbit interaction. This leads to the fractional OAM states when we have a nonquantized monopole charge associated with the corresponding geometric phase. This involves a tilted vortex in EVBs. The monopole charge undergoes renormalization-group flow, which incorporates a length scale dependence making the fractional OAM states unstable upon propagation. It is pointed out that when EVBs move in an external magnetic field, the Gouy phase associated with the Laguerre-Gaussian modes modifies the geometric phase factor and a proper choice of the radial index helps to have a stable fractional OAM state.

  1. The Geometric phase and fractional orbital angular momentum states in electron vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Pratul; Chowdhury, Debashree

    2016-01-01

    We study here fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM) states in electron vortex beams (EVB) from the perspective of geometric phase. We have considered the skyrmionic model of an electron, where it is depicted as a scalar electron orbiting around the vortex line, which gives rise to the spin degrees of freedom. The geometric phase acquired by the scalar electron orbiting around the vortex line induces the spin-orbit interaction, which leads to the fractional OAM states with non-quantized monopole charge associated with the corresponding geometric phase. This involves tilted vortex in EVBs. The monopole charge undergoes the renormalization group (RG) flow, which incorporates a length scale dependence making the fractional OAM states unstable upon propagation. It is pointed out that when EVBs move in an external magnetic field, the Gouy phase associated with the Laguerre-Gaussian modes modifies the geometric phase factor and a proper choice of the radial index helps to have a stable fractional OAM state.

  2. Compensation for the orbital angular momentum of a vortex beam in turbulent atmosphere by adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chu, Xiuxiang; Zhang, Pengfei; Feng, Xiaoxing; Fan, ChengYu; Qiao, Chunhong

    2018-01-01

    A method which can be used to compensate for a distorted orbital angular momentum and wavefront of a beam in atmospheric turbulence, simultaneously, has been proposed. To confirm the validity of the method, an experimental setup for up-link propagation of a vortex beam in a turbulent atmosphere has been simulated. Simulation results show that both of the distorted orbital angular momentum and the distorted wavefront of a beam due to turbulence can be compensated by an adaptive optics system with the help of a cooperative beacon at satellite. However, when the number of the lenslet of wavefront sensor (WFS) and the actuators of the deform mirror (DM) is small, satisfactory results cannot be obtained.

  3. Interface between path and orbital angular momentum entanglement for high-dimensional photonic quantum information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Huber, Marcus; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Zeilinger, Anton

    2014-07-30

    Photonics has become a mature field of quantum information science, where integrated optical circuits offer a way to scale the complexity of the set-up as well as the dimensionality of the quantum state. On photonic chips, paths are the natural way to encode information. To distribute those high-dimensional quantum states over large distances, transverse spatial modes, like orbital angular momentum possessing Laguerre Gauss modes, are favourable as flying information carriers. Here we demonstrate a quantum interface between these two vibrant photonic fields. We create three-dimensional path entanglement between two photons in a nonlinear crystal and use a mode sorter as the quantum interface to transfer the entanglement to the orbital angular momentum degree of freedom. Thus our results show a flexible way to create high-dimensional spatial mode entanglement. Moreover, they pave the way to implement broad complex quantum networks where high-dimensionally entangled states could be distributed over distant photonic chips.

  4. On the Coupling of Photon Spin to Electron Orbital Angular Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Ulrich C; Fuchs, Harald; Salut, Roland; Lefier, Yannick; Grosjean, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Partially gold coated 90 degree glass wedges and a semi - infinite slit in a thin film of gold ending in a conducting nano-junction serve as samples to investigate the transfer of photon spin to electron orbital angular momentum. These structures were specifically designed as samples where an incident beam of light is retroreflected. Since in the process of retroreflection the turning sense of a circularly polarized beam of light does not change and the direction of propagation is inverted, the photon spin is inverted. Due to conservation of angular momentum a transfer of photon spin to electron orbital angular momentum of conduction electrons occurs. In the structures a circular movement of electrons is blocked and therefore the transfered spin can be detected as a photovoltage due to an electromotive force which is induced by the transfer of angular momentum. Depending on the polarization of the incident beam, a maximum photovoltage of about 0,2 micro V was measured for both structures. The results are inte...

  5. Phase-shift interference-based wavefront characterization for orbital angular momentum modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Ren, Yongxiong; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Yue, Yang; Bozovich, Amanda; Erkmen, Baris I; Birnbaum, Kevin; Dolinar, Sam; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2013-07-01

    Wavefront characterization for orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes is demonstrated using quadrature phase-shift interference. The phase fronts and intensity profiles of OAM(-2), OAM(-4), OAM(-6), and OAM(-8) are measured. Wavefront correlations between the experimental results and the pure Laguerre-Gaussian modes are calculated to evaluate the measurement. The measured results are in reasonable agreement with the anticipated results based on simulations.

  6. Circular dichroism of cholesteric polymers and the orbital angular momentum of light

    CERN Document Server

    Löffler, W; Woerdman, J P

    2011-01-01

    We explore experimentally if the light's orbital angular momentum (OAM) interacts with chiral nematic polymer films. Specifically, we measure the circular dichroism of such a material using light beams with different OAM. We investigate the case of strongly focussed, non-paraxial light beams, where the spatial and polarization degrees of freedom are coupled. Within the experimental accuracy, we cannot find any influence of the OAM on the circular dichroism of the cholesteric polymer.

  7. Twisted anisotropic fibers for robust orbital-angular-momentum-based information transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshak, E. V.; Alexeyev, C. N.; Lapin, B. P.; Yavorsky, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    We study the light propagation in the twisted anisotropic optical fibers endowed with torsional mechanical stress by obtaining the analytical solution of the vector wave equation. We show that at certain interplay between fiber parameters optical vortex beams of topological charge ℓ =0 ,±1 ,±2 ,... become the modes of the fibers in question. To explain the splitting of the optical vortex propagation constants we introduce the notions of orbital birefringence and optical Zeeman effect. Moreover, we unveil that induced by torsional stress circular birefringence makes the vortex beams with the well-defined orbital angular momentum robust against small perturbations characterized by both constant and spatially varying orientation of a director. We believe that such fibers can be successfully utilized for the long-range robust transmission of information encoded in the light's orbital degrees of freedom.

  8. Effective field analysis using the full angular spin-orbit torque magnetometry dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Tomek; Lee, Kyujoon; Krüger, Benjamin; Lo Conte, Roberto; Karnad, Gurucharan V.; Garcia, Karin; Vila, Laurent; Ocker, Berthold; Ravelosona, Dafiné; Kläui, Mathias

    2017-06-01

    Spin-orbit torques promise ultraefficient magnetization switching used for advanced devices based on emergent quasiparticles such as domain walls and skyrmions. Recently, the spin structure dynamics, materials, and systems with tailored spin-orbit torques are being developed. A method, which allows one to detect the acting torques in a given system as a function of the magnetization direction is the torque magnetometry method based on a higher harmonics analysis of the anomalous Hall effect. Here we show that the effective fields acting on magnetic domain walls that govern the efficiency of their dynamics require a sophisticated analysis taking into account the full angular dependence of the torques. Using a one-dimensional model, we compared the spin-orbit torque efficiencies by depinning measurements and spin torque magnetometry. We show that the effective fields can be accurately determined and we find good agreement. Thus, our method allows us now to rapidly screen materials and predict the resulting quasiparticle dynamics.

  9. Variable Mixed Orbital Character in the Photoelectron Angular Distribution of NO_{2}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Benjamin A.; Cavanagh, Steven J.; Lewis, Brenton R.; Gibson, Stephen T.

    2017-06-01

    NO_{2} a key component of photochemical smog and an important species in the Earth's atmosphere, is an example of a molecule which exhibits significant mixed orbital character in the HOMO. In photoelectron experiments the geometric properties of the parent anion orbital are reflected in the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD), an area of research that has benefited largely from the ability of velocity-map imaging (VMI) to simultaneously record both the energetic and angular information, with 100% collection efficiency. Photoelectron spectra of NO_{2}^{-}, taken over a range of wavelengths (355nm-520nm) with the ANU's VMI spectrometer, reveal an anomalous jump in the anisotropy parameter near threshold. Consequently, the orbital behavior of NO_{2}^{-} appears to be quite different near threshold compared to detachment at higher photon energies. This surprising effect is due to the Wigner Threshold law, which causes p orbital character to dominate the photodetachment cross-section near threshold, before the mixed s/d orbital character becomes significant at higher electron kinetic energies. By extending recent work on binary character models to form a more general expression, the variable mixed orbital character of NO_{2}^{-} is able to be described. This study provides the first multi-wavelength NO_{2} anisotropy data, which is shown to be in decent agreement with much earlier zero-core model predictions of the anisotropy parameter. K. J. Reed, A. H. Zimmerman, H. C. Andersen, and J. I. Brauman, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 1368, (1976). doi:10.1063/1.432404 D. Khuseynov, C. C. Blackstone, L. M. Culberson, and A. Sanov, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 124312, (2014). doi:10.1063/1.4896241 W. B. Clodius, R. M. Stehman, and S. B. Woo, Phys. Rev. A. 28, 760, (1983). doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.28.760 Research supported by the Australian Research Council Discovery Project Grant DP160102585

  10. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    2018-01-01

    We apply the concept of carry, which has been studied almost exclusively in currency markets, to any asset. A security’s expected return is decomposed into its “carry,” an ex-ante and model-free characteristic, and its expected price appreciation. Carry predicts returns cross-sectionally and in t......We apply the concept of carry, which has been studied almost exclusively in currency markets, to any asset. A security’s expected return is decomposed into its “carry,” an ex-ante and model-free characteristic, and its expected price appreciation. Carry predicts returns cross...

  11. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...

  12. On the role of quark orbital angular momentum in the proton spin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavada Petr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the covariant version of the quark-parton model, in which the general rules of the angular momentum composition are accurately taken into account. We demonstrate how these rules affect the relativistic interplay between the quark spins and orbital angular momenta, which collectively contribute to the proton spin. The spin structure functions g1 and g2 corresponding to the many-quark state J = 1/2 are studied and it is shown they satisfy constraints and relations well compatible with the available experimental data including proton spin content Δ∑ ≲ 1/3. The suggested Lorentz invariant 3D approach for calculation of the structure functions is compared with the approach based on the conventional collinear parton model.

  13. Reconstruction of high-dimensional states entangled in orbital angular momentum using mutually unbiased measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giovannini, D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available : QELS_Fundamental Science, San Jose, California United States, 9-14 June 2013 Reconstruction of High-Dimensional States Entangled in Orbital Angular Momentum Using Mutually Unbiased Measurements D. Giovannini1, ⇤, J. Romero1, 2, J. Leach3, A.... Dudley4, A. Forbes4, 5 and M. J. Padgett1 1 School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom 2 Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 ONG, United Kingdom 3 School of Engineering...

  14. Dynamic control of coherent orbital-angular-momentum beams in turbid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K. S.; Miller, J. K.; Cochenour, B. M.; Johnson, E. G.

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the propagation properties of two superimposed coherent orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes for use in underwater systems as an alternative to amplitude modulation. An OAM mode of l=+2 is interfered with OAM mode l=-1 from a λ = 540 nm laser source. These OAM modes are superimposed using a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer combined with diffractive optical elements. By manipulating the optical path length of one of the MZ legs, the interference of these beams can be temporally controlled. The spatial profile is maintained in a turbid environment up through 4.9 attenuation lengths for both cases.

  15. Modeling channel interference in an orbital angular momentum-multiplexed laser link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita, Jaime A.; Neifeld, Mark A.; Vasic, Bane V.

    2009-08-01

    We study the effects of optical turbulence on the energy crosstalk among constituent orbital angular momentum (OAM) states in a vortex-based multi-channel laser communication link and determine channel interference in terms of turbulence strength and OAM state separation. We characterize the channel interference as a function of C2n and transmit OAM state, and propose probability models to predict the random fluctuations in the received signals for such architecture. Simulations indicate that turbulence-induced channel interference is mutually correlated across receive channels.

  16. Wavelength-selective orbital-angular-momentum beam generation using MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sujoy; Lyubopytov, Vladimir S; Schumann, Martin F; Cesar, Julijan; Chipouline, Arkadi; Wegener, Martin; Küppers, Franko

    2016-07-15

    We demonstrate an on-chip device capable of wavelength-selective generation of vortex beams, which is realized by a spiral phase plate integrated onto a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) tunable filter. This vortex MEMS filter, being capable of functioning simultaneously in both wavelength and orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) domains at the 1550 nm wavelength regime, is considered as a compact, robust, and cost-effective solution for simultaneous OAM- and wavelength-division multiplexed optical communications. The experimental OAM spectra for azimuthal orders 1, 2, and 3 show an OAM state purity >92% across a wavelength range of more than 30 nm.

  17. Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdady, Joshua; Miller, Keith; Morgan, Kaitlyn; Byrd, Matthew; Osler, Sean; Ragusa, Robert; Li, Wenzhe; Cochenour, Brandon M; Johnson, Eric G

    2016-05-02

    In this work we experimentally demonstrated an underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) link over a 2.96 m distance with two 445-nm fiber-pigtailed laser diodes employing Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) to allow for spatial multiplexing. Using an on-off keying, non-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) modulation scheme, a data rate of 3 Gbit/s was achieved in water with an attenuation coefficient of 0.4128 m-1 at an average bit error rate (BER) of 2.073 × 10-4, well beneath the forward error correction (FEC) threshold.

  18. Quantum information with even and odd states of orbital angular momentum of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumangatt, Chithrabhanu; Lal, Nijil; Anwar, Ali; Gangi Reddy, Salla; Singh, R. P.

    2017-06-01

    We address the possibility of using even/odd states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons for the quantum information tasks. Single photon qubit states and two photon entangled states in even/odd basis of OAM are considered. We present a method for the tomography and general projective measurement in even/odd basis. With the general projective measurement, we show the Bell violation and quantum cryptography with Bell's inequality. We also describe hyper and hybrid entanglement of even/odd OAM states along with polarization, which can be applied in the implementation of quantum protocols like super dense coding.

  19. Parameter dependence of the decoherence of orbital angular momentum entanglement in atmospheric turbulence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hamadou Ibrahim, A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available University of Kwazulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban, South Africa ABSTRACT The orbital angular momentum (OAM) state of light can potentially be used to implement higher dimensional entangled systems for quantum communication. Unfortunately, optical fibers.... The phase fluctuation ?(x, y) on the phase screen is related to the refractive index fluctuation n?(x, y, z) of the medium through ?(x, y) = k0 ? ?z 0 n?(x, y, z)dz, (1) where k0 is the wave number. The common way of calculating the phase fluctuation...

  20. Discrimination of orbital angular momentum modes of the terahertz vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wei, Xuli; Niu, Liting; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-06-13

    We present an efficient method to discriminate orbital angular momentum (OAM) of the terahertz (THz) vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer. The mode transformer performs a log-polar coordinate transformation of the input THz vortex beam, which consists of two 3D-printed diffractive elements. A following lens separates each transformed OAM mode to a different lateral position in its focal plane. This method enables a simultaneous measurement over multiple OAM modes of the THz vortex beam. We experimentally demonstrate the measurement of seven individual OAM modes and two multiplexed OAM modes, which is in good agreement with simulations.

  1. Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Yifan; Zhu, Long; Wang, Andong; Li, Shuhui; Du, Jing; Du, Cheng; Mo, Qi; Wang, Jian

    2016-11-30

    We present a full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum (OAM) fiber. OAM+1 and OAM-1 modes carrying 20-Gbit/s quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals are employed in the downlink and uplink transmission experiments. The observed mode crosstalks are less than -15.2 dB, and the full-duplex crosstalks are less than -12.7 dB. The measured full-duplex optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2 × 10(-3) are ~2.4 dB in the downlink transmission and ~2.3 dB in the uplink transmission. The obtained results show favorable full-duplex twisted lights multiplexing data transmission performance in a km-scale OAM fiber link.

  2. Experimental characterization of a 400 Gbit/s orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space optical link over 120 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Liao, Peicheng; Li, Long; Xie, Guodong; Huang, Hao; Zhao, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Willner, Asher; Lavery, Martin P J; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Neifeld, Mark A; Willner, Alan E

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate and characterize the performance of a 400-Gbit/s orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexed free-space optical link over 120 m on the roof of a building. Four OAM beams, each carrying a 100-Gbit/s quadrature-phase-shift-keyed channel are multiplexed and transmitted. We investigate the influence of channel impairments on the received power, intermodal crosstalk among channels, and system power penalties. Without laser tracking and compensation systems, the measured received power and crosstalk among OAM channels fluctuate by 4.5 dB and 5 dB, respectively, over 180 s. For a beam displacement of 2 mm that corresponds to a pointing error less than 16.7 μrad, the link bit error rates are below the forward error correction threshold of 3.8×10(-3) for all channels. Both experimental and simulation results show that power penalties increase rapidly when the displacement increases.

  3. Free-space optical communications using orbital-angular-momentum multiplexing combined with MIMO-based spatial multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Cao, Yinwen; Liu, Cong; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Willner, Asher; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Linquist, Roger D; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F; Willner, Alan E

    2015-09-15

    We explore the potential of combining the advantages of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-based spatial multiplexing with those of orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing to increase the capacity of free-space optical (FSO) communications. We experimentally demonstrate an 80 Gbit/s FSO system with a 2×2 aperture architecture, in which each transmitter aperture contains two multiplexed data-carrying OAM modes. Inter-channel crosstalk effects are minimized by the OAM beams' inherent orthogonality and by the use of 4×4 MIMO signal processing. Our experimental results show that the bit-error rates can reach below the forward error correction limit of 3.8×10(-3) and the power penalties are less than 3.6 dB for all channels after MIMO processing. This indicates that OAM and MIMO-based spatial multiplexing could be simultaneously utilized, thereby providing the potential to enhance system performance.

  4. Crosstalk mitigation in a free-space orbital angular momentum multiplexed communication link using 4×4 MIMO equalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Cao, Yinwen; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Yan, Yan; Bao, Changjing; Ahmed, Nisar; Neifeld, Mark A; Dolinar, Samuel J; Willner, Alan E

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate crosstalk mitigation using 4×4 multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) equalization on an orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexed free-space data link with heterodyne detection. Four multiplexed OAM beams, each carrying a 20  Gbit/s quadrature phase-shift keying signal, propagate through weak turbulence. The turbulence induces inter-channel crosstalk among each beam and degrades the signal performance. Experimental results demonstrate that with the assistance of MIMO processing, the signal quality and the bit-error-rate (BER) performance can be improved. The power penalty can be reduced by >4  dB at a BER of 3.8×10-3.

  5. Nonlinear Metasurface for Simultaneous Control of Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum in Second Harmonic Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Wu, Lin; Li, King F; Chen, Shumei; Schlickriede, Christian; Xu, Zhengji; Huang, Siya; Li, Wendi; Liu, Yanjun; Pun, Edwin Y B; Zentgraf, Thomas; Cheah, Kok W; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-12-13

    The spin and orbital angular momentum (SAM and OAM) of light is providing a new gateway toward high capacity and robust optical communications. While the generation of light with angular momentum is well studied in linear optics, its further integration into nonlinear optical devices will open new avenues for increasing the capacity of optical communications through additional information channels at new frequencies. However, it has been challenging to manipulate the both SAM and OAM of nonlinear signals in harmonic generation processes with conventional nonlinear materials. Here, we report the generation of spin-controlled OAM of light in harmonic generations by using ultrathin photonic metasurfaces. The spin manipulation of OAM mode of harmonic waves is experimentally verified by using second harmonic generation (SHG) from gold meta-atom with 3-fold rotational symmetry. By introducing nonlinear phase singularity into the metasurface devices, we successfully generate and measure the topological charges of spin-controlled OAM mode of SHG through an on-chip metasurface interferometer. The nonlinear photonic metasurface proposed in this work not only opens new avenues for manipulating the OAM of nonlinear optical signals but also benefits the understanding of the nonlinear spin-orbit interaction of light in nanoscale devices.

  6. Quantum information with even and odd states of orbital angular momentum of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perumangatt, Chithrabhanu, E-mail: chithrabhanu@prl.res.in [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Lal, Nijil [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); IIT Gandhinagar, Palaj, Ahmedabad, 382355 (India); Anwar, Ali [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Gangi Reddy, Salla [University of Electro-communications, Chofu, Tokyo, 1828585 (Japan); Singh, R.P. [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India)

    2017-06-15

    We address the possibility of using even/odd states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons for the quantum information tasks. Single photon qubit states and two photon entangled states in even/odd basis of OAM are considered. We present a method for the tomography and general projective measurement in even/odd basis. With the general projective measurement, we show the Bell violation and quantum cryptography with Bell's inequality. We also describe hyper and hybrid entanglement of even/odd OAM states along with polarization, which can be applied in the implementation of quantum protocols like super dense coding. - Highlights: • We propose to use even and odd states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light for quantum information tasks. • We describe the OAM qubits and entangled states in even/odd basis and the corresponding projective operators. • We present a method for the tomography and the Bell's inequality violation for photons entangled in even/odd OAM states. • We also describe hyper and hybrid entanglement of even/odd OAM states along with polarization and their applications.

  7. Robust interferometer for the routing of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lavery, MPJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available , piezoelectric; A, output port A; B, output port B and PD, photo-diode). (b) and (c) illustrate the effect of the prisms on their own. It can be seen that the beams behind the two prisms are rotated by 180? with respect to each other. An inverting prism, like... between the two arms in the interferometer of Delta1? = 2lscript? (figure 1(a)). In the specific case of ? = 90?, constructive interference will occur at one of the two output ports for all even lscript-valued states and then for odd lscript...

  8. Shape invariant higher-order Bessel-like beams carrying orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ismail, Y

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available in the near field to an annular ring in the far field. We demonstrate the production of such fields in the laboratory with an optical system comprising a combination of two axicons and a lens, allowing for control of the cone angle of the resulting field...

  9. Excitation of Orbital Angular Momentum Resonances in Helically Twisted Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G. K. L.; Kang, M. S.; Lee, H. W.; Biancalana, F.; Conti, C.; Weiss, T.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2012-07-01

    Spiral twisting offers additional opportunities for controlling the loss, dispersion, and polarization state of light in optical fibers with noncircular guiding cores. Here, we report an effect that appears in continuously twisted photonic crystal fiber. Guided by the helical lattice of hollow channels, cladding light is forced to follow a spiral path. This diverts a fraction of the axial momentum flow into the azimuthal direction, leading to the formation of discrete orbital angular momentum states at wavelengths that scale linearly with the twist rate. Core-guided light phase-matches topologically to these leaky states, causing a series of dips in the transmitted spectrum. Twisted photonic crystal fiber has potential applications in, for example, band-rejection filters and dispersion control.

  10. Wigner functions for angle and orbital angular momentum. Operators and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastrup, Hans A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie

    2017-02-15

    Recently a paper on the construction of consistent Wigner functions for cylindrical phase spaces S{sup 1} x R, i.e. for the canonical pair angle and orbital angular momentum, was presented, main properties of those functions derived, discussed and their usefulness illustrated by examples. The present paper is a continuation which compares properties of the new Wigner functions for cylindrical phase spaces with those of the well-known Wigner functions on planar ones in more detail. Furthermore, the mutual (Weyl) correspondence between HIlbert space operators and their phase space functions is discussed. The * product formalism is shown to be completely implementable. In addition basic dynamical laws for Wigner and Moyal functions are derived as generalized Liouville and energy equations. They are very similar to those of the planar case, but also show characteristic differences.

  11. WGM resonators for studying orbital angular momentum of a photon, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An optical system, device, and method that are capable of generating high-order Bessel beams and determining the orbital angular momentum of at least one of the photons of a Bessel beam are provided. The optical system and device include a tapered waveguide having an outer surface defined by a diameter that varies along a longitudinal axis of the waveguide from a first end to an opposing second end. The optical system and device include a resonator that is arranged in optical communication with the first end of the tapered waveguide such that an evanescent field emitted from (i) the waveguide can be coupled with the resonator, or (ii) the resonator can be coupled with the waveguide.

  12. Superposition of two optical vortices with opposite integer or non-integer orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando Díaz Meza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a brief proposal to achieve the superposition of two opposite vortex beams, both with integer or non-integer mean value of the orbital angular momentum. The first part is about the generation of this kind of spatial light distributions through a modified Brown and Lohmann’s hologram. The inclusion of a simple mathematical expression into the pixelated grid’s transmittance function, based in Fourier domain properties, shifts the diffraction orders counterclockwise and clockwise to the same point and allows the addition of different modes. The strategy is theoretically and experimentally validated for the case of two opposite rotation helical wavefronts.

  13. Controlling plasmonic orbital angular momentum by combining geometric and dynamic phases

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Qilong; Liu, Hongchao; Huang, Xuguang; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Tunable orbit angular momentum (OAM) of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is theoretically studied with appropriately designed metasurfaces. By controlling both the orientation angle and spatial position of nano aperture array on an ultrathin gold film, the field distributions of the surface waves can be engineered to contain both spin dependent and independent OAM components. Simultaneous control over the geometric phase and optical path difference induced phase (dynamic phase) provides extra degrees of freedom for manipulating OAM of SPPs. We show that arbitrary combination of OAM numbers can be realized for the SPPs excited by incident light of different circular polarizations. The results provides powerful control over the OAM of SPPs, which will have potential applications on optical trapping, imaging, communications and quantum information processing.

  14. LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum (OAM) modulation for free-space optical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Arabaci, Murat

    2010-11-22

    An orbital angular momentum (OAM) based LDPC-coded modulation scheme suitable for use in FSO communication is proposed. We demonstrate that the proposed scheme can operate under strong atmospheric turbulence regime and enable 100 Gb/s optical transmission while employing 10 Gb/s components. Both binary and nonbinary LDPC-coded OAM modulations are studied. In addition to providing better BER performance, the nonbinary LDPC-coded modulation reduces overall decoder complexity and latency. The nonbinary LDPC-coded OAM modulation provides a net coding gain of 9.3 dB at the BER of 10(-8). The maximum-ratio combining scheme outperforms the corresponding equal-gain combining scheme by almost 2.5 dB.

  15. Erbium-doped amplification in circular photonic crystal fiber supporting orbital angular momentum modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yifan; Zhang, Hu; Li, Hui; Tang, Xianfeng; Xi, Lixia; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2017-02-20

    We propose a new orbital angular momentum (OAM) erbium-doped fiber amplifier based on a circular photonic crystal fiber, which can support a total of 18 modes (14 OAM modes) over C-band. A correction factor is proposed to modify the overlap factor, with the aim of evaluating the performance of the amplifier more accurately. We found that the confined doping profile can help optimize the differential model gain (DMG). Numerical simulations suggest that the proposed OAM fiber amplifier can provide a gain larger than 20 dB for all 14 OAM modes, with the small DMG less than 0.2 dB and the noise figure lower than 3.5 dB across the C-band.

  16. Superposition of two optical vortices with opposite integer or non-integer orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando Díaz Meza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a brief proposal to achieve the superposition of two opposite vortex beams, both with integer or non-integer mean value of the orbital angular momentum. The first part is about the generation of this kind of spatial light distributions through a modified Brown and Lohmann’s hologram. The inclusion of a simple mathematical expression into the pixelated grid’s transmittance function, based in Fourier domain properties, shifts the diffraction orders counterclockwise and clockwise to the same point and allows the addition of different modes. The strategy is theoretically and experimentally validated for the case of two opposite rotation helical wavefronts.

  17. On-chip spin-controlled orbital angular momentum directional coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenwei; Lei, Ting; Si, Guangyuan; Du, Luping; Lin, Jiao; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2018-01-01

    Optical vortex beams have many potential applications in the particle trapping, quantum encoding, optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) communications and interconnects. However, the on-chip compact OAM detection is still a big challenge. Based on a holographic configuration and a spin-dependent structure design, we propose and demonstrate an on-chip spin-controlled OAM-mode directional coupler, which can couple the OAM signal to different directions due to its topological charge. While the directional coupling function can be switched on/off by altering the spin of incident beam. Both simulation and experimental measurements verify the validity of the proposed approach. This work would benefit the on-chip OAM devices for optical communications and high dimensional quantum coding/decoding in the future.

  18. All-fiber orbital angular momentum mode generation and transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Xiaobo; Gan, Jiulin; Zhang, Zhishen; Qian, Qi; Xu, Shanhui; Yang, Zhongmin

    2017-11-01

    We proposed and demonstrated an all-fiber system for generating and transmitting orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode light. A specially designed multi-core fiber (MCF) was used to endow with guide modes different phase change and two tapered transition regions were used for providing low-loss interfaces between different fiber structures. By arranging the refractive index distribution among the multi-cores and controlling the length of MCF, which essentially change the phase difference between the neighboring cores, OAM modes with different topological charge l can be generated selectively. Through two tapered transition regions, the non-OAM mode light can be effectively injected into the MCF and the generated OAM mode light can be easily launched into OAM mode supporting fiber for long distance and high purity transmission. Such an all-fiber OAM mode generation and transmission system owns the merits of flexibility, compactness, portability, and would have practical application value in OAM optical fiber communication systems.

  19. Quantum Key Distribution with High Order Fibonacci-like Orbital Angular Momentum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ziwen; Cai, Jiarui; Wang, Chuan

    2017-08-01

    The coding space in quantum communication could be expanded to high-dimensional space by using orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of photons, as both the capacity of the channel and security are enhanced. Here we present a novel approach to realize high-capacity quantum key distribution (QKD) by exploiting OAM states. The innovation of the proposed approach relies on a unique type of entangled-photon source which produces entangled photons with OAM randomly distributed among high order Fiboncci-like numbers and a new physical mechanism for efficiently sharing keys. This combination of entanglement with mathematical properties of high order Fibonacci sequences provides the QKD protocol immunity to photon-number-splitting attacks and allows secure generation of long keys from few photons. Unlike other protocols, reference frame alignment and active modulation of production and detection bases are unnecessary.

  20. Trapping of light with angular orbital momentum above the light cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bulgakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider bound states in the radiation continuum (BSC above the light cone in an one-dimensional periodic array of dielectric spheres in air. The BSCs are classified by orbital angular momentum m, Bloch wave vector β directed along the array, and polarization. The most simple symmetry protected BSCs have m = 0, β = 0 and occur in a wide range of the radius of spheres and dielectric constant. More sophisticated BSCs with m ̸= 0, β = 0 exist only for a selected radius of the spheres at a fixed dielectric constant. We also show the existence of robust Bloch BSCs with β ̸=0, m = 0. The BSCs with m = 0 can be easily detected by the collapse of Fano resonance in scattering of a plane wave. In response to a plane wave with circular polarization the BSCs with m ̸= 0 give rise to Poynting vector spiralling around the array.

  1. The detection of objects in a turbid underwater medium using orbital angular momentum (OAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochenour, Brandon; Rodgers, Lila; Laux, Alan; Mullen, Linda; Morgan, Kaitlyn; Miller, Jerome K.; Johnson, Eric G.

    2017-05-01

    We present an investigation of the optical property of orbital angular momentum (OAM) for use in the detection of objects obscured by a turbid underwater channel. In our experiment, a target is illuminated by a Gaussian beam. An optical vortex is formed by passing the object-reflected and backscattered light through a diffractive spiral phase plate at the receiver, which allows for the spatial separation of coherent and non-coherent light. This provides a method for discriminating target from environment. Initial laboratory results show that the ballistic target return can be detected 2-3 orders of magnitude below the backscatter clutter level. Furthermore, the detection of this coherent component is accomplished with the use of a complicated optical heterodyning scheme. The results suggest new optical sensing techniques for underwater imaging or LIDAR.

  2. Constraining the angular momentum of the Sun with planetary orbital motions and general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    The angular momentum of a star is an important astrophysical quantity related to its internal structure, formation and evolution. On average, helioseismology yields S = 1.92 10^41 kg m^2 s^-1 for the angular momentum of the Sun. We constrain it in a model-independent, dynamical way by using the gravitomagnetic Lense-Thirring effect predicted by general relativity for the orbit of a test particle moving around a central rotating body. The correction to the standard Einsteinian/Newtonian precession of the longitude of the perihelion $ of Mercury, recently inferred by a team of astronomers from a fit of dynamical models of the forces acting on the planets of the solar system to a long data record, amounts to 0.4 +/- 0.6 mas cty^-1. The modeled forces did not include the Lense-Thirring effect itself, which is expected to be as large as -2.0 mas cty^-1 for the perihelion of Mercury from helioseismological values of S?. By assuming the validity of general relativity, from its theoretical prediction for the gravitom...

  3. Quantum numbers of the $X(3872)$ state and orbital angular momentum in its $\\rho^0 J/\\psi$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Angular correlations in $B^+\\to X(3872) K^+$ decays, with $X(3872)\\to \\rho^0 J/\\psi$, $\\rho^0\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $J/\\psi \\to\\mu^+\\mu^-$, are used to measure orbital angular momentum contributions and to determine the $J^{PC}$ value of the $X(3872)$ meson. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector. This determination, for the first time performed without assuming a value for the orbital angular momentum, confirms the quantum numbers to be $J^{PC}=1^{++}$. The $X(3872)$ is found to decay predominantly through S wave and an upper limit of $4\\%$ at $95\\%$ C.L. is set on the fraction of D wave.

  4. Experimental characterization of a 400  Gbit/s orbital angular momentum multiplexed free-space optical link over 120 m

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Yongxiong; Wang, Zhe; Liao, Peicheng; Li, Long; Xie, Guodong; Huang, Hao; Zhao, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Willner, Asher; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate and characterize the\\ud performance of a 400-Gbit/s orbital angular momentum\\ud (OAM) multiplexed free-space optical link over 120-\\ud meters on the roof of a building. Four OAM beams, each\\ud carrying a 100-Gbit/s QPSK channel are multiplexed and\\ud transmitted. We investigate the influence of channel\\ud impairments on the received power, inter-modal\\ud crosstalk among channels, and system power penalties.\\ud Without laser tracking and compensation systems, the\\...

  5. Optical angular momentum and atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Arnold, Sonja

    2017-02-28

    Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom's angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light's OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light-matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Quantum Communication with a Twist: QKD using Orbital Angular Momentum Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Warner; Sweiti, Ayman

    2007-03-01

    We briefly outline our progress in developing a programmable-optics QKD system that utilizes the orbital angular momentum (OAM) eigenstates of photons. A photon can be prepared in a state that exhibits both its polarization as well as OAM. A single photon with polarization can communicate one bit of information. However a single photon from an appropriate set of axial eigenstates (OAM or ``twisted photon'') can, in principle, transmit many bits. While there is no improvement in bandwidth over conventional spin-based QKD devises, the use of an OAM eigenmodes in an n-state QKD system can substantially reduce the system's optical fidelity requirements. We outline the relative strengths and weaknesses in using OAM states verses polarization states regarding the (1) state preparation, (2) state propagation and (3) state detection. An essential element of any QKD system is the generation, propagation and sorting of mutually unbiased (MUB) quantum states. We demonstrate here the diffractive optics generation of MUB states built from the superpositions in an n-dimensional Hilbert space of OAM photons. In particular, we show the generation of a MUB state utilizing a liquid crystal spatial light modulator.

  7. Controlled generation of different orbital angular momentum states in a hybrid optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Xiaobo; Gan, Jiulin; Zhang, Zhishen; Qian, Qi; Xu, Shanhui; Yang, Zhongmin

    2017-11-01

    A new kind of hybrid optical fiber for different orbital angular momentum (OAM) states generation is proposed and investigated by simulation. The hybrid fiber is composed of three main regions: the core, the cladding and the bow-tie-shaped stress-applying zones (SAZs). The SAZs are symmetrically distributed on both sides of the core and filled with piezoelectric material PZT-5H which would generate radial mechanical movement when subjected to an electric field. The strain applied by the SAZs introduces anisotropic variation of the material permittivity which affect the propagation of the guided modes along the fiber core. The OAM modes of | l | = 1 , 2 , 3 can be generated by setting the appropriate electric potential applied in the SAZs. This fiber-based structure and electric control design enable the generation and adjustment of OAM states with the merits of accuracy, compactness and practicality, which would have potential application in OAM optical fiber communication systems and other systems utilizing OAM light.

  8. Deep-space and near-Earth optical communications by coded orbital angular momentum (OAM) modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2011-07-18

    In order to achieve multi-gigabit transmission (projected for 2020) for the use in interplanetary communications, the usage of large number of time slots in pulse-position modulation (PPM), typically used in deep-space applications, is needed, which imposes stringent requirements on system design and implementation. As an alternative satisfying high-bandwidth demands of future interplanetary communications, while keeping the system cost and power consumption reasonably low, in this paper, we describe the use of orbital angular momentum (OAM) as an additional degree of freedom. The OAM is associated with azimuthal phase of the complex electric field. Because OAM eigenstates are orthogonal the can be used as basis functions for N-dimensional signaling. The OAM modulation and multiplexing can, therefore, be used, in combination with other degrees of freedom, to solve the high-bandwidth requirements of future deep-space and near-Earth optical communications. The main challenge for OAM deep-space communication represents the link between a spacecraft probe and the Earth station because in the presence of atmospheric turbulence the orthogonality between OAM states is no longer preserved. We will show that in combination with LDPC codes, the OAM-based modulation schemes can operate even under strong atmospheric turbulence regime. In addition, the spectral efficiency of proposed scheme is N2/log2N times better than that of PPM.

  9. Simultaneous entanglement swapping of multiple orbital angular momentum states of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingwen; Agnew, Megan; Roger, Thomas; Roux, Filippus S; Konrad, Thomas; Faccio, Daniele; Leach, Jonathan; Forbes, Andrew

    2017-09-21

    High-bit-rate long-distance quantum communication is a proposed technology for future communication networks and relies on high-dimensional quantum entanglement as a core resource. While it is known that spatial modes of light provide an avenue for high-dimensional entanglement, the ability to transport such quantum states robustly over long distances remains challenging. To overcome this, entanglement swapping may be used to generate remote quantum correlations between particles that have not interacted; this is the core ingredient of a quantum repeater, akin to repeaters in optical fibre networks. Here we demonstrate entanglement swapping of multiple orbital angular momentum states of light. Our approach does not distinguish between different anti-symmetric states, and thus entanglement swapping occurs for several thousand pairs of spatial light modes simultaneously. This work represents the first step towards a quantum network for high-dimensional entangled states and provides a test bed for fundamental tests of quantum science.Entanglement swapping in high dimensions requires large numbers of entangled photons and consequently suffers from low photon flux. Here the authors demonstrate entanglement swapping of multiple spatial modes of light simultaneously, without the need for increasing the photon numbers with dimension.

  10. Controlling orbital angular momentum of an optical vortex by varying its ellipticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Victor V.; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2018-03-01

    An exact analytical expression is obtained for the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a Gaussian optical vortex with a different degree of ellipticity. The OAM turned out to be proportional to the ratio of two Legendre polynomials of adjoining orders. It is shown that if an elliptical optical vortex is embedded into the center of the waist of a circularly symmetrical Gaussian beam, then the normalized OAM of such laser beam is fractional and it does not exceed the topological charge n. If, on the contrary, a circularly symmetrical optical vortex is embedded into the center of the waist of an elliptical Gaussian beam, then the OAM is equal to n. If the optical vortex and the Gaussian beam have the same (or matched) ellipticity degree, then the OAM of the laser beam is greater than n. Continuous varying of the OAM of a laser beam by varying its ellipticity degree can be used in optical trapping for accelerated motion of microscopic particles along an elliptical trajectory as well as in quantum informatics for detecting OAM-entangled photons.

  11. Wigner functions for angle and orbital angular momentum: Operators and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, H. A.

    2017-05-01

    Recently a paper on the construction of consistent Wigner functions for cylindrical phase spaces S1×R , i.e., for the canonical pair angle and orbital angular momentum, was published [H. A. Kastrup, Phys. Rev. A 94, 062113 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.062113] in which the main properties of these functions are derived and discussed and their usefulness is illustrated with examples. The present paper is a continuation which compares the properties of the Wigner functions for cylindrical phase spaces with those of the well-known Wigner functions for planar phase spaces in more detail. Furthermore, the mutual (Weyl) correspondence between Hilbert space operators and their phase-space functions is discussed. The product formalism is shown to be completely implementable. In addition, basic dynamical laws for Wigner and Moyal functions are derived as generalized Liouville and energy equations. They are very similar to those in the planar case but also show characteristic differences.

  12. The Orbital Angular Momentum Modes Supporting Fibers Based on the Photonic Crystal Fiber Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The orbital angular momentum (OAM of light can be another physical dimension that we exploit to make multiplexing in the spatial domain. The design of the OAM mode supporting fiber attracts many attentions in the field of the space division multiplexing (SDM system. This paper reviews the recent progresses in photonic crystal fiber (PCF supporting OAM modes, and summarizes why a PCF structure can be used to support stable OAM transmission modes. The emphasis is on the circular PCFs, which possess many excellent features of transmission performance, such as good-quality OAM modes, enough separation of the effective indices, low confinement loss, flat dispersion, a large effective area, and a low nonlinear coefficient. We also compare the transmission properties between the circular PCF and the ring core fiber, as well as the properties between the OAM EDFA based on circular PCF and the OAM EDFA based on the ring core fiber. At last, the challenges and prospects of OAM fibers based on the PCF structure are also discussed.

  13. Turbulence mitigation scheme based on spatial diversity in orbital-angular-momentum multiplexed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li; Wang, Le; Zhao, Shengmei

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric turbulence (AT) induced crosstalk can significantly impair the performance of free-space optical (FSO) communication link using orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing. In this paper, we propose a spatial diversity (SD) turbulence mitigation scheme in an OAM-multiplexed FSO communication link. First, we present a SD mitigation model for the OAM-multiplexed FSO communication link under AT. Then we present a SD combining technique based on equal gain to enhance AT tolerance of the OAM-multiplexed FSO communication link. The numerical results show that performance of the OAM-multiplexed communication link has greatly improved by the proposed scheme. When the turbulence strength Cn2 is 5 × 10-15m - 2 / 3, the transmission distance is 1000 m and the channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 20 dB, the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of four spatial multiplexed OAM modes lm = + 1 , + 2 , + 3 , + 4 are 3 fold increase in comparison with those results without the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme is a promising direction for compensating the interference caused by AT in the OAM-multiplexed FSO communication link.

  14. Orbital angular momentum in four channel spatial domain multiplexing system for multi-terabit per second communication architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Syed H.; Muralikrishnan, Hari P.; Kozaitis, Samuel P.

    2012-06-01

    Bandwidth increase has always been an important area of research in communications. A novel multiplexing technique known as Spatial Domain Multiplexing (SDM) has been developed at the Optronics Laboratory of Florida Institute of Technology to increase the bandwidth to T-bits/s range. In this technique, space inside the fiber is used effectively to transmit up to four channels of same wavelength at the same time. Experimental and theoretical analysis shows that these channels follow independent helical paths inside the fiber without interfering with each other. Multiple pigtail laser sources of exactly the same wavelength are used to launch light into a single carrier fiber in a fashion that resulting channels follow independent helical trajectories. These helically propagating light beams form optical vortices inside the fiber and carry their own Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM). The outputs of these beams appear as concentric donut shaped rings when projected on a screen. This endeavor presents the experimental outputs and simulated results for a four channel spatially multiplexed system effectively increasing the system bandwidth by a factor of four.

  15. Controllable all-fiber generation/conversion of circularly polarized orbital angular momentum beams using long period fiber gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ya; Liu, Yan-Ge; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Wei; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Yang, Kang

    2018-01-01

    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) is a promising technology for increasing the data-carrying capacity of a single few-mode optical fiber. The flexible mode manipulation would be highly desired in a robust MDM network. Recently, orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes have received wide attention as a new spatial mode basis. In this paper, we firstly proposed a long period fiber grating (LPFG) system to realize mode conversions between the higher order LP core modes in four-mode fiber. Based on the proposed system, we, for the first time, demonstrate the controllable all-fiber generation and conversion of the higher order LP core modes to the first and second order circularly polarized OAM beams with all the combinations of spin and OAM. Therefore, the proposed LPFG system can be potentially used as a controllable higher order OAM beam switch and a physical layer of the translating protocol from the conventional LP modes communication to the OAM modes communication in the future mode carrier telecommunication system and light calculation protocols.

  16. SEE Observations of Ionospheric Heating from HAARP Using Orbital Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briczinski, S. J.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    High power HF radio waves exciting the ionosphere provide aeronomers with a unique space-based laboratory capability. The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaksa is the world's largest heating facility, providing effective radiated powers in the gigawatt range. Experiments performed at HAARP have allowed researchers to study many non-linear effects of wave-plasma interactions. Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) is of interest to the ionospheric community for its diagnostic purposes. Typical SEE experiments at HAARP have focused on characterizing the parametric decay of the electromagnetic pump wave into several different wave modes such as upper and lower hybrid, ion acoustic, ion-Bernstein and electron-Bernstein. These production modes have been extensively studied at HAARP using traditional beam heating patterns and SEE detection. New results are present from HAARP experiments using an excitation mode that attempts to impart orbital angular momentum (OAM) into the heating region. This OAM mode is also referred to as a 'twisted beam.' Previous analysis of twisted beam heating shows that the SEE results obtained are nearly identical to the modes without OAM. Recent twisted beam heating experiments have produced SEE modes not previously characterized. These new modes are presented and discussed. One difference in the twisted beam mode is the heating region produced is in the shape of a ring as opposed to the more traditional 'solid spot' region. The ring heating pattern may be more conducive to the creation of artificial ionization clouds. The results of these runs include artificial ionization creation and evolution as pertaining to the twisted beam pattern.

  17. Orbital angular momentum eigenfunctions for fast and numerically stable evaluations of closed-form pseudopotential matrix elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anguang; Chan, Nora W. C.; Dunlap, Brett I.

    2017-08-01

    The computation of s-type Gaussian pseudopotential matrix elements involving low powers of the distance from the pseudopotential center using Gaussian orbitals can be reduced to familiar integrals. They may be directly expressed as either simple three-center overlap integrals for even powers of the radial distance from the pseudopotential center or related to the three-center nuclear integrals of a Gaussian charge distribution for odd powers. Orbital angular momentum about each atom is added to these integrals by solid-harmonic differentiation with respect to its center. The solid-harmonic addition theorem allows all the integrals to be factored into products of invariant one-dimensional integrals involving the Gaussian exponents and angular factors that contain the azimuthal quantum numbers but are independent of all Gaussian exponents. Precomputing the angular factors allow looping over all Gaussian exponents about the three centers. The fact that solid harmonics are eigenstates of angular momentum removes the singularities seen in previous treatments of pseudopotential matrix elements.

  18. Dynamics of optically levitated microparticles in vacuum placed in 2D and 3D optical potentials possessing orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Yoshihiko; Mazilu, Michael; Chen, Mingzhou; Vettenburg, Tom; Auñón, Juan M.; Wright, Ewan M.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the transfer of orbital angular momentum to optically levitated microparticles in vacuum [1]. We prepare two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical potentials. In the former case the microparticle is placed within a Laguerre-Gaussian beam and orbits the annular beam profile with increasing angular velocity as the air drag coefficient is reduced. We explore the particle dynamics as a function of the topological charge of the levitating beam. Our results reveal that there is a fundamental limit to the orbital angular momentum that may be transferred to a trapped particle, dependent upon the beam parameters and inertial forces present. This effect was predicted theoretically [2] and can be understood considering the underlying dynamics arising from the link between the magnitude of the azimuthal index and the beam radius [3]. Whilst a Laguerre-Gaussian beam scales in size with azimuthal index `, recently we have created a "perfect" vortex beam whose radial intensity profile and radius are both independent of topological charge [4, 5]. As the Fourier transform of a perfect vortex yields a Bessel beam. Imaging a perfect vortex, with its subsequent propagation thus realises a complex three dimensional optical field. In this scenario we load individual silica microparticles into this field and observe their trajectories. The optical gradient and scattering forces interplay with the inertial and gravitational forces acting on the trapped particle, including the rotational degrees of freedom. As a result the trapped microparticle exhibits a complex three dimensional motion that includes a periodic orbital motion between the Bessel and the perfect vortex beam. We are able to determine the three dimensional optical potential in situ by tracking the particle. This first demonstration of trapping microparticles within a complex three dimensional optical potential in vacuum opens up new possibilities for fundamental studies of many-body dynamics, mesoscopic

  19. Orbital rotation without orbital angular momentum: mechanical action of the spin part of the internal energy flow in light beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    The internal energy flow in a light beam can be divided into the "orbital" and "spin" parts, associated with the spatial and polarization degrees of freedom of light. In contrast to the orbital one, experimental observation of the spin flow seems problematic because it is converted into an orbital...... flow upon tight focusing of the beam, usually applied for energy flow detection by means of the mechanical action upon probe particles. We propose a two-beam interference technique that results in an appreciable level of spin flow in moderately focused beams and detection of the orbital motion of probe...... particles within a field where the transverse energy circulation is associated exclusively with the spin flow. This result can be treated as the first demonstration of mechanical action of the spin flow of a light field....

  20. Single orbital angular momentum mode emission from vertical cavity surface emitting laser by optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Y.; Moriya, H.; Shigematsu, K.; Yamane, K.; Morita, R.; Awaji, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Single angular momentum (OAM) mode emissions from a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) were demonstrated by an external optical feedback using computer generated holograms, which are optimized on the OAM modal gain of the free-running VCSEL. Side-mode suppression ratio of more than 23 dB was achieved for the OAM modes with l = +/-1.

  1. Directly measuring mean and variance of infinite-spectrum observables such as the photon orbital angular momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, Bruno; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico

    2015-10-19

    The standard method for experimentally determining the probability distribution of an observable in quantum mechanics is the measurement of the observable spectrum. However, for infinite-dimensional degrees of freedom, this approach would require ideally infinite or, more realistically, a very large number of measurements. Here we consider an alternative method which can yield the mean and variance of an observable of an infinite-dimensional system by measuring only a two-dimensional pointer weakly coupled with the system. In our demonstrative implementation, we determine both the mean and the variance of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam without acquiring the entire spectrum, but measuring the Stokes parameters of the optical polarization (acting as pointer), after the beam has suffered a suitable spin-orbit weak interaction. This example can provide a paradigm for a new class of useful weak quantum measurements.

  2. Evolution of orbital angular momentum mode of the autofocusing Hypergeometric-Gaussian beams through moderate-to-strong anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Zhang, Yixin; Yang, Guofeng

    2017-12-01

    In order to investigate the evolution of mode probability density (MPD) and received power of orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode carried by autofocusing Hypergeometric-Gaussian (HyGG) beams in moderate-to-strong anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence, the corresponding expressions of the spatial coherence radius and spiral spectrum of HyGG beams are achieved. Results show that the autofocusing property of HyGG beams has a significant impact on the propagation of the MPD. Smaller topological charge, Shorter wavelength, higher values of hollowness parameters and wider beam waist shrink to a narrower width of the MPD and maintain the characteristic of diffraction-free with a longer transmission distance. Moreover, smaller outer-scale, larger inner-scale, larger non-Kolmogorov parameter and larger anisotropic coefficient make the received power of OAM suffer less turbulence.

  3. Generation and Amplification of Coherent Radiation with Optical Orbital Angular Momentum in a Free-Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsing, Erik Willard

    The object of this work is to examine how coherent light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM) can be generated and amplified in a single pass, high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) at the fundamental operating frequency. This concept unites two rapidly expanding, but at present largely non-overlapping fields of study: high-order OAM light modes, which interact in new ways with matter, and FELs, in which a relativistically energetic electron beam emits coherent, ultra high-brightness, highly frequency-tunable light. The ability to generate OAM light in an FEL enables new regimes of laser interaction physics to be explored at wavelengths down to hard x-rays. The theoretical portion of this dissertation attempts to provide a new predictive mathematical framework. It builds on existing work, and describes the three-dimensional electromagnetic field of the high-gain FEL as a sum of OAM modes such that the amplification properties of individual modes can be characterized. The effects of uncorrelated energy spread, longitudinal space charge, energy detuning, and transverse emittance in the electron beam are included, as is the diffraction of the laser light. Theoretical predictions are corroborated by detailed numerical Genesis 1.3 simulations. When the theory is extended to frequency harmonics, a novel interaction is uncovered that generates a helical electron beam density distribution. These predictions are also supported by numerical Tredi simulations. This type of highly correlated structure is shown to naturally emit OAM light, and forms the basis of a new high-gain, high-mode generation (HGHMG) scheme proposed in its entirety here. The experimental section examines the helical microbunching concept in a proof-of-principle experiment dubbed HELIX, performed at the UCLA Neptune laboratory. We present detailed measurement of the coherent transition radiation emitted by the 12.5 MeV electron beam that is microbunched in a second harmonic interaction with an input

  4. Orbital Angular Momentum of Gauge Fields: Excitation of AN Atom by Twisted Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.; Mukherjee, Asmita

    2014-01-01

    Twisted photon states, or photon states with large (> ℏ) angular momentum projection in the direction of motion, can photoexcite atomic final states of differing quantum numbers. If the photon symmetry axis coincides with the center of an atom, there are known selection rules that require exact matching between the quantum numbers of the photon and the photoexcited states. The more general case of arbitrarily positioned beams relaxes the selection rules but produces a distribution of quantum numbers of the final atomic states that is novel and distinct from final states produced by plane-wave photons. Numerical calculations are presented using a hydrogen atom as an example.

  5. Angular and energy dependence of (e,e{sup `}) cross sections for orbital 1{sup +} excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Faessler, A. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Dingfelder, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1996-02-19

    The main features of the (e,e`) cross sections of low-lying orbital excitations with K{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} in heavy deformed nuclei are studied in RPA on the example of {sup 156}Gd. The dependence of the DWBA E2 and M1 cross sections on the scattering angle 0 {sup circle} <{theta}<180 {sup circle} and incident electron energy E{sub i} < 210 MeV is analyzed in PWBA. The cross section is larger for M1 than for E2 transitions at any angle if E{sub i}<30 MeV. The longitudinal (Coulomb) C2 excitation dominates the E2 response for 5 {sup circle} <{theta}<170 {sup circle}. Only transverse M1 and E2 excitations compete for {theta}>175 {sup circle} and the former one is dominant for q<1.2 fm{sup -1}. The M1 response is almost purely orbital up to q=1.4 fm{sup -1} even in backward scattering. Qualitative PWBA estimates based on the q-dependence of the form factors alone are not able to predict some important features of the (e,e`) cross sections stemming from the strong magnetic and orbital character of the studied 1{sup +} excitations. The expectation for M1 over E2 dominance in backward scattering should not be extended to higher momentum transfers and incident energies. (orig.).

  6. Transferring linear motion of an optical wedge to rotational frequency shift in an orbital angular momentum interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qikun; Qiu, Xiaodong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2017-08-01

    We build a modified Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer with an embedded Dove prism in one arm to observe the interference between two conjugate orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams. By inserting and moving an optical wedge vertically in the other arm, we find that its linear motion can induce a rotational frequency shift equivalently, as a consequence of phase transfer from the path difference to the azimuthal difference between two OAM beams. The micron-scale movement of the wedge is driven by a compact motorized translation stage and is manifested by a significant rotation of the interference petal-like patterns. Our scheme offers an accurate method to measure the optical wedge angle with a simple method of digital image processing. This work may also find potential applications in the field of velocity sensing or temperature sensing.

  7. Intensity and average orbital angular momentum of partially coherent flat-topped vortex beam in slant atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-qing; Wang, Li-guo

    2017-11-01

    On the basis of the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the cross-spectral density function (CSDF), the intensity and average orbital angular momentum (OAM) of the partially coherent flat-topped vortex beams in the slant atmospheric turbulence are presented. The effects of the order, topological charge, waist radius, and propagation distance of the beam on the intensity and average OAM are discussed. Results obtained show that the intensity of the partially coherent flat-topped vortex beam is changed due to the variations of the propagation distance, waist radius, topological charge and beam order, the average OAM is constant during the beam propagation in the atmospheric turbulence and related only to the waist radius and beam order. Results obtained by this paper may serve as theory bases for future applications in the atmospheric optical communication.

  8. Turbulence heterodyne coherent mitigation of orbital angular momentum multiplexing in a free space optical link by auxiliary light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunyong; Xu, Chuang; Ni, Wenjun; Gan, Yu; Hou, Jin; Chen, Shaoping

    2017-10-16

    A novel scheme is proposed to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence effect in free space optical (FSO) communication employing orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing. In this scheme, the Gaussian beam is used as an auxiliary light with a common-path to obtain the distortion information caused by atmospheric turbulence. After turbulence, the heterodyne coherent detection technology is demonstrated to realize the turbulence mitigation. With the same turbulence distortion, the OAM beams and the Gaussian beam are respectively utilized as the signal light and the local oscillation light. Then the turbulence distortion is counteracted to a large extent. Meanwhile, a phase matching method is proposed to select the specific OAM mode. The discrimination between the neighboring OAM modes is obviously improved by detecting the output photocurrent. Moreover, two methods of beam size adjustment have been analyzed to achieve better performance for turbulence mitigation. Numerical results show that the system bit error rate (BER) can reach 10-5 under strong turbulence in simulation situation.

  9. Martian surface microtexture from orbital CRISM multi-angular observations: A new perspective for the characterization of the geological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, J.; Schmidt, F.; Douté, S.

    2016-09-01

    The surface of Mars has a high morphological and mineralogical diversity due to the intricacy of external, internal processes, and exchanges with the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the cryosphere. In particular, liquid water played an important role in surface evolution. However, the origin, duration and intensity of those wet events have been highly debated, especially in the clay-bearing geological units. Similarly, questions still remain about magma crystallization and volatile quantity of the dominant basaltic crust. In this work, six sites having hydrated minerals, salts and basaltic signatures (i.e., Mawrth Vallis, Holden crater, Eberswalde crater, Capri mensa, Eridania basin, Terra Sirenum) are investigated in order to better characterize the geological processes responsible for their formation and evolution (e.g., fluvial, lacustrine, in situ weathering, evaporitic, volcanic and aeolian processes). For that purpose, we use orbital multi-angular measurements from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft to analyze the manner in which light is scattered by the surface materials (photometry) in the near-infrared range (at 750 nm). The surface bidirectional reflectance depends on the composition but also on the surface microtexture such as the grain size distribution, morphology, internal structure and surface roughness, tracers of the geological processes. The Hapke semi-analytical model of radiative transfer in granular medium is used to model the surface bidirectional reflectance estimated at 750 nm from the orbital measurements after an atmospheric correction. The model depends on different radiative properties (e.g., single scattering albedo, grain phase function and regolith roughness) related to the surface composition and microtexture. In particular previous laboratory works showed that the particle phase function parameters, which describe the characteristics of the

  10. Influence of anisotropic turbulence on the orbital angular momentum modes of Hermite-Gaussian vortex beam in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Yu, Lin; Zhang, Yixin

    2017-05-29

    Applying the angular spectrum theory, we derive the expression of a new Hermite-Gaussian (HG) vortex beam. Based on the new Hermite-Gaussian (HG) vortex beam, we establish the model of the received probability density of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes of this beam propagating through a turbulent ocean of anisotropy. By numerical simulation, we investigate the influence of oceanic turbulence and beam parameters on the received probability density of signal OAM modes and crosstalk OAM modes of the HG vortex beam. The results show that the influence of oceanic turbulence of anisotropy on the received probability of signal OAM modes is smaller than isotropic oceanic turbulence under the same condition, and the effect of salinity fluctuation on the received probability of the signal OAM modes is larger than the effect of temperature fluctuation. In the strong dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid and the weak dissipation rate of temperature variance, we can decrease the effects of turbulence on the received probability of signal OAM modes by selecting a long wavelength and a larger transverse size of the HG vortex beam in the source's plane. In long distance propagation, the HG vortex beam is superior to the Laguerre-Gaussian beam for resisting the destruction of oceanic turbulence.

  11. High orbital angular momentum quantum numbers in the electronic ground states of Fe$_2^+$ and Co$_2^+$ as determined by x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zamudio-Bayer, V; Langenberg, A; Lawicki, A; Terasaki, A; Issendorff, B v; Lau, J T

    2015-01-01

    The $^6\\Delta$ electronic ground state of the Co$_2^+$ diatomic molecular cation has been assigned experimentally by x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap. Three candidates, $^6\\Phi$, $^6\\Gamma$, and $^8\\Gamma$, for the electronic ground state of Fe$_2^+$ have been identified. These states carry sizable ground-state orbital angular momenta that disagree with theoretical predictions from multireference configuration interaction and density functional theory. Our results show that the ground states of neutral and cationic diatomic molecules of $3d$ elements cannot be assumed to be connected by a one-electron process.

  12. Simultaneous wavelength and orbital angular momentum demultiplexing using tunable MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir; Porfirev, Alexey P.; Gurbatov, Stanislav O.

    2017-01-01

    wavelengths, each of them carrying two channels with zero and nonzero OAMs, form four independent information channels. In case of spacing between wavelength channels of 0.8 nm and intensity modulation, power penalties relative to the transmission of one channel do not exceed 1.45, 0.79 and 0.46 d......B at the harddecision forward-error correction (HD-FEC) bit-error-rate (BER) limit 3.8 × 10□3 when multiplexing a Gaussian beam and OAM beams of azimuthal orders 1, 2 and 3 respectively. In case of phase modulation, power penalties do not exceed 1.77, 0.54 and 0.79 dB respectively. At the 0.4 nm wavelength grid......, maximum power penalties at the HD-FEC BER threshold relative to the 0.8 nm wavelength spacing read 0.83, 0.84 and 1.15 dB when multiplexing a Gaussian beam and OAM beams of 1st, 2nd and 3rd orders respectively. The novelty and impact of the proposed filter design is in providing practical, integrable...

  13. Compositing orbital angular momentum beams in Bi4Ge3O12 crystal for magnetic field sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuangfeng; Pang, Fufei; Liu, Huanhuan; Li, Xianjin; Yang, Junfeng; Wang, Tingyun

    2017-08-01

    The polarization states and orbital angular momentum (OAM) properties of light are of considerable importance for several aspects of high-precision optical measurements. In this work, we have investigated the properties of composited OAM beams propagating in a Bi4Ge3O12 crystal under an applied magnetic field and have demonstrated a magnetic field sensing method based on compositing of OAM beams using a Sagnac configuration. The polarization rotation can be projected into petal-like patterns by the rotation of the OAM beams. However, the accurate measurement of the rotation angles of the petal-like patterns of OAM beams remains challenging. Therefore, an image processing technique based on the Radon transform is explored to enable the accurate calculation of the rotation angle of the petal-like patterns of composite OAM beams under different magnetic fields. The rotation angle of these petal-like patterns is found to have a linear dependence on the magnetic field intensity, which means that the proposed system is appropriate for magnetic field sensing applications. Using this method, a magnetic field sensitivity of 28°/T has been achieved experimentally with a measurement error of 0.0123 T in a high-intensity magnetic field ranging from 191 to 3322 G for OAM beams with topological charge (TC) l =±1 .

  14. Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andong; Zhu, Long; Chen, Shi; Du, Cheng; Mo, Qi; Wang, Jian

    2016-05-30

    Mode-division multiplexing over fibers has attracted increasing attention over the last few years as a potential solution to further increase fiber transmission capacity. In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes transmission over a 50-km few-mode fiber (FMF). By analyzing mode properties of eigen modes in an FMF, we study the inner mode group differential modal delay (DMD) in FMF, which may influence the transmission capacity in long-distance OAM modes transmission and multiplexing. To mitigate the impact of large inner mode group DMD in long-distance fiber-based OAM modes transmission, we use low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes to increase the system reliability. By evaluating the performance of LDPC-coded single OAM mode transmission over 50-km fiber, significant coding gains of >4 dB, 8 dB and 14 dB are demonstrated for 1-Gbaud, 2-Gbaud and 5-Gbaud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals, respectively. Furthermore, in order to verify and compare the influence of DMD in long-distance fiber transmission, single OAM mode transmission over 10-km FMF is also demonstrated in the experiment. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate OAM multiplexing and transmission over a 50-km FMF using LDPC-coded 1-Gbaud QPSK signals to compensate the influence of mode crosstalk and DMD in the 50 km FMF.

  15. Two-stage cross-talk mitigation in an orbital-angular-momentum-based free-space optical communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhen; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2017-08-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a two-stage cross-talk mitigation method in an orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-based free-space optical communication system, which is enabled by combining spatial offset and low-density parity-check (LDPC) coded nonuniform signaling. Different from traditional OAM multiplexing, where the OAM modes are centrally aligned for copropagation, the adjacent OAM modes (OAM states 2 and -6 and OAM states -2 and 6) in our proposed scheme are spatially offset to mitigate the mode cross talk. Different from traditional rectangular modulation formats, which transmit equidistant signal points with uniform probability, the 5-quadrature amplitude modulation (5-QAM) and 9-QAM are introduced to relieve cross-talk-induced performance degradation. The 5-QAM and 9-QAM formats are based on the Huffman coding technique, which can potentially achieve great cross-talk tolerance by combining them with corresponding nonbinary LDPC codes. We demonstrate that cross talk can be reduced by 1.6 dB and 1 dB via spatial offset for OAM states ±2 and ±6, respectively. Compared to quadrature phase shift keying and 8-QAM formats, the LDPC-coded 5-QAM and 9-QAM are able to bring 1.1 dB and 5.4 dB performance improvements in the presence of atmospheric turbulence, respectively.

  16. An orbital angular momentum radio communication system optimized by intensity controlled masks effectively: Theoretical design and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xinlu [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Huang, Shanguo, E-mail: shghuang@bupt.edu.cn; Wei, Yongfeng; Zhai, Wensheng; Xu, Wenjing; Yin, Shan; Gu, Wanyi [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhou, Jing [Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-12-15

    A system of generating and receiving orbital angular momentum (OAM) radio beams, which are collectively formed by two circular array antennas (CAAs) and effectively optimized by two intensity controlled masks, is proposed and experimentally investigated. The scheme is effective in blocking of the unwanted OAM modes and enhancing the power of received radio signals, which results in the capacity gain of system and extended transmission distance of the OAM radio beams. The operation principle of the intensity controlled masks, which can be regarded as both collimator and filter, is feasible and simple to realize. Numerical simulations of intensity and phase distributions at each key cross-sectional plane of the radio beams demonstrate the collimated results. The experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis and the receive distance of the OAM radio beam at radio frequency (RF) 20 GHz is extended up to 200 times of the wavelength of the RF signals, the measured distance is 5 times of the original measured distance. The presented proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the system.

  17. Spatially multiplexed orbital-angular-momentum-encoded single photon and classical channels in a free-space optical communication link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Liu, Cong; Pang, Kai; Zhao, Jiapeng; Cao, Yinwen; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Liao, Peicheng; Zhao, Zhe; Tur, Moshe; Boyd, Robert W; Willner, Alan E

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate spatial multiplexing of an orbital angular momentum (OAM)-encoded quantum channel and a classical Gaussian beam with a different wavelength and orthogonal polarization. Data rates as large as 100 MHz are achieved by encoding on two different OAM states by employing a combination of independently modulated laser diodes and helical phase holograms. The influence of OAM mode spacing, encoding bandwidth, and interference from the co-propagating Gaussian beam on registered photon count rates and quantum bit error rates is investigated. Our results show that the deleterious effects of intermodal crosstalk effects on system performance become less important for OAM mode spacing Δ≥2 (corresponding to a crosstalk value of less than -18.5  dB). The use of OAM domain can additionally offer at least 10.4 dB isolation besides that provided by wavelength and polarization, leading to a further suppression of interference from the classical channel.

  18. Design of a compact device to generate and test beams with orbital angular momentum in the EUV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, D O; Ledesma, S A; Quinteiro, G F; Capeluto, M G

    2017-10-10

    We present a compact design to generate and test optical-vortex beams with possible applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The device consists of a diffractive mask where both the beam with orbital angular momentum and the reference wavefront to test its phase are generated. In order to show that the proposal would work in the EUV, simulations and proof-of-principle experiments were performed, using typical parameters for EUV holography scaled to visible wavelengths. As the simplest case, we consider the well-known Laguerre-Gaussian (LG)-like beams, which have a single vortex in the propagation axis. To further test the versatility of the device, we consider Mathieu beams, more complex structured beams that may contain several vortices. In the experiment, a spatial light modulator was used to display the mask. As examples, we show the results for a LG-like beam with topological charge ℓ=1 and Mathieu beams with topological charge ℓ=2 and ellipticity q=2. These results show the potential of the device to generate a variety of beam shapes at EUV wavelengths.

  19. Turbulent effects of strong irradiance fluctuations on the orbital angular momentum mode of fractional Bessel Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Yixin; Dan, Weiyi; Hu, Zhengda

    2015-06-29

    The turbulent effects of strong irradiance fluctuations on the probability densities and the normalized powers of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes are modeled for fractional Bessel Gauss beams in paraxial turbulence channel. We find that the probability density of signal OAM modes is a function of position deviation from the beam center, and the farther away from the beam center the detection position is, the smaller the probability density is. For fractional OAM quantum numbers, the average probability densities of signal/crosstalk modes oscillate along the beam radius except the half-integer. When the beam waist of source decreases or the irradiance fluctuation increases, the average probability density of the signal OAM mode drops. The peak of the average probability density of crosstalk modes shifts to outward of the beam center as beam waist gets larger. In the nearby region of beam center, the larger the quantum number deviation of OAM, the smaller the beam waist and the turbulence fluctuations are, the lower average probability densities of crosstalk OAM modes are. Especially, the increase of turbulence fluctuations can make the crosstalk stronger and more concentrated. Lower irradiance fluctuation can give rise to higher the normalized powers of the signal OAM modes, which is opposite to the crosstalk normalized powers.

  20. High-Capacity Free-Space Optical Communications Between a Ground Transmitter and a Ground Receiver via a UAV Using Multiplexing of Multiple Orbital-Angular-Momentum Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Zhang, Runzhou; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Liao, Peicheng; Pang, Kai; Song, Haoqian; Liu, Cong; Ren, Yongxiong; Labroille, Guillaume; Jian, Pu; Starodubov, Dmitry; Lynn, Brittany; Bock, Robert; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2017-12-12

    We explore the use of orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-multiplexing to increase the capacity of free-space data transmission to moving platforms, with an added potential benefit of decreasing the probability of data intercept. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrate and characterize the performance of an OAM-multiplexed, free-space optical (FSO) communications link between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a moving unmanned-aerial-vehicle (UAV). We achieve a total capacity of 80 Gbit/s up to 100-m-roundtrip link by multiplexing 2 OAM beams, each carrying a 40-Gbit/s quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signal. Moreover, we investigate for static, hovering, and moving conditions the effects of channel impairments, including: misalignments, propeller-induced airflows, power loss, intermodal crosstalk, and system bit error rate (BER). We find the following: (a) when the UAV hovers in the air, the power on the desired mode fluctuates by 2.1 dB, while the crosstalk to the other mode is -19 dB below the power on the desired mode; and (b) when the UAV moves in the air, the power fluctuation on the desired mode increases to 4.3 dB and the crosstalk to the other mode increases to -10 dB. Furthermore, the channel crosstalk decreases with an increase in OAM mode spacing.

  1. Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Milione, Giovanni; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; An Nguyen, Thien; Nolan, Daniel A.; Li, Ming-Jun; Tur, Moshe; Alfano, Robert R.; Willner, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    Mode division multiplexing (MDM)– using a multimode optical fiber’s N spatial modes as data channels to transmit N independent data streams – has received interest as it can potentially increase optical fiber data transmission capacity N-times with respect to single mode optical fibers. Two challenges of MDM are (1) designing mode (de)multiplexers with high mode selectivity (2) designing mode (de)multiplexers without cascaded beam splitting’s 1/N insertion loss. One spatial mode basis that has received interest is that of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. In this paper, using a device referred to as an OAM mode sorter, we show that OAM modes can be (de)multiplexed over a multimode optical fiber with higher than −15 dB mode selectivity and without cascaded beam splitting’s 1/N insertion loss. As a proof of concept, the OAM modes of the LP11 mode group (OAM−1,0 and OAM+1,0), each carrying 20-Gbit/s polarization division multiplexed and quadrature phase shift keyed data streams, are transmitted 5km over a graded-index, few-mode optical fibre. Channel crosstalk is mitigated using 4 × 4 multiple-input-multiple-output digital-signal-processing with <1.5 dB power penalties at a bit-error-rate of 2 × 10−3. PMID:26450398

  2. A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; Weimer, Carl; Ayers, Kirk; Baize, Rosemary R.; Lee, Tsengdar

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) may have great potential applications in communication technology and in remote sensing of the Earth-atmosphere system and outer planets. Study of their interaction with optical lenses and dielectric or metallic objects, or scattering of them by particles in the Earth-atmosphere system, is a necessary step to explore the advantage of the OAM EM beams. In this study, the 3-dimensional (3D) scattered-field (SF) finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique with the convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) absorbing boundary conditions (ABC) is applied to calculate the scattering of the purely azimuthal (the radial mode number is assumed to be zero) Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with the OAM by dielectric particles. We found that for OAM beam's interaction with dielectric particles, the forward-scattering peak in the conventional phase function (P11) disappears, and light scattering peak occurs at a scattering angle of 15° to 45°. The disappearance of forward-scattering peak means that, in laser communications most of the particle-scattered noise cannot enter the receiver, thus the received light is optimally the original OAM-encoded signal. This feature of the OAM beam also implies that in lidar remote sensing of the atmospheric particulates, most of the multiple-scattering energy will be off lidar sensors, and this may result in an accurate profiling of particle layers in the atmosphere or in the oceans by lidar, or even in the ground when a ground penetration radar (GPR) with the OAM is applied. This far-field characteristics of the scattered OAM light also imply that the optical theorem, which is derived from plane-parallel wave scattering case and relates the forward scattering amplitude to the total cross section of the scatterer, is invalid for the scattering of OAM beams by dielectric particles.

  3. Free-space measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol using decoy states with orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Sheng-Mei; Gong, Long-Yan; Cheng, Wei-Wen

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271238 and 61475075), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20123223110003), the Natural Science Research Foundation for Universities of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. 11KJA510002), the Open Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. NYKL2015011), and the

  4. Angular momentum and topological dependence of Kepler's Third Law in the Broucke-Hadjidemetriou-H\\'enon family of periodic three-body orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Janković, Marija R

    2016-01-01

    We use 57 recently found topological satellites of Broucke-Hadjidemetriou-Henon's periodic orbits with values of the topological exponent $k$ ranging from $k$ = 3 to $k$ = 58 to plot the angular momentum $L$ as a function of the period $T$, with both $L$ and $T$ rescaled to energy $E=-\\frac12$. Upon plotting $L(T/k)$ we find that all our solutions fall on a curve that is virtually indiscernible by naked eye from the $L(T)$ curve for non-satellite solutions. The standard deviation of the satellite data from the sixth-order polynomial fit to the progenitor data is $\\sigma = 0.13$. This regularity supports Henon's 1976 conjecture that the linearly stable Broucke-Hadjidemetriou-Henon orbits are also perpetually, or Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser stable.

  5. Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang

    2008-01-01

    This is the first book of the satellite era which describes orbit theory with analytical solutions of the second order with respect to all possible disturbances. Based on such theory, the algorithms of orbits determination are completely revolutionized.

  6. Phase correction for a distorted orbital angular momentum beam using a Zernike polynomials-based stochastic-parallel-gradient-descent algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Huang, Hao; Lavery, Martin P J; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Bao, Changjing; Li, Long; Zhao, Zhe; Cao, Yinwen; Willner, Moshe; Tur, Moshe; Dolinar, Samuel J; Boyd, Robert W; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Willner, Alan E

    2015-04-01

    A stochastic-parallel-gradient-descent algorithm (SPGD) based on Zernike polynomials is proposed to generate the phase correction pattern for a distorted orbital angular momentum (OAM) beam. The Zernike-polynomial coefficients for the correction pattern are obtained by monitoring the intensity profile of the distorted OAM beam through an iteration-based feedback loop. We implement this scheme and experimentally show that the proposed approach improves the quality of the turbulence-distorted OAM beam. Moreover, we apply phase correction patterns derived from a probe OAM beam through emulated turbulence to correct other OAM beams transmitted through the same turbulence. Our experimental results show that the patterns derived this way simultaneously correct multiple OAM beams propagating through the same turbulence, and the crosstalk among these modes is reduced by more than 5 dB.

  7. Effect of the cluster angular momentum J and the projectile orbital momentum L on capture probability and postcollision dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, Massimo

    2009-09-28

    In this work, collisions between rotating atomic clusters composed of Lennard-Jones (LJ(n)) particles and an identical projectile have been investigated by means of trajectory simulations as a function of the cluster angular momentum J and internal energy E, and for different values of the projectile impact parameter b and relative velocity v(p). As expected, the collision (P(c)(b)) and capture [or sticking P(s)(b)] probabilities are found to decay below unity for values of b larger than the average surface radius of the cluster, with dP/db being strongly dependent on v(p). Both P(c)(b) and P(s)(b), however, appear to be largely insensitive to the modulus of the cluster angular momentum |J| and only weakly dependent on E for collisions involving target clusters with a lifetime tau>100 ps. The latter findings are interpreted as indicating the absence of strong changes in the structure of the target as a function of |J| and E. The comparison between the dissociation lifetime (tau(dyn)) of the postcapture complexes (LJ(n+1)(*)) obtained continuing trajectories after monomer capture and the one computed from the fragmentation of statistically prepared clusters (tau(stat)) supports the validity of a two-step capture-dissociation model; similarly, the comparison between the average amount of energy exchanged during trajectories (DeltaE(dyn)) in the process LJ(n)+LJ-->LJ(n+1)(*)-->LJ(n)+LJ and the one predicted by statistical simulations (DeltaE(stat)) suggests a fast statistical energy redistribution in the collisional complex even for very short tau(dyn) (e.g., 40 ps). In the case of projectiles aimed at the edge of the cluster [(grazing collisions, P(c)(b)trajectories indicate the presence of ballistic dynamics and of a weak energy exchange (DeltaE(coll)

  8. Orbital

    OpenAIRE

    Yourshaw, Matthew Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Orbital is a virtual reality gaming experience designed to explore the use of traditional narrative structure to enhance immersion in virtual reality. The story structure of Orbital was developed based on the developmental steps of 'The Hero's Journey,' a narrative pattern identified by Joseph Campbell. Using this standard narrative pattern, Orbital is capable of immersing the player quickly and completely for the entirety of play time. MFA

  9. Exact magnetized particle orbits in a parabolic potential and their relation to ExB drifts, diocotron motion, Brillouin limit, stochasticity, axis v. non-axis encirclement, and canonical angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Analytic solutions are presented for the orbit of a charged particle in the combination of a uniform axial magnetic field and a parabolic electrostatic potential. These trajectories are shown to correspond to the sum of two individually rotating vectors with one vector rotating at a constant fast frequency and the other rotating in the same sense but with a constant slow frequency. These solutions are related to the diocotron mode, to Penning trap orbits, and to stochastic orbits. If the lengths of the two rotating vectors are identical, the particle has zero canonical angular momentum in which case the particle orbit will traverse the origin. Axis-encircling orbits are where the length of the vector associated with the fast frequency is longer than the vector associated with the slow frequency. Non-axis encircling orbits are the other way around.

  10. An explanation of forms of planetary orbits and estimation of angular shift of the Mercury' perihelion using the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krot, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    This work develops a statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies to calculate the orbits of planets and explore forms of planetary orbits with regard to the Alfvén oscillating force [1] in the Solar system and other exoplanetary systems. The statistical theory of formation of gravitating spheroidal bodies has been proposed in [2]-[5]. Starting the conception for forming a spheroidal body inside a gas-dust protoplanetary nebula, this theory solves the problem of gravitational condensation of a gas-dust protoplanetary cloud with a view to planetary formation in its own gravitational field [3] as well as derives a new law of the Solar system planetary distances which generalizes the wellknown laws [2], [3]. This work also explains an origin of the Alfvén oscillating force modifying forms of planetary orbits within the framework of the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies [5]. Due to the Alfvén oscillating force moving solid bodies in a distant zone of a rotating spheroidal body have elliptic trajectories. It means that orbits for the enough remote planets from the Sun in Solar system are described by ellipses with focus in the origin of coordinates and with small eccentricities. The nearby planet to Sun named Mercury has more complex trajectory. Namely, in case of Mercury the angular displacement of a Newtonian ellipse is observed during its one rotation on an orbit, i.e. a regular (century) shift of the perihelion of Mercury' orbit occurs. According to the statistical theory of gravitating spheroidal bodies [2]-[5] under the usage of laws of celestial mechanics in conformity to cosmogonic bodies (especially, to stars) it is necessary to take into account an extended substance called a stellar corona. In this connection the stellar corona can be described by means of model of rotating and gravitating spheroidal body [5]. Moreover, the parameter of gravitational compression α of a spheroidal body (describing the Sun, in particular) has been

  11. An order of magnitude improvement in optical fiber bandwidth using spatial domain multiplexing/space division multiplexing (SDM) in conjunction with orbital angular momentum (OAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Syed; Alanzi, Saud; Hridoy, Arnob; Lovell, Greg; Parhar, Gurinder; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Bilas

    2014-09-01

    Spatial Domain Multiplexing/Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) can increase the bandwidth of existing and futuristic optical fibers by an order of magnitude or more. In the SDM technique, we launch multiple single mode pigtail laser sources of same wavelength into a carrier fiber at different angles. The launching angles decide the output of the carrier fiber by allocating separate spatial locations for each channel. Each channel follows a helical trajectory while traversing the length of the carrier fiber, thereby allowing spatial reuse of optical frequencies. In this endeavor we launch light from five different single mode pigtail laser sources at different angles (with respect to the axis of the carrier fiber) into the carrier fiber. Owing to helical propagation we get five distinct concentric donut shaped rings with negligible crosstalk at the output end of the fiber. These SDM channels also exhibit Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM), thereby adding an extra degree of photon freedom. We present the experimental data of five spatially multiplexed channels and compare them with simulated results to show that this technique can potentially improve the data capacity of optical fibers by an order of magnitude: A factor of five using SDM and another factor of two using OAM.

  12. Combining spatial domain multiplexing and orbital angular momentum of photon-based multiplexing to increase the bandwidth of optical fiber communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Syed; Alanzi, Saud; Hridoy, Arnob; Lovell, Gregory L.; Parhar, Gurinder; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Bilas

    2016-06-01

    Spatial domain multiplexing/space division multiplexing (SDM) can increase the bandwidth of existing and futuristic optical fibers by an order of magnitude or more. In the SDM technique, we launch multiple single-mode pigtail laser sources of the same wavelength into a carrier multimode fiber at different angles. The launching angles decide the output of the carrier fiber by allocating separate spatial locations for each channel. Each channel follows a helical trajectory while traversing the length of the carrier fiber, thereby allowing spatial reuse of optical frequencies. We launch light from five different single-mode pigtail laser sources (of same wavelength) at different angles (with respect to the axis of the carrier fiber) into the carrier fiber. Owing to helical propagation, five distinct concentric donut-shaped rings with negligible crosstalk at the output end of the fiber were obtained. These SDM channels also exhibit orbital angular momentum (OAM), thereby adding an extradegree of photon freedom. We present the experimental data of five spatially multiplexed channels and compare them with simulated results to show that this technique can potentially improve the data capacity of optical fibers by an order of magnitude: A factor of five using SDM and another factor of two using OAM.

  13. Comparing mode-crosstalk and mode-dependent loss of laterally displaced orbital angular momentum and Hermite-Gaussian modes for free-space optical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndagano, Bienvenu; Mphuthi, Nokwazi; Milione, Giovanni; Forbes, Andrew

    2017-10-15

    There is interest in using orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes to increase the data speed of free-space optical communication. A prevalent challenge is the mitigation of mode-crosstalk and mode-dependent loss that is caused by the modes' lateral displacement at the data receiver. Here, the mode-crosstalk and mode-dependent loss of laterally displaced OAM modes (LG 0,+1 , LG 0,-1 ) are experimentally compared to that of a Hermite-Gaussian (HG) mode subset (HG 0,1 , HG 1,0 ). It is shown, for an aperture larger than the modes' waist sizes, some of the HG modes can experience less mode-crosstalk and mode-dependent loss when laterally displaced along a symmetry axis. It is also shown, over a normal distribution of lateral displacements whose standard deviation is 2× the modes' waist sizes, on average, the HG modes experience 66% less mode-crosstalk and 17% less mode-dependent loss.

  14. Orbital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert M.

    2003-06-01

    ORBITAL requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime Plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL).

  15. Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoxuan; Hu, Ziyang; Wu, Xiong; Du, Cheng; Luo, Wenyong; Chen, Yujie; Cai, Xinlun; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Jiangbo; Yu, Siyuan

    2018-01-22

    We propose and demonstrate a scalable mode division multiplexing scheme based on orbital angular momentum modes in ring core fibers. In this scheme, the high-order mode groups of a ring core fiber are sufficiently de-coupled by the large differential effective refractive index so that multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) equalization is only used for crosstalk equalization within each mode group. We design and fabricate a graded-index ring core fiber that supports 5 mode groups with low inter-mode-group coupling, small intra-mode-group differential group delay, and small group velocity dispersion slope over the C-band for the high-order mode groups. We implement a two-dimensional wavelength- and mode-division multiplexed transmission experiment involving 10 wavelengths and 2 mode groups each with 4 OAM modes, transmitting 32 GBaud Nyquist QPSK signals over all 80 channels. An aggregate capacity of 5.12 Tb/s and an overall spectral efficiency of 9 bit/s/Hz over 10 km are realized, only using modular 4x4 MIMO processing with 15 taps to recover signals from the intra-mode-group mode coupling. Given the fixed number of modes in each mode group and the low inter-mode-group coupling in ring core fibres, our scheme strikes a balance in the trade-off between system capacity and digital signal processing complexity, and therefore has good potential for capacity upscaling at an expense of only modularly increasing the number of mode-groups with fixed-size (4x4) MIMO blocks.

  16. Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Plick, William N; Krenn, Mario; Schaeff, Christoph; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2012-11-02

    Single photons with helical phase structures may carry a quantized amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM), and their entanglement is important for quantum information science and fundamental tests of quantum theory. Because there is no theoretical upper limit on how many quanta of OAM a single photon can carry, it is possible to create entanglement between two particles with an arbitrarily high difference in quantum number. By transferring polarization entanglement to OAM with an interferometric scheme, we generate and verify entanglement between two photons differing by 600 in quantum number. The only restrictive factors toward higher numbers are current technical limitations. We also experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement of very high OAM can improve the sensitivity of angular resolution in remote sensing.

  17. Coupling a small torsional oscillator to large optical angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H.; Bhattacharya, M.

    2013-03-01

    We propose a new configuration for realizing torsional optomechanics: an optically trapped windmill-shaped dielectric interacting with Laguerre-Gaussian cavity modes containing both angular and radial nodes. In contrast to existing schemes, our method can couple mechanical oscillators smaller than the optical beam waist to the in-principle unlimited orbital angular momentum that can be carried by a single photon, and thus generate substantial optomechanical interactions. Combining the advantages of small mass, large coupling, and low clamping losses, our work conceptually opens the way for the observation of quantum effects in torsional optomechanics.

  18. Satellite orbits in Levi-Civita space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humi, Mayer

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we consider satellite orbits in central force field with quadratic drag using two formalisms. The first using polar coordinates in which the satellite angular momentum plays a dominant role. The second is in Levi-Civita coordinates in which the energy plays a central role. We then merge these two formalisms by introducing polar coordinates in Levi-Civita space and derive a new equation for satellite orbits which unifies these two paradigms. In this equation energy and angular momentum appear on equal footing and thus characterize the orbit by its two invariants. Using this formalism we show that equatorial orbits around oblate spheroids can be expressed analytically in terms of Elliptic functions. In the second part of the paper we derive in Levi-Civita coordinates a linearized equation for the relative motion of two spacecrafts whose trajectories are in the same plane. We carry out also a numerical verification of these equations.

  19. Impacts of the Angular Dependence of the Solar Diffuser BRDF Degradation Factor on the SNPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Band On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Using an onboard sunlit solar diffuser (SD) as the primary radiance source, the visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite regularly performs radiometric calibration of its reflective solar bands (RSBs). The SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) value decreases over time. A numerical degradation factor is used to quantify the degradation and is determined by an onboard SD stability monitor (SDSM), which observes the sun and the sunlit SD at almost the same time. We had shown previously that the BRDF degradation factor was angle-dependent. Consequently, due to that the SDSM and the RSB view the SD at very different angles relative to both the solar and the SD surface normal vectors, directly applying the BRDF degradation factor determined by the SDSM to the VIIRS RSB calibration can result in large systematic errors. We develop a phenomenological model to calculate the BRDF degradation factor for the RSB SD view from the degradation factor for the SDSM SD view. Using the yearly undulations observed in the VIIRS detector gains for the M1-M4 bands calculated with the SD BRDF degradation factor for the SDSM SD view and the difference between the VIIRS detector gains calculated from the SD and the lunar observations, we obtain the model parameter values and thus establish the relation between the BRDF degradation factors for the RSB and the SDSM SD view directions.

  20. Does high harmonic generation conserve angular momentum?

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Avner; Diskin, Tzvi; Sidorenko, Pavel; Cohen, Oren

    2013-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) is a unique and useful process in which infrared or visible radiation is frequency up converted into the extreme ultraviolet and x ray spectral regions. As a parametric process, high harmonic generation should conserve the radiation energy, momentum and angular momentum. Indeed, conservation of energy and momentum have been demonstrated. Angular momentum of optical beams can be divided into two components: orbital and spin (polarization). Orbital angular momentum is assumed to be conserved and recently observed deviations were attributed to propagation effects. On the other hand, conservation of spin angular momentum has thus far never been studied, neither experimentally nor theoretically. Here, we present the first study on the role of spin angular momentum in extreme nonlinear optics by experimentally generating high harmonics of bi chromatic elliptically polarized pump beams that interact with isotropic media. While observing that the selection rules qualitatively correspond...

  1. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  2. Amplitude damping channel for orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available of a previously reported OAM sorting device. A Mech-Zehnder interferometer with a Dove prism in each arm is used to sort OAM states according to their parity. The authors extend this concept to implement an amplitude damping channel, and prove its...

  3. Professional AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to AngularJS, Google's open-source client-side framework for app development. Most of the existing guides to AngularJS struggle to provide simple and understandable explanations for more advanced concepts. As a result, some developers who understand all the basic concepts of AngularJS struggle when it comes to building more complex real-world applications. Professional AngularJS provides a thorough understanding of AngularJS, covering everything from basic concepts, such as directives and data binding, to more advanced concepts like transclusion, build systems, and auto

  4. Energy angular momentum closed-loop guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patera, Russell P.

    2015-03-01

    A novel guidance algorithm for launch vehicle ascent to the desired mission orbit is proposed. The algorithm uses total specific energy and orbital angular momentum as new state vector parameters. These parameters are ideally suited for the ascent guidance task, since the guidance algorithm steers the launch vehicle along a pre-flight optimal trajectory in energy angular momentum space. The guidance algorithm targets apogee, perigee, inclination and right ascension of ascending node. Computational complexities are avoided by eliminating time in the guidance computation and replacing it with angular momentum magnitude. As a result, vehicle acceleration, mass, thrust, length of motor burns, and staging times are also eliminated from the pitch plane guidance calculations. The algorithm does not involve launch vehicle or target state propagation, which results in minimal computational effort. Proof of concept of the new algorithm is presented using several numerical examples that illustrate performance results.

  5. Optomechanical measurement of photon spin angular momentum and optical torque in integrated photonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2016-09-01

    Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon's polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry.

  6. The equations of relative motion in the orbital reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotto, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of relative motion of two spacecraft in Earth-bound orbits is usually carried out on the basis of simplifying assumptions. In particular, the reference spacecraft is assumed to follow a circular orbit, in which case the equations of relative motion are governed by the well-known Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations. Circular motion is not, however, a solution when the Earth's flattening is accounted for, except for equatorial orbits, where in any case the acceleration term is not Newtonian. Several attempts have been made to account for the J_2 effects, either by ingeniously taking advantage of their differential effects, or by cleverly introducing ad-hoc terms in the equations of motion on the basis of geometrical analysis of the J_2 perturbing effects. Analysis of relative motion about an unperturbed elliptical orbit is the next step in complexity. Relative motion about a J_2-perturbed elliptic reference trajectory is clearly a challenging problem, which has received little attention. All these problems are based on either the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for circular reference motion, or the de Vries/Tschauner-Hempel equations for elliptical reference motion, which are both approximate versions of the exact equations of relative motion. The main difference between the exact and approximate forms of these equations consists in the expression for the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of the rotating reference frame with respect to an inertial reference frame. The rotating reference frame is invariably taken as the local orbital frame, i.e., the RTN frame generated by the radial, the transverse, and the normal directions along the primary spacecraft orbit. Some authors have tried to account for the non-constant nature of the angular velocity vector, but have limited their correction to a mean motion value consistent with the J_2 perturbation terms. However, the angular velocity vector is also affected in direction, which causes precession

  7. The mass and angular momentum of reconstructed metric perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Meent, Maarten

    2017-06-01

    We prove a key result regarding the mass and angular momentum content of linear vacuum perturbations of the Kerr metric obtained through the formalism developed by Chrzarnowski, Cohen, and Kegeles (CCK). More precisely, we prove that the Abbott-Deser mass and angular momentum integrals of any such perturbation vanish when that perturbation was obtained from a regular Fourier mode of the Hertz potential. As a corollary we obtain a generalization of previous results on the completion of the ‘no string’ radiation gauge metric perturbation generated by a point particle. We find that for any bound orbit around a Kerr black hole, the mass and angular momentum perturbations completing the CCK metric are simply the energy and angular momentum of the particle ‘outside’ the orbit and vanish ‘inside’ the orbit.

  8. Angular momentum evolution in laser-plasma accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Thaury, C; Corde, S; Lehe, R; Bouteiller, M Le; Phuoc, K Ta; Davoine, X; Rax, J -M; Rousse, A; Malka, V

    2013-01-01

    The transverse properties of an electron beam are characterized by two quantities, the emittance which indicates the electron beam extend in the phase space and the angular momentum which allows for non-planar electron trajectories. Whereas the emittance of electron beams produced in laser- plasma accelerator has been measured in several experiments, their angular momentum has been scarcely studied. It was demonstrated that electrons in laser-plasma accelerator carry some angular momentum, but its origin was not established. Here we identify one source of angular momentum growth and we present experimental results showing that the angular momentum content evolves during the acceleration.

  9. Angular-Momentum Evolution in Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Thaury, Cédric; Corde, Sébastien; Lehe, Rémi; Le Bouteiller, Madeleine; Ta Phuoc, Kim; Davoine, Xavier; Rax, J. M.; Rousse, Antoine; Malka, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The transverse properties of an electron beam are characterized by two quantities, the emittance which indicates the electron beam extent in the phase space and the angular momentum which allows for non-planar electron trajectories. Whereas the emittance of electron beams produced in laserplasma accelerator has been measured in several experiments, their angular momentum has been scarcely studied. It was demonstrated that electrons in laser-plasma accelerator carry some angular momentum, but its origin was not established. Here we identify one source of angular momentum growth and we present experimental results showing that the angular momentum content evolves during the acceleration.

  10. Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.

  11. Wind-accelerated orbital evolution in binary systems with giant stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Blackman, Eric G.; Nordhaus, Jason; Frank, Adam; Carroll-Nellenback, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Using 3D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations and analytic theory, we study the orbital evolution of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) binary systems for various initial orbital separations and mass ratios, and thus different initial accretion modes. The time evolution of binary separations and orbital periods are calculated directly from the averaged mass-loss rate, accretion rate and angular momentum loss rate. We separately consider spin-orbit synchronized and zero-spin AGB cases. We find that the angular momentum carried away by the mass loss together with the mass transfer can effectively shrink the orbit when accretion occurs via wind-Roche lobe overflow. In contrast, the larger fraction of mass lost in Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accreting systems acts to enlarge the orbit. Synchronized binaries tend to experience stronger orbital period decay in close binaries. We also find that orbital period decay is faster when we account for the non-linear evolution of the accretion mode as the binary starts to tighten. This can increase the fraction of binaries that result in common envelope, luminous red novae, Type Ia supernovae and planetary nebulae with tight central binaries. The results also imply that planets in the habitable zone around white dwarfs are unlikely to be found.

  12. Diffracted optical vortices by an angular aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    López H., Paula A.; Reyes Q., Zayda P.; Guzmán, Ángela M.; Torres M., Yezid; Mendoza C., Jesús H.

    2017-08-01

    The measurement of the topological charge of laser beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) is key to many applications like deciphering information encoded in several channels. Current techniques useful for that purpose are interferometry, diffraction through different poligonal apertures like triangular or pentagonal and, azimuthal and radial decomposition. A less explored issue is the diffraction of OAM beams through circular sectors. Jack et al. studied the angular diffraction of Gaussian beams (whose OAM is null) through a circular sector. By means of a Fourier transform of the truncated Gaussian beam they showed that the orbital angular momentum spectrum of the transmitted beam has a sinc-shaped envelope centered at zero orbital angular momentum, the width of which increases as the central angle of the circular sector decreases. We analyze here the spectrum of a laser beam with integer OAM that has been diffracted by a circular sector. We present results for circular sectors of different central angles. For circular π-sector, we also study the influence of the transmittance in the OAM spectra of the transmitted beam, using straight borders of nanometric thin films of titanium oxide with different thicknesses. We use a spatial light modulator with a fork hologram placed on to generate the incoming OAM beam and measure the evolution of the intensity profile of the diffracted beam as it propagates away from the circular sector. The spectra of the diffracted OAM beams are shown numerically and experimentally to have a sinc shaped envelope centered at the OAM value of the incoming OAM wave.

  13. Complex periodic orbits in the rotational spectrum of molecules: The example of SF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Jonathan M.; Creagh, Stephen C.; Littlejohn, Robert G.

    1989-03-01

    Periodic orbit theory expresses, in a semiclassically approximate way, the trace of the energy-dependent Green's function of a quantum-mechanical system in terms of a sum over periodic orbits of the corresponding classical system. In this paper a periodic orbit sum is carried out for a Hamiltonian describing the rotational dynamics of the SF6 molecule. Following Miller [J. Phys. Chem. 83, 960 (1979)], classically forbidden, or ``tunneling'' orbits are included in the sum. A closed-form expression for the trace of the energy-dependent Green's function is obtained; it depends on the actions and Maslov indices of the classical orbits, as well as the irreducible representatives of the generators of the molecular point group. The expression reproduces the rich structure characteristic of the rotational spectra of symmetric molecules, including the exponentially near degeneracies for large angular momentum, and the periodicities in eigenvalue symmetry assignments. The methods used here complement the extensive studies of Harter and Patterson.

  14. Induced Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)

  15. Angular Momentum Transport in Quasi-Keplerian Accretion Disks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The specific angular momentum (angular momentum per unit mass) carried by a parcel of gas ... have used the Einstein summation convention in equation (2). For the .... incorrect. 3.3 Correction proposed by HM. HM claim that this is because Frank et al. (1992) have used an incorrect expression for vrel (i.e., equation (10)).

  16. Where angular momentum goes in a precessing black hole binary

    OpenAIRE

    Lousto, Carlos O.; Zlochower, Yosef

    2013-01-01

    We evolve a set of 32 equal-mass black-hole binaries with collinear spins (with intrinsic spin magnitudes $|\\vec{S}_{1,2}/m^2_{1,2}|=0.8$) to study the effects of precession in the highly nonlinear plunge and merger regimes. We compare the direction of the instantaneous radiated angular momentum, $\\hat{\\delta J}_{\\rm rad}(t)$, to the directions of the total angular momentum, $\\hat{J}(t)$, and the orbital angular momentum, $\\hat{L}(t)$. We find that $\\hat{\\delta J}_{\\rm rad}(t)$ approximately ...

  17. Quantum Heuristics of Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Leblond, Jean-Marc

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the quantization of angular momentum components, Heisenberg-type inequalities for their spectral dispersions, and the quantization of the angular momentum modulus, without using operators or commutation relations. (MLH)

  18. AngularJS directives

    CERN Document Server

    Vanston, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This book uses a practical, step-by-step approach, starting with how to build directives from the ground up before moving on to creating web applications comprised of multiple modules all working together to provide the best user experience possible.This book is intended for intermediate JavaScript developers who are looking to enhance their understanding of single-page web application development with a focus on AngularJS and the JavaScript MVC frameworks.It is expected that readers will understand basic JavaScript patterns and idioms and can recognize JSON formatted data.

  19. Obtaining the Electron Angular Momentum Coupling Spectroscopic Terms, jj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orofino, Hugo; Faria, Roberto B.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic procedure is developed to obtain the electron angular momentum coupling (jj) spectroscopic terms, which is based on building microstates in which each individual electron is placed in a different m[subscript j] "orbital". This approach is similar to that used to obtain the spectroscopic terms under the Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling…

  20. Angular Distribution of GRBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Balázs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the complete randomness of the angular distribution of BATSE gamma-ray bursts (GRBs. Based on their durations and peak fluxes, we divided the BATSE sample into 5 subsamples (short1, short2, intermediate, long1, long2 and studied the angular distributions separately. We used three methods to search for non-randomness in the subsamples: Voronoi tesselation, minimal spanning tree, and multifractal spectra. To study any non-randomness in the subsamples we defined 13 test-variables (9 from Voronoi tesselation, 3 from the minimal spanning tree and one from the multifractal spectrum. We made Monte Carlo simulations taking into account the BATSE’s sky-exposure function. We tested therandomness by introducing squared Euclidean distances in the parameter space of the test-variables. We recognized that the short1, short2 groups deviate significantly (99.90%, 99.98% from the fully random case in the distribution of the squared Euclidean distances but this is not true for the long samples. In the intermediate group, the squared Euclidean distances also give significant deviation (98.51%.

  1. Orbitally excited charm - strange mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, Penelope A. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This thesis describes an attempt to measure the properties of mesons containing a charm quark and a strange quark in a state of orbital angular momentum L > 0, and compare these with the predictions of theoretical models based on heavy quark effective theory.

  2. Temperature Dependence of Angular Momentum Transport Across Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kai; Lin, Weiwei; Chien, C. L.; Zhang, Shufeng

    2016-01-01

    Angular momentum transport in magnetic multilayered structures plays a central role in spintronic physics and devices. The angular momentum currents or spin currents are carried by either quasi-particles such as electrons and magnons, or by macroscopic order parameters such as local magnetization of ferromagnets. Based on the generic interface exchange interaction, we develop a microscopic theory that describes interfacial spin conductance for various interfaces among non-magnetic metals, fer...

  3. Spatial distribution of angular momentum inside the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorcé, Cédric; Mantovani, Luca; Pasquini, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    We discuss in detail the spatial distribution of angular momentum inside the nucleon. We show that the discrepancies between different definitions originate from terms that integrate to zero. Even though these terms can safely be dropped at the integrated level, they have to be taken into account when discussing distributions. Using the scalar diquark model, we illustrate our results and, for the first time, check explicitly that the equivalence between kinetic and canonical orbital angular momentum persists at the level of distributions, as expected in a system without gauge degrees of freedom.

  4. Classification of Stellar Orbits Near Corotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breet, Jessica; Daniel, Kathryne J.; Bryn Mawr College Galaxy Lab

    2018-01-01

    The process of radial migration is frequently invoked as an important process to spiral galaxy evolution, but the physical properties that determine the efficiency of radial migration are poorly defined. In order for a star to migrate radially it must first be trapped in a resonant orbit at the corotation radius of a spiral pattern. Stars in such trapped orbits have changing average orbital radii — and thus orbital angular momenta — without any change in orbital eccentricity. It follows that transient spiral patterns can permanently rearrange the distribution of orbital angular momentum in the disk without kinematically heating it. It is also known that orbits can also have a significant dynamical response at Lindblad Resonances (LRs), where the Ultraharmonic Lindblad Resonances (ULRs) have a lesser impact on the disk. The goal of our project is to examine and constrain the efficiency of radial migration via an investigation into whether or not stars in trapped orbits have a dynamical response at the ULRs. We produced a dataset of nearly 105 orbits with initial conditions across a range of radii and 2-D velocities. We then classified these orbits into four categories based on analytic criteria for whether or not they are in trapped orbits and/or cross the ULR over 1 gigayear. Preliminary investigations show that trapped orbits that also meet the ULR have a chaotic response, putting a potential limit on the efficiency of radial migration.

  5. Angular momentum conservation law in light-front quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Kelly Yu-Ju; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Stanford U.

    2017-03-01

    We prove the Lorentz invariance of the angular momentum conservation law and the helicity sum rule for relativistic composite systems in the light-front formulation. We explicitly show that j 3 , the z -component of the angular momentum remains unchanged under Lorentz transformations generated by the light-front kinematical boost operators. The invariance of j 3 under Lorentz transformations is a feature unique to the front form. Applying the Lorentz invariance of the angular quantum number in the front form, we obtain a selection rule for the orbital angular momentum which can be used to eliminate certain interaction vertices in QED and QCD. We also generalize the selection rule to any renormalizable theory and show that there exists an upper bound on the change of orbital angular momentum in scattering processes at any fixed order in perturbation theory.

  6. Coherent Detection of Orbital Angular Momentum in Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-31

    measurements took place in an anechoic chamber at a frequency of 2.383 GHz (corresponding to a wave- length, λ, of 0.126 m) and at a distance of z = 4.82 m...were parallel to a chamber wall, and the z axis was perpendicular to the same wall. By feeding the transmitting antennas with equal amplitudes and...to the new Ångström Laboratory antenna chamber , which was funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Founda- tion. We thank the electronics lab of the

  7. Integrated Photonic Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing and Demultiplexing on Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    bit-rate DWDM submarine systems, Appendix I.9, (2004). This work was supported in part by DARPA DSO under the contracts HR0011-11-1-0005 and...Recommendations G.975.1 : Forward error correction for high bit-rate DWDM submarine systems, Appendix I.9, 2004. Un de r R ev iew > REPLACE THIS LINE WITH

  8. Holographic toolkit for optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosales-Guzman, C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available -Te´le´com/Te´le´com SudParis, 9 rue Charles Fourier, 91011 Evry, France ABSTRACT Current optical communication technologies are predicted to face a bandwidth capacity limit in the near future. The nature of the limitation is fundamental rather than technological... momentum multiplexing.,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4876 (2014). [20] Torres, J. P., “Optical communications: Multiplexing twisted light,” Nature Photonics 6(7), 420–422 (2012). [21] Zhao, N., Li, X., Li, G., and Kahn, J. M., “Capacity limits of spatially multiplexed...

  9. Continuous Variable Entanglement of Orbital Angular Momentum States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Leuchs, G.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2009-01-01

    We have generated a new quantum state of light composed of quadrature entangled Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes. For the generation we used an OPO operating in a new regime where all field parameters are degenerate except for its spatial degree of freedom for which it is two-fold degenerate. The ent...

  10. Quantitatively measuring the orbital angular momentum density of light : Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available the power and relative phase of each individual mode. Measuring the power of a specific mode requires the complex conjugate of that mode to be programmed as the transmission function [24]: ).()( * rrT ll Ψ...

  11. AngularJS testing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who have an understanding of the basic principles behind both AngularJS and test-driven development. You, as a developer, are interested in eliminating the fear related to either introducing tests to an existing codebase or starting out testing on a fresh AngularJS application. If you're a team leader or part of a QA team with the responsibility of ensuring full test coverage of an application, then this book is ideal for you to comprehend the full testing scope required by your developers. Whether you're new to or are well versed with AngularJS, this book

  12. Nuclear scissors modes and hidden angular momenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbutsev, E. B., E-mail: balbuts@theor.jinr.ru; Molodtsova, I. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Schuck, P. [Université Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3–CNRS (France)

    2017-01-15

    The coupled dynamics of low-lying modes and various giant resonances are studied with the help of the Wigner Function Moments method generalized to take into account spin degrees of freedom and pair correlations simultaneously. The method is based on Time-Dependent Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov equations. The model of the harmonic oscillator including spin–orbit potential plus quadrupole–quadrupole and spin–spin interactions is considered. New low-lying spin-dependent modes are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the scissors modes. A new source of nuclear magnetism, connected with counter-rotation of spins up and down around the symmetry axis (hidden angular momenta), is discovered. Its inclusion into the theory allows one to improve substantially the agreement with experimental data in the description of energies and transition probabilities of scissors modes.

  13. N2 HOMO-1 orbital cross section revealed through high-order-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troß, Jan; Ren, Xiaoming; Makhija, Varun; Mondal, Sudipta; Kumarappan, Vinod; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos A.

    2017-03-01

    We measure multi-orbital contributions to high harmonic generation from aligned nitrogen. We show that the change in revival structure in the cutoff harmonics has a counterpart in the angular distribution when a lower-lying orbital contributes to the harmonic yield. This angular distribution is directly observed in the laboratory without any further deconvolution. Because of the high degree of alignment we are able to distinguish angular contributions of the highest occupied molecular orbital 1 (HOMO-1) orbital from angle-dependent spectroscopic features of the HOMO. In particular, we are able to make a direct comparison with the cross section of the HOMO-1 orbital in the extreme ultraviolet region.

  14. [Orbital cellulitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriaux, F; Rysanek, B; Babin, E; Cattoir, V

    2012-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is uncommon in ophthalmologic practice. The majority of cases arise from direct spread of sinus infection or eyelid infection. Clinically, orbital cellulitis is divided into two forms: the preseptal form, anterior to the orbital septum, and the retroseptal form, posterior to the orbital septum. Management and prognosis differ widely between the two types. The retroseptal form or "true" orbital cellulitis is a severe disease with potentially disastrous consequences for vision and survival. Clinical examination and urgent CT scanning are indispensable for correct diagnosis, evaluation of severity, surgical planning and antibiotic selection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantum entanglement of angular momentum states with quantum numbers up to 10,010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickler, Robert; Campbell, Geoff; Buchler, Ben; Lam, Ping Koy; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-11-29

    Photons with a twisted phase front carry a quantized amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM) and have become important in various fields of optics, such as quantum and classical information science or optical tweezers. Because no upper limit on the OAM content per photon is known, they are also interesting systems to experimentally challenge quantum mechanical prediction for high quantum numbers. Here, we take advantage of a recently developed technique to imprint unprecedented high values of OAM, namely spiral phase mirrors, to generate photons with more than 10,000 quanta of OAM. Moreover, we demonstrate quantum entanglement between these large OAM quanta of one photon and the polarization of its partner photon. To our knowledge, this corresponds to entanglement with the largest quantum number that has been demonstrated in an experiment. The results may also open novel ways to couple single photons to massive objects, enhance angular resolution, and highlight OAM as a promising way to increase the information capacity of a single photon.

  16. Negative experimental evidence for magneto-orbital dichroism

    CERN Document Server

    Mathevet, Renaud; Pruvost, Laurence; Rikken, Geert L J A

    2012-01-01

    A light beam can carry both spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM). SAM is commonly evidenced by circular dichroism (CD) experiments i. e. differential absorption of left and right-handed circularly polarized light. Recent experiments, supported by theoretical work, indicate that the corresponding effect with OAM instead of SAM is not observed in chiral matter. Isotropic materials can show CD when subjected to a magnetic field (MCD). We report a set of experiments, under well defined conditions, searching for magnetic orbital dichroism (MOD), differential absorption of light as a function of the sign of its OAM. We experimentally demonstrate that this effect, if any, is smaller than a few 10^{-4} of MCD for the Nd:YAG ^4I_{9/2} ^4F_{5/2} transition. This transition is essentially of electric dipole nature. We give an intuitive argument suggesting that the lowest order of light matter interaction leading to MOD is the electric quadrupole term.

  17. Spinning and orbiting motion of particles in vortex beams with circular or radial polarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manman; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Liang, Yansheng; Zhang, Peng

    2016-09-05

    Focusing fields of optical vortex (OV) beams with circular or radial polarizations carry both spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM), and can realize non-axial spinning and orbiting motion of absorptive particles. Using the T-matrix method, we evaluate the optical forces and torques exerted on micro-sized particles induced by the OV beams. Numerical results demonstrate that the particle is trapped on the circle of intensity maxima, and experiences a transverse spin torque along azimuthal direction, a longitudinal spin torque, and an orbital torque, respectively. The direction of spinning motion is not only related to the sign of topological charge of the OV beam, but also to the polarization state. However, the topological charge controls the direction of orbiting motion individually. Optically induced rotations of particles with varying sizes and absorptivity are investigated in OV beams with different topological charges and polarization states. These results may be exploited in practical optical manipulation, especially for optically induced rotations of micro-particles.

  18. Synthetic Representation of the Motion of Co-orbitals of the Galilean Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Bryan; Bills, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Two of Saturn's satellites (Tethys and Dione) each have two co-orbital companions at their L4 and L5 triangular equilibrium points. This prompts us to ask: do any of Jupiter's Galilean satellites have co-orbitals? In our analysis, the motions of the Galilean satellites are specified by the model E5 of Lieske, truncated to include the dominant terms. This model includes the oblate figure of Jupiter, mutual perturbations between pairs of satellites, and perturbations from Saturn and the Sun. The initial positions and velocities of co-orbital test particles are specified by a rotation of the state vector of the Galilean satellite with which it shares an orbit, on a reference date, through a given angle, and the equations of motion are integrated. Integrations are carried out for 100,000 days, which is several hundred times the longest forcing period. A linearized stability analysis of motion about the L4 or L5 Lagrange points, of the circular restricted three body problem, predicts oscillations in angular separation at two main frequencies. In the six body problem that we consider here, these same frequencies appear, along with characteristic families of harmonics. Numerically integrated co-orbitals trajectories in the rotating frame exhibit the expected tadpole behavior. The Fourier amplitude spectrum of the numerically integrated angular separation between the co-orbital and its parent satellite exhibits two sets of characteristic features. The first set consists of the prominent lines in the spectrum of the variability in satellite mean motion. The second consists of the restricted three body predicted frequencies, and the families of related spectral lines which emerge for pertrubations in the restricted problem. Our integrations suggest that the motion of co-orbitals of the Galilean satellites is well approximated by this simple scheme.

  19. Designing and Optimizing Future Spaceborne Multi-angular, Polarimetric Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroy, S. B.; Nicholson, R. E.; D'Entremont, R. P.; Snell, H. E.

    2004-05-01

    Polarimetric measurements in the visible/near-infrared spectral region improve aerosol and cloud microphysical and compositional retrievals. The retrieval approaches exploit the unique polarimetric signatures of aerosols and clouds as function of scattering angle, thereby driving the requirement for data collection over a large range of scattering angles (ideally between 0 and 180 degrees). Scattering angle coverage is a function both of the sensor/sun/target geometry and the sensor architectural approach toward acquiring multi-angular data. These two functions must be considered when designing and implementing a spaceborne, multi-angular polarimetric sensor. The orbital geometry trade is dictated by the range of possible orbits and will quickly reduce to a subset of optimal orbital scenarios. However, the desired parameter of interest (aerosols vs. clouds properties), its spatial variability, and global extent must be considered when selecting an optimal orbit. For example, while a noon-equatorial crossing-time provides the best scattering angle coverage for the retrievals, the increased presence of clouds may preclude use of much of the data for characterizing aerosols. The sensor architectural trade investigates differing sensor approaches to providing sufficient scattering angle coverage. Current polarimetric sensor designs include both the over-lapping imagery approach (e.g. POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances - POLDER) and the single-pixel, scanning approach (e.g. Research Scanning Polarimeter - RSP). POLDER (a spaceborne sensor) traded the benefit of image data with a large swath width against the collection of simultaneous polarimetry. RSP (an airborne sensor) collects multi-angular data by scanning the air mass during over-flight with a set of polarimetric compensating mirrors. The RSP design allows for simultaneous polarimetry and potentially very large scattering angle ranges on orbit, but is restricted to a single-pixel detector

  20. Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2013-05-16

    We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.

  1. Generation of angular momentum in cold gravitational collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhaiem, D.; Joyce, M.; Sylos Labini, F.; Worrakitpoonpon, T.

    2016-01-01

    During the violent relaxation of a self-gravitating system, a significant fraction of its mass may be ejected. If the time-varying gravitational field also breaks spherical symmetry, this mass can potentially carry angular momentum. Thus, starting initial configurations with zero angular momentum can, in principle, lead to a bound virialised system with non-zero angular momentum. Using numerical simulations we explore here how much angular momentum can be generated in a virialised structure in this way, starting from configurations of cold particles that are very close to spherically symmetric. For the initial configurations in which spherical symmetry is broken only by the Poissonian fluctuations associated with the finite particle number N, with N in range 103 to 105, we find that the relaxed structures have standard "spin" parameters λ ~ 10-3, and decreasing slowly with N. For slightly ellipsoidal initial conditions, in which the finite-N fluctuations break the residual reflection symmetries, we observe values λ ~ 10-2, I.e. of the same order of magnitude as those reported for elliptical galaxies. The net angular momentum vector is typically aligned close to normal to the major semi-axis of the triaxial relaxed structure and of the ejected mass. This simple mechanism may provide an alternative, or complement, to the so-called tidal torque theory for understanding the origin of angular momentum in astrophysical structures.

  2. Instant AngularJS starter

    CERN Document Server

    Menard, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is written in an easytoread style, with a strong emphasis on realworld, practical examples. Stepbystep explanations are provided for performing important tasks.This book is for web developers familiar with JavascriptIt doesn't cover the history of AngularJS, and it's not a pitch to convince you that AngularJS is the best framework on the entire web. It's a guide to help you learn everything you need to know about AngularJS in as few pa

  3. Exact angular momentum projection based on cranked HFB solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enami, Kenichi; Tanabe, Kosai; Yosinaga, Naotaka [Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1998-03-01

    Exact angular momentum projection of cranked HFB solutions is carried out. It is reconfirmed from this calculation that cranked HFB solutions reproduce the intrinsic structure of deformed nucleus. The result also indicates that the energy correction from projection is important for further investigation of nuclear structure. (author)

  4. Non-Colinearity of Angular Velocity and Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the principles, construction, and operation of an apparatus which serves to demonstrate the non-colinearity of the angular velocity and momentum vectors as well as the inertial tensors. Applications of the apparatus to teaching of advanced undergraduate mechanics courses are recommended. (CC)

  5. The photon angular momentum controversy: Resolution of a conflict between laser optics and particle physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Leader

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The claim some years ago, contrary to all textbooks, that the angular momentum of a photon (and gluon can be split in a gauge-invariant way into an orbital and spin term, sparked a major controversy in the Particle Physics community, exacerbated by the realization that many different forms of the angular momentum operators are, in principle, possible. A further cause of upset was the realization that the gluon polarization in a nucleon, a supposedly physically meaningful quantity, corresponds only to the gauge-variant gluon spin derived from Noether's theorem, evaluated in a particular gauge. On the contrary, Laser Physicists have, for decades, been happily measuring physical quantities which correspond to photon orbital and spin angular momentum evaluated in a particular gauge. This paper reconciles the two points of view, and shows that it is the gauge invariant version of the canonical angular momentum which agrees with the results of a host of laser optics experiments.

  6. The photon angular momentum controversy: Resolution of a conflict between laser optics and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leader, Elliot, E-mail: e.leader@imperial.ac.uk

    2016-05-10

    The claim some years ago, contrary to all textbooks, that the angular momentum of a photon (and gluon) can be split in a gauge-invariant way into an orbital and spin term, sparked a major controversy in the Particle Physics community, exacerbated by the realization that many different forms of the angular momentum operators are, in principle, possible. A further cause of upset was the realization that the gluon polarization in a nucleon, a supposedly physically meaningful quantity, corresponds only to the gauge-variant gluon spin derived from Noether's theorem, evaluated in a particular gauge. On the contrary, Laser Physicists have, for decades, been happily measuring physical quantities which correspond to photon orbital and spin angular momentum evaluated in a particular gauge. This paper reconciles the two points of view, and shows that it is the gauge invariant version of the canonical angular momentum which agrees with the results of a host of laser optics experiments.

  7. Angular Limb Deformities: Growth Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrel, Taralyn M

    2017-08-01

    Angular limb deformities are common in foals; however, the importance of the deformity and if treatment is required depend on the degree of deformity relative to normal conformation for stage of growth, the breed and discipline expectations, age, and response to conservative therapies. This article addresses the importance of the foal conformation examination to determine which foals need surgical intervention to correct an angular deformity and when. Techniques for surgical growth retardation include the transphyseal staple, screw and wire transphyseal bridge, and transphyseal screw. Appropriate timing for intervention for each location and complications associated with each procedure are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated

  9. ORBITAL, CELLULITIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of paranasal sinusitis as a cause of orbital cellulitis and to identify the commonest sinus(es) involved in our setting. Methods: A retrospective review of the case notes of 47 patients with orbital cellulitis admitted into the ophthalmic ward of the University College ...

  10. Orbital velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Modestino, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    The trajectory and the orbital velocity are determined for an object moving in a gravitational system, in terms of fundamental and independent variables. In particular, considering a path on equipotential line, the elliptical orbit is naturally traced, verifying evidently the keplerian laws. The case of the planets of the solar system is presented.

  11. Spacecraft Angular Velocity Estimation Algorithm Based on Orientation Quaternion Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spacecraft (SC mission involves providing the appropriate orientation and stabilization of the associated axes in space. One of the main sources of information for the attitude control system is the angular rate sensor blocks. One way to improve a reliability of the system is to provide a back up of the control algorithms in case of failure of these blocks. To solve the problem of estimation of SP angular velocity vector in the inertial system of coordinates with a lack of information from the angular rate sensors is supposed the use of orientation data from the star sensors; in this case at each clock of the onboard digital computer. The equations in quaternions are used to describe the kinematics of rotary motion. Their approximate solution is used to estimate the angular velocity vector. Methods of modal control and multi-dimensional decomposition of a control object are used to solve the problem of observation and identification of the angular rates. These methods enabled us to synthesize the SP angular velocity vector estimation algorithm and obtain the equations, which relate the error quaternion with the calculated estimate of the angular velocity. Mathematical modeling was carried out to test the algorithm. Cases of different initial conditions were simulated. Time between orientation quaternion measurements and angular velocity of the model was varied. The algorithm was compared with a more accurate algorithm, built on more complete equations. Graphs of difference in angular velocity estimation depending on the number of iterations are presented. The difference in angular velocity estimation is calculated from results of the synthesized algorithm and the algorithm for more accurate equations. Graphs of error distribution for angular velocity estimation with initial conditions being changed are also presented, and standard deviations of estimation errors are calculated. The synthesized algorithm is inferior in accuracy assessment to

  12. Angular momentum exchange in white dwarf binaries accreting through direct impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepinsky, J. F. [Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, The University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510 (United States); Kalogera, V., E-mail: jeremy.sepinsky@scranton.edu, E-mail: vicky@northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    We examine the exchange of angular momentum between the component spins and the orbit in semi-detached double white dwarf binaries undergoing mass transfer through direct impact of the transfer stream. We approximate the stream as a series of discrete massive particles ejected in the ballistic limit at the inner Lagrangian point of the donor toward the accretor. This work improves upon similar earlier studies in a number of ways. First, we self-consistently calculate the total angular momentum of the orbit at all times. This includes changes in the orbital angular momentum during the ballistic trajectory of the ejected mass, as well as changes during the ejection/accretion due to the radial component of the particle's velocity. Second, we calculate the particle's ballistic trajectory for each system, which allows us to determine the precise position and velocity of the particle upon accretion. We can then include specific information about the radius of the accretor as well as the angle of impact. Finally, we ensure that the total angular momentum is conserved, which requires the donor star spin to vary self-consistently. With these improvements, we calculate the angular momentum change of the orbit and each binary component across the entire parameter space of direct impact double white dwarf binary systems. We find a significant decrease in the amount of angular momentum removed from the orbit during mass transfer, as well as cases where this process increases the angular momentum of the orbit at the expense of the spin angular momentum of the donor. We conclude that, unlike earlier claims in the literature, mass transfer through direct impact need not destabilize the binary and that the quantity and sign of the orbital angular momentum transfer depends on the binary properties, particularly the masses of the double white dwarf binary component stars. This stabilization may significantly impact the population synthesis calculations of the expected

  13. The Hot Orbit: Orbital Cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.; Al-Rashed, Waleed; Arat, Yonca O.

    2012-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon condition previously associated with severe complications. If untreated, orbital cellulitis can be potentially sight and life threatening. It can affect both adults and children but has a greater tendency to occur in the pediatric age group. The infection most commonly originates from sinuses, eyelids or face, retained foreign bodies, or distant soources by hematogenous spread. It is characterized by eyelid edema, erythema, chemosis, proptosis, blurred vision, fever, headache, and double vision. A history of upper respiratory tract infection prior to the onset is very common especially in children. In the era prior to antibiotics, vision loss from orbital cellulitis was a dreaded complication. Currently, imaging studies for detection of orbital abcess, the use of antibiotics and early drainage have mitigated visual morbidity significantly. The purpose of this review is to describe current investigative strategies and management options in the treatment of orbital cellulitis, establish their effectiveness and possible complications due to late intervention. PMID:22346113

  14. Angular momentum dependence of the nuclear level density parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohil M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutron evaporation spectra alongwith γ-multiplicity has been measured from the 185Re* compound nucleus at the excitation energies ~27 and 37 MeV. Statistical model analysis of the experimental data has been carried out to extract the value of the inverse level density parameter k at different angular momentum regions (J corresponding to different γ-multiplicity. It is observed that, for the present system the value of k remains almost constant for different J. The present results on the angular momentum dependence of the nuclear level density (NLD parameter ã (=A/k, for nuclei with A ~180 is quite different from our earlier measurements in case of light and medium mass systems. The present analysis provides useful information to understand the angular momentum dependence of NLD at different nuclear mass regions.

  15. ANGULAR LIGHT-SCATTERING STUDIES ON ISOLATED MITOCHONDRIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotterer, Gerald S.; Thompson, Thomas E.; Lehninger, Albert L.

    1961-01-01

    Angular light-scattering studies have been carried out on suspensions of isolated rat liver mitochondria. The angular scatter pattern has a large forward component, typical of large particles. Changes in dissymmetry and in the intensity of light scattered at 90° have been correlated with changes in optical density during the course of mitochondrial swelling and contraction. Such changes can be measured at mitochondrial concentrations much below those required for optical density measurements. Changes in mitochondrial geometry caused by factors "leaking" from mitochondria, not detectable by optical density measurements, have been demonstrated by measuring changes in dissymmetry. Angular light-scattering measurements therefore offer the advantages of increased sensitivity and of added indices of changes in mitochondrial conformation. PMID:19866589

  16. On the angular momentum loss of tropical cyclones: An f-plane approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Gyu; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin; Kim, Won-Ho

    2017-12-01

    The angular momentum for ideal axisymmetric tropical cyclones on the f-plane is investigated with a focus on the total-volume integrated quantity. Budget analysis of the momentum equation at cylindrical coordinates shows that a tropical cyclone loses angular momentum during its development and mature stages due to the dynamical difference between the viscous inward-flow near the surface and the angular momentum conserving outward-flow aloft. The total relative angular momentum of a tropical cyclone, as a result, can be negative (i.e., implying anticyclonic rotation as a whole) despite intense cyclonic wind in the tropospheric layers. This anticyclonic rotation was measured in terms of the super-rotation ratio, the ratio of total relative angular momentum to the planetary angular momentum. Simulations with the numerical model of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) version 3.4.1 was found to be in favor of the theoretical angular-momentum budget analysis. It was revealed in the numerical simulations that the super-rotation ratio was negative, indicating a sub-rotation, as was predicted by analysis. The sub-rotation ratio was found to be less than one percent for typical tropical cyclones. To show the angular momentum decrease even in the decaying stage, numerical simulations where the thermal forcing by sea surface temperature switched off in the mature stage were carried out. In support of the angular momentum budget analysis, the results indicated that the angular momentum also decreases for a while soon after the forcing was eliminated.

  17. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  18. Angular momentum in QGP holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett McInnes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quark chemical potential is one of the fundamental parameters describing the quark–gluon plasma produced by sufficiently energetic heavy-ion collisions. It is not large at the extremely high temperatures probed by the LHC, but it plays a key role in discussions of the beam energy scan programmes at the RHIC and other facilities. On the other hand, collisions at such energies typically (that is, in peripheral collisions give rise to very high values of the angular momentum density. Here we explain that holographic estimates of the quark chemical potential of a rotating sample of plasma can be very considerably improved by taking the angular momentum into account.

  19. Geostationary Orbit Surveillance Using the Unscented Kalman Filter and the Analytical Orbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min Roh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for geostationary orbit (or geostationary earth orbit [GEO] surveillance based on optical angular observations is presented in this study. For the dynamic model, precise analytical orbit model developed by Lee et al. (1997 is used to improve computation performance and the unscented Kalman filer (UKF is applied as a real-time filtering method. The UKF is known to perform well under highly nonlinear conditions such as surveillance in this study. The strategy that combines the analytical orbit propagation model and the UKF is tested for various conditions like different level of initial error and different level of measurement noise. The dependencies on observation interval and number of ground station are also tested. The test results shows that the GEO orbit determination based on the UKF and the analytical orbit model can be applied to GEO orbit tracking and surveillance effectively.

  20. AngularJS test-driven development

    CERN Document Server

    Chaplin, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This book is for developers who want to learn about AngularJS development by applying testing techniques. You are assumed to have a basic knowledge and understanding of HTML, JavaScript, and AngularJS.

  1. AngularJS web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Darwin, Peter Bacon

    2013-01-01

    The book will be a step-by-step guide showing the readers how to build a complete web app with AngularJSJavaScript developers who want to learn AngularJS for developing web apps. Knowledge of JavaScript and HTML is expected. No knowledge of AngularJS is required.

  2. The role of angular momentum conservation law in statistical mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Dubrovskii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the limits of Khinchin ideas [A.Y. Khinchin, Mathematical Foundation of Statistical Mechanics. NY, Ed. Dover, 1949] the importance of momentum and angular momentum conservation laws was analyzed for two cases: for uniform magnetic field and when magnetic field is absent. The law of momentum conservation does not change the density of probability distribution in both cases, just as it is assumed in the conventional theory. It is shown that in systems where the kinetic energy depends only on particle momenta canonically conjugated with Cartesian coordinates being their diagonal quadric form,the angular momentum conservation law changes the density of distribution of the system only in case the full angular momentum of a system is not equal to zero. In the gas of charged particles in a uniform magnetic field the density of distribution also varies if the angular momentum is zero [see Dubrovskii I.M., Condensed Matter Physics, 2206, 9, 23]. Two-dimensional gas of charged particles located within a section of an endless strip filled with gas in magnetic field is considered. Under such conditions the angular momentum is not conserved. Directional particle flows take place close to the strip boundaries, and, as a consequence, the phase trajectory of the considered set of particles does not remain within the limited volume of the phase space. In order to apply a statistical thermodynamics method, it was suggested to consider near-boundary trajectories relative to a reference system that moves uniformly. It was shown that if the diameter of an orbit having average thermal energy is much smaller than a strip width, the corrections to thermodynamic functions are small depending on magnetic field. Only the average velocity of near-boundary particles that form near-boundary electric currents creating the paramagnetic moment turn out to be essential.

  3. Dependency injection with AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Knol, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on approach to using dependency injection and implementing test-driven development using AngularJS. Dependency Injection with AngularJS is aimed at developers who are aware of AngularJS but need to get started with using it in real life applications. Also, developers who want to get into test-driven development with AngularJS can use this book as practical guide. Even if you know about dependency injection, it can serve as a good reference on how it is used within AngularJS. Readers are expected to have some experience with JavaScript.

  4. A theory of thin shells with orbiting constituents

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, V A; Berezin, Victor; Okhrimenko, Maxim

    2001-01-01

    The self-gravitating, spherically symmetric thin shells built of orbiting particles are sstudied. Two new features are found. One is the minimal possible value for an angular momentum of particles, above which elleptic orbits become possible. The second is the coexistence of both the wormhole solutions and the elleptic or hyperbolic orbits for the same values of the parameters (but different initial conditions). Possible applications of these results to astrophysics and quantum black holes are briefly discussed.

  5. Orbital complications of rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijuwola, Oo; Adeyemo, Aa; Adeosun, Aa

    2007-06-01

    Suppurative extension of rhinosinusitis to the orbit is a complication that often results from delay in diagnosis and, or inadequate treatment. These complications may range from preseptal cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, orbital abscesses, and subperiosteal abscesses to intracranial extension with a threat to both vision and life. This study aims to review the clinical profile, treatment modalities and outcome of orbital complications of rhinosinusitis in Ibadan, Nigeria. A retrospective review of the charts of patients with orbital complications of rhinosinusitis managed in the departments of Otorhinolaryngology and Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan over a five year period (Feb 2002- Jan 2007) was carried out .The diagnosis of rhinosinusitis was based on history, physical examination, plain x ray and CT scan findings and antral puncture. Demographic data, clinical presentation and treatment were evaluated. A total of 24 patients were reviewed in the study. There were 13males and 11females (M/F, 1:1). The age range was 8months to 75years, 14 (58.3%) patients were children and while 10 (41.7%) patients were adults. 75% of the patients were seen during the dry season (November to February). The duration of symptoms ranged from one day to three weeks. Involvement of one eye occurred in 14 patients (58.3%); right eye (4), left eye (10). Both eyes were involved in 10 patients (41.7%). Non-axial proptosis was seen in 8 patients (33.3%). It was infero-lateral in 6 patients (25%) and infero-nasal in two (8.3%) patients. Orbital cellulitis was seen in 10 (41.7%) patients, 6 (25%) patients had preseptal cellulitis while 8 (33%) patients had orbital abscess. Cavernous sinus thrombosis was seen in 3 (12.5%) patients. The cases with preseptal and orbital cellulitis were effectively managed by intravenous antibiotics. Orbital abscesses were drained surgically with complete resolution. Sinus surgical procedures were done in 10(41.7%) patients. This group of

  6. Crossover of angular dependent magnetoresistance with the metal-insulator transition in colossal magnetoresistive manganite films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Sun, J.R.; Zhao, T.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature and magnetic field dependence of angular dependent magnetoresistance (AMR) along two orthogonal directions ([100] and [01]) was investigated in a charge-orbital-ordered Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 (SCMO) film grown on (011)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates. A dramatic decrease of AMR magnitude in bo...

  7. Orbital-only models: ordering and excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    2004-12-01

    We consider orbital-only models in Mott insulators, where the orbital orbital interactions are either due to Jahn Teller distortions or due to the Kugel Khomskii superexchange. This leads to highly anisotropic and frustrated orbital Hamiltonians. For two-fold degenerate eg systems, both types of orbital interactions lead to the same form of the Hamiltonian—the 120° model. In both cases, the predicted symmetry of the orbital ordering is the same, although different from the one observed experimentally. The orbital operators that appear in the two kinds of orbital-only Hamiltonians are different. In the case of superexchange, the orbital degrees of freedom are represented by quantum pseudo-spin 1/2 operators. But when the interactions are Jahn Teller mediated and the coupling with the lattice is strong, the orbital operators are essentially classical pseudospins. Thus as a function of the relative coupling strengths, a quantum-to-classical crossover is expected. For three-fold degenerate t2g orbitals, the Jahn Teller coupling gives rise to a particular type of orbital compass models. We point out that fluctuations—whether due to quantum effects or finite temperature—are of prime importance for ordering in the 120° and orbital compass models. The fluctuations generally generate a gap in the orbital excitation spectrum. These orbital excitations—orbitons—are hybrid excitations that carry both a lattice Jahn Teller and a magnetic Kugel Khomskii character.

  8. Validation of Galileo orbits using SLR with a focus on satellites launched into incorrect orbital planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sośnica, Krzysztof; Prange, Lars; Kaźmierski, Kamil; Bury, Grzegorz; Drożdżewski, Mateusz; Zajdel, Radosław; Hadas, Tomasz

    2017-07-01

    The space segment of the European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo consists of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) spacecraft. The first pair of FOC satellites was launched into an incorrect, highly eccentric orbital plane with a lower than nominal inclination angle. All Galileo satellites are equipped with satellite laser ranging (SLR) retroreflectors which allow, for example, for the assessment of the orbit quality or for the SLR-GNSS co-location in space. The number of SLR observations to Galileo satellites has been continuously increasing thanks to a series of intensive campaigns devoted to SLR tracking of GNSS satellites initiated by the International Laser Ranging Service. This paper assesses systematic effects and quality of Galileo orbits using SLR data with a main focus on Galileo satellites launched into incorrect orbits. We compare the SLR observations with respect to microwave-based Galileo orbits generated by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) in the framework of the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment for the period 2014.0-2016.5. We analyze the SLR signature effect, which is characterized by the dependency of SLR residuals with respect to various incidence angles of laser beams for stations equipped with single-photon and multi-photon detectors. Surprisingly, the CODE orbit quality of satellites in the incorrect orbital planes is not worse than that of nominal FOC and IOV orbits. The RMS of SLR residuals is even lower by 5.0 and 1.5 mm for satellites in the incorrect orbital planes than for FOC and IOV satellites, respectively. The mean SLR offsets equal -44.9, -35.0 , and -22.4 mm for IOV, FOC, and satellites in the incorrect orbital plane. Finally, we found that the empirical orbit models, which were originally designed for precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites in circular orbits, provide fully appropriate results also for highly eccentric orbits with variable

  9. Generation of angular-momentum-dominated electron beams from a photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yin-E.; Piot, Philippe; Kim, Kwang-Je; Barov, Nikolas; Lidia, Steven; Santucci, James; Tikhoplav, Rodion; Wennerberg, Jason

    2004-11-30

    Various projects under study require an angular-momentum-dominated electron beam generated by a photoinjector. Some of the proposals directly use the angular-momentum-dominated beams (e.g. electron cooling of heavy ions), while others require the beam to be transformed into a flat beam (e.g. possible electron injectors for light sources and linear colliders). In this paper, we report our experimental study of an angular-momentum-dominated beam produced in a photoinjector, addressing the dependencies of angular momentum on initial conditions. We also briefly discuss the removal of angular momentum. The results of the experiment, carried out at the Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory, are found to be in good agreement with theoretical and numerical models.

  10. Generation of angular-momentum-dominated electron beams from a photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.-E; /Chicago U.; Piot, P.; /Fermilab; Kim, K.-J.; /Argonne /Chicago U.; Barov, N.; /Northern Illinois U.; Lidia, S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Santucci, J.; /Fermilab; Tikhoplav,; /Rochester U.; Wennerberg, J.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    Various projects under study require an angular-momentum-dominated electron beam generated by a photoinjector. Some of the proposals directly use the angular-momentum-dominated beams (e.g. electron cooling of heavy ions), while others require the beam to be transformed into a flat beam (e.g. possible electron injectors for light sources and linear colliders). In this paper, we report our experimental study of an angular-momentum-dominated beam produced in a photoinjector, addressing the dependencies of angular momentum on initial conditions. We also briefly discuss the removal of angular momentum. The results of the experiment, carried out at the Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory, are found to be in good agreement with theoretical and numerical models.

  11. Generation of angular-momentum-dominated electron beams from a photoinjector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-E Sun

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Various projects under study require an angular-momentum-dominated electron beam generated by a photoinjector. Some of the proposals directly use the angular-momentum-dominated beams (e.g., electron cooling of heavy ions, while others require the beam to be transformed into a flat beam (e.g., possible electron injectors for light sources and linear colliders. In this paper we report our experimental study of an angular-momentum-dominated beam produced in a photoinjector, addressing the dependencies of angular momentum on initial conditions. We also briefly discuss the removal of angular momentum. The results of the experiment, carried out at the Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory, are found to be in good agreement with theoretical and numerical models.

  12. Constraints on Radial Migration in Spiral Galaxies - II. Angular momentum distribution and preferential migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Kathryne J.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2018-01-01

    The orbital angular momentum of individual stars in galactic discs can be permanently changed through torques from transient spiral patterns. Interactions at the corotation resonance dominate these changes and have the further property of conserving orbital circularity. We derived in an earlier paper an analytic criterion that an unperturbed stellar orbit must satisfy in order for such an interaction to occur i.e. for it to be in a trapped orbit around corotation. We here use this criterion in an investigation of how the efficiency of induced radial migration for a population of disc stars varies with the angular momentum distribution of that population. We frame our results in terms of the velocity dispersion of the population, this being an easier observable than is the angular momentum distribution. Specifically, we investigate how the fraction of stars in trapped orbits at corotation varies with the velocity dispersion of the population, for a system with an assumed flat rotation curve. Our analytic results agree with the finding from simulations that radial migration is less effective in populations with `hotter' kinematics. We further quantify the dependence of this trapped fraction on the strength of the spiral pattern, finding a higher trapped fraction for higher amplitude perturbations.

  13. Has Nemesis' orbit been detected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsemme, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    The orbital angular momenta of 126 very young comets are calculated from the orbital data of Marsden and Roemer (1982) and analyzed statistically. A large anisotropy is detected in a plane almost perpendicular to the ecliptic and shown to have a characteristic dissipation lifetime of 10-30 Myr. Dynamic evolution computations indicate that the impulse which produced the anisotropy is that of a very slow massive (10-90 Jupiter mass) body, which is bound to the solar system, passed its 15,000-35,000-AU perihelion about 2-15 Myr ago, and has period 5-50 Myr. It is suggested that this body could well be identical to Nemesis, the object proposed to explain mass faunal extinctions.

  14. Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Webster

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar system described here (CMOR comprises a basic 5-element receiving system, co-located with a pulsed transmitter, specifically designed to observe meteor echoes and to determine their position in space with an angular resolution of ~1° and a radial resolution of ~3 km. Two secondary receiving sites, a few km distant and arranged to form approximately a right angle with the base station, allow the determination of the velocity (speed and direction of the meteor that, together with the time of occurrence, lead to an estimate of the orbit of the original meteoroid. Some equipment details are presented along with a method used to determine the orbits. Representative echoes are shown and observations on the 2002 Leonid shower presented.

  15. An onboard star catalog for satellite angular attitude estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzhilov, Ivan; Chernetsov, Andrey; Zakharov, Andrei; Kruzhilov, Svyatoslav

    2017-09-01

    Accuracy assessment of the satellite remote sensing depends on the angular attitude estimation precision. The 1 arc second error in attitude estimation causes 2.5-meter error in the accuracy derived from remote sensing data for the 500 km orbit. Different kind of momentum wheels, propulsions and sensors help correct spacecraft torque moment to stabilize it in the orbit. Star tracker is the most precise optical sensor for spacecraft angular attitude estimation. An onboard guide star catalog containing data for star pattern identification is essential for star tracker operating. The total number of stars, the faintest stellar magnitude, completeness and uniformity are the key specifications of a star catalog influencing many characteristic of a star tracker. The steps of creating guide star catalog are: instrumental stellar magnitude estimation with respect to the star tracker spectral response, clusterization of nearby stars, removing of unreliable stars and final star selection. An iterative algorithm for thinning down the catalog allows reducing appreciably the number of stars in the catalog and improving its uniformity. The key point of the algorithm is the lower bound evaluation of star number in the FOV (field of view) for every boresight position within a triangle area. The algorithm uses recursive quaternary division of the icosahedron for the celestial sphere tessellation. The correction methods of stellar aberration and star proper motion are discussed as well.

  16. Management of angular cheilitis for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajriani Fajriani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Angular cheilitis is one type of oral soft tissue disease that can occur in both children and adults, the condition is characterized by cracks and inflammation in both corners of the mouth. Although this disease does not cause severe disruption but quite disturbing activity and also one's physical appearance. Angular cheilitis light will disappear on their own over time.Severe conditions that can cause pain and bleading. aims to give feedback on peers about managment angular cheilitis in children.

  17. The Lunar orbit paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Aleksandar S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Newton's formula for gravity force gives greather force intensity for atraction of the Moon by the Sun than atraction by the Earth. However, central body in lunar (primary orbit is the Earth. So appeared paradox which were ignored from competent specialist, because the most important problem, determination of lunar orbit, was inmediately solved sufficiently by mathematical ingeniosity - introducing the Sun as dominant body in the three body system by Delaunay, 1860. On this way the lunar orbit paradox were not canceled. Vujičić made a owerview of principles of mechanics in year 1998, in critical consideration. As an example for application of corrected procedure he was obtained gravity law in some different form, which gave possibility to cancel paradox of lunar orbit. The formula of Vujičić, with our small adaptation, content two type of acceleration - related to inertial mass and related to gravity mass. So appears carried information on the origin of the Moon, and paradox cancels.

  18. Comparison of Different Forms for the “Spin” and “Orbital” Components of the Angular Momentum of Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare three attempts that have been made to decompose the angular momentum of the electromagnetic field into components of an “orbital” and “spin” nature. All three expressions are different, and there seems to be no reason to prefer one to another. It appears, on the basis of classical electrodynamics, that there is no unique way of decomposing the angular momentum of the electromagnetic field into orbital and spin components, even in a fixed inertial frame.

  19. An analysis of near-circular lunar mapping orbits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerical investigations have been carried out to analyse the evolution of lunar circular orbits and the influence of the higher order harmonics of the lunar gravity field. The aim is to select the appropriate near-circular orbit characteristics, which extend orbit life through passive orbit maintenance. The spherical harmonic ...

  20. Inflammation of the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glaucoma (Video) Macular Degeneration Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Orbit (Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor) By James ... Introduction to Eye Socket Disorders Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors ...

  1. Angular-Rate Estimation Using Quaternion Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Y.; Deutschmann, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.

    1998-01-01

    In most spacecraft (SC) there is a need to know the SC angular rate. Precise angular rate is required for attitude determination, and a coarse rate is needed for attitude control damping. Classically, angular rate information is obtained from gyro measurements. These days, there is a tendency to build smaller, lighter and cheaper SC, therefore the inclination now is to do away with gyros and use other means and methods to determine the angular rate. The latter is also needed even in gyro equipped satellites when performing high rate maneuvers whose angular-rate is out of range of the on board gyros or in case of gyro failure. There are several ways to obtain the angular rate in a gyro-less SC. When the attitude is known, one can differentiate the attitude in whatever parameters it is given and use the kinematics equation that connects the derivative of the attitude with the satellite angular-rate and compute the latter. Since SC usually utilize vector measurements for attitude determination, the differentiation of the attitude introduces a considerable noise component in the computed angular-rate vector.

  2. Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de-excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly smaller than critical ...

  3. Responsive web design with AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Sandeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    If you are an AngularJS developer who wants to learn about responsive web application development, this book is ideal for you. Responsive Web Design with AngularJS is intended for web developers or designers with a basic knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

  4. Concepts of radial and angular kinetic energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Schleich, W.P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider a general central-field system in D dimensions and show that the division of the kinetic energy into radial and angular parts proceeds differently in the wave-function picture and the Weyl-Wigner phase-space picture, Thus, the radial and angular kinetic energies are different quantities...

  5. Gravitational self-force on a particle in eccentric orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Barack, Leor

    2010-01-01

    We present a numerical code for calculating the local gravitational self-force acting on a pointlike particle in a generic (bound) geodesic orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. The calculation is carried out in the Lorenz gauge: For a given geodesic orbit, we decompose the Lorenz-gauge metric perturbation equations (sourced by the delta-function particle) into tensorial harmonics, and solve for each harmonic using numerical evolution in the time domain (in 1+1 dimensions). The physical self-force along the orbit is then obtained via mode-sum regularization. The total self-force contains a dissipative piece as well as a conservative piece, and we describe a simple method for disentangling these two pieces in a time-domain framework. The dissipative component is responsible for the loss of orbital energy and angular momentum through gravitational radiation; as a test of our code we demonstrate that the work done by the dissipative component of the computed force is precisely balanced by the asymptotic fluxe...

  6. Angular Momentum of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kirsty M.; Obreschkow, Danail; Oh, Se-Heon

    2017-01-01

    We present measurements of baryonic mass {M}{{b}} and specific angular momentum (sAM) {j}{{b}} in 14 rotating dwarf Irregular (dIrr) galaxies from the LITTLE THINGS sample. These measurements, based on 21 cm kinematic data from the Very Large Array and stellar mass maps from the Spitzer Space Telescope, extend previous AM measurements by more than two orders of magnitude in {M}{{b}}. The dwarf galaxies show systematically higher {j}{{b}} values than expected from the {j}{{b}}\\propto {M}{{b}}2/3 scaling of spiral galaxies, representative of a scale-free galaxy formation scenario. This offset can be explained by decreasing baryon mass fractions {f}{{M}}={M}{{b}}/{M}{dyn} (where {M}{dyn} is the dynamical mass) with decreasing {M}{{b}} (for {M}{{b}}< {10}11 {M}⊙ ). We find that the sAM of neutral atomic hydrogen (H I) alone is about 2.5 times higher than that of the stars. The M-j relation of H I is significantly steeper than that of the stars, as a direct consequence of the systematic variation of the H I fraction with {M}{{b}}.

  7. Numerical simulation of orbiting black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügmann, Bernd; Tichy, Wolfgang; Jansen, Nina

    2004-05-28

    We present numerical simulations of binary black hole systems which for the first time last for about one orbital period for close but still separate black holes as indicated by the absence of a common apparent horizon. An important part of the method is the construction of comoving coordinates, in which both the angular and the radial motion are minimized through a dynamically adjusted shift condition. We use fixed mesh refinement for computational efficiency.

  8. Angular momentum conservation for dynamical black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2006-01-01

    Angular momentum can be defined by rearranging the Komar surface integral in terms of a twist form, encoding the twisting around of space-time due to a rotating mass, and an axial vector. If the axial vector is a coordinate vector and has vanishing transverse divergence, it can be uniquely specified under certain generic conditions. Along a trapping horizon, a conservation law expresses the rate of change of angular momentum of a general black hole in terms of angular momentum densities of ma...

  9. Classical and quantum binding of a particle with arbitrary spin in the magnetic field of a current-carrying wire: a simple guide for atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Scrinzi, Armin

    1996-06-01

    A neutral atom with a magnetic moment can be bound to, and guided along, a current-carrying wire. The atom is attracted to regions of high field strength (high-field seeking state) and repelled from the wire by the centrifugal barrier. In the classical regime the atoms move in Kepler-like orbits. In the quantum regime, the system resembles a two-dimensional hydrogen atom in Rydberg-like states. The wire replaces the nucleus and the atom plays the role of the electron. We give a quantum mechanical and a classical description of the system. We rigorously prove the existence of infinitely many bound states for zero or finite wire cross section and any spin (F) of the atom. The bound-state energies closely follow a Coulomb-like behaviour with an effective angular momentum, 1355-5111/8/3/029/img5.

  10. Optical momentum and angular momentum in complex media: from the Abraham–Minkowski debate to unusual properties of surface plasmon-polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Bliokh, Konstantin; Y Bekshaev, Aleksandr; Nori, Franco

    2017-12-01

    We examine the momentum and angular momentum (AM) properties of monochromatic optical fields in dispersive and inhomogeneous isotropic media, using the Abraham- and Minkowski-type approaches, as well as the kinetic (Poynting-like) and canonical (with separate spin and orbital degrees of freedom) pictures. While the kinetic Abraham–Poynting momentum describes the energy flux and the group velocity of the wave, the Minkowski-type quantities, with proper dispersion corrections, describe the actual momentum and AM carried by the wave. The kinetic Minkowski-type momentum and AM densities agree with phenomenological results derived by Philbin. Using the canonical spin–orbital decomposition, previously used for free-space fields, we find the corresponding canonical momentum, spin and orbital AM of light in a dispersive inhomogeneous medium. These acquire a very natural form analogous to the Brillouin energy density and are valid for arbitrary structured fields. The general theory is applied to a non-trivial example of a surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) wave at a metal-vacuum interface. We show that the integral momentum of the SPP per particle corresponds to the SPP wave vector, and hence exceeds the momentum of a photon in the vacuum. We also provide the first accurate calculation of the transverse spin and orbital AM of the SPP. While the intrinsic orbital AM vanishes, the transverse spin can change its sign depending on the SPP frequency. Importantly, we present both macroscopic and microscopic calculations, thereby proving the validity of the general phenomenological results. The microscopic theory also predicts a transverse magnetization in the metal (i.e. a magnetic moment for the SPP) as well as the corresponding direct magnetization current, which provides the difference between the Abraham and Minkowski momenta.

  11. Photometric Studies of Orbital Debris at GEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Abercromby, Kira J.; Rodriguez-Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Ed; Foreman, Gary; Horstman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    We report on optical observations of debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) using two telescopes simultaneously at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The University of Michigan s 0.6/0.9-m Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope) was used in survey mode to find objects that potentially could be at GEO. Because GEO objects only appear in this telescope s field of view for an average of 5 minutes, a full six-parameter orbit can not be determined. Interrupting the survey for follow-up observations leads to incompleteness in the survey results. Instead, as objects are detected with MODEST, initial predictions assuming a circular orbit are done for where the object will be for the next hour, and the objects are reacquired as quickly as possible on the CTIO 0.9-m telescope. This second telescope follows-up during the first night and, if possible, over several more nights to obtain the maximum time arc possible, and the best six parameter orbit. Our goal is to obtain an initial orbit and calibrated colors for all detected objects fainter than R = 15th in order to estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: magnitude and angular rate. One objective is to estimate what fraction of objects selected on the basis of angular rate are not at GEO. A second objective is to obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials.

  12. Analysis of angular heat conduction in rotary heat regenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, M.C.; Sphaier, L.A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Mecanica Teorica e Aplicada], Emails: lasphaier@mec.uff.br, marcelloreis@vm.uff.br

    2010-07-01

    Heat regenerators can be found in a considerable number of engineering applications, and are either used as pair of fixed matrices or as single rotary matrix. The thermal design of these devices is usually done considering models that rely on well-established simplifying assumptions. While most of these assumptions comprise reasonable considerations, some of them could lead to noticeable errors on some occasions. One such assumption is that there is no heat transfer between adjacent channels within the regenerator matrix. While this is quite reasonable for fixed-bed exchangers, this might not be a good choice for rotary exchangers on some occasions. Since rotary matrices can operate between two process streams presenting a large temperature difference between them, a large temperature gradient may develop within the plane normal to the flow direction, especially in the angular direction. This paper proposes a new model for simulating rotary heat regenerators, taking into account this previously unconsidered matrix heat conduction effect. A numerical solution of a test case with angular heat conduction is carried-out. With this solution, a parametric analysis is performed, showing how the effects that gradually increasing the angular heat conduction can affect the temperature distributions within the matrix and regenerator outlet. (author)

  13. Compton scattering of twisted light: Angular distribution and polarization of scattered photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, S.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.; Seipt, D.

    2015-07-01

    Compton scattering of twisted photons is investigated within a nonrelativistic framework using first-order perturbation theory. We formulate the problem in the density-matrix theory, which enables one to gain new insights into scattering processes of twisted particles by exploiting the symmetries of the system. In particular, we analyze how the angular distribution and polarization of the scattered photons are affected by the parameters of the initial beam such as the opening angle and the projection of orbital angular momentum. We present analytical and numerical results for the angular distribution and the polarization of Compton scattered photons for initially twisted light and compare them with the standard case of plane-wave light.

  14. Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The sensitive, specific, and label-free classification of microscopic cells and organisms is one of the outstanding problems in biology. Today, instruments such as the flow cytometer use a combination of light scatter measurements at two distinct angles to infer the size and internal complexity...... of cells at rates of more than 10,000 per second. However, by examining the entire angular light scattering spectrum it is possible to classify cells with higher resolution and specificity. Current approaches to performing these angular spectrum measurements all have significant throughput limitations...... Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...

  15. Optomechanical measurement of photon spin angular momentum and optical torque in integrated photonic devices

    CERN Document Server

    He, Li; Li, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Photons carry linear momentum, and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, while angular momentum transfer induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been utilized in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect remain unexplored in integrated photonics. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mecha...

  16. Spin O decay angular distribution for interfering mesons in electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G.

    1994-04-01

    Self analyzing meson electroproduction experiments are currently being planned for the CEBAF CLAS detector. These experiments deduce the spin polarization of outgoing unstable spin s (?)0 mesons from their decay angular distribution, W({theta},{psi}). The large angular acceptance of the CLAS detector permits kinematic tracking of a sufficient number of these events to accurately determine electroproduction amplitudes from the deduced polarization. Maximum polarization information is obtained from W({theta},{psi}) for decay into spin 0 daughters. The helicity of the decaying meson is transferred to the daughter`s relative orbital angular momentum m-projection; none is {open_quotes}absorbed{close_quotes} into daughter helicities. The decaying meson`s helicity maximally appears in W({theta},{psi}). W({theta},{psi}) for spin 0 daughters has been derived for (1) vector meson electroproduction and (2) general interfering mesons produced by incident pions. This paper derives W({theta},{psi}) for electroproduction of two interfering mesons that decay into spin 0 daughters. An application is made to the case of interfering scalar and vector mesons. The derivation is an extension of work by Schil using the general decay formalism of Martin. The expressions can be easily extended to the case of N interfering mesons since interference occurs pairwise in the observable W ({theta},{psi}), a quadratic function of the meson amplitudes. The derivation uses the virtual photon density matrix of Schil which is transformed by a meson electroproduction transition operator, T. The resulting density matrix for the interfering mesons is then converted into a corresponding statistical tensor and contracted into the efficiency tensor for spin 0 daughters.

  17. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  18. The engagement of optical angular momentum in nanoscale chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Wide-ranging developments in optical angular momentum have recently led to refocused attention on issues of material chirality. The connection between optical spin and circular polarization, linking to well-known and utilized probes of chirality such as circular dichroism, has prompted studies aiming to achieve enhanced means of differentiating enantiomers - molecules or particles of opposite handedness. A number of newly devised schemes for physically separating mirror-image components by optical methods have also been gaining traction, together with a developing appreciation of how the scale of physical dimensions ultimately determines any capacity to differentially select for material chirality. The scope of such enquiries has substantially widened on recognition that suitably structured, topologically charged beams of light - often known as `twisted light' or `optical vortices' can additionally convey orbital angular momentum. A case can be made that understanding the full scope and constraints upon chiroptical interactions in the nanoscale regime involves the resolution of CPT symmetry conditions governing the fundamental interactions between matter and photons. The principles provide a sound theoretical test-bed for new methodologies.

  19. Angular distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, L. S.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tarrio, D.; Audouin, L.; Paradela, C.; Duran, I.; Le Naour, C.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewsky, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calvino, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, E.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Korschinek, G.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Massimi, C.; Martínez, T.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mengon, A.; Mendoza, E.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, T.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Pignatari, M.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifhart, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sarmento, R.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Taín, J. L.; Tagliente, G.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, V.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; Zǔgec

    2013-12-01

    Above 1 MeV of incident neutron energy the fission fragment angular distribution (FFAD) has generally a strong anisotropic behavior due to the combination of the incident orbital momentum and the intrinsic spin of the fissioning nucleus. This effect has to be taken into account for the efficiency estimation of devices used for fission cross section measurements. In addition it bears information on the spin deposition mechanism and on the structure of transitional states. We designed and constructed a detection device, based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC), for measuring the fission fragment angular distributions of several isotopes, in particular 232Th. The measurement has been performed at n_TOF at CERN taking advantage of the very broad energy spectrum of the neutron beam. Fission events were recognized by back to back detection in coincidence in two position-sensitive detectors surrounding the targets. The detection efficiency, depending mostly on the stopping of fission fragments in backings and electrodes, has been computed with a Geant4 simulation and validated by the comparison to the measured case of 235U below 3 keV where the emission is isotropic. In the case of 232Th, the result is in good agreement with previous data below 10 MeV, with a good reproduction of the structures associated to vibrational states and the opening of second chance fission. In the 14 MeV region our data are much more accurate than previous ones which are broadly scattered.

  20. Angular distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong L.S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Above 1 MeV of incident neutron energy the fission fragment angular distribution (FFAD has generally a strong anisotropic behavior due to the combination of the incident orbital momentum and the intrinsic spin of the fissioning nucleus. This effect has to be taken into account for the efficiency estimation of devices used for fission cross section measurements. In addition it bears information on the spin deposition mechanism and on the structure of transitional states. We designed and constructed a detection device, based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC, for measuring the fission fragment angular distributions of several isotopes, in particular 232Th. The measurement has been performed at n_TOF at CERN taking advantage of the very broad energy spectrum of the neutron beam. Fission events were recognized by back to back detection in coincidence in two position-sensitive detectors surrounding the targets. The detection efficiency, depending mostly on the stopping of fission fragments in backings and electrodes, has been computed with a Geant4 simulation and validated by the comparison to the measured case of 235U below 3 keV where the emission is isotropic. In the case of 232Th, the result is in good agreement with previous data below 10 MeV, with a good reproduction of the structures associated to vibrational states and the opening of second chance fission. In the 14 MeV region our data are much more accurate than previous ones which are broadly scattered.

  1. Properties of Carry Value Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakanta Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carry Value Transformation (CVT is a model of discrete deterministic dynamical system. In the present study, it has been proved that (1 the sum of any two nonnegative integers is the same as the sum of their CVT and XOR values. (2 the number of iterations leading to either CVT=0 or XOR=0 does not exceed the maximum of the lengths of the two addenda expressed as binary strings. A similar process of addition of modified Carry Value Transformation (MCVT and XOR requires a maximum of two iterations for MCVT to be zero. (3 an equivalence relation is shown to exist on Z×Z which divides the CV table into disjoint equivalence classes.

  2. Horseshoe orbits in the restricted four-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Garcia, Jaime; Bengochea, Abimael

    2017-11-01

    The circular restricted four-body problem studies the dynamics of a massless particle under the gravitational force produced by three point masses that follow circular orbits with constant angular velocity, the configuration of these circular orbits forms an equilateral triangle for all time; this problem can be considered as an extension of the celebrated restricted three-body problem. In this work we investigate the orbits which emanate from some equilibrium points. In particular, we focus on the horseshoe shaped orbits (rotating frame), which are well known in the restricted three-body problem. We study some families of symmetric horseshoe orbits and show their relation with a family of the so called Lyapunov orbits.

  3. A Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite Model Using Easy Java Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Goh, Giam Hwee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize geostationary orbits near Earth, modelled using a Java 3D implementation of the EJS 3D library. The simplified physics model is described and simulated using a simple constant angular velocity equation. We discuss four computer model design ideas: (1) a simple and realistic…

  4. Origin of molecular orbital splitting of C-60 on Al(110)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiessling, J; Stener, M; Balasubramanian, T; Kjeldgaard, L; Decleva, P; Nordgren, J; Bruhwiler, PA

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the C-60 monolayer on Al(l 10) with angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy. We find that orbital components have different angular distributions. Calculations of cross sections of the highest occupied molecular orbital components for free, oriented C-60 are found to describe

  5. A Detailed Derivation of Gaussian Orbital-Based Matrix Elements in Electron Structure Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, T.; Hellsing, B.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed derivation of analytic solutions is presented for overlap, kinetic, nuclear attraction and electron repulsion integrals involving Cartesian Gaussian-type orbitals. It is demonstrated how s-type orbitals can be used to evaluate integrals with higher angular momentum via the properties of Hermite polynomials and differentiation with…

  6. Interrogation of orbital structure by elliptically polarized intense femtosecond laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation and present investigations of the imprint of the orbital angular node in photoelectron momentum distributions of an aligned atomic p-type orbital following ionization by an intense elliptically polarized laser pulse of femtosecond...

  7. Loren Shriver carries Olympic torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    KSC Shuttle Operations Manager Loren J. Shriver proudly displays the Olympic torch that he carried to the top of Launch Pad 39A as his contribution to the July 7, 1996 KSC Olympic torch relay effort. Nineteen other KSC runners also participated in the relay effort at the Center. The Olympic torch arrived at KSC at 1:40 p.m. and traveled a 20-mile course to the pad and then out to the KSC visitor Center. The Space Shuttle Atlantis is behind Shriver, poised for the STS-79 mission, which will feature the fourth docking of the Shuttle with the Russian Mir space station.

  8. How much mass and angular momentum can the progenitors of carbon-enriched stars accrete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrozis, E.; Abate, C.; Stancliffe, R. J.

    2017-10-01

    The chemically peculiar barium stars, CH stars, and most carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are all believed to be the products of mass transfer in binary systems from a now extinct asymptotic giant branch (AGB) primary star. The mass of the AGB star and the orbital parameters of the system are the key factors usually considered when determining how much mass is transferred onto the lower-mass main-sequence companion. What is usually neglected, however, is the angular momentum of the accreted material, which should spin up the accreting star. If the star reaches critical rotation, further accretion should cease until the excess angular momentum is somehow dealt with. If the star cannot redistribute or lose the angular momentum while the primary is on the AGB, the amount of mass accreted could be much lower than otherwise expected. Here we present calculations, based on detailed stellar evolution models, of the mass that can be accreted by putative progenitors of Ba and CEMP stars before they reach critical rotation under the assumption that no angular momentum loss occurs during the mass transfer. We consider different accretion rates and values of specific angular momentum. The most stringent limits on the accreted masses result from considering accretion from a Keplerian accretion disk, which is likely present during the formation of most extrinsically-polluted carbon-enriched stars. Our calculations indicate that in this scenario only about 0.05 M⊙ of material can be added to the accreting star before it reaches critical rotation, which is much too low to explain the chemical enrichment of many Ba and CEMP stars. Either the specific angular momentum of the accreted material has to effectively be lower by about a factor of ten than the Keplerian value, or significant angular momentum losses must occur for substantial accretion to take place.

  9. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Sargeant, Brooke L; Watson-Capps, Jana J; Gibson, Quincy A; Heithaus, Michael R; Connor, Richard C; Patterson, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger) females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger) females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1) help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2) indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation) between ecological and social factors and, (3) constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission.

  10. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Mann

    Full Text Available Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1 help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2 indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation between ecological and social factors and, (3 constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission.

  11. Angular momentum conservation for dynamical black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2006-11-01

    Angular momentum can be defined by rearranging the Komar surface integral in terms of a twist form, encoding the twisting around of space-time due to a rotating mass, and an axial vector. If the axial vector is a coordinate vector and has vanishing transverse divergence, it can be uniquely specified under certain generic conditions. Along a trapping horizon, a conservation law expresses the rate of change of angular momentum of a general black hole in terms of angular momentum densities of matter and gravitational radiation. This identifies the transverse-normal block of an effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor, whose normal-normal block was recently identified in a corresponding energy conservation law. Angular momentum and energy are dual, respectively, to the axial vector and a previously identified vector, the conservation equations taking the same form. Including charge conservation, the three conserved quantities yield definitions of an effective energy, electric potential, angular velocity and surface gravity, satisfying a dynamical version of the so-called first law of black-hole mechanics. A corresponding zeroth law holds for null trapping horizons, resolving an ambiguity in taking the null limit.

  12. Engorgement of the Angular and Temporal Veins Following Periorbital Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel de Miranda, Aline; Nassiri, Nariman; Goldberg, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    To study angular and temporal vein engorgement following periorbital hyaluronic acid gel (HAG) injection. In this retrospective study, the authors reviewed the photographs of 805 patients who had periorbital HAG injection at Jules Stein Eye Institute Oculoplastic Clinic between January 2004 and January 2014. HAG injections were used to fill the orbital hollow, zygomatic hollow, septal confluence hollow, and cheek. The inclusion criteria were patients who had at least 1 pre-, immediate post-, and late postinjection photographs. Immediate postinjection photographs were taken right after HAG injection, and late postinjection photographs were taken at the following visit before any injection. The exclusion criteria were patients with any previous ocular surgery 6 months before filler injection, patients with orbital diseases, and patients who had HAG injections for functional purposes. The photographs were evaluated for the presence of angular and temporal vein engorgement at any of the injections during the follow-up visits. The photographs of eyes with vein engorgement were graded on a scale of 0 (no engorgement), 1 (mild engorgement), 2 (moderate engorgement), and 3 (severe engorgement). There were 78 eligible patients (156 orbits; 68 females and 10 males) with average age of 59.4 ± 13.4 years. The authors found 18 orbits of 12 patients (15.4%; 6 unilateral and 6 bilateral) with angular vein engorgement at least 1 time after HAG injection during the follow-up visits. The frequency of temporal vein engorgement was 9.1%. The mean ± SD of angular vein grading for engorgement increased from 0.72 ± 0.51 on preinjection photographs to 1.45 ± 0.88 on immediate postinjection photographs (p = 0.0001) and 0.89 ± 0.50 on late postinjection photographs (p = 0.04). The mean ± SD of angular vein grading for engorgement was 0.67 ± 0.55 on the first preinjection photographs, which increased to 1.10 ± 0.50 on the last late postinjection photographs

  13. Variation in Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration of a Particle in Rectilinear Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashood, K. K.; Singh, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the angular velocity ([image omitted]) and angular acceleration ([image omitted]) associated with a particle in rectilinear motion with constant acceleration. The discussion was motivated by an observation that students and even teachers have difficulty in ascribing rotational motion concepts to a particle when the trajectory is a…

  14. Angular Spectral Analysis and Lowpass Filtering of Aeromagnetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total-field aeromagnetic data over the western half of the Bornu basin and its surrounding areas were analyzed using angular spectral analysis, upward continuation and lowpass filtering techniques. Results revealed several angular spectral peaks at various angular orientations. The angular orientations correlated with the ...

  15. Data-oriented development with AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Waikar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    This book helps beginner-level AngularJS developers organize AngularJS applications by discussing important AngularJS concepts and best practices. If you are an experienced AngularJS developer but haven't written directives or haven't created custom HTML controls before, then this book is ideal for you.

  16. Satellite Angular Velocity Estimation Based on Star Images and Optical Flow Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarmine Fasano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An optical flow-based technique is proposed to estimate spacecraft angular velocity based on sequences of star-field images. It does not require star identification and can be thus used to also deliver angular rate information when attitude determination is not possible, as during platform de tumbling or slewing. Region-based optical flow calculation is carried out on successive star images preprocessed to remove background. Sensor calibration parameters, Poisson equation, and a least-squares method are then used to estimate the angular velocity vector components in the sensor rotating frame. A theoretical error budget is developed to estimate the expected angular rate accuracy as a function of camera parameters and star distribution in the field of view. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is tested by using star field scenes generated by a hardware-in-the-loop testing facility and acquired by a commercial-off-the shelf camera sensor. Simulated cases comprise rotations at different rates. Experimental results are presented which are consistent with theoretical estimates. In particular, very accurate angular velocity estimates are generated at lower slew rates, while in all cases the achievable accuracy in the estimation of the angular velocity component along boresight is about one order of magnitude worse than the other two components.

  17. Satellite angular velocity estimation based on star images and optical flow techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Accardo, Domenico; Grassi, Michele

    2013-09-25

    An optical flow-based technique is proposed to estimate spacecraft angular velocity based on sequences of star-field images. It does not require star identification and can be thus used to also deliver angular rate information when attitude determination is not possible, as during platform de tumbling or slewing. Region-based optical flow calculation is carried out on successive star images preprocessed to remove background. Sensor calibration parameters, Poisson equation, and a least-squares method are then used to estimate the angular velocity vector components in the sensor rotating frame. A theoretical error budget is developed to estimate the expected angular rate accuracy as a function of camera parameters and star distribution in the field of view. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is tested by using star field scenes generated by a hardware-in-the-loop testing facility and acquired by a commercial-off-the shelf camera sensor. Simulated cases comprise rotations at different rates. Experimental results are presented which are consistent with theoretical estimates. In particular, very accurate angular velocity estimates are generated at lower slew rates, while in all cases the achievable accuracy in the estimation of the angular velocity component along boresight is about one order of magnitude worse than the other two components.

  18. Chirality and angular momentum in optical radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, Matt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops, in precise quantum electrodynamic terms, photonic attributes of the "optical chirality density", one of several measures long known to be conserved quantities for a vacuum electromagnetic field. The analysis lends insights into some recent interpretations of chiroptical experiments, in which this measure, and an associated chirality flux, have been treated as representing physically distinctive "superchiral" phenomena. In the fully quantized formalism the chirality density is promoted to operator status, whose exploration with reference to an arbitrary polarization basis reveals relationships to optical angular momentum and helicity operators. Analyzing multi-mode beams with complex wave-front structures, notably Laguerre-Gaussian modes, affords a deeper understanding of the interplay between optical chirality and optical angular momentum. By developing theory with due cognizance of the photonic character of light, it emerges that only the spin angular momentum of light is engaged in such...

  19. Close binary evolution. II. Impact of tides, wind magnetic braking, and internal angular momentum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H. F.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Ekström, S.; Eggenberger, P.; Georgy, C.; Qin, Y.; Fragos, T.; Soerensen, M.; Barblan, F.; Wade, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Massive stars with solar metallicity lose important amounts of rotational angular momentum through their winds. When a magnetic field is present at the surface of a star, efficient angular momentum losses can still be achieved even when the mass-loss rate is very modest, at lower metallicities, or for lower-initial-mass stars. In a close binary system, the effect of wind magnetic braking also interacts with the influence of tides, resulting in a complex evolution of rotation. Aims: We study the interactions between the process of wind magnetic braking and tides in close binary systems. Methods: We discuss the evolution of a 10 M⊙ star in a close binary system with a 7 M⊙ companion using the Geneva stellar evolution code. The initial orbital period is 1.2 days. The 10 M⊙ star has a surface magnetic field of 1 kG. Various initial rotations are considered. We use two different approaches for the internal angular momentum transport. In one of them, angular momentum is transported by shear and meridional currents. In the other, a strong internal magnetic field imposes nearly perfect solid-body rotation. The evolution of the primary is computed until the first mass-transfer episode occurs. The cases of different values for the magnetic fields and for various orbital periods and mass ratios are briefly discussed. Results: We show that, independently of the initial rotation rate of the primary and the efficiency of the internal angular momentum transport, the surface rotation of the primary will converge, in a time that is short with respect to the main-sequence lifetime, towards a slowly evolving velocity that is different from the synchronization velocity. This "equilibrium angular velocity" is always inferior to the angular orbital velocity. In a given close binary system at this equilibrium stage, the difference between the spin and the orbital angular velocities becomes larger when the mass losses and/or the surface magnetic field increase. The

  20. Investigating fusion dynamics at high angular momentum via fission cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palshetkar, C. S.; Hinde, D. J.; Williams, E.; Ramachandran, K.; Dasgupta, M.; Cook, K. J.; Wakhle, A.; Jeung, D. Y.; Rafferty, D. C.; McNeil, S. D.; Carter, I. P.; Luong, D. H.

    2017-11-01

    A quantitative understanding of fusion dynamics at high angular momentum is attempted employing experimental fission cross sections as a probe and carrying out a simultaneous description of the fusion and fission cross sections at above barrier energies. For this, experimental fission fragment angular distributions for three systems: 16O+148Sm, 28Si+136Ba and 40Ca+124Sn, all forming the same compound nucleus 164Yb at similar excitation energies, have been measured at four beam energies above their respective capture barriers. A simultaneous description of the angle integrated fission cross sections and evaporation residue/fusion cross sections available in literature for the systems is carried out using coupled-channels and statistical model calculations. Fission cross sections, which are most sensitive to the changes in angular momentum, provide very stringent constraints for model calculations thus indicating the need of precision evaporation residue as well as fission cross sections in such studies. A large diffuseness (ao>0.65 fm) of the nuclear potential gives the best reproduction of the experimental data. In addition, different coupling schemes give very different angular momentum distributions, which, in turn, give very different fission cross section predictions. Both these observations hint at the explanation that depending on energy dissipation of the interacting nuclei occurring inside or outside the fusion pocket, very different fission cross sections can result due to heavily altered angular momentum and thus justifies the sensitivity of fission cross sections used as probes in the present work.

  1. Flavor-dependent neutrino angular distribution in core-collapse supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborra, Irene; Huedepohl, Lorenz; Raffelt, Georg

    2017-01-01

    According to recent studies, the collective flavor evolution of neutrinos in core-collapse supernovae depends strongly on the flavor-dependent angular distribution of the local neutrino radiation field, notably on the angular intensity of the electron-lepton number carried by neutrinos. To facili......According to recent studies, the collective flavor evolution of neutrinos in core-collapse supernovae depends strongly on the flavor-dependent angular distribution of the local neutrino radiation field, notably on the angular intensity of the electron-lepton number carried by neutrinos....... To facilitate further investigations of this subject, we study the energy and angle distributions of the neutrino radiation field computed with the Vertex neutrino-transport code for several spherically symmetric (1D) supernova simulations (of progenitor masses 11.2, 15 and 25 M_sun) and explain how to extract...... this information from additional models of the Garching group. Beginning in the decoupling region ("neutrino sphere"), the distributions are more and more forward peaked in the radial direction with an angular spread that is largest for $\

  2. Update on Pluto and Its 5 Moons Obeying the Quantization of Angular Momentum per Unit Mass Constraint of Quantum Celestial Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In July, 2015, the New Horizons spacecraft passing by Pluto did not discover any more moons. Therefore, we know the Pluto system total angular momentum to within 2.4%, more accurately than any other system with more than two orbiting bodies. We there- fore update our previous analysis to determine whether a definitive test of the quantum celestial mechanics (QCM angular momentum constraint can now be achieved.

  3. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s−2. Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability.

  4. Temperature and angular momentum dependence of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature and angular momentum dependence of the quadrupole deformation is studied in the middle of the sd-shell for 28Si and 27Si isotopes using the spherical shell model approach. The shell model calculations have been performed using the standard universal sd-shell (USD) interaction and the canonical ...

  5. Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Pessah, Martin; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    if the resolution were set equal to the natural dissipation scale in astrophysical disks. We conclude that, in order for MRI-driven turbulent angular momentum transport to be able to account for the large value of the effective alpha viscosity inferred observationally, the disk must be threaded by a significant...

  6. Angular and linear momentum of excited ferromagnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, P.; Kamra, A.; Cao, Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2013-01-01

    The angular momentum vector of a Heisenberg ferromagnet with isotropic exchange interaction is conserved, while under uniaxial crystalline anisotropy the projection of the total spin along the easy axis is a constant of motion. Using Noether's theorem, we prove that these conservation laws persist

  7. Angular correlations near the Fermi energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, D.; Cebra, D.A.; Karn, J.; Parks, C.; Pradhan, A.; Plicht, J. van der; Westfall, G.D.; Wilson, W.K.; Tickle, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Angular correlations between light particles have been studied to probe the extent to which a thermally equilibrated system is formed in heavy ion collisions near the Fermi energy. Single-light-particle inclusive energy spectra and two-particle large-angle correlations were measured for 40 and 50

  8. Angular Spectrum Simulation of Pulsed Ultrasound Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    geometries for any kind of focusing and apodization. The Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA) is capable of simulating monochromatic non-linear acoustic wave propagation. However, for ultrasound imaging the time response of each specific point in space is required, and a pulsed ASA simulation with multi temporal...

  9. An analysis of angular-momentum-projected Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov wave functions in terms of interacting bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannert, W.; Ring, P.; Gambhir, Y. K.

    1985-09-01

    Angular-momentum- and number-projected Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) wave functions of translational and deformed rare earth nuclei are analyzed in terms of fermion pairs coupled to angular momenta L = 0 (S), 2 (D), 4 (G),/3. The fermion space is truncated to contain only S-D or S-D-G pairs. The variation is carried out before and after angular momentum projection and also with different truncations. The influence of the truncation on physical quantities such as moments of inertia, quadrupole moments or pair transfer matrix elements is discussed.

  10. Enhanced spin-orbit interaction during ultrafast demagnetization of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, Christian; Pontius, Niko; Kachel, Torsten; Wietstruk, Marko; Duerr, Hermann A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) allows for a detailed view of microscopic processes during ultrafast demagnetization following a laser pump pulse. Previously we have shown that both spin and orbital angular momentum are quenched within a few 100 fs, utilizing the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) sum rules. In addition, XAS is able to measure the spin-orbit interaction by quantifying the absorption ratio between the spin-orbit split L3, L2 absorption edges, the so-called branching ratio. We find an increase of the spin-orbit coupling just after laser excitation, which persists during the demagnetization process. This is the first experimental demonstration of laser-enhanced spin-orbit interaction.

  11. Spectrum and angular distribution of low energy electrons from 152Eu deca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Sydorenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Angular distribution of low energy electrons from 152Eu decay was measured. Measurements were carried out in cylindrical geometry, which permits minimum distortions of data. These data confirm existence of angular distribution dependence on the energy of emitted electrons but this dependence somewhat differs from theory predicted. It is noted that the theory predicts too low intensity of near-zero energy electrons e0 (Ee ~ 1 - 2 eV emission; also, the static screening of charge used in theory should not influence the emission of e0-electrons.

  12. Convergence of the Critical Cooling Rate for Protoplanetary Disk Fragmentation Achieved: The Key Role of Numerical Dissipation of Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongping; Mayer, Lucio; Meru, Farzana

    2017-09-01

    We carry out simulations of gravitationally unstable disks using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and the novel Lagrangian meshless finite mass (MFM) scheme in the GIZMO code. Our aim is to understand the cause of the nonconvergence of the cooling boundary for fragmentation reported in the literature. We run SPH simulations with two different artificial viscosity implementations and compare them with MFM, which does not employ any artificial viscosity. With MFM we demonstrate convergence of the critical cooling timescale for fragmentation at {β }{crit}≈ 3. Nonconvergence persists in SPH codes. We show how the nonconvergence problem is caused by artificial fragmentation triggered by excessive dissipation of angular momentum in domains with large velocity derivatives. With increased resolution, such domains become more prominent. Vorticity lags behind density, due to numerical viscous dissipation in these regions, promoting collapse with longer cooling times. Such effect is shown to be dominant over the competing tendency of artificial viscosity to diminish with increasing resolution. When the initial conditions are first relaxed for several orbits, the flow is more regular, with lower shear and vorticity in nonaxisymmetric regions, aiding convergence. Yet MFM is the only method that converges exactly. Our findings are of general interest, as numerical dissipation via artificial viscosity or advection errors can also occur in grid-based codes. Indeed, for the FARGO code values of {β }{crit} significantly higher than our converged estimate have been reported in the literature. Finally, we discuss implications for giant planet formation via disk instability.

  13. Gauge Freedom in Orbital Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efroimsky, Michael

    2005-12-01

    In orbital and attitude dynamics the coordinates and the Euler angles are expressed as functions of the time and six constants called elements. Under disturbance, the constants are endowed with time dependence. The Lagrange constraint is then imposed to guarantee that the functional dependence of the perturbed velocity on the time and constants stays the same as in the undisturbed case. Constants obeying this condition are called osculating elements. The constants chosen to be canonical are called Delaunay elements, in the orbital case, or Andoyer elements, in the spin case. (As some Andoyer elements are time dependent even in the free-spin case, the role of constants is played by their initial values.) The Andoyer and Delaunay sets of elements share a feature not readily apparent: in certain cases the standard equations render them non-osculating. In orbital mechanics, elements furnished by the standard planetary equations are non-osculating when perturbations depend on velocities. To preserve osculation, the equations must be amended with extra terms that are not parts of the disturbing function. In the case of Delaunay parameterisation, these terms destroy canonicity. So under velocity-dependent disturbances, osculation and canonicity are incompatible. (Efroimsky and Goldreich 2003, 2004) Similarly, the Andoyer elements turn out to be non-osculating under angular-velocity-dependent perturbation. Amendment of only the Hamiltonian makes the equations render nonosculating elements. To make them osculating, more terms must enter the equations (and the equations will no longer be canonical). In practical calculations, is often convenient to deliberately deviate from osculation by substituting the Lagrange constraint with a condition that gives birth to a family of nonosculating elements.

  14. Spin–orbit coupling in actinide cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Martin, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    The limiting case of Russell–Saunders coupling, which leads to a maximum spin alignment for the open shell electrons, usually explains the properties of high spin ionic crystals with transition metals. For actinide compounds, the spin–orbit splitting is large enough to cause a significantly reduc...... spin alignment. Novel concepts are used to explain the dependence of the spin alignment on the 5f shell occupation. We present evidence that the XPS of ionic actinide materials may provide direct information about the angular momentum coupling within the 5f shell....

  15. Preseptal Cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitis, Orbital Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Altan Yaycıoğlu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with orbital infections present to our clinic usually with unilateral pain, hyperemia, and edema of the eyelids. The differentiation between preseptal and orbital cellulitis is utmost important in that the second requires hospitalization. Since in orbital cellulitis, the tissues posterior to the orbital septum are involved, signs such as conjunctival chemosis, limited eye movement, decreased vision, as well as afferent pupil defect secondary to optic nerve involvement may also be observed. Prompt intravenous antibiotic treatment should be started, and surgical drainage may be performed if patient shows failure to improve in 48 hours despite optimal management. Without treatment, the clinical course may progress to subperiosteal or orbital abscess, and even to cavernous sinus thrombosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 52-6

  16. Space Shuttle Orbiter-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  17. Quantum-mechanical theory including angular momenta analysis of atom-atom collisions in a laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of two atoms colliding in the presence of an intense radiation field, such as that of a laser, is investigated. The radiation field, which couples states of different electronic symmetry, is described by the number state representation while the electronic degrees of freedom (plus spin-orbit interaction) are discussed in terms of a diabatic representation. The total angular momentum of the field-free system and the angular momentum transferred by absorption (or emission) of a photon are explicitly considered in the derivation of the coupled scattering equations. A model calculation is discussed for the Xe + F collision system.

  18. Ion and electron angular distributions in the Io torus region of the Jovian magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Maclennan, C. G.; Armstrong, T. P.; Krimigis, S. M.; Lepping, R. P.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    Angular distributions are presented of ion (about 0.5-2 MeV) and electron (greater than 10 MeV) fluxes measured during the Voyager 1 spacecraft passage through the inner regions of the Jovian magnetosphere. In the regions of peak flux intensities, just outside the orbit of Io, the ion angular distributions are most sharply peaked at 90 deg local pitch angle, a configuration consistent with diffusion of the particles inward from large radial distances. Inside the orbit of Io the lower-energy ions exhibit angular distributions depleted at 90 deg local pitch angles, suggesting the possibility of charge-exchange scattering loss of these particles. In the vicinity of the Io flux tube, no significant effect is observed in the flux or pitch angle distributions of the ions. The relativistic electrons are depleted in the flux tube region and exhibit an asymmetrical pitch angle distribution, with more electrons appearing to arrive from the equatorial region (the direction of Io) than from the low-altitude mirror point.

  19. Transneptunian Orbit Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, J.; Tancredi, G.; Bernstein, G. M.; Spahr, T.; Muinonen, K.

    We review the orbit computation problem for the transneptunian population. For these distant objects, the problem is characterized by their short observed orbital arcs, which are known to be coupled with large uncertainties in orbital elements. Currently, the observations of even the best observed objects, such as the first-ever transneptunian object (TNO), Pluto, cover only a fraction of their revolution. Furthermore, of the some 1200 objects discovered since 1992, roughly half have observations from only one opposition. To ensure realistic analyses of the population, e.g., in the derivation of unbiased orbital distributions or correlations between orbital and physical properties, realistic estimation of orbital uncertainties is important. We describe the inverse problem of orbit computation, emphasizing the short-arc problem and its statistical treatment. The complete solution to the problem can be given in terms of the orbital-element probability density function (p.d.f.), which then serves as a starting point for any further analysis, where knowledge of orbital uncertainties is required. We give an overview of the variety of computational techniques developed for TNO orbital uncertainty estimation in the recent years. After presenting the current orbital distribution, we demonstrate their application to several prediction problems, such as classification, ephemeris prediction, and dynamical analysis of objects. We conclude with some future prospects for TNO orbit computation concerning the forthcoming next-generation surveys, including the anticipated evolution of TNO orbital uncertainties over the coming decades.

  20. Integrated accretion disk angular momentum removal and astrophysical jet acceleration mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Paul

    2015-11-01

    A model has been developed for how accretion disks discard angular momentum while powering astrophysical jets. The model depends on the extremely weak ionization of disks. This causes disk ions to be collisionally locked to adjacent disk neutrals so a clump of disk ions and neutrals has an effective cyclotron frequency αωci where α is the fractional ionization. When αωci is approximately twice the Kepler orbital frequency, conservation of canonical momentum shows that the clump spirals radially inwards producing a radially inward disk electric current as electrons cannot move radially in the disk. Upon reaching the jet radius, this current then flows axially away from the disk plane along the jet, producing a toroidal magnetic field that drives the jet. Electrons remain frozen to poloidal flux surfaces everywhere and electron motion on flux surfaces in the ideal MHD region outside the disk completes the current path. Angular momentum absorbed from accreting material in the disk by magnetic counter-torque -JrBz is transported by the electric circuit and ejected at near infinite radius in the disk plane. This is like an electric generator absorbing angular momentum and wired to a distant electric motor that emits angular momentum. Supported by USDOE/NSF Partnership in Plasma Science.

  1. Flavor-dependent neutrino angular distribution in core-collapse supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborra, Irene; Huedepohl, Lorenz; Raffelt, Georg

    2017-01-01

    According to recent studies, the collective flavor evolution of neutrinos in core-collapse supernovae depends strongly on the flavor-dependent angular distribution of the local neutrino radiation field, notably on the angular intensity of the electron-lepton number carried by neutrinos....... To facilitate further investigations of this subject, we study the energy and angle distributions of the neutrino radiation field computed with the Vertex neutrino-transport code for several spherically symmetric (1D) supernova simulations (of progenitor masses 11.2, 15 and 25 M_sun) and explain how to extract...... this information from additional models of the Garching group. Beginning in the decoupling region ("neutrino sphere"), the distributions are more and more forward peaked in the radial direction with an angular spread that is largest for $\

  2. ASC Champ Orbit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite.......This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite....

  3. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  4. Nucleon form factors, generalized parton distributions and quark angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kroll, Peter [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-02-15

    We extract the individual contributions from u and d quarks to the Dirac and Pauli form factors of the proton, after a critical examination of the available measurements of electromagnetic nucleon form factors. From this data we determine generalized parton distributions for valence quarks, assuming a particular form for their functional dependence. The result allows us to study various aspects of nucleon structure in the valence region. In particular, we evaluate Ji's sum rule and estimate the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks at the scale {mu}=2 GeV to be J{sup u}{sub v}=0.230{sup +0.009}{sub -0.024} and J{sup d}{sub v}=-0.004{sup +0.010}{sub -0.016}.

  5. Power spectra of the angular fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xihua; Zhu, Yafen; Zhou, Yueming

    1993-09-01

    Based on the angular backbone taken from the triangular Sierpinski gasket, several seLf-similar structures are disigned, corresponding diffraction screens are made, and the Fraunhofer patterns as power spectra of them are given. Based upon a viewpoint of generative production and by means of the ui-branched displacement operation, we have found the recurrence formulae of spectral structure factor for these angular fractals. As a example, the recurrence formulae of power spectra for a coherent point group is given, corresponding a series of curves as well as an isogram are plotted. The analysis of result shows that the power spectra of this fractal point group has a rotation symmetry and a mirror symmetry, and appears a period doubling phenomenon which follows the process of generative production.

  6. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  7. Idiopathic granulomatous orbital inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Schlingemann, R. O.; Goldschmeding, R.; Koornneef, L.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: Granulomatous orbital inflammation may occur as an isolated condition of unknown origin. These idiopathic granulomatous lesions are believed to belong to the orbital pseudotumor group by some authors, whereas others consider them sarcoidosis limited to the orbit. The aim of this study is to

  8. The Angular Trispectrum of the CMB

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    We study the general properties of the CMB temperature four-point function, specifically its harmonic analogue the angular trispectrum, and illustrate its utility in finding optimal quadratic statistics through the weak gravitational lensing effect. We determine the general form of the trispectrum, under the assumptions of rotational, permutation, and parity invariance, its estimators on the sky, and their Gaussian noise properties. The signal-to-noise in the trispectrum can be highly configu...

  9. Coherent Control of Photoelectron Wavepacket Angular Interferograms

    OpenAIRE

    Hockett, Paul; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Baumert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the cohere...

  10. A UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR THE ORBITAL STRUCTURE OF BARS AND TRIAXIAL ELLIPSOIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valluri, Monica; Abbott, Caleb [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shen, Juntai [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Debattista, Victor P., E-mail: mvalluri@umich.edu, E-mail: calebga@umich.edu, E-mail: jshen@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: vpdebattista@uclan.ac.uk [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-20

    We examine a large random sample of orbits in two self-consistent simulations of N-body bars. Orbits in these bars are classified both visually and with a new automated orbit classification method based on frequency analysis. The well-known prograde x1 orbit family originates from the same parent orbit as the box orbits in stationary and rotating triaxial ellipsoids. However, only a small fraction of bar orbits (∼4%) have predominately prograde motion like their periodic parent orbit. Most bar orbits arising from the x1 orbit have little net angular momentum in the bar frame, making them equivalent to box orbits in rotating triaxial potentials. In these simulations a small fraction of bar orbits (∼7%) are long-axis tubes that behave exactly like those in triaxial ellipsoids: they are tipped about the intermediate axis owing to the Coriolis force, with the sense of tipping determined by the sign of their angular momentum about the long axis. No orbits parented by prograde periodic x2 orbits are found in the pure bar model, but a tiny population (∼2%) of short-axis tube orbits parented by retrograde x4 orbits are found. When a central point mass representing a supermassive black hole (SMBH) is grown adiabatically at the center of the bar, those orbits that lie in the immediate vicinity of the SMBH are transformed into precessing Keplerian orbits that belong to the same major families (short-axis tubes, long-axis tubes and boxes) occupying the bar at larger radii. During the growth of an SMBH, the inflow of mass and outward transport of angular momentum transform some x1 and long-axis tube orbits into prograde short-axis tubes. This study has important implications for future attempts to constrain the masses of SMBHs in barred galaxies using orbit-based methods like the Schwarzschild orbit superposition scheme and for understanding the observed features in barred galaxies.

  11. Contrast sensitivity to angular frequency gratings is not higher than to Cartesian gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zana Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available When contrast sensitivity functions to Cartesian and angular gratings were compared in previous studies the peak sensitivity to angular stimuli was reported to be 0.21 log units higher. In experiments carried out to repeat this result, we used the same two-alternative forced-choice paradigm, but improved experimental control and precision by increasing contrast resolution from 8 to 12 bits, increasing the screen refresh rate from 30 Hz interlaced to 85 Hz non-interlaced, linearizing the voltage-luminance relation, modulating luminance in frequencies that minimize pixel aliasing, and improving control of the subject's exposure to the stimuli. The contrast sensitivity functions to Cartesian and angular gratings were similar in form and peak sensitivity (2.4 cycles per visual degree (c/deg and 32 c/360º, respectively to those reported in a previous study (3 c/deg and 32 c/360º, respectively, but peak sensitivity to angular stimuli was 0.13 log units lower than that to Cartesian stimuli. When the experiment was repeated, this time simulating the experimental control level used in the previous study, no difference between the peak sensitivity to Cartesian and angular stimuli was found. This result agrees with most current models that assume Cartesian filtering at the first visual processing stage. The discrepancy in the results is explained in part by differences in the degree of experimental control.

  12. Kinetic investigation of the ion angular distribution in capacitive radio-frequency plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihab, Mohammed; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    One of the key parameters in the context of plasma assisted processing in semiconductor fabrication using capacitive radio-frequency plasmas is the ion flux distribution at the substrate. Whereas the ion energy distribution function determines the etching rate and selectivity, the ion angular distribution controls the etching profile. In this contribution, we reveal the effect of the ion flux and the sheath potential on the ion angular distribution and the direct ion heat flux at the bottom of etching profiles in geometrically symmetric plasma reactors. The ion angular distribution and the direct ion heat flux are calculated as a function of the sheath potential, the driving frequency, and the phase shift between the two distinct harmonics of the driving voltage of dual frequency discharges. For this task, self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations subject to Monte Carlo collision are carried out. The results from particle-in-cell simulations which are computationally very expensive are compared and verified with those from the novel ensemble-in-spacetime model. It is confirmed that increasing the voltage of the high-frequency component, the high-frequency component, and/or make a phase shift of π/2 between the dual frequency, narrow the ion angular distribution and increase the direct ion heat flux to the etching profile bottom. In all simulation cases, a correlation between the narrowing of the ion angular distribution and the increase of the sheath potential and the sheath ion flux is found.

  13. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriage, Tobias; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John; Bennett, Charles; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from inflation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  14. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  15. Verification of angular dependence in MOSFET detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Clayton H.; Shorto, Julian M.B.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Nunes, Maíra G.; Silva Junior, Iremar A.; Yoriyaz, Hélio, E-mail: chsouza@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In vivo dosimetry is an essential tool for quality assurance programs, being a procedure commonly performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) or diodes. However, a type of dosimeter that has increasing popularity in recent years is the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) detector. MOSFET dosimeters fulfill all the necessary characteristics to realize in vivo dosimetry since it has a small size, good precision and feasibility of measurement, as well as easy handling. Nevertheless, its true differential is to allow reading of the dose in real time, enabling immediate intervention in the correction of physical parameters deviations and anticipation of small anatomical changes in a patient during treatment. In order for MOSFET dosimeter to be better accepted in clinical routine, information reporting performance should be available frequently. For this reason, this work proposes to verify reproducibility and angular dependence of a standard sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter (TN-502RD-H) for Cs-137 and Co-60 sources. Experimental data were satisfactory and MOSFET dosimeter presented a reproducibility of 3.3% and 2.7% (1 SD) for Cs-137 and Co-60 sources, respectively. In addition, an angular dependence of up to 6.1% and 16.3% for both radioactive sources, respectively. It is conclusive that MOSFET dosimeter TN-502RD-H has satisfactory reproducibility and a considerable angular dependence, mainly for the Co-60 source. This means that although precise measurements, special attention must be taken for applications in certain anatomical regions in a patient. (author)

  16. Angular momentum evolution of galaxies in EAGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Claudia del P.; Theuns, Tom; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Cortese, Luca; Padilla, Nelson D.; Davis, Timothy A.; Contreras, Sergio; Croton, Darren

    2017-02-01

    We use the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamic simulation suite to study the specific angular momentum of galaxies, j, with the aims of (i) investigating the physical causes behind the wide range of j at fixed mass and (ii) examining whether simple, theoretical models can explain the seemingly complex and non-linear nature of the evolution of j. We find that j of the stars, jstars, and baryons, jbar, are strongly correlated with stellar and baryon mass, respectively, with the scatter being highly correlated with morphological proxies such as gas fraction, stellar concentration, (u-r) intrinsic colour, stellar age and the ratio of circular velocity to velocity dispersion. We compare with available observations at z = 0 and find excellent agreement. We find that jbar follows the theoretical expectation of an isothermal collapsing halo under conservation of specific angular momentum to within ≈50 per cent, while the subsample of rotation-supported galaxies are equally well described by a simple model in which the disc angular momentum is just enough to maintain marginally stable discs. We extracted evolutionary tracks of the stellar spin parameter of EAGLE galaxies and found that the fate of their jstars at z = 0 depends sensitively on their star formation and merger histories. From these tracks, we identified two distinct physical channels behind low jstars galaxies at z = 0: (i) galaxy mergers, and (ii) early star formation quenching. The latter can produce galaxies with low jstars and early-type morphologies even in the absence of mergers.

  17. Angular light modulator using optical blinds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zichao; Alhudaithy, Soliman; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Zibang; Guo, Kaikai; Bian, Liheng; Tomizawa, Yuji; Satonick, Peter; Hoshino, Kazunori; Zheng, Guoan

    2016-12-12

    Spatial light modulator (SLM) is widely used in imaging applications for modulating light intensity and phase delay. In this paper, we report a novel device concept termed angular light modulator (ALM). Different from the SLM, the reported ALM employs a tunable blind structure to modulate the angular components of the incoming light waves. For spatial-domain light modulation, the ALM can be directly placed in front of an image sensor for selecting different angular light components. In this case, we can sweep the slat angle of the blind structure and capture multiple images corresponding to different perspectives. These images can then be back-projected for 3D tomographic refocusing. By using a fixed slat angle, we can also convert the incident-angle information into intensity variations for wavefront sensing or introduce a translational shift to the defocused object for high-speed autofocusing. For Fourier-domain light modulation, the ALM can be placed at the pupil plane of an optical system for reinforcing the light propagating trajectories. We show that a pupil-plane-modulated system is able to achieve a better resolution for out-of-focus objects while maintaining the same resolution for in-focus objects. The reported ALM can be fabricated on the chip level and controlled by an external magnetic field. It may provide new insights for developing novel imaging and vision devices.

  18. A neural circuit for angular velocity computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel B Snider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly-tunable wing-steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuro-mechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob.

  19. A neural circuit for angular velocity computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Samuel B; Yuste, Rafael; Packer, Adam M

    2010-01-01

    In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly tunable wing steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuromechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob.

  20. The Gauge-Invariant Angular Momentum Sum-Rule for the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    We give a gauge-invariant treatment of the angular momentum sum-rule for the proton in terms of matrix elements of three gauge-invariant, local composite operators. These matrix elements are decomposed into three independent form factors, one of which is the flavour singlet axial charge. We further show that the axial charge cancels out of the sum-rule, so that it is unaffacted by the axial anomaly. The three form factors are then related to the four proton spin components in the parton model, namely quark and gluon intrinsic spin and orbital angular momentum. The renormalisation of the three operators is determined to one loop from which the scale dependence and mixing of the spin components is derived under the constraint that the quark spin be scale-independent. We also show how the three form factors can be measured in experiments.

  1. Optical Studies of Orbital Debris at GEO Using Two Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, P.; Abercromby, K. J.; Rodriquez,H. M.; Barker, E.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning in March, 2007, optical observations of debris at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) were commenced using two telescopes simultaneously at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The University of Michigan's 0.6/0.9-m Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope) was used in survey mode to find objects that potentially could be at GEO. Because GEO objects only appear in this telescope's field of view for an average of 5 minutes, a full six-parameter orbit can not be determined. Interrupting the survey for follow-up observations leads to incompleteness in the survey results. Instead, as objects are detected on MODEST, initial predictions assuming a circular orbit are done for where the object will be for the next hour, and the objects are reacquired as quickly as possible on the CTIO 0.9-m telescope. This second telescope then follows-up during the first night and, if possible, over several more nights to obtain the maximum time arc possible, and the best six parameter orbit. Our goal is to obtain an initial orbit for all detected objects fainter than R = 15th in order to estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: magnitude and angular rate. Objects fainter than 15th are largely uncataloged and have a completely different angular rate distribution than brighter objects. Combining the information obtained for both faint and bright objects yields a more complete picture of the debris environment rather than just concentrating on the faint debris. One objective is to estimate what fraction of objects selected on the basis of angular rate are not at GEO. A second objective is to obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials. This paper reports on results from two 14 night runs with both telescopes: in March and November 2007: (1) A significant fraction of objects fainter than

  2. Hardy's paradox tested in the spin-orbit Hilbert space of single photons

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Cardano, Filippo; Maffei, Maria; de Lisio, Corrado; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Boyd, Robert W.; Santamato, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    We test experimentally the quantum ``paradox'' proposed by Lucien Hardy in 1993 [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1665 (1993)] by using single photons instead of photon pairs. This is achieved by addressing two compatible degrees of freedom of the same particle, namely its spin angular momentum, determined by the photon polarization, and its orbital angular momentum, a property related to the optical transverse mode. Because our experiment involves a single particle, we cannot use locality to logically e...

  3. Families of Keplerian orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butikov, Eugene I [St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2003-03-01

    Various properties of Keplerian orbits traced by satellites that are launched from one and the same spatial point with different initial velocities are discussed. Two families of elliptical orbits are investigated, namely the sets of orbits produced by a common direction but different magnitudes of the initial velocities, and by a common magnitude but various directions of the initial velocities. For the latter family, the envelope of all the orbits is found, which is the boundary of the spatial region occupied by the orbits.

  4. Families of Keplerian orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Butikov, E I

    2003-01-01

    Various properties of Keplerian orbits traced by satellites that are launched from one and the same spatial point with different initial velocities are discussed. Two families of elliptical orbits are investigated, namely the sets of orbits produced by a common direction but different magnitudes of the initial velocities, and by a common magnitude but various directions of the initial velocities. For the latter family, the envelope of all the orbits is found, which is the boundary of the spatial region occupied by the orbits.

  5. Photon Self-Induced Spin to Orbital Conversion in TGG crystal at high laser power

    CERN Document Server

    Mosca, S; Karimi, E; Piccirillo, B; Marrucci, L; De Rosa, R; Genin, E; Milano, L; Santamato, E

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present experimental evidence of a newly discovered third-order nonlinear optical process Self-Induced Spin-to-Orbital Conversion (SISTOC) of the photon angular momentum. This effect is the physical mechanism at the origin of the depolarization of very intense laser beams propagating in isotropic materials. The SISTOC process, like self-focusing, is triggered by laser heating leading to a radial temperature gradient in the medium. In this work we tested the occurrence of SISTOC in a terbium gallium garnet (TGG) rod for an impinging laser power of about 100~W. To study the SISTOC process we used different techniques: polarization analysis, interferometry and tomography of the photon orbital angular momentum. Our results confirm, in particular, that the apparent depolarization of the beam is due to the occurrence of maximal entanglement between the spin and orbital angular momentum of the photons undergoing the SISTOC process. This explanation of the true nature of the depolarization mechanism...

  6. Spherical angular spectrum and the fractional order Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellat-Finet, Pierre; Durand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Fogret, Eric

    2006-12-01

    The notion of a spherical angular spectrum leads to the decomposition of the field amplitude on a spherical emitter into a sum of spherical waves that converge onto the Fourier sphere of the emitter. Unlike the usual angular spectrum, the spherical angular spectrum is propagated as the field amplitude, in a way that can be expressed by a fractional order Fourier transform.

  7. Orbital fractures: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  8. Application of the Angular Overlap Model to Lanthanide Phthalocyanines (Aplicacion Del Modelo de Traslape Angular a Ftalocinaninas de Lantanidos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-15

    IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) UNCLASSIFIED: Aplicacion Del Modelo De Traslape Angular A...Justificatio Aplicacion Del Medelo De Traslape Angular A By Ftalocinaninas De Lantanidos Disributon/ (Application of the Angular Overlap Model to...Control Data - DD Form 1473. Copies of the form are available from the cognizant contract administrator. APLICACION DEL MODELO DE TRASLAPE ANGULAR A

  9. Periodic orbits around a spherically symmetric naked singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Gulmina Zaman; Babar, Adil Zaman; Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2017-10-01

    The motion of time-like test particles in the Fisher/Janis-Newman-Winicour (F/JNW) spacetime is studied with the Hamiltonian formulation of the geodesic equations. The spacetime is characterized by its mass parameter rg and scalar field parameter ν . The innermost bound and stable circular orbits are calculated and the effective potential is analyzed. Consistent with numerical results in earlier literature, for ν <1/2 , particles with nonzero angular momentum encounter an infinite potential barrier, preventing them from reaching the naked singularity at r =rg. Periodic orbits in the spacetime are also obtained. Compared to the periodic orbits around the Schwarzschild black hole, it is found that typically lower energies are required for the same orbits in the F/JNW spacetime.

  10. Convergence of Breit-Pauli spin-orbit matrix elements with basis set size and configuration interaction space: The halogen atoms F, Cl, and Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklass, Andreas [Department of Chemistry, Washington State University and the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Peterson, Kirk A. [Department of Chemistry, Washington State University and the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Berning, Andreas [Institut fuer Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart, (Germany); Werner, Hans-Joachim [Institut fuer Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart, (Germany); Knowles, Peter J. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, (United Kingdom)

    2000-04-01

    Systematic sequences of basis sets are used to calculate the spin-orbit splittings of the halogen atoms F, Cl, and Br in the framework of first-order perturbation theory with the Breit-Pauli operator and internally contracted configuration interaction wave functions. The effects of both higher angular momentum functions and the presence of tight functions are studied. By systematically converging the one-particle basis set, an unambiguous evaluation of the effects of correlating different numbers of electrons in the Cl treatment is carried out. Correlation of the 2p-electrons in chlorine increases the spin-orbit splitting by {approx}80 cm-1, while in bromine we observe incremental increases of 130, 145, and 93 cm-1, when adding the 3d, 3p, and 2p electrons to the set of explicitly correlated electrons, respectively. For fluorine and chlorine the final basis set limit, all-electrons correlated results match the experimentally observed spin-orbit splittings to within {approx}5 cm-1, while for bromine the Breit-Pauli operator underestimates the splitting by about 100 cm-1. More extensive treatment of electron correlation results in only a slight lowering of the spin-orbit matrix elements. Thus, the discrepancy for bromine is proposed to arise from the nonrelativistic character of the underlying wave function. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Measurement of the total optical angular momentum transfer in optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Simon; Knöner, Gregor; Nieminen, Timo A.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2006-07-01

    We describe a way to determine the total angular momentum, both spin and orbital, transferred to a particle trapped in optical tweezers. As an example an LG02 mode of a laser beam with varying degrees of circular polarisation is used to trap and rotate an elongated particle with a well defined geometry. The method successfully estimates the total optical torque applied to the particle. For this technique, there is no need to measure the viscous drag on the particle, as it is an optical measurement. Therefore, knowledge of the particle’s size and shape, as well as the fluid’s viscosity, is not required.

  12. Orbit Control of Fly-around Satellite with Highly Eccentric Orbit Using Solar Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-gang, Hou; Chang-yin, Zhao; Ming-jiang, Zhang; Rong-yu, Sun

    2017-01-01

    The method of controlling highly eccentric accompanying flight orbit using the solar wing is proposed in this paper. The formation is maintained by controlling the orbit of the accompanying satellite (follower). The accompanying satellite rotates around its inertial principal axis with a constant angular velocity. The control on the accompanying satellite is divided into the in-plane control and out-of-plane control. The in-plane control is superior to the out-of-plane control. The out-of-plane control force is applied when the in-plane error is eliminated or the in-plane control force can not be supplied due to some geometrical factors. By the sliding mode control method, the magnitude and direction of the control force required by the in-plane orbit control are calculated. Then accordingly, the expression of the solar wing orientation with respect to the satellite body in the control process is derived, so that by adjusting the orientation of the solar wing, the required control force can be obtained. Finally, the verification on this method is performed by numerical simulations, including the orbit adjustment, error elimination, and the orbit maintenance. It is shown that this method can keep the error less than 5 m, and it is feasible for the space formation flight.

  13. Research on static angular stiffness measurement of flexible joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchao HUANG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurement accuracy of the angular stiffness of flexible joint is directly related to the control accuracy and sensitivity of gyro, but the traditional measurement methods have many problems. According to the principle of angular stiffness measurement of flexible joint, two static measurement methods of angular stiffness are proposed based on different loading ways, namely mechanical loading angular stiffness measurement and piezoelectric loading angular stiffness measurement. The mechanical loading angular stiffness measurement system is built by using a motor driven indexing feeding tilting table, the measure experiment if the angular stiffness of flexible joint is conducted, and the angular stiffness of flexible joint is measured. For the excessive fluctuation problem of the measure result in mechanical load test, a piezoelectric loading structure is designed and a measurement method employing piezoelectric actuator is proposed for angular stiffness measurement of flexible joint. Based on ANSYS Workbench, the displacement output of the piezoelectric loading structure is analyzed by simulations. The simulation results illustrate that the displacement output meets the requirement of static loading angular stiffness measurement of flexible joint, and the theoretical feasibility of piezoelectric loading angular stiffness measurement method is validated.

  14. Angular Rate Estimation Using a Distributed Set of Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyung Hong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A distributed set of accelerometers based on the minimum number of 12 accelerometers allows for computation of the magnitude of angular rate without using the integration operation. However, it is not easy to extract the magnitude of angular rate in the presence of the accelerometer noises, and even worse, it is difficult to determine the direction of a rotation because the angular rate is present in its quadratic form within the inertial measurement system equations. In this paper, an extended Kalman filter scheme to correctly estimate both the direction and magnitude of the angular rate through fusion of the angular acceleration and quadratic form of the angular rate is proposed. We also provide observability analysis for the general distributed accelerometers-based inertial measurement unit, and show that the angular rate can be correctly estimated by general nonlinear state estimators such as an extended Kalman filter, except under certain extreme conditions.

  15. Orbits in Homogeneous Oblate Spheroidal Gravitational Space-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Lagrangian in general relativistic homogeneous oblate spheroidal gravitational fields is constructed and used to study orbits exterior to homogenous oblate spheroids. Expressions for the conservation of energy and angular momentum for this gravitational field are obtained. The planetary equation of motion and the equation of motion of a photon in the vicinity of an oblate spheroid are derived. These equations have additional terms not found in Schwarzschild's space time.

  16. Optical evidence of quantum rotor orbital excitations in orthorhombic manganites

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaleva, N. N.; Kugel, K. I.; Potucek, Z.; Goryachev, N. S.; Kusmartseva, O. E.; Bryknar, Z.; Trepakov, V. A.; Demikhov, E. I.; Dejneka, A.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Stoneham, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    In magnetic compounds with Jahn-Teller (JT) ions (such as Mn3+ or Cu2+), the ordering of the electron or hole orbitals is associated with cooperative lattice distortions. There the role of JT effect, although widely recognised, is still elusive in the ground state properties. We suggest that, in these materials, there exist elementary excitations whose energy spectrum is described in terms of the total angular momentum eigenstates and is quantised as in quantum rotors found in JT centers. We ...

  17. Angular correlation studies in noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, P. G.

    1990-01-01

    There has been a recent revival of interest in the measurement of angular correlation of annihilation photons from the decay of positrons and positronium in gases. This revival has been stimulated by the possibility offered by the technique to shed new light on the apparently low positronium formation fraction in the heavier noble gases and to provide information on positronium quenching processes in gases such as oxygen. There is also the potential for learning about positronium slowing down in gases. This review focuses on experimental noble gas work and considers what new information has been, and may be, gained from these studies.

  18. Angular momentum sensitive two-center interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilchen, M; Glaser, L; Scholz, F; Walter, P; Deinert, S; Rothkirch, A; Seltmann, J; Viefhaus, J; Decleva, P; Langer, B; Knie, A; Ehresmann, A; Al-Dossary, O M; Braune, M; Hartmann, G; Meissner, A; Tribedi, L C; AlKhaldi, M; Becker, U

    2014-01-17

    In quantum mechanics the Young-type double-slit experiment can be performed with electrons either traveling through a double slit or being coherently emitted from two inversion symmetric molecular sites. In the latter one the valence photoionization cross sections of homonuclear diatomic molecules were predicted to oscillate over kinetic energy almost 50 years ago. Beyond the direct proof of the oscillatory behavior of these photoionization cross sections σ, we show that the angular distribution of the emitted electrons reveals hitherto unexplored information on the relative phase shift between the corresponding partial waves through two-center interference patterns.

  19. Angular Distributions of Discrete Mesoscale Mapping Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroszczyński, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents the results of analyses of numerical experiments concerning GPS signal propagation delays in the atmosphere and the discrete mapping functions defined on their basis. The delays were determined using data from the mesoscale non-hydrostatic weather model operated in the Centre of Applied Geomatics, Military University of Technology. A special attention was paid to investigating angular characteristics of GPS slant delays for low angles of elevation. The investigation proved that the temporal and spatial variability of the slant delays depends to a large extent on current weather conditions.

  20. The angular momentum of isolated white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brassard P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a very brief report on an ongoing program aimed at mapping the internal rotation profiles of stars through asteroseismology. Three years ago, we developed and applied successfully a new technique to the pulsating GW Vir white dwarf PG 1159−035, and were able to infer that it rotates very slowly and rigidly over some 99% of its mass. We applied the same approach to the three other GW Vir pulsators with available rotational splitting data, and found similar results. We discuss the implications of these findings on the question of the angular momentum of white dwarfs resulting from single star evolution.

  1. Projection of angular momentum via linear algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Calvin W.; O'Mara, Kevin D.

    2017-12-01

    Projection of many-body states with good angular momentum from an initial state is usually accomplished by a three-dimensional integral. We show how projection can instead be done by solving a straightforward system of linear equations. We demonstrate the method and give sample applications to 48Cr and 60Fe in the p f shell. This new projection scheme, which is competitive against the standard numerical quadrature, should also be applicable to other quantum numbers such as isospin and particle number.

  2. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M Al-Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.

  3. Poynting vector and orbital angular momentum density of superpositions of Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available . Experimental methodology A HeNe laser (? ~633 nm) was expanded through a 6 ? telescope and directed onto the liquid crystal display (LCD) of a SLM (HoloEye, PLUTO-VIS, with 1920 ? 1080 pixels of pitch 8 ?m and calibrated for a 2? phase shift at ~633 nm...) depicted in Fig. 1. The first SLM (denoted as LCD 1) was programmed to produce various superposition fields using the concept of Durnin?s ring-slit [31], but implemented digitally [29]. Other techniques to experimentally generate superpositions...

  4. Measuring the orbital angular momentum density for a superposition of Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available the liquid crystal display (LCD) of a SLM. The first SLM (denoted as LCD 1) was programmed to produce various superposition fields using the concept of Durnin?s ring-slit [14], but implemented digitally [15]. Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8274 827406-3 Downloaded... superposition field was then magnified with a 10? objective and directed to the second SLM (LCD 2) for executing the modal decomposition of Eq. (5). The incoming field was divided into 10 annular rings and the phase within each annular ring varied...

  5. Measurement of the orbital angular momentum density of light by modal decomposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available measurement according to equation (7) was not necessary. As a first example, a pure Laguerre–Gaussian mode LG0,1 was generated with SLM1, where the last-mentioned index indicates the order of the helical phase and the topological charge [6, 45]. To measure... does not contain any azimuthal phase component. Thus far the investigated beams have been single Laguerre–Gaussian modes. However, even more interesting with regard to the conservation of momentum and topological charge are mode superpositions [45, 46...

  6. High-power Bessel beams with orbital angular momentum in the terahertz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choporova, Yu. Yu.; Knyazev, B. A.; Kulipanov, G. N.; Pavelyev, V. S.; Scheglov, M. A.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Volodkin, B. O.; Zhabin, V. N.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we have performed experimental, analytical, and numerical studies of beams with topological charges of ±1 and ±2 formed by silicon binary phase axicons (BPAs) with spiral zone structures. The axicons were illuminated with the Novosibirsk free electron laser radiation (a continuous stream of 100-ps pulses at f =5.6 MHz). The cw power of the beams produced reached 30 W and can by doubled via antireflection coating of the axicons. The intensity distribution in the beam cross sections was in good agreement with the Bessel functions and was kept constant within a distance of about L /r ≈190 and 100, where the first ring radii of the beams r were 0.9 and 1.5 mm for the Bessel beams of the first and second orders, respectively. Although the characteristics of the beams (Bessel cross section, "diffraction-free" propagation, self-recovery after passing obstacles, and randomly inhomogeneous media) corresponded to the properties of ideal Bessel beams, their spatial Fourier spectrum (the image in the focal plane of the lens) was, instead of an ideal ring, intertwined segments of arcs with phases shifted by π , the number of which was equal to the double value of the topological charge. This feature can be used, for example, in a demultiplexing unit of a free vortex-wave communication system or for identification of beam topological charge. We also revisited Young's double-slit diffraction and rotation of beams obstructed by a half-plane, previously applied to Laguerre-Gaussian beam characterization, in the case of the Bessel beams. The Young diffraction pattern demonstrated in this case a complicated intensity-phase distribution. It was shown that the Bessel beams formed by BPAs have two important advantages, which can be used in applications, in comparison with other methods of generation, e.g., a combination of an axicon lens with a spiral phase plate. Although the phase jumps of the axicons are designed for a determined wavelength (141 μ m in our case), the BPAs can form the beams at incident radiation with any wavelength, albeit with a reduced diffraction efficiency, and their cross section is the same for any wavelength.

  7. Violation of a Bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. Leach; B. Jack; J. Romero; M. Ritsch-Marte; R. W. Boyd; A. K. Jha; S. M. Barnett; S. Franke-Arnold; M. J. Padgett

    2009-01-01

    ...). By drawing a direct analogy between OAM and polarization states of light, we demonstrate the entangled nature of high order OAM states generated by spontaneous downconversion through violation...

  8. Vortex-MEMS filters for wavelength-selective orbital-angular-momentum beam generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Sujoy; Lyubopytov, Vladimir; Schumann, Martin F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an on-chip device capable of wavelength-selective generation of vortex beams is demonstrated. The device is realized by integrating a spiral phase-plate onto a MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot filter. This vortex-MEMS filter, being capable of functioning simultaneously in wavelength...

  9. Orbital angular momentum modes by twisting of a hollow core antiresonant fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Kuhlmey, Boris T.; Fleming, Simon

    2017-01-01

    physical phenomena [2]. We previously reported the ability to create helical hollow fibers by mechanically twisting a tube lattice fiber made of polyurethane, the twist of which can be adjusted and reversed [3]. In this work we report how such deformation induces a mode transformation to an OAM mode...

  10. Modal decomposition for measuring the orbital angular momentum density of light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -5 Downloaded From: http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 03/14/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms 10.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 i I 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 x 10-12 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 Figure 5. Experimental setup for measuring the OAM density of a fiber beam. Nd:YAG... Nd:YAG laser, L lens, M mirror, QWP quarter-wave plate, P polarizer, BS beam splitter, CGH computer-generated hologram, CCD1,2 CCD cameras 4.2 Fiber beams The comparison of the measured OAM densities with the ones expected for the artifically...

  11. Pattern manipulation via on-chip phase modulation between orbital angular momentum beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huanlu [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Rankine Building, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LP (United Kingdom); Strain, Michael J. [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Rankine Building, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LP (United Kingdom); Wolfson Centre, Institute of Photonics, University of Strathclyde, 106 Rottenrow East, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom); Meriggi, Laura; Sorel, Marc [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Rankine Building, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LP (United Kingdom); Chen, Lifeng; Zhu, Jiangbo; Cicek, Kenan [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Wang, Jianwei; Thompson, Mark G. [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); Cai, Xinlun, E-mail: caixlun5@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies and School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yu, Siyuan, E-mail: s.yu@bristol.ac.uk [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies and School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2015-08-03

    An integrated approach to thermal modulation of relative phase between two optical vortices with opposite chirality has been demonstrated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. The device consists of a silicon-integrated optical vortex emitter and a phase controlled 3 dB coupler. The relative phase between two optical vortices can be actively modulated on chip by applying a voltage on the integrated heater. The phase shift is shown to be linearly proportional to applied electrical power, and the rotation angle of the interference pattern is observed to be inversely proportional to topological charge. This scheme can be used in lab-on-chip, communications and sensing applications. It can be intentionally implemented with other modulation elements to achieve more complicated applications.

  12. Family of Orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time. All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet. Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

  13. Supramolecular architectures constructed using angular bipyridyl ligands

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, S A

    2003-01-01

    This work details the synthesis and characterization of a series of coordination frameworks that are formed using bidentate angular N-donor ligands. Pyrimidine was reacted with metal(ll) nitrate salts. Reactions using Cd(NO sub 3) sub 2 receive particular focus and the analogous reactions using the linear ligand, pyrazine, were studied for comparison. In all cases, two-dimensional coordination networks were prepared. Structural diversity is observed for the Cd(ll) centres including metal-nitrate bridging. In contrast, first row transition metal nitrates form isostructural one-dimensional chains with only the bridging N-donor ligands generating polymeric propagation. The angular ligand, 2,4-bis(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (dpt), was reacted with Cd(NO sub 3) sub 2 and Zn(NO sub 3) sub 2. Whereas Zn(NO sub 3) sub 2 compounds exhibit solvent mediated polymorphism, a range of structures were obtained for the reactions with Cd(NO sub 3) sub 2 , including the first example of a doubly parallel interpenetrated 4.8 sup...

  14. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhilei; CLASS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of telescopes that observe Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization over ~65% of the sky from the Atacama Desert, Chile in frequency bands at 40 GHz, 90 GHz, 150 GHz, and 220 GHz. Multi-frequency observation enables CLASS to distinguish CMB from galactic foregrounds. CLASS is making large angular scale CMB polarization measurements as part of a five-year survey that will constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio at the 0.01 level by measuring both the reionization and recombination peaks. CLASS will measure the optical depth to last scattering to near the cosmic variance limit, significantly improving on current constraints. Combining the CLASS optical depth measurement with higher resolution data will improve constraints on the sum of neutrino masses. CLASS will also provide the deepest wide-sky-area Galactic microwave polarization maps for Galactic studies. CLASS has been observing for over one year at 40 GHz frequency band. In my talk, I will introduce the science, design, and current status of the CLASS experiment.

  15. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of four telescopes designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. CLASS aims to detect the B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves predicted by cosmic inflation theory, as well as the imprint left by reionization upon the CMB E-mode polarization. This will be achieved through a combination of observing strategy and state-of-the-art instrumentation. CLASS is observing 70% of the sky to characterize the CMB at large angular scales, which will measure the entire CMB power spectrum from the reionization peak to the recombination peak. The four telescopes operate at frequencies of 38, 93, 145, and 217 GHz, in order to estimate Galactic synchrotron and dust foregrounds while avoiding atmospheric absorption. CLASS employs rapid polarization modulation to overcome atmospheric and instrumental noise. Polarization sensitive cryogenic detectors with low noise levels provide CLASS the sensitivity required to constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to levels of r ~ 0.01 while also measuring the optical depth the reionization to sample-variance levels. These improved constraints on the optical depth to reionization are required to pin down the mass of neutrinos from complementary cosmological data. CLASS has completed a year of observations at 38 GHz and is in the process of deploying the rest of the telescope array. This poster provides an overview and update on the CLASS science, hardware and survey operations.

  16. Fast diffusion imaging with high angular resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tzu-Cheng; Chiou, Jr-Yuan George; Maier, Stephan E; Madore, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) is a well-established method to help reveal the architecture of nerve bundles, but long scan times and geometric distortions inherent to echo planar imaging (EPI) have limited its integration into clinical protocols. A fast imaging method is proposed here that combines accelerated multishot diffusion imaging (AMDI), multiplexed sensitivity encoding (MUSE), and crossing fiber angular resolution of intravoxel structure (CFARI) to reduce spatial distortions and reduce total scan time. A multishot EPI sequence was used to improve geometrical fidelity as compared to a single-shot EPI acquisition, and acceleration in both k-space and diffusion sampling enabled reductions in scan time. The method is regularized and self-navigated for motion correction. Seven volunteers were scanned in this study, including four with volumetric whole brain acquisitions. The average similarity of microstructural orientations between undersampled datasets and their fully sampled counterparts was above 85%, with scan times below 5 min for whole-brain acquisitions. Up to 2.7-fold scan time acceleration along with four-fold distortion reduction was achieved. The proposed imaging strategy can generate HARDI results with relatively good geometrical fidelity and low scan duration, which may help facilitate the transition of HARDI from a successful research tool to a practical clinical one. Magn Reson Med 77:696-706, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. The design of two stage to orbit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorek, G. M.; Ramsay, T. N.

    1991-09-01

    Two designs are presented for a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle to complement an existing heavy lift vehicle. The payload is 10,000 lbs and 27 ft long by 10 ft in diameter for design purposes and must be carried to a low earth orbit by an air-breathing carrier configuration that can take off horizontally within 15,000 ft. Two designs are presented: a delta wing/body carrier in which the fuselage contains the orbiter; and a cranked-delta wing/body carrier in which the orbiter is carried piggy back. The engines for both carriers are turbofanramjets powered with liquid hydrogen, and the orbiters employ either a Space Shuttle Main Engine or a half-scale version with additional scramjet engines. The orbiter based on a full-scale Space Shuttle Main Engine is found to have a significantly higher takeoff weight which results in a higher total takeoff weight.

  18. Critique of the angular momentum sum rules and a new angular momentum sum rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Leader, E.; Trueman, T. L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of the tensorial structure of the hadronic matrix elements of the angular momentum operators J. Well known results in the literature are shown to be incorrect, and we have taken pains to derive the correct expressions in three different ways, two involving explicit physical wave

  19. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  20. Surgical timing of the orbital "blowout" fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Olaf Ehlers; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Felding, Ulrik Ascanius

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The orbital blowout fracture is a common facial injury, carrying with it a risk of visual impairment and undesirable cosmetic results unless treated properly. Optimal timing of the surgical treatment is still a matter of debate. We set out to determine whether a meta-analysis would bri...

  1. Lux in obscuro II: photon orbits of extremal AdS black holes revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zi-Yu; Ong, Yen Chin; Wang, Bin

    2017-12-01

    A large class of spherically symmetric static extremal black hole spacetimes possesses a stable null photon sphere on their horizons. For the extremal Kerr-Newman family, the photon sphere only really coincides with the horizon in the sense clarified by Doran. The condition under which a photon orbit is stable on an asymptotically flat extremal Kerr-Newman black hole horizon has recently been clarified; it is found that a sufficiently large angular momentum destabilizes the photon orbit, whereas an electrical charge tends to stabilize it. We investigated the effect of a negative cosmological constant on this observation, and found the same behavior in the case of extremal asymptotically Kerr-Newman-AdS black holes in (3+1) -dimensions. In (2+1) -dimensions, in the presence of an electrical charge, the angular momentum never becomes large enough to destabilize the photon orbit. We comment on the instabilities of black hole spacetimes with a stable photon orbit.

  2. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    {O}(m\\cdot k)$. The underlying mechanisms of the parallelization scheme are formally proven correct. We also show designs for garbage-less reversible comparison circuits. We compare the circuit costs of the resulting ripple-block carry adder with known optimized reversible ripple-carry adders in measures...... wherein $m$ parallel $k$-bit reversible ripple-carry adders are combined to form a reversible $mk$-bit \\emph{ripple-block carry adder} with logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(m+k)$ for a \\emph{minimal} logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{mk})$, thus improving on the $mk$-bit ripple-carry adder logic depth $\\mathcal...

  3. Orbital ordering and frustrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khomskii, D.I.; Mostovoy, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital ordering occurs in many transition metal compounds with Jahn–Teller ions (Cu2+, Mn3+, low-spin Ni3+, Ti3+ etc). It plays an important role in these materials. At the same time, exchange interactions in orbitally degenerate systems are inherently frustrated, even in materials with simple

  4. CONGENITAL ORBITAL TERATOMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commenced on topical chloramphenicol therapy. The x-ray showed a left orbital soft tissue mass but no orbital enlargement and the swab showed no growth. ... proliferating neural bundles and some neural bundles lined by pigmented choroidal epithelium. Also seen are abundant fibrous tissues scattered within the.

  5. A solution to the problem of phaseless mapping for a high-orbit space—Ground radio interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajkova, A. T.

    2005-12-01

    We consider the problem of mapping with ultra-high angular resolution using a space—ground radio interferometer with a space antenna in a high orbit, whose apogee height exceeds the radius of the Earth by a factor of ten. In this case, a multielement interferometer essentially degenerates into a two-element interferometer. The degeneracy of the close-phase relations prevents the use of standard methods for hybrid mapping and self-calibration for the correct reconstruction of images. We propose a new phaseless mapping method based on methods for the reconstruction of images in the complete absence of phase information, using only the amplitudes of the spatial-coherence function of the source. In connection with this problem, we propose a new method for the reliable solution of the phase problem, based on optimizing information-carrying nonlinear functionals, in particular, the Shannon entropy. Results of simulations of mapping radio sources with various structures with ultra-high angular resolution in the framework of the RADIOASTRON mission are presented.

  6. Peripheral orbit model

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Yasuo

    1975-01-01

    Peripheral orbit model, in which an incoming hadron is assumed to revolve in a peripheral orbit around a target hadron, is discussed. The non-diffractive parts of two-body reaction amplitudes of hadrons are expressed in terms of the radius, width an absorptivity of the orbit. The radius of the orbit is about 1 fm and the width of the orbit is determined by the range of the interaction between the hadrons. The model reproduces all available experimental data on differential cross-sections and polarizations of $K^{-}p\\to K^{-}p$ and $\\bar K^{\\circ}n$ reactions for all angles successfully. This contribution is not included in the proceedings since it will appear in Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 51 (1974) No 2. Any person interested in the subject may apply for reprints to the author.

  7. Photometric Studies of GEO Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Rodriquez-Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Ed; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Horstman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The photometric signature of a debris object can be useful in determining what the physical characteristics of a piece of debris are. We report on optical observations in multiple filters of debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory (CTIO) 0.9-m for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R=15th magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. At this magnitude the distribution of observed angular rates changes significantly from that of brighter objects. There are two objectives: 1. Estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: brightness (magnitude) and angular rates. 2. Obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials. What is the faint debris likely to be? More than 90 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes for a sample of 50 objects have been obtained with the CTIO 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could be that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Thus the B-R color is a true measure of the surface of the debris piece facing the

  8. Gyroscope precession along bound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    The precession of a test gyroscope along stable bound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole is analyzed and the precession angular velocity of the gyro's parallel transported spin vector and the increment in precession angle after one orbital period is evaluated. The parallel transported Marck frame which enters this discussion is shown to have an elegant geometrical explanation in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the Killing-Yano 2-form and a Wigner rotation effect.

  9. Untangling Galaxy Components - The Angular Momentum Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Martha; Merrifield, Michael; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a new technique to decompose Integral Field spectral data cubes into separate bulge and disk components, allowing us to study the kinematic and stellar population properties of the individual components and how they vary with position. We present here the application of this method to a sample of fast rotator early type galaxies from the MaNGA integral field survey, and demonstrate how it can be used to explore key properties of the individual components. By extracting ages, metallicities and the angular momentum parameter lambda of the bulges and disks, we show how this method can give us new insights into the underlying structure of the galaxies and discuss what this can tell us about their evolution history.

  10. Angular filter refractometry analysis using simulated annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angland, P; Haberberger, D; Ivancic, S T; Froula, D H

    2017-10-01

    Angular filter refractometry (AFR) is a novel technique used to characterize the density profiles of laser-produced, long-scale-length plasmas [Haberberger et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056304 (2014)]. A new method of analysis for AFR images was developed using an annealing algorithm to iteratively converge upon a solution. A synthetic AFR image is constructed by a user-defined density profile described by eight parameters, and the algorithm systematically alters the parameters until the comparison is optimized. The optimization and statistical uncertainty calculation is based on the minimization of the χ(2) test statistic. The algorithm was successfully applied to experimental data of plasma expanding from a flat, laser-irradiated target, resulting in an average uncertainty in the density profile of 5%-20% in the region of interest.

  11. Mean angular momenta in heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Scarlassara, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Bednarczyk, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Beghini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Corradi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Montagnoli, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Mueller, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Napoli, D.R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Petrache, C.M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Varier, K.M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Soramel, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Udine, Udine (Italy); Spolaore, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Stefanini, A.M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Segato, G.F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Signorini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Zhang, H. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy)

    1995-02-06

    The results of the measurement of fusion cross sections {sigma}{sub fus} and mean angular momenta left angle l right angle for the five systems {sup 16}O+{sup 112}Cd, {sup 28}Si+{sup 94,100}Mo and {sup 58,64}Ni+{sup 64}Ni are reported. The direct comparison between the fusion excitation function and left angle l right angle (E) confirms consistency of the two independent observables. By analyzing the data in the framework of the coupled channels (CC) approach a good overall agreement between experiment and model predictions has been found. In particular the influence of 2n-transfer channels with positive Q-values is put in evidence. ((orig.)).

  12. Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, P.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Baumert, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light-matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.

  13. Angular size-redshift: Experiment and calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhanyan, V. R.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper the next attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Euclidean behavior of the boundary in the angular size-redshift cosmological test. It is shown experimentally that this can be explained by the selection determined by anisotropic morphology and anisotropic radiation of extended radio sources. A catalogue of extended radio sources with minimal flux densities of about 0.01 Jy at 1.4 GHz was compiled for conducting the test. Without the assumption of their size evolution, the agreement between the experiment and calculation was obtained both in the ΛCDM model (Ω m = 0.27, Ω v = 0.73) and the Friedman model (Ω = 0.1).

  14. Cierre angular primario: opciones quirúrgicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Pérez-González

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de exponer las principales opciones quirúrgicas en el tratamiento del cierre angular primario efectuando una búsqueda de los principales artículos científicos de los últimos años, así como de la literatura impresa que incluye el tema, siendo seleccionados los contenidos más relevantes para la confección del informe final. Las opciones de tratamiento incluyen la cirugía láser (iridotomía, iridoplastia y la cirugía incisional (filtrante, extracción del cristalino, dependiendo de los factores fisiopatológicos involucrados y la forma clínica en el momento del diagnóstico.

  15. Angular filter refractometry analysis using simulated annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angland, P.; Haberberger, D.; Ivancic, S. T.; Froula, D. H.

    2017-10-01

    Angular filter refractometry (AFR) is a novel technique used to characterize the density profiles of laser-produced, long-scale-length plasmas [Haberberger et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056304 (2014)]. A new method of analysis for AFR images was developed using an annealing algorithm to iteratively converge upon a solution. A synthetic AFR image is constructed by a user-defined density profile described by eight parameters, and the algorithm systematically alters the parameters until the comparison is optimized. The optimization and statistical uncertainty calculation is based on the minimization of the χ2 test statistic. The algorithm was successfully applied to experimental data of plasma expanding from a flat, laser-irradiated target, resulting in an average uncertainty in the density profile of 5%-20% in the region of interest.

  16. Coherent Control of Photoelectron Wavepacket Angular Interferograms

    CERN Document Server

    Hockett, Paul; Baumert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.

  17. Angular Position Tracking Control of a Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Glazkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper dwells on tracking the quad-copter angular position with desired quality parameters of transient processes. The aerial vehicle is considered as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom.  A full rigid body quad-copter mathematical model is considered without the assumption of smallness of the Euler angles.Among the most well known methods of non-linear stabilization are feedback linearization and backstepping. The backstepping approach allows us to have an effective solution of the stabilization problems with uncertainties available in the system. However, in synthesis of the feedback through backstepping, there is still an urgent issue: how to ensure desirable quality of transients in the closed-loop system. The paper presents a solution of this problem using as an example the tracking a given (programmed change of the angular position of a quad-copter.The control algorithms obtained in this paper are implemented using the Rolling Spider MATLAB Toolbox (ROSMAT tool package on the Parrot Rolling Spider quad-copter. A numerical simulation and experiments have shown the efficiency of obtained control laws, with the transient processes taking into account the desired quality indicators. However, the experiments showed that lack of terms in the mathematical model to describe the aerodynamic effects, resulted in the instability of the quad-copter flight near the obstacle (the effect of the reflected airflow.Further research can be aimed at solving the control problem in question using a mathematical model of the quad-copter motion that takes into account various aerodynamic effects.One of the potential application areas for the theoretical results, obtained in the paper, is to solve the problems of automatic control of unmanned aerial vehicles.

  18. Angular Approach Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchuk, Andrew; Tokar, Sergiy; Gopal, Sahana; Sanchez-Alonso, Jose L; Tarasov, Andrei I; Vélez-Ortega, A Catalina; Chiappini, Ciro; Rorsman, Patrik; Stevens, Molly M; Gorelik, Julia; Frolenkov, Gregory I; Klenerman, David; Korchev, Yuri E

    2016-05-24

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a super-resolution live imaging technique that uses a glass nanopipette as an imaging probe to produce three-dimensional (3D) images of cell surface. SICM can be used to analyze cell morphology at nanoscale, follow membrane dynamics, precisely position an imaging nanopipette close to a structure of interest, and use it to obtain ion channel recordings or locally apply stimuli or drugs. Practical implementations of these SICM advantages, however, are often complicated due to the limitations of currently available SICM systems that inherited their design from other scanning probe microscopes in which the scan assembly is placed right above the specimen. Such arrangement makes the setting of optimal illumination necessary for phase contrast or the use of high magnification upright optics difficult. Here, we describe the designs that allow mounting SICM scan head on a standard patch-clamp micromanipulator and imaging the sample at an adjustable approach angle. This angle could be as shallow as the approach angle of a patch-clamp pipette between a water immersion objective and the specimen. Using this angular approach SICM, we obtained topographical images of cells grown on nontransparent nanoneedle arrays, of islets of Langerhans, and of hippocampal neurons under upright optical microscope. We also imaged previously inaccessible areas of cells such as the side surfaces of the hair cell stereocilia and the intercalated disks of isolated cardiac myocytes, and performed targeted patch-clamp recordings from the latter. Thus, our new, to our knowledge, angular approach SICM allows imaging of living cells on nontransparent substrates and a seamless integration with most patch-clamp setups on either inverted or upright microscopes, which would facilitate research in cell biophysics and physiology. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Angular dynamics of small crystals in viscous flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, J.; Einarsson, J.; Mehlig, B.

    2017-01-01

    The angular dynamics of a very small ellipsoidal particle in a viscous flow decouples from its translational dynamics and the particle angular velocity is given by Jeffery's theory. It is known that cuboid particles share these properties. In the literature a special case is most frequently discussed, namely that of axisymmetric particles with a continuous rotation symmetry. Here we compute the angular dynamics of crystals that possess a discrete rotation symmetry and certain mirror symmetries but do not have a continuous rotation symmetry. We give examples of such particles that nevertheless obey Jeffery's theory. However, there are other examples where the angular dynamics is determined by a more general equation of motion.

  20. CLARREO Observation Modes and Their Impact on Orbit Definition and On-Orbit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, P. W.; Roithmayr, C.; Macdonnell, D.

    2009-12-01

    The selection of an optimal orbit and definition of acheivable on-orbit operations is critical to CLARREO's ability to produce irrefutable climate records. The foundation of such a product is the use of exacting on-board traceability of the instrument accuracy. Spectral visible and infrared radiances and GPS Radio Occultation (GPSRO) refractivities measured by CLARREO will be used to detect climate trends and to test, validate, and improve climate prediction models. Through a suite of developed computer programs, assessments of the various instrument modes has been performed to choose the orbits in which to place two CLARREO spacecraft, in preparation for a Mission Concept Review. Intercalibration opportunities between CLARREO and other spacecraft making measurements of reflected solar and infra-red radiation has been performed. The tools take into account idealized orbital dynamics of the two spacecraft, and identifies instances in which the measurements from both platforms satisfy temporal, spatial, and solar illumination constraints. In particular, measurements must be obtained within 5 minutes of each other. The difference in the two viewing zenith angles must be within 1 deg. In the case of reflected solar measurements, the difference in the two relative azimuth angles must be within 1 deg, and the solar zenith angle to each spacecraft must be within 75 deg. The software provides time histories of the two gimbal angles and angular speeds needed for the reflected solar instrument to track chosen Earth-fixed targets.

  1. Orbit Stabilization of Nanosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON,DAVID J.

    1999-12-01

    An algorithm is developed to control a pulsed {Delta}V thruster on a small satellite to allow it to fly in formation with a host satellite undergoing time dependent atmospheric drag deceleration. The algorithm uses four short thrusts per orbit to correct for differences in the average radii of the satellites due to differences in drag and one thrust to symmetrize the orbits. The radial difference between the orbits is the only input to the algorithm. The algorithm automatically stabilizes the orbits after ejection and includes provisions to allow azimuthal positional changes by modifying the drag compensation pulses. The algorithm gives radial and azimuthal deadbands of 50 cm and 3 m for a radial measurement accuracy of {+-} 5 cm and {+-} 60% period variation in the drag coefficient of the host. Approaches to further reduce the deadbands are described. The methodology of establishing a stable orbit after ejection is illustrated in an appendix. The results show the optimum ejection angle to minimize stabilization thrust is upward at 86{sup o} from the orbital velocity. At this angle the stabilization velocity that must be supplied by the thruster is half the ejection velocity. An ejection velocity of 0.02 m/sat 86{sup o} gives an azimuthal separation after ejection and orbit stabilization of 187 m. A description of liquid based gas thrusters suitable for the satellite control is included in an appendix.

  2. Orbital cellulitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswaran, Savithri; Woods, Charles R; Benjamin, Daniel K; Givner, Laurence B; Shetty, Avinash K

    2006-08-01

    To review the epidemiology and management of orbital cellulitis in children. The medical records of children orbital cellulitis and confirmed by computed tomography scan were reviewed. A literature search for additional studies for systematic review was also conducted. Forty-one children with orbital cellulitis were identified. The mean age was 7.5 years (range, 10 months to 16 years), and 30 (73%) were male (male:female ratio = 2.7). All cases of orbital cellulitis were associated with sinusitis; ethmoid sinusitis was present in 40 (98%) patients. Proptosis and/or ophthalmoplegia was documented in 30 (73%), and 34 (83%) had subperiosteal and/or orbital abscesses. Twenty-nine (71%) had surgical drainage and 12 (29%) received antibiotic therapy only. The mean duration of hospitalization was 5.8 days. The mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 21 days. Orbital cellulitis occurs throughout childhood and in similar frequency among younger and older children. It is twice as common among males as females. Selected cases of orbital cellulitis, including many with subperiosteal abscess, can be treated successfully without surgical drainage.

  3. Proteus - An experimenter's view. [of spacecraft carrying exchangable Explorer scientific experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The scientific experiments package to be carried by the Proteus system takes the form of an Instrument Load carried into orbit by a Space Shuttle, and there mated to a Proteus spacecraft with the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System. The Proteus system extends to ground support equipment, development tools, and communications, as well as the orbiting satellites. It is expected that Proteus will be able to triple the number of Explorer missions while staying within the current budgetary allocation for such missions. The Proteus spacecraft encompasses a system interface assembly plug, a data handling module, remote interface units, and a power distribution module.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL CARRYING CAPACITY BASED ON SPATIAL PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Luthfi Muta'ali

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this research were to examine environmental carrying capacity analyzed based on aspects of spatial planning and eco-region. The result showed that Kulonprogo Regency has low value of environmental carrying capacity and can only support as much as 79.81% of its total population. Analysis of variance showed significant difference of environmental carrying capacity of protected and cultivated area. The main factor among 12 variables determining the degree of environmen...

  5. Orbital cystic neurinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokugawa, J; Nakao, Y; Mori, K; Maeda, M

    2003-07-01

    A 64-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of exophthalmus of her right eye. She had no neurological deficit except for the exophthalmus and numbness in the right side of her forehead (frontal nerve territory). Neuro-imaging demonstrated a cystic mass in the right orbit. The tumour was totally removed by microsurgical transcranial surgery. The histological diagnosis was neurinoma. The origin of the tumour was considered to be the frontal nerve. Only two other cases of orbital cystic neurinoma have been reported. This rare clinical entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of a cystic mass in the orbit.

  6. Satellite splat II: an inelastic collision with a surface-launched projectile and the maximum orbital radius for planetary impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Philip R.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-07-01

    Starting with conservation of energy and angular momentum, we derive a convenient method for determining the periapsis distance of an orbiting object, by expressing its velocity components in terms of the local circular speed. This relation is used to extend the results of our previous paper, examining the effects of an adhesive inelastic collision between a projectile launched from the surface of a planet (of radius R) and an equal-mass satellite in a circular orbit of radius r s. We show that there is a maximum orbital radius r s ≈ 18.9R beyond which such a collision cannot cause the satellite to impact the planet. The difficulty of bringing down a satellite in a high orbit with a surface-launched projectile provides a useful topic for a discussion of orbital angular momentum and energy. The material is suitable for an undergraduate intermediate mechanics course.

  7. Orbital venous pattern in relation to extraorbital venous drainage and superficial lymphatic vessels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloveska, Marcela; Kresakova, Lenka; Vdoviakova, Katarina; Petrovova, Eva; Elias, Mario; Panagiotis, Artemiou; Andrejcakova, Zuzana; Supuka, Peter; Purzyc, Halina; Kissova, Viktoria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the normal and variant anatomy of extraorbital and intraorbital venous drainage together with retroorbital communication, and determine the lymphatic drainage from the superficial orbital region with a potential outlet of lymphatic vessel into the venous bloodstream. The study of the venous system was carried out on 32 Wistar rats by using corrosion casts methods and radiography, while the lymphatic system was studied in 12 Wistar rats following ink injection. Superficially, orbital veins are connected with extraorbital veins running through angular vein of the eye and the superficial temporal vein, and via the pterygoid plexus with the maxillary vein, which provide readily accessible communication routes in the spread of infection. The extent of intraorbital and periorbital venous drainage was ensured by the dorsal and ventral external ophthalmic vein through the infraorbital vein, which together formed the principal part of the ophthalmic plexus. Venous drainage of the eyeball was carried out mainly by the vortex veins, ciliary veins and internal ophthalmic vein. The highest variability, first presented by differences in structural arrangement and formation of anastomoses, was observed within the ventral external ophthalmic vein (22 cases) and the medial vortex vein (10 cases). Four vortex veins, one vein in each quadrant of the eye, were observed in rats. The vortex vein located on the ventral side of the eyeball was occasionally found as two veins (in four cases) in the present study. The lymphatic vessel from the lower eyelid entered into the mandibular lymph centre, and from the upper eyelid entered into the superficial cervical lymph centre, but both drained into the deep cranial cervical lymph node. The direct entry of lymph entering the veins without passing through lymph nodes was not observed.

  8. Libration of arguments of circumbinary-planet orbits at resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubart, Joachim

    2017-06-01

    The paper refers to fictitious resonant orbits of planet type that surround both components of a binary system. In case of 16 studied examples a suitable choice of the starting values leads to a process of libration of special angular arguments and to an evolution with an at least temporary stay of the planet in the resonant orbit. The ratio of the periods of revolution of the binary and a planet is equal to 1:5. Eight orbits depend on the ratio 1:5 of the masses of the binary components, but two other ratios appear as well. The basis of this study is the planar, elliptic or circular restricted problem of three bodies, but remarks at the end of the text refer to a four-body problem.

  9. Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marois, C; Macintosh, B; Barman, T; Zuckerman, B; Song, I; Patience, J; Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R

    2008-10-14

    Direct imaging of exoplanetary systems is a powerful technique that can reveal Jupiter-like planets in wide orbits, can enable detailed characterization of planetary atmospheres, and is a key step towards imaging Earth-like planets. Imaging detections are challenging due to the combined effect of small angular separation and large luminosity contrast between a planet and its host star. High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799, with projected separations of 24, 38, and 68 astronomical units. Multi-epoch data show counter-clockwise orbital motion for all three imaged planets. The low luminosity of the companions and the estimated age of the system imply planetary masses between 5 and 13 times that of Jupiter. This system resembles a scaled-up version of the outer portion of our Solar System.

  10. Orbit Representations from Linear mod 1 Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Correia Ramos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We show that every point $x_0in [0,1]$ carries a representationof a $C^*$-algebra that encodes the orbit structure of thelinear mod 1 interval map $f_{eta,alpha}(x=eta x +alpha$. Such $C^*$-algebra is generated by partial isometries arising from the subintervals of monotonicity of the underlying map $f_{eta,alpha}$. Then we prove that such representation is irreducible. Moreover two such of representations are unitarily equivalent if and only if the points belong to the same generalized orbit, for every $alphain [0,1[$ and $etageq 1$.

  11. Like an eagle carries its young

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-15

    Jul 15, 2016 ... more accurately translated as 'vulture'. But can this really be a symbol of comfort? Furthermore, do eagles (or vultures) even carry their young on their wings? This article intends to shed some light on these questions. Like an eagle carries its young. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or.

  12. On the Angular Resolution of the AGILE Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, S.; Donnarumma, I.; Tavani, M.; Trois, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Chen, A.; Del Monte, E.; Fioretti, V.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Morselli, A.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Caraveo, P.

    2015-08-01

    We present a study of the angular resolution of the AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector (GRID) that has been operational in space since 2007 April. The AGILE instrument is made of an array of 12 planes that are each equipped with a tungsten converter and silicon microstrip detectors, and is sensitive in the energy range 50 MeV-10 GeV. Among the space instruments devoted to gamma-ray astrophysics, AGILE uniquely exploit an analog readout system with dedicated electronics coupled with silicon detectors. We show the results of Monte Carlo simulations carried out to reproduce the gamma-ray detection by the GRID and we compare them to in-flight data. We use the Crab (pulsar + Nebula) system for discussion of real data performance, since its {E}-2 energy spectrum is representative of the majority of gamma-ray sources. For Crab-like spectrum sources, the GRID angular resolution (FWHM of ˜ 4^\\circ at 100 MeV; ˜ 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 8 at 1 GeV; ˜ 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 9 integrating the full energy band from 100 MeV to tens of GeV) is stable across a large field of view, characterized by a flat response up to 30^\\circ off-axis. A comparison of the angular resolution obtained by the two operational gamma-ray instruments, AGILE/GRID and Fermi/LAT (Large Area Telescope), is interesting in view of future gamma-ray missions, which are currently under study. The two instruments exploit different detector configurations that affect the angular resolution: the former is optimized in the readout and track reconstruction, especially in the low-energy band, the latter is optimized in terms of converter thickness and power consumption. We show that despite these differences, the angular resolution of both instruments is very similar, between 100 MeV and a few GeV.

  13. Congenital orbital teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Aiyub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  14. Orbital heat rate package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovin, J. K.; Spradley, L. W.

    1979-01-01

    Package consisting of three separate programs used to accurately predict temperature distribution of spacecraft in planetary orbit is invaluable tool for design and analysis of other structures that must function in complex thermal environment.

  15. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Y Gogri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital abscess generally occurs in older children but it can rarely affect infants and neonates too. We report a case of community acquired methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA neonatal orbital abscess in a 12-day-old term female neonate with no significant past medical history or risk factor for developing the infection. The case highlights the importance of consideration of CA-MRSA as a causative agent of neonatal orbital cellulitis even in a neonate without any obvious predisposing condition. Prompt initiation of appropriate medical therapy against MRSA and surgical drainage of the abscess prevents life threatening complications of orbital cellulitis which more often tend to be fatal in neonates.

  16. The orbital record in stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alfred G.

    1992-01-01

    , and (2) presence of abundant microfossils yields close ties to geochronology. A tantalizing possibility that stratigraphy may yield a record of orbital signals unrelated to climate has turned up in magnetic studies of our Cretaceous core. Magnetic secular variations here carry a strong 39 ka periodicity, corresponding to the theoretical obliquity period of that time - Does the obliquity cycle perhaps have some direct influence on the magnetic field?

  17. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  18. The Lunar Orbital Prospector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Frank J.; Cantrell, James N.; McCurdy, Greg

    1992-09-01

    The establishment of lunar bases will not end the need for remote sensing of the lunar surface by orbiting platforms. Human and robotic surface exploration will necessarily be limited to some proximate distance from the support base. Near real-time, high-resolution, global characterization of the lunar surface by orbiting sensing systems will continue to be essential to the understanding of the Moon's geophysical structure and the location of exploitable minerals and deposits of raw materials. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is an orbiting sensing platform capable of supporting a variety of modular sensing packages. Serviced by a lunar-based shuttle, the LOP will permit the exchange of instrument packages to meet evolving mission needs. The ability to recover, modify, and rotate sensing packages allows their reuse in varying combinations. Combining this flexibility with robust orbit modification capabilities and near real-time telemetry links provides considerable system responsiveness. Maintenance and modification of the LOP orbit are accomplished through use of an onboard propulsion system that burns lunar-supplied oxygen and aluminum. The relatively low performance of such a system is more than compensated for by the elimination of the need for Earth-supplied propellants. The LOP concept envisions a continuous expansion of capability through the incorporation of new instrument technologies and the addition of platforms.

  19. A New Possibility for Production of Sub-picosecond X-ray Pulses using a Time Dependent Radio Frequency Orbit Deflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, A. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-05-01

    It is shown that two radio frequency deflecting cavities with slightly different frequencies can be used to produce time-dependent orbit deflection to a few special electron bunches while keeping the majority of the electron bunches unaffected. These special bunches produce an x-ray pulse in which transverse position or angle, or both, are correlated with time. The x-ray pulses are then shortened, either with an asymmetrically cut crystal that acts as a pulse compressor, or with an angular aperture such as a narrow slit positioned downstream. The implementation of this technique creates a highly flexible environment for synchrotrons in which users of most beamlines will be able to easily select between the x-rays originated by the standard electron bunches and the short x-ray pulses originated by the special electron bunches carrying a time-dependent transverse correlation.

  20. Learning web development with Bootstrap and AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Radford, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Whether you know a little about Bootstrap or AngularJS, or you're a complete beginner, this book will enhance your capabilities in both frameworks and you'll build a fully functional web app. A working knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript is required to fully get to grips with Bootstrap and AngularJS.

  1. A kinematic model for calculating the magnitude of angular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we have formulated a model for calculating the magnitude of angular momentum transfer in a steady-state accretion disk using only two parameters; the transport coefficient of vorticity,w and the rate of change of angular velocity with radial distance, dW/ dR . With this model, the mass accretion rate in an accretion disk ...

  2. Cubature/ Unscented/ Sigma Point Kalman Filtering with Angular Measurement Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    Cubature/ Unscented/ Sigma Point Kalman Filtering with Angular Measurement Models David Frederic Crouse Naval Research Laboratory 4555 Overlook Ave...measurement and process non- linearities, such as the cubature Kalman filter, can perform ex- tremely poorly in many applications involving angular... Kalman filtering is a realization of the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) that evaluates certain integrals for expected values using different forms

  3. Epidemiology Of Angular Deformities Of The Knee In Children In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bony problems such as angular deformities and metabolic bone disease are of high frequency in Nigeria. Objective: The aim of this study was to define the pattern of presentation in children with angular deformities of the knee. Methodology: It was an 18-month prospective study involving children aged ...

  4. Poisson algebra of quasilocal angular momentum and its asymptotic limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Oh, Seung Hun

    2018-01-01

    We study the previously proposed quasilocal angular momentum of gravitational fields in the absence of isometries. The quasilocal angular momentum L(ξ) has the following attractive properties; (i) it follows from Einstein’s constraint equations, (ii) it satisfies the Poisson algebra \

  5. Angular momentum-induced circular dichroism in non-chiral nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Circular dichroism (CD), i.e. the differential response of a system to left and right circularly polarized light, is one of the only techniques capable of providing morphological information of certain samples. In biology, for instance, CD spectroscopy is widely used to study the structure of proteins. More recently, it has also been used to characterize metamaterials and plasmonic structures. Typically, CD can only be observed in chiral objects. Here, we present experimental results showing that a non-chiral sample such as a sub-wavelength circular nano-aperture can produce giant CD when a vortex beam is used to excite it. These measurements can be understood by studying the symmetries of the sample and the total angular momentum that vortex beams carry. Our results show that CD can provide a wealth of information about the sample when combined with the control of the total angular momentum of the input field.

  6. Angular momentum-induced circular dichroism in non-chiral nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Vidal, Xavier; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2014-09-12

    Circular dichroism, that is, the differential absorption of a system to left and right circularly polarized light, is one of the only techniques capable of providing morphological information of certain samples. In biology, for instance, circular dichroism spectroscopy is widely used to study the structure of proteins. More recently, it has also been used to characterize metamaterials and plasmonic structures. Typically, circular dichorism can only be observed in chiral objects. Here we present experimental results showing that a non-chiral sample such as a subwavelength circular nanoaperture can produce giant circular dichroism when a vortex beam is used to excite it. These measurements can be understood by studying the symmetries of the sample and the total angular momentum that vortex beams carry. Our results show that circular dichroism can provide a wealth of information about the sample when combined with the control of the total angular momentum of the input field.

  7. Apollo 11 Astronaut Aldrin Carries Equipment on Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon, while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Aldrin walks past some rocks, easily carrying scientific equipment which would have been too heavy to carry on Earth. The two packages made up the Early Apollo Scientific Experiment Package (EASEP) on Apollo 11. On the left is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP) and on the right is the Laser Ranging Retroreflector (LRR).

  8. The TWA 3 Young Triple System: Orbits, Disks, Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, Kendra [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Prato, L.; Avilez, I.; Wasserman, L. H.; Levine, S. E.; Bosh, A. S. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schaefer, G. H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Ruíz-Rodríguez, D. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Penteli (Greece); Guenther, E. W. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Neuhäuser, R. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte, FSU Jena, Schillergäßchen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird; Hinz, Phil; Males, Jared R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bailey, Vanessa, E-mail: kkellogg@uwo.ca, E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We have characterized the spectroscopic orbit of the TWA 3A binary and provide preliminary families of probable solutions for the TWA 3A visual orbit, as well as for the wide TWA 3A–B orbit. TWA 3 is a hierarchical triple located at 34 pc in the ∼10 Myr old TW Hya association. The wide component separation is 1.″55; the close pair was first identified as a possible binary almost 20 years ago. We initially identified the 35-day period orbital solution using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy that angularly resolved the A and B components. We then refined the preliminary orbit by combining the infrared data with a reanalysis of our high-resolution optical spectroscopy. The orbital period from the combined spectroscopic solution is ∼35 days, the eccentricity is ∼0.63, and the mass ratio is ∼0.84; although this high mass ratio would suggest that optical spectroscopy alone should be sufficient to identify the orbital solution, the presence of the tertiary B component likely introduced confusion in the blended optical spectra. Using millimeter imaging from the literature, we also estimate the inclinations of the stellar orbital planes with respect to the TWA 3A circumbinary disk inclination and find that all three planes are likely misaligned by at least ∼30°. The TWA 3A spectroscopic binary components have spectral types of M4.0 and M4.5; TWA 3B is an M3. We speculate that the system formed as a triple, is bound, and that its properties were shaped by dynamical interactions between the inclined orbits and disk.

  9. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  10. Tracing the Angular Dependence of the CGM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Michael; Christensen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    The circumgalactic media (CGM) is enriched with metals through a process called the baryon cycle, which may play a significant role in the regulation of star formation. While the relationship between the CGM’s baryonic makeup and impact parameter is well documented, the relationship between the baryonic distribution of the CGM and the azimuthal angle out of the plane of the galaxy remains an open question. We investigated the angular distribution of baryons in the CGM by creating mock-absorption line spectra for a high-resolution simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy at redshift zero. By comparison with data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph-Halos survey, we determined that our equivalent widths of HI, MgII, CIII, SiII, and SiIII are consistent with observations. Using our data, we found that low ionization state material is more prevalent at low azimuthal angles and that high ionization state material is more prevalent at high angles within the virial radius. We attributed this increased ionization to higher temperatures at high angles. We also found that the highest metallicity levels appear at high and low azimuthal angles, with lower metallicities at middle angles. This evidence supports the recycled accretion model of CGM baryon flow.

  11. Secular Increase of the Astronomical Unit: a Possible Explanation in Terms of the Total Angular-Momentum Conservation Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takaho; Arakida, Hideyoshi; Kasai, Masumi; Kuramata, Shuichi

    2009-12-01

    We give an idea and order-of-magnitude estimations to explain a recently reported secular increase of the Astronomical Unit (AU) by Krasinsky and Brumberg (Krasinsky & Brumberg 2004, Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astron., 90, 267). The idea proposed is analogous to tidal acceleration in the Earth-Moon system, which is based on conservation of the total angular momentum; we apply this scenario to the Sun-planets system. Assuming the existence of some tidal interactions that transfer the rotational angular momentum of the Sun, and using a reported value of the positive secular trend in the Astronomical Unit, frac{d}{dt}AU = 15±4 (m cy-1), the suggested change in the period of rotation of the Sun is about 21 ms cy-1 in the case that the orbits of the eight planets have the same ``expansion rate.'' This value is sufficiently small, and at present it seems there are no observational data that exclude this possibility. The effects of a change in the Sun's moment of inertia is also investigated. It is pointed out that a change in the moment of inertia due to radiative mass loss by the Sun may be responsible for the secular increase of AU, if orbital ``expansion'' is happening only in the inner-planets system. Although the existence of some tidal interactions is assumed between the Sun and the planets, concrete mechanisms of angular-momentum transfer are not discussed in this paper, which remain to be pursued as future investigations.

  12. Is J enough? Comparison of gravitational waves emitted along the total angular momentum direction with other preferred orientations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shaughnessy, R; London, L; Meeks, Z; Shoemaker, D

    2012-01-01

    The gravitational wave signature emitted from a merging binary depends on the orientation of an observer relative to the binary. Previous studies suggest that emission along the total initial or total final angular momenta leads to both the strongest and simplest signal from a precessing compact binary. In this paper we describe a concrete counterexample: a binary with $m_1/m_2=4$, $a_1=0.6 \\hat{x} = -a_2$, placed in orbit in the x,y plane. We extract the gravitational wave emission along several proposed emission directions, including the initial (Newtonian) orbital angular momentum; the final (~ initial) total angular momentum; and the dominant principal axis of $_M$. Using several diagnostics, we show that the suggested preferred directions are not representative. For example, only for a handful of other directions (0.95). We conclude that the information available in just one direction (or mode) does not adequately encode the complexity of orientation-dependent emission for even short signals from merging...

  13. [Orbital complications of sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuchaň, M; Horňák, M; Kaliarik, L; Krempaská, S; Koštialová, T; Kovaľ, J

    2014-12-01

    Orbital complications categorised by Chandler are emergency. They need early diagnosis and agresive treatment. Stage and origin of orbital complications are identified by rhinoendoscopy, ophtalmologic examination and CT of orbite and paranasal sinuses. Periorbital cellulitis and early stage of orbital cellulitis can be treated conservatively with i. v. antibiotics. Monitoring of laboratory parameters and ophtalmologic symptoms is mandatory. Lack of improvement or worsening of symptoms within 24-48 hours and advanced stages of orbital complications are indicated for surgery. The purpose of the study is to evaluate epidemiology, clinical features and management of sinogenic orbital complications. Retrospective data of 8 patients with suspicion of orbital complication admited to hospital from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Patients were analyzed in terms of gender, age, CT findings, microbiology, clinical features, stage and treatment. Male and female were afected in rate 1,66:1. Most of patients were young adult in 3rd. and 4th. decade of life (62,5 %). Acute and chronic sinusitis were cause of orbital complication in the same rate. The most common origin of orbital complication was ethmoiditis (62,5 %), than maxillary (25 %) and frontal (12,5 %) sinusitis. Polysinusitis with affection of ethmoidal, maxillary and frontal sinuses (75 %) was usual CT finding. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were etiological agens in half of cases. Periorbital oedema (100 %), proptosis, chemosis (50 %), diplopia and glaucoma (12,5 %) were observed. Based on examinations, diagnosis of periorbital oedema/preseptal cellulitis was made in 3 (37,5 %), orbital cellulitis in 3 (37,5 %) and subperiosteal abscess in 2 cases (25 %). All patients underwent combined therapy - i. v. antibiotics and surgery within 24 hours. Eradication of disease from ostiomeatal complex (OMC), drainage of affected sinuses and drainage of subperiosteal abscess were done via fuctional endonasal

  14. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  15. How do External Companions Affect Spin-Orbit Misalignment of Hot Jupiters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dong; Anderson, Kassandra R.; Pu, Bonan

    2018-01-01

    Consider a planet with its orbital angular momentum axis aligned with the spin axis of its host star. To what extent does an inclined distant companion (giant planet or binary star) affect this alignment? We provide an analytic, quantitative answer and apply it to hot Jupiter systems, for which misalignments between the orbital axis and the stellar spin axis have been detected. We also show how similar consideration can be applied to multi-planet systems with distant companions (such as Kepler-56). The result of this paper provides a simple method to assess the dynamical role played by external companions on spin-orbit misalignments in exoplanetary systems.

  16. Orbital Support of Fast and Slow Inner Bars in Double Barred Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejewski, Witold; Small, Emma E.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e. pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappe...

  17. Stable orbits for lunar landing assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoleo, Ennio; Cinelli, Marco; Ortore, Emiliano; Circi, Christian

    2017-10-01

    To improve lunar landing performances in terms of mission costs, trajectory determination and visibility the use of a single probe located over an assistance orbit around the Moon has been taken into consideration. To this end, the properties of two quasi-circular orbits characterised by a stable behaviour of semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination have been investigated. The analysis has demonstrated the possibility of using an assistance probe, located over one of these orbits, as a relay satellite between lander and Earth, even in the case of landings on the far side of the Moon. A comparison about the accuracy in retrieving the lander's state with respect to the use of a probe located in the Lagrangian point L2 of the Earth-Moon system has also been carried out.

  18. Anaphylaxis after carrying out prick tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vázquez-Cortés, S; Robledo Echarren, T; Bartolomé, B; García-Rubio, I; González Gutiérrez, M L; Martínez-Cócera, C

    2007-01-01

    .... Systemic reactions have been described with this technique on few occasions. We are presenting a case of anaphylaxis with hemodynamic consequences after carrying out skin prick test with a cat dander extract...

  19. Mechanical analysis of infant carrying in hominoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Lia Q.

    2008-04-01

    In all higher nonhuman primates, species survival depends upon safe carrying of infants clinging to body hair of adults. In this work, measurements of mechanical properties of ape hair (gibbon, orangutan, and gorilla) are presented, focusing on constraints for safe infant carrying. Results of hair tensile properties are shown to be species-dependent. Analysis of the mechanics of the mounting position, typical of heavier infant carrying among African apes, shows that both clinging and friction are necessary to carry heavy infants. As a consequence, a required relationship between infant weight, hair-hair friction coefficient, and body angle exists. The hair-hair friction coefficient is measured using natural ape skin samples, and dependence on load and humidity is analyzed. Numerical evaluation of the equilibrium constraint is in agreement with the knuckle-walking quadruped position of African apes. Bipedality is clearly incompatible with the usual clinging and mounting pattern of infant carrying, requiring a revision of models of hominization in relation to the divergence between apes and hominins. These results suggest that safe carrying of heavy infants justify the emergence of biped form of locomotion. Ways to test this possibility are foreseen here.

  20. Influence of yawing force frequency on angular motion and ballistic characteristics of a dual-spin projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A roll-decoupled course correction fuze with canards can improve the hit accuracy of conventional unguided ammunitions. The fuze increases accuracy by reducing the effect of angular and translational motion produced by the cyclical yawing forces applied on the projectile. In order to investigate the influence of yawing forces on angular motion, a theoretical solution of the total yaw angle function with the cyclical yawing forces is deduced utilizing the 7 degrees of freedom (7-DOF model designed for this calculation. Furthermore, a detailed simulation is carried out to determine the influence rules of yawing force on angular motion. The calculated results illustrate that, when the rotational speed of the forward part is close to the initial turning rate, the total yaw angle increases and the flight range decreases sharply. Moreover, a yawing force at an appropriate frequency is able to correct the gun azimuth and elevation perturbation to some extent.

  1. Calculation of photoionization differential cross sections using complex Gauss-type orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Rei; Yabushita, Satoshi

    2017-09-05

    Accurate theoretical calculation of photoelectron angular distributions for general molecules is becoming an important tool to image various chemical reactions in real time. We show in this article that not only photoionization total cross sections but also photoelectron angular distributions can be accurately calculated using complex Gauss-type orbital (cGTO) basis functions. Our method can be easily combined with existing quantum chemistry techniques including electron correlation effects, and applied to various molecules. The so-called two-potential formula is applied to represent the transition dipole moment from an initial bound state to a final continuum state in the molecular coordinate frame. The two required continuum functions, the zeroth-order final continuum state and the first-order wave function induced by the photon field, have been variationally obtained using the complex basis function method with a mixture of appropriate cGTOs and conventional real Gauss-type orbitals (GTOs) to represent the continuum orbitals as well as the remaining bound orbitals. The complex orbital exponents of the cGTOs are optimized by fitting to the outgoing Coulomb functions. The efficiency of the current method is demonstrated through the calculations of the asymmetry parameters and molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions of H2+ and H2 . In the calculations of H2 , the static exchange and random phase approximations are employed, and the dependence of the results on the basis functions is discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Airbreathing Acceleration Toward Earth Orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C

    2007-05-09

    As flight speed increases, aerodynamic drag rises more sharply than the availability of atmospheric oxygen. The ratio of oxygen mass flux to dynamic pressure cannot be improved by changing altitude. The maximum possible speed for airbreathing propulsion is limited by the ratio of air capture area to vehicle drag area, approximately Mach 6 at equal areas. Simulation of vehicle acceleration shows that the use of atmospheric oxygen offers a significant potential for minimizing onboard consumables at low speeds. These fundamental calculations indicate that a practical airbreathing launch vehicle would accelerate to near steady-state speed while consuming only onboard fuel, then transition to rocket propulsion. It is suggested that an aircraft carrying a rocket-propelled vehicle to approximately Mach 5 could be a realistic technical goal toward improving access to orbit.

  3. Spin Orbit Torque in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2016-06-21

    Electrons not only have charges but also have spin. By utilizing the electron spin, the energy consumption of electronic devices can be reduced, their size can be scaled down and the efficiency of `read\\' and `write\\' in memory devices can be significantly improved. Hence, the manipulation of electron spin in electronic devices becomes more and more appealing for the advancement of microelectronics. In spin-based devices, the manipulation of ferromagnetic order parameter using electrical currents is a very useful means for current-driven operation. Nowadays, most of magnetic memory devices are based on the so-called spin transfer torque, which stems from the spin angular momentum transfer between a spin-polarized current and the magnetic order parameter. Recently, a novel spin torque effect, exploiting spin-orbit coupling in non-centrosymmetric magnets, has attracted a massive amount of attention. This thesis addresses the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport and torques in non-centrosymmetric magnetic semiconductors. We start with the theoretical study of spin orbit torque in three dimensional ferromagnetic GaMnAs. Using the Kubo formula, we calculate both the current-driven field-like torque and anti-damping-like torque. We compare the numerical results with the analytical expressions in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described. Subsequently we study spin-orbit torques in two dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. This thesis then addresses the influence of the quantum spin Hall

  4. A Tapestry of Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Hele, D. G.

    2005-07-01

    Satellites as they cross the night sky look like moving stars, which can be accurately tracked by an observer with binoculars as well as by giant radars and large cameras. These observations help to determine the satellite's orbit, which is sensitive to the drag of the upper atmosphere and to any irregularities in the gravity field of the Earth. Analysis of the orbit can be used to evaluate the density of the upper atmosphere and to define the shape of the Earth. Desmond King-Hele was the pioneer of this technique of orbit analysis, and this book tells us how the research began, before the launch of Sputnik in 1957. For thirty years King-Hele and his colleagues at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, developed and applied the technique to reveal much about the Earth and air at a very modest cost. In the 1960s the upper-atmosphere density was thoroughly mapped out for 100 to 2000 km, revealing immense variation of density with solar activity and between day and night. In the 1970s and 1980s a picture of the upper-atmosphere winds emerged, and the profile of the pear-shaped Earth was accurately charted. The number of satellites now orbiting the earth is over 5000. This book is the story of how this inexpensive research of their orbits developed to yield a rich harvest of knowledge about the Earth and its atmosphere, in a scientific narrative that is enlivened with many personal experiences.

  5. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.

  6. Relative motion of orbiting bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.

    2001-01-01

    A problem of relative motion of orbiting bodies is investigated on the example of the free motion of any body ejected from the orbital station that stays in a circular orbit around the earth. An elementary approach is illustrated by a simulation computer program and supported by a mathematical treatment based on approximate differential equations of the relative orbital motion.

  7. Elliptical Orbit Performance Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myler, T.

    1984-01-01

    Elliptical Orbit Performance (ELOPE) computer program for analyzing orbital performance of space boosters uses orbit insertion data obtained from trajectory simulation to generate parametric data on apogee and perigee altitudes as function of payload data. Data used to generate presentation plots that display elliptical orbit performance capability of space booster.

  8. Interferometric measurement of the angular velocity of moving humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanzer, Jeffrey A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the measurement of the angular velocity of walking humans using a millimeter-wave correlation interferometer. Measurement of the angular velocity of moving objects is a desirable function in remote sensing applications. Doppler radar sensors are able to measure the signature of moving humans based on micro-Doppler analysis; however, a person moving with little to no radial velocity produces negligible Doppler returns. Measurement of the angular movement of humans can be done with traditional radar techniques, however the process involves either continuous tracking with narrow beamwidth or angle-of-arrival estimation algorithms. A new method of measuring the angular velocity of moving objects using interferometry has recently been developed which measures the angular velocity of an object without tracking or complex processing. The frequency of the interferometer signal response is proportional to the angular velocity of the object as it passes through the interferometer beam pattern. In this paper, the theory of the interferometric measurement of angular velocity is covered and simulations of the response of a walking human are presented. Simulations are produced using a model of a walking human to show the significant features associated with the interferometer response, which may be used in classification algorithms.

  9. Measurement and analysis of instantaneous torque and angular velocity variations of a low speed two stroke diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Espadafor, Francisco J.; A. Becerra Villanueva, José; Palomo Guerrero, Daniel; Torres García, Miguel; Carvajal Trujillo, Elisa; Fernández Vacas, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the potential of using direct measurement of engine torque for diagnostic purposes in large engines - in this case applied to power generation. The procedures for measuring and analyzing the instantaneous torque, the angular displacement on the generator output end and the angular displacement on its free end for a ten-cylinder, low speed two stroke diesel engine are presented. Angular speed oscillations are frequently used for combustion engine diagnostics although they cannot be used to measure engine power directly. In addition, and for engines with huge inertia generators such as those used in power plants, speed oscillations are very low and this reduces the signal to noise ratio and makes the evaluation of the instantaneous angular speed very noisy. In the work described here, torque and angular displacement measurements carried out at the same point and with the same engine conditions are compared and the superior performance of torque is demonstrated. Harmonic analysis of instantaneous torque allowed the identification of the dynamic characteristics of the power train of the diesel group and clearly suggests that this signal can be used as a diagnostic tool for excitation, combustion malfunctions, or for the mechanical characteristics of the system and crankshaft stiffness. The torque distortion introduced by the generator due to the discontinuity imposed by the pole pairs is also observed in the torque signal, suggesting that the torque signal can be used to identify generator malfunction.

  10. [Secondary orbital lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, I; Sevillano, C; Álvarez, M D

    2015-09-01

    A case is presented of an 85 year-old Caucasian female with lymphoma that recurred in the orbit (secondary ocular adnexal lymphoma). The orbital tumour was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the REAL classification (Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification). Orbital lymphomas are predominantly B-cell proliferations of a variety of histological types, and most are low-grade tumours. Patients are usually middle-aged or elderly, and it is slightly more common in women. A palpable mass, proptosis and blepharoptosis are the most common signs of presentation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomaterials and implants for orbital floor repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baino, Francesco

    2011-09-01

    Treatment of orbital floor fractures and defects is often a complex issue. Repair of these injuries essentially aims to restore the continuity of the orbital floor and to provide an adequate support to the orbital content. Several materials and implants have been proposed over the years for orbital floor reconstruction, in the hope of achieving the best clinical outcome for the patient. Autografts have been traditionally considered as the "gold standard" choice due to the absence of an adverse immunological response, but they are available in limited amounts and carry the need for extra surgery. In order to overcome the drawbacks related to autografts, researchers' and surgeons' attention has been progressively attracted by alloplastic materials, which can be commercially produced and easily tailored to fit a wide range of specific clinical needs. In this review the advantages and limitations of the various biomaterials proposed and tested for orbital floor repair are critically examined and discussed. Criteria and guidelines for optimal material/implant choice, as well as future research directions, are also presented, in an attempt to understand whether an ideal biomaterial already exists or a truly functional implant will eventually materialise in the next few years. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preseptal Cellulitis Or Orbital Cellulitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L T; Miller, D; Ah-Kee, E Y; Ferguson, A

    2015-06-29

    Preseptal cellulitis and orbital cellulitis can both present with increasing swelling, tenderness and redness around the eye, but their management differs. Preseptal cellulitis is more common and much less aggressive than orbital cellulitis. In contrast, orbital cellulitis is a medical emergency requiring urgent management. In this article, we provide a systematic approach to distinguish between preseptal cellulitis and orbital cellulitis at presentation, as the distinction between the two entities and the prompt recognition of orbital cellulitis can be potentially life-saving.

  13. Preliminary orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, L. G.; Belkin, B.; Schweiter, G.; Sommar, K.

    The problem of intercontinental ballistic missile reentry vehicle orbit determination from incomplete passive (i.e., angles-only) or active (i.e., distance plus angles) information is presented. Launch location and time and impact location and time to complete the computation of an orbital element set are utilized. In addition, it is possible to construct a good estimate of the variance of the key quantity in the angles only case; namely the computed topocentric distance. This type of observation/information situation is enlarged to include a complete discussion of single-point differential correction.

  14. Pediatric Orbital Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Monson, Laura A.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    It is wise to recall the dictum “children are not small adults” when managing pediatric orbital fractures. In a child, the craniofacial skeleton undergoes significant changes in size, shape, and proportion as it grows into maturity. Accordingly, the craniomaxillofacial surgeon must select an appropriate treatment strategy that considers both the nature of the injury and the child's stage of growth. The following review will discuss the management of pediatric orbital fractures, with an emphasis on clinically oriented anatomy and development. PMID:24436730

  15. [Orbital complications of rhinosinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, J; Ilić, N; Belić, B; Zivić, L; Stanković, P; Erdevicki, L; Jovanović, S

    2009-01-01

    Orbital complications were observed in 53 patients (1.35%, n=53/3912 of all treated patients; 11.04%, n= 53/480 of hospitalized patients). Complications in the orbit can occur in 3-5% of adults with the inflammatory condition of sinuses, while the percentage in children ranges from 0.5-8%. The objective of our work was to determine the frequency of the occurence of orbital complications of the rhinosinal inflammatory origin in a group of adults and children. The retrospective analysis of patients treated of rhinosinusitis in the period 1992 to 2007, in the Clinical Center in Kragujevac. In the period of 15 years, a total number of 3912 patients were treated for inflamatory conditions of paranasal cavities. Orbital complications were found in 53 patients (1.35%, n=53/3912 of all treated patients). The number of children showing orbital complications caused by rhinosinusitis was 0.79%, while the number of adults was 1,88%. Acute rhinosinusitis in children was manifested as orbital complication in 14 patients (n=14/15, 93.33%), while 33 adults (n=33/38, 86.84%) had the exarcerbation of the chronic rhinosinusitis at the time of diagnosis of orbital complication. 80% of examined children had the maxillary and ethmoid sinus infected (n=12/15), while the adults most often had polysinusitis (n=22/38, 57.89%). In the juvenile age the most frequent complication was the cellulitis of the orbite (n=7/15, 46.66%), while in the adults it was the subperiostal absces (n=14/38, 36.84%). The adults were mostly treated surgically (n=31/38, 81.58%), while the children were treated by using conservative treatment (n=13/15, 86.67%). There were no cases of mortality. The prevention of complications is based on the adequate and timely treatment of acute sinusitis in children, as well as the curative treatment of chronical processes in adults.

  16. Satellite orbit predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  17. Photoelectron angular distributions for states of any mixed character: An experiment-friendly model for atomic, molecular, and cluster anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuseynov, Dmitry; Blackstone, Christopher C.; Culberson, Lori M.; Sanov, Andrei, E-mail: sanov@u.arizona.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    2014-09-28

    We present a model for laboratory-frame photoelectron angular distributions in direct photodetachment from (in principle) any molecular orbital using linearly polarized light. A transparent mathematical approach is used to generalize the Cooper-Zare central-potential model to anionic states of any mixed character. In the limit of atomic-anion photodetachment, the model reproduces the Cooper-Zare formula. In the case of an initial orbital described as a superposition of s and p-type functions, the model yields the previously obtained s-p mixing formula. The formalism is further advanced using the Hanstorp approximation, whereas the relative scaling of the partial-wave cross-sections is assumed to follow the Wigner threshold law. The resulting model describes the energy dependence of photoelectron anisotropy for any atomic, molecular, or cluster anions, usually without requiring a direct calculation of the transition dipole matrix elements. As a benchmark case, we apply the p-d variant of the model to the experimental results for NO{sup −} photodetachment and show that the observed anisotropy trend is described well using physically meaningful values of the model parameters. Overall, the presented formalism delivers insight into the photodetachment process and affords a new quantitative strategy for analyzing the photoelectron angular distributions and characterizing mixed-character molecular orbitals using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of negative ions.

  18. On Angular Sampling Methods for 3-D Spatial Channel Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Jämsä, Tommi; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses generating three dimensional (3D) spatial channel models with emphasis on the angular sampling methods. Three angular sampling methods, i.e. modified uniform power sampling, modified uniform angular sampling, and random pairing methods are proposed and investigated in detail....... The random pairing method, which uses only twenty sinusoids in the ray-based model for generating the channels, presents good results if the spatial channel cluster is with a small elevation angle spread. For spatial clusters with large elevation angle spreads, however, the random pairing method would fail...

  19. Control of Angular Intervals for Angle-Multiplexed Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Ishii, Norihiko; Kamijo, Koji; Shimidzu, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    In angle-multiplexed holographic memory, the full width at half maximum of the Bragg selectivity curves is dependent on the angle formed between the medium and incident laser beams. This indicates the possibility of high density and high multiplexing number by varying the angular intervals between adjacent holograms. We propose an angular interval scheduling for closely stacking holograms into medium even when the angle range is limited. We obtained bit error rates of the order of 10-4 under the following conditions: medium thickness of 1 mm, laser beam wavelength of 532 nm, and angular multiplexing number of 300.

  20. Notes on the quantum theory of angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Feenberg, Eugene

    1999-01-01

    This classic, concise text has served a generation of physicists as an exceptionally useful guide to the mysteries of angular momenta and Clebsch-Gordon Coefficients. Derived from notes originally prepared to assist graduate students in reading research papers on atomic, molecular, and nuclear structure, the text first reviews the basic elements of quantum theory. It then examines the development of the fundamental commutation relations for angular momentum components and vector operators, and the ways in which matrix elements and eigenvalues of the angular momentum operators are worked out f

  1. Angular resolution of air-shower array-telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsley, J.

    1985-01-01

    A fundamental limit on the angular resolution of air shower array-telescopes is set by the finite number of shower particles coupled with the finite thickness of the particle swarm. Consequently the angular resolution which can be achieved in practice depends in a determinant manner on the size and number of detectors in an array-telescope, as well as on the detector separation and the timing resolution. It is also necessary to examine the meaning of particle density in whatever type of detector is used. Results are given which can be used to predict the angular resolution of a given instrument for showers of various sizes, and to compare different instruments.

  2. Analysis of Characteristics of QZSS Satellite Orbit and Clock Products during Yaw Attitude Model Switching

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU Peiyuan; Du, Lan; FANG Shanchuan; Lu, Yu; Zhang, Zhongkai; Li, Fupeng

    2016-01-01

    Yaw attitude model switching of navigation satellites have great impact on its orbit and clock products derived from precise orbit determination. Firstly, the yaw attitude and solar radiation model of QZSS is given briefly. Then, using QZSS precise orbit and clock products provided by IGS MGEX analysis center, precision of orbit and clock is analyzed by satellite laser ranging residuals and polynomial fit residuals respectively. Finally, spectral analysis and modified Allan variance is carrie...

  3. Processing of Instantaneous Angular Speed Signal for Detection of a Diesel Engine Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Charchalis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of diesel engine performance under its operating is critical for the prediction of malfunction development and subsequently functional failure detection. Analysis of instantaneous angular speed (IAS of the crankshaft is considered as one of the nonintrusive and effective methods of the detection of combustion quality deterioration. In this paper results of experimental verification of fuel system's malfunction detecting, using optical encoder for IAS recording are presented. The implemented method relies on the comparison of measurement results, recorded under healthy and faulty conditions of the engine. Elaborated dynamic model of angular speed variations enables us to build templates of engine behavior. Recorded during experiment, values of cylinder pressure were taken for the approximation of pressure basic waveform. The main task of data processing is smoothing the raw angular speed signal. The noise is due to sensor mount vibrations, signal emitter machining, engine body vibrations, and crankshaft torsional vibrations. Smoothing of the measurement data was carried out by the implementation of the Savitzky-Golay filter. Measured signal after smoothing was compared with the model of IAS run.

  4. Carrying capacity: maintaining outdoor recreation quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Lime; George H. Stankey

    1971-01-01

    A discussion of (1) what is meant by the concept of recreational carrying capacity; (2) what is known about capacities in terms of both how resources and experience of visitors are affected by recreational use; and (3) what alternative procedures the administrator can use to manage both resources and visitors for capacity.

  5. Estimating carrying capacity with simultaneous nutritional constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Hanley; James J. Rogers

    1989-01-01

    A new procedure is presented for estimating carrying capacity (the number of animals of a given species that can be supported per unit area of habitat) on the basis of two simultaneous nutritional constraints. It requires specifying the quantity (bio-mass) and quality (chemical composition or digestibility) of available food and the nutritional requirements of the...

  6. Error propagation in energetic carrying capacity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation objectives derived from carrying capacity models have been used to inform management of landscapes for wildlife populations. Energetic carrying capacity models are particularly useful in conservation planning for wildlife; these models use estimates of food abundance and energetic requirements of wildlife to target conservation actions. We provide a general method for incorporating a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which foraging becomes unprofitable) when estimating food availability with energetic carrying capacity models. We use a hypothetical example to describe how past methods for adjustment of foraging thresholds biased results of energetic carrying capacity models in certain instances. Adjusting foraging thresholds at the patch level of the species of interest provides results consistent with ecological foraging theory. Presentation of two case studies suggest variation in bias which, in certain instances, created large errors in conservation objectives and may have led to inefficient allocation of limited resources. Our results also illustrate how small errors or biases in application of input parameters, when extrapolated to large spatial extents, propagate errors in conservation planning and can have negative implications for target populations.

  7. Vegetation Composition, Biomass Production, Carrying Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to characterize vegetation composition and grassland types as well as to estimate biomass production and carrying capacity of the rangeland in Ordolla areas of Shinile zone, eastern Ethiopia in October 2004. The Ordolla grasslands covered 22,621ha on alluvial plain composed of sand and silt ...

  8. Myxoma of the orbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambhatla Saptagirish

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are rare, benign neoplasms of mesenchymal origin that usually develop in soft tissues. As the clinical manifestations are non-specific, it is difficult to diagnose the tumour without biopsy and histopathological examination. We report a case of orbital myxoma with histopathological correlation.

  9. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  10. Study on Improvement of Multibeam Backscatter Angular Response Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    YAN Jun; ZHANG Hongmei; ZHAO Jianhu; MENG Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Because multibeam backscatter data is greatly affected by the AR (angular response) and the AR correction models are not perfect in the complex seabed, the multibeam image quality is seriously reduced...

  11. Design and Implementation of a Digital Angular Rate Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Peng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of detecting the attitude of a rotating carrier, the paper presents a novel, digital angular rate sensor. The sensor consists of micro-sensing elements (gyroscope and accelerometer, signal processing circuit and micro-processor (DSP2812. The sensor has the feature of detecting three angular rates of a rotating carrier at the same time. The key techniques of the sensor, including sensing construction, sensing principles, and signal processing circuit design are presented. The test results show that the sensor can sense rolling, pitch and yaw angular rate at the same time and the measurement error of yaw (or pitch angular rate and rolling rate of the rotating carrier is less than 0.5%.

  12. Grating angle magnification enhanced angular sensor and scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke-Xun (Inventor); Byer, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An angular magnification effect of diffraction is exploited to provide improved sensing and scanning. This effect is most pronounced for a normal or near-normal incidence angle in combination with a grazing diffraction angle, so such configurations are preferred. Angular sensitivity can be further enhanced because the width of the diffracted beam can be substantially less than the width of the incident beam. Normal incidence configurations with two symmetric diffracted beams are preferred, since rotation and vertical displacement can be readily distinguished. Increased sensitivity to vertical displacement can be provided by incorporating an interferometer into the measurement system. Quad cell detectors can be employed to provide sensitivity to rotation about the grating surface normal. A 2-D grating can be employed to provide sensitivity to angular displacements in two different planes (e.g., pitch and yaw). Combined systems can provide sensitivity to vertical displacement and to all three angular degrees of freedom.

  13. Demonstrating the Direction of Angular Velocity in Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Salih; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan

    2015-09-01

    Rotational motion is ubiquitous in nature, from astronomical systems to household devices in everyday life to elementary models of atoms. Unlike the tangential velocity vector that represents the instantaneous linear velocity (magnitude and direction), an angular velocity vector is conceptually more challenging for students to grasp. In physics classrooms, the direction of an angular velocity vector is taught by the right-hand rule, a mnemonic tool intended to aid memory. A setup constructed for instructional purposes may provide students with a more easily understood and concrete method to observe the direction of the angular velocity. This article attempts to demonstrate the angular velocity vector using the observable motion of a screw mounted to a remotely operated toy car.

  14. Effect of angular momentum conservation on hydrodynamic simulations of colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingcheng; Theers, Mario; Hu, Jinglei; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G; Ripoll, Marisol

    2015-07-01

    In contrast to most real fluids, angular momentum is not a locally conserved quantity in some mesoscopic simulation methods. Here we quantify the importance of this conservation in the flow fields associated with different colloidal systems. The flow field is analytically calculated with and without angular momentum conservation for the multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) method, and simulations are performed to verify the predictions. The flow field generated around a colloidal particle moving under an external force with slip boundary conditions depends on the conservation of angular momentum, and the amplitude of the friction force is substantially affected. Interestingly, no dependence on the angular momentum conservation is found for the flow fields generated around colloids under the influence of phoretic forces. Moreover, circular Couette flow between a no-slip and a slip cylinder is investigated, which allows us to validate one of the two existing expressions for the MPC stress tensor.

  15. The INCAS Project: An Innovative Contact-Less Angular Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislanzoni, L.; Di Cintio, A.; Solimando, M.; Parzianello, G.

    2013-09-01

    Angular Positions sensors are widely used in all spacecrafts, including re-entry vehicles and launchers, where mechanisms and pointing-scanning devices are required. The main applications are on mechanisms for TeleMeasure (TM) related to the release and deployment of devices, or on rotary mechanisms such as Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM) and Antenna Pointing Mechanism (APM). Longer lifetime (up to 7- 10 years) is becoming a new driver for the coming missions and contact technology sensors often incur in limitations due to the wear of the contacting parts [1].A Self-Compensating Absolute Angular Encoder was developed and tested in the frame of an ESA's ARTES 5.2 project, named INCAS (INnovative Contact-less Angular Sensor). More in particular, the INCAS sensor addresses a market need for contactless angular sensors aimed at replacing the more conventional rotary potentiometers, while featuring the same level of accuracy performances and extending the expected lifetime.

  16. Angular resolved light scattering microscopy on human chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dennis; Stark, Julian; Kienle, Alwin

    2017-07-01

    Angular resolved scattering light measurements on chromosomes are compared to Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) simulations using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based geometrical models. This could present a novel, marker-free method for human chromosome karyotyping.

  17. Reflection spectra and their angular dependences of one-dimensional photonic crystals based on aluminium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Yashin, M. M.; Pudovkin, A. V.; Vodchits, A. I.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers optical properties (transmission and reflection) of one-dimensional photonic crystals based on mesoporous anodic aluminum oxide, with periods of crystal lattices 188 and 194 nm. A comparison of the experimentally measured reflection spectrum in the spectral region of the first stop-zone with the theoretical dependence obtained from the dispersion relation for one-dimensional photonic crystal is carried out. The angular dependence of the first stop-zone spectral positions of one-dimensional photonic crystal is established. The authors analyze the possibility of applications of mesoporous one-dimensional photonic crystals based on aluminum oxide as the selective narrowband filters and mirrors.

  18. [The use of a computer to measure linear and angular variables for an assessment of symmetry of the base of the skull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadurska, M; Sandham, J A; Wohlgemuth, B

    1990-06-01

    The use of a computer is described to make linear and angular measurements of the base of the skull. A group of 19 adult skulls from mediaeval Poland were chosen for this study. The cephalometric analysis defined 11 linear and 9 angular morphological variables. An assessment of method error due to point location by the cursor was made by duplicate determination, and an assessment of symmetry was carried out by comparing angular values derived from basion (ba) for right and left sides of the maxillary dental arch, zygomatic arch and cranial base. The results demonstrate that skull measurements could be recorded with a small method error of 0.2 mm for linear, and 0.2 degrees for angular recordings. Mean values for the 21 variables in the sample were recorded and statistically tested for point placement accuracy using measures of skewness and kurtosis to detect gross distribution errors.

  19. Angular dependence of dissociative electron attachment topolyatomic molecules: application to the 2B1 metastable state of the H2Oand H2S anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, Daniel J.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2006-01-12

    The angular dependence of dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to polyatomic targets is formulated in the local complex potential model, under the assumption that the axial recoil approximation describes the dissociation dynamics. An additional approximation, which is found to be valid in the case of H2O but not in the case of H2S, makes it possible to describe the angular dependence of DEA solely from an analysis of the fixed-nuclei entrance amplitude, without carrying out nuclear dynamics calculations. For H2S, the final-vibrational-state-specific angular dependence of DEA is obtained by incorporating the variation of the angular dependence of the entrance amplitude with nuclear geometry into the nuclear dynamics. Scattering calculations using the complex Kohn method and, for H2S, full quantum calculations of the nuclear dynamics using the Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree method, are performed.

  20. Gas kinematics, morphology and angular momentum in the FIRE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Quataert, Eliot; Wetzel, Andrew; Hopkins, Philip F.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Chan, T. K.; Fitts, Alex; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Kereš, Dušan; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea

    2018-01-01

    We study the z = 0 gas kinematics, morphology and angular momentum content of isolated galaxies in a suite of cosmological zoom-in simulations from the FIRE project spanning Mstar = 106-11 M⊙. Gas becomes increasingly rotationally supported with increasing galaxy mass. In the lowest mass galaxies (Mstar < 108 M⊙), gas fails to form a morphological disc and is primarily dispersion and pressure supported. At intermediate masses (Mstar = 108-10 M⊙), galaxies display a wide range of gas kinematics and morphologies, from thin, rotating discs to irregular spheroids with negligible net rotation. All the high-mass (Mstar = 1010-11 M⊙) galaxies form rotationally supported gas discs. Many of the haloes whose galaxies fail to form discs harbour high angular momentum gas in their circumgalactic medium. The ratio of the specific angular momentum of gas in the central galaxy to that of the dark matter halo increases significantly with galaxy mass, from 〈jgas〉/〈jDM〉 ∼ 0.1 at M_star=10^{6-7} M_{⊙} to 〈jgas〉/〈jDM〉 ∼ 2 at Mstar = 1010-11 M⊙. The reduced rotational support in the lowest mass galaxies owes to (a) stellar feedback and the UV background suppressing the accretion of high angular momentum gas at late times, and (b) stellar feedback driving large non-circular gas motions. We broadly reproduce the observed scaling relations between galaxy mass, gas rotation velocity, size and angular momentum, but may somewhat underpredict the incidence of disky, high angular momentum galaxies at the lowest observed masses (Mstar = (106-2 × 107) M⊙). Stars form preferentially from low angular momentum gas near the galactic centre and are less rotationally supported than gas. The common assumption that stars follow the same rotation curve as gas thus substantially overestimates the simulated galaxies' stellar angular momentum, particularly at low masses.